Luminet, Jean-Pierre
1992-09-01
Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.
Black hole mergers: do gas discs lead to spin alignment?
Lodato, Giuseppe; Gerosa, Davide
2012-01-01
In this Letter we revisit arguments suggesting that the Bardeen-Petterson effect can coalign the spins of a central supermassive black hole binary accreting from a circumbinary (or circumnuclear) gas disc. We improve on previous estimates by adding the dependence on system parameters, and noting that the nonlinear nature of warp propagation in a thin viscous disc affects alignment. This reduces the disc's ability to communicate the warp, and can severely reduce the effectiveness of disc-assis...
Direct Formation of Supermassive Black Holes via Multi-Scale Gas Inflows in Galaxy Mergers
Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S.; Escala, A.; Callegari, S.
2009-01-01
Observations of distant quasars indicate that supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses already existed less than a billion years after the Big Bang. Models in which the `seeds' of such black holes form by the collapse of primordial metal-free stars cannot explain the rapid appearance of these supermassive black holes because gas accretion is not sufficiently efficient. Alternatively, these black holes may form by direct collapse of gas within isolated protogalaxies, but current mo...
Black hole mergers: do gas discs lead to spin alignment?
Lodato, Giuseppe; Gerosa, Davide
2013-02-01
In this Letter, we revisit arguments suggesting that the Bardeen-Petterson effect can coalign the spins of a central supermassive black hole binary accreting from a circumbinary (or circumnuclear) gas disc. We improve on previous estimates by adding the dependence on system parameters and noting that the non-linear nature of warp propagation in a thin viscous disc affects alignment. This reduces the disc's ability to communicate the warp, and can severely reduce the effectiveness of disc-assisted spin alignment. We test our predictions with a Monte Carlo realization of random misalignments and accretion rates, and we find that the outcome depends strongly on the spin magnitude. We estimate a generous upper limit to the probability of alignment by making assumptions which favour it throughout. Even with these assumptions, about 40 per cent of black holes with a ≳ 0.5 do not have time to align with the disc. If the residual misalignment is not small and it is maintained down to the final coalescence phase, this can give a powerful recoil velocity to the merged hole. Highly spinning black holes are thus more likely being subject to strong recoils, the occurrence of which is currently debated.
Resolving flows around black holes: the impact of gas angular momentum
Curtis, Michael; Sijacki, Debora
2016-01-01
Cosmological simulations almost invariably estimate the accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes using a Bondi-Hoyle-like prescription. Doing so ignores the effects of the angular momentum of the gas, which may prevent or significantly delay accreting material falling directly onto the black hole. We outline a black hole accretion rate prescription using a modified Bondi-Hoyle formulation that takes into account the angular momentum of the surrounding gas. Meaningful implementation of t...
Evolution of massive black holes
Volonteri, Marta
2007-01-01
Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I'll discuss black hole formation processes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and how massive black hole evolve in a hierarchical Universe...
Black hole mergers: do gas discs lead to spin alignment?
Lodato, Giuseppe
2012-01-01
In this Letter we revisit arguments suggesting that the Bardeen-Petterson effect can coalign the spins of a central supermassive black hole binary accreting from a circumbinary (or circumnuclear) gas disc. We improve on previous estimates by adding the dependence on system parameters, and noting that the nonlinear nature of warp propagation in a thin viscous disc affects alignment. This reduces the disc's ability to communicate the warp, and can severely reduce the effectiveness of disc-assisted spin alignment. We test our predictions with a Monte Carlo realization of random misalignments and accretion rates and we find that the outcome depends strongly on the spin magnitude. We estimate a generous upper limit to the probability of alignment by making assumptions which favour it throughout. Even with these assumptions, about 40% of black holes with $a \\gtrsim 0.5$ do not have time to align with the disc. If the residual misalignment is not small and it is maintained down to the final coalescence phase this ca...
Multiphase, non-spherical gas accretion onto a black hole
Barai, Paramita; Nagamine, Kentaro
2011-01-01
(Abridged) We investigate non-spherical behavior of gas accreting onto a central supermassive black hole performing simulations using the SPH code GADGET-3 including radiative cooling and heating by the central X-ray source. As found in earlier 1D studies, our 3D simulations show that the accretion mode depends on the X-ray luminosity (L_X) for a fixed density at infinity and accretion efficiency. In the low L_X limit, gas accretes in a stable, spherically symmetric fashion. In the high L_X limit, the inner gas is significantly heated up and expands, reducing the central mass inflow rate. The expanding gas can turn into a strong enough outflow capable of expelling most of the gas at larger radii. For some intermediate L_X, the accretion flow becomes unstable developing prominent non-spherical features, the key reason for which is thermal instability (TI) as shown by our analyses. Small perturbations of the initially spherically symmetric accretion flow that is heated by the intermediate L_X quickly grow to fo...
Direct formation of supermassive black holes via multi-scale gas inflows in galaxy mergers.
Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Escala, A; Callegari, S
2010-08-26
Observations of distant quasars indicate that supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses already existed less than a billion years after the Big Bang. Models in which the 'seeds' of such black holes form by the collapse of primordial metal-free stars cannot explain the rapid appearance of these supermassive black holes because gas accretion is not sufficiently efficient. Alternatively, these black holes may form by direct collapse of gas within isolated protogalaxies, but current models require idealized conditions, such as metal-free gas, to prevent cooling and star formation from consuming the gas reservoir. Here we report simulations showing that mergers between massive protogalaxies naturally produce the conditions for direct collapse into a supermassive black hole with no need to suppress cooling and star formation. Merger-driven gas inflows give rise to an unstable, massive nuclear gas disk of a few billion solar masses, which funnels more than 10(8) solar masses of gas to a sub-parsec-scale gas cloud in only 100,000 years. The cloud undergoes gravitational collapse, which eventually leads to the formation of a massive black hole. The black hole can subsequently grow to a billion solar masses on timescales of about 10(8) years by accreting gas from the surrounding disk. PMID:20740009
Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica
2016-01-01
Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.
The cloud of gas falling toward the central black hole in the milky way
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miralda-Escudé J.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The cloud of gas that will pass within 200AU of the central black hole of our Galaxy in 2013 may be generated by a disk around an old, low-mass star that was created in a tidal encounter with one of the stellar black holes that are expected to accumulate in the central region of the stellar cusp.
Resolving flows around black holes: the impact of gas angular momentum
Curtis, Michael; Sijacki, Debora
2016-08-01
Cosmological simulations almost invariably estimate the accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes using a Bondi-Hoyle-like prescription. Doing so ignores the effects of the angular momentum of the gas, which may prevent or significantly delay accreting material falling directly onto the black hole. We outline a black hole accretion rate prescription using a modified Bondi-Hoyle formulation that takes into account the angular momentum of the surrounding gas. Meaningful implementation of this modified Bondi-Hoyle formulation is only possible when the inner vorticity distribution is well resolved, which we achieve through the use of a super-Lagrangian refinement technique around black holes within our simulations. We then investigate the effects on black hole growth by performing simulations of isolated as well as merging disc galaxies using the moving-mesh code AREPO. We find that the gas angular momentum barrier can play an important role in limiting the growth of black holes, leading also to a several Gyr delay between the starburst and the quasar phase in major merger remnants. We stress, however, that the magnitude of this effect is highly sensitive to the thermodynamical state of the accreting gas and to the nature of the black hole feedback present.
A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526.
Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo
2013-02-21
The masses of the supermassive black holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionized-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects that have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black-hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC 4526, and obtain a best fit that requires the presence of a central dark object of 4.5(+4.2)(-3.1) × 10(8) solar masses (3σ confidence limit). With the next-generation millimetre-wavelength interferometers these observations could be reproduced in galaxies out to 75 megaparsecs in less than 5 hours of observing time. The use of molecular gas as a kinematic tracer should thus allow one to estimate black-hole masses in hundreds of galaxies in the local Universe, many more than are accessible with current techniques. PMID:23364690
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for instance, the UK
Resolving flows around black holes: the impact of gas angular momentum
Curtis, Michael
2016-01-01
Cosmological simulations almost invariably estimate the accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes using a Bondi-Hoyle-like prescription. Doing so ignores the effects of the angular momentum of the gas, which may prevent or significantly delay accreting material falling directly onto the black hole. We outline a black hole accretion rate prescription using a modified Bondi-Hoyle formulation that takes into account the angular momentum of the surrounding gas. Meaningful implementation of this modified Bondi-Hoyle formulation is only possible when the inner vorticity distribution is well resolved, which we achieve through the use of a super-Lagrangian refinement technique around black holes within our simulations. We then investigate the effects on black hole growth by performing simulations of isolated as well as merging disc galaxies using the moving-mesh code AREPO. We find that the gas angular momentum barrier can play an important role in limiting the growth of black holes, leading also to a several Gy...
Statistical mechanics of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed
A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526
Davis, Timothy A; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo; 10.1038/nature11819
2013-01-01
The masses of the supermassive black-holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black-holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionised-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects which have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black-hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC4526, and obtain a best fit which requires the presence of a central dark-object of 4.5(+4.2-3.0)x10^8 Msun (3 sigma confidence limit). With next generation ...
Lupi, Alessandro; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica
2015-01-01
Mergers of gas-rich galaxies are key events in the hierarchical built-up of cosmic structures, and can lead to the formation of massive black hole binaries. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we consider the late stages of a gas-rich major merger, detailing the dynamics of two circumnuclear discs, and of the hosted massive black holes during their pairing phase. During the merger gas clumps with masses of a fraction of the black hole mass form because of fragmentation. Such high-density gas is very effective in forming stars, and the most massive clumps can substantially perturb the black hole orbits. After $\\sim 10$ Myr from the start of the merger a gravitationally bound black hole binary forms at a separation of a few parsecs, and soon after, the separation falls below our resolution limit of $0.39$ pc. At the time of binary formation the original discs are almost completely disrupted because of SNa feedback, while on pc scales the residual gas settles in a circumbinary disc with mass $...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole
ALMA Reveals a Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole
Tremblay, Grant
2016-01-01
A new ALMA observation of the cool core brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597 reveals that a supermassive black hole can act much like a mechanical pump in a water fountain, driving a convective flow of molecular gas that drains into the black hole accretion reservoir, only to be pushed outward again in a jet-driven outflow that then rains back toward the galaxy center from which it came. The ALMA data reveal "shadows" cast by giant molecular clouds falling on ballistic trajectories towards the black hole in the innermost 500 parsecs of the galaxy, manifesting as deep redshifted continuum absorption features. The black hole accretion reservoir, fueled by these infalling cold clouds, powers an AGN that drives a jet-driven molecular outflow in the form of a 10 kpc-scale, billion solar mass expanding molecular bubble or plume. The molecular shell is permeated with young stars, perhaps triggered in situ by the jet. Buoyant X-ray cavities excavated by the propagating radio source may further uplift the molecular filaments, which are observed to fall inward toward the center of the galaxy from which they came, presumably keeping the fountain long-lived. The results show that cold molecular gas can couple to black hole growth via both feedback and feeding, in alignment with "cold chaotic accretion" models for the regulation of star formation in galaxies.
Are black holes totally black?
Grib, A A
2014-01-01
Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.
SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE FORMATION VIA GAS ACCRETION IN NUCLEAR STELLAR CLUSTERS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black holes exceeding a billion solar masses have been detected at redshifts greater than six. The rapid formation of these objects may suggest a massive early seed or a period of growth faster than Eddington. Here we suggest a new mechanism along these lines. We propose that in the process of hierarchical structure assembly, dense star clusters can be contracted on dynamical timescales due to the nearly free-fall inflow of self-gravitating gas with a mass comparable to or larger than that of the clusters. This process increases the velocity dispersion to the point where the few remaining hard binaries can no longer effectively heat the cluster, and the cluster goes into a period of homologous core collapse. The cluster core can then reach a central density high enough for fast mergers of stellar-mass black holes and hence the rapid production of a black hole seed that could be 105 Msun or larger.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2002-02-01
Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for
Lupi, Alessandro; Devecchi, Bernadetta; Galanti, Giorgio; Volonteri, Marta
2014-01-01
In this paper we explore a possible route of black hole seed formation that appeal to a model by Davies, Miller & Bellovary who considered the case of the dynamical collapse of a dense cluster of stellar black holes subjected to an inflow of gas. Here, we explore this case in a broad cosmological context. The working hypotheses are that (i) nuclear star clusters form at high redshifts in pre-galactic discs hosted in dark matter halos, providing a suitable environment for the formation of stellar black holes in their cores, (ii) major central inflows of gas occur onto these clusters due to instabilities seeded in the growing discs and/or to mergers with other gas-rich halos, and that (iii) following the inflow, stellar black holes in the core avoid ejection due to the steepening to the potential well, leading to core collapse and the formation of a massive seed of $<~ 1000\\, \\rm M_\\odot$. We simulate a cosmological box tracing the build up of the dark matter halos and there embedded baryons, and explore...
Massive Black Holes: formation and evolution
Rees, Martin J.; Volonteri, Marta
2007-01-01
Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Observations have revealed us vast information on the population of local and distant black holes, but the detailed physical properties of these dark massive objects are still to be proven. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. We briefly review here the basic properties of the population of supermassive black holes,...
Rapid formation of supermassive black hole binaries in galaxy mergers with gas.
Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Madau, P; Colpi, M; Quinn, T; Wadsley, J
2007-06-29
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a ubiquitous component of the nuclei of galaxies. It is normally assumed that after the merger of two massive galaxies, a SMBH binary will form, shrink because of stellar or gas dynamical processes, and ultimately coalesce by emitting a burst of gravitational waves. However, so far it has not been possible to show how two SMBHs bind during a galaxy merger with gas because of the difficulty of modeling a wide range of spatial scales. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations that track the formation of a SMBH binary down to scales of a few light years after the collision between two spiral galaxies. A massive, turbulent, nuclear gaseous disk arises as a result of the galaxy merger. The black holes form an eccentric binary in the disk in less than 1 million years as a result of the gravitational drag from the gas rather than from the stars. PMID:17556550
Rapid Formation of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in Galaxy Mergers with Gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mayer, L.; /Zurich U. /Zurich, ETH; Kazantzidis, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Madau, P.; /UC, Santa Cruz /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Colpi, M.; /Milan Bicocca U.; Quinn, T.; /Washington U., Seattle; Wadsley, J.; /McMaster U.
2008-03-24
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a ubiquitous component of the nuclei of galaxies. It is normally assumed that, following the merger of two massive galaxies, a SMBH binary will form, shrink due to stellar or gas dynamical processes and ultimately coalesce by emitting a burst of gravitational waves. However, so far it has not been possible to show how two SMBHs bind during a galaxy merger with gas due to the difficulty of modeling a wide range of spatial scales. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations that track the formation of a SMBH binary down to scales of a few light years following the collision between two spiral galaxies. A massive, turbulent nuclear gaseous disk arises as a result of the galaxy merger. The black holes form an eccentric binary in the disk in less than a million years as a result of the gravitational drag from the gas rather than from the stars.
Nonstationary analogue black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)
Hayward, Sean A.
2008-01-01
This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)
2007-11-15
We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.
Strominger, Andrew
1993-01-01
The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ``infinite statist...
Gao, C. J.; Zhang, S. N.
2006-01-01
The exact solutions of electrically charged phantom black holes with the cosmological constant are constructed. They are labelled by the mass, the electrical charge, the cosmological constant and the coupling constant between the phantom and the Maxwell field. It is found that the phantom has important consequences on the properties of black holes. In particular, the extremal charged phantom black holes can never be achieved and so the third law of thermodynamics for black holes still holds. ...
Simulations of direct collisions of gas clouds with the central black hole
Alig, C.; Burkert, A.; Johansson, P. H.; Schartmann, M.
2011-03-01
We perform numerical simulations of clouds in the Galactic Centre (GC) engulfing the nuclear supermassive black hole and show that this mechanism leads to the formation of gaseous accretion discs with properties that are similar to the expected gaseous progenitor discs that fragmented into the observed stellar disc in the GC. As soon as the cloud hits the black hole, gas with opposite angular momentum relative to the black hole collides downstream. This process leads to redistribution of angular momentum and dissipation of kinetic energy, resulting in a compact gaseous accretion disc. A parameter study using 13 high-resolution simulations of homogeneous clouds falling on to the black hole and engulfing it in parts demonstrates that this mechanism is able to produce gaseous accretion discs that could potentially be the progenitor of the observed stellar disc in the GC. A comparison of simulations with different equations of state (adiabatic, isothermal and full cooling) demonstrates the importance of including a detailed thermodynamical description. However the simple isothermal approach already yields good results on the radial mass transfer and accretion rates, as well as disc eccentricities and sizes. We find that the cloud impact parameter strongly influences the accretion rate, whereas the impact velocity has a small effect on the accretion rate.
Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel
2016-03-01
Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.
Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes
Gallo, Elena
2008-01-01
This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stability of black holes, numerical simulations, collisions, the production of gravity waves, black hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation, quantum treatments of black holes, black holes in both higher and lower dimensions, and connections to nuclear and condensed matter physics. On the astronomical end, we also cover the physics of gas accretion onto black holes, relativistic jets, gravitationally red-shifted emission lines, evidence for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems and super-massive black holes at the centers...
Gas squeezing during the merger of a supermassive black hole binary
Cerioli, Alice; Price, Daniel J
2016-01-01
We study accretion rates during the gravitational wave-driven merger of a binary supermassive black hole embedded in an accretion disc, formed by gas driven to the centre of the galaxy. We use 3D simulations performed with PHANTOM, a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code. Contrary to previous investigations, we show that there is evidence of a "squeezing phenomenon", caused by the compression of the inner disc gas when the secondary black hole spirals towards the primary. This causes an increase in the accretion rates that always exceed the Eddington rate. We have studied the main features of the phenomenon for a mass ratio $q = 10^{-3}$ between the black holes, including the effects of numerical resolution, the secondary accretion radius and the disc thickness. With our disc model with a low aspect ratio, we show that the mass expelled from the orbit of the secondary is negligible ($< 5\\%$ of the initial disc mass), different to the findings of previous 2D simulations with thicker discs. The increase in th...
MEASURING GAS ACCRETION AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM NEAR SIMULATED SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using cosmological simulations with a dynamic range in excess of 107, we study the transport of gas mass and angular momentum through the circumnuclear region of a disk galaxy containing a supermassive black hole (SMBH). The simulations follow fueling over relatively quiescent phases of the galaxy's evolution (no mergers) and without feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), as part of the first stage of using state-of-the-art, high-resolution cosmological simulations to model galaxy and black hole co-evolution. We present results from simulations at different redshifts (z = 6, 4, and 3) and three different black hole masses (3 x 107, 9 x 107, and 3 x 108 Msun; at z = 4), as well as a simulation including a prescription that approximates optically thick cooling in the densest regions. The interior gas mass throughout the circumnuclear disk shows transient and chaotic behavior as a function of time. The Fourier transform of the interior gas mass follows a power law with slope -1 throughout the region, indicating that, in the absence of the effects of galaxy mergers and AGN feedback, mass fluctuations are stochastic with no preferred timescale for accretion over the duration of each simulation (∼1-2 Myr). The angular momentum of the gas disk changes direction relative to the disk on kiloparsec scales over timescales less than 1 Myr, reflecting the chaotic and transient gas dynamics of the circumnuclear region. Infalling clumps of gas, which are driven inward as a result of the dynamical state of the circumnuclear disk, may play an important role in determining the spin evolution of an SMBH, as has been suggested in stochastic accretion scenarios.
Do Circumnuclear Dense Gas Disks Drive Mass Accretion onto Supermassive Black Holes?
Izumi, Takuma; Kohno, Kotaro
2016-01-01
We present a positive correlation between the mass of dense molecular gas ($M_{\\rm dense}$) of $\\sim 100$ pc scale circumnuclear disks (CNDs) and the black hole mass accretion rate ($\\dot{M}_{\\rm BH}$) in total 10 Seyfert galaxies, based on data compiled from the literature and an archive (median aperture $\\theta_{\\rm med}$ = 220 pc). A typical $M_{\\rm dense}$ of CNDs is 10$^{7-8}$ $M_\\odot$, estimated from the luminosity of the dense gas tracer, the HCN($1-0$) emission line. Because dense molecular gas is the site of star formation, this correlation is virtually equivalent to the one between nuclear star formation rate and $\\dot{M}_{\\rm BH}$ revealed previously. Moreover, the $M_{\\rm dense}-\\dot{M}_{\\rm BH}$ correlation was tighter for CND-scale gas than for the gas on kpc or larger scales. This indicates that CNDs likely play an important role in fueling black holes, whereas $>$kpc scale gas does not. To demonstrate a possible approach for studying the CND-scale accretion process with the Atacama Large Mill...
Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation
Spaans, Marco
2016-01-01
Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.
Accretion of Chaplygin gas upon black holes: formation of faster outflowing winds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the accretion of modified Chaplygin gas upon different types of black holes. Modified Chaplygin gas is one of the best candidates for a combined model of dark matter and dark energy. In addition, from a field theoretical point of view the modified Chaplygin gas model is equivalent to that of a scalar field having a self-interacting potential. We formulate the equations related to both spherical accretion and disc accretion, and respective winds. The corresponding numerical solutions of the flow, particularly of velocity, are presented and analysed. We show that the accretion-wind system of modified Chaplygin gas dramatically alters the wind solutions, producing faster winds, upon changes in physical parameters, while accretion solutions qualitatively remain unaffected. This implies that modified Chaplygin gas is more prone to produce outflow which is the natural consequence of the dark energy into the system.
Begelman, Mitchell C
2003-06-20
Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather, they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ''infinite statistics'' which resembles that of distinguishable particles and is realized by a q deformation of the quantum commutation relations
Neves, J C S
2015-01-01
In this work, we have deformed regular black holes which possess a general mass term described by a function which generalizes the Bardeen and Hayward mass terms. Using linear constraints in the energy-momentum tensor, the solutions are either regular or singular. That is, with this approach, it is possible to generate singular black holes from regular black holes and vice versa. Moreover, contrary to the Bardeen and Hayward regular solutions, the regular deformed metrics may violate the weak energy condition despite the presence of the spherical symmetry. Some comments on accretion of deformed black holes in cosmological scenarios are made.
White holes and eternal black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)
White holes and eternal black holes
Stephen D. H. Hsu
2010-01-01
We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi- thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal.
