WorldWideScience

Sample records for black hole gas

  1. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  2. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  3. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  4. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  5. RECOILING MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN GAS-RICH GALAXY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, Javiera; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric emission of gravitational waves produced during the coalescence of a massive black hole (MBH) binary imparts a velocity 'kick' to the system that can displace the hole from the center of its host. Here, we study the trajectories and observability of MBHs recoiling in three (one major, two minor) gas-rich galaxy merger remnants that were previously simulated at high resolution, and in which the pairing of the MBHs had been shown to be successful. We run new simulations of MBHs recoiling in the major merger remnant with Mach numbers in the range 1≤M≤6 and use simulation data to construct a semi-analytical model for the orbital evolution of MBHs in gas-rich systems. We show the following. (1) In major merger remnants the energy deposited by the moving hole into the rotationally supported, turbulent medium makes a negligible contribution to the thermodynamics of the gas. This contribution becomes significant in minor merger remnants, potentially allowing for an electromagnetic signature of MBH recoil. (2) In major merger remnants, the combination of both deeper central potential well and drag from high-density gas confines even MBHs with kick velocities as high as 1200 km s -1 within 1 kpc from the host's center. (3) Kinematically offset nuclei may be observable for timescales of a few Myr in major merger remnants in the case of recoil velocities in the range 700-1000 km s -1 . (4) In minor merger remnants the effect of gas drag is weaker, and MBHs with recoil speeds in the range 300-600 km s -1 will wander through the host halo for longer timescales. When accounting for the probability distribution of kick velocities, however, we find that the likelihood of observing recoiling MBHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers is very low even in the best-case scenario.

  6. Supersonic gas streams enhance the formation of massive black holes in the early universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shingo; Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Kuiper, Rolf

    2017-09-29

    The origin of super-massive black holes in the early universe remains poorly understood. Gravitational collapse of a massive primordial gas cloud is a promising initial process, but theoretical studies have difficulty growing the black hole fast enough. We report numerical simulations of early black hole formation starting from realistic cosmological conditions. Supersonic gas motions left over from the Big Bang prevent early gas cloud formation until rapid gas condensation is triggered in a protogalactic halo. A protostar is formed in the dense, turbulent gas cloud, and it grows by sporadic mass accretion until it acquires 34,000 solar masses. The massive star ends its life with a catastrophic collapse to leave a black hole-a promising seed for the formation of a monstrous black hole. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Direct formation of supermassive black holes via multi-scale gas inflows in galaxy mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Escala, A; Callegari, S

    2010-08-26

    Observations of distant quasars indicate that supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses already existed less than a billion years after the Big Bang. Models in which the 'seeds' of such black holes form by the collapse of primordial metal-free stars cannot explain the rapid appearance of these supermassive black holes because gas accretion is not sufficiently efficient. Alternatively, these black holes may form by direct collapse of gas within isolated protogalaxies, but current models require idealized conditions, such as metal-free gas, to prevent cooling and star formation from consuming the gas reservoir. Here we report simulations showing that mergers between massive protogalaxies naturally produce the conditions for direct collapse into a supermassive black hole with no need to suppress cooling and star formation. Merger-driven gas inflows give rise to an unstable, massive nuclear gas disk of a few billion solar masses, which funnels more than 10(8) solar masses of gas to a sub-parsec-scale gas cloud in only 100,000 years. The cloud undergoes gravitational collapse, which eventually leads to the formation of a massive black hole. The black hole can subsequently grow to a billion solar masses on timescales of about 10(8) years by accreting gas from the surrounding disk.

  8. Accreting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these ...

  9. The effect of nuclear gas distribution on the mass determination of supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Restrepo, J. E.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Capellupo, D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes reside in the nuclei of most galaxies. During their active episodes, black holes are powered by accretion discs where gravitational energy is converted into radiation1. Accurately determining black hole masses is key to understand how the population evolves over time and how the black holes relate to their host galaxies2-4. Beyond the local universe, z ≳ 0.2, the mass is commonly estimated assuming a virialized motion of gas in the close vicinity of the active black holes, traced through broad emission lines5,6. However, this procedure has uncertainties associated with the unknown distribution of the gas clouds. Here, we show that the black hole masses derived from the properties of the accretion disk and virial mass estimates differ by a factor that is inversely proportional to the width of the broad emission lines. This leads to virial mass misestimations up to a factor of six. Our results suggest that a planar gas distribution that is inclined with respect to the line of sight may account for this effect. However, radiation pressure effects on the distribution of gas can also reproduce our results. Regardless of the physical origin, our findings contribute to mitigating the uncertainties in current black hole mass estimations and, in turn, will help us to better understand the evolution of distant supermassive black holes and their host galaxies.

  10. The Fate of Massive Black Holes in Gas-Rich Galaxy Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, A.; Larson, R. B.; Coppi, P. S.; Mardones, D.

    2006-06-01

    Using SPH numerical simulations, we investigate the effects of gas on the inspiral and merger of a massive black hole binary. This study is motivated by the very massive nuclear gas disks observed in the central regions of merging galaxies. Here we present results that expand on the treatment in previous works (Escala et al. 2004, 2005), by studying the evolution of a binary with different black holes masses in a massive gas disk.

  11. Primary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.; Polnarev, A.

    1981-01-01

    Proves are searched for of the formation of the so-called primary black holes at the very origin of the universe. The black holes would weigh less than 10 13 kg. The formation of a primary black hole is conditional on strong fluctuations of the gravitational field corresponding roughly to a half of the fluctuation maximally permissible by the general relativity theory. Only big fluctuations of the gravitational field can overcome the forces of the hot gas pressure and compress the originally expanding matter into a black hole. Low-mass black holes have a temperature exceeding that of the black holes formed from stars. A quantum process of particle formation, the so-called evaporation takes place in the strong gravitational field of a black hole. The lower the mass of the black hole, the shorter the evaporation time. The analyses of processes taking place during the evaporation of low-mass primary black holes show that only a very small proportion of the total mass of the matter in the universe could turn into primary black holes. (M.D.)

  12. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  13. Accretion of new variable modified Chaplygin gas and generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas onto Schwarzschild and Kerr-Newman black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadra, Jhumpa; Debnath, Ujjal

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have studied accretion of the dark energies in new variable modified Chaplygin gas (NVMCG) and generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas (GCCG) models onto Schwarzschild and Kerr-Newman black holes. We find the expression of the critical four velocity component which gradually decreases for the fluid flow towards the Schwarzschild as well as the Kerr-Newman black hole. We also find the expression for the change of mass of the black hole in both cases. For the Kerr-Newman black hole, which is rotating and charged, we calculate the specific angular momentum and total angular momentum. We showed that in both cases, due to accretion of dark energy, the mass of the black hole increases and angular momentum increases in the case of a Kerr-Newman black hole. (orig.)

  14. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  15. A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2013-02-21

    The masses of the supermassive black holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionized-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects that have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black-hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC 4526, and obtain a best fit that requires the presence of a central dark object of 4.5(+4.2)(-3.1) × 10(8) solar masses (3σ confidence limit). With the next-generation millimetre-wavelength interferometers these observations could be reproduced in galaxies out to 75 megaparsecs in less than 5 hours of observing time. The use of molecular gas as a kinematic tracer should thus allow one to estimate black-hole masses in hundreds of galaxies in the local Universe, many more than are accessible with current techniques.

  16. Statistical mechanics of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, B.; Leblanc, Y.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed

  17. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  19. Nuclear Gas Dynamics of NGC2110: A Black Hole Offset from the Host Galaxy Mass Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the central regions of many galaxies are unlikely to be in a static steady state, with instabilities caused by sinking satellites, the influence of a supermassive black hole or residuals of galaxy formation, resulting in the nuclear black hole orbiting the galaxy center. The observational signature of such an orbiting black hole is an offset of the active nucleus (AGN) from the kinematic center defined by the galaxy rotation curve. This orbital motion may provide fuel for the AGN, as the hole 'grazes' on the ISM, and bent radio jets, due to the motion of their source. The early type (E/SO) Seyfert galaxy, NGC2210, with its striking twin, 'S'-shaped radio jets, is a unique and valuable test case for the offset-nucleus phenomenon since, despite its remarkably normal rotation curve, its kinematically-measured mass center is displaced both spatially (260 pc) and kinematically (170 km/s) from the active nucleus located in optical and radio studies. However, the central kinematics, where the rotation curve rises most steeply, have been inaccessible with ground-based resolutions. We present new, high resolution WFPC2 imaging and long-slit STIS spectroscopy of the central 300 pc of NGC2110. We discuss the structure and kinematics of gas moving in the galactic potential on subarcsecond scales and the reality of the offset between the black hole and the galaxy mass center.

  20. A Dancing Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  1. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  2. The effects of massive graviton on the equilibrium between the black hole and radiation gas in an isolated box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Peng Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the black hole can have temperature and radiate the particles with black body spectrum, i.e. Hawking radiation. Therefore, if the black hole is surrounded by an isolated box, there is a thermal equilibrium between the black hole and radiation gas. A simple case considering the thermal equilibrium between the Schwarzschild black hole and radiation gas in an isolated box has been well investigated previously in detail, i.e. taking the conservation of energy and principle of maximal entropy for the isolated system into account. In this paper, following the above spirit, the effects of massive graviton on the thermal equilibrium will be investigated. For the gravity with massive graviton, we will use the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT massive gravity which has been proven to be ghost free. Because the graviton mass depends on two parameters in the dRGT massive gravity, here we just investigate two simple cases related to the two parameters, respectively. Our results show that in the first case the massive graviton can suppress or increase the condensation of black hole in the radiation gas although the T–E diagram is similar as the Schwarzschild black hole case. For the second case, a new T–E diagram has been obtained. Moreover, an interesting and important prediction is that the condensation of black hole just increases from the zero radius of horizon in this case, which is very different from the Schwarzschild black hole case.

  3. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large values of Ф, black holes do form and for small values the scalar field ... on the near side of the ridge ultimately evolve to form black holes while those configu- ... The inset shows a bird's eye view looking down on the saddle point.

  4. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  5. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  6. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  7. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  8. The search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torn, K.

    1976-01-01

    Conceivable experimental investigations to prove the existence of black holes are discussed. Double system with a black hole turning around a star-satellite are in the spotlight. X-radiation emmited by such systems and resulting from accretion of the stellar gas by a black hole, and the gas heating when falling on the black hole might prove the model suggested. A source of strong X-radiation observed in the Cygnus star cluster and referred to as Cygnus X-1 may be thus identified as a black hole. Direct registration of short X-ray pulses with msec intervals might prove the suggestion. The lack of appropriate astrophysic facilities is pointed out to be the major difficulty on the way of experimental verifications

  9. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  10. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  11. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  12. Supermassive black holes with higher Eddington ratios preferentially form in gas-rich galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Takuma

    2018-06-01

    The Eddington ratio (λEdd) of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is a fundamental parameter that governs their cosmic growth. Although gas mass accretion onto SMBHs is sustained when they are surrounded by large amounts of gas, little is known about the molecular content of galaxies, particularly those hosting super-Eddington SMBHs (λEdd > 1: the key phase of SMBH growth). Here, we have compiled reported optical and 12CO(1-0) data of local quasars to characterize their hosts. We found that higher-λEdd SMBHs tend to reside in gas-rich (i.e., high gas mass to stellar mass fraction = fgas) galaxies. We used two methods to make this conclusion: one uses black hole mass as a surrogate for stellar mass by assuming a local co-evolutionary relationship, and the other directly uses stellar masses estimated from near-infrared observations. The fgas-λEdd correlation we found concurs with the cosmic decreasing trend in λEdd, as cold molecular gas is primarily consumed by star formation. This correlation qualitatively matches predictions of recent semi-analytic models of the cosmic downsizing of SMBHs as well. As the gas mass surface density would eventually be a key parameter controlling mass accretion, we need high-resolution observations to identify further differences in the molecular properties around super-Eddington and sub-Eddington SMBHs.

  13. Supermassive black holes with higher Eddington ratios preferentially form in gas-rich galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Takuma

    2018-05-01

    The Eddington ratio (λEdd) of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is a fundamental parameter that governs their cosmic growth. Although gas mass accretion onto SMBHs is sustained when they are surrounded by large amounts of gas, little is known about the molecular content of galaxies, particularly those hosting super-Eddington SMBHs (λEdd > 1: the key phase of SMBH growth). Here, we have compiled reported optical and 12CO(1-0) data of local quasars to characterize their hosts. We found that higher-λEdd SMBHs tend to reside in gas-rich (i.e., high gas mass to stellar mass fraction = fgas) galaxies. We used two methods to make this conclusion: one uses black hole mass as a surrogate for stellar mass by assuming a local co-evolutionary relationship, and the other directly uses stellar masses estimated from near-infrared observations. The fgas-λEdd correlation we found concurs with the cosmic decreasing trend in λEdd, as cold molecular gas is primarily consumed by star formation. This correlation qualitatively matches predictions of recent semi-analytic models of the cosmic downsizing of SMBHs as well. As the gas mass surface density would eventually be a key parameter controlling mass accretion, we need high-resolution observations to identify further differences in the molecular properties around super-Eddington and sub-Eddington SMBHs.

  14. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  15. EFFECTS OF CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK GAS EVOLUTION ON THE SPIN OF CENTRAL BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maio, Umberto; Dotti, Massimo; Petkova, Margarita; Perego, Albino; Volonteri, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Mass and spin are the only two parameters needed to completely characterize black holes (BHs) in general relativity. However, the interaction between BHs and their environment is where complexity lies, as the relevant physical processes occur over a large range of scales. That is particularly relevant in the case of supermassive black holes (SMBHs), hosted in galaxy centers, and surrounded by swirling gas and various generations of stars. These compete with the SMBH for gas consumption and affect both dynamics and thermodynamics of the gas itself. How the behavior of such a fiery environment influences the angular momentum of the gas accreted onto SMBHs, and, hence, BH spins, is uncertain. We explore the interaction between SMBHs and their environment via first three-dimensional sub-parsec resolution simulations (ranging from ∼0.1 pc to ∼1 kpc scales) that study the evolution of the SMBH spin by including the effects of star formation, stellar feedback, radiative transfer, and metal pollution according to the proper stellar yields and lifetimes. This approach is crucial in investigating the impact of star formation processes and feedback effects on the angular momentum of the material that could accrete on the central hole. We find that star formation and feedback mechanisms can locally inject significant amounts of entropy in the surrounding medium, and impact the inflow inclination angles and Eddington fractions. As a consequence, the resulting trends show upper-intermediate equilibrium values for the spin parameter of a ≅ 0.6-0.9, corresponding to radiative efficiencies ε ≅ 9%-15%. These results suggest that star formation feedback taking place in the circumnuclear disk during the infall alone cannot induce very strong chaotic trends in the gas flow, quite independently from the different numerical parameters.

  16. White holes and eternal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen D H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)

  17. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. The response of relativistic outflowing gas to the inner accretion disk of a black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Michael L; Pinto, Ciro; Fabian, Andrew C; Lohfink, Anne; Buisson, Douglas J K; Alston, William N; Kara, Erin; Cackett, Edward M; Chiang, Chia-Ying; Dauser, Thomas; De Marco, Barbara; Gallo, Luigi C; Garcia, Javier; Harrison, Fiona A; King, Ashley L; Middleton, Matthew J; Miller, Jon M; Miniutti, Giovanni; Reynolds, Christopher S; Uttley, Phil; Vasudevan, Ranjan; Walton, Dominic J; Wilkins, Daniel R; Zoghbi, Abderahmen

    2017-03-01

    The brightness of an active galactic nucleus is set by the gas falling onto it from the galaxy, and the gas infall rate is regulated by the brightness of the active galactic nucleus; this feedback loop is the process by which supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies may moderate the growth of their hosts. Gas outflows (in the form of disk winds) release huge quantities of energy into the interstellar medium, potentially clearing the surrounding gas. The most extreme (in terms of speed and energy) of these-the ultrafast outflows-are the subset of X-ray-detected outflows with velocities higher than 10,000 kilometres per second, believed to originate in relativistic (that is, near the speed of light) disk winds a few hundred gravitational radii from the black hole. The absorption features produced by these outflows are variable, but no clear link has been found between the behaviour of the X-ray continuum and the velocity or optical depth of the outflows, owing to the long timescales of quasar variability. Here we report the observation of multiple absorption lines from an extreme ultrafast gas flow in the X-ray spectrum of the active galactic nucleus IRAS 13224-3809, at 0.236 ± 0.006 times the speed of light (71,000 kilometres per second), where the absorption is strongly anti-correlated with the emission of X-rays from the inner regions of the accretion disk. If the gas flow is identified as a genuine outflow then it is in the fastest five per cent of such winds, and its variability is hundreds of times faster than in other variable winds, allowing us to observe in hours what would take months in a quasar. We find X-ray spectral signatures of the wind simultaneously in both low- and high-energy detectors, suggesting a single ionized outflow, linking the low- and high-energy absorption lines. That this disk wind is responding to the emission from the inner accretion disk demonstrates a connection between accretion processes occurring on very different

  20. When Supermassive Black Holes Wander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-05-01

    wanderers within 10 kpc of the halo center (roughly the size of the Milky Ways disk).These wandering supermassive black holes were kicked onto wide orbits during the merger of their host galaxy with the main halo; Tremmel and collaborators find that their orbits are often tilted, lying outside of the galactic disk. Because these black holes travel through relatively deserted regions, they accumulate little mass and are rarely perturbed in their journeys, wandering for billions of years.Finding MonstersCumulative fraction of simulated Milky-Way-mass halos as a function of the number of supermassive black holes they host. All of the halos host at least one SMBH within 10 kpc from halo center, but the majority host more than that. [Tremmel et al. 2018]Tremmel and collaborators simulations suggest that, regardless of its merger history, a Milky-Way-mass halo will end up with an average of 5 supermassive black holes within 10 kpc of the galaxy center, and an average of 12 within its larger virial radius! This means there could be a number of supermassive black holes just like the enormous Sgr A* at our galaxys core wandering the Milky Way unseen.So how can we find these invisible monsters? We already have some observational evidence in the form of offset and dual active galactic nuclei of non-central supermassive black holes in distant galaxies. As for nearby, our best bet is to look for tidal disruption events, the burps of emission that occur when an otherwise invisible black hole encounters a star or a cloud of gas.CitationMichael Tremmel et al 2018 ApJL 857 L22. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aabc0a

  1. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  2. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  3. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  4. Quantum black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooft, G. 't

    1987-01-01

    This article is divided into three parts. First, a systematic derivation of the Hawking radiation is given in three different ways. The information loss problem is then discussed in great detail. The last part contains a concise discussion of black hole thermodynamics. This article was published as chapter $6$ of the IOP book "Lectures on General Relativity, Cosmology and Quantum Black Holes" (July $2017$).

  5. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  6. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  7. On the Thermodynamics of a Gas of AdS Black Holes and the Quark-Hadron Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Ellis, John

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the thermodynamics of a gas of black holes in five-dimensional anti-de-Sitter (AdS) space, showing that they are described by a van der Waals equation of state. Motivated by the Maldacena conjecture, we relate the energy density and pressure of this non-ideal AdS black-hole gas to those of four-dimensional gauge theory in the unconfined phase. We find that the energy density rises rapidly above the deconfinement transition temperature, whilst the pressure rises more slowly towards its asymptotic high-temperature value, in qualitative agreement with lattice simulations.

  8. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  9. Black and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  10. Black and white holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  11. Black holes in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenzind, M.

    2005-01-01

    While physicists have been grappling with the theory of black holes (BH), as shown by the many contributions to the Einstein year, astronomers have been successfully searching for real black holes in the Universe. Black hole astrophysics began in the 1960s with the discovery of quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGN) in distant galaxies. Already in the 1960s it became clear that the most natural explanation for the quasar activity is the release of gravitational energy through accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes. The remnants of this activity have now been found in the centers of about 50 nearby galaxies. BH astrophysics received a new twist in the 1970s with the discovery of the X-ray binary (XRB) Cygnus X-1. The X-ray emitting compact object was too massive to be explained by a neutron star. Today, about 20 excellent BH candidates are known in XRBs. On the extragalactic scale, more than 100.000 quasars have been found in large galaxy surveys. At the redshift of the most distant ones, the Universe was younger than one billion year. The most enigmatic black hole candidates identified in the last years are the compact objects behind the Gamma-Ray Bursters. The formation of all these types of black holes is accompanied by extensive emission of gravitational waves. The detection of these strong gravity events is one of the biggest challenges for physicists in the near future. (author)

  12. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  13. Black holes in radiation-dominated gas: an analogue of the Bondi accretion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begelman, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Black holes, unlike other compact objects, are able to accrete matter more rapidly than their Eddington rate (dM/dt)sub(E) = Lsub(E)/c 2 . Nevertheless, at such a high dM/dt, radiation will probably be emitted by the in-falling gas in copious enough quantities to have a profound influence on the flow. To aid in understanding the nature of this influence a study is made of the steady flow, on to a stationary Schwarzchild black hole, of a uniform, non-relativistic gas in which radiation pressure swamps thermal pressure at infinity, and in which Thomson scattering provides the only radiation-gas couple. Asymptotic radiation pressure p (infinity) and matter density rho(infinity) determine an asymptotic sound speed c(infinity), from which one can derive an accretion rate (dM/dt)sub(B) corresponding to the adiabatic flow of a γ = 4/3 gas. The actual accretion rate depends on the optical depth tausub(B) of a column of unperturbed gas spanning the Bondi radius, rsub(B) = GM/c 2 (infinity). If tau > ((square root of 2)/3) (c/c(infinity)), then the flow is adiabatic, and dM/dt (dM/dt)sub(B). For a somewhat smaller tausub(B), diffusion is efficient enough for the radiation to leak out of the gas as it moves towards the trans-sonic point. As a result, the sound speed decreases inwards in the subsonic region, while the density must increase steeply to maintain pressure balance. dM/dt may then exceed (dM/dt)sub(B) by a factor of up to ((square root of 2)/3) (c/tausub(B)c (infinity)), although this effect can be limited by thermal pressure. Finally, for small enough tausub(B) the diffusion approximation breaks down, and radiation drag limits an otherwise thermally-determined dM/dt. Our boundary conditions occur within supermassive (M/M (solar mass) approximately >10 2 ) stars, and in the pre- and post-recombination universe. (author)

  14. Black holes with halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  15. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  16. Colliding black hole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  17. Black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Including black holes in the scheme of thermodynamics has disclosed a deep-seated connection between gravitation, heat and the quantum that may lead us to a synthesis of the corresponding branches of physics

  18. White dwarfs - black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexl, R.; Sexl, H.

    1975-01-01

    The physical arguments and problems of relativistic astrophysics are presented in a correct way, but without any higher mathematics. The book is addressed to teachers, experimental physicists, and others with a basic knowledge covering an introductory lecture in physics. The issues dealt with are: fundamentals of general relativity, classical tests of general relativity, curved space-time, stars and planets, pulsars, gravitational collapse and black holes, the search for black holes, gravitational waves, cosmology, cosmogony, and the early universe. (BJ/AK) [de

  19. Supersymmetric black holes

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The effective action of $N=2$, $d=4$ supergravity is shown to acquire no quantum corrections in background metrics admitting super-covariantly constant spinors. In particular, these metrics include the Robinson-Bertotti metric (product of two 2-dimensional spaces of constant curvature) with all 8 supersymmetries unbroken. Another example is a set of arbitrary number of extreme Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. These black holes break 4 of 8 supersymmetries, leaving the other 4 unbroken. We ha...

  20. Black Holes and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    We review the remarkable relationship between the laws of black hole mechanics and the ordinary laws of thermodynamics. It is emphasized that - in analogy with the laws of thermodynamics - the validity the laws of black hole mechanics does not appear to depend upon the details of the underlying dynamical theory (i.e., upon the particular field equations of general relativity). It also is emphasized that a number of unresolved issues arise in ``ordinary thermodynamics'' in the context of gener...

  1. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  2. Seeding black holes in cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P.; Kobayashi, C.

    2014-08-01

    We present a new model for the formation of black holes in cosmological simulations, motivated by the first star formation. Black holes form from high density peaks of primordial gas, and grow via both gas accretion and mergers. Massive black holes heat the surrounding material, suppressing star formation at the centres of galaxies, and driving galactic winds. We perform an investigation into the physical effects of the model parameters, and obtain a `best' set of these parameters by comparing the outcome of simulations to observations. With this best set, we successfully reproduce the cosmic star formation rate history, black hole mass-velocity dispersion relation, and the size-velocity dispersion relation of galaxies. The black hole seed mass is ˜103 M⊙, which is orders of magnitude smaller than that which has been used in previous cosmological simulations with active galactic nuclei, but suggests that the origin of the seed black holes is the death of Population III stars.

  3. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jenny E

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism.

  4. Massive Black Holes and Galaxies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.

  5. WISDOM project - I. Black hole mass measurement using molecular gas kinematics in NGC 3665

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kyoko; Iguchi, Satoru; Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2017-07-01

    As a part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses (WISDOM) project, we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotator early-type galaxy NGC 3665. We obtained the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) B and C array observations of the 12CO(J = 2 - 1) emission line with a combined angular resolution of 0.59 arcsec. We analysed and modelled the three-dimensional molecular gas kinematics, obtaining a best-fitting SMBH mass M_BH=5.75^{+1.49}_{-1.18} × 108 M⊙, a mass-to-light ratio at H-band (M/L)H = 1.45 ± 0.04 (M/L)⊙,H and other parameters describing the geometry of the molecular gas disc (statistical errors, all at 3σ confidence). We estimate the systematic uncertainties on the stellar M/L to be ≈0.2 (M/L)⊙,H, and on the SMBH mass to be ≈0.4 × 108 M⊙. The measured SMBH mass is consistent with that estimated from the latest correlations with galaxy properties. Following our older works, we also analysed and modelled the kinematics using only the major-axis position-velocity diagram, and conclude that the two methods are consistent.

  6. NASA's Chandra Finds Black Holes Are "Green"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Black holes are the most fuel efficient engines in the Universe, according to a new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By making the first direct estimate of how efficient or "green" black holes are, this work gives insight into how black holes generate energy and affect their environment. The new Chandra finding shows that most of the energy released by matter falling toward a supermassive black hole is in the form of high-energy jets traveling at near the speed of light away from the black hole. This is an important step in understanding how such jets can be launched from magnetized disks of gas near the event horizon of a black hole. Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine "Just as with cars, it's critical to know the fuel efficiency of black holes," said lead author Steve Allen of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. "Without this information, we cannot figure out what is going on under the hood, so to speak, or what the engine can do." Allen and his team used Chandra to study nine supermassive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies. These black holes are relatively old and generate much less radiation than quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes seen in the early Universe. The surprise came when the Chandra results showed that these "quiet" black holes are all producing much more energy in jets of high-energy particles than in visible light or X-rays. These jets create huge bubbles, or cavities, in the hot gas in the galaxies. Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy The efficiency of the black hole energy-production was calculated in two steps: first Chandra images of the inner regions of the galaxies were used to estimate how much fuel is available for the black hole; then Chandra images were used to estimate the power required to produce

  7. WISDOM Project - II. Molecular gas measurement of the supermassive black hole mass in NGC 4697

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Onishi, Kyoko; Cappellari, Michele; Iguchi, Satoru; Sarzi, Marc

    2017-07-01

    As part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses (WISDOM) project, we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotating early-type galaxy NGC 4697. This estimate is based on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-3 observations of the 12CO(2-1) emission line with a linear resolution of 29 pc (0.53 arcsec). We find that NGC 4697 hosts a small relaxed central molecular gas disc with a mass of 1.6 × 107 M⊙, co-spatial with the obscuring dust disc visible in optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We also resolve thermal 1 mm continuum emission from the dust in this disc. NGC 4697 is found to have a very low molecular gas velocity dispersion, σgas = 1.65^{+0.68}_{-0.65} km s-1. This seems to be partially because the giant molecular cloud mass function is not fully sampled, but other mechanisms such as chemical differentiation in a hard radiation field or morphological quenching also seem to be required. We detect a Keplerian increase of the rotation of the molecular gas in the very centre of NGC 4697, and use forward modelling of the ALMA data cube in a Bayesian framework with the KINematic Molecular Simulation (kinms) code to estimate an SMBH mass of (1.3_{-0.17}^{+0.18}) × 108 M⊙ and an I-band mass-to-light ratio of 2.14_{-0.05}^{+0.04} M⊙/L⊙ (at the 99 per cent confidence level). Our estimate of the SMBH mass is entirely consistent with previous measurements from stellar kinematics. This increases confidence in the growing number of SMBH mass estimates being obtained in the ALMA era.

  8. Black hole mass measurement using molecular gas kinematics: what ALMA can do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ilsang

    2017-04-01

    We study the limits of the spatial and velocity resolution of radio interferometry to infer the mass of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic centres using the kinematics of circum-nuclear molecular gas, by considering the shapes of the galaxy surface brightness profile, signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of the position-velocity diagram (PVD) and systematic errors due to the spatial and velocity structure of the molecular gas. We argue that for fixed galaxy stellar mass and SMBH mass, the spatial and velocity scales that need to be resolved increase and decrease, respectively, with decreasing Sérsic index of the galaxy surface brightness profile. We validate our arguments using simulated PVDs for varying beam size and velocity channel width. Furthermore, we consider the systematic effects on the inference of the SMBH mass by simulating PVDs including the spatial and velocity structure of the molecular gas, which demonstrates that their impacts are not significant for a PVD with good S/N unless the spatial and velocity scale associated with the systematic effects are comparable to or larger than the angular resolution and velocity channel width of the PVD from pure circular motion. Also, we caution that a bias in a galaxy surface brightness profile owing to the poor resolution of a galaxy photometric image can largely bias the SMBH mass by an order of magnitude. This study shows the promise and the limits of ALMA observations for measuring SMBH mass using molecular gas kinematics and provides a useful technical justification for an ALMA proposal with the science goal of measuring SMBH mass.

  9. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  10. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  11. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  12. Anyon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei Abchouyeh, Maryam; Mirza, Behrouz; Karimi Takrami, Moein; Younesizadeh, Younes

    2018-05-01

    We propose a correspondence between an Anyon Van der Waals fluid and a (2 + 1) dimensional AdS black hole. Anyons are particles with intermediate statistics that interpolates between a Fermi-Dirac statistics and a Bose-Einstein one. A parameter α (0 quasi Fermi-Dirac statistics for α >αc, but a quasi Bose-Einstein statistics for α quasi Bose-Einstein statistics. For α >αc and a range of values of the cosmological constant, there is, however, no event horizon so there is no black hole solution. Thus, for these values of cosmological constants, the AdS Anyon Van der Waals black holes have only quasi Bose-Einstein statistics.

  13. Black holes go supersonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    In modern physics, the unification of gravity and quantum mechanics remains a mystery. Gravity rules the macroscopic world of planets, stars and galaxies, while quantum mechanics governs the micro-cosmos of atoms, light quanta and elementary particles. However, cosmologists believe that these two disparate worlds may meet at the edges of black holes. Now Luis Garay, James Anglin, Ignacio Cirac and Peter Zoller at the University of Innsbruck in Austria have proposed a realistic way to make an artificial 'sonic' black hole in a tabletop experiment (L J Garay et al. 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 4643). In the February issue of Physics World, Ulf Leonhardt of the School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, UK, explains how the simulated black holes work. (U.K.)

  14. Black Hole Paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Pankaj S.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We propose here that the well-known black hole paradoxes such as the information loss and teleological nature of the event horizon are restricted to a particular idealized case, which is the homogeneous dust collapse model. In this case, the event horizon, which defines the boundary of the black hole, forms initially, and the singularity in the interior of the black hole at a later time. We show that, in contrast, gravitational collapse from physically more realistic initial conditions typically leads to the scenario in which the event horizon and space-time singularity form simultaneously. We point out that this apparently simple modification can mitigate the causality and teleological paradoxes, and also lends support to two recently suggested solutions to the information paradox, namely, the ‘firewall’ and ‘classical chaos’ proposals. (paper)

  15. Bringing Black Holes Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  16. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  17. Magnonic black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán-Molina, A.; Nunez, A.S.; Duine, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    We show that the interaction between spin-polarized current and magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons - the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the imp...

  18. Modeling black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this book is two-fold: the first part gives a fully detailed and pedagogical presentation of the Hawking effect and its physical implications, and the second discusses the backreaction problem, especially in connection with exactly solvable semiclassical models that describe analytically the black hole evaporation process. The book aims to establish a link between the general relativistic viewpoint on black hole evaporation and the new CFT-type approaches to the subject. The detailed discussion on backreaction effects is also extremely valuable.

  19. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  20. Moulting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that ...

  1. Are black holes springlike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-02-01

    A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  2. Dancing with Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, S. J.

    2008-05-01

    We describe efforts over the last six years to implement regularization methods suitable for studying one or more interacting black holes by direct N-body simulations. Three different methods have been adapted to large-N systems: (i) Time-Transformed Leapfrog, (ii) Wheel-Spoke, and (iii) Algorithmic Regularization. These methods have been tried out with some success on GRAPE-type computers. Special emphasis has also been devoted to including post-Newtonian terms, with application to moderately massive black holes in stellar clusters. Some examples of simulations leading to coalescence by gravitational radiation will be presented to illustrate the practical usefulness of such methods.

  3. Scattering from black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging

  4. Virtual Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  5. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  6. Partons and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, L.; Griffin, P.

    1994-01-01

    A light-front renormalization group analysis is applied to study matter which falls into massive black holes, and the related problem of matter with transplankian energies. One finds that the rate of matter spreading over the black hole's horizon unexpectedly saturates the causality bound. This is related to the transverse growth behavior of transplankian particles as their longitudinal momentum increases. This growth behavior suggests a natural mechanism to implement 't Hooft's scenario that the universe is an image of data stored on a 2 + 1 dimensional hologram-like projection

  7. Bumpy black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Emparan, Roberto; Figueras, Pau; Martinez, Marina

    2014-01-01

    We study six-dimensional rotating black holes with bumpy horizons: these are topologically spherical, but the sizes of symmetric cycles on the horizon vary non-monotonically with the polar angle. We construct them numerically for the first three bumpy families, and follow them in solution space until they approach critical solutions with localized singularities on the horizon. We find strong evidence of the conical structures that have been conjectured to mediate the transitions to black ring...

  8. The late inspiral of supermassive black hole binaries with circumbinary gas discs in the LISA band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yike; Haiman, Zoltán; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of 2D, moving-mesh, viscous hydrodynamical simulations of an accretion disc around a merging supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB). The simulation is pseudo-Newtonian, with the BHs modelled as point masses with a Paczynski-Wiita potential, and includes viscous heating, shock heating, and radiative cooling. We follow the gravitational inspiral of an equal-mass binary with a component mass Mbh = 106 M⊙ from an initial separation of 60rg (where rg ≡ GMbh/c2 is the gravitational radius) to the merger. We find that a central, low-density cavity forms around the binary, as in previous work, but that the BHs capture gas from the circumbinary disc and accrete efficiently via their own minidiscs, well after their inspiral outpaces the viscous evolution of the disc. The system remains luminous, displaying strong periodicity at twice the binary orbital frequency throughout the entire inspiral process, all the way to the merger. In the soft X-ray band, the thermal emission is dominated by the inner edge of the circumbinary disc with especially clear periodicity in the early inspiral. By comparison, harder X-ray emission is dominated by the minidiscs, and the light curve is initially more noisy but develops a clear periodicity in the late inspiral stage. This variability pattern should help identify the electromagnetic counterparts of SMBHBs detected by the space-based gravitational-wave detector LISA.

  9. ALMA FOLLOWS STREAMING OF DENSE GAS DOWN TO 40 pc FROM THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN NGC 1097

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathi, Kambiz; Piñol-Ferrer, Nuria; Lundgren, Andreas A.; Wiklind, Tommy; Kohno, Kotaro; Izumi, Takuma; Martín, Sergio; Espada, Daniel; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Krips, Melanie; Matsushita, Satoki; Meier, David S.; Nakai, Naomasa; Sheth, Kartik; Turner, Jean; Van de Ven, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of the dense molecular gas in the central 200 pc of the nearby galaxy NGC 1097, based on Cycle 0 observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We use the HCN(4-3) line to trace the densest interstellar molecular gas (n H 2 ∼10 8 cm –3 ), and quantify its kinematics, and estimate an inflow rate for the molecular gas. We find a striking similarity between the ALMA kinematic data and the analytic spiral inflow model that we have previously constructed based on ionized gas velocity fields on larger scales. We are able to follow dense gas streaming down to 40 pc distance from the supermassive black hole in this Seyfert 1 galaxy. In order to fulfill marginal stability, we deduce that the dense gas is confined to a very thin disk, and we derive a dense gas inflow rate of 0.09 M ☉ yr –1 at 40 pc radius. Combined with previous values from the Hα and CO gas, we calculate a combined molecular and ionized gas inflow rate of ∼0.2 M ☉ yr –1 at 40 pc distance from the central supermassive black hole of NGC 1097.