EFFECTS OF CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK GAS EVOLUTION ON THE SPIN OF CENTRAL BLACK HOLES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maio, Umberto [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching b. Muenchen (Germany); Dotti, Massimo [Department of Physics of the University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Petkova, Margarita [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching b. Muenchen (Germany); Perego, Albino [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Volonteri, Marta [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)
2013-04-10
Mass and spin are the only two parameters needed to completely characterize black holes (BHs) in general relativity. However, the interaction between BHs and their environment is where complexity lies, as the relevant physical processes occur over a large range of scales. That is particularly relevant in the case of supermassive black holes (SMBHs), hosted in galaxy centers, and surrounded by swirling gas and various generations of stars. These compete with the SMBH for gas consumption and affect both dynamics and thermodynamics of the gas itself. How the behavior of such a fiery environment influences the angular momentum of the gas accreted onto SMBHs, and, hence, BH spins, is uncertain. We explore the interaction between SMBHs and their environment via first three-dimensional sub-parsec resolution simulations (ranging from {approx}0.1 pc to {approx}1 kpc scales) that study the evolution of the SMBH spin by including the effects of star formation, stellar feedback, radiative transfer, and metal pollution according to the proper stellar yields and lifetimes. This approach is crucial in investigating the impact of star formation processes and feedback effects on the angular momentum of the material that could accrete on the central hole. We find that star formation and feedback mechanisms can locally inject significant amounts of entropy in the surrounding medium, and impact the inflow inclination angles and Eddington fractions. As a consequence, the resulting trends show upper-intermediate equilibrium values for the spin parameter of a {approx_equal} 0.6-0.9, corresponding to radiative efficiencies {epsilon} {approx_equal} 9%-15%. These results suggest that star formation feedback taking place in the circumnuclear disk during the infall alone cannot induce very strong chaotic trends in the gas flow, quite independently from the different numerical parameters.
The role of galactic cold gas in low-level supermassive black hole activity
Alfvin, Erik D; Haynes, Martha P; Gallo, Elena; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Koopmann, Rebecca A; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Cannon, John M
2016-01-01
The nature of the relationship between low-level supermassive black hole (SMBH) activity and galactic cold gas, if any, is currently unclear. Here, we test whether central black holes may feed at higher rates in gas-rich galaxies, probing SMBH activity well below the active regime down to Eddington ratios of ~1e-7. We use a combination of radio data from the ALFALFA survey and from the literature, along with archival X-ray flux measurements from the Chandra X-ray observatory, to investigate this potential relationship. We construct a sample of 129 late-type galaxies, with MB<-18 out to 50 Mpc, that have both HI masses and sensitive X-ray coverage. Of these, 75 host a nuclear X-ray source, a 58% detection fraction. There is a highly significant correlation between nuclear X-ray luminosity LX and galaxy stellar mass Mstar with a slope of 1.7+/-0.3, and a tentative correlation (significant at the 2.8 sigma level) between LX and HI gas mass MHI. However, a joint fit to LX as a function of both Mstar and MHI fi...
Noncommutative Singular Black Holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t - r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.
Noncommutative Singular Black Holes
Hamid Mehdipour, S.
2010-11-01
In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t — r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kragh, Helge Stjernholm
2016-01-01
Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....
Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.
1997-08-01
We summarise recent work on the quantum production of black holes in the inflationary era. We describe, in simple terms, the Euclidean approach used, and the results obtained both for the pair creation rate and for the evolution of the black holes.
Andersson, N
2000-01-01
This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Koustubh Ajit Kabe
2012-09-01
In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.
Kuchiev, M Yu
2003-01-01
Black holes are presumed to have an ideal ability to absorb and keep matter. Whatever comes close to the event horizon, a boundary separating the inside region of a black hole from the outside world, inevitably goes in and remains inside forever. This work shows, however, that quantum corrections make possible a surprising process, reflection: a particle can bounce back from the event horizon. For low energy particles this process is efficient, black holes behave not as holes, but as mirrors, which changes our perception of their physical nature. Possible ways for observations of the reflection and its relation to the Hawking radiation process are outlined.
Fluctuating Black Hole Horizons
Mei, Jianwei
2013-01-01
In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.
Hajdukovic, D
2006-01-01
We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.
Ahn, Eun-Joo; Cavaglia, Marco
2003-01-01
Production of high-energy gravitational objects is a common feature of gravitational theories. The primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities. Cosmic black holes can be used to probe physical properties of the very early universe which would usually require the knowledge of the theory of quantum gravity. They may be the only tool to explore thermalisation of the early universe. Whereas the creation of cosmic black ...
Black hole thermodynamics as seen through a microscopic model of a relativistic Bose gas
Skákala, Jozef; Shankaranarayanan, S.
2016-02-01
Equations of gravity when projected on spacetime horizons resemble Navier-Stokes equation of a fluid with a specific equation of state [T. Damour, Surface effects of black hole physics, in Proc. M. Grossman Meeting (North Holland, 1982), p. 587, T. Padmanabhan, Phys. Rev. D 83 (2011) 044048, arXiv:gr-qc/1012.0119, S. Kolekar and T. Padmanabhan, Phys. Rev. D 85 (2011) 024004, arXiv:gr-qc/1012.5421]. We show that this equation of state describes massless ideal relativistic gas. We use these results, and build an explicit and simple molecular model of the fluid living on the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström black hole horizons. For the spin zero Bose gas, our model makes two predictions: (i) The horizon area/entropy is quantized as given by Bekenstein’s quantization rule, (ii) The model explains the correct type of proportionality between horizon area and entropy. However, for the physically relevant range of parameters, the proportionality constant is never equal to 1/4.
ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production
Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries
van Meter, James R.; Wise, John H.; Miller, M. Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Centrella, Joan M.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.
2009-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases where the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the stron...
Noncommutative Solitonic Black Hole
Chang-Young, Ee; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone
2012-01-01
We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field using the Moyal product expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in the two noncommutative spatial directions. By numerical simulation we look for black hole solutions by increasing the non- commutativity parameter value starting from regular solutions with vanishing noncommutativity. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.
Hayward, Sean Alan
2013-01-01
Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)
2015-05-11
In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2015-01-01
In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.
Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries
van Meter, James R; Miller, M Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S; Centrella, Joan M; Baker, John G; Boggs, William D; Kelly, Bernard J; McWilliams, Sean T
2009-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases where the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a step towards solving this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We find qualitative differences in collision and outflow speeds, including a signature of the merger when the net angular momentum of the matter is low, between the results from single and binary black holes, and between nonrotating and rotating holes in binaries. If future magnetohydrodynamic results confirm ...
On Noncommutative Black Holes Thermodynamics
Faizal, Mir; Ulhoa, S C
2015-01-01
In this paper, we will analyze noncommutative deformation of the Schwarzschild black holes and Kerr black holes. We will perform our analysis by relating the commutative and the noncommutative metrics using an Moyal product. We will also analyze the thermodynamics of these noncommutative black hole solutions. We will explicitly derive expression for the corrected entropy and temperature of these black hole solutions.
The Thermodynamics of Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wald Robert M.
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.
The Thermodynamics of Black Holes
Wald Robert M.
1999-01-01
We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.
Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.
1971-01-01
discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this review we shall concentrate on the application of the concept of black hole to different areas in astrophysics. Models in which this idea is involved are connected with basically two areas in astrophysics: a) The death of massive stars due to gravitational collapse. This process would lead to the formation of black holes with stellar masses (10-20 M sun). The detection of these kind of - objects is in principle possible, by means of studying the so-called X-ray binary system. b) Active nuclei of galaxies, including quasars as an extreme case. In this case, the best model available to explain the generation of the enormous amounts of energy observed as well as several other properties, is accretion into a supermassive black hole (106-1010 M sun) in the center. The problem of the origin of such black holes is related to cosmology. (author)
Topics in black hole evaporation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two major aspects of particle creation by gravitational fields of black holes are studied: the neutrino emission from rotating black holes; and interactions between scalar particles emitted by a black hole. Neutrino emission is investigated under three topics: The asymmetry of the angular dependence of neutrino emission from rotating black holes; the production of a local matter excess by rotating black holes in a baryon symmetric universe; and cosmological magnetic field generation by neutrinos from evaporating black holes. Finally the author studies the effects of interactions on the black hole evaporation process
THE RATE OF GAS ACCRETION ONTO BLACK HOLES DRIVES JET VELOCITY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
King, Ashley L. [Department of Physics, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Miller, Jon M.; Gültekin, Kayhan; Reynolds, Mark [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Bietenholz, Michael; Bartel, Norbert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, M3J 1P3, Ontario (Canada); Mioduszewski, Amy [National Radio Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Rupen, Michael, E-mail: ashking@stanford.edu [NRC Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Penticton, British Columbia V2A 6J9 (Canada)
2015-01-20
Accreting black holes are observed to launch relativistic, collimated jets of matter and radiation. In some sources, discrete ejections have been detected with highly relativistic velocities. These particular sources typically have very high mass accretion rates, while sources lower knot velocities are predominantly associated with black holes with relatively low mass accretion rates. We quantify this behavior by examining knot velocity with respect to X-ray luminosity, a proxy for mass accretion rate onto the black hole. We find a positive correlation between the mass-scaled X-ray luminosity and jet knot velocity. In addition, we find evidence that the jet velocity is also a function of polar angle, supporting the ''spine-sheath'' model of jet production. Our results reveal a fundamental aspect of how accretion shapes mechanical feedback from black holes into their host environments.
THE RATE OF GAS ACCRETION ONTO BLACK HOLES DRIVES JET VELOCITY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accreting black holes are observed to launch relativistic, collimated jets of matter and radiation. In some sources, discrete ejections have been detected with highly relativistic velocities. These particular sources typically have very high mass accretion rates, while sources lower knot velocities are predominantly associated with black holes with relatively low mass accretion rates. We quantify this behavior by examining knot velocity with respect to X-ray luminosity, a proxy for mass accretion rate onto the black hole. We find a positive correlation between the mass-scaled X-ray luminosity and jet knot velocity. In addition, we find evidence that the jet velocity is also a function of polar angle, supporting the ''spine-sheath'' model of jet production. Our results reveal a fundamental aspect of how accretion shapes mechanical feedback from black holes into their host environments
Stornaiolo, Cosimo
2001-01-01
In this paper we propose a model for the formation of the cosmological voids. We show that cosmological voids can form directly after the collapse of extremely large wavelength perturbations into low-density black holes or cosmological black holes (CBH). Consequently the voids are formed by the comoving expansion of the matter that surrounds the collapsed perturbation. It follows that the universe evolves, in first approximation, according to the Einstein-Straus cosmological model. We discuss...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references
Thermal corpuscular black holes
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-01-01
We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number $N$ of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy $\\omega>m$). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temp...
Black hole critical phenomena without black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Steven L Liebling
2000-10-01
Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I brieﬂy review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar
2015-05-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.
Science Teacher, 2005
2005-01-01
Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…
Cosmic censorship inside black holes
Thorlacius, L
2006-01-01
A simple argument is given that a traversable Cauchy horizon inside a black hole is incompatible with unitary black hole evolution. The argument assumes the validity of black hole complementarity and applies to a generic black hole carrying angular momentum and/or charge. In the second part of the paper we review recent work on the semiclassical geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes.
Bekenstein, Jacob D.
1997-01-01
In some respects the black hole plays the same role in gravitation that the atom played in the nascent quantum mechanics. This analogy suggests that black hole mass $M$ might have a discrete spectrum. I review the physical arguments for the expectation that black hole horizon area eigenvalues are uniformly spaced, or equivalently, that the spacing between stationary black hole mass levels behaves like 1/M. This sort of spectrum has also emerged in a variety of formal approaches to black hole ...
Accretion and Orbital Inspiral in Gas-Assisted Supermassive Black Hole Binary Mergers
Rafikov, Roman R
2016-01-01
Many galaxies are expected to harbor binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in their centers. Their interaction with the surrounding gas results in accretion and exchange of angular momentum via tidal torques, facilitating binary inspiral. Here we explore the non-trivial coupling between these two processes and analyze how the global properties of externally supplied circumbinary disks depend on the binary accretion rate. By formulating our results in terms of the angular momentum flux driven by internal stresses, we come up with a very simple classification of the possible global disk structures, which differ from the standard constant $\\dot M$ accretion disk solution. Suppression of accretion by the binary tides, leading to a significant mass accumulation in the inner disk, accelerates binary inspiral. We show that once the disk region strongly perturbed by the viscously transmitted tidal torque exceeds the binary semi-major axis, the binary can merge in less than its mass-doubling time due to accretion. T...
Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation.
Greene, Jenny E
2012-01-01
Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism. PMID:23250434
A cold gas reservoir to fuel M31 nuclear black hole and stellar cluster
Melchior, A -L
2012-01-01
With IRAM-30m/HERA, we have detected CO(2-1) gas complexes within 30 arcsec (~100 pc) from the center of M31 amounting to a minimum total mass of 4.2 x 10^4 Msol (one third of the positions are detected). Averaging the whole HERA field, we have shown that there is no additional undetected diffuse component. We show that the above gas detection is associated with gas lying on the far side as no extinction is observed in the optical, but some emission is present on infra-red Spitzer maps. The kinematics is complex. (1) The velocity pattern is mainly redshifted: the dynamical center of the gas differs from the black hole position and the maximum of optical emission, and only the red-shifted side is seen in our data. (2) Several velocity components are detected in some lines of sight. Our interpretation is supported by the reanalysis of the effect of dust on a complete planetary nebula sample. Two dust components are detected with respective position angles of 37 deg and -66 deg. This is compatible with the super...
Joint evolution of black holes and galaxies
Colpi, M; Haardt, F
2006-01-01
OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES Introduction Some Useful Formalism General Considerations Resolved Stellar Dynamics Gas as a Tracer of the Gravitational Potential Tackling the Unresolvable: Reverberation Mapping Scaling Relations for SMBHs Black Hole Demographics The Future JOINT EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLES AND GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONAL ISSUES Galaxy Activity: Generalities Local Evidence on the Interplay Between the Stellar and Gravitational Origin of AGN Activity The Cosmic History of Galaxy Activity Constraints on the Cosmic Energy Budget Current Observational Programs and Fut
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome ‘remnants’. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a ‘fuzzball’ structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: ► The information paradox is a serious problem. ► To solve it we need to find ‘hair’ on black holes. ► In string theory we find ‘hair’ by the fuzzball construction. ► Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.
Begelman, Mitchell C
2012-01-01
We propose that the growth of supermassive black holes is associated mainly with brief episodes of highly super-Eddington infall of gas ("hyperaccretion"). This gas is not swallowed in real time, but forms an envelope of matter around the black hole that can be swallowed gradually, over a much longer timescale. However, only a small fraction of the black hole mass can be stored in the envelope at any one time. We argue that any infalling matter above a few per cent of the hole's mass is ejected as a result of the plunge in opacity at temperatures below a few thousand degrees K, corresponding to the Hayashi track. The speed of ejection of this matter, compared to the velocity dispersion (sigma) of the host galaxy's core, determines whether the ejected matter is lost forever or returns eventually to rejoin the envelope, from which it can be ultimately accreted. The threshold between matter recycling and permanent loss defines a relationship between the maximum black hole mass and sigma that resembles the empiri...
Massive Black Holes and Galaxies
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.
NASA's Chandra Finds Black Holes Are "Green"
2006-04-01
Black holes are the most fuel efficient engines in the Universe, according to a new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By making the first direct estimate of how efficient or "green" black holes are, this work gives insight into how black holes generate energy and affect their environment. The new Chandra finding shows that most of the energy released by matter falling toward a supermassive black hole is in the form of high-energy jets traveling at near the speed of light away from the black hole. This is an important step in understanding how such jets can be launched from magnetized disks of gas near the event horizon of a black hole. Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine "Just as with cars, it's critical to know the fuel efficiency of black holes," said lead author Steve Allen of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. "Without this information, we cannot figure out what is going on under the hood, so to speak, or what the engine can do." Allen and his team used Chandra to study nine supermassive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies. These black holes are relatively old and generate much less radiation than quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes seen in the early Universe. The surprise came when the Chandra results showed that these "quiet" black holes are all producing much more energy in jets of high-energy particles than in visible light or X-rays. These jets create huge bubbles, or cavities, in the hot gas in the galaxies. Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy The efficiency of the black hole energy-production was calculated in two steps: first Chandra images of the inner regions of the galaxies were used to estimate how much fuel is available for the black hole; then Chandra images were used to estimate the power required to produce
Bonoli, Silvia; Callegari, Simone
2012-01-01
We study the statistics and cosmic evolution of massive black hole seeds formed during major mergers of gas-rich late-type galaxies. Generalizing the results of the hydro-simulations from Mayer et al. 2010, we envision a scenario in which a supermassive star can form at the center of galaxies that just experienced a major merger owing to a multi-scale powerful gas inflow, provided that such galaxies live in haloes with masses above 10^{11} Msun, are gas-rich and disc-dominated, and do not already host a massive black hole. We assume that the ultimate collapse of the supermassive star leads to the rapid formation of a black hole of 10^5 Msun following a quasi-star stage. Using a model for galaxy formation applied to the outputs of the Millennium Simulation, we show that the conditions required for this massive black hole formation route to take place in the concordance LambdaCDM model are actually common at high redshift, and can be realized even at low redshift. Most major mergers above z~4 in haloes with mas...
Hawking, S. W.
1996-03-01
One would expect spacetime to have a foamlike structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the nontrivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S2×S2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S2×S2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix S/ that does not factorize into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the θ angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The picture of virtual black holes given here also suggests that macroscopic black holes will evaporate down to the Planck size and then disappear in the sea of virtual black holes.
Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar
2015-01-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...
Black holes and local dark matter
Hegyi, D. J.; Kolb, E. W.; Olive, K. A.
1986-01-01
Two independent constraints are placed on the amount of dark matter in black holes contained in the galactic disk. First, gas accretion by black holes leads to X-ray emission which cannot exceed the observed soft X-ray background. Second, metals produced in stellar processes that lead to black hole formation cannot exceed the observed disk metal abundance. Based on these constraints, it appears unlikely that the missing disk mass could be contained in black holes. A consequence of this conclusion is that at least two different types of dark matter are needed to solve the various missing mass problems.
Black Holes and disk dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two independent approaches are used to place constraints on the amount of dark mass in the galactic disk in the form of black holes. Gas accretion by black holes leads to X-ray emission which should not exceed the upper limits on the observed soft X-ray background. Also, metals produced in stellar processes that lead to black hole formation should not exceed the observed disk metal abundance. Based on these constraints, it appears unlikely that the missing disk mass could be contained in black holes
Noncommutative black hole thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We give a general derivation, for any static spherically symmetric metric, of the relation Th=(K/2π) connecting the black hole temperature (Th) with the surface gravity (K), following the tunneling interpretation of Hawking radiation. This derivation is valid even beyond the semi-classical regime, i.e. when quantum effects are not negligible. The formalism is then applied to a spherically symmetric, stationary noncommutative Schwarzschild space-time. The effects of backreaction are also included. For such a black hole the Hawking temperature is computed in a closed form. A graphical analysis reveals interesting features regarding the variation of the Hawking temperature (including corrections due to noncommutativity and backreaction) with the small radius of the black hole. The entropy and tunneling rate valid for the leading order in the noncommutative parameter are calculated. We also show that the noncommutative Bekenstein-Hawking area law has the same functional form as the usual one
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids. PMID:25768746
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a cold, stable remnant
Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
2013-12-01
General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a "cold", stable remnant.
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics
Yang, Huan; Lehner, Luis
2014-01-01
We show that rapidly-spinning black holes can display turbulent gravitational behavior which is mediated by a new type of parametric instability. This instability transfers energy from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies--- a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse energy cascade displayed by 2+1-dimensional turbulent fluids. Our finding reveals a path towards gravitational turbulence for perturbations of rapidly-spinning black holes, and provides the first evidence for gravitational turbulence in an asymptotically flat spacetime. Interestingly, this finding predicts observable gravitational wave signatures from such phenomena in black hole binaries with high spins and gives a gravitational description of turbulence relevant to the fluid-gravity duality.
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-01
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability—which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold—akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies—a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2 +1 )-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
The First Massive Black Hole Seeds and Their Hosts
Bellovary, Jillian; Volonteri, Marta; Governato, Fabio; Shen, Sijing; Quinn, Thomas; Wadsley, James
2011-01-01
We investigate the formation of the first massive black holes in high redshift galaxies, with the goal of providing insights to which galaxies do or do not host massive black holes. We adopt a novel approach to forming seed black holes in galaxy halos in cosmological SPH+N-body simulations. The formation of massive black hole seeds is dictated directly by the local gas density, temperature, and metallicity, and motivated by physical models of massive black hole formation. We explore seed blac...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ∞≅2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
Early Black Hole formation by accretion of gas and dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent discovery of luminous quasars at z > 6 has posed a severe challenge to the theory of structure formation of the universe. These quasars are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes (SMBHs). However no consensus is yet to be reached as to the origin and early formation mechanism of massive SMBHs. We propose a model in which intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with mass of ∼ 104Msun are formed in early dark matter halos. We carry out detailed stellar evolution calculations for the first generation stars including annihilation energy of dark matter (DM) particles. We show that very massive stars, as massive as 104Msun, can be formed in an early DM halo. Such stars are extremely bright with Log L/Lsun ∼> 8.2. They will gravitationally collapse to form IMBHs. These black holes could have seeded the formation of early SMBHs
Noncommutative solitonic black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value. (paper)
Noncommutative solitonic black hole
Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone
2012-05-01
We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.
Hennigar, Robie A; Tjoa, Erickson
2016-01-01
We present what we believe is the first example of a "$\\lambda$-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid $^4$He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically AdS hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.
Hawking, Stephen W.
1995-01-01
One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...
Aarseth, Sverre J
2007-01-01
We describe efforts over the last six years to implement regularization methods suitable for studying one or more interacting black holes by direct N-body simulations. Three different methods have been adapted to large-N systems: (i) Time-Transformed Leapfrog, (ii) Wheel-Spoke, and (iii) Algorithmic Regularization. These methods have been tried out with some success on GRAPE-type computers. Special emphasis has also been devoted to including post-Newtonian terms, with application to moderately massive black holes in stellar clusters. Some examples of simulations leading to coalescence by gravitational radiation will be presented to illustrate the practical usefulness of such methods.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.
1987-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging
Visser, M
1999-01-01
Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.
Good, Michael R R
2014-01-01
A $(3+1)$-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed $\\Omega_+$ can be used to define an effective spring constant, $k=m\\Omega_+^2$. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, $k = \\kappa $, which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: $2\\pi T = \\kappa - k$. Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force $F = 1/4$, which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.
Horndeski black hole geodesics
Tretyakova, D A
2016-01-01
We examine geodesics for the scalar-tensor black holes in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits may not be present within some model parameters range. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations. We also present a new (although very similar to those previously known) solution, which contains the orbits we expect from a compact object, admits regular scalar field at the horizon and and can fit into the known stability criteria.
Gnerucci, A; Capetti, A; Axon, D; Robinson, A
2010-01-01
This is the first in a series of papers in which we study the application of spectroastrometry in the context of gas kinematical studies aimed at measuring the mass of supermassive black holes. The spectroastrometrical method consists in measuring the photocenter of light emission in different wavelength or velocity channels. In particular we explore the potential of spectroastrometry of gas emission lines in galaxy nuclei to constrain the kinematics of rotating gas disks and to measure the mass of putative supermassive black holes. By means of detailed simulations and test cases, we show that the fundamental advantage of spectroastrometry is that it can provide information on the gravitational potential of a galaxy on scales significantly smaller (~ 1/10) than the limit imposed by the spatial resolution of the observations. We then describe a simple method to infer detailed kinematical informations from spectroastrometry in longslit spectra and to measure the mass of nuclear mass concentrations. Such method ...
NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits
2005-02-01
The very largest black holes reach a certain point and then grow no more, according to the best survey to date of black holes made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Scientists have also discovered many previously hidden black holes that are well below their weight limit. These new results corroborate recent theoretical work about how black holes and galaxies grow. The biggest black holes, those with at least 100 million times the mass of the Sun, ate voraciously during the early Universe. Nearly all of them ran out of 'food' billions of years ago and went onto a forced starvation diet. Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North On the other hand, black holes between about 10 and 100 million solar masses followed a more controlled eating plan. Because they took smaller portions of their meals of gas and dust, they continue growing today. "Our data show that some supermassive black holes seem to binge, while others prefer to graze", said Amy Barger of the University of Wisconsin in Madison and the University of Hawaii, lead author of the paper describing the results in the latest issue of The Astronomical Journal (Feb 2005). "We now understand better than ever before how supermassive black holes grow." One revelation is that there is a strong connection between the growth of black holes and the birth of stars. Previously, astronomers had done careful studies of the birthrate of stars in galaxies, but didn't know as much about the black holes at their centers. DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole "These galaxies lose material into their central black holes at the same time that they make their stars," said Barger. "So whatever mechanism governs star formation in galaxies also governs black hole growth." Astronomers have made an accurate census of both the biggest, active black holes in the distance, and the relatively smaller, calmer ones closer by. Now, for the first
Horowitz, Gary T.; Maldacena, Juan
2003-01-01
We propose that in quantum gravity one needs to impose a final state boundary condition at black hole singularities. This resolves the apparent contradiction between string theory and semiclassical arguments over whether black hole evaporation is unitary.
Quantum aspects of black holes
2015-01-01
Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-10-01
The “no-hair” theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively “frozen in” the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πcℏ), where Φ∞≈2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole’s magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
A cold-gas reservoir to fuel the M 31 nuclear black hole and stellar cluster
Melchior, A.-L.; Combes, F.
2013-01-01
With IRAM-30 m/HERA, we have detected CO(2-1) gas complexes within 30 arcsec (~100 pc) from the center of M 31 that amount to a minimum total mass of 4.2 × 104 M⊙ (one third of the positions are detected). Averaging the whole HERA field, we show that there is no additional undetected diffuse component. Moreover, the gas detection is associated with gas lying on the far side of the M 31 center as no extinction is observed in the optical, but some emission is present on infrared Spitzer maps. The kinematics is complex. (1) The velocity pattern is mainly redshifted: the dynamical center of the gas differs from the black hole position and the maximum of optical emission, and only the redshifted side is seen in our data. (2) Several velocity components are detected in some lines of sight. Our interpretation is supported by the reanalysis of the effect of dust on a complete planetary nebula sample. Two dust components are detected with respective position angles of 37 deg and -66 deg. This is compatible with a scenario where the superposition of the (PA = 37 deg) disk is dominated by the 10 kpc ring and the inner 0.7 kpc ring detected in infrared data, whose position angle (-66 deg) we measured for the first time. The large-scale disk, which dominates the HI data, is steeply inclined (i = 77 deg), warped and superposed on the line of sight on the less inclined inner ring. The detected CO emission might come from both components. The reduced spectra (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/549/A27
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-09-22
A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.
Exact solutions of higher dimensional black holes
Tomizawa, Shinya
2011-01-01
We review exact solutions of black holes in higher dimensions, focusing on asymptotically flat black hole solutions and Kaluza-Klein type black hole solutions. We also summarize some properties which such black hole solutions reveal.
Black Hole Evaporation. A Survey
Benachenhou, Farid
1994-01-01
This thesis is a review of black hole evaporation with emphasis on recent results obtained for two dimensional black holes. First, the geometry of the most general stationary black hole in four dimensions is described and some classical quantities are defined. Then, a derivation of the spectrum of the radiation emitted during the evaporation is presented. In section four, a two dimensional model which has black hole solutions is introduced, the so-called CGHS model. These two dimensional blac...
Towards noncommutative quantum black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole
Towards Noncommutative Quantum Black Holes
Lopez-Dominguez, J. C.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.; Sabido, M.
2006-01-01
In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole.
Black Hole: The Interior Spacetime
Ong, Yen Chin
2016-01-01
The information loss paradox is often discussed from the perspective of the observers who stay outside of a black hole. However, the interior spacetime of a black hole can be rather nontrivial. We discuss the open problems regarding the volume of a black hole, and whether it plays any role in information storage. We also emphasize the importance of resolving the black hole singularity, if one were to resolve the information loss paradox.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.
Baker, John
2010-01-01
Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In four space-time dimensions black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory satisfy a number of theorems. In more than four space-time dimensions, however, some of the properties of black holes can change. In particular, uniqueness of black holes no longer holds. In five and more dimensions black rings arise. Thus in a certain region of the phase diagram there are three black objects with the same global charges present. Here we discuss properties of higher-dimensional vacuum and charged black holes, which possess a spherical horizon topology, and of vacuum and charged black rings, which have a ringlike horizon topology
Warped products and black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes
Warped products and black holes
Hong, S T
2005-01-01
We apply the warped product spacetime scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others
1995-07-01
Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.
Binary black hole accretion from a circumbinary disk: Gas dynamics inside the central cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present the results of two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamical simulations of circumbinary disk accretion using the finite-volume code DISCO. This code solves the 2D viscous Navier-Stokes equations on a high-resolution moving mesh which shears with the fluid flow, greatly reducing advection errors in comparison with a fixed grid. We perform a series of simulations for binary mass ratios in the range 0.026 ≤ q ≤ 1.0, each lasting longer than a viscous time so that we reach a quasi-steady accretion state. In each case, we find that gas is efficiently stripped from the inner edge of the circumbinary disk and enters the cavity along accretion streams, which feed persistent 'mini disks' surrounding each black hole. We find that for q ≳ 0.1, the binary excites eccentricity in the inner region of the circumbinary disk, creating an overdense lump which gives rise to enhanced periodicity in the accretion rate. The dependence of the periodicity on mass ratio may provide a method for observationally inferring mass ratios from measurements of the accretion rate. We also find that for all mass ratios studied, the magnitude of the accretion onto the secondary is sufficient to drive the binary toward larger mass ratio. This suggests a mechanism for biasing mass-ratio distributions toward equal mass.
Rotating Brane World Black Holes
Modgil, Moninder Singh; Panda, Sukanta; Sengupta, Gautam
2001-01-01
A five dimensional rotating black string in a Randall-Sundrum brane world is considered. The black string intercepts the three brane in a four dimensional rotating black hole. The geodesic equations and the asymptotics in this background are discussed.
Slender Galaxy with Robust Black Hole
2008-01-01
This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope indicates that a flat, spiral galaxy called NGC 3621 has a feeding, supermassive black hole lurking within it -- a surprise considering that astronomers thought this particular class of super-thin galaxies lacked big black holes. The data were captured by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that cracks infrared light open to reveal the signatures of elements. In this case, the data, or spectrum, for NGC 3621, shows the signature of highly ionized neon -- a sure sign of an active, supermassive black hole. Only a black hole that is actively consuming gas and stars has enough energy to ionize neon to this state. The other features in this plot are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorine, produced in the gas surrounding stars. The results challenge current theories, which hold that supermassive black holes require the bulbous central bulges that poke out from many spiral galaxies to form and grow. NGC 3621 is the second disk galaxy without any bulge found to harbor a supermassive black hole; the first, found in 2003, is NGC 4395. Astronomers have also used Spitzer to find six other mega black holes in thin spirals with only minimal bulges. Together, the findings indicate that, for a galaxy, being plump in the middle is not a necessary condition for growing a rotund black hole.
Observational Evidence for Black Holes
Narayan, Ramesh; McClintock, Jeffrey E.
2013-01-01
Astronomers have discovered two populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range 10^6 to 10^{10} solar masses, one each in the nucleus of every galaxy. There is strong circumstantial evidence that all these objects are true black holes with event horizons. The measured masses of supermassive black hole are strongly corr...
Chandra Catches "Piranha" Black Holes
2007-07-01
Supermassive black holes have been discovered to grow more rapidly in young galaxy clusters, according to new results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These "fast-track" supermassive black holes can have a big influence on the galaxies and clusters that they live in. Using Chandra, scientists surveyed a sample of clusters and counted the fraction of galaxies with rapidly growing supermassive black holes, known as active galactic nuclei (or AGN). The data show, for the first time, that younger, more distant galaxy clusters contained far more AGN than older, nearby ones. Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe, consisting of many individual galaxies, a few of which contain AGN. Earlier in the history of the universe, these galaxies contained a lot more gas for star formation and black hole growth than galaxies in clusters do today. This fuel allows the young cluster black holes to grow much more rapidly than their counterparts in nearby clusters. Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus "The black holes in these early clusters are like piranha in a very well-fed aquarium," said Jason Eastman of Ohio State University (OSU) and first author of this study. "It's not that they beat out each other for food, rather there was so much that all of the piranha were able to really thrive and grow quickly." The team used Chandra to determine the fraction of AGN in four different galaxy clusters at large distances, when the Universe was about 58% of its current age. Then they compared this value to the fraction found in more nearby clusters, those about 82% of the Universe's current age. The result was the more distant clusters contained about 20 times more AGN than the less distant sample. AGN outside clusters are also more common when the Universe is younger, but only by factors of two or three over the same age span. "It's been predicted that there would be fast-track black holes in clusters, but we never
Bonoli, S.; Mayer, L.; Callegari, S.
2014-01-01
We study the statistics and cosmic evolution of massive black hole seeds formed during major mergers of gas-rich late-type galaxies. Generalizing the results of the hydrosimulations from Mayer et al., we envision a scenario in which a supermassive star can form at the centre of galaxies that just experienced a major merger owing to a multiscale powerful gas inflow, provided that such galaxies live in haloes with masses above 1011 M⊙, are gas rich and disc dominated, and do not already host a ...
Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Mergers
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational radiation waveforms for black hole-neutron star coalescence calculations. The physical input is Newtonian physics, an ideal gas equation of state with...
Accretion and Orbital Inspiral in Gas-assisted Supermassive Black Hole Binary Mergers
Rafikov, Roman R.
2016-08-01
Many galaxies are expected to harbor binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in their centers. Their interaction with the surrounding gas results in the accretion and exchange of angular momentum via tidal torques, facilitating binary inspiral. Here, we explore the non-trivial coupling between these two processes and analyze how the global properties of externally supplied circumbinary disks depend on the binary accretion rate. By formulating our results in terms of the angular momentum flux driven by internal stresses, we come up with a very simple classification of the possible global disk structures, which differ from the standard constant \\dot{M} accretion disk solution. The suppression of accretion by the binary tides, leading to a significant mass accumulation in the inner disk, accelerates binary inspiral. We show that once the disk region strongly perturbed by the viscously transmitted tidal torque exceeds the binary semimajor axis, the binary can merge in less than its mass-doubling time due to accretion. Thus, unlike the inspirals driven by stellar scattering, the gas-assisted merger can occur even if the binary is embedded in a relatively low-mass disk (lower than its own mass). This is important for resolving the “last parsec” problem for SMBH binaries and understanding powerful gravitational wave sources in the universe. We argue that the enhancement of accretion by the binary found in some recent simulations cannot persist for a long time and should not affect the long-term orbital inspiral. We also review existing simulations of SMBH binary–disk coupling and propose a numerical setup which is particularly well suited to verifying our theoretical predictions.
The overmassive black hole in NGC 1277: new constraints from molecular gas kinematics
Scharwächter, J.; Combes, F.; Salomé, P.; Sun, M.; Krips, M.
2016-04-01
We report the detection of CO(1-0) emission from NGC 1277, a lenticular galaxy in the Perseus Cluster. NGC 1277 has previously been proposed to host an overmassive black hole (BH) compared to the galaxy bulge luminosity (mass), based on stellar-kinematic measurements. The CO(1-0) emission, observed with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) using both, a more compact (2.9-arcsec resolution) and a more extended (1-arcsec resolution) configuration, is likely to originate from the dust lane encompassing the galaxy nucleus at a distance of 0.9 arcsec (˜320 pc). The double-horned CO(1-0) profile found at 2.9-arcsec resolution traces 1.5 × 108 M⊙ of molecular gas, likely orbiting in the dust lane at ˜550 km s-1, which suggests a total enclosed mass of ˜2 × 1010 M⊙. At 1-arcsec resolution, the CO(1-0) emission appears spatially resolved along the dust lane in east-west direction, though at a low signal-to-noise ratio. In agreement with the previous stellar-kinematic measurements, the CO(1-0) kinematics is found to be consistent with an ˜1.7 × 1010 M⊙ BH for a stellar mass-to-light ratio of M/LV = 6.3, while a less massive BH of ˜5 × 109 M⊙ is possible when assuming a larger M/LV = 10. While the molecular gas reservoir may be associated with a low level of star formation activity, the extended 2.6-mm continuum emission is likely to originate from a weak AGN, possibly characterized by an inverted radio-to-millimetre spectral energy distribution. Literature radio and X-ray data indicate that the BH in NGC 1277 is also overmassive with respect to the Fundamental Plane of BH activity.
Prisons of light : black holes
Ferguson, Kitty
What is a black hole? Could we survive a visit to one -- perhaps even venture inside? Have we yet discovered any real black holes? And what do black holes teach us about the mysteries of our Universe? These are just a few of the tantalizing questions examined in this tour-de-force, jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light - Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
Point mass Cosmological Black Holes
Firouzjaee, Javad T
2016-01-01
Real black holes in the universe are located in the expanding accelerating background which are called the cosmological black holes. Hence, it is necessary to model these black holes in the cosmological background where the dark energy is the dominant energy. In this paper, we argue that most of the dynamical cosmological black holes can be modeled by point mass cosmological black holes. Considering the de Sitter background for the accelerating universe, we present the point mass cosmological background in the cosmological de Sitter space time. Our work also includes the point mass black holes which have charge and angular momentum. We study the mass, horizons, redshift structure and geodesics properties for these black holes.
Bonoli, Silvia; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone
2014-01-01
We study the statistics and cosmic evolution of massive black hole seeds formed during major mergers of gas-rich late-type galaxies. Generalizing the results of the hydrosimulations from Mayer et al., we envision a scenario in which a supermassive star can form at the centre of galaxies that just experienced a major merger owing to a multiscale powerful gas inflow, provided that such galaxies live in haloes with masses above 1011 M⊙, are gas rich and disc dominated, and do not already host a massive black hole. We assume that the ultimate collapse of the supermassive star leads to the rapid formation of a black hole of 105 M⊙ following a quasi-star stage. Using a model for galaxy formation applied to the outputs of the Millennium Simulation, we show that the conditions required for this massive black hole formation route to take place in the concordance Λ cold dark matter model are actually common at high redshift and can be realized even at low redshift. Most major mergers above z ˜ 4 in haloes with mass >1011 M⊙ can lead to the formation of a massive seed and, at z ˜ 2, the fraction of favourable mergers decreases to about half. Interestingly, we find that even in the local universe a fraction (˜20 per cent) of major mergers in massive haloes still satisfies the conditions for our massive black hole formation route. Those late events take place in galaxies with a markedly low clustering amplitude, that have lived in isolation for most of their life and that are experiencing a major merger for the first time. We predict that massive black hole seeds from galaxy mergers can dominate the massive end of the mass function at high (z > 4) and intermediate (z ˜ 2) redshifts relative to lighter seeds formed at higher redshift, for example, by the collapse of Pop III stars. Finally, a fraction of these massive seeds could lie, soon after formation, above the MBH-MBulge relation.
Chamblin, A; Reall, H S
2000-01-01
Gravitational collapse of matter trapped on a brane will produce a black hole on the brane. We discuss such black holes in the models of Randall and Sundrum where our universe is viewed as a domain wall in five dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We present evidence that a non-rotating uncharged black hole on the domain wall is described by a ``black cigar'' solution in five dimensions.
Chamblin, A.; Hawking, S. W.; Reall, H. S.
2000-03-01
Gravitational collapse of matter trapped on a brane will produce a black hole on the brane. We discuss such black holes in the models of Randall and Sundrum where our universe is viewed as a domain wall in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We present evidence that a non-rotating uncharged black hole on the domain wall is described by a ``black cigar'' solution in five dimensions.
Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reall Harvey S.
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.
Bena, Iosif; Vercnocke, Bert
2012-01-01
We establish the relation between the structure governing supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric four- and five-dimensional black holes and multicenter solutions and Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of M-theory and type IIB string theory. We find that the known BPS and almost-BPS multicenter black hole solutions can be interpreted as GKP compactifications with (2,1) and (0,3) imaginary self-dual flux. We also show that the most general GKP compactification leads to new classes of BPS and non-BPS multicenter solutions. We explore how these solutions fit into N=2 truncations, and elucidate how supersymmetry becomes camouflaged. As a necessary tool in our exploration we show how the fields in the largest N=2 truncation fit inside the six-torus compactification of eleven-dimensional supergravity.
Clement, María E Gabach
2015-01-01
It is well known that celestial bodies tend to be spherical due to gravity and that rotation produces deviations from this sphericity. We discuss what is known and expected about the shape of black holes' horizons from their formation to their final, stationary state. We present some recent results showing that black hole rotation indeed manifests in the widening of their central regions, limits their global shapes and enforces their whole geometry to be close to the extreme Kerr horizon geometry at almost maximal rotation speed. The results depend only on the horizon area and angular momentum. In particular they are entirely independent of the surrounding geometry of the spacetime and of the presence of matter satisfying the strong energy condition. We also discuss the the relation of this result with the Hoop conjecture.
Bastos, C; Dias, N C; Prata, J N
2010-01-01
One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.
Noncommutative Solitonic Black Hole
Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone
2011-01-01
We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find t...
Infinitely Coloured Black Holes
Mavromatos, Nick E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth(Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH, United Kingdom)
1999-01-01
We formulate the field equations for $SU(\\infty)$ Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, and find spherically symmetric black-hole solutions. This model may be motivated by string theory considerations, given the enormous gauge symmetries which characterize string theory. The solutions simplify considerably in the presence of a negative cosmological constant, particularly for the limiting cases of a very large cosmological constant or very small gauge field. The situation of an arbitrarily small gauge f...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)
Roberto Casadio(INFN, Bologna); Andrea Giugno; Octavian Micu; Alessio Orlandi
2015-01-01
We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractiv...
Helfer, Adam D
2011-01-01
I review elements of the foundations of black-hole theory with attention to problematic issues, and describe some techniques which either seem to help with the difficulties or at least investigate their scope. The definition of black holes via event horizons has been problematic because it depends on knowing the global structure of space-time; often attempts to avoid this (e.g. apparent horizons) require knowledge of the interior geometry. I suggest studying instead the holonomy relating the exterior neighborhood of the incipient horizon to the regime of distant observers; at least in the spherically symmetric case, this holonomy will develop certain universal features, in principle observable from signals emitted from infalling objects. I discuss the theory of quantum fields in curved space-time, and the difficulties with Hawking's prediction of black-hole radiation. I then show that the usual, very natural, theory of quantum fields in curved space-time runs into difficulties when applied to measurement prob...
Lyutikov, Maxim
2011-01-01
The "no hair" theorem, a key result in General Relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the "no hair" theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes $N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar)$, where $\\Phi_\\infty \\approx 2 \\pi^2 B_{NS} R_{NS}^3 /(P_{\\rm NS} c)$ is the initial magnetic flux through the hemisphere...
Thermal corpuscular black holes
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-06-01
We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number N of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy m (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy ω >m ). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature in the continuum. We first find that, assuming the Hawking radiation is the leading effect of the internal scatterings, the corresponding N -particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M =N m and a Planckian distribution for E >M at the same Hawking temperature. From this collective state, we compute the partition function and obtain an entropy which reproduces the usual area law with a logarithmic correction precisely related with the Hawking component. By means of the horizon wave function for the system, we finally show the backreaction of modes with ω >m reduces the Hawking flux. Both corrections, to the entropy and to the Hawking flux, suggest the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass, if the black hole is in this particular quantum state.
Early Black Hole Formation by Accretion of Gas and Dark Matter
Umeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Naoki; Nomoto, Ken; Tsuruta, Sachiko; Sasaki, Mei; Ohkubo, Takuya
2009-01-01
We propose a model in which intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with mass of ~10000 Msun are formed in early dark matter halos. We carry out detailed stellar evolution calculations for accreting primordial stars including annihilation energy of dark matter particles. We follow the stellar core evolution consistently up to gravitational collapse. We show that very massive stars, as massive as 10000 Msun, can be formed in an early dark matter halo. Such stars are extremely bright with Log L/L...
Flows of X-ray gas reveal the disruption of a star by a massive black hole
Miller, Jon M; Miller, M Coleman; Reynolds, Mark T; Brown, Gregory; Cenko, S Bradley; Drake, Jeremy J; Gezari, Suvi; Guillochon, James; Gultekin, Kayhan; Irwin, Jimmy; Levan, Andrew; Maitra, Dipankar; Maksym, W Peter; Mushotzky, Richard; O'Brien, Paul; Paerels, Frits; de Plaa, Jelle; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Strohmayer, Tod; Tanvir, Nial
2015-01-01
Tidal forces close to massive black holes can violently disrupt stars that make a close approach. These extreme events are discovered via bright X-ray and optical/UV flares in galactic centers. Prior studies based on modeling decaying flux trends have been able to estimate broad properties, such as the mass accretion rate. Here we report the detection of flows of highly ionized X-ray gas in high-resolution X-ray spectra of a nearby tidal disruption event. Variability within the absorption-dominated spectra indicates that the gas is relatively close to the black hole. Narrow line widths indicate that the gas does not stretch over a large range of radii, giving a low volume filling factor. Modest outflow speeds of a few hundred kilometers per second are observed, significantly below the escape speed from the radius set by variability. The gas flow is consistent with a rotating wind from the inner, super-Eddington region of a nascent accretion disk, or with a filament of disrupted stellar gas near to the apocent...
Flows of X-ray gas reveal the disruption of a star by a massive black hole.