  10. Measuring the spins of accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, Jeffrey E; Narayan, Ramesh; Gou, Lijun; Kulkarni, Akshay; Penna, Robert F; Steiner, James F; Davis, Shane W; Orosz, Jerome A; Remillard, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    A typical galaxy is thought to contain tens of millions of stellar-mass black holes, the collapsed remnants of once massive stars, and a single nuclear supermassive black hole. Both classes of black holes accrete gas from their environments. The accreting gas forms a flattened orbiting structure known as an accretion disk. During the past several years, it has become possible to obtain measurements of the spins of the two classes of black holes by modeling the x-ray emission from their accretion disks. Two methods are employed, both of which depend upon identifying the inner radius of the accretion disk with the innermost stable circular orbit, whose radius depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. In the Fe Kα method, which applies to both classes of black holes, one models the profile of the relativistically broadened iron line with a special focus on the gravitationally redshifted red wing of the line. In the continuum-fitting (CF) method, which has so far only been applied to stellar-mass black holes, one models the thermal x-ray continuum spectrum of the accretion disk. We discuss both methods, with a strong emphasis on the CF method and its application to stellar-mass black holes. Spin results for eight stellar-mass black holes are summarized. These data are used to argue that the high spins of at least some of these black holes are natal, and that the presence or absence of relativistic jets in accreting black holes is not entirely determined by the spin of the black hole.

  11. NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The very largest black holes reach a certain point and then grow no more, according to the best survey to date of black holes made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Scientists have also discovered many previously hidden black holes that are well below their weight limit. These new results corroborate recent theoretical work about how black holes and galaxies grow. The biggest black holes, those with at least 100 million times the mass of the Sun, ate voraciously during the early Universe. Nearly all of them ran out of 'food' billions of years ago and went onto a forced starvation diet. Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North On the other hand, black holes between about 10 and 100 million solar masses followed a more controlled eating plan. Because they took smaller portions of their meals of gas and dust, they continue growing today. "Our data show that some supermassive black holes seem to binge, while others prefer to graze", said Amy Barger of the University of Wisconsin in Madison and the University of Hawaii, lead author of the paper describing the results in the latest issue of The Astronomical Journal (Feb 2005). "We now understand better than ever before how supermassive black holes grow." One revelation is that there is a strong connection between the growth of black holes and the birth of stars. Previously, astronomers had done careful studies of the birthrate of stars in galaxies, but didn't know as much about the black holes at their centers. DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole "These galaxies lose material into their central black holes at the same time that they make their stars," said Barger. "So whatever mechanism governs star formation in galaxies also governs black hole growth." Astronomers have made an accurate census of both the biggest, active black holes in the distance, and the relatively smaller, calmer ones closer by. Now, for the first

  12. Black holes and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    1995-01-01

    1. Qualitative introduction to black holes : classical, quantum2. Model black holes and model collapse process: The Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom metrics, The Oppenheimer-Volkov collapse scenario3. Mode mixing4. From mode mixing to radiance.

  13. Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, Steven B.

    1994-01-01

    These lectures give a pedagogical review of dilaton gravity, Hawking radiation, the black hole information problem, and black hole pair creation. (Lectures presented at the 1994 Trieste Summer School in High Energy Physics and Cosmology)

  14. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  15. Aspects of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  16. Nonsingular black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon); I.H.E.S., Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mukhanov, Viatcheslav [Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We consider the Schwarzschild black hole and show how, in a theory with limiting curvature, the physical singularity ''inside it'' is removed. The resulting spacetime is geodesically complete. The internal structure of this nonsingular black hole is analogous to Russian nesting dolls. Namely, after falling into the black hole of radius r{sub g}, an observer, instead of being destroyed at the singularity, gets for a short time into the region with limiting curvature. After that he re-emerges in the near horizon region of a spacetime described by the Schwarzschild metric of a gravitational radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/3}. In the next cycle, after passing the limiting curvature, the observer finds himself within a black hole of even smaller radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/9}, and so on. Finally after a few cycles he will end up in the spacetime where he remains forever at limiting curvature. (orig.)

  17. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  18. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  19. Black-hole astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

  20. Warped products and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon-Tae

    2005-01-01

    We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes

  1. Magnetohydrodynamics near a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A numerical computer study of hydromagnetic flow near a black hole is presented. First, the equations of motion are developed to a form suitable for numerical computations. Second, the results of calculations describing the magnetic torques exerted by a rotating black hole on a surrounding magnetic plasma and the electric charge that is induced on the surface of the black hole are presented. (auth)

  2. From binary black hole simulation to triple black hole simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Shan; Cao Zhoujian; Han, Wen-Biao; Lin, Chun-Yu; Yo, Hwei-Jang; Yu, Jui-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Black hole systems are among the most promising sources for a gravitational wave detection project. Now, China is planning to construct a space-based laser interferometric detector as a follow-on mission of LISA in the near future. Aiming to provide some theoretical support to this detection project on the numerical relativity side, we focus on black hole systems simulation in this work. Considering the globular galaxy, multiple black hole systems also likely to exist in our universe and play a role as a source for the gravitational wave detector we are considering. We will give a progress report in this paper on our black hole system simulation. More specifically, we will present triple black hole simulation together with binary black hole simulation. On triple black hole simulations, one novel perturbational method is proposed.

  3. Chandra Catches "Piranha" Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Supermassive black holes have been discovered to grow more rapidly in young galaxy clusters, according to new results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These "fast-track" supermassive black holes can have a big influence on the galaxies and clusters that they live in. Using Chandra, scientists surveyed a sample of clusters and counted the fraction of galaxies with rapidly growing supermassive black holes, known as active galactic nuclei (or AGN). The data show, for the first time, that younger, more distant galaxy clusters contained far more AGN than older, nearby ones. Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe, consisting of many individual galaxies, a few of which contain AGN. Earlier in the history of the universe, these galaxies contained a lot more gas for star formation and black hole growth than galaxies in clusters do today. This fuel allows the young cluster black holes to grow much more rapidly than their counterparts in nearby clusters. Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus "The black holes in these early clusters are like piranha in a very well-fed aquarium," said Jason Eastman of Ohio State University (OSU) and first author of this study. "It's not that they beat out each other for food, rather there was so much that all of the piranha were able to really thrive and grow quickly." The team used Chandra to determine the fraction of AGN in four different galaxy clusters at large distances, when the Universe was about 58% of its current age. Then they compared this value to the fraction found in more nearby clusters, those about 82% of the Universe's current age. The result was the more distant clusters contained about 20 times more AGN than the less distant sample. AGN outside clusters are also more common when the Universe is younger, but only by factors of two or three over the same age span. "It's been predicted that there would be fast-track black holes in clusters, but we never

  4. Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational radiation waveforms for black hole-neutron star coalescence calculations. The physical input is Newtonian physics, an ideal gas equation of state with...

  5. Magnonic Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A

    2017-02-10

    We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.

  6. Internal structure of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)

  7. Black Holes and Firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.

  8. Beyond the black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslough, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)

  9. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Black Hole Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avara, Mark J.

    Black holes embody one of the few, simple, solutions to the Einstein field equations that describe our modern understanding of gravitation. In isolation they are small, dark, and elusive. However, when a gas cloud or star wanders too close, they light up our universe in a way no other cosmic object can. The processes of magnetohydrodynamics which describe the accretion inflow and outflows of plasma around black holes are highly coupled and nonlinear and so require numerical experiments for elucidation. These processes are at the heart of astrophysics since black holes, once they somehow reach super-massive status, influence the evolution of the largest structures in the universe. It has been my goal, with the body of work comprising this thesis, to explore the ways in which the influence of black holes on their surroundings differs from the predictions of standard accretion models. I have especially focused on how magnetization of the greater black hole environment can impact accretion systems.

  11. Black Hole Area Quantization rule from Black Hole Mass Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the black hole mass distribution function that follows from the random emission of quanta by Hawking radiation and with this function we calculate the black hole mass fluctuation. From a complete different perspective we regard the black hole as quantum mechanical system with a quantized event horizon area and transition probabilities among the various energy levels and then calculate the mass dispersion. It turns out that there is a perfect agreement between the statistical and ...

  12. Black holes and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Samir D

    2012-01-01

    The idea of holography in gravity arose from the fact that the entropy of black holes is given by their surface area. The holography encountered in gauge/gravity duality has no such relation however; the boundary surface can be placed at an arbitrary location in AdS space and its area does not give the entropy of the bulk. The essential issues are also different between the two cases: in black holes we get Hawking radiation from the 'holographic surface' which leads to the information issue, while in gauge/gravity duality there is no such radiation. To resolve the information paradox we need to show that there are real degrees of freedom at the horizon of the hole; this is achieved by the fuzzball construction. In gauge/gravity duality we have instead a field theory defined on an abstract dual space; there are no gravitational degrees of freedom at the holographic boundary. It is important to understand the relations and differences between these two notions of holography to get a full understanding of the lessons from the information paradox.

  13. Quantum effects in black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A strict definition of black holes is presented and some properties with regard to their mass are enumerated. The Hawking quantum effect - the effect of vacuum instability in the black hole gravitational field, as a result of shich the black hole radiates as a heated body is analyzed. It is shown that in order to obtain results on the black hole radiation it is sufficient to predetermine the in-vacuum state at a time moment in the past, when the collapsing body has a large size, and its gravitational field can be neglected. The causes and the place of particle production by the black hole, and also the space-time inside the black hole, are considered

  14. Particle creation by black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 10 15 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law: S + 1/4 A never decreases where S is the entropy of matter outside black holes and A is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon. (orig.) [de

  15. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  16. Artificial black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt; Volovik, Grigory E

    2009-01-01

    Physicists are pondering on the possibility of simulating black holes in the laboratory by means of various "analog models". These analog models, typically based on condensed matter physics, can be used to help us understand general relativity (Einstein's gravity); conversely, abstract techniques developed in general relativity can sometimes be used to help us understand certain aspects of condensed matter physics. This book contains 13 chapters - written by experts in general relativity, particle physics, and condensed matter physics - that explore various aspects of this two-way traffic.

  17. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce

  18. Statistical black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Traditional methods from statistical thermodynamics, with appropriate modifications, are used to study several problems in black-hole thermodynamics. Jaynes's maximum-uncertainty method for computing probabilities is used to show that the earlier-formulated generalized second law is respected in statistically averaged form in the process of spontaneous radiation by a Kerr black hole discovered by Hawking, and also in the case of a Schwarzschild hole immersed in a bath of black-body radiation, however cold. The generalized second law is used to motivate a maximum-entropy principle for determining the equilibrium probability distribution for a system containing a black hole. As an application we derive the distribution for the radiation in equilibrium with a Kerr hole (it is found to agree with what would be expected from Hawking's results) and the form of the associated distribution among Kerr black-hole solution states of definite mass. The same results are shown to follow from a statistical interpretation of the concept of black-hole entropy as the natural logarithm of the number of possible interior configurations that are compatible with the given exterior black-hole state. We also formulate a Jaynes-type maximum-uncertainty principle for black holes, and apply it to obtain the probability distribution among Kerr solution states for an isolated radiating Kerr hole

  19. Acceleration of black hole universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.

  20. On black hole horizon fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the high angular momentum particles 'atmosphere' near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon suggested that strong gravitational interactions occur at invariant distance of the order of 3 √M [2]. We present a generalization of this result to the Kerr-Newman black hole case. It is shown that the larger charge and angular momentum black hole bears, the larger invariant distance at which strong gravitational interactions occur becomes. This invariant distance is of order 3 √((r + 2 )/((r + - r - ))). This implies that the Planckian structure of the Hawking radiation of extreme black holes is completely broken

  1. Black holes and the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse

  2. Black holes and the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  3. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David

    2016-09-23

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  5. Hot Accretion onto Black Holes with Outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Myeong-Gu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Classic Bondi accretion flow can be generalized to rotating viscous accretion flow. Study of hot accretion flow onto black holes show that its physical charateristics change from Bondi-like for small gas angular momentum to disk-like for Keperian gas angular momentum. Especially, the mass accretion rate divided by the Bondi accretion rate is proportional to the viscosity parameter alpha and inversely proportional to the gas angular momentum divided by the Keplerian angular momentum at the Bondi radius for gas angular momentum comparable to the Keplerian value. The possible presence of outflow will increase the mass inflow rate at the Bondi radius but decrease the mass accretion rate across the black hole horizon by many orders of magnitude. This implies that the growth history of supermassive black holes and their coevolution with host galaxies will be dramatically changed when the accreted gas has angular momentum or develops an outflow.

  6. Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol, Barak; Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi

    2004-01-01

    In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes

  7. The Formation and Evolution of the First Massive Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Haiman, Zoltan; Quataert, Eliot

    2004-01-01

    The first massive astrophysical black holes likely formed at high redshifts (z>10) at the centers of low mass (~10^6 Msun) dark matter concentrations. These black holes grow by mergers and gas accretion, evolve into the population of bright quasars observed at lower redshifts, and eventually leave the supermassive black hole remnants that are ubiquitous at the centers of galaxies in the nearby universe. The astrophysical processes responsible for the formation of the earliest seed black holes...

  8. String model of black hole microstates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, F.

    1997-01-01

    The statistical mechanics of black holes arbitrarily far from extremality is modeled by a gas of weakly interacting strings. As an effective low-energy description of black holes the string model provides several highly nontrivial consistency checks and predictions. Speculations on a fundamental origin of the model suggest surprising simplifications in nonperturbative string theory, even in the absence of supersymmetry. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Black hole thermodynamical entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, Constantino; Cirto, Leonardo J.L.

    2013-01-01

    As early as 1902, Gibbs pointed out that systems whose partition function diverges, e.g. gravitation, lie outside the validity of the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) theory. Consistently, since the pioneering Bekenstein-Hawking results, physically meaningful evidence (e.g., the holographic principle) has accumulated that the BG entropy S BG of a (3+1) black hole is proportional to its area L 2 (L being a characteristic linear length), and not to its volume L 3 . Similarly it exists the area law, so named because, for a wide class of strongly quantum-entangled d-dimensional systems, S BG is proportional to lnL if d=1, and to L d-1 if d>1, instead of being proportional to L d (d ≥ 1). These results violate the extensivity of the thermodynamical entropy of a d-dimensional system. This thermodynamical inconsistency disappears if we realize that the thermodynamical entropy of such nonstandard systems is not to be identified with the BG additive entropy but with appropriately generalized nonadditive entropies. Indeed, the celebrated usefulness of the BG entropy is founded on hypothesis such as relatively weak probabilistic correlations (and their connections to ergodicity, which by no means can be assumed as a general rule of nature). Here we introduce a generalized entropy which, for the Schwarzschild black hole and the area law, can solve the thermodynamic puzzle. (orig.)

  10. BINARY BLACK HOLES, GAS SLOSHING, AND COLD FRONTS IN THE X-RAY HALO HOSTING 4C+37.11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Bogdán, Ákos; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Romani, Roger W. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Taylor, Greg B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Zavala, Robert T. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 W. Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We analyzed deep Chandra ACIS-I exposures of the cluster-scale X-ray halo surrounding the radio source 4C+37.11. This remarkable system hosts the closest resolved pair of super-massive black holes and an exceptionally luminous elliptical galaxy, the likely product of a series of past mergers. We characterize the halo with r {sub 500} ∼ 0.95 Mpc, M {sub 500} = 2.5 ± 0.2 × 10{sup 14} M {sub ⊙}, kT = 4.6 ± 0.2 keV, and a gas mass of M {sub g,500} = 2.2 ± 0.1 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ⊙}. The gas mass fraction within r {sub 500} is f {sub g} = 0.09 ± 0.01. The entropy profile shows large non-gravitational heating in the central regions. We see several surface brightness jumps, associated with substantial temperature and density changes but approximate pressure equilibrium, implying that these are sloshing structures driven by a recent merger. A residual intensity image shows a core spiral structure closely matching that seen in the Perseus cluster, although at z = 0.055 the spiral pattern is less distinct. We infer that the most recent merger occurred 1–2 Gyr ago and that the event that brought the two observed super-massive black holes to the system core is even older. Under this interpretation, the black hole binary pair has, unusually, remained at a parsec-scale separation for more than 2 Gyr.

  11. Feedback by Massive Black Holes in Gas-rich Dwarf Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silk, Joseph [Institut d’Astrophysique, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis Blvd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/IRFU, CNRS, Univ Paris 7, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Beecroft Institute of Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-10

    Could there be intermediate-mass black holes in essentially all old dwarf galaxies? I argue that current observations of active galactic nuclei in dwarfs allow such a radical hypothesis that provides early feedback during the epoch of galaxy formation and potentially provides a unifying explanation for many, if not all, of the dwarf galaxy anomalies, such as the abundance, core-cusp, “too-big-to-fail,” ultra-faint, and baryon-fraction issues. I describe the supporting arguments, which are largely circumstantial, and discuss a number of tests. There is no strong motivation for modifying the nature of cold dark matter in order to explain any of the dwarf galaxy “problems.”.

  12. Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A new study using results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provides one of the best pieces of evidence yet that many supermassive black holes are spinning extremely rapidly. The whirling of these giant black holes drives powerful jets that pump huge amounts of energy into their environment and affects galaxy growth. A team of scientists compared leading theories of jets produced by rotating supermassive black holes with Chandra data. A sampling of nine giant galaxies that exhibit large disturbances in their gaseous atmospheres showed that the central black holes in these galaxies must be spinning at near their maximum rates. People Who Read This Also Read... NASA’s Swift Satellite Catches First Supernova in The Act of Exploding Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself "We think these monster black holes are spinning close to the limit set by Einstein's theory of relativity, which means that they can drag material around them at close to the speed of light," said Rodrigo Nemmen, a visiting graduate student at Penn State University, and lead author of a paper on the new results presented at American Astronomical Society in Austin, Texas. The research reinforces other, less direct methods previously used which have indicated that some stellar and supermassive black holes are spinning rapidly. According to Einstein's theory, a rapidly spinning black hole makes space itself rotate. This effect, coupled with gas spiraling toward the black hole, can produce a rotating, tightly wound vertical tower of magnetic field that flings a large fraction of the inflowing gas away from the vicinity of the black hole in an energetic, high-speed jet. Computer simulations by other authors have suggested that black holes may acquire their rapid spins when galaxies merge, and through the accretion of gas from their surroundings. "Extremely fast spin might be very common for large

  13. Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The biggest black holes may feed just like the smallest ones, according to data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based telescopes. This discovery supports the implication of Einstein's relativity theory that black holes of all sizes have similar properties, and will be useful for predicting the properties of a conjectured new class of black holes. The conclusion comes from a large observing campaign of the spiral galaxy M81, which is about 12 million light years from Earth. In the center of M81 is a black hole that is about 70 million times more massive than the Sun, and generates energy and radiation as it pulls gas in the central region of the galaxy inwards at high speed. In contrast, so-called stellar mass black holes, which have about 10 times more mass than the Sun, have a different source of food. These smaller black holes acquire new material by pulling gas from an orbiting companion star. Because the bigger and smaller black holes are found in different environments with different sources of material to feed from, a question has remained about whether they feed in the same way. Using these new observations and a detailed theoretical model, a research team compared the properties of M81's black hole with those of stellar mass black holes. The results show that either big or little, black holes indeed appear to eat similarly to each other, and produce a similar distribution of X-rays, optical and radio light. AnimationMulti-wavelength Images of M81 One of the implications of Einstein's theory of General Relativity is that black holes are simple objects and only their masses and spins determine their effect on space-time. The latest research indicates that this simplicity manifests itself in spite of complicated environmental effects. "This confirms that the feeding patterns for black holes of different sizes can be very similar," said Sera Markoff of the Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands, who led the study

  14. Black-hole driven winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punsly, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the physical mechanism that allows a large scale magnetic field to torque a rapidly rotating, supermassive black hole. This is an interesting problem as it has been conjectured that rapidly rotating black holes are the central engines that power the observed extragalactic double radio sources. Axisymmetric solutions of the curved space-time version of Maxwell's equations in the vacuum do not torque black holes. Plasma must be introduced for the hole to mechanically couple to the field. The dynamical aspect of rotating black holes that couples the magnetic field to the hole is the following. A rotating black hole forces the external geometry of space-time to rotate (the dragging of inertial frames). Inside of the stationary limit surface, the ergosphere, all physical particle trajectories must appear to rotate in the same direction as the black hole as viewed by the stationary observers at asymptotic infinity. In the text, it is demonstrated how plasma that is created on field lines that thread both the ergosphere and the equatorial plane will be pulled by gravity toward the equator. By the aforementioned properties of the ergosphere, the disk must rotate. Consequently, the disk acts like a unipolar generator. It drives a global current system that supports the toroidal magnetic field in an outgoing, magnetically dominated wind. This wind carries energy (mainly in the form of Poynting flux) and angular momentum towards infinity. The spin down of the black hole is the ultimate source of this energy and angular momentum flux

  15. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  16. ATLAS simulated black hole event

    CERN Multimedia

    Pequenão, J

    2008-01-01

    The simulated collision event shown is viewed along the beampipe. The event is one in which a microscopic-black-hole was produced in the collision of two protons (not shown). The microscopic-black-hole decayed immediately into many particles. The colors of the tracks show different types of particles emerging from the collision (at the center).

  17. Black holes and everyday physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Black holes have piqued much curiosity. But thus far they have been important only in ''remote'' subjects like astrophysics and quantum gravity. It is shown that the situation can be improved. By a judicious application of black hole physics, one can obtain new results in ''everyday physics''. For example, black holes yield a quantum universal upper bound on the entropy-to-energy ratio for ordinary thermodynamical systems which was unknown earlier. It can be checked, albeit with much labor, by ordinary statistical methods. Black holes set a limitation on the number of species of elementary particles-quarks, leptons, neutrinos - which may exist. And black holes lead to a fundamental limitation on the rate at which information can be transferred for given message energy by any communication system. (author)

  18. Black hole final state conspiracies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInnes, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The principle that unitarity must be preserved in all processes, no matter how exotic, has led to deep insights into boundary conditions in cosmology and black hole theory. In the case of black hole evaporation, Horowitz and Maldacena were led to propose that unitarity preservation can be understood in terms of a restriction imposed on the wave function at the singularity. Gottesman and Preskill showed that this natural idea only works if one postulates the presence of 'conspiracies' between systems just inside the event horizon and states at much later times, near the singularity. We argue that some AdS black holes have unusual internal thermodynamics, and that this may permit the required 'conspiracies' if real black holes are described by some kind of sum over all AdS black holes having the same entropy

  19. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, V.

    2005-01-12

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  20. Compressibility of rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting the cosmological constant as a pressure, whose thermodynamically conjugate variable is a volume, modifies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Properties of the resulting thermodynamic volume are investigated: the compressibility and the speed of sound of the black hole are derived in the case of nonpositive cosmological constant. The adiabatic compressibility vanishes for a nonrotating black hole and is maximal in the extremal case--comparable with, but still less than, that of a cold neutron star. A speed of sound v s is associated with the adiabatic compressibility, which is equal to c for a nonrotating black hole and decreases as the angular momentum is increased. An extremal black hole has v s 2 =0.9 c 2 when the cosmological constant vanishes, and more generally v s is bounded below by c/√(2).

  1. What is a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    A definition of a black hole is proposed that should work in any stably causal space-time. This is that a black hole is the closure of the smaller future set that contains all noncosmological trapped surfaces and which has its boundary generated by null geodesic segments that are boundary generators of TIPs. This allows precise definitions of cosmic censorship and white holes. (UK)

  2. Black holes and quantum processes in them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    The latest achievements in the physics of black holes are reviewed. The problem of quantum production in a strong gravitational field of black holes is considered. Another parallel discovered during investigation of interactions between black holes and between black holes and surrounding media, is also drawn with thermodynamics. A gravitational field of rotating black holes is considered. Some cosmological aspects of evaporation of small black holes are discussed as well as possibilities to observe them

  3. Black hole decay as geodesic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha

    2003-01-01

    We show that a formalism for analyzing the near-horizon conformal symmetry of Schwarzschild black holes using a scalar field probe is capable of describing black hole decay. The equation governing black hole decay can be identified as the geodesic equation in the space of black hole masses. This provides a novel geometric interpretation for the decay of black holes. Moreover, this approach predicts a precise correction term to the usual expression for the decay rate of black holes

  4. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2015-01-01

    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)

  5. Black Hole Grabs Starry Snack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end. The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light. The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.

  6. Black holes at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.

    2002-01-01

    In scenarios with extra dimensions and TeV-scale quantum gravity, black holes are expected to be produced in the collision of light particles at center-of-mass energies above the fundamental Planck scale with small impact parameters. Black hole production and evaporation may thus be studied in detail at the large hadron collider (LHC). But even before the LHC starts operating, neutrino telescopes such as AMANDA/IceCube, ANTARES, Baikal, and RICE have an opportunity to search for black hole signatures. Black hole production in the scattering of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos on nucleons in the ice or water may initiate cascades and through-going muons with distinct characteristics above the Standard Model rate. In this Letter, we investigate the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to black hole production and compare it to the one expected at the Pierre Auger Observatory, an air shower array currently under construction, and at the LHC. We find that, already with the currently available data, AMANDA and RICE should be able to place sensible constraints in black hole production parameter space, which are competitive with the present ones from the air shower facilities Fly's Eye and AGASA. In the optimistic case that a ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino flux significantly higher than the one expected from cosmic ray interactions with the cosmic microwave background radiation is realized in nature, one even has discovery potential for black holes at neutrino telescopes beyond the reach of LHC. (orig.)

  7. Thermodynamic theory of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P C.W. [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-04-21

    The thermodynamic theory underlying black hole processes is developed in detail and applied to model systems. It is found that Kerr-Newman black holes undergo a phase transition at a = 0.68M or Q = 0.86M, where the heat capacity has an infinite discontinuity. Above the transition values the specific heat is positive, permitting isothermal equilibrium with a surrounding heat bath. Simple processes and stability criteria for various black hole situations are investigated. The limits for entropically favoured black hole formation are found. The Nernst conditions for the third law of thermodynamics are not satisfied fully for black holes. There is no obvious thermodynamic reason why a black hole may not be cooled down below absolute zero and converted into a naked singularity. Quantum energy-momentum tensor calculations for uncharged black holes are extended to the Reissner-Nordstrom case, and found to be fully consistent with the thermodynamic picture for Q < M. For Q < M the model predicts that 'naked' collapse also produces radiation, with such intensity that the collapsing matter is entirely evaporated away before a naked singularity can form.

  8. FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas

  9. WISDOM Project - III. Molecular gas measurement of the supermassive black hole mass in the barred lenticular galaxy NGC4429

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Onishi, Kyoko; van de Voort, Freeke; Cappellari, Michele; Iguchi, Satoru; Liu, Lijie; North, Eve V.; Sarzi, Marc; Smith, Mark D.

    2018-01-01

    As part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses project we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotating early-type galaxy NGC4429, that is barred and has a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge. This estimate is based on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-2 observations of the 12CO(3-2) emission line with a linear resolution of ≈13 pc (0.18 arcsec × 0.14 arcsec). NGC4429 has a relaxed, flocculent nuclear disc of molecular gas that is truncated at small radii, likely due to the combined effects of gas stability and tidal shear. The warm/dense 12CO(3-2) emitting gas is confined to the inner parts of this disc, likely again because the gas becomes more stable at larger radii, preventing star formation. The gas disc has a low velocity dispersion of 2.2^{+0.68}_{-0.65} km s-1. Despite the inner truncation of the gas disc, we are able to model the kinematics of the gas and estimate a mass of (1.5 ± 0.1^{+0.15}_{-0.35}) × 108 M⊙ for the SMBH in NGC4429 (where the quoted uncertainties reflect the random and systematic uncertainties, respectively), consistent with a previous upper limit set using ionized gas kinematics. We confirm that the V-band mass-to-light ratio changes by ≈30 per cent within the inner 400 pc of NGC4429, as suggested by other authors. This SMBH mass measurement based on molecular gas kinematics, the sixth presented in the literature, once again demonstrates the power of ALMA to constrain SMBH masses.

  10. Black holes and Higgs stability

    CERN Document Server

    Tetradis, Nikolaos

    2016-09-20

    We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.

  11. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burda, Philipp [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street North,Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Moss, Ian G. annd [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University,Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-24

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  12. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  13. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G. annd

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  14. Tunnelling from Goedel black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Ryan; Mann, R. B.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the spacetime structure of Kerr-Goedel black holes, analyzing their parameter space in detail. We apply the tunnelling method to compute their temperature and compare the results to previous calculations obtained via other methods. We claim that it is not possible to have the closed timelike curve (CTC) horizon in between the two black hole horizons and include a discussion of issues that occur when the radius of the CTC horizon is smaller than the radius of both black hole horizons

  15. Quantum mechanics of black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    2012-08-03

    The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.

  16. Gravitational polarizability of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria

    2009-01-01

    The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h l of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h l EM . The Love numbers h l give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.

  17. Chandra Sees Remarkable Eclipse of Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    A remarkable eclipse of a supermassive black hole and the hot gas disk around it has been observed with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This eclipse has allowed two key predictions about the effects of supermassive black holes to be tested. Just as eclipses of the Sun and moon give astronomers rare opportunities to learn about those objects, an alignment in a nearby galaxy has provided a rare opportunity to investigate a supermassive black hole. Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse The supermassive black hole is located in NGC 1365, a galaxy 60 million light years from Earth. It contains a so called active galactic nucleus, or AGN. Scientists believe that the black hole at the center of the AGN is fed by a steady stream of material, presumably in the form of a disk. Material just about to fall into a black hole should be heated to millions of degrees before passing over the event horizon, or point of no return. The disk of gas around the central black hole in NGC 1365 produces copious X-rays but is much too small to resolve directly with a telescope. However, the disk was eclipsed by an intervening cloud, so observation of the time taken for the disk to go in and out of eclipse allowed scientists to estimate the size of the disk. Black Hole Animation Black Hole Animation "For years we've been struggling to confirm the size of this X-ray structure," said Guido Risaliti of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass, and the Italian Institute of Astronomy (INAF). "This serendipitous eclipse enabled us to make this breakthrough." The Chandra team directly measured the size of the X-ray source as about seven times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. That means the source of X-rays is about 2 billion times smaller than the host galaxy and only about 10 times larger than the estimated size of the black hole's event horizon, consistent with theoretical predictions. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 1365

  18. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  19. "Iron-Clad" Evidence For Spinning Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Telltale X-rays from iron may reveal if black holes are spinning or not, according to astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory. The gas flows and bizarre gravitational effects observed near stellar black holes are similar to those seen around supermassive black holes. Stellar black holes, in effect, are convenient `scale models' of their much larger cousins. Black holes come in at least two different sizes. Stellar black holes are between five and 20 times the mass of the Sun. At the other end of the size scale, supermassive black holes contain millions or billions times the mass of our Sun. The Milky Way contains both a supermassive black hole at its center, as well as a number of stellar black holes sprinkled throughout the Galaxy. At a press conference at the "Four Years of Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Ala., Jon Miller of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. discussed recent results on the X-ray spectra, or distribution of X-rays with energy, from the iron atoms in gas around three stellar black holes in the Milky Way. "Discovering the high degree of correspondence between stellar and supermassive black holes is a real breakthrough," said Miller. "Because stellar black holes are smaller, everything happens about a million times faster, so they can be used as a test-bed for theories of how spinning black holes affect the space and matter around them." X-rays from a stellar black hole are produced when gas from a nearby companion star is heated to tens of millions of degrees as it swirls toward the black hole. Iron atoms in this gas produce distinctive X-ray signals that can be used to study the orbits of particles around the black hole. For example, the gravity of a black hole can shift the X-rays to lower energies. "The latest work provides the most precise measurements yet of the X-ray spectra for stellar black holes," said Miller. "These data help rule out

  20. Black hole meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herck, Walter; Wyder, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, [1]. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the ‘chromosomes’ of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as ‘crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle’. Our results improve on [2], provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into ‘generic’ and ‘special’ states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.

  1. Accretion of clumpy cold gas onto massive black hole binaries: the challenging formation of extended circumbinary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maureira-Fredes, Cristián; Goicovic, Felipe G.; Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Sesana, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) represent an unavoidable outcome of hierarchical galaxy formation, but their dynamical evolution at sub-parsec scales is poorly understood. In gas rich environments, an extended, steady circumbinary gaseous disc could play an important role in the MBHB evolution, facilitating its coalescence. However, how gas on galactic scales is transported to the nuclear region to form and maintain such a stable structure is unclear. In the aftermath of a galaxy merger, cold turbulent gas condenses into clumps and filaments that can be randomly scattered towards the nucleus. This provides a natural way of feeding the binary with intermittent pockets of gas. The aim of this work is to investigate the gaseous structures arising from this interaction. We employ a suite of smoothed-particle-hydrodynamic simulations to study the influence of the infall rate and angular momentum distribution of the incoming clouds on the formation and evolution of structures around the MBHB. We find that the continuous supply of discrete clouds is a double-edge sword, resulting in intermittent formation and disruption of circumbinary structures. Anisotropic cloud distributions featuring an excess of co-rotating events generate more prominent co-rotating circumbinary discs. Similar structures are seen when mostly counter-rotating clouds are fed to the binary, even though they are more compact and less stable. In general, our simulations do not show the formation of extended smooth and stable circumbinary discs, typically assumed in analytical and numerical investigations of the the long term evolution of MBHBs.

  2. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  3. Axion-dilation black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallosh, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this talk some essential features of stringy black holes are described. The author considers charged U(1) and U(1) x U(1) four-dimensional axion-dilaton black holes. The Hawking temperature and the entropy of all solutions are shown to be simple functions of the squares of supercharges, defining the positivity bounds. Spherically symmetric and multi black hole solutions are presented. The extreme solutions with zero entropy (holons) represent a ground state of the theory and are characterized by elementary dilaton, axion, electric, and magnetic charges. The attractive gravitational and axion-dilaton force is balanced by the repulsive electromagnetic force. The author discusses the possibility of splitting of nearly extreme black holes. 11 refs

  4. Black holes by analytic continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele

    1997-01-01

    In the context of a two-dimensional exactly solvable model, the dynamics of quantum black holes is obtained by analytically continuing the description of the regime where no black hole is formed. The resulting spectrum of outgoing radiation departs from the one predicted by the Hawking model in the region where the outgoing modes arise from the horizon with Planck-order frequencies. This occurs early in the evaporation process, and the resulting physical picture is unconventional. The theory predicts that black holes will only radiate out an energy of Planck mass order, stabilizing after a transitory period. The continuation from a regime without black hole formation --accessible in the 1+1 gravity theory considered-- is implicit in an S matrix approach and provides in this way a possible solution to the problem of information loss.

  5. MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN STELLAR SYSTEMS: 'QUIESCENT' ACCRETION AND LUMINOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volonteri, M.; Campbell, D.; Mateo, M.; Dotti, M.

    2011-01-01

    Only a small fraction of local galaxies harbor an accreting black hole, classified as an active galactic nucleus. However, many stellar systems are plausibly expected to host black holes, from globular clusters to nuclear star clusters, to massive galaxies. The mere presence of stars in the vicinity of a black hole provides a source of fuel via mass loss of evolved stars. In this paper, we assess the expected luminosities of black holes embedded in stellar systems of different sizes and properties, spanning a large range of masses. We model the distribution of stars and derive the amount of gas available to a central black hole through a geometrical model. We estimate the luminosity of the black holes under simple, but physically grounded, assumptions on the accretion flow. Finally, we discuss the detectability of 'quiescent' black holes in the local universe.

  6. New regular black hole solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.

  7. Black holes from extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.D.H.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that models of extended inflation, in which modified Einstein gravity allows a graceful exit from the false vacuum, lead to copious production of black holes. The critical temperature of the inflationary phase transition must be >10 8 GeV in order to avoid severe cosmological problems in a universe dominated by black holes. We speculate on the possibility that the interiors of false vacuum regions evolve into baby universes. (orig.)