Miller, Jon M; Kaastra, Jelle S; Miller, M Coleman; Reynolds, Mark T; Brown, Gregory; Cenko, S Bradley; Drake, Jeremy J; Gezari, Suvi; Guillochon, James; Gultekin, Kayhan; Irwin, Jimmy; Levan, Andrew; Maitra, Dipankar; Maksym, W Peter; Mushotzky, Richard; O'Brien, Paul; Paerels, Frits; de Plaa, Jelle; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Strohmayer, Tod; Tanvir, Nial
2015-10-22
Tidal forces close to massive black holes can violently disrupt stars that make a close approach. These extreme events are discovered via bright X-ray and optical/ultraviolet flares in galactic centres. Prior studies based on modelling decaying flux trends have been able to estimate broad properties, such as the mass accretion rate. Here we report the detection of flows of hot, ionized gas in high-resolution X-ray spectra of a nearby tidal disruption event, ASASSN-14li in the galaxy PGC 043234. Variability within the absorption-dominated spectra indicates that the gas is relatively close to the black hole. Narrow linewidths indicate that the gas does not stretch over a large range of radii, giving a low volume filling factor. Modest outflow speeds of a few hundred kilometres per second are observed; these are below the escape speed from the radius set by variability. The gas flow is consistent with a rotating wind from the inner, super-Eddington region of a nascent accretion disk, or with a filament of disrupted stellar gas near to the apocentre of an elliptical orbit. Flows of this sort are predicted by fundamental analytical theory and more recent numerical simulations. PMID:26490619
Stimulated emission and black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The probability of a black hole emitting m particles when n particles are incident on the black hole was first derived by Bekenstein and Meisels, and later, using a different method, by Panangaden and Wald. In another paper by Bekenstein, it was argued that black holes should have stimulated emission in all modes including the nonsuperradiant ones. In this paper, we use a model based on quantum field theory. We show that Bose-Einstein statistics enhances the probability for particles to scatter in the same direction. We also prove that a black hole is equivalent to a perfect blackbody surrounded by a mirror. In our model, the black hole does not exhibit stimulated emission in nonsuperradiant modes. We also compare the black hole to a gray body
Dvali, Gia
2013-01-01
According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.
Black Hole Masses are Quantized
Dvali, Gia; Mukhanov, Slava
2011-01-01
We give a simple argument showing that in any sensible quantum field theory the masses of black holes cannot assume continuous values and must be quantized. Our proof solely relies on Poincare-invariance of the asymptotic background, and is insensitive to geometric characteristics of black holes or other peculiarities of the short distance physics. Therefore, our results are equally-applicable to any other localized objects on asymptotically Poincare-invariant space, such as classicalons. By adding a requirement that in large mass limit the quantization must approximately account for classical results, we derive an universal quantization rule applicable to all classicalons (including black holes) in arbitrary number of dimensions. In particular, this implies, that black holes cannot emit/absorb arbitrarily soft quanta. The effect has phenomenological model-independent implications for black holes and other classicalons that may be created at LHC. We predict, that contrary to naive intuition, the black holes a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers
Small black holes on cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We find the metric of small black holes on cylinders, i.e. neutral and static black holes with a small mass in d-dimensional Minkowski space times a circle. The metric is found using an ansatz for black holes on cylinders proposed in J. High Energy Phys. 05, 032 (2002). We use the new metric to compute corrections to the thermodynamics which is seen to deviate from that of the (d+1)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. Moreover, we compute the leading correction to the relative binding energy which is found to be non-zero. We discuss the consequences of these results for the general understanding of black holes and we connect the results to the phase structure of black holes and strings on cylinders
Mayer, Lucio
2013-12-01
We revisit the phases of the pairing and sinking of black holes (BHs) in galaxy mergers and circumnuclear discs in light of the results of recent simulations with massive BHs embedded in predominantly gaseous backgrounds. After a general overview we highlight for the first time the existence of a clear transition, for unequal mass BHs, between the regime in which the orbital decay is dominated by the conventional dynamical friction wake and one in which global disc torques associated with density waves launched by the secondary BH as well as co-orbital torques arising from gas gravitationally captured by the BH dominate and lead to faster decay. The new regime intervenes at BH binary separations of a few tens of parsecs and below, following a phase of orbital circularization driven dynamical friction. It bears some resemblance with planet migration in protoplanetary discs. While the orbital timescale is reasonably matched by the migration rate for the Type-I regime, the dominant negative torque arises near the co-rotation resonance, which is qualitatively similar to what is found in the so-called Type-III migration, the fastest migration regime identified so far for planets. This fast decay rate brings the BHs to separations of order 10-1 pc, the resolution limit of our simulations, in less than ˜107 yr in a smooth disc, while the decay timescale can increase to >108 yr in clumpy discs due to gravitational scattering with molecular clouds. Eventual gap opening at sub-pc scale separations will slow down the orbital decay subsequently. How fast the binary BH can reach the separation at which gravitational waves take over will be determined by the nature of the interaction with the circumbinary disc and the complex torques exerted the gas flowing through the edge of such disc, the subject of many recent studies. We also present a new intriguing connection between the conditions required for rapid orbital decay of massive BH binaries and those required for prominent
The Formation and Evolution of the First Massive Black Holes
Haiman, Zoltan; Quataert, Eliot
2004-01-01
The first massive astrophysical black holes likely formed at high redshifts (z>10) at the centers of low mass (~10^6 Msun) dark matter concentrations. These black holes grow by mergers and gas accretion, evolve into the population of bright quasars observed at lower redshifts, and eventually leave the supermassive black hole remnants that are ubiquitous at the centers of galaxies in the nearby universe. The astrophysical processes responsible for the formation of the earliest seed black holes...
P-V Criticality of Modified BTZ Black Hole
Sadeghi, J.; Kubeka, A. S.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the BTZ black hole in P-V critical point of view. As we know, the BTZ black hole does not have P-V critical behavior. So in this case, we introduce some anstaz that give us the modified BTZ black hole. Finally, we show that this modified BTZ black hole is satisfied by the equation of state of Liquid-gas phase transition.
Information Storage in Black Holes
Maia, M. D.
2005-01-01
The information loss paradox for Schwarzschild black holes is examined, using the ADS/CFT correspondence extended to the $M_6 (4,2)$ bulk. It is found that the only option compatible with the preservation of the quantum unitarity is when a regular remnant region of the black hole survives to the black hole evaporation process, where information can be stored and eventually retrieved.
Origin of supermassive black holes
Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S. G.
2007-01-01
The origin of supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei is quite uncertain in spite of extensive set of observational data. We review the known scenarios of galactic and cosmological formation of supermassive black holes. The common drawback of galactic scenarios is a lack of time and shortage of matter supply for building the supermassive black holes in all galaxies by means of accretion and merging. The cosmological scenarios are only fragmentarily developed but propose and pretend to...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this talk, I present and discuss a number of attempts to construct black hole solutions in models with Warped Extra Dimensions. Then, a contact is made with models with Large Extra Dimensions, where black-hole solutions are easily constructed - here the focus will be on the properties of microscopic black holes and the possibility of using phenomena associated with them, such as the emission of Hawking radiation, to discover fundamental properties of our spacetime.
A gas cloud on its way towards the super-massive black hole in the Galactic Centre
Gillessen, S; Fritz, T K; Quataert, E; Alig, C; Burkert, A; Cuadra, J; Eisenhauer, F; Pfuhl, O; Dodds-Eden, K; Gammie, C F; Ott, T
2011-01-01
Measurements of stellar orbits provide compelling evidence that the compact radio source Sagittarius A* at the Galactic Centre is a black hole four million times the mass of the Sun. With the exception of modest X-ray and infrared flares, Sgr A* is surprisingly faint, suggesting that the accretion rate and radiation efficiency near the event horizon are currently very low. Here we report the presence of a dense gas cloud approximately three times the mass of Earth that is falling into the accretion zone of Sgr A*. Our observations tightly constrain the cloud's orbit to be highly eccentric, with an innermost radius of approach of only ~3,100 times the event horizon that will be reached in 2013. Over the past three years the cloud has begun to disrupt, probably mainly through tidal shearing arising from the black hole's gravitational force. The cloud's dynamic evolution and radiation in the next few years will probe the properties of the accretion flow and the feeding processes of the super-massive black hole. ...
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Micu, Octavian; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-10-01
We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (the bosons forming the black hole), and a continuous spectrum with energy $\\omega > m$ (representing the Hawking radiation and modelled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature). The $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M = N m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E > M$ at the same Hawking temperature. The partition function is then found to yield the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related with the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with $\\omega > m$ is also shown to reduce the Hawking flux and the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass.
Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes
Black holes and the multiverse
Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun
2016-02-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.
Statistical Hair on Black Holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
How black holes saved relativity
Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda
2016-02-01
While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.
Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes
Appels, Michael; Kubiznak, David
2016-01-01
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of a charged accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon -- even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability and phase structure of these black holes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Cabrera-Munguia
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Armen Yeranyan
2008-10-01
Full Text Available The general solutions of the radial attractor flow equations for extremal black holes, both for non-BPS with non-vanishing central charge Z and for Z = 0, are obtained for the so-called stu model, the minimal rank-3 N = 2 symmetric supergravity in d = 4 space-time dimensions. Comparisons with previous partial results, as well as the fake supergravity (first order formalism and an analysis of the marginal stability of corresponding D-brane configurations, are given.
Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Dias, N. C.; Prata, J. N.
2010-04-01
One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, η. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bastos, C; Bertolami, O [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, N C; Prata, J N, E-mail: cbastos@fisica.ist.utl.p, E-mail: orfeu@cosmos.ist.utl.p, E-mail: ncdias@mail.telepac.p, E-mail: joao.prata@mail.telepac.p [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Avenida Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)
2010-04-01
One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, {eta}. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, η. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Casadio
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce
Holographic Black Hole Chemistry
Karch, Andreas
2015-01-01
Thermodynamic quantities associated with black holes in Anti-de Sitter space obey an interesting identity when the cosmological constant is included as one of the dynamical variables, the generalized Smarr relation. We show that this relation can easily be understood from the point of view of the dual holographic field theory. It amounts to the simple statement that the extensive thermodynamic quantities of a large $N$ gauge theory only depend on the number of colors, $N$, via an overall factor of $N^2$.
Systematic Errors in Black Hole Mass Measurements
McConnell, Nicholas J.
2014-01-01
Compilations of stellar- and gas-dynamical measurements of supermassive black holes are often assembled without quantifying systematic errors from various assumptions in the dynamical modeling processes. Using a simple Monte-Carlo approach, I will discuss the level to which different systematic effects could bias scaling relations between black holes and their host galaxies. Given that systematic errors will not be eradicated in the near future, how wrong can we afford to be?
Accretion onto a higher dimensional black hole
John, Anslyn J.; Ghosh, Sushant G.; Maharaj, Sunil D.
2013-01-01
We examine the steady-state spherically symmetric accretion of relativistic fluids, with a polytropic equation of state, onto a higher dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. The mass accretion rate, critical radius, and flow parameters are determined and compared with results obtained in standard four dimensions. The accretion rate, $\\dot{M}$, is an explicit function of the black hole mass, $M$, as well as the gas boundary conditions and the dimensionality, $D$, of the spacetime. We also find ...
2002-10-01
Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way
Bogdanovic, Tamara
We have investigated two different physical scenarios in which massive black holes interact with stars or gas. In the first scenario we have modeled the time-variable profiles of the H[alpha] emission line from the non-axisymmetric disk and debris tail created in the tidal disruption of a solar-type star by a 10 6 [Special characters omitted.] black hole. Two tidal disruption event simulations were carried out using a three dimensional relativistic smoothed- particle hydrodynamic (SPH) code, to describe the early evolution of the debris during the first fifty to ninety days. We have calculated the physical conditions and radiative processes in the debris using the photoionization code Cloudy . We model the emission line profiles in the period immediately after the accretion rate onto the black hole became significant. We find that the line profiles at these very early stages of the evolution of the postdisruption debris do not resemble the double peaked profiles expected from a rotating disk since the debris has not yet settled into such a stable structure. As a result of the uneven distribution of the debris and the existence of a "tidal tail" (the stream of returning debris), the line profiles depend sensitively on the orientation of the tail relative to the line of sight. Moreover, the predicted line profiles vary on fairly short time scales (of order hours to days). Given the accretion rate onto the black hole we also model the H[alpha] light curve from the debris and the evolution of the H[alpha] line profiles in time. In the second scenario we model the electromagnetic emission signatures of massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) with an associated gas component. The method comprises numerical simulations of relativistic binaries and gas coupled with calculations of the physical properties of the emitting gas. We calculate the accretion powered UV/X-ray and the H[alpha] light curves and H[alpha] emission line profiles. The binary plus gas simulations are carried
Casadio, Roberto; Micu, Octavian; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-01-01
We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a...
Thermal corpuscular black holes
Casadio, Roberto; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-01-01
We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number $N$ of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy $\\omega>m$). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature in the continuum. We first find that, assuming the Hawking radiation is the leading effect of the internal scatterings, the corresponding $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M=N\\,m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E>M$ at the same Hawking temperature. From this collective state, we compute the partition function and obtain an entropy which reproduces the usual area law with a logarithmic correction preci...
Hawking, Stephen William
1996-01-01
One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S^2\\times S^2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S^2\\times S^2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix \\ that does not factorise into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the \\theta angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The pic...
Black hole thermodynamical entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsallis, Constantino [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Cirto, Leonardo J.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2013-07-15
As early as 1902, Gibbs pointed out that systems whose partition function diverges, e.g. gravitation, lie outside the validity of the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) theory. Consistently, since the pioneering Bekenstein-Hawking results, physically meaningful evidence (e.g., the holographic principle) has accumulated that the BG entropy S{sub BG} of a (3+1) black hole is proportional to its area L{sup 2} (L being a characteristic linear length), and not to its volume L{sup 3}. Similarly it exists the area law, so named because, for a wide class of strongly quantum-entangled d-dimensional systems, S{sub BG} is proportional to lnL if d=1, and to L{sup d-1} if d>1, instead of being proportional to L{sup d} (d {>=} 1). These results violate the extensivity of the thermodynamical entropy of a d-dimensional system. This thermodynamical inconsistency disappears if we realize that the thermodynamical entropy of such nonstandard systems is not to be identified with the BG additive entropy but with appropriately generalized nonadditive entropies. Indeed, the celebrated usefulness of the BG entropy is founded on hypothesis such as relatively weak probabilistic correlations (and their connections to ergodicity, which by no means can be assumed as a general rule of nature). Here we introduce a generalized entropy which, for the Schwarzschild black hole and the area law, can solve the thermodynamic puzzle. (orig.)
Belloni, T M
2016-01-01
The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...
Quantum black hole evaporation
Schoutens, K; Verlinde, Erik; Schoutens, Kareljan; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman
1993-01-01
We investigate a recently proposed model for a full quantum description of two-dimensional black hole evaporation, in which a reflecting boundary condition is imposed in the strong coupling region. It is shown that in this model each initial state is mapped to a well-defined asymptotic out-state, provided one performs a certain projection in the gravitational zero mode sector. We find that for an incoming localized energy pulse, the corresponding out-going state contains approximately thermal radiation, in accordance with semi-classical predictions. In addition, our model allows for certain acausal strong coupling effects near the singularity, that give rise to corrections to the Hawking spectrum and restore the coherence of the out-state. To an asymptotic observer these corrections appear to originate from behind the receding apparent horizon and start to influence the out-going state long before the black hole has emitted most of its mass. Finally, by putting the system in a finite box, we are able to deriv...
Intermediate mass black holes in AGN disks: I. Production & Growth
McKernan, B.; Ford, K. E. S.; Lyra, W.; Perets, H. B.
2012-01-01
Here we propose a mechanism for efficiently growing intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in disks around supermassive black holes. Stellar mass objects can efficiently agglomerate when facilitated by the gas disk. Stars, compact objects and binaries can migrate, accrete and merge within disks around supermassive black holes. While dynamical heating by cusp stars excites the velocity dispersion of nuclear cluster objects (NCOs) in the disk, gas in the disk damps NCO orbits. If gas damping domi...
Nuclear Disk Formation by Direct Collisions of Gas Clouds with the Central Black Hole
Alig, Christian; Johansson, Peter H; Schartmann, Marc
2009-01-01
We simulate clouds in the Galactic Centre (GC) crossing over the black hole in parts and present this as a possible formation mechanism for the observed stellar disks in the GC through the redistribution of angular momentum by colliding material with opposite angular momentum. A parameter study using six high resolution simulations of an isothermal cloud of constant density falling onto the black hole and crossing over it in parts demonstrates that this mechanism is able to reproduce the observed disk properties in the GC. The evolution of the ensuing accretion disks is highly non-linear with the redistribution of the angular momentum through dissipative processes being a dominant effect. We analyse the resulting Toomre unstable, eccentric gaseous disk and show that this already yields a good comparison with the observed stellar disk size and eccentricity in the GC. The best simulation results in an outer radius of 1 pc, a mass of 10$^4$ M$_{\\sun}$ and an eccentricity of 0.24 for the Toomre unstable disk, whi...
Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes
2008-01-01
A new study using results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provides one of the best pieces of evidence yet that many supermassive black holes are spinning extremely rapidly. The whirling of these giant black holes drives powerful jets that pump huge amounts of energy into their environment and affects galaxy growth. A team of scientists compared leading theories of jets produced by rotating supermassive black holes with Chandra data. A sampling of nine giant galaxies that exhibit large disturbances in their gaseous atmospheres showed that the central black holes in these galaxies must be spinning at near their maximum rates. People Who Read This Also Read... NASA’s Swift Satellite Catches First Supernova in The Act of Exploding Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself "We think these monster black holes are spinning close to the limit set by Einstein's theory of relativity, which means that they can drag material around them at close to the speed of light," said Rodrigo Nemmen, a visiting graduate student at Penn State University, and lead author of a paper on the new results presented at American Astronomical Society in Austin, Texas. The research reinforces other, less direct methods previously used which have indicated that some stellar and supermassive black holes are spinning rapidly. According to Einstein's theory, a rapidly spinning black hole makes space itself rotate. This effect, coupled with gas spiraling toward the black hole, can produce a rotating, tightly wound vertical tower of magnetic field that flings a large fraction of the inflowing gas away from the vicinity of the black hole in an energetic, high-speed jet. Computer simulations by other authors have suggested that black holes may acquire their rapid spins when galaxies merge, and through the accretion of gas from their surroundings. "Extremely fast spin might be very common for large
Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits
2008-06-01
The biggest black holes may feed just like the smallest ones, according to data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based telescopes. This discovery supports the implication of Einstein's relativity theory that black holes of all sizes have similar properties, and will be useful for predicting the properties of a conjectured new class of black holes. The conclusion comes from a large observing campaign of the spiral galaxy M81, which is about 12 million light years from Earth. In the center of M81 is a black hole that is about 70 million times more massive than the Sun, and generates energy and radiation as it pulls gas in the central region of the galaxy inwards at high speed. In contrast, so-called stellar mass black holes, which have about 10 times more mass than the Sun, have a different source of food. These smaller black holes acquire new material by pulling gas from an orbiting companion star. Because the bigger and smaller black holes are found in different environments with different sources of material to feed from, a question has remained about whether they feed in the same way. Using these new observations and a detailed theoretical model, a research team compared the properties of M81's black hole with those of stellar mass black holes. The results show that either big or little, black holes indeed appear to eat similarly to each other, and produce a similar distribution of X-rays, optical and radio light. AnimationMulti-wavelength Images of M81 One of the implications of Einstein's theory of General Relativity is that black holes are simple objects and only their masses and spins determine their effect on space-time. The latest research indicates that this simplicity manifests itself in spite of complicated environmental effects. "This confirms that the feeding patterns for black holes of different sizes can be very similar," said Sera Markoff of the Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands, who led the study
Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes
Myung, Yun Soo
2010-01-01
We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.
Spacetime Duality of BTZ Black Hole
Ho, Jeongwon; Kim, Won T.; Park, Young-Jai
1999-01-01
We consider the duality of the quasilocal black hole thermodynamics, explicitly the quasilocal black hole thermodynamic first law, in BTZ black hole solution as a special one of the three-dimensional low energy effective string theory.
What, no black hole evaporation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tipler has claimed that the inward flux of negative energy across the horizon which (according to the semi-classical approximation) accompanies the evaporation of a black hole would cause a solar mass black hole to evaporate in less than a second. It is shown that this claim is in error. (orig.)
Nonlinear Electrodynamics and black holes
Breton, N; Breton, Nora; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo
2007-01-01
It is addressed the issue of black holes with nonlinear electromagnetic field, focussing mainly in the Born-Infeld case. The main features of these systems are described, for instance, geodesics, energy conditions, thermodynamics and isolated horizon aspects. Also are revised some black hole solutions of alternative nonlinear electrodynamics and its inconveniences.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Marianne
2004-01-01
The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The problem of isolated black holes (BH) evaporation is discussed. In the course of BH evaporation the process of particle radiation takes place before horizon formation as well as after its formation. For determining emitted particles energy distribution the probability of BH particles radiation through the probability of the reverse process is calculated. As a result of evaporation BH can be surrounded by a photon gas with the energy epsilon=epsilon0+ delta, where epsilon0 is average value of photon gas energy. The mean square value of photon gas energy fluctuation is obtained. Disappearance in the course of evaporation of astrophysical, relic and vacuum BH is considered as a phase transition from one vacuum domain to the other
Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?
Solodukhin, S N
2004-01-01
We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.
Quantum black hole without singularity
Kiefer, Claus
2015-01-01
We discuss the quantization of a spherical dust shell in a rigorous manner. Classically, the shell can collapse to form a black hole with a singularity. In the quantum theory, we construct a well-defined self-adjoint extension for the Hamilton operator. As a result, the evolution is unitary and the singularity is avoided. If we represent the shell initially by a narrow wave packet, it will first contract until it reaches the region where classically a black hole would form, but then re-expands to infinity. In a way, the state can be interpreted as a superposition of a black hole with a white hole.
Supersymmetric black holes in string theory
Mohaupt, T.
2007-01-01
We review recent developments concerning supersymmetric black holes in string theory. After a general introduction to the laws of black hole mechanics and to black hole entropy in string theory, we discuss black hole solutions in N=2 supergravity, special geometry, the black hole attractor equations and the underlying variational principle. Special attention is payed to the crucial role of higher derivative corrections. Finally we discuss black hole partition functions and their relation to t...
Prisons of Light - Black Holes
Ferguson, Kitty
1998-05-01
In this jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science, acclaimed science writer Kitty Ferguson examines the discovery of black holes, their nature, and what they can teach us about the mysteries of the universe. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light--Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
Black Holes and Galaxy Metamorphosis
Holley-Bockelmann, K
2001-01-01
Supermassive black holes can be seen as an agent of galaxy transformation. In particular, a supermassive black hole can cause a triaxial galaxy to evolve toward axisymmetry by inducing chaos in centrophilic orbit families. This is one way in which a single supermassive black hole can induce large-scale changes in the structure of its host galaxy -- changes on scales far larger than the Schwarzschild radius ($O(10^{-5}) \\rm{pc}$) and the radius of influence of the black hole ($O(1)-O(100) \\rm{pc}$). We will discuss the transformative power of supermassive black holes in light of recent high resolution N-body realizations of cuspy triaxial galaxies.
Black holes and the multiverse
Garriga, Jaume; Zhang, Jun
2015-01-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive blac...
Quantum strings and black holes
Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume
2001-01-01
The transition between (non supersymmetric) quantum string states and Schwarzschild black holes is discussed. This transition occurs when the string coupling $g^2$ (which determines Newton's constant) increases beyond a certain critical value $g_c^2$. We review a calculation showing that self-gravity causes a typical string state of mass $M$ to shrink, as the string coupling $g^2$ increases, down to a compact string state whose mass, size, entropy and luminosity match (for the critical value $g_c^2 \\sim (M \\sqrt{\\alpha'})^{-1}$) those of a Schwarzschild black hole. This confirms the idea (proposed by several authors) that the entropy of black holes can be accounted for by counting string states. The level spacing of the quantum states of Schwarzschild black holes is expected to be exponentially smaller than their radiative width. This makes it very difficult to conceive (even Gedanken) experiments probing the discreteness of the quantum energy levels of black holes.
Bini, Donato; Bittencourt, Eduardo; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.
2015-04-01
A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand, properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T
2015-01-01
A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.
Eigenvalue Repulsion and Matrix Black Holes
Polhemus, Gavin
1999-01-01
Eigenvalue repulsion can explain the holographic growth of black holes in Matrix theory. The resulting picture is essentially the same as the Boltzman gas picture but avoids any assumption about the effective potential between the D0 branes. Further, eigenvalue repulsion extends the Boltzman gas picture past the BFKS point to N >> S. The use of Boltzman statistics is natural in this picture.
Formation of the Black Holes in the Highest Redshift Quasars
Yoo, Jaiyul; Miralda-Escude, Jordi
2004-01-01
The recent discovery of luminous quasars up to a redshift z=6.43 has renewed interest in the formation of black holes massive enough to power quasars. If black holes grow by Eddington-limited gas accretion with a radiative efficiency of at least 10%, the time required to grow from a stellar black hole to ~10^9 msun is ~10^9 years, close to the age of the universe at z=6. Black hole mergers may accelerate the rate of mass growth, but can also completely eject black holes from halo centers owin...
Rotating black hole and quintessence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag 54001, Durban (South Africa)
2016-04-15
We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass (M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α = -e{sup 2} ≠ 0 and ω = 1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α = 0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = a{sub E}), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < a{sub E}, it describes a nonextremal black hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and no black hole for a > a{sub E}. We find that the extremal value a{sub E} is also influenced by the parameter ω and so is the ergoregion. (orig.)
Phase transition in black holes
Roychowdhury, Dibakar
2014-01-01
The present thesis is devoted towards the study of various aspects of the phase transition phenomena occurring in black holes defined in an Anti-de-Sitter (AdS) space. Based on the fundamental principles of thermodynamics and considering a grand canonical framework we examine various aspects of the phase transition phenomena occurring in AdS black holes. We analytically check that this phase transition between the smaller and larger mass black holes obey Ehrenfest relations defined at the critical point and hence confirm a second order phase transition. This include both the rotating and charged black holes in Einstein gravity. Apart from studying these issues, based on a canonical framework, we also investigate the critical behavior in charged AdS black holes. The scaling laws for these black holes are found to be compatible with the static scaling hypothesis. Finally, based on the usual framework of AdS/CFT duality, we investigate the phase transition phenomena occurring in charged hairy black holes defined...
A nonsingular rotating black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)
Acceleration of Black Hole Universe
Zhang, Tianxi
2012-05-01
An alternative cosmological model called black hole universe has been recently proposed by the author. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole to the present state by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with an infinite number of layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we live, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of space-time, and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. In this study. we will analyze the acceleration of black hole universe that accretes its ambient matter in an increasing rate. We will also compare the result obtained from the black hole universe model with the measurement of type Ia supernova and the result from the big bang cosmology.
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end. The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light. The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.
A nonsingular rotating black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Durban (South Africa)
2015-11-15
The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)
Star formation around supermassive black holes.
Bonnell, I A; Rice, W K M
2008-08-22
The presence of young massive stars orbiting on eccentric rings within a few tenths of a parsec of the supermassive black hole in the galactic center is challenging for theories of star formation. The high tidal shear from the black hole should tear apart the molecular clouds that form stars elsewhere in the Galaxy, and transport of stars to the galactic center also appears unlikely during their lifetimes. We conducted numerical simulations of the infall of a giant molecular cloud that interacts with the black hole. The transfer of energy during closest approach allows part of the cloud to become bound to the black hole, forming an eccentric disk that quickly fragments to form stars. Compressional heating due to the black hole raises the temperature of the gas up to several hundred to several thousand kelvin, ensuring that the fragmentation produces relatively high stellar masses. These stars retain the eccentricity of the disk and, for a sufficiently massive initial cloud, produce an extremely top-heavy distribution of stellar masses. This potentially repetitive process may explain the presence of multiple eccentric rings of young stars in the presence of a supermassive black hole. PMID:18719276
Black holes and Higgs stability
Tetradis, Nikolaos
2016-01-01
We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.
Black Hole Bound State Metamorphosis
Chowdhury, Abhishek; Saha, Arunabha; Sen, Ashoke
2012-01-01
N=4 supersymmetric string theories contain negative discriminant states whose numbers are known precisely from microscopic counting formulae. On the macroscopic side, these results can be reproduced by regarding these states as multi-centered black hole configurations provided we make certain identification of apparently distinct multi-centered black hole configurations according to a precise set of rules. In this paper we provide a physical explanation of such identifications, thereby establishing that multi-centered black hole configurations reproduce correctly the microscopic results for the number of negative discriminant states without any ad hoc assumption.
Orbital resonances around black holes.
Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja
2015-02-27
We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here. PMID:25768747
The Black Hole Information Problem
Polchinski, Joseph
2016-01-01
The black hole information problem has been a challenge since Hawking's original 1975 paper. It led to the discovery of AdS/CFT, which gave a partial resolution of the paradox. However, recent developments, in particular the firewall puzzle, show that there is much that we do not understand. I review the black hole, Hawking radiation, and the Page curve, and the classic form of the paradox. I discuss AdS/CFT as a partial resolution. I then discuss black hole complementarity and its limitations, leading to many proposals for different kinds of `drama.' I conclude with some recent ideas.
Evaporation of primordial black holes
Hawking, S. W.
The usual explanation of the isotropy of the universe is that inflation would have smoothed out any inhomogeneities. However, if the universe was initially fractal or in a foam like state, an overall inflation would have left it in the same state. I suggest that the universe did indeed begin with a tangled web of wormholes connecting pairs of black holes but that the inflationary expansion was unstable: wormholes that are slightly smaller correspond to black holes that are hotter than the cosmological background and evaporate away. This picture is supported by calculations with Raphael Bousso of the evaporation of primordial black holes in the s-wave and large N approximations.
Thermodynamics of Lifshitz black holes
Devecioǧlu, Deniz Olgu; Sarıoǧlu, Özgür
2011-06-01
We apply the recently extended conserved Killing charge definition of Abbott-Deser-Tekin formalism to compute, for the first time, the energies of analytic Lifshitz black holes in higher dimensions. We then calculate the temperature and the entropy of this large family of solutions, and study and discuss the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Along the way we also identify the possible critical points of the relevant quadratic curvature gravity theories. Separately, we also apply the generalized Killing charge definition to compute the energy and the angular momentum of the warped AdS3 black hole solution of the three-dimensional new massive gravity theory.
FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES
2002-01-01
A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas
Mayer, Lucio; Fiacconi, Davide; Bonoli, Silvia; Quinn, Thomas; Roškar, Rok; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James
2015-09-01
We present novel 3D multi-scale smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gas-rich galaxy mergers between the most massive galaxies at z ˜ 8-10, designed to scrutinize the direct collapse formation scenario for massive black hole seeds proposed in Mayer et al. The simulations achieve a resolution of 0.1 pc, and include both metallicity-dependent optically thin cooling and a model for thermal balance at high optical depth. We consider different formulations of the SPH hydrodynamical equations, including thermal and metal diffusion. When the two merging galaxy cores collide, gas infall produces a compact, optically thick nuclear disk with densities exceeding 10-10 g cm3. The disk rapidly accretes higher angular momentum gas from its surroundings reaching ˜5 pc and a mass of ≳109 M⊙ in only a few 104 years. Outside ≳2 pc it fragments into massive clumps. Instead, supersonic turbulence prevents fragmentation in the inner parsec region, which remains warm (˜3000-6000 K) and develops strong non-axisymmetric modes that cause prominent radial gas inflows (>104 M⊙ yr-1), forming an ultra-dense massive disky core. Angular momentum transport by non-axisymmetric modes should continue below our spatial resolution limit, quickly turning the disky core into a supermassive protostar which can collapse directly into a massive black hole of mass 108-109 M⊙ via the relativistic radial instability. Such a “cold direct collapse” explains naturally the early emergence of high-z QSOs. Its telltale signature would be a burst of gravitational waves in the frequency range of 10-4-10-1 Hz, possibly detectable by the planned eLISA interferometer.
Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself
2009-03-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don
Accretion, Primordial Black Holes and Standard Cosmology
Nayak, Bibekananda; Singh, Lambodar Prasad
2009-01-01
Primordial Black Holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation time of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included.Thus depending on accretion efficiency more and more number of primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the idea that the primordial black holes are the proper candidate for dark matter.
Black Hole Complementary Principle and Noncommutative Membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the spirit of black hole complementary principle, we have found the noncommutative membrane of Scharzchild black holes. In this paper we extend our results to Kerr black hole and see the same story. Also we make a conjecture that spacetimes are noncommutative on the stretched membrane of the more general Kerr-Newman black hole.
Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B Nayak; P Singh
2011-01-01
Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes are the proper candidates for dark matter.
Towards a Theory of Quantum Black Hole
Berezin, V.
2001-01-01
We describe some specific quantum black hole model. It is pointed out that the origin of a black hole entropy is the very process of quantum gravitational collapse. The quantum black hole mass spectrum is extracted from the mass spectrum of the gravitating source. The classical analog of quantum black hole is constructed.
Black hole evaporation: a paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved
Switching off black hole evaporation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The inclusion of the back-reaction in the Hawking effect leads to the result that, if vector boson fields predominate in nature, then black holes stop evaporating when their mass reaches a non-vanishing limiting value. (author)
Formation of Supermassive Black Holes
Volonteri, Marta
2010-01-01
Evidence shows that massive black holes reside in most local galaxies. Studies have also established a number of relations between the MBH mass and properties of the host galaxy such as bulge mass and velocity dispersion. These results suggest that central MBHs, while much less massive than the host (~ 0.1%), are linked to the evolution of galactic structure. In hierarchical cosmologies, a single big galaxy today can be traced back to the stage when it was split up in hundreds of smaller components. Did MBH seeds form with the same efficiency in small proto-galaxies, or did their formation had to await the buildup of substantial galaxies with deeper potential wells? I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I will discuss black hole formation processes for `seed' black holes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and possible observational tests of these scenarios.
Black hole thermodynamics from decoherence
Guo, Xiao-Kan
2015-01-01
We present an approach to the four laws of black hole thermodynamics by utilizing the thermodynamics of quantum coherence. Firstly, Hawking effect is attributed to the decoherence of the two-mode squeezed state in a black hole spacetime. Then use is made of the relative entropy between undecohered and decohered squeezed states whose monotonicity gives the zeroth and the second law, while the first law can be obtained either by the vanishing of the first derivative of relative entropy or by studying the effective thermal model generated by the modular Hamiltonian. Futhermore, information-theoretic arguments give a Planck's form of the third law of black hole thermodynamics. With this approach we can understand the laboratory analogues of black holes solely by quantum theory. This approach also opens a way to reconstruct classical geometry from quantum gravity.
Black hole accretion disc impacts
Pihajoki, P.
2016-04-01
We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.
Black hole accretion disc impacts
Pihajoki, Pauli
2015-01-01
We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.
Black hole interior mass formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We argue by explicit computations that, although the area product, horizon radii product, entropy product, and irreducible mass product of the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are universal, the surface gravity product, the surface temperature product and the Komar energy product of the said horizons do not seem to be universal for Kerr-Newman black hole spacetimes. We show the black hole mass formula on the Cauchy horizon following the seminal work by Smarr [Phys Rev Lett 30:71 (1973), Phys Rev D 7:289 (1973)] for the outer horizon. We also prescribe the four laws of black hole mechanics for the inner horizon. A new definition of the extremal limit of a black hole is discussed. (orig.)
Van Herck, Walter
2009-01-01
The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, arXiv:0810.4301. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the `chromosomes' of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as `crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle'. Our results improve on hep-th/0702012, provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity...
van Herck, Walter; Wyder, Thomas
2010-04-01
The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, [1]. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the ‘chromosomes’ of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as ‘crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle’. Our results improve on [2], provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into ‘generic’ and ‘special’ states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.
Royzen, Ilya I
2009-01-01
Along with compacting baryon (neutron) spacing, two very important factors come into play at once: the lack of self-stabilization within a compact neutron star (NS) associated with possible black hole (BH) horizon appearance and the phase transition - color deconfinement and QCD-vacuum reconstruction - within the nuclear matter. That is why both phenomena should be taken into account side by side, as the gravitational collapse is considered. Since, under the above transition, the hadronic-phase vacuum (filled up with gluon and chiral $q\\bar q$-condensates) turns into the "empty" (perturbation) subhadronic-phase one and, thus, the corresponding (very high) pressure falls down rather abruptly, the formerly cold (degenerated) nuclear medium starts to implode into the new vacuum. If the mass of a star is sufficiently large, then this implosion produces an enormous heating, which stops only after quark-gluon plasma of a temperature about 100 MeV (or even higher) is formed to withstand the gravitational compression...
Zhang, Tianxi
2014-06-01
The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin
Vacuum metastability with black holes.
Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian
2015-01-01
We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evapor...
Energy Extraction from Black Holes
Straumann, Norbert
2007-01-01
In this lecture I give an introduction to the rotational energy extraction of black holes by the electromagnetic Blandford-Znajek process and the generation of relativistic jets. After some basic material on the electrodynamics of black hole magnetospheres, we derive the most important results of Blandford and Znajek by making use of Kerr-Schild coordinates, which are regular on the horizon. In a final part we briefly describe results of recent numerical simulations of accretion flows on rota...
Myers, R C
2001-01-01
This is a short summary of my lectures given at the Fourth Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics. These lectures gave a brief introduction to black holes in string theory, in which I primarily focussed on describing some of the recent calculations of black hole entropy using the statistical mechanics of D-brane states. The following overview will also provide the interested students with an introduction to the relevant literature.
Charged rotating noncommutative black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.
Charged rotating noncommutative black holes
Modesto, Leonardo; Nicolini, Piero
2010-11-01
In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.
Charged rotating noncommutative black holes
Modesto, Leonardo
2010-01-01
In this paper we complete the program of the Noncomutative Geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newmann-Janis algorithm in case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.
Geometric inequalities for black holes
Dain, Sergio
2014-01-01
It is well known that the three parameters that characterize the Kerr black hole (mass, angular momentum and horizon area) satisfy several important inequalities. Remarkably, some of these inequalities remain valid also for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this article recent results in this subject are reviewed.
Black holes and cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is widely accepted that the complete gravitational collapse of a body always yields a black hole, and that naked singularities are never produced (the cosmic censorship hypothesis). The local (or strong) cosmic censorship hypothesis states that singularities which are even locally naked (e.g., to an observer inside a black hole) are never produced. This dissertation studies the validity of these two conjectures. The Kerr-Newman metrics describes the black holes only when M2 greater than or equal to Q2 + P2, where M is the mass of the black hole, a = J/M its specific angular momentum, Q its electric charge, and P its magnetic charge. In the first part of this dissertation, the possibility of converting an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole (M2 = a2 + Q2 + P2) into a naked singularity by the accretion of test particles is considered. The motion of test particles is studied with a large angular momentum to energy ratio, and also test particles with a large charge to energy ratio. The final state is always found to be a black hole if the angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the black hole are all much greater than the corresponding angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the test particle. In Part II of this dissertation possible black hole interior solutions are studied. The Cauchy horizons and locally naked timelike singularities of the charged (and/or rotating) solutions are contrasted with the spacelike all-encompassing singularity of the Schwarzschild solution. It is determined which portions of the analytic extension of the Reissner-Nordstroem solution are relevant to realistic gravitational collapse
Hayward, Sean A.; Mukohyama, Shinji; Ashworth, M. C.
1998-01-01
We consider two non-statistical definitions of entropy for dynamic (non-stationary) black holes in spherical symmetry. The first is analogous to the original Clausius definition of thermodynamic entropy: there is a first law containing an energy-supply term which equals surface gravity times a total differential. The second is Wald's Noether-charge method, adapted to dynamic black holes by using the Kodama flow. Both definitions give the same answer for Einstein gravity: one-quarter the area ...
Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew
2016-01-01
It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that com...
Probability for primordial black holes
Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.
1995-11-01
We consider two quantum cosmological models with a massive scalar field: an ordinary Friedmann universe and a universe containing primordial black holes. For both models we discuss the complex solutions to the Euclidean Einstein equations. Using the probability measure obtained from the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal we find that the only unsuppressed black holes start at the Planck size but can grow with the horizon scale during the roll down of the scalar field to the minimum.
Constraints on Black Hole Remnants
Giddings, S. B.
1993-01-01
One possible fate of information lost to black holes is its preservation in black hole remnants. It is argued that a type of effective field theory describes such remnants (generically referred to as informons). The general structure of such a theory is investigated and the infinite pair production problem is revisited. A toy model for remnants clarifies some of the basic issues; in particular, infinite remnant production is not suppressed simply by the large internal volumes as proposed in c...
Information retrieval from black holes
Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta; Padmanabhan, T.
2016-01-01
It is generally believed that, when matter collapses to form a black hole, the complete information about the initial state of the matter cannot be retrieved by future asymptotic observers, through local measurements. This is contrary to the expectation from a unitary evolution in quantum theory and leads to (a version of) the black hole information paradox. Classically, nothing else, apart from mass, charge and angular momentum is expected to be revealed to such asymptotic observers after th...
Black hole thermodynamics from decoherence
Guo, Xiao-Kan
2015-01-01
We present an approach to the four laws of black hole thermodynamics by utilizing the thermodynamics of quantum coherence. Firstly, Hawking effect is attributed to the decoherence of the two-mode squeezed state in a black hole spacetime. Then use is made of the relative entropy between undecohered and decohered squeezed states whose monotonicity gives the zeroth and the second law, while the first law can be obtained either by the vanishing of the first derivative of relative entropy or by st...
New regular black hole solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.
Frampton, Paul H.
2009-01-01
While the energy of the universe has been established to be about 0.04 baryons, 0.24 dark matter and 0.72 dark energy, the cosmological entropy is almost entirely, about $(1 - 10^{-15})$, from black holes and only $10^{-15}$ from everything else. This identification of all dark matter as black holes is natural in statistical mechanics. Cosmological history of dark matter is discussed.
Are Black Holes Elementary Particles?
Ha, Yuan K.
2009-01-01
Quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest conceivable elementary particles. They have a microscopic size but a macroscopic mass. Several fundamental types have been constructed with some remarkable properties. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected in Earth's atmosphere. They may also play a role as dark matter in cosmology.
Black holes: the membrane paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole
Regular black hole in three dimensions
Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok
2008-01-01
We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.
Regular black hole in three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We find a new black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare the thermodynamics of this black hole with that of a non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. (orig.)
Regular black hole in three dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myung, Yun Soo [Inje University, Institute of Basic Science and School of Computer Aided Science, Gimhae (Korea); Yoon, Myungseok [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea)
2009-07-15
We find a new black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare the thermodynamics of this black hole with that of a non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. (orig.)
Grumblings from an Awakening Black Hole
Kohler, Susanna
2015-11-01
In June of this year, after nearly three decades of sleep, the black hole V404 Cygni woke up and began grumbling. Scientists across the globe scrambled to observe the sudden flaring activity coming from this previously peaceful black hole. And now were getting the first descriptions of what weve learned from V404 Cygs awakening!Sudden OutburstV404 Cyg is a black hole of roughly nine solar masses, and its in a binary system with a low-mass star. The black hole pulls a stream of gas from the star, which then spirals in around the black hole, forming an accretion disk. Sometimes the material simply accumulates in the disk but every two or three decades, the build-up of gas suddenly rushes toward the black hole as if a dam were bursting.The sudden accretion in these events causes outbursts of activity from the black hole, its flaring easily visible to us. The last time V404 Cyg exhibited such activity was in 1989, and its been rather quiet since then. Our telescopes are of course much more powerful and sensitive now, nearly three decades later so when the black hole woke up and began flaring in June, scientists were delighted at the chance to observe it.The high variability of V404 Cyg is evident in this example set of spectra, where time increases from the bottom panel to the top. [King et al. 2015]Led by Ashley King (Einstein Fellow at Stanford University), a team of scientists observed V404 Cyg with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, obtaining spectra of the black hole during its outbursts. The black hole flared so brightly during its activity that the team had to take precautions to protect the CCDs in their detector from radiation damage! Now the group has released the first results from their analysis.Windy DiskThe primary surprise from V404 Cyg is its winds. Many stellar-mass black holes have outflows of mass, either in the form of directed jets emitted from their centers, or in the form of high-energy winds isotropically emitted from their accretion disks. But V404
Black Hole Boldly Goes Where No Black Hole Has Gone Before
2007-01-01
contains millions of these black holes. Black holes are, by definition, invisible. But the region around them can flare up periodically when the black hole feeds. As gas falls into a black hole, it will heat to high temperatures and radiate brightly, particularly in X-rays. Maccarone's team found one such stellar-mass black hole by chance feeding in a globular cluster in a galaxy named NGC 4472, about fifty million light-years away in the Virgo Cluster. XMM-Newton is extremely sensitive to variable X-ray sources and can efficiently search across large patches of the sky. The team also used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, which has superb angular resolution to pinpoint the X-ray source's location. This allowed them to match up the position of the X-ray source with optical images to prove that the black hole was indeed in a globular cluster. Globular clusters are some of the oldest structures in the universe, containing stars over 12 thousand million years old. Black holes in a cluster would likely have formed many thousand millions of years ago, which is why astronomers have assumed they would have been kicked out a long time ago. Details in the X-ray light detected by XMM-Newton leave little doubt that this is a black hole - the object is too bright, and varies by too much to be anything else. In fact, the source is 'extra bright', - an Ultraluminous X-ray object, or ULX. ULXs are brighter than the 'Eddington limit' for stellar mass black holes, the brightness level at which the outward force from X-rays is expected balance the powerful gravitational forces from the black hole. Thus it is often suggested that the ULXs might be intermediate mass black holes - black holes of thousands of solar masses, heavier than the 10-solar-mass stellar black holes, and lighter than the million to thousand million solar mass black holes in quasars. These black holes might then be the missing links between the black holes formed in the death throes of massive stars and the ones in the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum ''overtone'' number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the ''hydrogen atom'' and the ''quasi-thermal emission'' in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corda, Christian [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics (IFM) Einstein-Galilei, Prato (Italy); Istituto Universitario di Ricerca ' ' Santa Rita' ' , Prato (Italy); International Institute for Applicable Mathematics and Information Sciences (IIAMIS), Hyderabad (India)
2013-12-15
Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum ''overtone'' number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the ''hydrogen atom'' and the ''quasi-thermal emission'' in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox. (orig.)