  8. Black holes and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the complete gravitational collapse of a body always yields a black hole, and that naked singularities are never produced (the cosmic censorship hypothesis). The local (or strong) cosmic censorship hypothesis states that singularities which are even locally naked (e.g., to an observer inside a black hole) are never produced. This dissertation studies the validity of these two conjectures. The Kerr-Newman metrics describes the black holes only when M 2 greater than or equal to Q 2 + P 2 , where M is the mass of the black hole, a = J/M its specific angular momentum, Q its electric charge, and P its magnetic charge. In the first part of this dissertation, the possibility of converting an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole (M 2 = a 2 + Q 2 + P 2 ) into a naked singularity by the accretion of test particles is considered. The motion of test particles is studied with a large angular momentum to energy ratio, and also test particles with a large charge to energy ratio. The final state is always found to be a black hole if the angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the black hole are all much greater than the corresponding angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the test particle. In Part II of this dissertation possible black hole interior solutions are studied. The Cauchy horizons and locally naked timelike singularities of the charged (and/or rotating) solutions are contrasted with the spacelike all-encompassing singularity of the Schwarzschild solution. It is determined which portions of the analytic extension of the Reissner-Nordstroem solution are relevant to realistic gravitational collapse

  9. Are Black Holes Elementary Particles?

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Yuan K.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest conceivable elementary particles. They have a microscopic size but a macroscopic mass. Several fundamental types have been constructed with some remarkable properties. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected in Earth's atmosphere. They may also play a role as dark matter in cosmology.

  10. Black Hole Complementary Principle and Noncommutative Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Ren

    2006-01-01

    In the spirit of black hole complementary principle, we have found the noncommutative membrane of Scharzchild black holes. In this paper we extend our results to Kerr black hole and see the same story. Also we make a conjecture that spacetimes are noncommutative on the stretched membrane of the more general Kerr-Newman black hole.

  11. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes ...

  12. Black holes: the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.; Price, R.H.; Macdonald, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole

  13. Stationary black holes as holographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, Istvan [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); MTA KFKI, Reszecske- es Magfizikai Kutatointezet, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)

    2007-11-21

    Smooth spacetimes possessing a (global) one-parameter group of isometries and an associated Killing horizon in Einstein's theory of gravity are investigated. No assumption concerning the asymptotic structure is made; thereby, the selected spacetimes may be considered as generic distorted stationary black holes. First, spacetimes of arbitrary dimension, n {>=} 3, with matter satisfying the dominant energy condition and allowing a non-zero cosmological constant are investigated. In this part, complete characterization of the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is given. It is shown that the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is allowed to possess a much larger variety than that of the isolated black hole configurations. In the second part, four-dimensional (non-degenerate) electrovac distorted black hole spacetimes are considered. It is shown that the spacetime geometry and the electromagnetic field are uniquely determined in the black hole region once the geometry of the bifurcation surface and one of the electromagnetic potentials are specified there. Conditions guaranteeing the same type of determinacy, in a neighbourhood of the event horizon, on the domain of outer communication side are also investigated. In particular, they are shown to be satisfied in the analytic case.

  14. Atomic structure in black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Yukinori

    2006-01-01

    We propose that any black hole has atomic structure in its inside and has no horizon as a model of black holes. Our proposal is founded on a mean field approximation of gravity. The structure of our model consists of a (charged) singularity at the center and quantum fluctuations of fields around the singularity, namely, it is quite similar to that of atoms. Any properties of black holes, e.g. entropy, can be explained by the model. The model naturally quantizes black holes. In particular, we find the minimum black hole, whose structure is similar to that of the hydrogen atom and whose Schwarzschild radius is approximately 1.1287 times the Planck length. Our approach is conceptually similar to Bohr's model of the atomic structure, and the concept of the minimum Schwarzschild radius is similar to that of the Bohr radius. The model predicts that black holes carry baryon number, and the baryon number is rapidly violated. This baryon number violation can be used as verification of the model. (author)

  15. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (M~3 20 M⊙), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (M~106 1010 M⊙), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with M~102 104 M⊙. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work that will help clarify numerous outstanding questions about these objects.

  16. Black hole quantum spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corda, Christian [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics (IFM) Einstein-Galilei, Prato (Italy); Istituto Universitario di Ricerca ' ' Santa Rita' ' , Prato (Italy); International Institute for Applicable Mathematics and Information Sciences (IIAMIS), Hyderabad (India)

    2013-12-15

    Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum ''overtone'' number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the ''hydrogen atom'' and the ''quasi-thermal emission'' in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox. (orig.)

  17. Black hole quantum spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum "overtone" number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the "hydrogen atom" and the "quasi-thermal emission" in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox.

  18. Gas infall into atomic cooling haloes: on the formation of protogalactic disks and supermassive black holes at z > 10

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, Joaquin; Haiman, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    We have performed cosmo-hydro simulations using the RAMSES code to study atomic cooling (ACHs) haloes at z=10 with masses 5E7Msun10 to date. We examine the morphology, angular momentum (AM), thermodynamic, and turbulence of these haloes, in order to assess the prevalence of disks and supermassive black holes (SMBHs). We find no correlation between either the magnitude or the direction of the AM of the gas and its parent DM halo. Only 3 haloes form rotationally supported cores. Two of the most massive haloes form massive, compact overdense blobs. These blobs have an accretion rate ~0.5 Msun/yr (at a distance of 100 pc), and are possible sites of SMBH formation. Our results suggest that the degree of rotational support and the fate of the gas in a halo is determined by its large-scale environment and merger history. In particular, the two haloes forming blobs are located at knots of the cosmic web, cooled early on, and experienced many mergers. The gas in these haloes is lumpy and highly turbulent, with Mach N....

  19. Regular black hole in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok

    2008-01-01

    We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.

  20. Black holes in brane worlds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A Kerr metric describing a rotating black hole is obtained on the three brane in a five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world by considering a rotating five-dimensional black string in the bulk. We examine the causal structure of this space-time through the geodesic equations.

  1. Grumblings from an Awakening Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    In June of this year, after nearly three decades of sleep, the black hole V404 Cygni woke up and began grumbling. Scientists across the globe scrambled to observe the sudden flaring activity coming from this previously peaceful black hole. And now were getting the first descriptions of what weve learned from V404 Cygs awakening!Sudden OutburstV404 Cyg is a black hole of roughly nine solar masses, and its in a binary system with a low-mass star. The black hole pulls a stream of gas from the star, which then spirals in around the black hole, forming an accretion disk. Sometimes the material simply accumulates in the disk but every two or three decades, the build-up of gas suddenly rushes toward the black hole as if a dam were bursting.The sudden accretion in these events causes outbursts of activity from the black hole, its flaring easily visible to us. The last time V404 Cyg exhibited such activity was in 1989, and its been rather quiet since then. Our telescopes are of course much more powerful and sensitive now, nearly three decades later so when the black hole woke up and began flaring in June, scientists were delighted at the chance to observe it.The high variability of V404 Cyg is evident in this example set of spectra, where time increases from the bottom panel to the top. [King et al. 2015]Led by Ashley King (Einstein Fellow at Stanford University), a team of scientists observed V404 Cyg with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, obtaining spectra of the black hole during its outbursts. The black hole flared so brightly during its activity that the team had to take precautions to protect the CCDs in their detector from radiation damage! Now the group has released the first results from their analysis.Windy DiskThe primary surprise from V404 Cyg is its winds. Many stellar-mass black holes have outflows of mass, either in the form of directed jets emitted from their centers, or in the form of high-energy winds isotropically emitted from their accretion disks. But V404

  2. Dancing around the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    ISAAC Finds "Cool" Young Stellar Systems at the Centres of Active Galaxies Summary Supermassive Black Holes are present at the centres of many galaxies, some weighing hundreds of millions times more than the Sun. These extremely dense objects cannot be observed directly, but violently moving gas clouds and stars in their strong gravitational fields are responsible for the emission of energetic radiation from such "active galaxy nuclei" (AGN) . A heavy Black Hole feeds agressively on its surroundings . When the neighbouring gas and stars finally spiral into the Black Hole, a substantial fraction of the infalling mass is transformed into pure energy. However, it is not yet well understood how, long before this dramatic event takes place, all that material is moved from the outer regions of the galaxy towards the central region. So how is the food for the central Black Hole delivered to the table in the first place? To cast more light on this central question, a team of French and Swiss astronomers [1] has carried out a series of trailblazing observations with the VLT Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. The ISAAC instrument is particularly well suited to this type of observations. Visible light cannot penetrate the thick clouds of dust and gas in the innermost regions of active galaxies, but by recording the infrared light from the stars close to the Black Hole , their motions can be studied. By charting those motions in the central regions of three active galaxies (NGC 1097, NGC 1808 and NGC 5728), the astronomers were able to confirm the presence of "nuclear bars" in all three. These are dynamical structures that "open a road" for the flow of material towards the innermost region. Moreover, the team was surprised to discover signs of a young stellar population near the centres of these galaxies - stars that have apparently formed quite recently in a central gas disk. Such a system is unstable

  3. Black holes, qubits and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsten, L.; Dahanayake, D.; Duff, M.J.; Ebrahim, H.; Rubens, W.

    2009-01-01

    We review the recently established relationships between black hole entropy in string theory and the quantum entanglement of qubits and qutrits in quantum information theory. The first example is provided by the measure of the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (Alice, Bob and Charlie), known as the 3-tangle, and the entropy of the 8-charge STU black hole of N=2 supergravity, both of which are given by the [SL(2)] 3 invariant hyperdeterminant, a quantity first introduced by Cayley in 1845. Moreover the classification of three-qubit entanglements is related to the classification of N=2 supersymmetric STU black holes. There are further relationships between the attractor mechanism and local distillation protocols and between supersymmetry and the suppression of bit flip errors. At the microscopic level, the black holes are described by intersecting D3-branes whose wrapping around the six compact dimensions T 6 provides the string-theoretic interpretation of the charges and we associate the three-qubit basis vectors, |ABC>(A,B,C=0 or 1), with the corresponding 8 wrapping cycles. The black hole/qubit correspondence extends to the 56 charge N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the measure is provided by Cartan's E 7 contains [SL(2)] 7 invariant. The qubits are naturally described by the seven vertices ABCDEFG of the Fano plane, which provides the multiplication table of the seven imaginary octonions, reflecting the fact that E 7 has a natural structure of an O-graded algebra. This in turn provides a novel imaginary octonionic interpretation of the 56=7x8 charges of N=8: the 24=3x8 NS-NS charges correspond to the three imaginary quaternions and the 32=4x8 R-R to the four complementary imaginary octonions. We contrast this approach with that based on Jordan algebras and the Freudenthal triple system. N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions are also related to the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits (3-state systems

  4. Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardini, E.; Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different...... gas. The outflow’s kinetic power larger than 1046 ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution....

  5. Cosmology with primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, D.

    1981-09-01

    Cosmologies containing a substantial amount of matter in the form of evaporating primordial black holes are investigated. A review of constraints on the numbers of such black holes, including an analysis of a new limit found by looking at the destruction of deuterium by high energy photons, shows that there must be a negligible population of small black holes from the era of cosmological nucleosynthesis onwards, but that there are no strong constraints before this time. The major part of the work is based on the construction of detailed, self-consistent cosmological models in which black holes are continually forming and evaporating The interest in these models centres on the question of baryon generation, which occurs via the asymmetric decay of a new type of particle which appears as a consequence of the recently developed Grand Unified Theories of elementary particles. Unfortunately, there is so much uncertainty in the models that firm conclusions are difficult to reach; however, it seems feasible in principle that primordial black holes could be responsible for a significant part of the present matter density of the Universe. (author)

  6. Black holes: a slanted overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishveshwara, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    The black hole saga spanning some seventy years may be broadly divided into four phases, namely, (a) the dark ages when little was known about black holes even though they had come into existence quite early through the Schwarzschild solution, (b) the age of enlightenment bringing in deep and prolific discoveries, (c) the age of fantasy that cast black holes in all sorts of extraordinary roles, and (d) the golden age of relativistic astrophysics - to some extent similar to Dirac's characterisation of the development of quantum theory - in which black holes have been extensively used to elucidate a number of astrophysical phenomena. It is impossible to give here even the briefest outline of the major developments in this vast area. We shall only attempt to present a few aspects of black hole physics which have been actively pursued in the recent past. Some details are given in the case of those topics that have not found their way into text books or review articles. (author)

  7. Lee–Wick black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Bambi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive and study an approximate static vacuum solution generated by a point-like source in a higher derivative gravitational theory with a pair of complex conjugate ghosts. The gravitational theory is local and characterized by a high derivative operator compatible with Lee–Wick unitarity. In particular, the tree-level two-point function only shows a pair of complex conjugate poles besides the massless spin two graviton. We show that singularity-free black holes exist when the mass of the source M exceeds a critical value Mcrit. For M>Mcrit the spacetime structure is characterized by an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon, while for M=Mcrit we have an extremal black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The evaporation process leads to a remnant that approaches the zero-temperature extremal black hole state in an infinite amount of time.

  8. The black hole quantum atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ramit; Liberati, Stefano; Pranzetti, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan-Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4 MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.

  9. The black hole quantum atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramit Dey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan–Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.

  10. Time dependent black holes and scalar hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadburn, Sarah; Gregory, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    We show how to correctly account for scalar accretion onto black holes in scalar field models of dark energy by a consistent expansion in terms of a slow roll parameter. At leading order, we find an analytic solution for the scalar field within our Hubble volume, which is regular on both black hole and cosmological event horizons, and compute the back reaction of the scalar on the black hole, calculating the resulting expansion of the black hole. Our results are independent of the relative size of black hole and cosmological event horizons. We comment on the implications for more general black hole accretion, and the no hair theorems. (paper)

  11. Black holes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are a constant source of fascination to many due to their mysterious nature. Black Holes: A Very Short Introduction addresses a variety of questions, including what a black hole actually is, how they are characterized and discovered, and what would happen if you came too close to one. It explains how black holes form and grow—by stealing material that belongs to stars—as well as how many there may be in the Universe. It also explores the large black holes found in the centres of galaxies, and how black holes power quasars and lie behind other spectacular phenomena in the cosmos.

  12. Massive Black Hole Implicated in Stellar Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of Alabama who led the study. Irwin and his colleagues obtained optical spectra of the object using the Magellan I and II telescopes in Las Campanas, Chile. These data reveal emission from gas rich in oxygen and nitrogen but no hydrogen, a rare set of signals from globular clusters. The physical conditions deduced from the spectra suggest that the gas is orbiting a black hole of at least 1,000 solar masses. The abundant amount of oxygen and absence of hydrogen indicate that the destroyed star was a white dwarf, the end phase of a solar-type star that has burned its hydrogen leaving a high concentration of oxygen. The nitrogen seen in the optical spectrum remains an enigma. "We think these unusual signatures can be explained by a white dwarf that strayed too close to a black hole and was torn apart by the extreme tidal forces," said coauthor Joel Bregman of the University of Michigan. Theoretical work suggests that the tidal disruption-induced X-ray emission could stay bright for more than a century, but it should fade with time. So far, the team has observed there has been a 35% decline in X-ray emission from 2000 to 2008. The ULX in this study is located in NGC 1399, an elliptical galaxy about 65 million light years from Earth. Irwin presented these results at the 215th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Washington, DC. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra's science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass. More information, including images and other multimedia, can be found at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  13. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dain, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  14. Control of black hole evaporation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Doyeol

    2007-01-01

    Contradiction between Hawking's semi-classical arguments and the string theory on the evaporation of a black hole has been one of the most intriguing problems in fundamental physics. A final-state boundary condition inside the black hole was proposed by Horowitz and Maldacena to resolve this contradiction. We point out that the original Hawking effect can also be regarded as a separate boundary condition at the event horizon for this scenario. Here, we found that the change of the Hawking boundary condition may affect the information transfer from the initial collapsing matter to the outgoing Hawking radiation during the evaporation process and as a result the evaporation process itself, significantly

  15. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  16. Connecting horizon pixels and interior voxels of a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, Piero; Singleton, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss to what extent one can infer details of the interior structure of a black hole based on its horizon. Recalling that black hole thermal properties are connected to the non-classical nature of gravity, we circumvent the restrictions of the no-hair theorem by postulating that the black hole interior is singularity free due to violations of the usual energy conditions. Further these conditions allow one to establish a one-to-one, holographic projection between Planckian areal “bits” on the horizon and “voxels”, representing the gravitational degrees of freedom in the black hole interior. We illustrate the repercussions of this idea by discussing an example of the black hole interior consisting of a de Sitter core postulated to arise from the local graviton quantum vacuum energy. It is shown that the black hole entropy can emerge as the statistical entropy of a gas of voxels

  17. Collisions Around a Black Hole Mean Mealtime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    When a normally dormant supermassive black hole burps out a brief flare, its assumed that a star was torn apart and fell into the black hole. But a new study suggests that some of these flares might have a slightly different cause.Not a Disruption?Artists impression of a tidal disruption event, in which a star has been pulled apart and its gas feeds the supermassive black hole. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]When a star swings a little too close by a supermassive black hole, the black holes gravity can pull the star apart, completely disrupting it. The resulting gas can then accrete onto the black hole, feeding it and causing it to flare. The predicted frequency of these tidal disruption events and their expected light curves dont perfectly match all our observations of flaring black holes, however.This discrepancy has led two scientists from the Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Brian Metzger and Nicholas Stone, to wonder if we can explain flares from supermassive black holes in another way. Could a differentevent masquerade as a tidal disruption?Evolution of a stars semimajor axis (top panel) and radius (bottom panel) as a function of time since Roche-lobe overflow began onto a million-solar-mass black hole. Curves show stars of different masses. [Metzger Stone 2017]Inspirals and OutspiralsIn the dense nuclear star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole, various interactions can send stars on new paths that take them close to the black hole. In many of these interactions, the stars will end up on plunging orbits, often resulting in tidal disruption. But sometimes stars can approach the black hole on tightly bound orbits with lower eccentricities.A main-sequence star on such a path, in what is known as an extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI), slowly approaches the black hole over a period of millions of years, eventually overflowing its Roche lobe and losing mass. Theradius of the star inflates, driving more mass loss and halting the stars inward progress. The star then

  18. Interior structure of rotating black holes. III. Charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends to the case of charged rotating black holes the conformally stationary, axisymmetric, conformally separable solutions presented for uncharged rotating black holes in a companion paper. In the present paper, the collisionless fluid accreted by the black hole may be charged. The charge of the black hole is determined self-consistently by the charge accretion rate. As in the uncharged case, hyper-relativistic counterstreaming between ingoing and outgoing streams drives inflation at (just above) the inner horizon, followed by collapse. If both ingoing and outgoing streams are charged, then conformal separability holds during early inflation, but fails as inflation develops. If conformal separability is imposed throughout inflation and collapse, then only one of the ingoing and outgoing streams can be charged: the other must be neutral. Conformal separability prescribes a hierarchy of boundary conditions on the ingoing and outgoing streams incident on the inner horizon. The dominant radial boundary conditions require that the incident ingoing and outgoing number densities be uniform with latitude, but the charge per particle must vary with latitude such that the incident charge densities vary in proportion to the radial electric field. The subdominant angular boundary conditions require specific forms of the incident number- and charge-weighted angular motions. If the streams fall freely from outside the horizon, then the prescribed angular conditions can be achieved by the charged stream, but not by the neutral stream. Thus, as in the case of an uncharged black hole, the neutral stream must be considered to be delivered ad hoc to just above the inner horizon.

  19. BLACK HOLE FORAGING: FEEDBACK DRIVES FEEDING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnen, Walter; King, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy, but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back toward the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (1) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (2) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (3) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (4) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible flares and ejection of hypervelocity stars; (5) super-solar abundances of the matter accreting on to the SMBH; and (6) a lower central dark-matter density, and hence annihilation signal, than adiabatic SMBH growth implies. We also suggest a simple subgrid recipe for implementing this process in numerical simulations

  20. Black Hole Paradox Solved By NASA's Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Black holes are lighting up the Universe, and now astronomers may finally know how. New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory show for the first time that powerful magnetic fields are the key to these brilliant and startling light shows. It is estimated that up to a quarter of the total radiation in the Universe emitted since the Big Bang comes from material falling towards supermassive black holes, including those powering quasars, the brightest known objects. For decades, scientists have struggled to understand how black holes, the darkest objects in the Universe, can be responsible for such prodigious amounts of radiation. Animation of a Black Hole Pulling Matter from Companion Star Animation of a Black Hole Pulling Matter from Companion Star New X-ray data from Chandra give the first clear explanation for what drives this process: magnetic fields. Chandra observed a black hole system in our galaxy, known as GRO J1655-40 (J1655, for short), where a black hole was pulling material from a companion star into a disk. "By intergalactic standards J1655 is in our backyard, so we can use it as a scale model to understand how all black holes work, including the monsters found in quasars," said Jon M. Miller of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, whose paper on these results appears in this week's issue of Nature. Gravity alone is not enough to cause gas in a disk around a black hole to lose energy and fall onto the black hole at the rates required by observations. The gas must lose some of its orbital angular momentum, either through friction or a wind, before it can spiral inward. Without such effects, matter could remain in orbit around a black hole for a very long time. Illustration of Magnetic Fields in GRO J1655-40 Illustration of Magnetic Fields in GRO J1655-40 Scientists have long thought that magnetic turbulence could generate friction in a gaseous disk and drive a wind from the disk that carries angular momentum outward allowing the gas to fall inward

  1. Erratum: Quantum corrections and black hole spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing-Quan; Han, Yan; Cai, Xu

    2012-06-01

    In my paper [Qing-Quan Jiang, Yan Han, Xu Cai, Quantum corrections and black hole spectroscopy, JHEP 08 (2010) 049], there was an error in deriving the black hole spectroscopy. In this erratum, we attempt to rectify them.

  2. Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun He

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and “quintessence horizon” for the black holes surrounded by quintessence. Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.

  3. Black hole entropy, curved space and monsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Reeb, David

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the microscopic origin of black hole entropy, in particular the gap between the maximum entropy of ordinary matter and that of black holes. Using curved space, we construct configurations with entropy greater than the area A of a black hole of equal mass. These configurations have pathological properties and we refer to them as monsters. When monsters are excluded we recover the entropy bound on ordinary matter S 3/4 . This bound implies that essentially all of the microstates of a semiclassical black hole are associated with the growth of a slightly smaller black hole which absorbs some additional energy. Our results suggest that the area entropy of black holes is the logarithm of the number of distinct ways in which one can form the black hole from ordinary matter and smaller black holes, but only after the exclusion of monster states

  4. Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun; Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren

    2018-05-01

    We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and "quintessence horizon" for the black holes surrounded by quintessence). Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.

  5. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merritt David

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  6. Black Holes: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Offers a selected bibliography pertaining to black holes with the following categories: introductory books; introductory articles; somewhat more advanced articles; readings about Einstein's general theory of relativity; books on the death of stars; articles on the death of stars; specific articles about Supernova 1987A; relevant science fiction…

  7. Black Holes in Our Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    are humanity's high-technology windows onto the universe. For reasons that will ... instrument ever built; and it was the first direct ... gravity will drive it to collapse into a black hole. Indeed, in 2007, ... Given their large X-ray power, it has been ...

  8. From Pinholes to Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.

  9. Paths toward understanding black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayerson, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    This work can be summarized as trying to understand aspects of black holes, gravity, and geometry, in the context of supergravity and string theory in high-energy theoretical physics. The two parts of this thesis have been written with entirely different audiences in mind. The first part consists of

  10. Black holes and trapped points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1981-01-01

    Black holes are defined and their properties investigated without use of any global causality restriction. Also the boundary at infinity of space-time is not needed. When the causal conditions are brought in, the equivalence with the usual approach is established. (author)

  11. Black Holes and Exotic Spinors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hoff da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime exoticness. Black holes are then studied as the generators of a non-trivial topology that also can correspond to some inequivalent spin structure. Moreover, we investigate exotic spinor fields in this context and the way exotic spinor fields branch new physics. We also calculate the tunneling probability of exotic fermions across a Kerr-Sen black hole, showing that the exotic term does affect the tunneling probability, altering the black hole evaporation rate. Finally we show that it complies with the Hawking temperature universal law.

  12. THERMAL AND DYNAMICAL PROPERTIES OF GAS ACCRETING ONTO A SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN AN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mościbrodzka, M.; Proga, D.

    2013-01-01

    We study stability of gas accretion in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our grid-based simulations cover a radial range from 0.1 to 200 pc, which may enable linking the galactic/cosmological simulations with small-scale black hole (BH) accretion models within a few hundreds of Schwarzschild radii. Here, as in previous studies by our group, we include gas radiative cooling as well as heating by a sub-Eddington X-ray source near the central supermassive BH of 10 8 M ☉ . Our theoretical estimates and simulations show that for the X-ray luminosity, L X ∼ 0.008 L Edd , the gas is thermally and convectively unstable within the computational domain. In the simulations, we observe that very tiny fluctuations in an initially smooth, spherically symmetric, accretion flow, grow first linearly and then nonlinearly. Consequently, an initially one-phase flow relatively quickly transitions into a two-phase/cold-hot accretion flow. For L X = 0.015 L Edd or higher, the cold clouds continue to accrete but in some regions of the hot phase, the gas starts to move outward. For L X Edd , the cold phase contribution to the total mass accretion rate only moderately dominates over the hot phase contribution. This result might have some consequences for cosmological simulations of the so-called AGN feedback problem. Our simulations confirm the previous results of Barai et al. who used smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations to tackle the same problem. Here, however, because we use a grid-based code to solve equations in one dimension and two dimensions, we are able to follow the gas dynamics at much higher spacial resolution and for longer time compared with the three-dimensional SPH simulations. One of the new features revealed by our simulations is that the cold condensations in the accretion flow initially form long filaments, but at the later times, those filaments may break into smaller clouds advected outward within the hot outflow. Therefore, these simulations may serve as

  13. A Black Hole Spectral Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe

    2000-03-01

    An accreting black hole is, by definition, characterized by the drain. Namely, the matter falls into a black hole much the same way as water disappears down a drain matter goes in and nothing comes out. As this can only happen in a black hole, it provides a way to see ``a black hole'', an unique observational signature. The accretion proceeds almost in a free-fall manner close to the black hole horizon, where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces. In this paper we present analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations of the specific features of X-ray spectra formed as a result of upscattering of the soft (disk) photons in the converging inflow (CI) into the black hole. The full relativistic treatment has been implemented to reproduce these spectra. We show that spectra in the soft state of black hole systems (BHS) can be described as the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the CI upscattering spread (Greens) function. The latter boosted photon component is seen as an extended power-law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We demonstrate the stability of the power spectral index over a wide range of the plasma temperature 0 - 10 keV and mass accretion rates (higher than 2 in Eddington units). We also demonstrate that the sharp high energy cutoff occurs at energies of 200-400 keV which are related to the average energy of electrons mec2 impinging upon the event horizon. The spectrum is practically identical to the standard thermal Comptonization spectrum when the CI plasma temperature is getting of order of 50 keV (the typical ones for the hard state of BHS). In this case one can see the effect of the bulk motion only at high energies where there is an excess in the CI spectrum with respect to the pure thermal one. Furthermore we demonstrate that the change of spectral shapes from the soft X-ray state to the hard X-ray state is clearly to be

  14. Charge Fluctuations of an Uncharged Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we calculate charge fluctuations of a Schwarzschild black-hole of mass $M$ confined within a perfectly reflecting cavity of radius R in thermal equilibrium with various species of radiation and fermions . Charge conservation is constrained by a Lagrange multiplier (the chemical potential). Black hole charge fluctuations are expected owing to continuous absorption and emission of particles by the black hole. For black holes much more massive than $10^{16} g$ , these fluctuations ...

  15. Bosonic instability of charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaina, A.B.; Ternov, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    The processes of spontaneous and induced production and accumulation of charged bosons on quasibound superradiant levels in the field of Kerr-Newman black hole is analysed. It is shown that bosonic instability may be caused exclusively by the rotation of the black hole. Particulary, the Reissner-Nordstrom configuration is stable. In the case of rotating and charged black hole the bosonic instability may cause an increase of charge of the black hole

  16. Will black holes eventually engulf the Universe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Moruno, Prado; Jimenez Madrid, Jose A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.

    2006-01-01

    The Babichev-Dokuchaev-Eroshenko model for the accretion of dark energy onto black holes has been extended to deal with black holes with non-static metrics. The possibility that for an asymptotic observer a black hole with large mass will rapidly increase and eventually engulf the Universe at a finite time in the future has been studied by using reasonable values for astronomical parameters. It is concluded that such a phenomenon is forbidden for all black holes in quintessential cosmological models

  17. Event horizon image within black hole shadow

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Nazarova, N. O.

    2018-01-01

    The external border of the black hole shadow is washed out by radiation from matter plunging into black hole and approaching the event horizon. This effect will crucially influence the results of future observations by the Event Horizon Telescope. We show that gravitational lensing of the luminous matter plunging into black hole provides the event horizon visualization within black hole shadow. The lensed image of the event horizon is formed by the last highly red-shifted photons emitted by t...

  18. Electromagnetic ``black holes'' in hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyaninov, Igor

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate that spatial variations of the dielectric tensor components in a hyperbolic metamaterial may lead to formation of electromagnetic ``black holes'' inside this metamaterial. Similar to real black holes, horizon area of the electromagnetic ``black holes'' is quantized in units of the effective ``Planck scale'' squared. Potential experimental realizations of such electromagnetic ``black holes'' will be considered. For example, this situation may be realized in a hyperbolic metamaterial in which the dielectric component exhibits critical opalescence.

  19. Quantum Black Holes As Elementary Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Yuan K.

    2008-01-01

    Are black holes elementary particles? Are they fermions or bosons? We investigate the remarkable possibility that quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest elementary particles. We are able to construct various fundamental quantum black holes: the spin-0, spin 1/2, spin-1, and the Planck-charge cases, using the results in general relativity. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox posed by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit on the energy of cosmi...

  20. Catastrophic Instability of Small Lovelock Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Tomohiro; Soda, Jiro

    2010-01-01

    We study the stability of static black holes in Lovelock theory which is a natural higher dimensional generalization of Einstein theory. We show that Lovelock black holes are stable under vector perturbations in all dimensions. However, we prove that small Lovelock black holes are unstable under tensor perturbations in even-dimensions and under scalar perturbations in odd-dimensions. Therefore, we can conclude that small Lovelock black holes are unstable in any dimensions. The instability is ...

  1. Feeding supermassive black holes by collisional cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Christian; Dehnen, Walter

    2018-05-01

    The processes driving gas accretion on to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are still poorly understood. Angular momentum conservation prevents gas within ˜10 pc of the black hole from reaching radii ˜10-3 pc where viscous accretion becomes efficient. Here we present simulations of the collapse of a clumpy shell of swept-up isothermal gas, which is assumed to have formed as a result of feedback from a previous episode of AGN activity. The gas falls towards the SMBH forming clumps and streams, which intersect, collide, and often form a disc. These collisions promote partial cancellations of angular momenta, resulting in further infall and more collisions. This continued collisional cascade generates a tail of gas with sufficiently small angular momenta and provides a viable route for gas inflow to sub-parsec scales. The efficiency of this process hardly depends on details, such as gas temperature, initial virial ratio and power spectrum of the gas distribution, as long as it is not strongly rotating. Adding star formation to this picture might explain the near-simultaneous formation of the S-stars (from tidally disrupted binaries formed in plunging gas streams) and the sub-parsec young stellar disc around Sgr A⋆.

  2. Giant Black Hole Rips Apart Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Thanks to two orbiting X-ray observatories, astronomers have the first strong evidence of a supermassive black hole ripping apart a star and consuming a portion of it. The event, captured by NASA's Chandra and ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, had long been predicted by theory, but never confirmed. Astronomers believe a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after being thrown off course by a close encounter with another star. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information about how these black holes grow and affect surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, leader of the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighborhood." While other observations have hinted stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as "stellar tidal disruptions"), these new results are the first strong evidence. Evidence already exists for supermassive black holes in many galaxies, but looking for tidal disruptions represents a completely independent way to search for black holes. Observations like these are urgently needed to determine how quickly black holes can grow by swallowing neighboring stars. Animation of Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgen satellite, detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the center of the galaxy RX J1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees Celsius before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in the process

  3. Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lane

    The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for…

  4. Area spectra of near extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Deyou; Yang, Haitang; Zu, Xiaotao

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by Maggiore's new interpretation of quasinormal modes, we investigate area spectra of a near extremal Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole and a higher-dimensional near extremal Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole. The result shows that the area spectra are equally spaced and irrelevant to the parameters of the black holes. (orig.)

  5. Extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katmadas, S.

    2011-01-01

    An explanation for the entropy of black holes has been an outstanding problem in recent decades. A special case where this is possible is that of extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity in four and five dimensions. The best developed case is for black holes preserving some supersymmetry (BPS),

  6. New entropy formula for Kerr black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Hernán A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new entropy formula for Kerr black holes inspired by recent results for 3-dimensional black holes and cosmologies with soft Heisenberg hair. We show that also Kerr–Taub–NUT black holes obey the same formula.

  7. On black holes and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Loinger, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    Black holes and gravitational waves are theoretical entities of today astrophysics. Various observed phenomena have been associated with the concept of black hole ; until now, nobody has detected gravitational waves. The essays contained in this book aim at showing that the concept of black holes arises from a misinterpretation of general relativity and that gravitational waves cannot exist.

  8. Black Hole Monodromy and Conformal Field Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A.; Lapan, J.M.; Maloney, A.; Rodriguez, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The analytic structure of solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in a black hole background, as represented by monodromy data, is intimately related to black hole thermodynamics. It encodes the "hidden conformal symmetry" of a nonextremal black hole, and it explains why features of the inner event

  9. On Quantum Contributions to Black Hole Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Wheeler’s quantum foam on black hole growth are explored from an astrophysical per- spective. Quantum fluctuations in the form of mini (10−5 g) black holes can couple to macroscopic black holes and allow the latter to grow exponentially in mass on a time scale of 109 years.

  10. Phase transition for black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2008-01-01

    We study phase transitions between black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. As the ground state solutions, we introduce the non-rotating BTZ black hole in three dimensions and topological black hole with hyperbolic horizon in four dimensions. For the temperature matching only, we show that the phase transition between black hole with scalar hair (Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli black hole) and topological black hole is second-order by using differences between two free energies. However, we do not identify what order of the phase transition between scalar and non-rotating BTZ black holes occurs in three dimensions, although there exists a possible decay of scalar black hole to non-rotating BTZ black hole

  11. Accretion onto a Kiselev black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Lei [Hebei University, College of Physical Science and Technology, Baoding (China); Yang, Rongjia [Hebei University, College of Physical Science and Technology, Baoding (China); Hebei University, Hebei Key Lab of Optic-Electronic Information and Materials, Baoding (China)

    2017-05-15

    We consider accretion onto a Kiselev black hole. We obtain the fundamental equations for accretion without the back-reaction. We determine the general analytic expressions for the critical points and the mass accretion rate and find the physical conditions the critical points should fulfill. The case of a polytropic gas are discussed in detail. It turns out that the quintessence parameter plays an important role in the accretion process. (orig.)

  12. Neutrino constraints that transform black holes into grey holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderfer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Existing black hole theory is found to be defective in its neglect of the physical properties of matter and radiation at superhigh densities. Nongravitational neutrino effects are shown to be physically relevant to the evolution of astronomical black holes and their equations of state. Gravitational collapse to supernovae combined with the Davis and Ray vacuum solution for neutrinos limit attainment of a singularity and require black holes to evolve into ''grey holes''. These allow a better justification than do black holes for explaining the unique existence of galactic masses. (Auth.)

  13. Precocious Supermassive Black Holes Challenge Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    after the Big Bang." There is general agreement among astronomers that X-radiation from the vicinity of supermassive black holes is produced as gas is pulled toward a black hole, and heated to temperatures ranging from millions to billions of degrees. Most of the infalling gas is concentrated in a rapidly rotating disk, the inner part of which has a hot atmosphere or corona where temperatures can climb to billions of degrees. Although the precise geometry and details of the X-ray production are not known, observations of numerous quasars, or supermassive black holes, have shown that many of them have very similar X-ray spectra, especially at high X-ray energies. This suggests that the basic geometry and mechanism are the same for these objects. Chandra X-ray Image of SDSSp J1306 Chandra X-ray Image of SDSSp J1306 The remarkable similarity of the X-ray spectra of the young supermassive black holes to those of much older ones means that the supermassive black holes and their accretion disks, were already in place less than a billion years after the Big Bang. One possibility is that millions of 100 solar mass black holes formed from the collapse of massive stars in the young galaxy, and subsequently built up a billion-solar mass black hole in the center of the galaxy through mergers and accretion of gas. To answer the question of how and when supermassive black holes were formed, astronomers plan to use the very deep Chandra exposures and other surveys to identify and study quasars at even earlier ages. The paper by Schwartz and Virani on SDSSp J1306 was published in the November 1, 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. The paper by Duncan Farrah and colleagues on SDSS J1030 was published in the August 10, 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. Chandra observed J1306 with its Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) instrument for approximately 33 hours in November 2003. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA

  14. Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2015-07-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.