Black hole evolution: I. Supernova-regulated black hole growth
Dubois, Yohan; Silk, Joseph; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain
2015-01-01
The growth of a supermassive black hole (BH) is determined by how much gas the host galaxy is able to feed it, which in turn is controlled by the cosmic environment, through galaxy mergers and accretion of cosmic flows that time how galaxies obtain their gas, but also by internal processes in the galaxy, such as star formation and feedback from stars and the BH itself. In this paper, we study the growth of a 10^12 Msun halo at z=2, which is the progenitor of an archetypical group of galaxies at z=0, and of its central BH by means of a high-resolution zoomed cosmological simulation, the Seth simulation. We study the evolution of the BH driven by the accretion of cold gas in the galaxy, and explore the efficiency of the feedback from supernovae (SNe). For a relatively inefficient energy input from SNe, the BH grows at the Eddington rate from early times, and reaches self-regulation once it is massive enough. We find that at early cosmic times z>3.5, efficient feedback from SNe forbids the formation of a settled...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study dissipative test electromagnetic fields in a black-hole background. Quantities such as surface velocity, tangential electric field, normal magnetic induction, total surface current, and conduction surface current are introduced and are shown to satisfy Ohm's law with a surface resistivity of 4π approx. = 377 ohms. Associated with these currents there exists a ''Joule heating''. These currents can exist when the black hole is inserted in an external electric circuit, but they can exist even in the absence of external currents. In particular, we study the eddy currents induced by the rotation of a black hole in an oblique uniform magnetic field, and we show how the computation of the ohmic losses allows a very simple derivation of the torque exerted on the hole
Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nardini, E.; Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.;
2015-01-01
The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different...... gas. The outflow’s kinetic power larger than 1046 ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution....
Supermassive Black Holes from the SUNNS survey
Sarzi, M; Shields, J C; Rudnick, G; Ho, L C; McIntosh, D H; Filippenko, A V; Sargent, W L W; Sarzi, Marc; Rix, Hans-Walter; Shields, Joseph C.; Rudnick, Greg; Ho, Luis C.; Intosh, Daniel H. Mc; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.
2000-01-01
We report three new accurate mass measurements for the supermassive black holes hosted by the early-type disk galaxies NGC2787, NGC4459 and NGC4596. The targets were selected from a larger set of long-slit spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the Survey of Nearby Nuclei with STIS (SUNNS). They display symmetric gas velocity curves that could be modeled as a rotating disk in the joint potential of the stellar bulge and a putative central black hole. They also show regular dust lane patterns that could be used to infer the nuclear disk orientation. These three galaxies fall in the black-hole mass vs. central stellar velocity dispersion plane in agreement with the recently reported relation between these two quantities.
Supermassive black holes and spectral emission lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is widely accepted that active galactic nuclei (AGN) are hosting a supermassive black hole in their center. The supermassive black hole is actively fueled by surrounding gas through an accretion disk, which produces a broad band continuum (from X-ray to radio emission). The hard photons from the accretion disk create the photoionized plasma around the central black hole, which emits a number of broad emission lines. Therefore, one of the signatures of the strong activity in galaxies is the emission of the broad spectral lines (line widths of several 1000 km/s), which are seen only in a fraction of AGN, so called Type 1 AGN. These broad emission lines often show very complex line profiles, usually strongly variable in time. Here we will describe the basic properties of the broad emission lines and how can we use them to derive the properties of the central supermassive black hole, i.e., the mass and spin, or see signatures of supermassive binary black holes
2001-08-01
ISAAC Finds "Cool" Young Stellar Systems at the Centres of Active Galaxies Summary Supermassive Black Holes are present at the centres of many galaxies, some weighing hundreds of millions times more than the Sun. These extremely dense objects cannot be observed directly, but violently moving gas clouds and stars in their strong gravitational fields are responsible for the emission of energetic radiation from such "active galaxy nuclei" (AGN) . A heavy Black Hole feeds agressively on its surroundings . When the neighbouring gas and stars finally spiral into the Black Hole, a substantial fraction of the infalling mass is transformed into pure energy. However, it is not yet well understood how, long before this dramatic event takes place, all that material is moved from the outer regions of the galaxy towards the central region. So how is the food for the central Black Hole delivered to the table in the first place? To cast more light on this central question, a team of French and Swiss astronomers [1] has carried out a series of trailblazing observations with the VLT Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. The ISAAC instrument is particularly well suited to this type of observations. Visible light cannot penetrate the thick clouds of dust and gas in the innermost regions of active galaxies, but by recording the infrared light from the stars close to the Black Hole , their motions can be studied. By charting those motions in the central regions of three active galaxies (NGC 1097, NGC 1808 and NGC 5728), the astronomers were able to confirm the presence of "nuclear bars" in all three. These are dynamical structures that "open a road" for the flow of material towards the innermost region. Moreover, the team was surprised to discover signs of a young stellar population near the centres of these galaxies - stars that have apparently formed quite recently in a central gas disk. Such a system is unstable
Black holes and branes in string theory
Skenderis, K
1999-01-01
This is a set of introductory lecture notes on black holes in string theory. After reviewing some aspects of string theory such as dualities, brane solutions, supersymmetric and non-extremal intersection rules, we analyze in detail extremal and non-extremal 5d black holes. We first present the D-brane counting for extremal black holes. Then we show that 4d and 5d non-extremal black holes can be mapped to the BTZ black hole (times a compact manifold) by means of dualities. The validity of these dualities is analyzed in detail. We present an analysis of the same system in the spirit of the adS/CFT correspondence. In the ``near-horizon'' limit (which is actually a near inner-horizon limit for non-extremal black holes) the black hole reduces again to the BTZ black hole. A state counting is presented in terms of the BTZ black hole.
Black holes: a slanted overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The black hole saga spanning some seventy years may be broadly divided into four phases, namely, (a) the dark ages when little was known about black holes even though they had come into existence quite early through the Schwarzschild solution, (b) the age of enlightenment bringing in deep and prolific discoveries, (c) the age of fantasy that cast black holes in all sorts of extraordinary roles, and (d) the golden age of relativistic astrophysics - to some extent similar to Dirac's characterisation of the development of quantum theory - in which black holes have been extensively used to elucidate a number of astrophysical phenomena. It is impossible to give here even the briefest outline of the major developments in this vast area. We shall only attempt to present a few aspects of black hole physics which have been actively pursued in the recent past. Some details are given in the case of those topics that have not found their way into text books or review articles. (author)
Mayer, Lucio; Bonoli, Silvia; Quinn, Thomas; Roskar, Rok; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James
2014-01-01
We present novel 3D multi-scale SPH simulations of gas-rich galaxy mergers between the most massive galaxies at $z \\sim 8 - 10$, designed to scrutinize the direct collapse formation scenario for massive black hole seeds proposed in \\citet{mayer+10}. The simulations achieve a resolution of 0.1 pc, and include both metallicity-dependent optically-thin cooling and a model for thermal balance at high optical depth. We consider different formulations of the SPH hydrodynamical equations, including thermal and metal diffusion. When the two merging galaxy cores collide, gas infall produces a compact, optically thick nuclear disk with densities exceeding $10^{-10}$ g cm$^3$. The disk rapidly accretes higher angular momentum gas from its surroundings reaching $\\sim 5$ pc and a mass of $\\gtrsim 10^9$ $M_{\\odot}$ in only a few $10^4$ yr. Outside $\\gtrsim 2$ pc it fragments into massive clumps. Instead, supersonic turbulence prevents fragmentation in the inner parsec region, which remains warm ($\\sim 3000-6000$ K) and dev...
Macroscopic black holes, microscopic black holes and noncommutative membrane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Miao [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academia Sinica, PO Box 2735, Beijing 100080 (China)
2004-07-21
We study the stretched membrane of a black hole as consisting of a perfect fluid. We find that the pressure of this fluid is negative and the specific heat is also negative. A surprising result is that if we are to assume the fluid to be composed of some quanta, then the dispersion relation of the fundamental quantum is E = m{sup 2}/k, with m at the scale of the Planck mass. There are two possible interpretations of this dispersion relation. One is the noncommutative spacetime on the stretched membrane and the other is that the fundamental quanta are microscopic black holes.
Macroscopic black holes, microscopic black holes and noncommutative membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the stretched membrane of a black hole as consisting of a perfect fluid. We find that the pressure of this fluid is negative and the specific heat is also negative. A surprising result is that if we are to assume the fluid to be composed of some quanta, then the dispersion relation of the fundamental quantum is E = m2/k, with m at the scale of the Planck mass. There are two possible interpretations of this dispersion relation. One is the noncommutative spacetime on the stretched membrane and the other is that the fundamental quanta are microscopic black holes
Time dependent black holes and scalar hair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show how to correctly account for scalar accretion onto black holes in scalar field models of dark energy by a consistent expansion in terms of a slow roll parameter. At leading order, we find an analytic solution for the scalar field within our Hubble volume, which is regular on both black hole and cosmological event horizons, and compute the back reaction of the scalar on the black hole, calculating the resulting expansion of the black hole. Our results are independent of the relative size of black hole and cosmological event horizons. We comment on the implications for more general black hole accretion, and the no hair theorems. (paper)
Implementing black hole as efficient power plant
Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2016-01-01
Treating the black hole molecules as working substance and considering its phase structure, we study the black hole heat engine by a charged anti-de Sitter black hole. In the reduced temperature-entropy chart, it is found that the work, heat, and efficiency of the engine are independent of the black hole charge. Applying the Rankine cycle with or without a back pressure mechanism to the black hole heat engine, the efficiency is numerically solved. The result shows that the black hole engine w...
Energy on black hole spacetimes
Corichi, Alejandro
2012-01-01
We consider the issue of defining energy for test particles on a background black hole spacetime. We revisit the different notions of energy as defined by different observers. The existence of a time-like isometry allows for the notion of a total conserved energy to be well defined, and subsequently the notion of a gravitational potential energy is also meaningful. We then consider the situation in which the test particle is adsorbed by the black hole, and analyze the energetics in detail. In particular, we show that the notion of horizon energy es defined by the isolated horizons formalism provides a satisfactory notion of energy compatible with the particle's conserved energy. As another example, we comment a recent proposal to define energy of the black hole as seen by an observer at rest. This account is intended to be pedagogical and is aimed at the level of and as a complement to the standard textbooks on the subject.
Scrambling with matrix black holes
Brady, Lucas; Sahakian, Vatche
2013-08-01
If black holes are not to be dreaded sinks of information but rather fully described by unitary evolution, they must scramble in-falling data and eventually leak it through Hawking radiation. Sekino and Susskind have conjectured that black holes are fast scramblers; they generate entanglement at a remarkably efficient rate, with the characteristic time scaling logarithmically with the entropy. In this work, we focus on Matrix theory—M-theory in the light-cone frame—and directly probe the conjecture. We develop a concrete test bed for quantum gravity using the fermionic variables of Matrix theory and show that the problem becomes that of chains of qubits with an intricate network of interactions. We demonstrate that the black hole system evolves much like a Brownian quantum circuit, with strong indications that it is indeed a fast scrambler. We also analyze the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase model and reach the same tentative conclusion.
Liouvillian perturbations of black holes
Couch, W. E.; Holder, C. L.
2007-10-01
We apply the well-known Kovacic algorithm to find closed form, i.e., Liouvillian solutions, to the differential equations governing perturbations of black holes. Our analysis includes the full gravitational perturbations of Schwarzschild and Kerr, the full gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations of Reissner-Nordstrom, and specialized perturbations of the Kerr-Newman geometry. We also include the extreme geometries. We find all frequencies ω, in terms of black hole parameters and an integer n, which allow Liouvillian perturbations. We display many classes of black hole parameter values and their corresponding Liouvillian perturbations, including new closed-form perturbations of Kerr and Reissner-Nordstrom. We also prove that the only type 1 Liouvillian perturbations of Schwarzschild are the known algebraically special ones and that type 2 Liouvillian solutions do not exist for extreme geometries. In cases where we do not prove the existence or nonexistence of Liouvillian perturbations we obtain sequences of Diophantine equations on which decidability rests.
Disrupting Entanglement of Black Holes
Leichenauer, Stefan
2014-01-01
We study entanglement in thermofield double states of strongly coupled CFTs by analyzing two-sided Reissner-Nordstrom solutions in AdS. The central object of study is the mutual information between a pair of regions, one on each asymptotic boundary of the black hole. For large regions the mutual information is positive and for small ones it vanishes; we compute the critical length scale, which goes to infinity for extremal black holes, of the transition. We also generalize the butterfly effect of Shenker and Stanford to a wide class of charged black holes, showing that mutual information is disrupted upon perturbing the system and waiting for a time of order $\\log E/\\delta E$ in units of the temperature. We conjecture that the parametric form of this timescale is universal.
The formation and evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies
Haehnelt, Martin G.; Kauffmann, Guinevere
1999-01-01
We discuss constraints on the assembly history of supermassive black holes from the observed remnant black holes in nearby galaxies and from the emission caused by accretion onto these black holes. We also summarize the results of a specific model for the evolution of galaxies and their central black holes which traces their hierachical build-up in CDM-like cosmogonies. The model assumes (i) that black holes, ellipticals and starburts form during major mergers of galaxies (ii) that the gas fr...
Connecting horizon pixels and interior voxels of a black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we discuss to what extent one can infer details of the interior structure of a black hole based on its horizon. Recalling that black hole thermal properties are connected to the non-classical nature of gravity, we circumvent the restrictions of the no-hair theorem by postulating that the black hole interior is singularity free due to violations of the usual energy conditions. Further these conditions allow one to establish a one-to-one, holographic projection between Planckian areal “bits” on the horizon and “voxels”, representing the gravitational degrees of freedom in the black hole interior. We illustrate the repercussions of this idea by discussing an example of the black hole interior consisting of a de Sitter core postulated to arise from the local graviton quantum vacuum energy. It is shown that the black hole entropy can emerge as the statistical entropy of a gas of voxels
Infinite Statistics and Black Holes in Matrix Theory
Minic, D.
1997-01-01
The concept of infinite statistics is applied to the analysis of black hole thermodynamics in Matrix Theory. It is argued that Matrix Theory partons, D0-branes, satisfy quantum infinite statistics, and that this observation justifies the recently proposed Boltzmann gas model of Schwarzschild black holes in Matrix Theory.
Control of black hole evaporation?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contradiction between Hawking's semi-classical arguments and the string theory on the evaporation of a black hole has been one of the most intriguing problems in fundamental physics. A final-state boundary condition inside the black hole was proposed by Horowitz and Maldacena to resolve this contradiction. We point out that the original Hawking effect can also be regarded as a separate boundary condition at the event horizon for this scenario. Here, we found that the change of the Hawking boundary condition may affect the information transfer from the initial collapsing matter to the outgoing Hawking radiation during the evaporation process and as a result the evaporation process itself, significantly
Asymptotic black hole quasinormal frequencies
Motl, Lubos; Neitzke, Andrew
2003-01-01
We give a new derivation of the quasinormal frequencies of Schwarzschild black holes in d greater than or equal to 4 and Reissner-Nordstrom black holes in d = 4, in the limit of infinite damping. For Schwarzschild in d greater than or equal to 4 we find that the asymptotic real part is THawkinglog(3) for scalar perturbations and for some gravitational perturbations; this confirms a result previously obtained by other means in the case d = 4. For Reissner-Nordstrom in d = 4 w...
Geometric inequalities for black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)
2013-07-01
Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)
Black Hole Statistics from Holography
Shepard, Peter G.
2005-01-01
We study the microstates of the ``small'' black hole in the $\\half$-BPS sector of AdS$_5\\times S^5$, the superstar of Myers and Tafjord, using the powerful holographic description provided by LLM. The system demonstrates the inherently statistical nature of black holes, with the geometry of Myer and Tafjord emerging only after averaging over an ensemble of geometries. The individual microstate geometries differ in the highly non-trivial topology of a quantum foam at their core, and the entrop...
Information Loss in Black Holes
Hawking, Stephen William
2005-01-01
The question of whether information is lost in black holes is investigated using Euclidean path integrals. The formation and evaporation of black holes is regarded as a scattering problem with all measurements being made at infinity. This seems to be well formulated only in asymptotically AdS spacetimes. The path integral over metrics with trivial topology is unitary and information preserving. On the other hand, the path integral over metrics with non-trivial topologies leads to correlation functions that decay to zero. Thus at late times only the unitary information preserving path integrals over trivial topologies will contribute. Elementary quantum gravity interactions do not lose information or quantum coherence.
Information loss in black holes
Hawking, S. W.
2005-10-01
The question of whether information is lost in black holes is investigated using Euclidean path integrals. The formation and evaporation of black holes is regarded as a scattering problem with all measurements being made at infinity. This seems to be well formulated only in asymptotically AdS spacetimes. The path integral over metrics with trivial topology is unitary and information preserving. On the other hand, the path integral over metrics with nontrivial topologies leads to correlation functions that decay to zero. Thus at late times only the unitary information preserving path integrals over trivial topologies will contribute. Elementary quantum gravity interactions do not lose information or quantum coherence.
Black holes and warped spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black holes (BHs) and their warping effect on spacetime are described, beginning with a discussion on stellar evolution that includes white dwarfs, supernovas and neutron stars. The structure of static, rotating, and electrically charged BHs are considered, as well as the general theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, the Einstein-Rosen bridge, and wormholes in spacetime. Attention is also given to gravitational lenses, various space geometries, quasars, Seyfert galaxies, supermassive black holes, the evaporation and particle emission of BHs, and primordial BHs, including their temperature and lifetime
Introduction to Black Hole Evaporation
Lambert, Pierre-Henry
2013-01-01
These lecture notes are an elementary and pedagogical introduction to the black hole evaporation, based on a lecture given by the author at the Ninth Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics and are intended for PhD students. First, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is studied and tools needed for the remaining of the course are introduced. Then quantum field theory in Rindler spacetime in 1+1 dimensions and in the spacetime of a spherically collapsing star are considered, leading to Unruh and Hawking effects, respectively. Finally some consequences such as thermodynamics of black holes and information loss paradox are discussed.
Goicovic, F G; Sesana, A; Stasyszyn, F; Amaro-Seoane, P; Tanaka, T L
2015-01-01
There is compelling evidence that most -if not all- galaxies harbour a super-massive black hole (SMBH) at their nucleus, hence binaries of these massive objects are an inevitable product of the hierarchical evolution of structures in the universe, and represent an important but thus-far elusive phase of galaxy evolution. Gas accretion via a circumbinary disc is thought to be important for the dynamical evolution of SMBH binaries, as well as in producing luminous emission that can be used to infer their properties. One plausible source of the gaseous fuel is clumps of gas formed due to turbulence and gravitational instabilities in the interstellar medium, that later fall toward and interact with the binary. In this context, we model numerically the evolution of turbulent clouds in near-radial infall onto equal-mass SMBH binaries, using a modified version of the SPH code GADGET-3. We present a total of 12 simulations that explore different possible pericentre distances and relative inclinations, and show that t...
Binary Black Holes, Gas Sloshing, and Cold Fronts in the X-ray Halo Hosting 4C+37.11
Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Romani, Roger W; Forman, William R; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S; Taylor, Greg B; Zavala, Robert T
2016-01-01
We analyzed deep $Chandra$ ACIS-I exposures of the cluster-scale X-ray halo surrounding the radio source 4C+37.11. This remarkable system hosts the closest resolved pair of super-massive black hole and an exceptionally luminous elliptical galaxy, the likely product of a series of past mergers. We characterize the halo with $r_{500} = 0.95$ Mpc, $M_{500} = (2.5 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^{14} \\ M_{\\rm{\\odot}}$, $ kT = 4.6\\pm 0.2$ keV, and a gas mass of $M_{\\rm g,500} = (2.2 \\pm 0.1) \\times 10^{13} M_\\odot$. The gas mass fraction within $r_{500}$ is $f_{\\rm g} = 0.09 \\pm 0.01$. The entropy profile shows large non-gravitational heating in the central regions. We see several surface brightness jumps, associated with substantial temperature and density changes, but approximate pressure equilibrium, implying that these are sloshing structures driven by a recent merger. A residual intensity image shows core spiral structure closely matching that seen for the Perseus cluster, although at $z=0.055$ the spiral pattern is less ...
Brok, Mark den; Barth, Aaron J; Carson, Daniel J; Neumayer, Nadine; Cappellari, Michele; Debattista, Victor P; Ho, Luis C; Hood, Carol E; McDermid, Richard M
2015-01-01
NGC 4395 is a bulgeless spiral galaxy, harboring one of the nearest known type 1 Seyfert nuclei. Although there is no consensus on the mass of its central engine, several estimates suggest it to be one of the lightest massive black holes (MBHs) known. We present the first direct dynamical measurement of the mass of this MBH from a combination of two-dimensional gas kinematic data, obtained with the adaptive optics assisted near infrared integral field spectrograph Gemini/NIFS, and high-resolution multiband photometric data from Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). We use the photometric data to model the shape and stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of the nuclear star cluster. From the Gemini/NIFS observations, we derive the kinematics of warm molecular hydrogen gas as traced by emission through the H$_2$ 1--0 S(1) transition. These kinematics show a clear rotational signal, with a position angle orthogonal to NGC 4395's radio jet. Our best fitting tilted ring models of the kinematics of th...
Mayer, Lucio
2013-01-01
We revisit the phases of the pairing and sinking of BHs in galaxy mergers and circunmunclear disks in light of the results of recent simulations with massive BHs embedded in predominantly gaseous backgrounds. After a general overview we discuss the importance of a fast orbital decay regime dominated by global disk torques rather than by the local dynamical friction wake. This regime can dominate at BH binary separations of a few tens of parsecs and below, following a phase of orbital circularization dominated by local dynamical friction. It is similar to Type-I migration in planetary evolution. It can bring the black holes to separations small enough for gravitational waves to take over on a timescale ranging from less than $\\sim 10^7$ yr to up to $10^8$ yr, depending on whether the interstellar medium is smooth or clumpy. Eventual gap opening at sub-pc scale separations slows down but does not interrupt the orbital decay.Subsequently, we discuss a new intriguing connection between the conditions required for...
Regular Black Holes with Cosmological Constant
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MO Wen-Juan; CAI Rong-Gen; SU Ru-Keng
2006-01-01
We present a class of regular black holes with cosmological constant Λ in nonlinear electrodynamics. Instead of usual singularity behind black hole horizon, all fields and curvature invariants are regular everywhere for the regular black holes. Through gauge invariant approach, the linearly dynamical stability of the regular black hole is studied. In odd-parity sector, we find that the Λ term does not appear in the master equations of perturbations, which shows that the regular black hole is stable under odd-parity perturbations. On the other hand, for the even-parity sector, the master equations are more complicated than the case without the cosmological constant. We obtain the sufficient conditions for stability of the regular black hole. We also investigate the thermodynamic properties of the regular black hole, and find that those thermodynamic quantities do not satisfy the differential form of first law of black hole thermodynamics. The reason for violating the first law is revealed.
Implementing black hole as efficient power plant
Wei, Shao-Wen
2016-01-01
Treating the black hole molecules as working substance and considering its phase structure, we study the black hole heat engine by a charged anti-de Sitter black hole. In the reduced temperature-entropy chart, it is found that the work, heat, and efficiency of the engine are independent of the black hole charge. Applying the Rankine cycle with or without a back pressure mechanism to the black hole heat engine, the efficiency is numerically solved. The result shows that the black hole engine working along the Rankine cycle with a back pressure mechanism has a higher efficiency. This provides a novel and efficient mechanism to produce the useful mechanical work with black hole, and such heat engine may act as a possible energy source for the high energy astrophysical phenomena near the black hole.
Modified dispersion relations and black hole physics
Ling, Yi; Hu, Bo; Li, Xiang
2005-01-01
A modified formulation of energy-momentum relation is proposed in the context of doubly special relativity. We investigate its impact on black hole physics. It turns out that such modification will give corrections to both the temperature and the entropy of black holes. In particular this modified dispersion relation also changes the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of black holes approaching the Planck scale. It can prevent black holes from total evaporation, as a result pr...
Black-hole formation from stellar collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I review the end-state of massive stellar evolution, following the evolution of these massive stars from the onset of collapse through the formation of a compact remnant and the possible supernova or hypernova explosion. In particular, I concentrate on the formation of black holes from stellar collapse: the fraction of stars that form black holes, the black-hole mass distribution and the velocities these black-hole remnants may receive during their formation process
Black holes sourced by a massless scalar
Cadoni, Mariano
2015-01-01
We construct asymptotically flat black hole solutions of Einstein-scalar gravity sourced by a nontrivial scalar field with 1/r asymptotic behaviour. Near the singularity the black hole behaves as the Janis-Newmann-Winicour-Wyman solution. The hairy black hole solutions allow for a consistent thermodynamical description. At large mass they have the same thermodynamical behaviour of the Schwarzschild black hole, whereas for small masses they differ substantially from the latter.
Merging galaxies and black hole ejections
Valtonen, M. J.
1990-01-01
In mergers of galaxies their central black holes are accumulated together. Researchers show that few black hole systems arise which decay through black hole collisions and black hole ejections. The ejection statistics are calculated and compared with two observed systems where ejections have been previously suggested: double radio sources and high redshift quasars near low redshift galaxies. In both cases certain aspects of the associations are explained by the merger hypothesis.
Noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild black hole
Nicolini, Piero; Smailagic, Anais; Spallucci, Euro
2005-01-01
We investigate the behavior of a noncommutative radiating Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that coordinate noncommutativity cures usual problems encountered in the description of the terminal phase of black hole evaporation. More in detail, we find that: the evaporation end-point is a zero temperature extremal black hole even in the case of electrically neutral, non-rotating, objects; there exists a finite maximum temperature that the black hole can reach before cooling down to absolute ...
Energy conservation for dynamical black holes
Hayward, Sean A.
2004-01-01
An energy conservation law is described, expressing the increase in mass-energy of a general black hole in terms of the energy densities of the infalling matter and gravitational radiation. For a growing black hole, this first law of black-hole dynamics is equivalent to an equation of Ashtekar & Krishnan, but the new integral and differential forms are regular in the limit where the black hole ceases to grow. An effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor is obtained, providing measures o...
Supermassive Black Holes and Their Environments
Colberg, Joerg M.; Di Matteo, Tiziana
2008-01-01
We make use of the first high--resolution hydrodynamic simulations of structure formation which self-consistently follows the build up of supermassive black holes introduced in Di Matteo et al. (2007) to investigate the relation between black holes (BH), host halo and large--scale environment. There are well--defined relations between halo and black hole masses and between the activities of galactic nuclei and halo masses at low redshifts. A large fraction of black holes forms anti--hierarchi...
Black hole growth in hierarchical galaxy formation.
Malbon, R. K.; Baugh, C M; Frenk, C. S.; Lacey, C. G.
2007-01-01
We incorporate a model for black hole growth during galaxy mergers into the semi-analytical galaxy formation model based on Lambda-CDM proposed by Baugh et al. (2005). Our black hole model has one free parameter, which we set by matching the observed zeropoint of the local correlation between black hole mass and bulge luminosity. We present predictions for the evolution with redshift of the relationships between black hole mass and bulge properties. Our simulations reproduce the evolution of ...
Will black holes eventually engulf the universe?
Martin-Moruno, Prado; Madrid, Jose A. Jimenez; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.
2006-01-01
The Babichev-Dokuchaev-Eroshenko model for the accretion of dark energy onto black holes has been extended to deal with black holes with non-static metrics. The possibility that for an asymptotic observer a black hole with large mass will rapidly increase and eventually engulf the Universe at a finite time in the future has been studied by using reasonable values for astronomical parameters. It is concluded that such a phenomenon is forbidden for all black holes in quintessential cosmological...
Quantum Black Holes As Elementary Particles
Ha, Yuan K.
2008-01-01
Are black holes elementary particles? Are they fermions or bosons? We investigate the remarkable possibility that quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest elementary particles. We are able to construct various fundamental quantum black holes: the spin-0, spin 1/2, spin-1, and the Planck-charge cases, using the results in general relativity. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox posed by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit on the energy of cosmi...
Stationary Scalar Clouds Around Rotating Black Holes
Hod, Shahar
2012-01-01
Motivated by novel results in the theory of wave dynamics in black-hole spacetimes, we analyze the dynamics of a massive scalar field surrounding a rapidly rotating Kerr black hole. In particular, we report on the existence of stationary (infinitely long-lived) regular field configurations in the background of maximally rotating black holes. The effective height of these scalar "clouds" above the central black hole is determined analytically. Our results support the possible existence of stat...
Missing Black Holes Driven Out
2004-05-01
Active galaxies Active galaxies are breathtaking objects. Their compact nuclei (AGN = Active Galaxy Nuclei) are so luminous that they can outshine the entire galaxy; "quasars" constitute extreme cases of this phenomenon, their powerful engine making them visible over a very large fraction of the observable Universe. It is now widely accepted that the ultimate power station of these activities originates in supermassive black holes with masses up to thousands of millions times the mass of our Sun, cf. e.g., ESO PR 04/01. For comparison, the one in the Milky Way galaxy has only about 3 million solar masses, cf. ESO PR 17/02. The central black hole is believed to be fed from a tightly wound accretion disc of gas and dust encircling it, in a donuts-shaped torus (cf. ESO PR 10/04). Material that falls towards these gigantic "vacuum cleaners" will be compressed and heated up to enormous temperatures. This hot gas radiates an incredible amount of light, causing the active galaxy nucleus to shine so brightly. Because of this obscuring dust torus, the aspect of the AGN or the quasar may greatly vary. Sometimes, astronomers can look along the axis of the dust torus from above or from below and thus have a clear view of the black hole. Such objects are called "Type-1 sources". "Type-2 sources", however, are oriented such that the dust torus is seen edge-on from Earth, and our view of the black hole is therefore totally blocked by the dust over a large range of wavelengths from the near-infrared to soft X-rays. Type-2 quasars - where are they? While many examples of rather close-by Type-2 AGNs are known (so-called Seyfert 2 galaxies), it is still a matter of debate whether their larger luminosity quasar counterparts exist. Until very recently, very few examples of this class were known. One of them is the Type-2 Quasar CXOCDFS J033229.9-275106, discovered by combining observations taken in X-rays with spectra obtained by the Very Large Telescope (ESO PR 05/01). It is indeed a
Volonteri, Marta
2012-01-01
I briefly outline recent theoretical developments on the formation of the first massive black holes (MBHs) that may grow into the population of MBHs powering quasars and inhabiting galactic centers today. I also touch upon possible observational tests that may give insights on what the properties of the first MBHs were.
Close encounters of black holes
Giulini, D
2003-01-01
This is an introduction into the problem of how to set up black hole initial-data for the matter-free field equations of General Relativity. The approach is semi-pedagogical and addresses a more general audience of astrophysicists and students with no specialized training in General Relativity beyond that of an introductory lecture.
Black Holes and Exotic Spinors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Hoff da Silva
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime exoticness. Black holes are then studied as the generators of a non-trivial topology that also can correspond to some inequivalent spin structure. Moreover, we investigate exotic spinor fields in this context and the way exotic spinor fields branch new physics. We also calculate the tunneling probability of exotic fermions across a Kerr-Sen black hole, showing that the exotic term does affect the tunneling probability, altering the black hole evaporation rate. Finally we show that it complies with the Hawking temperature universal law.
Information retrieval from black holes
Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T
2016-01-01
It is generally believed that, when matter collapses to form a black hole, the complete information about the initial state of the matter cannot be retrieved by future asymptotic observers, through local measurements. This is contrary to the expectation from a unitary evolution in quantum theory and leads to (a version of) the black hole information paradox. Classically, nothing else, apart from mass, charge and angular momentum is expected to be revealed to such asymptotic observers after the formation of a black hole. Semi-classically, black holes evaporate after their formation through the Hawking radiation. The dominant part of the radiation is expected to be thermal and hence one cannot know anything about the initial data from the resultant radiation. However, there can be sources of distortions which make the radiation non-thermal. Although the distortions are not strong enough to make the evolution unitary, these distortions carry some part of information regarding the in-state. In this work, we show ...
Extremal Higher Spin Black Holes
Bañados, Máximo; Faraggi, Alberto; Jottar, Juan I
2015-01-01
The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole extremality which is appropriate to the topological character of 3d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of extremality does not require nor implies the existence of supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) + sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory. Remarkably, while as usual not all extremal solutions preserve supersymmetries, we find that the higher spin setup allows for non-extremal supersymmetric black hole solutio...
Gravitating Disks Around Black Holes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Karas, Vladimír; Šubr, Ladislav
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2010 - (Peterson, B.), s. 332-332 ISBN 978-0-521-76502-2. - (IAU Symposium Proceedings Series. 267). [Symposium of the International Astronomical Union /267./. Rio de Janeiro (BR), 10.08.2009-14.08.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : accretion disks * gravitation * black hole physics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-10-06
Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.
Quantum Geometry and Black Holes
Ashtekar, Abhay; Ashtekar, Abhay; Krasnov, Kirill
1998-01-01
Non-perturbative quantum general relativity provides a possible framework to analyze issues related to black hole thermodynamics from a fundamental perspective. A pedagogical account of the recent developments in this area is given. The emphasis is on the conceptual and structural issues rather than technical subtleties. The article is addressed to post-graduate students and beginning researchers.
Scalar fields versus black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that if a body is endowed with a scalar charge, the event horizon associated with the modified Schwarzchild solution is reduced to a point, this avoiding the black holes formation. The discussion is restricted to ordinary scalar fields and conformally invariant scalar fields, respectively. (authors)
Magnetospheres around rotating black holes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dovčiak, Michal; Karas, V.
Singapor: World Scientific Publishing Co., 2003 - (Ruffini, R.; Sigismondi, C.), s. 288-295 [Nonlinear gravitodynamics. Rome (IT), 29.06.1998-04.07.1998] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : black holes * general relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
Accretion onto the First Stellar Mass Black Holes
Alvarez, Marcelo A; Abel, Tom
2008-01-01
The first stars in the universe, forming at redshifts z>15 in minihalos with masses of order 10^6 Msun, may leave behind black holes as their remnants. These objects could conceivably serve as "seeds" for much larger black holes observed at redshifts z~6. We study the growth of the remnant black holes through accretion including for the first time the emitted accretion radiation with adaptive mesh refinement cosmological radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. The effects of photo-ionization and heating dramatically affect the accretion flow from large scales, resulting in negligible mass growth of the black hole. We compare cases with the accretion luminosity included and neglected to show that the accretion radiation drastically changes the environment within 100 pc of the black hole, where gas temperatures are increased by an order of magnitude. The gas densities are reduced and further star formation in the same minihalo prevented for the two hundred million years of evolution we followed. These calculation...
Ciotti, L
2007-01-01
The importance of the radiative output from massive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies is not in doubt, given the well established relations among electromagnetic output, black hole mass and galaxy optical luminosity. We show how this AGN radiative output affects the hot ISM of an isolated elliptical galaxy with the aid of a high-resolution hydrodynamical code, where the cooling and heating functions include photoionization plus Compton heating. We find that radiative heating is a key factor in the self-regulated coevolution of massive black holes and their host galaxies and that 1) the mass accumulated by the central black hole is limited by feedback to the range observed today, and 2) relaxation instabilities occur so that duty cycles are small enough (~0.03) to account for the very small fraction of massive ellipticals observed to be in the "on" -QSO- phase, when the accretion luminosity approaches the Eddington luminosity. The duty cycle of the hot bubbles inflated at the galaxy center duri...
Signatures of black holes at the LHC
Cavaglia, Marco; Godang, Romulus; Cremaldi, Lucien M.; Summers, Donald J.
2007-01-01
Signatures of black hole events at CERN's Large Hadron Collider are discussed. Event simulations are carried out with the Fortran Monte Carlo generator CATFISH. Inelasticity effects, exact field emissivities, color and charge conservation, corrections to semiclassical black hole evaporation, gravitational energy loss at formation and possibility of a black hole remnant are included in the analysis.
Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."
Roth, Lane
The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for transcendent…
Light geodesics near an evaporating black hole
Guerreiro, Thiago; Monteiro, Fernando
2015-10-01
Quantum effects imply that an infalling observer cannot cross the event horizon of an evaporating black hole, even in her proper time. The Penrose diagram of an evaporating black hole is different from the one usually reported in the literature. We show that before the observer can cross the horizon the black hole disappears. Possible observational consequences are discussed.
Dilatonic Black Holes, Naked Singularities and Strings
Cox, P. H.; B. Harms(University of Alabama); Leblanc, Y.
1992-01-01
We extend a previous calculation which treated Schwarschild black hole horizons as quantum mechanical objects to the case of a charged, dilaton black hole. We show that for a unique value of the dilaton parameter `a', which is determined by the condition of unitarity of the S matrix, black holes transform at the extremal limit into strings.
Extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity
Katmadas, S.
2011-01-01
An explanation for the entropy of black holes has been an outstanding problem in recent decades. A special case where this is possible is that of extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity in four and five dimensions. The best developed case is for black holes preserving some supersymmetry (BPS), whic
Scalar field radiation from dilatonic black holes
Gohar, H.; Saifullah, K.
2012-12-01
We study radiation of scalar particles from charged dilaton black holes. The Hamilton-Jacobi method has been used to work out the tunneling probability of outgoing particles from the event horizon of dilaton black holes. For this purpose we use WKB approximation to solve the charged Klein-Gordon equation. The procedure gives Hawking temperature for these black holes as well.
Micro black holes in the laboratory
Bleicher, Marcus; Nicolini, Piero; Sprenger, Martin; Winstanley, Elizabeth(Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH, United Kingdom)
2011-01-01
The possibility of creating microscopic black holes is one of the most exciting predictions for the LHC, with potentially major consequences for our current understanding of physics. We briefly review the theoretical motivation for micro black hole production, and our understanding of their subsequent evolution. Recent work on modelling the radiation from quantum-gravity-corrected black holes is also discussed.
Resource Letter BH-1: Black Holes.
Detweiler, Steven
1981-01-01
Lists resources on black holes, including: (1) articles of historical interest; (2) books and journal articles on elementary expositions; (3) elementary and advanced textbooks; and (4) research articles on analytic structure of black holes, black hole dynamics, and astrophysical processes. (SK)
Black Hole Monodromy and Conformal Field Theory
A. Castro; J.M. Lapan; A. Maloney; M.J. Rodriguez
2013-01-01
The analytic structure of solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in a black hole background, as represented by monodromy data, is intimately related to black hole thermodynamics. It encodes the "hidden conformal symmetry" of a nonextremal black hole, and it explains why features of the inner event h
On Quantum Contributions to Black Hole Growth
Spaans, M.
2013-01-01
The effects of Wheeler’s quantum foam on black hole growth are explored from an astrophysical per- spective. Quantum fluctuations in the form of mini (10−5 g) black holes can couple to macroscopic black holes and allow the latter to grow exponentially in mass on a time scale of 109 years. Consequent
Comments on Black Holes in Matrix Theory
Horowitz, Gary T.; Martinec, Emil J.
1997-01-01
The recent suggestion that the entropy of Schwarzschild black holes can be computed in matrix theory using near-extremal D-brane thermodynamics is examined. It is found that the regime in which this approach is valid actually describes black strings stretched across the longitudinal direction, near the transition where black strings become unstable to the formation of black holes. It is argued that the appropriate dynamics on the other (black hole) side of the transition is that of the zero m...
Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Merritt David
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, “diffusive” refilling of the binary’s loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the “damage” inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.
IMAGING THE BLACK HOLE SILHOUETTE OF M87: IMPLICATIONS FOR JET FORMATION AND BLACK HOLE SPIN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The silhouette cast by the horizon of the supermassive black hole in M87 can now be resolved with the emerging millimeter very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) capability. Despite being ∼2 x 103 times farther away than Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*; the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way and the primary target for horizon-scale imaging), M87's much larger black hole mass results in a horizon angular scale roughly half that of Sgr A*'s, providing another practical target for direct imaging. However, unlike Sgr A*, M87 exhibits a powerful radio jet, providing an opportunity to study jet-formation physics on horizon scales. We employ a simple, qualitatively correct force-free jet model to explore the expected high-resolution images of M87 at wavelengths of 1.3 mm and 0.87 mm (230 GHz and 345 GHz), for a variety of jet parameters. We show that future VLBI data will be able to constrain the size of the jet footprint, the jet collimation rate, and the black hole spin. Polarization will further probe the structure of the jet's magnetic field and its effect on the emitting gas. Horizon-scale imaging of M87 and Sgr A* will enable for the first time the empirical exploration of the relationship between the mass and spin of a black hole and the characteristics of the gas inflow/outflow around it.
Aykutalp, A.; Wise, J. H.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.
2013-07-01
Observational studies show that there is a strong link between the formation and evolution of galaxies and the growth of their supermassive black holes. However, the underlying physics behind this observed relation is poorly understood. In order to study the effects of X-ray radiation on black hole surroundings, we implement X-ray-dominated region physics into Enzo and use the radiation transport module Moray to calculate the radiative transfer for a polychromatic spectrum. In this work, we investigate the effects of X-ray irradiation, produced by a central massive black hole (MBH) with a mass of M = 5 × 104 M ⊙, on ambient gas with solar and zero metallicity. We find that in the solar metallicity case, the energy deposition rate in the central region (gas, column densities of 1024 cm-2 are reached at a radius of 20 pc from the MBH. These column densities are about three orders of magnitudes higher than in the zero metallicity case. Furthermore, in the zero metallicity case, an X-ray-induced H II region is already formed after 5.8 Myr. This causes a significant outflow of gas (~8 × 106 M ⊙) from the central region; the gas reaches outflow velocities up to ~100 km s-1. At later times, ~23 Myr after we insert the MBH, we find that the solar metallicity case also develops an X-ray-induced H II region, but it is delayed by ~17 Myr compared to the zero metallicity case.
Extremal higher spin black holes
Bañados, Máximo; Castro, Alejandra; Faraggi, Alberto; Jottar, Juan I.
2016-04-01
The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole extremality which is appropriate to the topological character of 3 d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of extremality does not require supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and show that, as usual, not all extremal solutions preserve supersymmetries. Remarkably, we find in addition that the higher spin setup allows for non-extremal supersymmetric black hole solutions. Furthermore, we discuss our results from the perspective of the holographic duality between sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and two-dimensional CFTs with W (3|2) symmetry, the simplest higher spin extension of the N = 2 super-Virasoro algebra. In particular, we compute W (3|2) BPS bounds at the full quantum level, and relate their semiclassical limit to extremal black hole or conical defect solutions in the 3 d bulk. Along the way, we discuss the role of the spectral flow automorphism and provide a conjecture for the form of the semiclassical BPS bounds in general N = 2 two-dimensional CFTs with extended symmetry algebras.
Scattering by regular black holes: Planar massless scalar waves impinging upon a Bardeen black hole
Macedo, Caio F B; Crispino, Luís C B
2015-01-01
Singularities are common features of general relativity black holes. However, within general relativity, one can construct black holes that present no singularities. These regular black hole solutions can be achieved by, for instance, relaxing one of the energy conditions on the stress energy tensor sourcing the black hole. Some regular black hole solutions were found in the context of non-linear electrodynamics, the Bardeen black hole being the first one proposed. In this paper, we consider a planar massless scalar wave scattered by a Bardeen black hole. We compare the scattering cross section computed using a partial-wave description with the classical geodesic scattering of a stream of null geodesics, as well as with the semi-classical glory approximation. We obtain that, for some values of the corresponding black hole charge, the scattering cross section of a Bardeen black hole has a similar interference pattern of a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole.
Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal ε-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal ε-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to be less
Tunnelling from black holes and tunnelling into white holes
Chatterjee, Bhramar; Ghosh, A.; Mitra, P.
2008-03-01
Hawking radiation is nowadays being understood as tunnelling through black hole horizons. Here, the extension of the Hamilton-Jacobi approach to tunnelling for non-rotating and rotating black holes in different non-singular coordinate systems not only confirms this quantum emission from black holes but also reveals the new phenomenon of absorption into white holes by quantum mechanical tunnelling. The rôle of a boundary condition of total absorption or emission is also clarified.
Rafferty, D A; Nulsen, P E J; Wise, M W
2006-01-01
We present an analysis of the growth of black holes through accretion and bulges through star formation in 33 galaxies at the centers of cooling flows. Most of these systems show evidence of cavities in the intracluster medium (ICM) inflated by radio jets emanating from their active galactic nuclei (AGN). We present a new and extensive analysis of X-ray cavities in these systems. We find that AGN are energetically able to balance radiative losses (cooling) from the ICM in more than half of our sample. Using a subsample of 17 systems, we examine the relationship between cooling and star formation. We find that the star formation rates are approaching or are comparable to X-ray and far UV limits on the rates of gas condensation onto the central galaxy. The remaining radiative losses could be offset by AGN feedback. The vast gulf between radiative losses and the sink of cooling material, which has been the primary objection to cooling flows, has narrowed and, in some cases, is no longer a serious issue. Using th...
Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe
Zhang, T. X.
2015-07-01
Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.
Accretion onto a Kiselev black hole
Yang, Rong-Jia
2016-01-01
We consider accretion onto a Kiselev black hole. We obtain the fundamental equations for accretion without the back-reaction. We determine the general analytic expressions for the critical points and the mass accretion rate and find the physical conditions the critical points should fulfil. The case of polytropic gas are discussed in detail. It turns out that the quintessence parameter plays an important role in the accretion process.