  15. Black hole feedback on the first galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Myoungwon; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Greif, Thomas H.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Bromm, Volker; Milosavljević, Miloš; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2012-09-01

    We study how the first galaxies were assembled under feedback from the accretion onto a central black hole (BH) that is left behind by the first generation of metal-free stars through selfconsistent, cosmological simulations. X-ray radiation fromthe accretion of gas onto BH remnants of Population III (Pop III) stars, or from high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), again involving Pop III stars, influences the mode of second generation star formation. We track the evolution of the black hole accretion rate and the associated X-ray feedback startingwith the death of the Pop III progenitor star inside a minihalo and following the subsequent evolution of the black hole as the minihalo grows to become an atomically cooling galaxy. We find that X-ray photoionization heating from a stellar-mass BH is able to quench further star formation in the host halo at all times before the halo enters the atomic cooling phase. X-ray radiation from a HMXB, assuming a luminosity close to the Eddington value, exerts an even stronger, and more diverse, feedback on star formation. It photoheats the gas inside the host halo, but also promotes the formation of molecular hydrogen and cooling of gas in the intergalactic medium and in nearby minihalos, leading to a net increase in the number of stars formed at early times. Our simulations further show that the radiative feedback from the first BHs may strongly suppress early BH growth, thus constraining models for the formation of supermassive BHs.

  16. Dance of Two Monster Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    This past December, researchers all over the world watched an outburst from the enormous black hole in OJ 287 an outburst that had been predicted years ago using the general theory of relativity.Outbursts from Black-Hole OrbitsOJ 287 is one of the largest supermassive black holes known, weighing in at 18 billion solar masses. Located about 3.5 billion light-years away, this monster quasar is bright enough that it was first observed as early as the 1890s. What makes OJ 287 especially interesting, however, is that its light curve exhibits prominent outbursts roughly every 12 years.Diagram illustrating the orbit of the secondary black hole (shown in blue) in OJ 287 from 2000 to 2023. We see outbursts (the yellow bubbles) every time the secondary black hole crosses the accretion disk (shown in red, ina side view) surrounding the primary (the black circle). [Valtonen et al. 2016]What causes the outbursts? Astronomers think that there is a second supermassive black hole, ~100 times smaller, inspiraling as it orbits the central monster and set to merge within the next 10,000 years. In this model, the primary black hole of OJ 287 is surrounded by a hot accretion disk. As the secondary black hole orbits the primary, it regularly punches through this accretion disk, heating the material and causing the release of expanding bubbles of hot gas pulled from the disk. This gas then radiates thermally, causing the outbursts we see.Attempts to model this scenario using Newtonian orbits all fail; the timing of the secondary black holes crossings through the accretion disk (as measured by when we see the outbursts) can only be explained by a model incorporating general-relativistic effects on the orbit. Careful observations and precise timing of these outbursts therefore provide an excellent test of general relativity.Watching a Predicted CrossingThe model of OJ 287 predicted another disk crossing in December 2015, so professional and amateur astronomers around the world readied more

  17. Microscopic origin of black hole reentrant phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangeneh, M. Kord; Dehyadegari, A.; Sheykhi, A.; Mann, R. B.

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the microscopic behavior of the black hole ingredients has been one of the important challenges in black hole physics during the past decades. In order to shed some light on the microscopic structure of black holes, in this paper, we explore a recently observed phenomenon for black holes namely reentrant phase transition, by employing the Ruppeiner geometry. Interestingly enough, we observe two properties for the phase behavior of small black holes that leads to reentrant phase transition. They are correlated and they are of the interaction type. For the range of pressure in which the system underlies reentrant phase transition, it transits from the large black holes phase to the small one which possesses higher correlation than the other ranges of pressures. On the other hand, the type of interaction between small black holes near the large/small transition line differs for usual and reentrant phase transitions. Indeed, for the usual case, the dominant interaction is repulsive whereas for the reentrant case we encounter an attractive interaction. We show that in the reentrant phase transition case, the small black holes behave like a bosonic gas whereas in the usual phase transition case, they behave like a quantum anyon gas.

  18. Falling into a black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2007-01-01

    String theory tells us that quantum gravity has a dual description as a field theory (without gravity). We use the field theory dual to ask what happens to an object as it falls into the simplest black hole: the 2-charge extremal hole. In the field theory description the wavefunction of a particle is spread over a large number of `loops', and the particle has a well-defined position in space only if it has the same `position' on each loop. For the infalling particle we find one definition of ...

  19. Dyonic black hole in heterotic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatkar, D.P.; Mukherji, S.

    1997-01-01

    We study some features of the dyonic black hole solution in heterotic string theory on a six-torus. This solution has 58 parameters. Of these, 28 parameters denote the electric charge of the black hole, another 28 correspond to the magnetic charge, and the other two parameters are the mass and the angular momentum of the black hole. We discuss the extremal limit and show that in various limits it reduces to the known black hole solutions. The solutions saturating the Bogomolnyi bound are identified. An explicit solution is presented for the non-rotating dyonic black hole. (orig.)

  20. Modified dispersion relations and black hole physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Yi; Li Xiang; Hu Bo

    2006-01-01

    A modified formulation of the energy-momentum relation is proposed in the context of doubly special relativity. We investigate its impact on black hole physics. It turns out that such a modification will give corrections to both the temperature and the entropy of black holes. In particular, this modified dispersion relation also changes the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of black holes approaches the Planck scale. It can prevent black holes from total evaporation, as a result providing a plausible mechanism to treat the remnant of black holes as a candidate for dark matter

  1. Black-hole creation in quantum cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Chao, Wu [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics]|[Specola Vaticana, Vatican City State (Vatican City State, Holy See)

    1997-11-01

    It is proven that the probability of a black hole created from the de Sitter space-time background, at the Wkb level, is the exponential of one quarter of the sum of the black hole and cosmological horizon areas, or the total entropy of the universe. This is true not only for the spherically symmetric cases of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, but also for the rotating cases of the Kerr black hole and the rotating charged case of the Newman black hole. The de Sitter metric is the most probable evolution at the Planckian era of the universe.

  2. Black holes escaping from domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachi, Antonino; Sasaki, Misao; Pujolas, Oriol; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies concerning the interaction of branes and black holes suggested that a small black hole intersecting a brane may escape via a mechanism of reconnection. Here we consider this problem by studying the interaction of a small black hole and a domain wall composed of a scalar field and simulate the evolution of this system when the black hole acquires an initial recoil velocity. We test and confirm previous results, however, unlike the cases previously studied, in the more general set-up considered here, we are able to follow the evolution of the system also during the separation, and completely illustrate how the escape of the black hole takes place

  3. The stable problem of the black-hole connected region in the Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guihua

    2005-01-01

    The stability of the Schwarzschild black hole is studied. Using the Painlev\\'{e} coordinate, our region can be defined as the black-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole or the white-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole. We study the stable problems of the black-hole-connected region. The conclusions are: (1) in the black-hole-connected region, the initially regular perturbation fields must have real frequency or complex frequen...

  4. Quantum information erasure inside black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2015-01-01

    An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. This property, combined with the requirement that outside observers need at least of order the scrambling time to extract quantum information from the black hole, ensures that a typical infalling observer does not encounter drama upon crossing the black hole horizon in a theory where black hole information is preserved for asymptotic observers.

  5. Collision of two rotating Hayward black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwak, Bogeun [Sejong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    We investigate the spin interaction and the gravitational radiation thermally allowed in a head-on collision of two rotating Hayward black holes. The Hayward black hole is a regular black hole in a modified Einstein equation, and hence it can be an appropriate model to describe the extent to which the regularity effect in the near-horizon region affects the interaction and the radiation. If one black hole is assumed to be considerably smaller than the other, the potential of the spin interaction can be analytically obtained and is dependent on the alignment of angular momenta of the black holes. For the collision of massive black holes, the gravitational radiation is numerically obtained as the upper bound by using the laws of thermodynamics. The effect of the Hayward black hole tends to increase the radiation energy, but we can limit the effect by comparing the radiation energy with the gravitational waves GW150914 and GW151226. (orig.)

  6. From Black Holes to Quivers

    CERN Document Server

    Manschot, Jan; Sen, Ashoke

    2012-01-01

    Middle cohomology states on the Higgs branch of supersymmetric quiver quantum mechanics - also known as pure Higgs states - have recently emerged as possible microscopic candidates for single-centered black hole micro-states, as they carry zero angular momentum and appear to be robust under wall-crossing. Using the connection between quiver quantum mechanics on the Coulomb branch and the quantum mechanics of multi-centered black holes, we propose a general algorithm for reconstructing the full moduli-dependent cohomology of the moduli space of an arbitrary quiver, in terms of the BPS invariants of the pure Higgs states. We analyze many examples of quivers with loops, including all cyclic Abelian quivers and several examples with two loops or non-Abelian gauge groups, and provide supporting evidence for this proposal. We also develop methods to count pure Higgs states directly.

  7. Cosmic strings and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryal, M.; Ford, L.H.; Vilenkin, A.

    1986-01-01

    The metric for a Schwarzschild black hole with a cosmic string passing through it is discussed. The thermodynamics of such an object is considered, and it is shown that S = (1/4)A, where S is the entropy and A is the horizon area. It is noted that the Schwarzschild mass parameter M, which is the gravitational mass of the system, is no longer identical to its energy. A solution representing a pair of black holes held apart by strings is discussed. It is nearly identical to a static, axially symmetric solution given long ago by Bach and Weyl. It is shown how these solutions, which were formerly a mathematical curiosity, may be given a more physical interpretation in terms of cosmic strings

  8. Symmetries of supergravity black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, David D K

    2010-01-01

    We investigate Killing tensors for various black hole solutions of supergravity theories. Rotating black holes of an ungauged theory, toroidally compactified heterotic supergravity, with NUT parameters and two U(1) gauge fields are constructed. If both charges are set equal, then the solutions simplify, and then there are concise expressions for rank-2 conformal Killing-Staeckel tensors. These are induced by rank-2 Killing-Staeckel tensors of a conformally related metric that possesses a separability structure. We directly verify the separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on this conformally related metric and of the null Hamilton-Jacobi and massless Klein-Gordon equations on the 'physical' metric. Similar results are found for more general solutions; we mainly focus on those with certain charge combinations equal in gauged supergravity but also consider some other solutions.

  9. Dynamics of test black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epikhin, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    A concept of a test object is introduced. This definition includes also small black holes. Reduced approximation of testing permits to unambiguously introduce a concept of background space-time. Dynamic values for test objects are introduced by means of the Noether theorem which gave the possibility to covariantly generalize pseudotensor of the Papapetru energy-momentum for the case of curved background space-time. Additional use of radiation approximation and the accountancy of the zero and first momenta of dynamic values lead to the conclusion that motion of the test object (including small black holes) is subordinated to the Matthiessen-Papapetru equations. The above results are testified to the accountancy of a proper gravitational field of the test object in integrated dynamic values [ru

  10. Some Simple Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresto, Michael C.

    2003-05-01

    In his recent popular book The Universe in a Nutshell, Steven Hawking gives expressions for the entropy1 and temperature (often referred to as the ``Hawking temperature''2 ) of a black hole:3 S = kc34ℏG A T = ℏc38πkGM, where A is the area of the event horizon, M is the mass, k is Boltzmann's constant, ℏ = h2π (h being Planck's constant), c is the speed of light, and G is the universal gravitational constant. These expressions can be used as starting points for some interesting approximations on the thermodynamics of a Schwarzschild black hole, of mass M, which by definition is nonrotating and spherical with an event horizon of radius R = 2GMc2.4,5

  11. Lifetime of a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlitz, R.D.; Willey, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    We study the constraints placed by quantum mechanics upon the lifetime of a black hole. In the context of a moving-mirror analog model for the Hawking radiation process, we conclude that the period of Hawking radiation must be followed by a much longer period during which the remnant mass (of order m/sub P/) may be radiated away. We are able to place a lower bound on the time required for this radiation process, which translates into a lower bound for the lifetime of the black hole. Particles which are emitted during the decay of the remnant, like the particles which comprise the Hawking flux, may be uncorrelated with each other. But each particle emitted from the decaying remnant is correlated with one particle emitted as Hawking radiation. The state which results after the remnant has evaporated is one which locally appears to be thermal, but which on a much larger scale is marked by extensive correlations

  12. Black hole with quantum potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Khalil, Mohammed M., E-mail: moh.m.khalil@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 12544 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.

  13. Black hole with quantum potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Farag Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate black hole (BH physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE. From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.

  14. Van der Waals black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Rajagopal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of extended phase space, where the negative cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure in the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we find an asymptotically AdS metric whose thermodynamics matches exactly that of the Van der Waals fluid. We show that as a solution of Einstein's equations, the corresponding stress energy tensor obeys (at least for certain range of metric parameters all three weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions.

  15. Black holes, singularities and predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper favours the view that singularities may play a central role in quantum gravity. The author reviews the arguments leading to the conclusion, that in the process of black hole formation and evaporation, an initial pure state evolves to a final density matrix, thus signaling a breakdown in ordinary quantum dynamical evolution. Some related issues dealing with predictability in the dynamical evolution, are also discussed. (U.K.)

  16. A black-hole cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debney, G.; Farnsworth, D.

    1983-01-01

    Motivated by the fact that 2m/r is of the order of magnitude unity for the observable universe, we explore the possibility that a Schwarzschild or black hole cosmological model is appropriate. Luminosity distance and frequency shifts of freely-falling, standard, monochromatic objects are viewed by a freely-falling observer. The observer is inside r=2m. The observer in such a world does not see the same universe as do astronomers. (author)

  17. Brown dwarfs and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarter, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The astronomical missing-mass problem (the discrepancy between the dynamical mass estimate and the sum of individual masses in large groupings) is considered, and possible explanations are advanced. The existence of brown dwarfs (stars not massive enough to shine by nuclear burning) and black holes (extremely high density matter contraction such that gravitation allows no light emission) thus far provides the most plausible solutions

  18. Glory scattering by black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzner, R.A.; DeWitte-Morette, C.; Nelson, B.; Zhang, T.

    1985-01-01

    We present a physically motivated derivation of the JWKB backward glory-scattering cross section of massless waves by Schwarzschild black holes. The angular dependence of the cross section is identical with the one derived by path integration, namely, dsigma/dΩ = 4π 2 lambda -1 B/sub g/ 2 (dB mWπ, where lambda is the wavelength, B(theta) is the inverse of the classical deflection function CTHETA(B), B/sub g/ is the glory impact parameter, s is the helicity of the scattered wave, and J/sub 2s/ is the Bessel function of order 2s. The glory rings formed by scalar waves are bright at the center; those formed by polarized waves are dark at the center. For scattering of massless particles by a spherical black hole of mass M, B(theta)/Mapprox.3 √3 + 3.48 exp(-theta), theta > owigπ. The numerical values of dsigma/dΩ for this deflection function are found to agree with earlier computer calculations of glory cross sections from black holes

  19. Black holes and random matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotler, Jordan S.; Gur-Ari, Guy [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Hanada, Masanori [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Polchinski, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Saad, Phil; Shenker, Stephen H. [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford, Douglas [Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Streicher, Alexandre [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Tezuka, Masaki [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2017-05-22

    We argue that the late time behavior of horizon fluctuations in large anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes is governed by the random matrix dynamics characteristic of quantum chaotic systems. Our main tool is the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model, which we use as a simple model of a black hole. We use an analytically continued partition function |Z(β+it)|{sup 2} as well as correlation functions as diagnostics. Using numerical techniques we establish random matrix behavior at late times. We determine the early time behavior exactly in a double scaling limit, giving us a plausible estimate for the crossover time to random matrix behavior. We use these ideas to formulate a conjecture about general large AdS black holes, like those dual to 4D super-Yang-Mills theory, giving a provisional estimate of the crossover time. We make some preliminary comments about challenges to understanding the late time dynamics from a bulk point of view.

  20. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  1. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  2. Black hole vacua and rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Chethan

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments suggest that the near-region of rotating black holes behaves like a CFT. To understand this better, I propose to study quantum fields in this region. An instructive approach for this might be to put a large black hole in AdS and to think of the entire geometry as a toy model for the 'near-region'. Quantum field theory on rotating black holes in AdS can be well-defined (unlike in flat space), if fields are quantized in the co-rotating-with-the-horizon frame. First, some generalities of constructing Hartle-Hawking Green functions in this approach are discussed. Then as a specific example where the details are easy to handle, I turn to 2+1 dimensions (BTZ), write down the Green functions explicitly starting with the co-rotating frame, and observe some structural similarities they have with the Kerr-CFT scattering amplitudes. Finally, in BTZ, there is also an alternate construction for the Green functions: we can start from the covering AdS 3 space and use the method of images. Using a 19th century integral formula, I show the equality between the boundary correlators arising via the two constructions.

  3. The Extreme Spin of the Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; Narayan, Ramesh; Xiang, Jingen; Remillard, Ronald A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-01-01

    Remarkably, an astronomical black hole is completely described by the two numbers that specify its mass and its spin. Knowledge of spin is crucial for understanding how, for example, black holes produce relativistic jets. Recently, it has become possible to measure the spins of black holes by focusing on the very inner region of an accreting disk of hot gas orbiting the black hole. According to General Relativity (GR), this disk is truncated at an inner radius 1 that depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. We measure the radius of the inner edge of this disk by fitting its continuum X-ray spectrum to a fully relativistic model. Using our measurement of this radius, we deduce that the spin of Cygnus X-1 exceeds 97% of the maximum value allowed by GR.

  4. Giant black hole rips star apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Astronomers believe that a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after a close encounter with another star threw it off course. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information on how these black holes grow and affect the surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Dr Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, who led the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighbourhood." While other observations have hinted that stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as ‘stellar tidal disruptions’), these new results are the first strong evidence. Observations with XMM-Newton and Chandra, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgensatellite (ROSAT), detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the centre of the galaxy RXJ1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in this process is equivalent to that of a supernova. "Now, with all of the data in hand, we have the smoking gun proof that this spectacular event has occurred," said co-author Prof. Guenther Hasinger, also of MPE. The black hole in the centre of RX J1242-11 is estimated to have a mass about 100 million times that of the Sun. By contrast, the destroyed star probably had a mass about equal to that of the Sun, making it a lopsided battle of gravity. "This is the ultimate ‘David versus Goliath’ battle, but here David loses," said Hasinger. The astronomers estimated that about one hundredth of the mass of the star was ultimately consumed, or accreted, by the black hole. This small

  5. Black-hole bomb and superradiant instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Dias, Oscar J.C.; Lemos, Jose P.S.; Yoshida, Shijun

    2004-01-01

    A wave impinging on a Kerr black hole can be amplified as it scatters off the hole if certain conditions are satisfied, giving rise to superradiant scattering. By placing a mirror around the black hole one can make the system unstable. This is the black-hole bomb of Press and Teukolsky. We investigate in detail this process and compute the growing time scales and oscillation frequencies as a function of the mirror's location. It is found that in order for the system black hole plus mirror to become unstable there is a minimum distance at which the mirror must be located. We also give an explicit example showing that such a bomb can be built. In addition, our arguments enable us to justify why large Kerr-AdS black holes are stable and small Kerr-AdS black holes should be unstable

  6. Is there life inside black holes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokuchaev, V I

    2011-01-01

    Bound inside rotating or charged black holes, there are stable periodic planetary orbits, which neither come out nor terminate at the central singularity. Stable periodic orbits inside black holes exist even for photons. These bound orbits may be defined as orbits of the third kind, following the Chandrasekhar classification of particle orbits in the black hole gravitational field. The existence domain for the third-kind orbits is rather spacious, and thus there is place for life inside supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei. Interiors of the supermassive black holes may be inhabited by civilizations, being invisible from the outside. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts. (paper)

  7. Hawking radiation and strong gravity black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Sayed, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the strong gravity theory of Salam et al. places severe restrictions on black hole evaporation. Two major implications are that: mini blck holes (down to masses approximately 10 -16 kg) would be stable in the present epoch; and that some suggested mini black hole mechanisms to explain astrophysical phenomena would not work. The first result implies that f-gravity appears to make black holes much safer by removing the possibility of extremely violent black hole explosions suggested by Hawking. (Auth.)

  8. Phase transitions and critical behaviour for charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, S; Vaidya, S

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of a four-dimensional charged black hole in a finite cavity in asymptotically flat and asymptotically de Sitter spaces. In each case, we find a Hawking-Page-like phase transition between a black hole and a thermal gas very much like the known transition in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. For a 'supercooled' black hole - a thermodynamically unstable black hole below the critical temperature for the Hawking-Page phase transition - the phase diagram has a line of first-order phase transitions that terminates in a second-order point. For the asymptotically flat case, we calculate the critical exponents at the second-order phase transition and find that they exactly match the known results for a charged black hole in anti-de Sitter space. We find strong evidence for similar phase transitions for the de Sitter black hole as well. Thus many of the thermodynamic features of charged anti-de Sitter black holes do not really depend on asymptotically anti-de Sitter boundary conditions; the thermodynamics of charged black holes is surprisingly universal

  9. Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-01-18

    Supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun, seem to inhabit the centres of all massive galaxies. Cosmologically motivated theories of galaxy formation require feedback from these supermassive black holes to regulate star formation. In the absence of such feedback, state-of-the-art numerical simulations fail to reproduce the number density and properties of massive galaxies in the local Universe. There is, however, no observational evidence of this strongly coupled coevolution between supermassive black holes and star formation, impeding our understanding of baryonic processes within galaxies. Here we report that the star formation histories of nearby massive galaxies, as measured from their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Our results indicate that the black-hole mass scales with the gas cooling rate in the early Universe. The subsequent quenching of star formation takes place earlier and more efficiently in galaxies that host higher-mass central black holes. The observed relation between black-hole mass and star formation efficiency applies to all generations of stars formed throughout the life of a galaxy, revealing a continuous interplay between black-hole activity and baryon cooling.

  10. Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes, with masses more than a million times that of the Sun, seem to inhabit the centres of all massive galaxies. Cosmologically motivated theories of galaxy formation require feedback from these supermassive black holes to regulate star formation. In the absence of such feedback, state-of-the-art numerical simulations fail to reproduce the number density and properties of massive galaxies in the local Universe. There is, however, no observational evidence of this strongly coupled coevolution between supermassive black holes and star formation, impeding our understanding of baryonic processes within galaxies. Here we report that the star formation histories of nearby massive galaxies, as measured from their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Our results indicate that the black-hole mass scales with the gas cooling rate in the early Universe. The subsequent quenching of star formation takes place earlier and more efficiently in galaxies that host higher-mass central black holes. The observed relation between black-hole mass and star formation efficiency applies to all generations of stars formed throughout the life of a galaxy, revealing a continuous interplay between black-hole activity and baryon cooling.

  11. AdS Black Hole with Phantom Scalar Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an AdS black hole solution with Ricci flat horizon in Einstein-phantom scalar theory. The phantom scalar fields just depend on the transverse coordinates x and y, which are parameterized by the parameter α. We study the thermodynamics of the AdS phantom black hole. Although its horizon is a Ricci flat Euclidean space, we find that the thermodynamical properties of the black hole solution are qualitatively the same as those of AdS Schwarzschild black hole. Namely, there exists a minimal temperature and the large black hole is thermodynamically stable, while the smaller one is unstable, so there is a so-called Hawking-Page phase transition between the large black hole and the thermal gas solution in the AdS space-time in Poincare coordinates. We also calculate the entanglement entropy for a strip geometry dual to the AdS phantom black holes and find that the behavior of the entanglement entropy is qualitatively the same as that of the black hole thermodynamical entropy.

  12. Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/√(3))≤(a/M)≤1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.

  13. THE RESPONSE OF METAL-RICH GAS TO X-RAY IRRADIATION FROM A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aykutalp, A.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wise, J. H., E-mail: aycin.aykutalp@sns.it, E-mail: meijerink@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: spaans@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: jwise@physics.gatech.edu [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Observational studies show that there is a strong link between the formation and evolution of galaxies and the growth of their supermassive black holes. However, the underlying physics behind this observed relation is poorly understood. In order to study the effects of X-ray radiation on black hole surroundings, we implement X-ray-dominated region physics into Enzo and use the radiation transport module Moray to calculate the radiative transfer for a polychromatic spectrum. In this work, we investigate the effects of X-ray irradiation, produced by a central massive black hole (MBH) with a mass of M = 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }, on ambient gas with solar and zero metallicity. We find that in the solar metallicity case, the energy deposition rate in the central region ({<=}20 pc) is high due to the high opacity of the metals. Hence, the central temperatures are on the order of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K. Moreover, due to the cooling ability and high intrinsic opacity of solar metallicity gas, column densities of 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} are reached at a radius of 20 pc from the MBH. These column densities are about three orders of magnitudes higher than in the zero metallicity case. Furthermore, in the zero metallicity case, an X-ray-induced H II region is already formed after 5.8 Myr. This causes a significant outflow of gas ({approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }) from the central region; the gas reaches outflow velocities up to {approx}100 km s{sup -1}. At later times, {approx}23 Myr after we insert the MBH, we find that the solar metallicity case also develops an X-ray-induced H II region, but it is delayed by {approx}17 Myr compared to the zero metallicity case.

  14. Exploring Jets from a Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-06-01

    What are the feeding and burping habits of the supermassive black holes peppering the universe? In a new study, observations of one such monster reveal more about the behavior of its powerful jets.Beams from BehemothsAcross the universe, supermassive black holes of millions to billions of solar masses lie at the centers of galaxies, gobbling up surrounding material. But not all of the gas and dust that spirals in toward a black hole is ultimately swallowed! A large fraction of it can instead be flung out into space again, in the form of enormous, powerful jets that extend for thousands or even millions of light-years in opposite directions.M87, shown in this Hubble image, is a classic example of a nearby (55 million light-years distant) supermassive black hole with a visible, collimated jet. Its counter-jet isnt seen because relativistic effects make the receding jet appear less bright. [The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) and NASA/ESA]What causes these outflows to be tightly beamed collimated in the form of jets, rather than sprayed out in all directions? Does the pressure of the ambient medium the surrounding gas and dust that the jet is injected into play an important role? In what regions do these jets accelerate and decelerate? There are many open questions that scientists hope to understand by studying some of the active black holes with jets that live closest to us.Eyes on a Nearby GiantIn a new study led by Satomi Nakahara (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies in Japan), a team of scientists has used multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Very Long Array (VLA) images to explore jets emitted from a galaxy just 100 million light-years away: NGC 4261.This galaxys (relatively) close distance as well as the fact that were viewing it largely from the side, so we can clearly see both of its polar jets allows us to observe in detail the structure and intensity of its jets as a function of their distance from the black hole. Nakahara and

  15. A Black Hole in Our Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    An introductory approach to black holes is presented along with astronomical observational data pertaining to the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Concepts of conservation of energy and Kepler's third law are employed so students can apply formulas from their physics class to determine the mass of the black hole…

  16. 5D Black Holes and Matrix Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L

    1997-01-01

    We derive the world-volume theory, the (non)-extremal entropy and background geometry of black holes and black strings constructed out of the NS IIA fivebrane within the framework of matrix theory. The CFT description of strings propagating in the black hole geometry arises as an effective field theory.

  17. BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liancheng; He, Feng; Fu, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole. It can be found that the BSW process will also arise near black hole horizon when the evaporation of charged black hole is very slow. But now the background black hole does not have to be an extremal black hole, and it will be approximately an extremal black hole unless it is nearly a huge stationary black hole.

  18. Stationary black holes: large D analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effective theory of large D stationary black holes. By solving the Einstein equations with a cosmological constant using the 1/D expansion in near zone of the black hole we obtain the effective equation for the stationary black hole. The effective equation describes the Myers-Perry black hole, bumpy black holes and, possibly, the black ring solution as its solutions. In this effective theory the black hole is represented as an embedded membrane in the background, e.g., Minkowski or Anti-de Sitter spacetime and its mean curvature is given by the surface gravity redshifted by the background gravitational field and the local Lorentz boost. The local Lorentz boost property of the effective equation is observed also in the metric itself. In fact we show that the leading order metric of the Einstein equation in the 1/D expansion is generically regarded as a Lorentz boosted Schwarzschild black hole. We apply this Lorentz boost property of the stationary black hole solution to solve perturbation equations. As a result we obtain an analytic formula for quasinormal modes of the singly rotating Myers-Perry black hole in the 1/D expansion.

  19. Plasma horizons of a charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The most promising way of detecting black holes seems to be through electromagnetic radiation emitted by nearby charged particles. The nature of this radiation depends strongly on the local electromagnetic field, which varies with the charge of the black hole. It has often been purported that a black hole with significant charge will not be observed, because, the dominance of the Coulomb interaction forces its neutralization through selective accretion. This paper shows that it is possible to balance the electric attraction of particles whose charge is opposite that of the black hole with magnetic forces and (assuming an axisymmetric, stationary solution) covariantly define the regions in which this is possible. A Kerr-Newman hole in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field and a current ring centered about a Reissner-Nordstroem hole are used as examples, because of their relevance to processes through which black holes may be observed. (Auth.)

  20. Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Garrett, Travis

    2011-08-02

    The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.

  1. The membrane paradigm for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that black holes exist and have an astrophysical role, in particular as the likely power source of quasars. To understand this role with ease, the authors and their colleagues have developed a new paradigm for black holes - a new way to picture, think about and describe them. As far as possible it treats black holes as ordinary astrophysical objects, made of real material. A black hole in this description is a spherical or oblate surface made of a thin, electrically conducting membrane. It was the author's quest to understand the Blandford-Znajek process intuitively that led them to create the membrane paradigm. Their strategy was to translate the general-relativistic mathematics of black holes into the same language of three-dimensional space that is used for magnetized plasmas and to create a new set of black-hole diagrams and pictures to go along with the language. 9 figs

  2. Production of spinning black holes at colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. C.; Song, H. S.

    2003-01-01

    When the Planck scale is as low as TeV, there will be chances to produce Black holes at future colliders. Generally, black holes produced via particle collisions can have non-zero angular momenta. We estimate the production cross-section of rotating Black holes in the context of low energy gravitation theories by taking the effects of rotation into account. The production cross section is shown to be enhanced by a factor of 2 - 3 over the naive estimate σ = π ∼ R S 2 , where R S denotes the Schwarzschild radius of black hole for a given energy. We also point out that the decay spectrum may have a distinguishable angular dependence through the grey-body factor of a rotating black hole. The angular dependence of decaying particles may give a clear signature for the effect of rotating black holes.

  3. Hawking temperature of constant curvature black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Myung, Yun Soo

    2011-01-01

    The constant curvature (CC) black holes are higher dimensional generalizations of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. It is known that these black holes have the unusual topology of M D-1 xS 1 , where D is the spacetime dimension and M D-1 stands for a conformal Minkowski spacetime in D-1 dimensions. The unusual topology and time-dependence for the exterior of these black holes cause some difficulties to derive their thermodynamic quantities. In this work, by using a globally embedding approach, we obtain the Hawking temperature of the CC black holes. We find that the Hawking temperature takes the same form when using both the static and global coordinates. Also, it is identical to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the boundary de Sitter spaces of these CC black holes.

  4. Instability of ultra-spinning black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Myers, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    It has long been known that, in higher-dimensional general relativity, there are black hole solutions with an arbitrarily large angular momentum for a fixed mass. We examine the geometry of the event horizon of such ultra-spinning black holes and argue that these solutions become unstable at large enough rotation. Hence we find that higher-dimensional general relativity imposes an effective 'Kerr-bound' on spinning black holes through a dynamical decay mechanism. Our results also give indications of the existence of new stationary black holes with 'rippled' horizons of spherical topology. We consider various scenarios for the possible decay of ultra-spinning black holes, and finally discuss the implications of our results for black holes in braneworld scenarios. (author)

  5. Braneworld black holes and entropy bounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Heydarzade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bousso's D-bound entropy for the various possible black hole solutions on a 4-dimensional brane is checked. It is found that the D-bound entropy here is apparently different from that of obtained for the 4-dimensional black hole solutions. This difference is interpreted as the extra loss of information, associated to the extra dimension, when an extra-dimensional black hole is moved outward the observer's cosmological horizon. Also, it is discussed that N-bound entropy is hold for the possible solutions here. Finally, by adopting the recent Bohr-like approach to black hole quantum physics for the excited black holes, the obtained results are written also in terms of the black hole excited states.

  6. Charged topological black hole pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    I examine the pair creation of black holes in space-times with a cosmological constant of either sign. I consider cosmological C-metrics and show that the conical singularities in this metric vanish only for three distinct classes of black hole metric, two of which have compact event horizons on each spatial slice. One class is a generalization of the Reissner-Nordstroem (anti-)de Sitter black holes in which the event horizons are the direct product of a null line with a 2-surface with topology of genus g. The other class consists of neutral black holes whose event horizons are the direct product of a null conoid with a circle. In the presence of a domain wall, black hole pairs of all possible types will be pair created for a wide range of mass and charge, including even negative mass black holes. I determine the relevant instantons and Euclidean actions for each case. (orig.)

  7. Reversible Carnot cycle outside a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Hao, Deng; Si-Jie, Gao

    2009-01-01

    A Carnot cycle outside a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated in detail. We propose a reversible Carnot cycle with a black hole being the cold reservoir. In our model, a Carnot engine operates between a hot reservoir with temperature T 1 and a black hole with Hawking temperature T H . By naturally extending the ordinary Carnot cycle to the black hole system, we show that the thermal efficiency for a reversible process can reach the maximal efficiency 1 – T H /T 1 . Consequently, black holes can be used to determine the thermodynamic temperature by means of the Carnot cycle. The role of the atmosphere around the black hole is discussed. We show that the thermal atmosphere provides a necessary mechanism to make the process reversible. (general)

  8. Information Retention by Stringy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2015-01-01

    Building upon our previous work on two-dimensional stringy black holes and its extension to spherically-symmetric four-dimensional stringy black holes, we show how the latter retain information. A key r\\^ole is played by an infinite-dimensional $W_\\infty$ symmetry that preserves the area of an isolated black-hole horizon and hence its entropy. The exactly-marginal conformal world-sheet operator representing a massless stringy particle interacting with the black hole necessarily includes a contribution from $W_\\infty$ generators in its vertex function. This admixture manifests the transfer of information between the string black hole and external particles. We discuss different manifestations of $W_\\infty$ symmetry in black-hole physics and the connections between them.

  9. What does a black hole look like?

    CERN Document Server

    Bailyn, Charles D

    2014-01-01

    Emitting no radiation or any other kind of information, black holes mark the edge of the universe--both physically and in our scientific understanding. Yet astronomers have found clear evidence for the existence of black holes, employing the same tools and techniques used to explore other celestial objects. In this sophisticated introduction, leading astronomer Charles Bailyn goes behind the theory and physics of black holes to describe how astronomers are observing these enigmatic objects and developing a remarkably detailed picture of what they look like and how they interact with their surroundings. Accessible to undergraduates and others with some knowledge of introductory college-level physics, this book presents the techniques used to identify and measure the mass and spin of celestial black holes. These key measurements demonstrate the existence of two kinds of black holes, those with masses a few times that of a typical star, and those with masses comparable to whole galaxies--supermassive black holes...

  10. Hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju

    2010-01-01

    We study the hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many extremal black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS 3 , and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the extremal black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.

  11. Model of a black hole gas submitted to background gravitational field for active galaxy nuclei with application to calculating the continuous emission spectra of massless particles (Photons: neutrinos and gravitons)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Neto, A.

    1987-01-01

    A new theoretical model for active galaxy nuclei which describes the continuous spectrum of rest massless particles (photons, neutrinos and gravitons) in the frequency range from radiofrequency to gamma ray frequency, is presented. The model consists in a black hole gas interacting with a background gravitacional field. The previously models proposed for active galaxy nuclei are exposured. Whole theoretical fundaments based on Einstein general relativity theory for defining and studying singularity properties (black holes) are also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Minidisks in Binary Black Hole Accretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Geoffrey; MacFadyen, Andrew, E-mail: gsr257@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Physics Department, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Newtonian simulations have demonstrated that accretion onto binary black holes produces accretion disks around each black hole (“minidisks”), fed by gas streams flowing through the circumbinary cavity from the surrounding circumbinary disk. We study the dynamics and radiation of an individual black hole minidisk using 2D hydrodynamical simulations performed with a new general relativistic version of the moving-mesh code Disco. We introduce a comoving energy variable that enables highly accurate integration of these high Mach number flows. Tidally induced spiral shock waves are excited in the disk and propagate through the innermost stable circular orbit, providing a Reynolds stress that causes efficient accretion by purely hydrodynamic means and producing a radiative signature brighter in hard X-rays than the Novikov–Thorne model. Disk cooling is provided by a local blackbody prescription that allows the disk to evolve self-consistently to a temperature profile where hydrodynamic heating is balanced by radiative cooling. We find that the spiral shock structure is in agreement with the relativistic dispersion relation for tightly wound linear waves. We measure the shock-induced dissipation and find outward angular momentum transport corresponding to an effective alpha parameter of order 0.01. We perform ray-tracing image calculations from the simulations to produce theoretical minidisk spectra and viewing-angle-dependent images for comparison with observations.

  13. Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badia, Javier [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-11-15

    In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)

  14. Unified geometric description of black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Jose L.; Quevedo, Hernando; Sanchez, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    In the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states we introduce a Legendre invariant metric which contains all the information about the thermodynamics of black holes. The curvature of this thermodynamic metric becomes singular at those points where, according to the analysis of the heat capacities, phase transitions occur. This result is valid for the Kerr-Newman black hole and all its special cases and, therefore, provides a unified description of black hole phase transitions in terms of curvature singularities.

  15. Effective Stringy Description of Schwarzschild Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnov , Kirill; Solodukhin , Sergey N.

    2004-01-01

    We start by pointing out that certain Riemann surfaces appear rather naturally in the context of wave equations in the black hole background. For a given black hole there are two closely related surfaces. One is the Riemann surface of complexified ``tortoise'' coordinate. The other Riemann surface appears when the radial wave equation is interpreted as the Fuchsian differential equation. We study these surfaces in detail for the BTZ and Schwarzschild black holes in four and higher dimensions....

  16. Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badia, Javier; Eiroa, Ernesto F.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)

  17. Statistical Mechanics and Black Hole Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Carlip, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Black holes are thermodynamic objects, but despite recent progress, the ultimate statistical mechanical origin of black hole temperature and entropy remains mysterious. Here I summarize an approach in which the entropy is viewed as arising from ``would-be pure gauge'' degrees of freedom that become dynamical at the horizon. For the (2+1)-dimensional black hole, these degrees of freedom can be counted, and yield the correct Bekenstein-Hawking entropy; the corresponding problem in 3+1 dimension...

  18. A New Model of Black Hole Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayer G. D.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a black hole and its event horizon are described. Conclusions, which are the result of a thought experiment, show that Schwarzschild [1] was correct: A singularity develops at the event horizon of a newly-formed black hole. The intense gravitational field that forms near the event horizon results in the mass-energy of the black hole accumulating in a layer just inside the event horizon, rather than collapsing into a central singularity.

  19. Semiclassical Approach to Black Hole Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Black hole evaporation may lead to massive or massless remnants, or naked singularities. This paper investigates this process in the context of two quite different two dimensional black hole models. The first is the original CGHS model, the second is another two dimensional dilaton-gravity model, but with properties much closer to physics in the real, four dimensional, world. Numerical simulations are performed of the formation and subsequent evaporation of black holes and the results are fou...

  20. Observability of Quantum State of Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    David, J R; Mandal, G; Wadia, S R; David, Justin R.; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze terms subleading to Rutherford in the $S$-matrix between black hole and probes of successively high energies. We show that by an appropriate choice of the probe one can read off the quantum state of the black hole from the S-matrix, staying asymptotically far from the BH all the time. We interpret the scattering experiment as scattering off classical stringy backgrounds which explicitly depend on the internal quantum numbers of the black hole.

  1. Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr–Newman or Kerr–Newman–anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes. (paper)

  2. Thermodynamic light on black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.

    1977-01-01

    The existence of black holes and their relevance to our understanding of the nature of space and time are considered, with especial reference to the application of thermodynamic arguments which can reveal their energy-transfer processes in a new light. The application of thermodynamics to strongly gravitating systems promises some fascinating new insights into the nature of gravity. Situations can occur during gravitational collapse in which existing physics breaks down. Under these circumstances, the application of universal thermodynamical principles might be our only guide. (U.K.)

  3. Shaping Globular Clusters with Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    How many black holes lurk within the dense environments of globular clusters, and how do these powerful objects shape the properties of the cluster around them? One such cluster, NGC 3201, is now helping us to answer these questions.Hunting Stellar-Mass Black HolesSince the detection of merging black-hole binaries by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the dense environments of globular clusters have received increasing attention as potential birthplaces of these compact binary systems.The central region of the globular star cluster NGC 3201, as viewed by Hubble. The black hole is in orbit with the star marked by the blue circle. [NASA/ESA]In addition, more and more stellar-mass black-hole candidates have been observed within globular clusters, lurking in binary pairs with luminous, non-compact companions. The most recent of these detections, found in the globular cluster NGC 3201, stands alone as the first stellar-mass black hole candidate discovered via radial velocity observations: the black holes main-sequence companion gave away its presence via a telltale wobble.Now a team of scientists led by Kyle Kremer (CIERA and Northwestern University) is using models of this system to better understand the impact that black holes might have on their host clusters.A Model ClusterThe relationship between black holes and their host clusters is complicated. Though the cluster environment can determine the dynamical evolution of the black holes, the retention rate of black holes in a globular cluster (i.e., how many remain in the cluster when they are born as supernovae, rather than being kicked out during the explosion) influences how the host cluster evolves.Kremer and collaborators track this complex relationship by modeling the evolution of a cluster similar to NGC 3201 with a Monte Carlo code. The code incorporates physics relevant to the evolution of black holes and black-hole binaries in globular clusters, such as two-body relaxation

  4. BLACK HOLE-GALAXY CORRELATIONS WITHOUT SELF-REGULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Özel, Feryal; Davé, Romeel

    2013-01-01

    Recent models of black hole growth in a cosmological context have forwarded a paradigm in which the growth is self-regulated by feedback from the black hole itself. Here we use cosmological zoom simulations of galaxy formation down to z = 2 to show that such strong self-regulation is required in the popular spherical Bondi accretion model, but that a plausible alternative model in which black hole growth is limited by galaxy-scale torques does not require self-regulation. Instead, this torque-limited accretion model yields black holes and galaxies evolving on average along the observed scaling relations by relying only on a fixed, 5% mass retention rate onto the black hole from the radius at which the accretion flow is fed. Feedback from the black hole may (and likely does) occur, but does not need to couple to galaxy-scale gas in order to regulate black hole growth. We show that this result is insensitive to variations in the initial black hole mass, stellar feedback, or other implementation details. The torque-limited model allows for high accretion rates at very early epochs (unlike the Bondi case), which if viable can help explain the rapid early growth of black holes, while by z ∼ 2 it yields Eddington factors of ∼1%-10%. This model also yields a less direct correspondence between major merger events and rapid phases of black hole growth. Instead, growth is more closely tied to cosmological disk feeding, which may help explain observational studies showing that, at least at z ∼> 1, active galaxies do not preferentially show merger signatures.

  5. Quantum capacity of quantum black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Chris; Bradler, Kamil

    2014-03-01

    The fate of quantum entanglement interacting with a black hole has been an enduring mystery, not the least because standard curved space field theory does not address the interaction of black holes with matter. We discuss an effective Hamiltonian of matter interacting with a black hole that has a precise analogue in quantum optics and correctly reproduces both spontaneous and stimulated Hawking radiation with grey-body factors. We calculate the quantum capacity of this channel in the limit of perfect absorption, as well as in the limit of a perfectly reflecting black hole (a white hole). We find that the white hole is an optimal quantum cloner, and is isomorphic to the Unruh channel with positive quantum capacity. The complementary channel (across the horizon) is entanglement-breaking with zero capacity, avoiding a violation of the quantum no-cloning theorem. The black hole channel on the contrary has vanishing capacity, while its complement has positive capacity instead. Thus, quantum states can be reconstructed faithfully behind the black hole horizon, but not outside. This work sheds new light on black hole complementarity because it shows that black holes can both reflect and absorb quantum states without violating the no-cloning theorem, and makes quantum firewalls obsolete.

  6. Simulations of nearly extremal binary black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Matthew; Scheel, Mark; Hemberger, Daniel; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Kuper, Kevin; Boyle, Michael; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence; SXS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Astrophysical black holes could have nearly extremal spins; therefore, nearly extremal black holes could be among the binaries that current and future gravitational-wave observatories will detect. Predicting the gravitational waves emitted by merging black holes requires numerical-relativity simulations, but these simulations are especially challenging when one or both holes have mass m and spin S exceeding the Bowen-York limit of S /m2 = 0 . 93 . Using improved methods we simulate an unequal-mass, precessing binary black hole coalescence, where the larger black hole has S /m2 = 0 . 99 . We also use these methods to simulate a nearly extremal non-precessing binary black hole coalescence, where both black holes have S /m2 = 0 . 994 , nearly reaching the Novikov-Thorne upper bound for holes spun up by thin accretion disks. We demonstrate numerical convergence and estimate the numerical errors of the waveforms; we compare numerical waveforms from our simulations with post-Newtonian and effective-one-body waveforms; and we compare the evolution of the black-hole masses and spins with analytic predictions.

  7. Tidal interactions with Kerr black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    The tidal deformation of an extended test body falling with zero angular momentum into a Kerr black hole is calculated. Numerical results for infall along the symmetry axis and in the equatorial plane of the black hole are presented for a range of values of a, the specific angular momentum of the black hole. Estimates of the tidal contribution to the gravitational radiation are also given. The tidal contribution in equatorial infall into a maximally rotating Kerr black hole may be of the same order as the center-of-mass contribution to the gravitational radiation

  8. Noncommutative Black Holes at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villhauer, Elena Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Based on the latest public results, 13 TeV data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has not indicated any evidence of hitherto tested models of quantum black holes, semiclassical black holes, or string balls. Such models have predicted signatures of particles with high transverse momenta. Noncommutative black holes remain an untested model of TeV-scale gravity that offers the starkly different signature of particles with relatively low transverse momenta. Considerations for a search for charged noncommutative black holes using the ATLAS detector will be discussed.

  9. Entropy evaporated by a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the entropy of the radiation evaporated by an uncharged, nonrotating black hole into vacuum in the course of its lifetime is approximately (4/3) times the initial entropy of this black hole. Also considered is a thermodynamically reversible process in which an increase of black-hole entropy is equal to the decrease of the entropy of its surroundings. Implications of these results for the generalized second law of thermodynamics and for the interpretation of black-hole entropy are pointed out

  10. Black hole evaporation in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo; Rachwał, Lesław [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Modesto, Leonardo [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Porey, Shiladitya, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: lmodesto@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: shilp@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: rachwal@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, 208016 Kanpur (India)

    2017-09-01

    We study the formation and the evaporation of a spherically symmetric black hole in conformal gravity. From the collapse of a spherically symmetric thin shell of radiation, we find a singularity-free non-rotating black hole. This black hole has the same Hawking temperature as a Schwarzschild black hole with the same mass, and it completely evaporates either in a finite or in an infinite time, depending on the ensemble. We consider the analysis both in the canonical and in the micro-canonical statistical ensembles. Last, we discuss the corresponding Penrose diagram of this physical process.

  11. On algebraically special perturbations of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1984-01-01

    Algebraically special perturbations of black holes excite gravitational waves that are either purely ingoing or purely outgoing. Solutions, appropriate to such perturbations of the Kerr, the Schwarzschild, and the Reissner-Nordstroem black-holes, are obtained in explicit forms by different methods. The different methods illustrate the remarkable inner relations among different facets of the mathematical theory. In the context of the Kerr black-hole they derive from the different ways in which the explicit value of the Starobinsky constant emerges, and in the context of the Schwarzschild and the Reissner-Nordstroem black-holes they derive from the potential barriers surrounding them belonging to a special class. (author)

  12. The statistical clustering of primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that Meszaros theory of galaxy formation, in which galaxies form from the density perturbations associated with the statistical fluctuation in the number density of primordial black holes, must be modified if the black holes are initially surrounded by regions of lower radiation density than average (as is most likely). However, even in this situation, the sort of effect Meszaros envisages does occur and could in principle cause galactic mass-scales to bind at the conventional time. In fact, the requirement that galaxies should not form prematurely implies that black holes could not have a critical density in the mass range above 10 5 M(sun). If the mass spectrum of primordial black holes falls off more slowly than m -3 (as expected), then the biggest black holes have the largest clustering effect. In this case the black hole clustering theory of galaxy formation reduces to the black hole seed theory of galaxy formation, in which each galaxy becomes bound under the gravitational influence of a single black hole nucleus. The seed theory could be viable only if the early Universe had a soft equation of state until a time exceeding 10 -4 s or if something prevented black hole formation before 1 s. (orig.) [de

  13. The horizon of the lightest black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, Xavier [University of Sussex, Physics and Astronomy, Falmer, Brighton (United Kingdom); Casadio, Roberto [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    We study the properties of the poles of the resummed graviton propagator obtained by resumming bubble matter diagrams which correct the classical graviton propagator. These poles have been previously interpreted as black holes precursors. Here, we show using the horizon wave-function formalism that these poles indeed have properties which make them compatible with being black hole precursors. In particular, when modeled with a Breit-Wigner distribution, they have a well-defined gravitational radius. The probability that the resonance is inside its own gravitational radius, and thus that it is a black hole, is about one half. Our results confirm the interpretation of these poles as black hole precursors. (orig.)

  14. Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jui Chou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  15. Black holes with Yang-Mills hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleihaus, B.; Kunz, J.; Sood, A.; Wirschins, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Einstein-Maxwell theory black holes are uniquely determined by their mass, their charge and their angular momentum. This is no longer true in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. We discuss sequences of neutral and charged SU(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes, which are static spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat, and which carry Yang-Mills hair. Furthermore, in Einstein-Maxwell theory static black holes are spherically symmetric. We demonstrate that, in contrast, SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory possesses a sequence of black holes, which are static and only axially symmetric

  16. Micro black holes and the democratic transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Pujolas, Oriol

    2009-01-01

    Unitarity implies that the evaporation of microscopic quasiclassical black holes cannot be universal in different particle species. This creates a puzzle, since it conflicts with the thermal nature of quasiclassical black holes, according to which all of the species should see the same horizon and be produced with the same Hawking temperatures. We resolve this puzzle by showing that for the microscopic black holes, on top of the usual quantum evaporation time, there is a new time scale which characterizes a purely classical process during which the black hole loses the ability to differentiate among the species and becomes democratic. We demonstrate this phenomenon in a well-understood framework of large extra dimensions, with a number of parallel branes. An initially nondemocratic black hole is the one localized on one of the branes, with its high-dimensional Schwarzschild radius being much shorter than the interbrane distance. Such a black hole seemingly cannot evaporate into the species localized on the other branes that are beyond its reach. We demonstrate that in reality the system evolves classically in time, in such a way that the black hole accretes the neighboring branes. The end result is a completely democratic static configuration, in which all of the branes share the same black hole and all of the species are produced with the same Hawking temperature. Thus, just like their macroscopic counterparts, the microscopic black holes are universal bridges to the hidden sector physics.

  17. Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Jui, E-mail: agoodmanjerry.ep02g@nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Xiaoning, E-mail: wuxn@amss.ac.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Science, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yiyang@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yuan, Pei-Hung, E-mail: phyuan.py00g@nctu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-10-10

    In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  18. Black Hole Universe Model and Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2011-01-01

    Considering black hole as spacetime and slightly modifying the big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach principle and Einsteinian general relativity and self consistently explains various observations of the universe without difficulties. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole and gradually grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient material and merging with other black holes. The entire space is infinitely and hierarchically layered and evolves iteratively. The innermost three layers are the universe that we lives, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and zero limits for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of spacetime, and tend to expand outward physically. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of black hole universe have been presented in the recent sequence of American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and published in peer-review journals. This study will show how this new model explains the acceleration of the universe and why dark energy is not required. We will also compare the black hole universe model with the big bang cosmology.

  19. On the thermodynamics of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2015-04-09

    We investigate the thermodynamics of a general class of exact 4-dimensional asymptotically Anti-de Sitter hairy black hole solutions and show that, for a fixed temperature, there are small and large hairy black holes similar to the Schwarzschild–AdS black hole. The large black holes have positive specific heat and so they can be in equilibrium with a thermal bath of radiation at the Hawking temperature. The relevant thermodynamic quantities are computed by using the Hamiltonian formalism and counterterm method. We explicitly show that there are first order phase transitions similar to the Hawking–Page phase transition.

  20. Destroying black holes with test bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Ted [Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4111 (United States); Sotiriou, Thomas P, E-mail: jacobson@umd.ed, E-mail: T.Sotiriou@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-01

    If a black hole can accrete a body whose spin or charge would send the black hole parameters over the extremal limit, then a naked singularity would presumably form, in violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture. We review some previous results on testing cosmic censorship in this way using the test body approximation, focusing mostly on the case of neutral black holes. Under certain conditions a black hole can indeed be over-spun or over-charged in this approximation, hence radiative and self-force effects must be taken into account to further test cosmic censorship.

  1. Charged black holes in phantom cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad [National University of Sciences and Technology, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2008-11-15

    In the classical relativistic regime, the accretion of phantom-like dark energy onto a stationary black hole reduces the mass of the black hole. We have investigated the accretion of phantom energy onto a stationary charged black hole and have determined the condition under which this accretion is possible. This condition restricts the mass-to-charge ratio in a narrow range. This condition also challenges the validity of the cosmic-censorship conjecture since a naked singularity is eventually produced due to accretion of phantom energy onto black hole. (orig.)

  2. Destroying black holes with test bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Ted; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    If a black hole can accrete a body whose spin or charge would send the black hole parameters over the extremal limit, then a naked singularity would presumably form, in violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture. We review some previous results on testing cosmic censorship in this way using the test body approximation, focusing mostly on the case of neutral black holes. Under certain conditions a black hole can indeed be over-spun or over-charged in this approximation, hence radiative and self-force effects must be taken into account to further test cosmic censorship.

  3. Statistical clustering of primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, B J [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy

    1977-04-01

    It is shown that Meszaros theory of galaxy formation, in which galaxies form from the density perturbations associated with the statistical fluctuation in the number density of primordial black holes, must be modified if the black holes are initially surrounded by regions of lower radiation density than average (as is most likely). However, even in this situation, the sort of effect Meszaros envisages does occur and could in principle cause galactic mass-scales to bind at the conventional time. In fact, the requirement that galaxies should not form prematurely implies that black holes could not have a critical density in the mass range above 10/sup 5/ M(sun). If the mass spectrum of primordial black holes falls off more slowly than m/sup -3/ (as expected), then the biggest black holes have the largest clustering effect. In this case the black hole clustering theory of galaxy formation reduces to the black hole seed theory of galaxy formation, in which each galaxy becomes bound under the gravitational influence of a single black hole nucleus. The seed theory could be viable only if the early Universe had a soft equation of state until a time exceeding 10/sup -4/ s or if something prevented black hole formation before 1 s.

  4. Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier

    2012-08-24

    We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.

  5. Particle accelerators inside spinning black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Kayll

    2010-05-28

    On the basis of the Kerr metric as a model for a spinning black hole accreting test particles from rest at infinity, I show that the center-of-mass energy for a pair of colliding particles is generically divergent at the inner horizon. This shows not only that classical black holes are internally unstable, but also that Planck-scale physics is a characteristic feature within black holes at scales much larger that the Planck length. The novel feature of the divergence discussed here is that the phenomenon is present only for black holes with rotation, and in this sense it is distinct from the well-known Cauchy horizon instability.

  6. Surface geometry of 5D black holes and black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Goswami, Rituparno

    2007-01-01

    We discuss geometrical properties of the horizon surface of five-dimensional rotating black holes and black rings. Geometrical invariants characterizing these 3D geometries are calculated. We obtain a global embedding of the 5D rotating black horizon surface into a flat space. We also describe the Kaluza-Klein reduction of the black ring solution (along the direction of its rotation) which, though it is nakedly singular, relates this solution to the 4D metric of a static black hole distorted by the presence of external scalar (dilaton) and vector ('electromagnetic') fields. The properties of the reduced black hole horizon and its embedding in E 3 are briefly discussed

  7. Massive Binary Black Holes in the Cosmic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpi, Monica; Dotti, Massimo

    2011-02-01

    Binary black holes occupy a special place in our quest for understanding the evolution of galaxies along cosmic history. If massive black holes grow at the center of (pre-)galactic structures that experience a sequence of merger episodes, then dual black holes form as inescapable outcome of galaxy assembly, and can in principle be detected as powerful dual quasars. But, if the black holes reach coalescence, during their inspiral inside the galaxy remnant, then they become the loudest sources of gravitational waves ever in the universe. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna is being developed to reveal these waves that carry information on the mass and spin of these binary black holes out to very large look-back times. Nature seems to provide a pathway for the formation of these exotic binaries, and a number of key questions need to be addressed: How do massive black holes pair in a merger? Depending on the properties of the underlying galaxies, do black holes always form a close Keplerian binary? If a binary forms, does hardening proceed down to the domain controlled by gravitational wave back reaction? What is the role played by gas and/or stars in braking the black holes, and on which timescale does coalescence occur? Can the black holes accrete on flight and shine during their pathway to coalescence? After outlining key observational facts on dual/binary black holes, we review the progress made in tracing their dynamics in the habitat of a gas-rich merger down to the smallest scales ever probed with the help of powerful numerical simulations. N-Body/hydrodynamical codes have proven to be vital tools for studying their evolution, and progress in this field is expected to grow rapidly in the effort to describe, in full realism, the physics of stars and gas around the black holes, starting from the cosmological large scale of a merger. If detected in the new window provided by the upcoming gravitational wave experiments, binary black holes will provide a deep view

  8. Quantum criticality and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, Subir; Mueller, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Many condensed matter experiments explore the finite temperature dynamics of systems near quantum critical points. Often, there are no well-defined quasiparticle excitations, and so quantum kinetic equations do not describe the transport properties completely. The theory shows that the transport coefficients are not proportional to a mean free scattering time (as is the case in the Boltzmann theory of quasiparticles), but are completely determined by the absolute temperature and by equilibrium thermodynamic observables. Recently, explicit solutions of this quantum critical dynamics have become possible via the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory duality discovered in string theory. This shows that the quantum critical theory provides a holographic description of the quantum theory of black holes in a negatively curved anti-de Sitter space, and relates its transport coefficients to properties of the Hawking radiation from the black hole. We review how insights from this connection have led to new results for experimental systems: (i) the vicinity of the superfluid-insulator transition in the presence of an applied magnetic field, and its possible application to measurements of the Nernst effect in the cuprates, (ii) the magnetohydrodynamics of the plasma of Dirac electrons in graphene and the prediction of a hydrodynamic cyclotron resonance.

  9. Gravitating discs around black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, V; Hure, J-M; Semerak, O

    2004-01-01

    Fluid discs and tori around black holes are discussed within different approaches and with the emphasis on the role of disc gravity. First reviewed are the prospects of investigating the gravitational field of a black hole-disc system using analytical solutions of stationary, axially symmetric Einstein equations. Then, more detailed considerations are focused to the middle and outer parts of extended disc-like configurations where relativistic effects are small and the Newtonian description is adequate. Within general relativity, only a static case has been analysed in detail. Results are often very inspiring. However, simplifying assumptions must be imposed: ad hoc profiles of the disc density are commonly assumed and the effects of frame-dragging are completely lacking. Astrophysical discs (e.g. accretion discs in active galactic nuclei) typically extend far beyond the relativistic domain and are fairly diluted. However, self-gravity is still essential for their structure and evolution, as well as for their radiation emission and the impact on the surrounding environment. For example, a nuclear star cluster in a galactic centre may bear various imprints of mutual star-disc interactions, which can be recognized in observational properties, such as the relation between the central mass and stellar velocity dispersion. (topical review)

  10. Superluminality, black holes and EFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goon, Garrett [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,Cambridge University, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Hinterbichler, Kurt [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University,10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2017-02-27

    Under the assumption that a UV theory does not display superluminal behavior, we ask what constraints on superluminality are satisfied in the effective field theory (EFT). We study two examples of effective theories: quantum electrodynamics (QED) coupled to gravity after the electron is integrated out, and the flat-space galileon. The first is realized in nature, the second is more speculative, but they both exhibit apparent superluminality around non-trivial backgrounds. In the QED case, we attempt, and fail, to find backgrounds for which the superluminal signal advance can be made larger than the putative resolving power of the EFT. In contrast, in the galileon case it is easy to find such backgrounds, indicating that if the UV completion of the galileon is (sub)luminal, quantum corrections must become important at distance scales of order the Vainshtein radius of the background configuration, much larger than the naive EFT strong coupling distance scale. Such corrections would be reminiscent of the non-perturbative Schwarzschild scale quantum effects that are expected to resolve the black hole information problem. Finally, a byproduct of our analysis is a calculation of how perturbative quantum effects alter charged Reissner-Nordstrom black holes.

  11. Super-horizon primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Carr, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a new class of solutions to the Einstein equations which describe a primordial black hole (PBH) in a flat Friedmann background. Such solutions arise if a Schwarzschild black hole is patched onto a Friedmann background via a transition region. They are possible providing the black hole event horizon is larger than the cosmological apparent horizon. Such solutions have a number of strange features. In particular, one has to define the black hole and cosmological horizons carefully and one then finds that the mass contained within the black hole event horizon decreases when the black hole is larger than the Friedmann cosmological apparent horizon, although its area always increases. These solutions involve two distinct future null infinities and are interpreted as the conversion of a white hole into a black hole. Although such solutions may not form from gravitational collapse in the same way as standard PBHs, there is nothing unphysical about them, since all energy and causality conditions are satisfied. Their conformal diagram is a natural amalgamation of the Kruskal diagram for the extended Schwarzschild solution and the conformal diagram for a black hole in a flat Friedmann background. In this paper, such solutions are obtained numerically for a spherically symmetric universe containing a massless scalar field, but it is likely that they exist for more general matter fields and less symmetric systems

  12. Charged black holes with scalar hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying; Lü, H. [Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Department of Physics,Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-09-10

    We consider a class of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories, in which the dilaton coupling to the Maxwell field is not the usual single exponential function, but one with a stationary point. The theories admit two charged black holes: one is the Reissner-Nordstrøm (RN) black hole and the other has a varying dilaton. For a given charge, the new black hole in the extremal limit has the same AdS{sub 2}×Sphere near-horizon geometry as the RN black hole, but it carries larger mass. We then introduce some scalar potentials and obtain exact charged AdS black holes. We also generalize the results to black p-branes with scalar hair.

  13. Spacetime and orbits of bumpy black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigeland, Sarah J.; Hughes, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Our Universe contains a great number of extremely compact and massive objects which are generally accepted to be black holes. Precise observations of orbital motion near candidate black holes have the potential to determine if they have the spacetime structure that general relativity demands. As a means of formulating measurements to test the black hole nature of these objects, Collins and Hughes introduced ''bumpy black holes'': objects that are almost, but not quite, general relativity's black holes. The spacetimes of these objects have multipoles that deviate slightly from the black hole solution, reducing to black holes when the deviation is zero. In this paper, we extend this work in two ways. First, we show how to introduce bumps which are smoother and lead to better behaved orbits than those in the original presentation. Second, we show how to make bumpy Kerr black holes--objects which reduce to the Kerr solution when the deviation goes to zero. This greatly extends the astrophysical applicability of bumpy black holes. Using Hamilton-Jacobi techniques, we show how a spacetime's bumps are imprinted on orbital frequencies, and thus can be determined by measurements which coherently track the orbital phase of a small orbiting body. We find that in the weak field, orbits of bumpy black holes are modified exactly as expected from a Newtonian analysis of a body with a prescribed multipolar structure, reproducing well-known results from the celestial mechanics literature. The impact of bumps on strong-field orbits is many times greater than would be predicted from a Newtonian analysis, suggesting that this framework will allow observations to set robust limits on the extent to which a spacetime's multipoles deviate from the black hole expectation.

  14. The information entropy of a static dilaton black hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with holographic principle, by calculating the statistical entropy of the quantum field just at the event horizon of the Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger dilaton black hole, the information entropy of the black hole was investigated and the Bekenstein-Hawking formula was obtained. The results show that black hole entropy is identical with the statistical entropy of the quantum field at the horizon. Using the generalized uncertainty relation, the divergence of the state density near the event horizon in usual quantum field theory was removed, and the cutoffs and the little mass approximation in the heat gas method of black hole entropy were avoided. Thus, the microstates of the massive scalar field just at the event horizon of the static dilaton black hole were studied directly and a description on holograph principle was presented. By using residue theorem, the integral difficulty in the calculation was overcome, and the information entropy and the Bekenstein-Hawking formula were obtained quantitatively. Compared with the black hole entropy from the loop quantum gravity, the consistency of methods and results of calculating black hole entropy in non-commutative quantum field theory and loop quantum gravity was investigated. By this, the gravity correction constant in the generalized uncertainty relation was suggested and the sense of holographic principle was discussed.

  15. Tracing Supermassive Black Hole Growth with Offset and Dual AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Julia

    The growth of supermassive black holes is tied to the evolution of their host galaxies, but we are still missing a fundamental understanding of how and when supermassive black holes build up their mass. Black hole mass growth can be traced when the black holes are powered as active galactic nuclei (AGN), and AGN activity can be triggered by the stochastic accretion of gas or by gas inflows driven by galaxy mergers. Galaxy merger simulations make a series of predictions about the AGN that are triggered by mergers: (1) major mergers preferentially trigger higher-luminosity AGN, (2) minor mergers more often trigger AGN activity in one supermassive black hole while major mergers more often trigger AGN activity in both black holes in a merger, and (3) black hole mass growth peaks when the black holes approach the center (theory have been limited by the difficulty in defining a clean observational sample of AGN in galaxy mergers and the observational challenge of spatially resolving two AGN with small (dual AGN as a new observational tool that can be used to address how and when supermassive black hole mass growth occurs. A merger of two galaxies brings two supermassive black holes together, and the two black holes exist at kpc-scale separations for 100 Myr before ultimately merging. While the black holes are at kpc-scale separations, they are known as dual AGN when both of them are fueled as AGN and offset AGN when only one is fueled as an AGN. Since offset and dual AGN only occur in galaxy mergers, by their very definition, they provide a clean observational sample of black hole mass growth in galaxy mergers. The small, kpc-scale separations of offset and dual AGN also enable an observational test of black hole fueling near the centers of merger-remnant galaxies. The full potential of offset and dual AGN for such studies of black hole mass growth has not yet been realized, due to the small number of such systems known. To date, only 13 confirmed offset and dual AGN are

  16. Accretion onto stellar mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    I present work on the accretion onto stellar mass black holes in several scenarios. Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes are expected to form high density cusps in the inner parsec of our Galaxy. These compact remnants may be accreting cold dense gas present there, and give rise to potentially observable X-ray emission. I build a simple but detailed time-dependent model of such emission. Future observations of the distribution and orbits of the gas in the inner parsec of Sgr A* will put tighter constraints on the cusp of compact remnants. GRS 1915+105 is an LMXB, whose large orbital period implies a very large accretion disc and explains the extraordinary duration of its current outburst. I present smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of the accretion disc. The models includes the thermo-viscous instability, irradiation from the central object and wind loss. I find that the outburst of GRS 1915+105 should last a minimum of 20 years and up to ˜ 100 years if the irradiation is playing a significant role in this system. The predicted recurrence times are of the order of 104 years, making the duty cycle of GRS 1915+105 to be a few 0.1%. I present a simple analytical method to describe the observable behaviour of long period black hole LMXBs, similar to GRS 1915+105. Constructing two simple models for the surface density in the disc, outburst and quiescence times are calculated as a function of orbital period. LMXBs are an important constituent of the X-ray light function (XLF) of giant elliptical galaxies. I find that the duty cycle can vary considerably with orbital period, with implications for modelling the XLF.

  17. Relativistic hydrodynamic evolutions with black hole excision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duez, Matthew D.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Yo, H.-J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a numerical code designed to study astrophysical phenomena involving dynamical spacetimes containing black holes in the presence of relativistic hydrodynamic matter. We present evolutions of the collapse of a fluid star from the onset of collapse to the settling of the resulting black hole to a final stationary state. In order to evolve stably after the black hole forms, we excise a region inside the hole before a singularity is encountered. This excision region is introduced after the appearance of an apparent horizon, but while a significant amount of matter remains outside the hole. We test our code by evolving accurately a vacuum Schwarzschild black hole, a relativistic Bondi accretion flow onto a black hole, Oppenheimer-Snyder dust collapse, and the collapse of nonrotating and rotating stars. These systems are tracked reliably for hundreds of M following excision, where M is the mass of the black hole. We perform these tests both in axisymmetry and in full 3+1 dimensions. We then apply our code to study the effect of the stellar spin parameter J/M 2 on the final outcome of gravitational collapse of rapidly rotating n=1 polytropes. We find that a black hole forms only if J/M 2 2 >1, the collapsing star forms a torus which fragments into nonaxisymmetric clumps, capable of generating appreciable 'splash' gravitational radiation

  18. Spin One Hawking Radiation from Dirty Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Petarpa Boonserm; Tritos Ngampitipan; Matt Visser

    2013-01-01

    A “clean” black hole is a black hole in vacuum such as the Schwarzschild black hole. However in real physical systems, there are matter fields around a black hole. Such a black hole is called a “dirty black hole”. In this paper, the effect of matter fields on the black hole and the greybody factor is investigated. The results show that matter fields make a black hole smaller. They can increase the potential energy to a black hole to obstruct Hawking radiation to propagate. This causes the gre...

  19. BHDD: Primordial black hole binaries code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Gaggero, Daniele; Bertone, Gianfranco

    2018-06-01

    BHDD (BlackHolesDarkDress) simulates primordial black hole (PBH) binaries that are clothed in dark matter (DM) halos. The software uses N-body simulations and analytical estimates to follow the evolution of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe.

  20. Black Hole Interior in Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J

    2015-05-22

    We discuss the interior of a black hole in quantum gravity, in which black holes form and evaporate unitarily. The interior spacetime appears in the sense of complementarity because of special features revealed by the microscopic degrees of freedom when viewed from a semiclassical standpoint. The relation between quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle is subtle, but they are still consistent.

  1. The quantum structure of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Samir D

    2006-01-01

    We give an elementary review of black holes in string theory. We discuss black hole entropy from string microstates and Hawking radiation from these states. We then review the structure of two-charge microstates and explore how 'fractionation' can lead to quantum effects over macroscopic length scales of the order of the horizon radius. (topical review)

  2. ATLAS: Black hole production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ATLAS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. These tracks would be produced if a miniature black hole was produced in the proton-proton collision. Such a small black hole would decay instantly to various particles via a process known as Hawking radiation.

  3. Do stringy corrections stabilize colored black holes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanti, P.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    We consider hairy black hole solutions of Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton theory, coupled to a Gauss-Bonnet curvature term, and we study their stability under small, spacetime-dependent perturbations. We demonstrate that stringy corrections do not remove the sphaleronic instabilities of colored black holes with the number of unstable modes being equal to the number of nodes of the background gauge function. In the gravitational sector and in the limit of an infinitely large horizon, colored black holes are also found to be unstable. Similar behavior is exhibited by magnetically charged black holes while the bulk of neutral black holes are proved to be stable under small, gauge-dependent perturbations. Finally, electrically charged black holes are found to be characterized only by the existence of a gravitational sector of perturbations. As in the case of neutral black holes, we demonstrate that for the bulk of electrically charged black holes no unstable modes arise in this sector. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  4. Gravitational lensing by a regular black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F; Sendra, Carlos M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study a regular Bardeen black hole as a gravitational lens. We find the strong deflection limit for the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and magnifications of the relativistic images. As an example, we apply the results to the particular case of the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.

  5. Gravitational lensing by a regular black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F; Sendra, Carlos M, E-mail: eiroa@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: cmsendra@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-04-21

    In this paper, we study a regular Bardeen black hole as a gravitational lens. We find the strong deflection limit for the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and magnifications of the relativistic images. As an example, we apply the results to the particular case of the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.

  6. Partition functions for supersymmetric black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manschot, J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a number of results on partition functions for four-dimensional supersymmetric black holes. These partition functions are important tools to explain the entropy of black holes from a microscopic point of view. Such a microscopic explanation was desired after the association of a

  7. Mass inflation in the loop black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Eric G.; Mann, Robert; Modesto, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    In classical general relativity the Cauchy horizon within a two-horizon black hole is unstable via a phenomenon known as mass inflation, in which the mass parameter (and the spacetime curvature) of the black hole diverges at the Cauchy horizon. Here we study this effect for loop black holes - quantum gravitationally corrected black holes from loop quantum gravity - whose construction alleviates the r=0 singularity present in their classical counterparts. We use a simplified model of mass inflation, which makes use of the generalized Dray-'t Hooft relation, to conclude that the Cauchy horizon of loop black holes indeed results in a curvature singularity similar to that found in classical black holes. The Dray-'t Hooft relation is of particular utility in the loop black hole because it does not directly rely upon Einstein's field equations. We elucidate some of the interesting and counterintuitive properties of the loop black hole, and corroborate our results using an alternate model of mass inflation due to Ori.

  8. Quantum aspects of black hole entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Four dimensional supersymmetric extremal black holes in string-based ... elements in the construction of black holes are our concepts of space and time. They are, thus, almost by definition, the most perfect macroscopic objects there are in ... Appealing to the Cardy formula for the asymptotic degeneracy of these states, one.

  9. Primordial braneworld black holes: significant enhancement of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Randall-Sundrum (RS-II) braneworld cosmological model with a frac- tion of the total energy density in primordial black holes is considered. Due to their 5d geometry, these black holes undergo modified Hawking evaporation. It is shown that dur- ing the high-energy regime, accretion from the surrounding ...

  10. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynam- ics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics.

  11. Black holes and the weak cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    A theory of black holes is developed under the assumption of the weak cosmic censorship. It includes Hawking's theory of black holes in the future asymptotically predictable space-times as a special case but it also applies to the cosmological situations including models with nonzero cosmological constant of both signs. (author)

  12. Black holes and the strong cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of black holes developed by Hawking in asymptotically flat space-times is generalized so that black holes in the cosmological situations are included. It is assumed that the strong version of the Penrose cosmic censorship hypothesis holds. (author)

  13. Black Hole Entanglement and Quantum Error Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.

    2013-01-01

    It was recently argued in [1] that black hole complementarity strains the basic rules of quantum information theory, such as monogamy of entanglement. Motivated by this argument, we develop a practical framework for describing black hole evaporation via unitary time evolution, based on a holographic

  14. Black hole complementarity: The inside view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Lowe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of black hole complementarity, a proposal is made for an approximate interior effective field theory description. For generic correlators of local operators on generic black hole states, it agrees with the exact exterior description in a region of overlapping validity, up to corrections that are too small to be measured by typical infalling observers.

  15. Holographic Lovelock gravities and black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Kulaxizi, M.; Parnachev, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study holographic implications of Lovelock gravities in AdS spacetimes. For a generic Lovelock gravity in arbitrary spacetime dimensions we formulate the existence condition of asymptotically AdS black holes. We consider small fluctuations around these black holes and determine the constraint on

  16. Black Holes Are The Rhythm at The Heart of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The powerful black holes at the center of massive galaxies and galaxy clusters act as hearts to the systems, pumping energy out at regular intervals to regulate the growth of the black holes themselves, as well as star formation, according to new data from NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory. People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way’s Giant Black Hole Awoke from Slumber 300 Years Ago A New Way To Weigh Giant Black Holes Discovery of Most Recent Supernova in Our Galaxy NASA Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers Scientists from the University of Michigan, the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Jacobs University in Germany contributed to the results. The gravitational pull of black holes is so strong that not even light can escape from them. Supermassive black holes with masses of more than a billion suns have been detected at the center of large galaxies. The material falling on the black holes causes sporadic or isolated bursts of energy, by which black holes are capable of influencing the fate of their host galaxies. The insight gained by this new research shows that black holes can pump energy in a gentler and rhythmic fashion, rather then violently. The scientists observed and simulated how the black hole at the center of elliptical galaxy M84 dependably sends bubbles of hot plasma into space, heating up interstellar space. This heat is believed to slow both the formation of new stars and the growth of the black hole itself, helping the galaxy remain stable. Interstellar gases only coalesce into new stars when the gas is cool enough. The heating is more efficient at the sites where it is most needed, the scientists say. Alexis Finoguenov, of UMBC and the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, compares the central black hole to a heart muscle. "Just like our hearts periodically pump our

  17. STU black holes and string triality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrndt, K.; Kallosh, R.; Rahmfeld, J.; Shmakova, M.; Wong, W.K.

    1996-01-01

    We find double-extreme black holes associated with the special geometry of the Calabi-Yau moduli space with the prepotential F=STU. The area formula is STU-moduli independent and has [SL(2,Z)] 3 symmetry in space of charges. The dual version of this theory without a prepotential treats the dilaton S asymmetric vs T,U moduli. We display the dual relation between new (STU) black holes and stringy (S|TU) black holes using a particular Sp(8,Z) transformation. The area formula of one theory equals that of the dual theory when expressed in terms of dual charges. We analyze the relation between (STU) black holes to string triality of black holes: (S|TU), (T|US), (U|ST) solutions. In the democratic STU-symmetric version we find that all three S, T, and U duality symmetries are nonperturbative and mix electric and magnetic charges. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Bumpy black holes from spontaneous Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovsky, Sergei; Tinyakov, Peter; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2007-01-01

    We consider black holes in Lorentz violating theories of massive gravity. We argue that in these theories black hole solutions are no longer universal and exhibit a large number of hairs. If they exist, these hairs probe the singularity inside the black hole providing a window into quantum gravity. The existence of these hairs can be tested by future gravitational wave observatories. We generically expect that the effects we discuss will be larger for the more massive black holes. In the simplest models the strength of the hairs is controlled by the same parameter that sets the mass of the graviton (tensor modes). Then the upper limit on this mass coming from the inferred gravitational radiation emitted by binary pulsars implies that hairs are likely to be suppressed for almost the entire mass range of the super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies

  19. Magnetized black holes and nonlinear electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglov, S. I.

    2017-08-01

    A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with two parameters is proposed. We study the phenomenon of vacuum birefringence, the causality and unitarity in this model. There is no singularity of the electric field in the center of pointlike charges and the total electrostatic energy is finite. We obtain corrections to the Coulomb law at r →∞. The weak, dominant and strong energy conditions are investigated. Magnetized charged black hole is considered and we evaluate the mass, metric function and their asymptotic at r →∞ and r → 0. The magnetic mass of the black hole is calculated. The thermodynamic properties and thermal stability of regular black holes are discussed. We calculate the Hawking temperature of black holes and show that there are first-order and second-order phase transitions. The parameters of the model when the black hole is stable are found.

  20. Surface effects in black hole physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, T.

    1982-01-01

    This contribution reviews briefly the various analogies which have been drawn between black holes and ordinary physical objects. It is shown how, by concentrating on the properties of the surface of a black hole, it is possible to set up a sequence of tight analogies allowing one to conclude that a black hole is, qualitatively and quantitatively, similar to a fluid bubble possessing a negative surface tension and endowed with finite values of the electrical conductivity and of the shear and bulk viscosities. These analogies are valid simultaneously at the levels of electromagnetic, mechanical and thermodynamical laws. Explicit applications of this framework are worked out (eddy currents, tidal drag). The thermostatic equilibrium of a black hole electrically interacting with its surroundings is discussed, as well as the validity of a minimum entropy production principle in black hole physics. (Auth.)

  1. Black hole accretion: the quasar powerhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A program is described which calculates the effects of material falling into the curved space-time surrounding a rotation black hole. The authors have developed a two-dimensional, general-relativistic hydrodynamics code to simulate fluid flow in the gravitational field of a rotating black hole. Such calculations represent models that have been proposed for the energy sources of both quasars and jets from radiogalaxies. In each case, the black hole that powers the quasar or jet would have a mass of about 100 million times the mass of the sun. The black hole would be located in the center of a galaxy whose total mass is 1000 time greater than the black hole mass. (SC)

  2. Mass formula for quasi-black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-black hole, either nonextremal or extremal, can be broadly defined as the limiting configuration of a body when its boundary approaches the body's quasihorizon. We consider the mass contributions and the mass formula for a static quasi-black hole. The analysis involves careful scrutiny of the surface stresses when the limiting configuration is reached. It is shown that there exists a strict correspondence between the mass formulas for quasi-black holes and pure black holes. This perfect parallelism exists in spite of the difference in derivation and meaning of the formulas in both cases. For extremal quasi-black holes the finite surface stresses give zero contribution to the total mass. This leads to a very special version of Abraham-Lorentz electron in general relativity in which the total mass has pure electromagnetic origin in spite of the presence of bare stresses.

  3. Kerr black holes are not fragile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnes, Brett, E-mail: matmcinn@nus.edu.sg [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECs), Valdivia (Chile); National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-04-21

    Certain AdS black holes are 'fragile', in the sense that, if they are deformed excessively, they become unstable to a fundamental non-perturbative stringy effect analogous to Schwinger pair-production [of branes]. Near-extremal topologically spherical AdS-Kerr black holes, which are natural candidates for string-theoretic models of the very rapidly rotating black holes that have actually been observed to exist, do represent a very drastic deformation of the AdS-Schwarzschild geometry. One therefore has strong reason to fear that these objects might be 'fragile', which in turn could mean that asymptotically flat rapidly rotating black holes might be fragile in string theory. Here we show that this does not happen: despite the severe deformation implied by near-extremal angular momenta, brane pair-production around topologically spherical AdS-Kerr-Newman black holes is always suppressed.

  4. Black hole thermodynamics based on unitary evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yu-Lei; Chen, Yi-Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we try to construct black hole thermodynamics based on the fact that the formation and evaporation of a black hole can be described by quantum unitary evolutions. First, we show that the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy S BH may not be a Boltzmann or thermal entropy. To confirm this statement, we show that the original black hole's ‘first law’ may not simply be treated as the first law of thermodynamics formally, due to some missing metric perturbations caused by matter. Then, by including those (quantum) metric perturbations, we show that the black hole formation and evaporation can be described effectively in a unitary manner, through a quantum channel between the exterior and interior of the event horizon. In this way, the paradoxes of information loss and firewall can be resolved effectively. Finally, we show that black hole thermodynamics can be constructed in an ordinary way, by constructing statistical mechanics. (paper)

  5. STU Black Holes and String Triality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmakova, Marina

    2003-05-23

    We found double-extreme black holes associated with the special geometry of the Calabi-Yau moduli space with the prepotential F = STU. The area formula is STU-moduli independent and has [SL(2, Z)]{sup 3} symmetry in space of charges. The dual version of this theory without prepotential treats the dilaton S asymmetric versus T,U-moduli. We display the dual relation between new (STU) black holes and stringy (S|TU) black holes using particular Sp(8,Z) transformation. The area formula of one theory equals the area formula of the dual theory when expressed in terms of dual charges. We analyze the relation between (STU) black holes to string triality of black holes: (S|TU), (T|US), (U|ST) solutions. In democratic STU-symmetric version we find that all three S and T and U duality symmetries are non-perturbative and mix electric and magnetic charges.

  6. Black hole thermodynamics with conical defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appels, Michael [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Kubiznák, David [Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-05-22

    Recently we have shown https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.131303 how to formulate a thermodynamic first law for a single (charged) accelerated black hole in AdS space by fixing the conical deficit angles present in the spacetime. Here we show how to generalise this result, formulating thermodynamics for black holes with varying conical deficits. We derive a new potential for the varying tension defects: the thermodynamic length, both for accelerating and static black holes. We discuss possible physical processes in which the tension of a string ending on a black hole might vary, and also map out the thermodynamic phase space of accelerating black holes and explore their critical phenomena.

  7. Magnetic charge, black holes, and cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of converting a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole into a naked singularity by means of test particle accretion is considered. The dually charged Reissner-Nordstroem metric describes a black hole only when M 2 >Q 2 +P 2 . The test particle equations of motion are shown to allow test particles with arbitrarily large magnetic charge/mass ratios to fall radially into electrically charged black holes. To determine the nature of the final state (black hole or naked singularity) an exact solution of Einstein's equations representing a spherical shell of magnetically charged dust falling into an electrically charged black hole is studied. Naked singularities are never formed so long as the weak energy condition is obeyed by the infalling matter. The differences between the spherical shell model and an infalling point test particle are examined and discussed

  8. Thin accretion disk around regular black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIU Tianqi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Penrose′s cosmic censorship conjecture says that naked singularities do not exist in nature.So,it seems reasonable to further conjecture that not even a singularity exists in nature.In this paper,a regular black hole without singularity is studied in detail,especially on its thin accretion disk,energy flux,radiation temperature and accretion efficiency.It is found that the interaction of regular black hole is stronger than that of the Schwarzschild black hole. Furthermore,the thin accretion will be more efficiency to lost energy while the mass of black hole decreased. These particular properties may be used to distinguish between black holes.

  9. Dual jets from binary black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L

    2010-08-20

    The coalescence of supermassive black holes--a natural outcome when galaxies merge--should produce gravitational waves and would likely be associated with energetic electromagnetic events. We have studied the coalescence of such binary black holes within an external magnetic field produced by the expected circumbinary disk surrounding them. Solving the Einstein equations to describe black holes interacting with surrounding plasma, we present numerical evidence for possible jets driven by these systems. Extending the process described by Blandford and Znajek for a single, spinning black hole, the picture that emerges suggests that the electromagnetic field extracts energy from the orbiting black holes, which ultimately merge and settle into the standard Blandford-Znajek scenario. Emissions along these jets could potentially be observable at large distances.

  10. Accretion onto a noncommutative geometry inspired black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rahul [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Jamia Millia Islamia, Multidisciplinary Centre for Advanced Research and Studies (MCARS), New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2017-09-15

    The spherically symmetric accretion onto a noncommutative (NC) inspired Schwarzschild black hole is treated for a polytropic fluid. The critical accretion rate M, sonic speed a{sub s} and other flow parameters are generalized for the NC inspired static black hole and compared with the results obtained for the standard Schwarzschild black holes. Also explicit expressions for gas compression ratios and temperature profiles below the accretion radius and at the event horizon are derived. This analysis is a generalization of Michel's solution to the NC geometry. Owing to the NC corrected black hole, the accretion flow parameters also have been modified. It turns out that M ∼ M{sup 2} is still achievable but r{sub s} seems to be substantially decreased due to the NC effects. They in turn do affect the accretion process. (orig.)

  11. Black Holes and Gravitational Properties of Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, D

    2006-01-01

    We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.

  12. Revealing Black Holes with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Katelyn; Chatterjee, Sourav; Larson, Shane L.

    2017-11-01

    We estimate the population of black holes with luminous stellar companions (BH-LCs) in the Milky Way (MW) observable by Gaia. We evolve a realistic distribution of BH-LC progenitors from zero-age to the current epoch taking into account relevant physics, including binary stellar evolution, BH-formation physics, and star formation rate, in order to estimate the BH-LC population in the MW today. We predict that Gaia will discover between 3800 and 12,000 BH-LCs by the end of its 5 {years} mission, depending on BH natal kick strength and observability constraints. We find that the overall yield, and distributions of eccentricities and masses of observed BH-LCs, can provide important constraints on the strength of BH natal kicks. Gaia-detected BH-LCs are expected to have very different orbital properties compared to those detectable via radio, X-ray, or gravitational-wave observations.

  13. On the outside of cold black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicak, J.

    1978-01-01

    Some general features of the behaviour of fields and particles around extreme (or nearly extreme) black holes are outlined, with emphasis on their simplicity. Simple solutions representing interacting electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations of an extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black hole are presented. The motion of the hole in an asymptotically uniform weak electric field is examined as an application and ''Newton's second law'' is thus explicitly verified for a geometrodynamical object. (author)

  14. Black Holes at the LHC: Progress since 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Chan

    2008-01-01

    We review the recent noticeable progresses in black hole physics focusing on the up-coming super-collider, the LHC. We discuss the classical formation of black holes by particle collision, the greybody factors for higher dimensional rotating black holes, the deep implications of black hole physics to the 'energy-distance' relation, the security issues of the LHC associated with black hole formation and the newly developed Monte-Carlo generators for black hole events.

  15. Black hole as a wormhole factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Won Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been lots of debates about the final fate of an evaporating black hole and the singularity hidden by an event horizon in quantum gravity. However, on general grounds, one may argue that a black hole stops radiation at the Planck mass (ħc/G1/2∼10−5 g, where the radiated energy is comparable to the black hole's mass. And also, it has been argued that there would be a wormhole-like structure, known as “spacetime foam”, due to large fluctuations below the Planck length (ħG/c31/2∼10−33 cm. In this paper, as an explicit example, we consider an exact classical solution which represents nicely those two properties in a recently proposed quantum gravity model based on different scaling dimensions between space and time coordinates. The solution, called “Black Wormhole”, consists of two different states, depending on its mass parameter M and an IR parameter ω: For the black hole state (with ωM2>1/2, a non-traversable wormhole occupies the interior region of the black hole around the singularity at the origin, whereas for the wormhole state (with ωM2<1/2, the interior wormhole is exposed to an outside observer as the black hole horizon is disappearing from evaporation. The black hole state becomes thermodynamically stable as it approaches the merging point where the interior wormhole throat and the black hole horizon merges, and the Hawking temperature vanishes at the exact merge point (with ωM2=1/2. This solution suggests the “Generalized Cosmic Censorship” by the existence of a wormhole-like structure which protects the naked singularity even after the black hole evaporation. One could understand the would-be wormhole inside the black hole horizon as the result of microscopic wormholes created by “negative” energy quanta which have entered the black hole horizon in Hawking radiation process; the quantum black hole could be a wormhole factory! It is found that this speculative picture may be consistent with the

  16. Synchrotron radiation from spherically accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, J.R.; Price, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Spherical accretion onto a Schwartzchild black hole, of gas with frozen-in magnetic field, is studied numerically and analytically for a range of hole masses and accretion rates in which synchrotron emission is the dominant radiative mechanism. At small radii the equipartition of magnetic, kinetic, and gravitational energy is assumed to apply, and the gas is heated by dissipation of infalling magnetic energy, turbulent energy, etc. The models can be classified into three types: (a) synchrotron cooling negligible, (b) synchrotron cooling important but synchrotron self-absorption negligible, (c) synchrotron cooling and self-absorption important. In the first case gas temperatures become very high near the horizon but luminosity efficiencies (luminosity/mass-energy accretion rate) are low. In cases (b) and (c) the gas flow near the horizon is essentially isothermal and luminosity efficiencies are fairly high. The analysis and results for the isothermal cases (b) and (c) are valid only for moderate dissipative heating and synchrotron self-absorption. If self-absorption is very strong or if dissipated energy is comparable to infall energy, Comptonization effects, not included in the analysis, become important

  17. Galactic nuclei evolution with spinning black holes: method and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Davide; Sijacki, Debora; Pringle, J. E.

    2018-04-01

    Supermassive black holes at the centre of galactic nuclei mostly grow in mass through gas accretion over cosmic time. This process also modifies the angular momentum (or spin) of black holes, both in magnitude and in orientation. Despite being often neglected in galaxy formation simulations, spin plays a crucial role in modulating accretion power, driving jet feedback, and determining recoil velocity of coalescing black hole binaries. We present a new accretion model for the moving-mesh code AREPO that incorporates (i) mass accretion through a thin α-disc, and (ii) spin evolution through the Bardeen-Petterson effect. We use a diverse suite of idealised simulations to explore the physical connection between spin evolution and larger scale environment. We find that black holes with mass ≲ 107 M⊙ experience quick alignment with the accretion disc. This favours prolonged phases of spin-up, and the spin direction evolves according to the gas inflow on timescales as short as ≲ 100 Myr, which might explain the observed jet direction distribution in Seyfert galaxies. Heavier black holes (≳ 108 M⊙) are instead more sensitive to the local gas kinematic. Here we find a wider distribution in spin magnitudes: spin-ups are favoured if gas inflow maintains a preferential direction, and spin-downs occur for nearly isotropic infall, while the spin direction does not change much over short timescales ˜100 Myr. We therefore conclude that supermassive black holes with masses ≳ 5 × 108 M⊙ may be the ideal testbed to determine the main mode of black hole fuelling over cosmic time.

  18. Black Hole Caught Zapping Galaxy into Existence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    equivalent to about 350 Suns per year, one hundred times more than rates for typical galaxies in the local Universe. Earlier observations had shown that the companion galaxy is, in fact, under fire: the quasar is spewing a jet of highly energetic particles towards its companion, accompanied by a stream of fast-moving gas. The injection of matter and energy into the galaxy indicates that the quasar itself might be inducing the formation of stars and thereby creating its own host galaxy; in such a scenario, galaxies would have evolved from clouds of gas hit by the energetic jets emerging from quasars. "The two objects are bound to merge in the future: the quasar is moving at a speed of only a few tens of thousands of km/h with respect to the companion galaxy and their separation is only about 22 000 light-years," says Elbaz. "Although the quasar is still 'naked', it will eventually be 'dressed' when it merges with its star-rich companion. It will then finally reside inside a host galaxy like all other quasars." Hence, the team have identified black hole jets as a possible driver of galaxy formation, which may also represent the long-sought missing link to understanding why the mass of black holes is larger in galaxies that contain more stars [3]. "A natural extension of our work is to search for similar objects in other systems," says Jahnke. Future instruments, such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, the European Extremely Large Telescope and the NASA/ESA/CSA James Webb Space Telescope will be able to search for such objects at even larger distances from us, probing the connection between black holes and the formation of galaxies in the more distant Universe. Notes [1] Supermassive black holes are found in the cores of most large galaxies; unlike the inactive and starving one sitting at the centre of the Milky Way, a fraction of them are said to be active, as they eat up enormous amounts of material. These frantic actions produce a copious release of energy

  19. Notes on Phase Transition of Nonsingular Black Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Meng-Sen; Zhao Ren

    2015-01-01

    On the belief that a black hole is a thermodynamic system, we study the phase transition of nonsingular black holes. If the black hole entropy takes the form of the Bekenstein—Hawking area law, the black hole mass M is no longer the internal energy of the black hole thermodynamic system. Using the thermodynamic quantities, we calculate the heat capacity, thermodynamic curvature and free energy. It is shown that there will be a larger black hole/smaller black hole phase transition for the nonsingular black hole. At the critical point, the second-order phase transition appears. (paper)

  20. Instability of charged anti-de Sitter black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Ro, Daeho

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the instability of charged anti-de Sitter black holes in four- or higher-dimensions under fragmentation. The unstable black holes under fragmentation can be broken into two black holes. Instability depends not only on the mass and charge of the black hole but also on the ratio between the fragmented black hole and its predecessor. We have found that the near extremal black holes are unstable, and Schwarzschild-AdS black holes are stable. These are qualitatively similar to black holes in four dimensions and higher. The detailed instabilities are numerically investigated.

  1. Unveiling the edge of time black holes, white holes, wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1992-01-01

    Acclaimed science writer John Gribbin recounts dramatic stories that have led scientists to believe black holes and their more mysterious kin are not only real, but might actually provide a passage to other universes and travel through time.

  2. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  3. Extremal vacuum black holes in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, Pau; Lucietti, James; Rangamani, Mukund; Kunduri, Hari K.

    2008-01-01

    We consider extremal black hole solutions to the vacuum Einstein equations in dimensions greater than five. We prove that the near-horizon geometry of any such black hole must possess an SO(2,1) symmetry in a special case where one has an enhanced rotational symmetry group. We construct examples of vacuum near-horizon geometries using the extremal Myers-Perry black holes and boosted Myers-Perry strings. The latter lead to near-horizon geometries of black ring topology, which in odd spacetime dimensions have the correct number of rotational symmetries to describe an asymptotically flat black object. We argue that a subset of these correspond to the near-horizon limit of asymptotically flat extremal black rings. Using this identification we provide a conjecture for the exact 'phase diagram' of extremal vacuum black rings with a connected horizon in odd spacetime dimensions greater than five.

  4. Rotating black holes at future colliders. III. Determination of black hole evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Daisuke; Oda, Kin-ya; Park, Seong Chan

    2006-01-01

    TeV scale gravity scenario predicts that the black hole production dominates over all other interactions above the scale and that the Large Hadron Collider will be a black hole factory. Such higher-dimensional black holes mainly decay into the standard model fields via the Hawking radiation whose spectrum can be computed from the greybody factor. Here we complete the series of our work by showing the greybody factors and the resultant spectra for the brane-localized spinor and vector field emissions for arbitrary frequencies. Combining these results with the previous works, we determine the complete radiation spectra and the subsequent time evolution of the black hole. We find that, for a typical event, well more than half a black hole mass is emitted when the hole is still highly rotating, confirming our previous claim that it is important to take into account the angular momentum of black holes

  5. LIGO Finds Lightest Black-Hole Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    Wednesdayevening the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) collaboration quietly mentioned that theyd found gravitational waves from yet another black-hole binary back in June. This casual announcement reveals what is so far the lightest pair of black holes weve watched merge opening the door for comparisons to the black holes weve detected by electromagnetic means.A Routine DetectionThe chirp signal of GW170608 detected by LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston. [LIGO collaboration 2017]After the fanfare of the previous four black-hole-binary merger announcements over the past year and a half as well as the announcement of the one neutron-star binary merger in August GW170608 marks our entry into the era in which gravitational-wave detections are officially routine.GW170608, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two black holes roughly a billion light-years away, was detected in June of this year. This detection occurred after wed already found gravitational waves from several black-hole binaries with the two LIGO detectors in the U.S., but before the Virgo interferometer came online in Europe and increased the joint ability of the detectors to localize sources.Mass estimates for the two components of GW170608 using different models. [LIGO collaboration 2017]Overall, GW170608 is fairly unremarkable: it was detected by both LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston some 7 ms apart, and the signal looks not unlike those of the previous LIGO detections. But because were still in the early days of gravitational-wave astronomy, every discovery is still remarkable in some way! GW170608 stands out as being the lightest pair of black holes weve yet to see merge, with component masses before the merger estimated at 12 and 7 times the mass of the Sun.Why Size MattersWith the exception of GW151226, the gravitational-wave signal discovered on Boxing Day last year, all of the black holes that have been discovered by LIGO/Virgo have been quite large: the masses

  6. Sizes of Black Holes Throughout the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-05-01

    What is the distribution of sizes of black holes in our universe? Can black holes of any mass exist, or are there gaps in their possible sizes? The shape of this black-hole mass function has been debated for decades and the dawn of gravitational-wave astronomy has only spurred further questions.Mind the GapsThe starting point for the black-hole mass function lies in the initial mass function (IMF) for stellar black holes the beginning size distribution of black holes after they are born from stars. Instead of allowing for the formation of stellar black holes of any mass, theoretical models propose two gaps in the black-hole IMF:An upper mass gap at 50130 solar masses, due to the fact that stellar progenitors of black holes in this mass range are destroyed by pair-instability supernovae.A lower mass gap below 5 solar masses, which is argued to arise naturally from the mechanics of supernova explosions.Missing black-hole (BH) formation channels due to the existence of the lower gap (LG) and the upper gap (UG) in the initial mass function. a) The number of BHs at all scales are lowered because no BH can merge with BHs in the LG to form a larger BH. b) The missing channel responsible for the break at 10 solar masses, resulting from the LG. c) The missing channel responsible for the break at 60 solar masses, due to the interaction between the LG and the UG. [Christian et al. 2018]We can estimate the IMF for black holes by scaling a typical IMF for stars and then adding in these theorized gaps. But is this initial distribution of black-hole masses the same as the distribution that we observe in the universe today?The Influence of MergersBased on recent events, the answer appears to be no! Since the first detections of gravitational waves in September 2015, we now know that black holes can merge to form bigger black holes. An initial distribution of black-hole masses must therefore evolve over time, as mergers cause the depletion of low-mass black holes and an increase in

  7. Black hole formation in a contracting universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintin, Jerome; Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a contracting universe. We aim to determine under which conditions density perturbations grow to form large inhomogeneities and collapse into black holes. Our method consists in solving the cosmological perturbation equations in complete generality for a hydrodynamical fluid. We then describe the evolution of the fluctuations over the different length scales of interest and as a function of the equation of state for the fluid, and we explore two different types of initial conditions: quantum vacuum and thermal fluctuations. We also derive a general requirement for black hole collapse on sub-Hubble scales, and we use the Press-Schechter formalism to describe the black hole formation probability. For a fluid with a small sound speed (e.g., dust), we find that both quantum and thermal initial fluctuations grow in a contracting universe, and the largest inhomogeneities that first collapse into black holes are of Hubble size and the collapse occurs well before reaching the Planck scale. For a radiation-dominated fluid, we find that no black hole can form before reaching the Planck scale. In the context of matter bounce cosmology, it thus appears that only models in which a radiation-dominated era begins early in the cosmological evolution are robust against the formation of black holes. Yet, the formation of black holes might be an interesting feature for other models. We comment on a number of possible alternative early universe scenarios that could take advantage of this feature.

  8. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochan, Kinjalk, E-mail: kinjalk@iucaa.in; Chakraborty, Sumanta, E-mail: sumanta@iucaa.in

    2016-04-10

    The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  9. Particle creation rate for dynamical black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firouzjaee, Javad T. [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Oxford, Department of Physics (Astrophysics), Oxford (United Kingdom); Ellis, George F.R. [University of Cape Town, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics Department, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    2016-11-15

    We present the particle creation probability rate around a general black hole as an outcome of quantum fluctuations. Using the uncertainty principle for these fluctuation, we derive a new ultraviolet frequency cutoff for the radiation spectrum of a dynamical black hole. Using this frequency cutoff, we define the probability creation rate function for such black holes. We consider a dynamical Vaidya model and calculate the probability creation rate for this case when its horizon is in a slowly evolving phase. Our results show that one can expect the usual Hawking radiation emission process in the case of a dynamical black hole when it has a slowly evolving horizon. Moreover, calculating the probability rate for a dynamical black hole gives a measure of when Hawking radiation can be killed off by an incoming flux of matter or radiation. Our result strictly suggests that we have to revise the Hawking radiation expectation for primordial black holes that have grown substantially since they were created in the early universe. We also infer that this frequency cut off can be a parameter that shows the primordial black hole growth at the emission moment. (orig.)

  10. Black hole formation in a contracting universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintin, Jerome; Brandenberger, Robert H., E-mail: jquintin@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rhb@hep.physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 Canada (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    We study the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a contracting universe. We aim to determine under which conditions density perturbations grow to form large inhomogeneities and collapse into black holes. Our method consists in solving the cosmological perturbation equations in complete generality for a hydrodynamical fluid. We then describe the evolution of the fluctuations over the different length scales of interest and as a function of the equation of state for the fluid, and we explore two different types of initial conditions: quantum vacuum and thermal fluctuations. We also derive a general requirement for black hole collapse on sub-Hubble scales, and we use the Press-Schechter formalism to describe the black hole formation probability. For a fluid with a small sound speed (e.g., dust), we find that both quantum and thermal initial fluctuations grow in a contracting universe, and the largest inhomogeneities that first collapse into black holes are of Hubble size and the collapse occurs well before reaching the Planck scale. For a radiation-dominated fluid, we find that no black hole can form before reaching the Planck scale. In the context of matter bounce cosmology, it thus appears that only models in which a radiation-dominated era begins early in the cosmological evolution are robust against the formation of black holes. Yet, the formation of black holes might be an interesting feature for other models. We comment on a number of possible alternative early universe scenarios that could take advantage of this feature.

  11. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    it has died," said co-author Scott Chapman, also of Cambridge University. "This means we don't have to catch the black holes in the act to witness the big impact they have." This is the first X-ray ghost ever seen after the demise of radio-bright jets. Astronomers have observed extensive X-ray emission with a similar origin, but only from galaxies with radio emission on large scales, signifying continued eruptions. In HDF 130, only a point source is detected in radio images, coinciding with the massive elliptical galaxy seen in its optical image. This radio source indicates the presence of a growing supermassive black hole. People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act NASA Joins "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Galaxies Coming of Age in Cosmic Blobs "This result hints that the X-ray sky should be littered with such ghosts," said co-author Caitlin Casey, also of Cambridge, "especially if black hole eruptions are as common as we think they are in the early Universe." The power contained in the black hole eruption was likely to be considerable, equivalent to about a billion supernovas. The energy is dumped into the surroundings and transports and heats the gas. "Even after the ghost disappears, most of the energy from the black hole's eruption remains", said Fabian. "Because they're so powerful, these eruptions can have profound effects lasting for billions of years." The details of Chandra's data of HDF 130 helped secure its true nature. For example, in X-rays, HDF 130 has a cigar-like shape that extends for some 2.2 million light years. The linear shape of the X-ray source is consistent with the shape of radio jets and not with that of a galaxy cluster, which is expected to be circular. The energy distribution of the X-rays is also consistent with the interpretation of an X-ray ghost. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra

  12. Black hole dynamics at large D

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the classical dynamics of black holes can be reformulated as a dynamical problem of a codimension one membrane moving in flat space. This membrane - roughly the black hole event horizon - carries a conserved charge current and stress tensor which source radiation. This `membrane paradigm' may be viewed as a simplification of the equations of general relativity at large D, and suggests the possibility of using 1/D as a useful expansion parameter in the analysis of complicated four dimensional solutions of general relativity, for instance the collision between two black holes.

  13. Black hole ringdown echoes and howls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroyuki; Sago, Norichika; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2017-07-01

    Recently the possibility of detecting echoes of ringdown gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers was shown. The presence of echoes is expected if the black hole is surrounded by a mirror that reflects gravitational waves near the horizon. Here, we present slightly more sophisticated templates motivated by a waveform which is obtained by solving the linear perturbation equation around a Kerr black hole with a complete reflecting boundary condition in the stationary traveling wave approximation. We estimate that the proposed template can bring about a 10% improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio.

  14. Simulations of black holes in compactified spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilhao, Miguel; Herdeiro, Carlos [Centro de Fisica do Porto, Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Sperhake, Ulrich; Witek, Helvi [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Deptartamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gualtieri, Leonardo, E-mail: mzilhao@fc.up.pt [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' and Sezione INFN Roma1, P.A. Moro 5, 00185, Roma (Italy)

    2011-09-22

    From the gauge/gravity duality to braneworld scenarios, black holes in compactified spacetimes play an important role in fundamental physics. Our current understanding of black hole solutions and their dynamics in such spacetimes is rather poor because analytical tools are capable of handling a limited class of idealized scenarios, only. Breakthroughs in numerical relativity in recent years, however, have opened up the study of such spacetimes to a computational treatment which facilitates accurate studies of a wider class of configurations. We here report on recent efforts of our group to perform numerical simulations of black holes in cylindrical spacetimes.

  15. Quantum chaos and the black hole horizon

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to AdS/CFT, the analogy between black holes and thermal systems has become a practical tool, shedding light on thermalization, transport, and entanglement dynamics. Continuing in this vein, recent work has shown how chaos in the boundary CFT can be analyzed in terms of high energy scattering right on the horizon of the dual black hole. The analysis revolves around certain out-of-time-order correlation functions, which are simple diagnostics of the butterfly effect. We will review this work, along with a general bound on these functions that implies black holes are the most chaotic systems in quantum mechanics. (NB Room Change to Main Auditorium)

  16. Black Holes and the Information Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    In electromagnetism, like charges repel, opposite charges attract. A remarkable feature of the gravitational force is that like masses attract. This gives rise to an instability: the more mass you have, the stronger the attractive force, until an inevitable implosion follows, leading to a "black hole". It is in the black hole where an apparent conflict between Einstein's General Relativity and the laws of Quantum Mechanics becomes manifest. Most physicists now agree that a black hole should be described by a Schrödinger equation, with a Hermitean Hamiltonian, but this requires a modification of general relativity. Both General Relativity and Quantum mechanics are shaking on their foundations.

  17. Quantum black holes and Planck's constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the Planck-scale black holes of quantum gravity must obey a consistency condition relating Planck's constant to the integral of the mass of the black holes over time, if the usual path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is to make sense on physical spacetime. It is also shown, using time-dependent perturbation theory in ordinary quantum mechanics, that a massless particle will not propagate on physical spacetime with the black holes present unless the same condition is met. (author)

  18. Fast plunges into Kerr black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadar, Shahar [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Porfyriadis, Achilleas P.; Strominger, Andrew [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Most extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals of small compact objects into supermassive black holes end with a fast plunge from an eccentric last stable orbit. For rapidly rotating black holes such fast plunges may be studied in the context of the Kerr/CFT correspondence because they occur in the near-horizon region where dynamics are governed by the infinite dimensional conformal symmetry. In this paper we use conformal transformations to analytically solve for the radiation emitted from fast plunges into near-extreme Kerr black holes. We find perfect agreement between the gravity and CFT computations.

  19. Black hole entropy, universality, and horizon constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, Steven

    2006-01-01

    To ask a question about a black hole in quantum gravity, one must restrict initial or boundary data to ensure that a black hole is actually present. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, and probably a much wider class of theories, I show that the imposition of a 'stretched horizon' constraint modifies the algebra of symmetries at the horizon, allowing the use of conformal field theory techniques to determine the asymptotic density of states. The result reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy without any need for detailed assumptions about the microscopic theory. Horizon symmetries may thus offer an answer to the problem of universality of black hole entropy

  20. Black hole entropy, universality, and horizon constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlip, Steven [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-03-01

    To ask a question about a black hole in quantum gravity, one must restrict initial or boundary data to ensure that a black hole is actually present. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, and probably a much wider class of theories, I show that the imposition of a 'stretched horizon' constraint modifies the algebra of symmetries at the horizon, allowing the use of conformal field theory techniques to determine the asymptotic density of states. The result reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy without any need for detailed assumptions about the microscopic theory. Horizon symmetries may thus offer an answer to the problem of universality of black hole entropy.

  1. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  2. Primordial black holes from fifth forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Luca; Rubio, Javier; Wetterich, Christof

    2018-04-01

    Primordial black holes can be produced by a long-range attractive fifth force stronger than gravity, mediated by a light scalar field interacting with nonrelativistic "heavy" particles. As soon as the energy fraction of heavy particles reaches a threshold, the fluctuations rapidly become nonlinear. The overdensities collapse into black holes or similar screened objects, without the need for any particular feature in the spectrum of primordial density fluctuations generated during inflation. We discuss whether such primordial black holes can constitute the total dark matter component in the Universe.

  3. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  4. Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David

    2015-07-17

    We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold.

  5. New class of accelerating black hole solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camps, Joan; Emparan, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We construct several new families of vacuum solutions that describe black holes in uniformly accelerated motion. They generalize the C metric to the case where the energy density and tension of the strings that pull (or push) on the black holes are independent parameters. These strings create large curvatures near their axis and when they have infinite length they modify the asymptotic properties of the spacetime, but we discuss how these features can be dealt with physically, in particular, in terms of 'wiggly cosmic strings'. We comment on possible extensions and extract lessons for the problem of finding higher-dimensional accelerating black hole solutions.

  6. Depilating Global Charge From Thermal Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    March-Russell, John David; March-Russell, John; Wilczek, Frank

    2001-01-01

    At a formal level, there appears to be no difficulty involved in introducing a chemical potential for a globally conserved quantum number into the partition function for space-time including a black hole. Were this possible, however, it would provide a form of black hole hair, and contradict the idea that global quantum numbers are violated in black hole evaporation. We demonstrate dynamical mechanisms that negate the formal procedure, both for topological charge (Skyrmions) and complex scalar-field charge. Skyrmions collapse to the horizon; scalar-field charge fluctuates uncontrollably.

  7. Semiclassical approach to black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Black hole evaporation may lead to massive or massless remnants, or naked singularities. This paper investigates this process in the context of two quite different two-dimensional black hole models. The first is the original Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger (CGHS) model, the second is another two-dimensional dilaton-gravity model, but with properties much closer to physics in the real, four-dimensional, world. Numerical simulations are performed of the formation and subsequent evaporation of black holes and the results are found to agree qualitatively with the exactly solved modified CGHS models, namely, that the semiclassical approximation breaks down just before a naked singularity appears

  8. Numerical study of nonspherical black hole accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes in detail a two-dimensional, axisymmetric computer code for calculating fully relativistic ideal gas hydrodynamics around a Kerr black hole. The aim is to study fully dynamic inviscid fluid accretion onto black holes, as well as to study the evolution and development of nonlinear instabilities in pressure supported accretion disks. In order to fully calibrate and document the code, certain analytic solutions for shock tubes and special accretion flows are derived; these solutions form the basis for code testing. The numerical techniques used are developed and discussed. A variety of alternate differencing schemes are compared on an analytic test bed. Some discussion is devoted to general issues in finite differencing. The working code is calibrated using analytically solvable accretion problems, including the radial accretion of dust and of fluid with pressure (Bondi accretion). Two dimensional test problems include the spiraling infall of low angular momentum fluid, the formation of a pressure supported torus, and the stable evolution of a torus. A series of numerical models are discussed and illustrated with selected plots

  9. Surprise: Dwarf Galaxy Harbors Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The surprising discovery of a supermassive black hole in a small nearby galaxy has given astronomers a tantalizing look at how black holes and galaxies may have grown in the early history of the Universe. Finding a black hole a million times more massive than the Sun in a star-forming dwarf galaxy is a strong indication that supermassive black holes formed before the buildup of galaxies, the astronomers said. The galaxy, called Henize 2-10, 30 million light-years from Earth, has been studied for years, and is forming stars very rapidly. Irregularly shaped and about 3,000 light-years across (compared to 100,000 for our own Milky Way), it resembles what scientists think were some of the first galaxies to form in the early Universe. "This galaxy gives us important clues about a very early phase of galaxy evolution that has not been observed before," said Amy Reines, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Virginia. Supermassive black holes lie at the cores of all "full-sized" galaxies. In the nearby Universe, there is a direct relationship -- a constant ratio -- between the masses of the black holes and that of the central "bulges" of the galaxies, leading them to conclude that the black holes and bulges affected each others' growth. Two years ago, an international team of astronomers found that black holes in young galaxies in the early Universe were more massive than this ratio would indicate. This, they said, was strong evidence that black holes developed before their surrounding galaxies. "Now, we have found a dwarf galaxy with no bulge at all, yet it has a supermassive black hole. This greatly strengthens the case for the black holes developing first, before the galaxy's bulge is formed," Reines said. Reines, along with Gregory Sivakoff and Kelsey Johnson of the University of Virginia and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and Crystal Brogan of the NRAO, observed Henize 2-10 with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope and

  10. Tracking black holes in numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caveny, Scott A.; Anderson, Matthew; Matzner, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of generically tracking black hole event horizons in computational simulation of black hole interactions. Solutions of the hyperbolic eikonal equation, solved on a curved spacetime manifold containing black hole sources, are employed in development of a robust tracking method capable of continuously monitoring arbitrary changes of topology in the event horizon as well as arbitrary numbers of gravitational sources. The method makes use of continuous families of level set viscosity solutions of the eikonal equation with identification of the black hole event horizon obtained by the signature feature of discontinuity formation in the eikonal's solution. The method is employed in the analysis of the event horizon for the asymmetric merger in a binary black hole system. In this first such three dimensional analysis, we establish both qualitative and quantitative evidence for our method and its application to the asymmetric problem. We focus attention on (1) the topology of the throat connecting the holes following merger, (2) the time of merger, and (3) continuing to account for the surface of section areas of the black hole sources

  11. Destruction and recreation of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Even though the existence of the gravitationally collapsed concentrations of matter in space known as ‘black holes’ is accepted at all educational levels in our society, the basis for the black hole concept is really only the result of approximate calculations done over 40 years ago. The concept of the black hole is an esoteric subject, and recently the mathematical and physical frailties of the concept have come to light in an interesting round of theoretical shuffling. The recent activity in theorizing about black holes began about 10 years ago, when Cambridge University mathematican Stephen Hawking calculated that black holes could become unstable by losing mass and thus ‘evaporate.’ Hawking's results were surprisingly well received, considering the lack of theoretical understanding of the relations between quantum mechanics and relativity. (There is no quantized theory of gravitation, even today.) Nonetheless, his semiclassical calculations implied that the rate of ‘evaporation’ of a black hole would be slower than the rate of degradation of the universe. In fact, based on these and other calculations, the British regard Hawking as ‘the nearest thing we have to a new Einstein’ [New Scientist, Oct. 9, 1980]. Within the last few months, Frank Tipler, provocative mathematical physicist at the University of Texas, has reexamined Hawking's calculations [Physical Review Letters, 45, 941, 1980], concluding, in simple terms, (1) that because of possible vital difficulties in the assumptions, the very concept of black holes could be wrong; (2) that Hawkings' evaporation hypothesis is so efficient that a black hole once created must disappear in less than a second; or (3) that he, Tipler, may be wrong. The latter possibility has been the conclusion of physicist James Bardeen of the University of Washington, who calculated that black hole masses do evaporate but they do so according to Hawking's predicted rate and that Tipler's findings cause only a second

  12. Black Hole Scrambling from Hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Schalm, Koenraad; Scopelliti, Vincenzo

    2018-06-08

    We argue that the gravitational shock wave computation used to extract the scrambling rate in strongly coupled quantum theories with a holographic dual is directly related to probing the system's hydrodynamic sound modes. The information recovered from the shock wave can be reconstructed in terms of purely diffusionlike, linearized gravitational waves at the horizon of a single-sided black hole with specific regularity-enforced imaginary values of frequency and momentum. In two-derivative bulk theories, this horizon "diffusion" can be related to late-time momentum diffusion via a simple relation, which ceases to hold in higher-derivative theories. We then show that the same values of imaginary frequency and momentum follow from a dispersion relation of a hydrodynamic sound mode. The frequency, momentum, and group velocity give the holographic Lyapunov exponent and the butterfly velocity. Moreover, at this special point along the sound dispersion relation curve, the residue of the retarded longitudinal stress-energy tensor two-point function vanishes. This establishes a direct link between a hydrodynamic sound mode at an analytically continued, imaginary momentum and the holographic butterfly effect. Furthermore, our results imply that infinitely strongly coupled, large-N_{c} holographic theories exhibit properties similar to classical dilute gases; there, late-time equilibration and early-time scrambling are also controlled by the same dynamics.

  13. Skyrmion black hole hair: Conservation of baryon number by black holes and observable manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvali, Gia [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Gußmann, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.gussmann@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, 80333 München (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    We show that the existence of black holes with classical skyrmion hair invalidates standard proofs that global charges, such as the baryon number, cannot be conserved by a black hole. By carefully analyzing the standard arguments based on a Gedankenexperiment in which a black hole is seemingly-unable to return the baryon number that it swallowed, we identify inconsistencies in this reasoning, which does not take into the account neither the existence of skyrmion black holes nor the baryon/skyrmion correspondence. We then perform a refined Gedankenexperiment by incorporating the new knowledge and show that no contradiction with conservation of baryon number takes place at any stage of black hole evolution. Our analysis also indicates no conflict between semi-classical black holes and the existence of baryonic gauge interaction arbitrarily-weaker than gravity. Next, we study classical cross sections of a minimally-coupled massless probe scalar field scattered by a skyrmion black hole. We investigate how the skyrmion hair manifests itself by comparing this cross section with the analogous cross section caused by a Schwarzschild black hole which has the same ADM mass as the skyrmion black hole. Here we find an order-one difference in the positions of the characteristic peaks in the cross sections. The peaks are shifted to smaller scattering angles when the skyrmion hair is present. This comes from the fact that the skyrmion hair changes the near horizon geometry of the black hole when compared to a Schwarzschild black hole with same ADM mass. We keep the study of this second aspect general so that the qualitative results which we obtain can also be applied to black holes with classical hair of different kind.

  14. Thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: Thermal stability of the Nariai black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2008-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole in five dimensions by introducing two temperatures based on the standard and Bousso-Hawking normalizations. We use the first-law of thermodynamics to derive thermodynamic quantities. The two temperatures indicate that the Nariai black hole is thermodynamically unstable. However, it seems that black hole thermodynamics favors the standard normalization and does not favor the Bousso-Hawking normalization

  15. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  16. Extra dimensions and black hole production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliarona, C.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews recent development in models with Large Extra Dimensions and Black hole production at future colliders. Experimental results from current experiments as well as the expectation for the future colliders are summarized

  17. Middleweight black holes found at last

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clery, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    How did giant black holes grow so big? Astronomers have long had evidence of baby black holes with masses of no more than tens of suns, and of million- or billion-solar-mass behemoths lurking at the centers of galaxies. But middle-size ones, weighing thousands or tens of thousands of suns, seemed to be missing. Their absence forced theorists to propose that supermassive black holes didn't grow gradually by slowly consuming matter, but somehow emerged as ready-made giants. Now, astronomers appear to have located some missing middleweights. An international team has scoured an archive of galaxy spectra and found more than 300 small galaxies that have the signature of intermediate mass black holes in their cores, opening new questions for theorists.

  18. Black holes in a cubic Galileon universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babichev, E.; Charmousis, C.; Lehébel, A.; Moskalets, T., E-mail: eugeny.babichev@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: christos.charmousis@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: antoine.lehebel@th.u-psud.fr, E-mail: tetiana.moskalets@th.u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-09-01

    We find and study the properties of black hole solutions for a subclass of Horndeski theory including the cubic Galileon term. The theory under study has shift symmetry but not reflection symmetry for the scalar field. The Galileon is assumed to have linear time dependence characterized by a velocity parameter. We give analytic 3-dimensional solutions that are akin to the BTZ solutions but with a non-trivial scalar field that modifies the effective cosmological constant. We then study the 4-dimensional asymptotically flat and de Sitter solutions. The latter present three different branches according to their effective cosmological constant. For two of these branches, we find families of black hole solutions, parametrized by the velocity of the scalar field. These spherically symmetric solutions, obtained numerically, are different from GR solutions close to the black hole event horizon, while they have the same de-Sitter asymptotic behavior. The velocity parameter represents black hole primary hair.

  19. Black holes and groups of type 7

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supergravity; groups of type 7; black holes; quantum field theory. ... representation are reviewed, along with a connection between special Kähler geometry and a 'generalization' of groups of type 7. ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  20. Quantum and thermodynamic aspects of Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sande e Lemos, J.P. de; Videira, A.L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The main results originating from the attempts of trying to incorporate quantum and thermodynamic properties and concepts to the gravitational system black hole, essentially the Hawking effect and the four laws of thermodynamics are reviewed. (Author) [pt

  1. Energy level diagrams for black hole orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Janna

    2009-12-01

    A spinning black hole with a much smaller black hole companion forms a fundamental gravitational system, like a colossal classical analog to an atom. In an appealing if imperfect analogy with atomic physics, this gravitational atom can be understood through a discrete spectrum of periodic orbits. Exploiting a correspondence between the set of periodic orbits and the set of rational numbers, we are able to construct periodic tables of orbits and energy level diagrams of the accessible states around black holes. We also present a closed-form expression for the rational q, thereby quantifying zoom-whirl behavior in terms of spin, energy and angular momentum. The black hole atom is not just a theoretical construct, but corresponds to extant astrophysical systems detectable by future gravitational wave observatories.

  2. Energy level diagrams for black hole orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Janna

    2009-01-01

    A spinning black hole with a much smaller black hole companion forms a fundamental gravitational system, like a colossal classical analog to an atom. In an appealing if imperfect analogy with atomic physics, this gravitational atom can be understood through a discrete spectrum of periodic orbits. Exploiting a correspondence between the set of periodic orbits and the set of rational numbers, we are able to construct periodic tables of orbits and energy level diagrams of the accessible states around black holes. We also present a closed-form expression for the rational q, thereby quantifying zoom-whirl behavior in terms of spin, energy and angular momentum. The black hole atom is not just a theoretical construct, but corresponds to extant astrophysical systems detectable by future gravitational wave observatories.

  3. Black-hole masses of distant quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview of the methods commonly used to determine or estimate the black hole mass in quiescent or active galaxies is presented and it is argued that the use of mass-scaling relations is both a reliable and the preferred method to apply to large samples of distant quasars. The method uses...... that the black hole masses are very large, of order 1 to 10 billion solar masses, even at the highest redshifts of 4 to 6. The black holes must build up their mass very fast in the early universe. Yet they do not grow much larger than that: a maximum mass of about 10 billion solar masses is also observed....... Preliminary mass functions of active black holes are presented for several quasar samples, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Finally, common concerns related to the application of the mass scaling relations, especially for high redshift quasars, are briefly discussed....

  4. Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-01-01

    This talk will focus on simulations of binary black hole mergers and the gravitational wave signals they produce. Applications to gravitational wave detection with LISA, and electronagnetic counterparts, will be highlighted.

  5. Mass of a Black Hole Firewall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, M. A.; Kluźniak, W.; Lasota, J.-P.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum entanglement of Hawking radiation has been supposed to give rise to a Planck density "firewall" near the event horizon of old black holes. We show that Planck density firewalls are excluded by Einstein's equations for black holes of mass exceeding the Planck mass. We find an upper limit of 1/(8πM) to the surface density of a firewall in a Schwarzschild black hole of mass M, translating for astrophysical black holes into a firewall density smaller than the Planck density by more than 30 orders of magnitude. A strict upper limit on the firewall density is given by the Planck density times the ratio MPl/(8πM).

  6. Correspondence principle for black holes and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Polchinski, J.

    1997-01-01

    For most black holes in string theory, the Schwarzschild radius in string units decreases as the string coupling is reduced. We formulate a correspondence principle, which states that (i) when the size of the horizon drops below the size of a string, the typical black hole state becomes a typical state of strings and D-branes with the same charges, and (ii) the mass does not change abruptly during the transition. This provides a statistical interpretation of black hole entropy. This approach does not yield the numerical coefficient, but gives the correct dependence on mass and charge in a wide range of cases, including neutral black holes. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. Black holes in the ghost condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    We investigate how the ghost condensate reacts to black holes immersed in it. A ghost condensate defines a hypersurface-orthogonal congruence of timelike curves, each of which has the tangent vector u μ =-g μν ∂ ν φ. It is argued that the ghost condensate in this picture approximately corresponds to a congruence of geodesics. In other words, the ghost condensate accretes into a black hole just like a pressureless dust. Correspondingly, if the energy density of the ghost condensate at large distance is set to an extremely small value by cosmic expansion then the late-time accretion rate of the ghost condensate should be negligible. The accretion rate remains very small even if effects of higher derivative terms are taken into account, provided that the black hole is sufficiently large. It is also discussed how to reconcile the black-hole accretion with the possibility that the ghost condensate might behave like dark matter

  8. Black hole dynamics in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Basic features of dynamical black holes in full, non-linear general relativity are summarized in a pedagogical fashion. Qualitative properties of the evolution of various horizons follow directly from the celebrated Raychaudhuri equation.

  9. Hagedorn temperature and physics of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.I.; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri

    2016-01-01

    A mini-review devoted to some implications of the Hagedorn temperature for black hole physics. The existence of a limiting temperature is a generic feature of string models. The Hagedorn temperature was introduced first in the context of hadronic physics. Nowadays, the emphasis is shifted to fundamental strings which might be a necessary ingredient to obtain a consistent theory of black holes. The point is that, in field theory, the local temperature close to the horizon could be arbitrarily high, and this observation is difficult to reconcile with the finiteness of the entropy of black holes. After preliminary remarks, we review our recent attempt to evaluate the entropy of large black holes in terms of fundamental strings. We also speculate on implications for dynamics of large-N_c gauge theories arising within holographic models

  10. The third law of black hole mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, B.T.; Israel, W.

    1980-01-01

    By consideration of a simple example it is demonstrated that a third law of black hole mechanics cannot be valid unless the energy tensor of accreting matter is bounded and satisfies a positive energy condition outside apparent horizons. (orig.)

  11. Black hole thermodynamics and time asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P C.W. [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1976-10-01

    The role of the gravitational field as a source of entropy is discussed, first in connection with cosmology, then for black holes. A review is given of the need for an assumption of 'molecular' chaos or randomness at the initial cosmological singularity, in order to achieve consistency of statistical mechanics with the observed time asymmetry in the universe. It is argued that a simple randomness assumption cannot always be made, because several singularities may be casually connected. The situation is compared with that of quantum black and white holes confined in a closed box. The possibility of black-hole fluctuations is discussed, together with Hawking's conjecture that black and white holes are indistinguishable.

  12. Primordial Black Holes from First Principles (Overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Casey; Bloomfield, Jolyon; Moss, Zander; Russell, Megan; Face, Stephen; Guth, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Given a power spectrum from inflation, our goal is to calculate, from first principles, the number density and mass spectrum of primordial black holes that form in the early universe. Previously, these have been calculated using the Press- Schechter formalism and some demonstrably dubious rules of thumb regarding predictions of black hole collapse. Instead, we use Monte Carlo integration methods to sample field configurations from a power spectrum combined with numerical relativity simulations to obtain a more accurate picture of primordial black hole formation. We demonstrate how this can be applied for both Gaussian perturbations and the more interesting (for primordial black holes) theory of hybrid inflation. One of the tools that we employ is a variant of the BBKS formalism for computing the statistics of density peaks in the early universe. We discuss the issue of overcounting due to subpeaks that can arise from this approach (the ``cloud-in-cloud'' problem). MIT UROP Office- Paul E. Gray (1954) Endowed Fund.

  13. Before Inflation and after Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, Henry

    This dissertation covers work from three research projects relating to the physics before the start of inflation and information after the decay of a black hole. For the first project, we analyze the cosmological role of terminal vacua in the string theory landscape, and point out that existing work on this topic makes very strong assumptions about the properties of the terminal vacua. We explore the implications of relaxing these assumptions (by including "arrival" as well as "departure" terminals) and demonstrate that the results in earlier work are highly sensitive to their assumption of no arrival terminals. We use our discussion to make some general points about tuning and initial conditions in cosmology. The second project is a discussion of the black hole information problem. Under certain conditions the black hole information puzzle and the (related) arguments that firewalls are a typical feature of black holes can break down. We first review the arguments of Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski and Sully (AMPS) favoring firewalls, focusing on entanglements in a simple toy model for a black hole and the Hawking radiation. By introducing a large and inaccessible system entangled with the black hole (representing perhaps a de Sitter stretched horizon or inaccessible part of a landscape) we show complementarity can be restored and firewalls can be avoided throughout the black hole's evolution. Under these conditions black holes do not have an "information problem". We point out flaws in some of our earlier arguments that such entanglement might be generically present in some cosmological scenarios, and call out certain ways our picture may still be realized. The third project also examines the firewall argument. A fundamental limitation on the behavior of quantum entanglement known as "monogamy" plays a key role in the AMPS argument. Our goal is to study and apply many-body entanglement theory to consider the entanglement among different parts of Hawking radiation and

  14. Difference Principle and Black-hole Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Pete

    2009-01-01

    The heuristic principle that constructive dynamics may arise wherever there exists a difference, or gradient, is discussed. Consideration of black-hole entropy appears to provide a clue for setting a lower bound on any extensive measure of such collective system difference, or potential to give rise to constructive dynamics. It is seen that the second-power dependence of black-hole entropy on mass is consistent with the difference principle, while consideration of Hawking radiation forces one...

  15. Duality invariance of black hole creation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Pair creation of electrically charged black holes and its dual process, pair creation of magnetically charged black holes, are considered. It is shown that the creation rates are equal provided the boundary conditions for the two processes are dual to one another. This conclusion follows from a careful analysis of boundary terms and boundary conditions for the Maxwell action. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Universality of black hole quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvali, Gia [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); New York Univ., NY (United States). Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics; Gomez, Cesar [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC; Luest, Dieter [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Omar, Yasser [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (Portugal). Physics of Information and Quantum Technologies Group; Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico; Richter, Benedikt [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (Portugal). Physics of Information and Quantum Technologies Group; Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    2017-01-15

    By analyzing the key properties of black holes from the point of view of quantum information, we derive a model-independent picture of black hole quantum computing. It has been noticed that this picture exhibits striking similarities with quantum critical condensates, allowing the use of a common language to describe quantum computing in both systems. We analyze such quantum computing by allowing coupling to external modes, under the condition that the external influence must be soft-enough in order not to offset the basic properties of the system. We derive model-independent bounds on some crucial time-scales, such as the times of gate operation, decoherence, maximal entanglement and total scrambling. We show that for black hole type quantum computers all these time-scales are of the order of the black hole half-life time. Furthermore, we construct explicitly a set of Hamiltonians that generates a universal set of quantum gates for the black hole type computer. We find that the gates work at maximal energy efficiency. Furthermore, we establish a fundamental bound on the complexity of quantum circuits encoded on these systems, and characterize the unitary operations that are implementable. It becomes apparent that the computational power is very limited due to the fact that the black hole life-time is of the same order of the gate operation time. As a consequence, it is impossible to retrieve its information, within the life-time of a black hole, by externally coupling to the black hole qubits. However, we show that, in principle, coupling to some of the internal degrees of freedom allows acquiring knowledge about the micro-state. Still, due to the trivial complexity of operations that can be performed, there is no time advantage over the collection of Hawking radiation and subsequent decoding. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Do evaporating black holes form photospheres?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGibbon, Jane H.; Carr, B. J.; Page, Don N.

    2008-01-01

    Several authors, most notably Heckler, have claimed that the observable Hawking emission from a microscopic black hole is significantly modified by the formation of a photosphere around the black hole due to QED or QCD interactions between the emitted particles. In this paper we analyze these claims and identify a number of physical and geometrical effects which invalidate these scenarios. We point out two key problems. First, the interacting particles must be causally connected to interact, and this condition is satisfied by only a small fraction of the emitted particles close to the black hole. Second, a scattered particle requires a distance ∼E/m e 2 for completing each bremsstrahlung interaction, with the consequence that it is improbable for there to be more than one complete bremsstrahlung interaction per particle near the black hole. These two effects have not been included in previous analyses. We conclude that the emitted particles do not interact sufficiently to form a QED photosphere. Similar arguments apply in the QCD case and prevent a QCD photosphere (chromosphere) from developing when the black hole temperature is much greater than Λ QCD , the threshold for QCD particle emission. Additional QCD phenomenological arguments rule out the development of a chromosphere around black hole temperatures of order Λ QCD . In all cases, the observational signatures of a cosmic or Galactic halo background of primordial black holes or an individual black hole remain essentially those of the standard Hawking model, with little change to the detection probability. We also consider the possibility, as proposed by Belyanin et al. and D. Cline et al., that plasma interactions between the emitted particles form a photosphere, and we conclude that this scenario too is not supported.

  18. Ruppeiner theory of black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, Jan E; Bedford, James; Grumiller, Daniel; Pidokrajt, Narit; Ward, John

    2007-01-01

    The Ruppeiner metric as determined by the Hessian of the Gibbs surface provides a geometric description of thermodynamic systems in equilibrium. An interesting example is a black hole in equilibrium with its own Hawking radiation. In this article, we present results from the Ruppeiner study of various black hole families from different gravity theories e.g. 2D dilaton gravity, BTZ, general relativity and higher-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell gravity

  19. Black hole information, unitarity, and nonlocality

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    The black hole information paradox apparently indicates the need for a fundamentally new ingredient in physics. The leading contender is nonlocality. Possible mechanisms for the nonlocality needed to restore unitarity to black hole evolution are investigated. Suggestions that such dynamics arises from ultra-planckian modes in Hawking's derivation are investigated and found not to be relevant, in a picture using smooth slices spanning the exterior and interior of the horizon. However, no simul...

  20. Some astrophysical processes around magnetized black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kološ, M.; Tursunov, A.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2018-01-01

    We study the dynamics of charged test particles in the vicinity of a black hole immersed into an asymptotically uniform external magnetic field. A real magnetic field around a black hole will be far away from to be completely regular and uniform, a uniform magnetic field is used as linear approximation. Ionized particle acceleration, charged particle oscillations and synchrotron radiation of moving charged particle have been studied.

  1. Supersymmetric black holes from Toda theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delduc, F.; Saveliev, M.V.; Gervais, J.L.

    1992-07-01

    By the example of nonabelian Toda type theory associated with the Lie superalgebra osp(2/4) it is shown that this integrable dynamical system is relevant to a black hole background metric in the corresponding target space. In the even sector the model under consideration reduces to the exactly solvable conformal theory (nonabelian B 2 Toda system) in the presence of a black hole. (author) 6 refs

  2. Measuring spin of black holes in the universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Measuring spin of black holes in the universe · What is black hole? Accretion Disk and Jet · What is black hole's spin? Accretion Disk · Black Hole's Potential · Light Curves: Photon Count Rate Vs Time · Quasi-Periodic Oscillation · Slide 9 · Model · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Summary.

  3. Phases of Kaluza-Klein Black Holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmark, Troels; Obers, N. A.

    2005-01-01

    We review the latest progress in understanding the phase structure of static and neutral Kaluza-Klein black holes, i.e. static and neutral solutions of pure gravity with an event horizon that asymptote to a d-dimensional Minkowski-space times a circle. We start by reviewing the (mu,n) phase diagram...... and the split-up of the phase structure into solutions with an internal SO(d-1) symmetry and solutions with Kaluza-Klein bubbles. We then discuss the uniform black string, non-uniform black string and localized black hole phases, and how those three phases are connected, involving issues such as classical...... instability and horizon-topology changing transitions. Finally, we review the bubble-black hole sequences, their place in the phase structure and interesting aspects such as the continuously infinite non-uniqueness of solutions for a given mass and relative tension....

  4. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  5. Cosmological production of noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Robert B.; Nicolini, Piero

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the pair creation of noncommutative black holes in a background with a positive cosmological constant. As a first step we derive the noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution. By varying the mass and the cosmological constant parameters, we find several spacetimes compatible with the new solution: positive-mass spacetimes admit one cosmological horizon and two, one, or no black hole horizons, while negative-mass spacetimes have just a cosmological horizon. These new black holes share the properties of the corresponding asymptotically flat solutions, including the nonsingular core and thermodynamic stability in the final phase of the evaporation. As a second step we determine the action which generates the matter sector of gravitational field equations and we construct instantons describing the pair production of black holes and the other admissible topologies. As a result we find that for current values of the cosmological constant the de Sitter background is quantum mechanically stable according to experience. However, positive-mass noncommutative black holes and solitons would have plentifully been produced during inflationary times for Planckian values of the cosmological constant. As a special result we find that, in these early epochs of the Universe, Planck size black holes production would have been largely disfavored. We also find a potential instability for production of negative-mass solitons.

  6. Micro Black Holes and the Democratic Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    Unitarity implies that the evaporation of microscopic quasi-classical black holes cannot be universal in different particle species. This creates a puzzle, since it conflicts with the thermal nature of quasi-classical black holes, according to which all the species should see the same horizon and be produced with the same Hawking temperatures. We resolve this puzzle by showing that for the microscopic black holes, on top the usual quantum evaporation time, there is a new time-scale which characterizes a purely classical process during which the black hole looses the ability to differentiate among the species, and becomes democratic. We demonstrate this phenomenon in a well-understood framework of large extra dimensions, with a number of parallel branes. An initially non-democratic black hole is the one localized on one of the branes, with its high-dimensional Schwarzschild radius being much shorter than the interbrane distance. Such a black hole seemingly cannot evaporate into the species localized on the oth...

  7. Rotating dilaton black holes with hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lerida, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    We consider stationary rotating black holes in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, coupled to a dilaton. The black holes possess nontrivial non-Abelian electric and magnetic fields outside their regular event horizon. While generic solutions carry no non-Abelian magnetic charge, but non-Abelian electric charge, the presence of the dilaton field allows also for rotating solutions with no non-Abelian charge at all. As a consequence, these special solutions do not exhibit the generic asymptotic noninteger power falloff of the non-Abelian gauge field functions. The rotating black hole solutions form sequences, characterized by the winding number n and the node number k of their gauge field functions, tending to embedded Abelian black holes. The stationary non-Abelian black hole solutions satisfy a mass formula, similar to the Smarr formula, where the dilaton charge enters instead of the magnetic charge. Introducing a topological charge, we conjecture that black hole solutions in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton theory are uniquely characterized by their mass, their angular momentum, their dilaton charge, their non-Abelian electric charge, and their topological charge

  8. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek A. Abramowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks, Shakura-Sunyaev (thin disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs. After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs.

  9. Ineffective higher derivative black hole hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Kevin; Mashiyane, James Junior

    2018-01-01

    Inspired by the possibility that the Schwarzschild black hole may not be the unique spherically symmetric vacuum solution to generalizations of general relativity, we consider black holes in pure fourth order higher derivative gravity treated as an effective theory. Such solutions may be of interest in addressing the issue of higher derivative hair or during the later stages of black hole evaporation. Non-Schwarzschild solutions have been studied but we have put earlier results on a firmer footing by finding a systematic asymptotic expansion for the black holes and matching them with known numerical solutions obtained by integrating out from the near-horizon region. These asymptotic expansions can be cast in the form of trans-series expansions which we conjecture will be a generic feature of non-Schwarzschild higher derivative black holes. Excitingly we find a new branch of solutions with lower free energy than the Schwarzschild solution, but as found in earlier work, solutions only seem to exist for black holes with large curvatures, meaning that one should not generically neglect even higher derivative corrections. This suggests that one effectively recovers the nonhair theorems in this context.

  10. Rotating hairy black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erices, Cristián; Martínez, Cristián

    2018-01-01

    A class of exact rotating black hole solutions of gravity nonminimally coupled to a self-interacting scalar field in arbitrary dimensions is presented. These spacetimes are asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter manifolds and have a Ricci-flat event horizon hiding a curvature singularity at the origin. The scalar field is real and regular everywhere, and its effective mass, coming from the nonminimal coupling with the scalar curvature, saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the corresponding spacetime dimension. The rotating black hole is obtained by applying an improper coordinate transformation to the static one. Although both spacetimes are locally equivalent, they are globally different, as it is confirmed by the nonvanishing angular momentum of the rotating black hole. It is found that the mass is bounded from below by the angular momentum, in agreement with the existence of an event horizon. The thermodynamical analysis is carried out in the grand canonical ensemble. The first law is satisfied, and a Smarr formula is exhibited. The thermodynamical local stability of the rotating hairy black holes is established from their Gibbs free energy. However, the global stability analysis establishes that the vacuum spacetime is always preferred over the hairy black hole. Thus, the hairy black hole is likely to decay into the vacuum one for any temperature.

  11. Black hole chemistry: thermodynamics with Lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B; Teo, Mae

    2017-01-01

    We review recent developments on the thermodynamics of black holes in extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is interpreted as thermodynamic pressure and treated as a thermodynamic variable in its own right. In this approach, the mass of the black hole is no longer regarded as internal energy, rather it is identified with the chemical enthalpy. This leads to an extended dictionary for black hole thermodynamic quantities; in particular a notion of thermodynamic volume emerges for a given black hole spacetime. This volume is conjectured to satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality—an inequality imposing a bound on the amount of entropy black hole can carry for a fixed thermodynamic volume. New thermodynamic phase transitions naturally emerge from these identifications. Namely, we show that black holes can be understood from the viewpoint of chemistry, in terms of concepts such as Van der Waals fluids, reentrant phase transitions, and triple points. We also review the recent attempts at extending the AdS/CFT dictionary in this setting, discuss the connections with horizon thermodynamics, applications to Lifshitz spacetimes, and outline possible future directions in this field. (topical review)

  12. The Astrophysics of Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    When two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) approach within 1-10 mpc, gravitational wave (GW) losses begin to dominate the evolution of the binary, pushing the system to merge in a relatively small time. During this final inspiral regime, the system will emit copious energy in GWs, which should be directly detectable by pulsar timing arrays and space-based interferometers. At the same time, any gas or stars in the immediate vicinity of the merging 5MBHs can get heated and produce bright electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to the GW signals. We present here a number of possible mechanisms by which simultaneous EM and GW signals will yield valuable new information about galaxy evolution, accretion disk dynamics, and fundamental physics in the most extreme gravitational fields.

  13. Does black-hole entropy make sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, D.

    1979-01-01

    Bekenstein and Hawking saved the second law of thermodynamics near a black hole by assigning to the hole an entropy Ssub(h) proportional to the area of its event horizon. It is tempting to assume that Ssub(h) possesses all the features commonly associated with the physical entropy. Kundt has shown, however, that Ssub(h) violates several reasonable physical expectations. This criticism is reviewed, augmenting it as follows: (a) Ssub(h) is a badly behaved state function requiring knowledge of the hole's future history; and (b) close analogs of event horizons in other space-times do not possess an 'entropy'. These questions are also discussed: (c) Is Ssub(h) suitable for all regions of a black-hole space-time. And (b) should Ssub(h) be attributed to the exterior of a white hole. One can retain Ssub(h) for the interior (respectively, exterior) of a black (respectively, white) hole, but is rejected as contrary to the information-theoretic derivation of horizon entropy given by Berkenstein. The total entropy defined by Kundt (all ordinary entropy on space-section cutting through the hole, no horizon term) and that of Bekenstein-Hawking (ordinary entropy outside horizon plus horizon term) appear to be complementary concepts with separate domains of validity. In the most natural choice, an observer inside a black hole will use Kundt's entropy, and one remaining outside that of Bekenstein-Hawking. (author)

  14. Black holes: just beyond the event horizon

    CERN Multimedia

    Vergano, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An upcoming study adds to the long history, suggesting blakc holes, now almost taken for granted, never actually comme fully into existence, and that the solution to a decades-old black hole paradox may be simpler than supposed. (1 page)

  15. Rotating black holes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen

    2011-04-15

    We construct generalizations of the Kerr black holes by including higher-curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. We show that the domain of existence of these Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton (EGBD) black holes is bounded by the Kerr black holes, the critical EGBD black holes, and the singular extremal EGBD solutions. The angular momentum of the EGBD black holes can exceed the Kerr bound. The EGBD black holes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We also compare their innermost stable circular orbits with those of the Kerr black holes and show the existence of differences which might be observable in astrophysical systems.

  16. Lectures on Black Hole Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank

    The lectures that follow were originally given in 1992, and written up only slightly later. Since then there have been dramatic developments in the quantum theory of black holes, especially in the context of string theory. None of these are reflected here. The concept of quantum hair, which is discussed at length in the lectures, is certainly of permanent interest, and I continue to believe that in some generalized form it will prove central to the whole question of how information is stored in black holes. The discussion of scattering and emission modes from various classes of black holes could be substantially simplified using modern techniques, and from currently popular perspectives the choice of examples might look eccentric. On the other hand fashions have changed rapidly in the field, and the big questions as stated and addressed here, especially as formulated for "real" black holes (nonextremal, in four-dimensional, asymptotically flat space-time, with supersymmetry broken), remain pertinent even as the tools to address them may evolve. The four lectures I gave at the school were based on two lengthy papers that have now been published, "Black Holes as Elementary Particles," Nuclear Physics B380, 447 (1992) and "Quantum Hair on Black Holes," Nuclear Physics B378, 175 (1992). The unifying theme of this work is to help make plausible the possibility that black holes, although they are certainly unusual and extreme states of matter, may be susceptible to a description using concepts that are not fundamentally different from those we use in describing other sorts of quantum-mechanical matter. In the first two lectures I discussed dilaton black holes. The fact that apparently innocuous changes in the "matter" action can drastically change the properties of a black hole is already very significant: it indicates that the physical properties of small black holes cannot be discussed reliably in the abstract, but must be considered with due regard to the rest of

  17. THE BLACK HOLE FORMATION PROBABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D., E-mail: dclausen@tapir.caltech.edu [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Mailcode 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

  18. THE BLACK HOLE FORMATION PROBABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P BH (M ZAMS ). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P BH (M ZAMS ) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P BH (M ZAMS ) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P BH (M ZAMS ) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment

  19. The Black Hole Formation Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-02-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P BH(M ZAMS). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P BH(M ZAMS) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P BH(M ZAMS) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P BH(M ZAMS) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

  20. Phantom energy accretion onto black holes in a cyclic universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chengyi

    2008-01-01

    Black holes pose a serious problem in cyclic or oscillating cosmology. It is speculated that, in the cyclic universe with phantom turnarounds, black holes will be torn apart by phantom energy prior to turnaround before they can create any problems. In this paper, using the mechanism of phantom accretion onto black holes, we find that black holes do not disappear before phantom turnaround. But the remanent black holes will not cause any problems due to Hawking evaporation.

  1. (Anti-)Evaporation of Schwarzschild-de Sitter Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bousso, Raphael; Hawking, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    We study the quantum evolution of black holes immersed in a de Sitter background space. For black holes whose size is comparable to that of the cosmological horizon, this process differs significantly from the evaporation of asymptotically flat black holes. Our model includes the one-loop effective action in the s-wave and large N approximation. Black holes of the maximal mass are in equilibrium. Unexpectedly, we find that nearly maximal quantum Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes anti-evapor...

  2. Quantum aspects of black hole entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum corrections to the semiclassical Bekenstein–Hawking area law for black hole entropy, obtained within the quantum geometry framework, are treated in some detail. Their ramification for the holographic entropy bound for bounded stationary spacetimes is discussed. Four dimensional supersymmetric extremal black ...

  3. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-09

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  4. Accretion onto a charged higher-dimensional black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Iftikhar, Sehrish

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the steady-state polytropic fluid accretion onto a higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We formulate the generalized mass flux conservation equation, energy flux conservation and relativistic Bernoulli equation to discuss the accretion process. The critical accretion is investigated by finding the critical radius, the critical sound velocity, and the critical flow velocity. We also explore gas compression and temperature profiles to analyze the asymptotic behavior. It is found that the results for the Schwarzschild black hole are recovered when q = 0 in four dimensions. We conclude that the accretion process in higher dimensions becomes slower in the presence of charge. (orig.)

  5. Accretion onto a charged higher-dimensional black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Iftikhar, Sehrish [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    This paper deals with the steady-state polytropic fluid accretion onto a higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We formulate the generalized mass flux conservation equation, energy flux conservation and relativistic Bernoulli equation to discuss the accretion process. The critical accretion is investigated by finding the critical radius, the critical sound velocity, and the critical flow velocity. We also explore gas compression and temperature profiles to analyze the asymptotic behavior. It is found that the results for the Schwarzschild black hole are recovered when q = 0 in four dimensions. We conclude that the accretion process in higher dimensions becomes slower in the presence of charge. (orig.)

  6. Black holes as lumps of fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldarelli, Marco M.; Dias, Oscar J.C.; Emparan, Roberto; Klemm, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    The old suggestive observation that black holes often resemble lumps of fluid has recently been taken beyond the level of an analogy to a precise duality. We investigate aspects of this duality, and in particular clarify the relation between area minimization of the fluid vs. area maximization of the black hole horizon, and the connection between surface tension and curvature of the fluid, and surface gravity of the black hole. We also argue that the Rayleigh-Plateau instability in a fluid tube is the holographic dual of the Gregory-Laflamme instability of a black string. Associated with this fluid instability there is a rich variety of phases of fluid solutions that we study in detail, including in particular the effects of rotation. We compare them against the known results for asymptotically flat black holes finding remarkable agreement. Furthermore, we use our fluid results to discuss the unknown features of the gravitational system. Finally, we make some observations that suggest that asymptotically flat black holes may admit a fluid description in the limit of large number of dimensions.

  7. New geometries for black hole horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Blau, Matthias [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-07-10

    We construct several classes of worldvolume effective actions for black holes by integrating out spatial sections of the worldvolume geometry of asymptotically flat black branes. This provides a generalisation of the blackfold approach for higher-dimensional black holes and yields a map between different effective theories, which we exploit by obtaining new hydrodynamic and elastic transport coefficients via simple integrations. Using Euclidean minimal surfaces in order to decouple the fluid dynamics on different sections of the worldvolume, we obtain local effective theories for ultraspinning Myers-Perry branes and helicoidal black branes, described in terms of a stress-energy tensor, particle currents and non-trivial boost vectors. We then study in detail and present novel compact and non-compact geometries for black hole horizons in higher-dimensional asymptotically flat space-time. These include doubly-spinning black rings, black helicoids and helicoidal p-branes as well as helicoidal black rings and helicoidal black tori in D≥6.

  8. Black hole based tests of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C

    2016-01-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar–tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory. (paper)

  9. Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A

    2014-06-05

    Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets.

  10. Black holes a laboratory for testing strong gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook introduces the current astrophysical observations of black holes, and discusses the leading techniques to study the strong gravity region around these objects with electromagnetic radiation. More importantly, it provides the basic tools for writing an astrophysical code and testing the Kerr paradigm. Astrophysical black holes are an ideal laboratory for testing strong gravity. According to general relativity, the spacetime geometry around these objects should be well described by the Kerr solution. The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the inner part of the accretion disk can probe the metric of the strong gravity region and test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. With exercises and examples in each chapter, as well as calculations and analytical details in the appendix, the book is especially useful to the beginners or graduate students who are familiar with general relativity while they do not have any background in astronomy or astrophysics.

  11. Black Holes Lead Galaxy Growth, New Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers may have solved a cosmic chicken-and-egg problem -- the question of which formed first in the early Universe -- galaxies or the supermassive black holes seen at their cores. "It looks like the black holes came first. The evidence is piling up," said Chris Carilli, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). Carilli outlined the conclusions from recent research done by an international team studying conditions in the first billion years of the Universe's history in a lecture presented to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Long Beach, California. Gas in Distant Galaxy VLA image (right) of gas in young galaxy seen as it was when the Universe was only 870 million years old. CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, SDSS Full-size JPEG, 323 KB PDF file, 180 KB Galaxy image, no annotation, JPEG 21 KB Earlier studies of galaxies and their central black holes in the nearby Universe revealed an intriguing linkage between the masses of the black holes and of the central "bulges" of stars and gas in the galaxies. The ratio of the black hole and the bulge mass is nearly the same for a wide range of galactic sizes and ages. For central black holes from a few million to many billions of times the mass of our Sun, the black hole's mass is about one one-thousandth of the mass of the surrounding galactic bulge. "This constant ratio indicates that the black hole and the bulge affect each others' growth in some sort of interactive relationship," said Dominik Riechers, of Caltech. "The big question has been whether one grows before the other or if they grow together, maintaining their mass ratio throughout the entire process." In the past few years, scientists have used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array radio telescope and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in France to peer far back in the 13.7 billion-year history of the Universe, to the dawn of the first galaxies. "We finally have been able to measure black-hole and bulge masses in several galaxies seen

  12. A New Cosmological Model: Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new cosmological model called black hole universe is proposed. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient mate- rials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we are living, the outside called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer is infinite in radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. The relationships among all layers or universes can be connected by the universe family tree. Mathematically, the entire space can be represented as a set of all universes. A black hole universe is a subset of the en- tire space or a subspace. The child universes are null sets or empty spaces. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics - the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-walker metric of spacetime - and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. The entire life of a universe begins from the birth as a hot star-like or supermassive black hole, passes through the growth and cools down, and expands to the death with infinite large and zero mass density and absolute temperature. The black hole universe model is consistent with the Mach principle, the observations of the universe, and the Einstein general theory of relativity. Its various aspects can be understood with the well-developed physics without any difficulty. The dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate its expansion. The inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe

  13. Dramatic Outburst Reveals Nearest Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Scientists have discovered the closest black hole yet, a mere 1,600 light years from Earth. Its discovery was heralded by four of the most dramatic rapid X-ray intensity changes ever seen from one star. Astronomers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Atlanta. The black hole in the constellation Sagittarius, along with a normal star dubbed V4641 Sgr, form a violent system that briefly flooded part of our Milky Way Galaxy with X-rays and ejected subatomic particles moving at nearly the speed of light one day last September. At the peak of its X-ray output, V4641 Sgr was the brightest X-ray emitter in the sky. Astronomers call this type of system an X-ray nova because it suddenly becomes a bright source of X-rays, but this object shows characteristics never seen in an X-ray nova. "V4641 Sgr turns on and off so fast that it seems to represent a new subclass of X-ray novae," said Donald A. Smith, postdoctoral associate in MIT's Center for Space Research. Smith worked on data from this object with MIT principal research scientist Ronald Remillard and NRAO astronomer Robert Hjellming. "In X-rays, the intensity rose by a factor of more than 1,000 in seven hours, then dropped by a factor of 100 in two hours," Remillard said. The radio emission was seen as an image of an expanding "jet" of particles shooting out from the binary system. After reaching a maximum, the radio intensity dropped by a factor of nearly 40 within two days. "Radio telescopes give us a quick glimpse of something moving at a fantastically high velocity," Hjellming said. Black holes harbor enormous gravitational force that can literally rip the gas away from a nearby star. This transfer of gas is visible in many forms of radiation. Both orbiting X-ray telescopes and ground-based radio and optical telescopes saw the outburst of V4641

  14. Perturbative string thermodynamics near black hole horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Thomas G.; Verschelde, Henri; Zakharov, Valentin I.

    2015-01-01

    We provide further computations and ideas to the problem of near-Hagedorn string thermodynamics near (uncharged) black hole horizons, building upon our earlier work http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2014)086. The relevance of long strings to one-loop black hole thermodynamics is emphasized. We then provide an argument in favor of the absence of α ′ -corrections for the (quadratic) heterotic thermal scalar action in Rindler space. We also compute the large k limit of the cigar orbifold partition functions (for both bosonic and type II superstrings) which allows a better comparison between the flat cones and the cigar cones. A discussion is made on the general McClain-Roth-O’Brien-Tan theorem and on the fact that different torus embeddings lead to different aspects of string thermodynamics. The black hole/string correspondence principle for the 2d black hole is discussed in terms of the thermal scalar. Finally, we present an argument to deal with arbitrary higher genus partition functions, suggesting the breakdown of string perturbation theory (in g s ) to compute thermodynamical quantities in black hole spacetimes.

  15. Black Hole Accretion in Gamma Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Janiuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure and evolution of the hyperaccreting disks and outflows in the gamma ray bursts central engines. The torus around a stellar mass black hole is composed of free nucleons, Helium, electron-positron pairs, and is cooled by neutrino emission. Accretion of matter powers the relativistic jets, responsible for the gamma ray prompt emission. The significant number density of neutrons in the disk and outflowing material will cause subsequent formation of heavier nuclei. We study the process of nucleosynthesis and its possible observational consequences. We also apply our scenario to the recent observation of the gravitational wave signal, detected on 14 September 2015 by the two Advanced LIGO detectors, and related to an inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. A gamma ray burst that could possibly be related with the GW150914 event was observed by the Fermi satellite. It had a duration of about 1 s and appeared about 0.4 s after the gravitational-wave signal. We propose that a collapsing massive star and a black hole in a close binary could lead to the event. The gamma ray burst was powered by a weak neutrino flux produced in the star remnant’s matter. Low spin and kick velocity of the merged black hole are reproduced in our simulations. Coincident gravitational-wave emission originates from the merger of the collapsed core and the companion black hole.

  16. Black Hole Hair in Higher Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chao; Chen Yixin; Li Jianlong

    2010-01-01

    We study the property of matter in equilibrium with a static, spherically symmetric black hole in D-dimensional spacetime. It requires that this kind of matter has an equation of state ω = p r /ρ = -n/(n + 2k), k, n epsilon N (where n > 1 corresponds to a mixture of vacuum matter and 'hair' matter), which seems to be independent of D. However, when we associate this result with specific models, we find that these hairy black holes can live only in some special dimensional spacetime: (i) D = 2 + 2k/n while the black hole is surrounded by cosmic strings, which requires D is even or D epsilon N, depending on the value of n, this is consistent with some important results in superstring theory, it might reveal the relation between cosmic string and superstring in another aspect; (ii) the black hole can be surrounded by linear dilaton field only in 4-dimensional spacetime. In both cases, D = 4 is special. We also present some examples of such hairy black holes in higher dimensions, including a toy model with negative energy density. (general)

  17. Mass inflation inside black holes revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav I

    2014-01-01

    The mass inflation phenomenon implies that black hole interiors are unstable due to a back-reaction divergence of the perturbed black hole mass function at the Cauchy horizon. The mass inflation was initially derived by using the generalized Dray–’t Hooft–Redmount (DTR) relation in the linear approximation of the Einstein equations near the perturbed Cauchy horizon of the Reissner–Nordström black hole. However, this linear approximation for the DTR relation is improper for the highly nonlinear behavior of back-reaction perturbations at the black hole horizons. An additional weak point in the standard mass inflation calculations is in a fallacious using of the global Cauchy horizon as a place for the maximal growth of the back-reaction perturbations instead of the local inner apparent horizon. It is derived the new spherically symmetric back-reaction solution for two counter-streaming light-like fluxes near the inner apparent horizon of the charged black hole by taking into account its separation from the Cauchy horizon. In this solution the back-reaction perturbations of the background metric are truly the largest at the inner apparent horizon, but, nevertheless, remain small. The back reaction, additionally, removes the infinite blue-shift singularity at the inner apparent horizon and at the Cauchy horizon. (paper)

  18. Black-hole production from ultrarelativistic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezzolla, Luciano; Takami, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    Determining the conditions under which a black hole can be produced is a long-standing and fundamental problem in general relativity. We use numerical simulations of colliding self-gravitating fluid objects to study the conditions of black-hole formation when the objects are boosted to ultrarelativistic speeds. Expanding on the previous work, we show that the collision is characterized by a type-I critical behaviour, with a black hole being produced for masses above a critical value, M c , and a partially bound object for masses below the critical one. More importantly, we show for the first time that the critical mass varies with the initial effective Lorentz factor 〈γ〉 following a simple scaling of the type M c ∼ K〈γ〉 −1.0 , thus indicating that a black hole of infinitesimal mass is produced in the limit of a diverging Lorentz factor. Furthermore, because a scaling is present also in terms of the initial stellar compactness, we provide a condition for black-hole formation in the spirit of the hoop conjecture. (fast track communication)

  19. The Geometry of Black Hole Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Cristinel Stoica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results show that important singularities in General Relativity can be naturally described in terms of finite and invariant canonical geometric objects. Consequently, one can write field equations which are equivalent to Einstein's at nonsingular points but, in addition remain well-defined and smooth at singularities. The black hole singularities appear to be less undesirable than it was thought, especially after we remove the part of the singularity due to the coordinate system. Black hole singularities are then compatible with global hyperbolicity and do not make the evolution equations break down, when these are expressed in terms of the appropriate variables. The charged black holes turn out to have smooth potential and electromagnetic fields in the new atlas. Classical charged particles can be modeled, in General Relativity, as charged black hole solutions. Since black hole singularities are accompanied by dimensional reduction, this should affect Feynman's path integrals. Therefore, it is expected that singularities induce dimensional reduction effects in Quantum Gravity. These dimensional reduction effects are very similar to those postulated in some approaches to make Quantum Gravity perturbatively renormalizable. This may provide a way to test indirectly the effects of singularities, otherwise inaccessible.

  20. Asymmetric interiors for small black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabat, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College,City University of New York, Bronx NY 10468 (United States); Lifschytz, Gilad [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science,University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel)

    2016-08-16

    We develop the representation of infalling observers and bulk fields in the CFT as a way to understand the black hole interior in AdS. We first discuss properties of CFT states which are dual to black holes. We then show that in the presence of a Killing horizon bulk fields can be decomposed into pieces we call ingoing and outgoing. The ingoing field admits a simple operator representation in the CFT, even inside a small black hole at late times, which leads to a simple CFT description of infalling geodesics. This means classical infalling observers will experience the classical geometry in the interior. The outgoing piece of the field is more subtle. In an eternal two-sided geometry it can be represented as an operator on the left CFT. In a stable one-sided geometry it can be described using entanglement via the PR construction. But in an evaporating black hole trans-horizon entanglement breaks down at the Page time, which means that for old black holes the PR construction fails and the outgoing field does not see local geometry. This picture of the interior allows the CFT to reconcile unitary Hawking evaporation with the classical experience of infalling observers.

  1. Fermionic greybody factors in dilaton black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi, Jahed; Arfaei, Hessamaddin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the question of the emission of fermions in the process of dilaton black hole evolution and its characteristics for different dilaton coupling constants α are studied. The main quantity of interest, the greybody factors, are calculated both numerically and in analytical approximation. The dependence of the rates of evaporation and behaviour on the dilaton coupling constant is analysed. Having calculated the greybody factors, we are able to address the question of the final fate of the dilaton black hole. For that we also need to perform dynamical treatment of the solution by considering the backreaction, which will show a crucial effect on the final result. We find a transition line in the (Q/M,α) plane that separates the two regimes for the fate of the black hole, decay regime and extremal regime. In the decay regime the black hole completely evaporates, while in the extremal regime the black hole approaches the extremal limit by radiation and becomes stable. (paper)

  2. Post-Kerr black hole spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glampedakis, Kostas; Pappas, George; Silva, Hector O.; Berti, Emanuele

    2017-09-01

    One of the central goals of the newborn field of gravitational wave astronomy is to test gravity in the highly nonlinear, strong field regime characterizing the spacetime of black holes. In particular, "black hole spectroscopy" (the observation and identification of black hole quasinormal mode frequencies in the gravitational wave signal) is expected to become one of the main tools for probing the structure and dynamics of Kerr black holes. In this paper we take a significant step toward that goal by constructing a "post-Kerr" quasinormal mode formalism. The formalism incorporates a parametrized but general perturbative deviation from the Kerr metric and exploits the well-established connection between the properties of the spacetime's circular null geodesics and the fundamental quasinormal mode to provide approximate, eikonal limit formulas for the modes' complex frequencies. The resulting algebraic toolkit can be used in waveform templates for ringing black holes with the purpose of measuring deviations from the Kerr metric. As a first illustrative application of our framework, we consider the Johannsen-Psaltis deformed Kerr metric and compute the resulting deviation in the quasinormal mode frequency relative to the known Kerr result.

  3. Investigating Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura; Kelleher, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The accelerated expansion of the universe is ascribed to the existence of dark energy. Black holes accrete dark energy. The accretion induces a mass change proportional to the energy density and pressure of the background dark energy fluid. The time scale during which the mass of black holes changes considerably is long relative to the age of the universe, thus beyond detection possibilities. We propose to take advantage of the modified black hole masses for exploring the equation of state w[z] of dark energy, by investigating the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries on a dark energy background. Deriving the signatures of dark energy accretion on the evolution of binaries, we find that dark energy imprints on the emitted gravitational radiation and on the changes in the orbital radius of the binary can be within detection limits for certain supermassive black hole binaries. This talk describes how binaries can provide a useful tool in obtaining complementary information on the nature of dark energy.

  4. Black holes in the early Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian

    2012-12-01

    The existence of massive black holes (MBHs) was postulated in the 1960s, when the first quasars were discovered. In the late 1990s their reality was proven beyond doubt in the Milky way and a handful nearby galaxies. Since then, enormous theoretical and observational efforts have been made to understand the astrophysics of MBHs. We have discovered that some of the most massive black holes known, weighing billions of solar masses, powered luminous quasars within the first billion years of the Universe. The first MBHs must therefore have formed around the time the first stars and galaxies formed. Dynamical evidence also indicates that black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses ordinarily dwell in the centers of today's galaxies. MBHs populate galaxy centers today, and shone as quasars in the past; the quiescent black holes that we detect now in nearby bulges are the dormant remnants of this fiery past. In this review we report on basic, but critical, questions regarding the cosmological significance of MBHs. What physical mechanisms led to the formation of the first MBHs? How massive were the initial MBH seeds? When and where did they form? How is the growth of black holes linked to that of their host galaxy? The answers to most of these questions are works in progress, in the spirit of these reports on progress in physics.

  5. Stationary black holes with stringy hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Jens; Frolov, Valeri P.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss properties of black holes which are pierced by special configurations of cosmic strings. For static black holes, we consider radial strings in the limit when the number of strings grows to infinity while the tension of each single string tends to zero. In a properly taken limit, the stress-energy tensor of the string distribution is finite. We call such matter stringy matter. We present a solution of the Einstein equations for an electrically charged static black hole with the stringy matter, with and without a cosmological constant. This solution is a warped product of two metrics. One of them is a deformed 2-sphere, whose Gaussian curvature is determined by the energy density of the stringy matter. We discuss the embedding of a corresponding distorted sphere into a three-dimensional Euclidean space and formulate consistency conditions. We also found a relation between the square of the Weyl tensor invariant of the four-dimensional spacetime of the stringy black holes and the energy density of the stringy matter. In the second part of the paper, we discuss test stationary strings in the Kerr geometry and in its Kerr-NUT-(anti-)de Sitter generalizations. Explicit solutions for strings that are regular at the event horizon are obtained. Using these solutions, the stress-energy tensor of the stringy matter in these geometries is calculated. Extraction of the angular momentum from rotating black holes by such strings is also discussed.

  6. Black holes in the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian

    2012-01-01

    The existence of massive black holes (MBHs) was postulated in the 1960s, when the first quasars were discovered. In the late 1990s their reality was proven beyond doubt in the Milky way and a handful nearby galaxies. Since then, enormous theoretical and observational efforts have been made to understand the astrophysics of MBHs. We have discovered that some of the most massive black holes known, weighing billions of solar masses, powered luminous quasars within the first billion years of the Universe. The first MBHs must therefore have formed around the time the first stars and galaxies formed. Dynamical evidence also indicates that black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses ordinarily dwell in the centers of today's galaxies. MBHs populate galaxy centers today, and shone as quasars in the past; the quiescent black holes that we detect now in nearby bulges are the dormant remnants of this fiery past. In this review we report on basic, but critical, questions regarding the cosmological significance of MBHs. What physical mechanisms led to the formation of the first MBHs? How massive were the initial MBH seeds? When and where did they form? How is the growth of black holes linked to that of their host galaxy? The answers to most of these questions are works in progress, in the spirit of these reports on progress in physics. (review article)

  7. Jets, black holes and disks in blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghisellini Gabriele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fermi and Swift satellites, together with ground based Cherenkov telescopes, has greatly improved our knowledge of blazars, namely Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars and BL Lac objects, since all but the most powerful emit most of their electro–magnetic output at γ–ray energies, while the very powerful blazars emit mostly in the hard X–ray region of the spectrum. Often they show coordinated variability at different frequencies, suggesting that in these cases the same population of electrons is at work, in a single zone of the jet. The location of this region along the jet is a matter of debate. The jet power correlates with the mass accretion rate, with jets existing at all values of disk luminosities, measured in Eddington units, sampled so far. The most powerful blazars show clear evidence of the emission from their disks, and this has revived methods of finding the black hole mass and accretion rate by modelling a disk spectrum to the data. Being so luminous, blazars can be detected also at very high redshift, and therefore are a useful tool to explore the far universe. One interesting line of research concerns how heavy are their black holes at high redshifts. If we associate the presence of a relativistic jets with a fastly spinning black hole, then we naively expect that the accretion efficiency is larger than for non–spinning holes. As a consequence, the black hole mass in jetted systems should grow at a slower rate. In turn, this would imply that, at high redshifts, the heaviest black holes should be in radio–quiet quasars. We instead have evidences of the opposite, challenging our simple ideas of how a black hole grows.

  8. Black Hole Hunters Set New Distance Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have detected, in another galaxy, a stellar-mass black hole much farther away than any other previously known. With a mass above fifteen times that of the Sun, this is also the second most massive stellar-mass black hole ever found. It is entwined with a star that will soon become a black hole itself. The stellar-mass black holes [1] found in the Milky Way weigh up to ten times the mass of the Sun and are certainly not be taken lightly, but, outside our own galaxy, they may just be minor-league players, since astronomers have found another black hole with a mass over fifteen times the mass of the Sun. This is one of only three such objects found so far. The newly announced black hole lies in a spiral galaxy called NGC 300, six million light-years from Earth. "This is the most distant stellar-mass black hole ever weighed, and it's the first one we've seen outside our own galactic neighbourhood, the Local Group," says Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield and lead author of the paper reporting the study. The black hole's curious partner is a Wolf-Rayet star, which also has a mass of about twenty times as much as the Sun. Wolf-Rayet stars are near the end of their lives and expel most of their outer layers into their surroundings before exploding as supernovae, with their cores imploding to form black holes. In 2007, an X-ray instrument aboard NASA's Swift observatory scrutinised the surroundings of the brightest X-ray source in NGC 300 discovered earlier with the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory. "We recorded periodic, extremely intense X-ray emission, a clue that a black hole might be lurking in the area," explains team member Stefania Carpano from ESA. Thanks to new observations performed with the FORS2 instrument mounted on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have confirmed their earlier hunch. The new data show that the black hole and the Wolf-Rayet star dance

  9. Stability of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masashi; Ishihara, Hideki; Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro

    2008-01-01

    The stability of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes is studied. The squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole looks like a five-dimensional black hole in the vicinity of horizon and looks like a four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime with a circle at infinity. In this sense, squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes can be regarded as black holes in the Kaluza-Klein spacetimes. Using the symmetry of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes, SU(2)xU(1)≅U(2), we obtain master equations for a part of the metric perturbations relevant to the stability. The analysis based on the master equations gives strong evidence for the stability of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes. Hence, the squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes deserve to be taken seriously as realistic black holes in the Kaluza-Klein spacetime.

  10. Quantum statistical entropy for Kerr-de Sitter black hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li-Chun; Wu Yue-Qin; Zhao Ren

    2004-01-01

    Improving the membrane model by which the entropy of the black hole is studied, we study the entropy of the black hole in the non-thermal equilibrium state. To give the problem stated here widespread meaning, we discuss the (n+2)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime. Through discussion, we obtain that the black hole's entropy which contains two horizons (a black hole's horizon and a cosmological horizon) in the non-thermal equilibrium state comprises the entropy corresponding to the black hole's horizon and the entropy corresponding to the cosmological horizon. Furthermore, the entropy of the black hole is a natural property of the black hole. The entropy is irrelevant to the radiation field out of the horizon. This deepens the understanding of the relationship between black hole's entropy and horizon's area. A way to study the bosonic and fermionic entropy of the black hole in high non-thermal equilibrium spacetime is given.

  11. Geometry of higher-dimensional black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaman, Jan E.; Pidokrajt, Narit

    2006-01-01

    We investigate thermodynamic curvatures of the Kerr and Reissner-Nordstroem (RN) black holes in spacetime dimensions higher than four. These black holes possess thermodynamic geometries similar to those in four-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamic geometries are the Ruppeiner geometry and the conformally related Weinhold geometry. The Ruppeiner geometry for a d=5 Kerr black hole is curved and divergent in the extremal limit. For a d≥6 Kerr black hole there is no extremality but the Ruppeiner curvature diverges where one suspects that the black hole becomes unstable. The Weinhold geometry of the Kerr black hole in arbitrary dimension is a flat geometry. For the RN black hole the Ruppeiner geometry is flat in all spacetime dimensions, whereas its Weinhold geometry is curved. In d≥5 the Kerr black hole can possess more than one angular momentum. Finally we discuss the Ruppeiner geometry for the Kerr black hole in d=5 with double angular momenta

  12. Winds of Change: How Black Holes May Shape Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    New observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provide evidence for powerful winds blowing away from the vicinity of a supermassive black hole in a nearby galaxy. This discovery indicates that "average" supermassive black holes may play an important role in the evolution of the galaxies in which they reside. For years, astronomers have known that a supermassive black hole grows in parallel with its host galaxy. And, it has long been suspected that material blown away from a black hole - as opposed to the fraction of material that falls into it -- alters the evolution of its host galaxy. A key question is whether such "black hole blowback" typically delivers enough power to have a significant impact. Powerful relativistic jets shot away from the biggest supermassive black holes in large, central galaxies in clusters like Perseus are seen to shape their host galaxies, but these are rare. What about less powerful, less focused galaxy-scale winds that should be much more common? "We're more interested here in seeing what an "average"-sized supermassive black hole can do to its galaxy, not the few, really big ones in the biggest galaxies," said Dan Evans of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who presented these results at the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society meeting in Kona, Hawaii. Evans and his colleagues used Chandra for five days to observe NGC 1068, one of the nearest and brightest galaxies containing a rapidly growing supermassive black hole. This black hole is only about twice as massive as the one in the center of our Galaxy, which is considered to be a rather ordinary size. The X-ray images and spectra obtained using Chandra's High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) showed that a strong wind is being driven away from the center of NGC 1068 at a rate of about a million miles per hour. This wind is likely generated as surrounding gas is accelerated and heated as it swirls toward the black hole. A

  13. COEVOLUTION BETWEEN SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND BULGES IS NOT VIA INTERNAL FEEDBACK REGULATION BUT BY RATIONED GAS SUPPLY DUE TO ANGULAR MOMENTUM DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen, Renyue, E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-05-20

    We reason that without physical fine-tuning, neither the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) nor the stellar bulges can self-regulate or inter-regulate by driving away already fallen cold gas to produce the observed correlation between them. We suggest an alternative scenario where the observed mass ratios of the SMBHs to bulges reflect the angular momentum distribution of infallen gas such that the mass reaching the stable accretion disk is a small fraction of that reaching the bulge region, averaged over the cosmological timescales. We test this scenario using high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, without active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, assuming the angular momentum distribution of gas landing in the bulge region yields a Mestel disk that is supported by independent simulations resolving the Bondi radii of SMBHs. A mass ratio of 0.1%–0.3% between the very low angular momentum gas that free falls to the subparsec region to accrete to the SMBH and the overall star formation rate is found. This ratio is found to increase with increasing redshift to within a factor of ∼2, suggesting that the SMBH-to-bulge ratio is nearly redshift independent, with a modest increase with redshift, which is a testable prediction. Furthermore, the duty cycle of AGNs with high Eddington ratios is expected to increase significantly with redshift. Finally, while SMBHs and bulges are found to coevolve on ∼30–150 Myr timescales or longer, there is indication that on still smaller timescales, the SMBH accretion and star formation may be less correlated.

  14. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (5/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  15. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (3/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  16. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (1/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  17. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (2/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  18. Introduction to General Relativity and Black Holes (4/5)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Conceptual foundations of General Relativity (GR). Uniqueness of GR. Mathematical framework: tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry, connection, 'spin' connection, curvature, Cartan's form calculus. Hilbert-Einstein action, Einstein equations. Weak gravitational fields. Post Newtonian Approximation. Gravitanional Waves. Exact solutions. Killing vectors. Experimental tests. Black Holes: extensions of the Schwarzschild solution; Kerr-Newman holes; no-hair theorems; energtics of black holes; the membrane approach; quantum mechanics of black holes; Bekenstein entropy; Hawking temperature; black holes and string theory.

  19. AN ENERGETIC AGN OUTBURST POWERED BY A RAPIDLY SPINNING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE OR AN ACCRETING ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, B. R.; Kazemzadeh, F.; Kirkpatrick, C. C.; Rafferty, D. A.; Birzan, L.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Wise, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    Powering the 10 62 erg nuclear outburst in the MS0735.6+7421 cluster central galaxy by accretion with a 10% mass-to-energy conversion efficiency implies that its putative supermassive black hole (SMBH) grew by ∼6 x 10 8 M sun over the past 100 Myr. Guided by data at several wavelengths, we place upper limits on the amount of cold gas and star formation near the nucleus of 9 M sun and sun yr -1 , respectively. These limits imply that an implausibly large fraction of the preexisting cold gas in the inner several kpc must have been consumed by its SMBH at the rate of ∼3-5 M sun yr -1 during the past 100 Myr while leaving no trace of star formation. Such a high accretion rate would be difficult to maintain by stellar accretion or the Bondi mechanism, unless the black hole mass approaches 10 11 M sun . Furthermore, its feeble nuclear luminosities in the UV, I, and X-ray bands compared to its enormous mechanical power are inconsistent with rapid accretion onto a ∼5 x 10 9 M sun black hole. We suggest instead that the active galactic nucleus (AGN) outburst is powered by angular momentum released from a rapidly spinning black hole. The rotational energy and power available from a spinning black hole are consistent with the cavity and shock energetics inferred from X-ray observations. A maximally spinning 10 9 M sun black hole contains enough rotational energy, ∼10 62 erg, to quench a cooling flow over its lifetime and to contribute significantly to the excess entropy found in the hot atmospheres of groups and clusters. Two modes of AGN feedback may be quenching star formation in elliptical galaxies centered in cooling halos at late times. An accretion mode that operates in gas-rich systems, and a spin mode operating at modest accretion rates. The spin conjecture may be avoided in MS0735 by appealing to Bondi accretion onto a central black hole whose mass greatly exceeds 10 10 M sun . The host galaxy's unusually large 3.8 kpc stellar core radius (light deficit) may

  20. Thermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accetta, F.S.; Gleiser, M.

    1986-05-01

    We discuss the thermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes with particular emphasis on a new class of spinning black holes which, due to the increased number of Casimir invariants, have additional spin degrees of freedom. In suitable limits, analytic solutions in arbitrary dimensions are presented for their temperature, entropy, and specific heat. In 5 + 1 and 9 + 1 dimensions, more general forms for these quantities are given. It is shown that the specific heat for a higher dimensional black hole is negative definite if it has only one non-zero spin parameter, regardless of the value of this parameter. We also consider equilibrium configurations with both massless particles and massive string modes. 16 refs., 3 figs