Hot Accretion Flows Around Black Holes
Yuan, Feng(Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA); Narayan, Ramesh
2014-01-01
Black hole accretion flows can be divided into two broad classes: cold and hot. Cold accretion flows, which consist of cool optically thick gas, are found at relatively high mass accretion rates. Prominent examples are the standard thin disk, which occurs at a fraction of the Eddington mass accretion rate, and the slim disk at super-Eddington rates. These accretion flows are responsible for luminous systems such as active galactic nuclei radiating at or close to the Eddington luminosity and b...
Stationary Scalar Clouds Around Rotating Black Holes
Hod, Shahar
2012-01-01
Motivated by novel results in the theory of wave dynamics in black-hole spacetimes, we analyze the dynamics of a massive scalar field surrounding a rapidly rotating Kerr black hole. In particular, we report on the existence of stationary (infinitely long-lived) regular field configurations in the background of maximally rotating black holes. The effective height of these scalar "clouds" above the central black hole is determined analytically. Our results support the possible existence of stationary scalar field dark matter distributions surrounding rapidly rotating black holes.
Toroidal Horizons in Binary Black Hole Mergers
Bohn, Andy; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Teukolsky, Saul A.
2016-01-01
We find the first binary black hole event horizon with a toroidal topology. It had been predicted that generically the event horizons of merging black holes should briefly have a toroidal topology, but such a phase has never been seen prior to this work. In all previous binary black hole simulations, in the coordinate slicing used to evolve the black holes, the topology of the event horizon transitions directly from two spheres during the inspiral to a single sphere as the black holes merge. ...
Moving black holes via singularity excision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a singularity excision algorithm appropriate for numerical simulations of black holes moving throughout the computational domain. The method is an extension of the excision procedure previously used to obtain stable simulations of single, non-moving black holes. The excision procedure also shares elements used in recent work to study the dynamics of a scalar field in the background of a single, boosted black hole. The excision method is tested with single black-hole evolutions using a coordinate system in which the coordinate location of the black hole, and thus the excision boundary, moves throughout the computational domain
Black holes under external inﬂuence
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Jiří Bičák
2000-10-01
The work on black holes immersed in external ﬁelds is reviewed in both test-ﬁeld approximation and within exact solutions. In particular we pay attention to the effect of the expulsion of the ﬂux of external ﬁelds across charged and rotating black holes which are approaching extremal states. Recently this effect has been shown to occur for black hole solutions in string theory. We also discuss black holes surrounded by rings and disks and rotating black holes accelerated by strings.
Dance of Two Monster Black Holes
Kohler, Susanna
2016-03-01
This past December, researchers all over the world watched an outburst from the enormous black hole in OJ 287 an outburst that had been predicted years ago using the general theory of relativity.Outbursts from Black-Hole OrbitsOJ 287 is one of the largest supermassive black holes known, weighing in at 18 billion solar masses. Located about 3.5 billion light-years away, this monster quasar is bright enough that it was first observed as early as the 1890s. What makes OJ 287 especially interesting, however, is that its light curve exhibits prominent outbursts roughly every 12 years.Diagram illustrating the orbit of the secondary black hole (shown in blue) in OJ 287 from 2000 to 2023. We see outbursts (the yellow bubbles) every time the secondary black hole crosses the accretion disk (shown in red, ina side view) surrounding the primary (the black circle). [Valtonen et al. 2016]What causes the outbursts? Astronomers think that there is a second supermassive black hole, ~100 times smaller, inspiraling as it orbits the central monster and set to merge within the next 10,000 years. In this model, the primary black hole of OJ 287 is surrounded by a hot accretion disk. As the secondary black hole orbits the primary, it regularly punches through this accretion disk, heating the material and causing the release of expanding bubbles of hot gas pulled from the disk. This gas then radiates thermally, causing the outbursts we see.Attempts to model this scenario using Newtonian orbits all fail; the timing of the secondary black holes crossings through the accretion disk (as measured by when we see the outbursts) can only be explained by a model incorporating general-relativistic effects on the orbit. Careful observations and precise timing of these outbursts therefore provide an excellent test of general relativity.Watching a Predicted CrossingThe model of OJ 287 predicted another disk crossing in December 2015, so professional and amateur astronomers around the world readied more
Circumnuclear Media and Accretion Rates of Quiescent Supermassive Black Holes
Generozov, Aleksey; Metzger, Brian D
2015-01-01
We calculate steady-state, one-dimensional hydrodynamic profiles of hot gas in slowly accreting ("quiescent") galactic nuclei for a range of central black hole masses, parameterized gas heating rates, and observationally-motivated stellar density profiles. Mass is supplied to the circumnuclear medium by stellar winds, while energy is injected primarily by stellar winds, supernovae, and black hole feedback. Analytic estimates are derived for the stagnation radius (where the radial velocity of the gas passes through zero) and the black hole accretion rate, as a function of the black hole mass and the gas heating efficiency, the latter being related to the star-formation history. We assess the conditions under which radiative instabilities develop in the hydrostatic region near the stagnation radius, both in the case of a single burst of star formation and for the average star formation history predicted by cosmological simulations. By combining a sample of measured nuclear X-ray luminosities from nearby quiesce...
The fate of massive black holes in gas-rich galaxy mergers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Escala
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Utilizando simulaciones num ericas SPH, investigamos los efectos de gas sobre la inspiral y la fusi on de una binaria de agujeros negros masivos. Este estudio fue motivado por los discos de gas nucleares muy masivos que se observan en las regiones centrales de galaxias en fusi on. Aqu presentamos los resultados que ampl an el tratamiento de trabajos previos (Escala et al. 2004, 2005 mediante el estudio de la evoluci on de una binaria con diferentes masas de agujeros negros en un disco de gas masivo.
Could supermassive black holes be quintessential primordial black holes?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There is growing observational evidence for a population of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic bulges. We examine in detail the conditions under which these black holes must have originated from primordial black holes (PBHs). We consider the merging and accretion history experienced by SMBHs to find that, whereas it is possible that they were formed by purely astrophysical processes, this is unlikely and most probably a population of primordial progenitors is necessary. We identify the mass distribution and comoving density of this population and then propose a cosmological scenario producing PBHs with the right properties. Although this is not essential we consider PBHs produced at the end of a period of inflation with a blue spectrum of fluctuations. We constrain the value of the spectral tilt in order to obtain the required PBH comoving density. We then assume that PBHs grow by accreting quintessence, showing that their mass scales like the horizon mass while the quintessence field itself is scaling. We find that if scaling is broken just before nucleosynthesis (as is the case with some attractive nonminimally coupled models) we obtain the appropriate PBH mass distribution. Hawking evaporation is negligible in most cases, but we also discuss situations in which the interplay of accretion and evaporation is relevant
Black Holes Shed Light on Galaxy Formation
2000-01-01
This videotape is comprised of several segments of animations on black holes and galaxy formation, and several segments of an interview with Dr. John Kormendy. The animation segments are: (1) a super massive black hole, (2) Centarus A active black hole found in a collision, (3) galaxy NGC-4261 (active black hole and jet model), (4) galaxy M-32 (orbits of stars are effected by the gravity of the black hole), (5) galaxy M-37 (motion of stars increases as mass of black hole increases), (6) Birth of active galactic nuclei, (7) the collision of two galaxy leads to merger of the black holes, (8) Centarus A and simulation of the collision of 2 galaxies. There are also several segments of an interview with John Kormendy. In these segments he discusses the two most important aspects of his recent black hole work: (1) the correlations between galaxies speed and the mass of the black holes, and (2) the existence of black holes and galactic formation. He also discusses the importance of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to the study of black holes. He also shows the methodology of processing images from the spectrograph in his office.
Mathur, Samir D.
2007-01-01
String theory tells us that quantum gravity has a dual description as a field theory (without gravity). We use the field theory dual to ask what happens to an object as it falls into the simplest black hole: the 2-charge extremal hole. In the field theory description the wavefunction of a particle is spread over a large number of `loops', and the particle has a well-defined position in space only if it has the same `position' on each loop. For the infalling particle we find one definition of ...
The fate of massive black holes in gas-rich galaxy mergers
Escala, A.; R. B. Larson; Coppi, P. S.; Mardones, D.
2006-01-01
Utilizando simulaciones num ericas SPH, investigamos los efectos de gas sobre la inspiral y la fusi on de una binaria de agujeros negros masivos. Este estudio fue motivado por los discos de gas nucleares muy masivos que se observan en las regiones centrales de galaxias en fusi on. Aqu presentamos los resultados que ampl an el tratamiento de trabajos previos (Escala et al. 2004, 2005) mediante el estudio de la evoluci on de una binaria con diferentes masas de agujeros negros en ...
Charged rotating black holes at large D
Tanabe, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We study odd dimensional charged equally rotating black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell theory with/without a cosmological constant by using the large D expansion method, where D is a spacetime dimension. Solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations in the 1/D expansion we obtain the large D effective equations for charged equally rotating black holes. The effective equations describe the nonlinear dynamics of charged equally rotating black holes. Especially the perturbation analysis of the effective equations gives analytic formula for quasinormal mode frequencies, and we can show charged equally rotating black holes have instabilities. As one interesting feature of instabilities, we observe that the ultraspinning instability of neutral equally rotating black holes in de Sitter is connected with the instability of de Sitter Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in a rotation-charge plane of the solution parameter space. So these instabilities have same origin as dynamical properties of charged rotating black holes. We also ...
Quantum information erasure inside black holes
Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus
2015-12-01
An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. This property, combined with the requirement that outside observers need at least of order the scrambling time to extract quantum information from the black hole, ensures that a typical infalling observer does not encounter drama upon crossing the black hole horizon in a theory where black hole information is preserved for asymptotic observers.
Quasistars: Accreting black holes inside massive envelopes
Begelman, Mitchell C; Armitage, Philip J
2007-01-01
We study the structure and evolution of "quasistars," accreting black holes embedded within massive hydrostatic gaseous envelopes. These configurations may model the early growth of supermassive black hole seeds. The accretion rate onto the black hole adjusts so that the luminosity carried by the convective envelope equals the Eddington limit for the total mass. This greatly exceeds the Eddington limit for the black hole mass alone, leading to rapid growth of the black hole. We use analytic models and numerical stellar structure calculations to study the structure and evolution of quasistars. We derive analytically the scaling of the photospheric temperature with the black hole mass and envelope mass, and show that it decreases with time as the black hole mass increases. Once the photospheric temperature becomes lower than 10000 K, the photospheric opacity drops precipitously and the photospheric temperature hits a limiting value, analogous to the Hayashi track for red giants and protostars, below which no hy...
From Schwinger Balls to Black Holes
Allahbakhshi, Davood
2016-01-01
We have shown intriguing similarities between Schwinger balls and black holes. By considering black hole as a gravitational Schwinger ball, we have derived the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the first law of black hole thermodynamics as a direct result of the inverse area dependence of the gravitational force. It is also shown that the Planck length is nothing but the gravitational Schwinger length. The relation between the mass and the radius of the black hole is derived by considering the black hole as a Schwinger ball of gravitons. We show how the evolution of the entanglement entropy of the black hole, as Page introduced many years ago, can be obtained by including gravitons in the black hole's evaporation process and using a deformed EPR mechanism. Also this deformed EPR mechanism can solve the information paradox. We show how naive simultaneous usage of Page's argument and equivalence principle leads to firewall problem.
Quantum information erasure inside black holes
Lowe, David A
2015-01-01
An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. This property, combined with the requirement that outside observers need at least of order the scrambling time to extract quantum information from the black hole, ensures that a typical infalling observer does not encounter drama upon crossing the black hole horizon in a theory where black hole information is preserved for asymptotic observers.
Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole
Tremblay, Grant R.; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R.; Davis, Timothy A.; McDonald, Michael A.; Edge, Alastair C.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N.
2016-01-01
Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecul...
Bursting with Stars and Black Holes
2007-01-01
A growing black hole, called a quasar, can be seen at the center of a faraway galaxy in this artist's concept. Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer and Chandra space telescopes discovered swarms of similar quasars hiding in dusty galaxies in the distant universe. The quasar is the orange object at the center of the large, irregular-shaped galaxy. It consists of a dusty, doughnut-shaped cloud of gas and dust that feeds a central supermassive black hole. As the black hole feeds, the gas and dust heat up and spray out X-rays, as illustrated by the white rays. Beyond the quasar, stars can be seen forming in clumps throughout the galaxy. Other similar galaxies hosting quasars are visible in the background. The newfound quasars belong to a long-lost population that had been theorized to be buried inside dusty, distant galaxies, but were never actually seen. While some quasars are easy to detect because they are oriented in such a way that their X-rays point toward Earth, others are oriented with their surrounding doughnut-clouds blocking the X-rays from our point of view. In addition, dust and gas in the galaxy itself can block the X-rays. Astronomers had observed the most energetic of this dusty, or obscured, bunch before, but the 'masses,' or more typical members of the population, remained missing. Using data from Spitzer and Chandra, the scientists uncovered many of these lost quasars in the bellies of massive galaxies between 9 and 11 billion light-years away. Because the galaxies were also busy making stars, the scientists now believe most massive galaxies spent their adolescence building up their stars and black holes simultaneously. The Spitzer observations were made as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey program, which aims to image the faintest distant galaxies using a variety of wavelengths.
An Introduction to Black Hole Evaporation
Traschen, Jennie
2000-01-01
Classical black holes are defined by the property that things can go in, but don't come out. However, Stephen Hawking calculated that black holes actually radiate quantum mechanical particles. The two important ingredients that result in back hole evaporation are (1) the spacetime geometry, in particular the black hole horizon, and (2) the fact that the notion of a "particle" is not an invariant concept in quantum field theory. These notes contain a step-by-step presentation of Hawking's calc...
The coalescence rates of double black holes
Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; Dominik, Michal; Prestwich, Andrea
2011-01-01
We present the summary of the recent investigations of double black hole binaries in context of their formation and merger rates. In particular we discuss the spectrum of black hole masses, the formation scenarios in the local Universe and the estimates of detection rates for gravitational radiation detectors like LIGO and VIRGO. Our study is based on observed properties of known Galactic and extra-galactic stellar mass black holes and evolutionary predictions. We argue that the binary black ...
Fan, Zhong-Ying
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a Proca field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type $V=2\\Lambda_0+ m^2 A^2/2 + \\gamma_4 A^4$. For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with $\\Lambda_0=m=\\gamma_4=0$, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find that the thermodynamical first laws of the extremal black holes are modified by a one form associated with the Proca. In particular, due to the existence of the non-minimal coupling, the Proca forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and partly contributes to the one form modifying the first laws. For a minimally coupled theory with $\\Lambda_0\
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The cosmic censorship conjecture posits that singularities forming to the future of a regular Cauchy surface are hidden by an event horizon. Consequently any topological structures will ultimately collapse within the horizon of a black hole and so no observer can actively probe them classically. We consider here a quantum analogue of this problem, in which we compare the transition rates of an Unruh–DeWitt detector placed outside the horizon of an eternal BTZ black hole and its associated geon counterpart. We find the transition rates differ, with the latter being time-dependent, implying that we are indeed able to probe the structure of the singularity from outside the horizon. (fast track communications)
Cosmological Parameters and Black Holes
Harun-al-Rashid, S M
2002-01-01
This work is related to different questions within cosmology. The principal idea herein is to develop cosmological knowledge making use of the analyses of observational data in order to find the values of the matter density Omega_m and vacuum energy density Omega_Lambda. Data fitting is carried out using two statistical methods, chi^2 and maximum likelihood. The data analysis exhibits that a low density and flat Universe is strongly favoured. Applying the Omega_m value found for clusters of galaxies, we demonstrate that clusters have very little room for baryonic dark matter. An upper limit to the small but non-negligible sum of baryonic dark matter and galaxy mass can be estimated, requiring the use of special statistics. A Toroidal Black Hole (TBH) study, in contrast to the Spherical Black Hole (SBH), shows that the TBH can be used as an important tool in explaining AGN phenomena.
Geometrodynamics of Schwarzschild black holes
Kuchar, K V
1994-01-01
The curvature coordinates $T,R$ of a Schwarz\\-schild spacetime are turned into canonical coordinates $T(r), {\\sf R}(r)$ on the phase space of spherically symmetric black holes. The entire dynamical content of the Hamiltonian theory is reduced to the constraints requiring that the momenta $P_{T}(r), P_{\\sf R}(r)$ vanish. What remains is a conjugate pair of canonical variables $m$ and $p$ whose values are the same on every embedding. The coordinate $m$ is the Schwarzschild mass, and the momentum $p$ the difference of parametrization times at right and left infinities. The Dirac constraint quantization in the new representation leads to the state functional $\\Psi (m; T, {\\sf R}] = \\Psi (m)$ which describes an unchanging superposition of black holes with different masses. The new canonical variables may be employed in the study of collapsing matter systems.
Black hole with quantum potential
Ali, Ahmed Farag; Khalil, Mohammed M.
2016-08-01
In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.
Black hole statistics from holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the microstates of the 'small' black hole in the 1/2-BPS sector of AdS5 x S5, the superstar, using the powerful holographic description provided by LLM. The system demonstrates the inherently statistical nature of black holes, with the geometry presented elsewhere emerging only after averaging over an ensemble of geometries. The individual microstate geometries differ in the highly non-trivial topology of a quantum foam at their core, and the entropy can be understood as a partition of N units of flux among 5-cycles, as required by flux quantization. While the system offers confirmation of the most controversial aspect of Mathur and Lunin's recent 'fuzzball' proposal, we see signs of a discrepancy in interpreting its details
Black hole with quantum potential
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Farag Ali
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this work, we investigate black hole (BH physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE. From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.
Black Hole with Quantum Potential
Ali, Ahmed Farag
2015-01-01
In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which introduces a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. It also ameliorates the black hole singularity and the information loss problem.
Symmetries of supergravity black holes
Chow, David D K
2008-01-01
We investigate Killing tensors for various black hole solutions of supergravity theories. Rotating black holes of an ungauged theory, toroidally compactified heterotic supergravity, with NUT parameters and two U(1) gauge fields are constructed. If both charges are set equal, then the solutions simplify, and then there are concise expressions for rank-2 conformal Killing-Stackel tensors. These are induced by rank-2 Killing-Stackel tensors of a conformally related metric that possesses a separability structure. We directly verify the separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on this conformally related metric, and of the null Hamilton-Jacobi and massless Klein-Gordon equations on the "physical" metric. Similar results are found for more general solutions; we mainly focus on those with certain charge combinations equal in gauged supergravity, but also consider certain other solutions.
Black holes in magnetic monopoles
Lee, Kimyeong; Nair, V. P.; Weinberg, Erick J.
1991-01-01
We study magnetically charged classical solutions of a spontaneously broken gauge theory interacting with gravity. We show that nonsingular monopole solutions exist only if the Higgs field vacuum expectation value v is less than or equal to a critical value v sub cr, which is of the order of the Planck mass. In the limiting case, the monopole becomes a black hole, with the region outside the horizon described by the critical Reissner-Nordstrom solution. For v less than v sub cr, we find additional solutions which are singular at f = 0, but which have this singularity hidden within a horizon. These have nontrivial matter fields outside the horizon, and may be interpreted as small black holes lying within a magnetic monopole. The nature of these solutions as a function of v and of the total mass M and their relation to the Reissner-Nordstrom solutions is discussed.
Massive BTZ black hole thermodynamics
Hendi, S H; Panahiyan, S
2016-01-01
Motivated by large applications of BTZ black holes and interesting results of massive gravity, we investigate massive BTZ black holes in presence of Maxwell and Born-Infeld (BI) electrodynamics. We study geometric as well as thermodynamic structure of the solutions through canonical ensemble. Despite the existence of massive term, obtained solutions are asymptotically (a)dS and have a curvature singularity at the origin. Next, we regard varying cosmological constant and examine Van der Waals like behavior of the solutions in the extended phase space. In addition, we employ geometrical thermodynamic approaches and show that using Weinhold, Ruppeiner and Quevedo metrics leads to existence of ensemble dependency while HPEM metric yields uniform picture. For neutral case, it will be shown that generalization to massive gravity leads to presence of non-zero temperature and heat capacity for vanishing horizon radius. Such behavior is not observed for linearly charged solutions while generalization to nonlinearly on...
The Early Growth of the First Black Holes
Johnson, Jarrett L.; Haardt, Francesco
2016-03-01
With detections of quasars powered by increasingly massive black holes at increasingly early times in cosmic history over the past decade, there has been correspondingly rapid progress made on the theory of early black hole formation and growth. Here, we review the emerging picture of how the first massive black holes formed from the primordial gas and then grew to supermassive scales. We discuss the initial conditions for the formation of the progenitors of these seed black holes, the factors dictating the initial masses with which they form, and their initial stages of growth via accretion, which may occur at super-Eddington rates. Finally, we briefly discuss how these results connect to large-scale simulations of the growth of supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang.
Phase transitions of black holes in massive gravity
Fernando, Sharmanthie
2016-01-01
In this paper we have studied thermodynamics of a black hole in massive gravity in the canonical ensemble. The massive gravity theory in consideration here has a massive graviton due to Lorentz symmetry breaking. The black hole studied here has a scalar charge due to the massive graviton and is asymptotically anti-de Sitter. We have computed various thermodynamical quantities such as temperature, specific heat and free energy. Both the local and global stability of the black hole are studied by observing the behavior of the specific heat and the free energy. We have observed that there is a first order phase transition between small and large black hole for a certain range of the scalar charge. This phase transition is similar to the liquid/gas phase transition at constant temperature for a Van der Waals fluid. The coexistence curves for the small and large black hole branches are also discussed in detail.
Black Holes and Exotic Spinors
Hoff da Silva, J. M.(Departamento de Física e Química, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Guaratinguetá, SP, Brazil); C. H. Coronado Villalobos; Roldao da Rocha
2016-01-01
Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime ex...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The superstrong gravitational field is the protagonist of this book. This gravitation is the power that warps space and time into a funnel and generates a black hole when a cosmic body undergoes catastrophic collapse. This superstrong gravitation reigns in the Universe, controlling the motion of infinitely large masses. The book describes natural phenomena caused by superstrong gravitation but perceived as nothing short of miracles, but it also explains how these miracles are studied and understood. (author)
Black holes, singularities and predictability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper favours the view that singularities may play a central role in quantum gravity. The author reviews the arguments leading to the conclusion, that in the process of black hole formation and evaporation, an initial pure state evolves to a final density matrix, thus signaling a breakdown in ordinary quantum dynamical evolution. Some related issues dealing with predictability in the dynamical evolution, are also discussed. (U.K.)
Black Hole Thermodynamics and Electromagnetism
Sidharth, Burra G.
2005-01-01
We show a strong parallel between the Hawking, Beckenstein black hole Thermodynamics and electromagnetism: When the gravitational coupling constant transform into the electromagnetic coupling constant, the Schwarzchild radius, the Beckenstein temperature, the Beckenstein decay time and the Planck mass transform to respectively the Compton wavelength, the Hagedorn temperature, the Compton time and a typical elementary particle mass. The reasons underlying this parallalism are then discussed in...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the context of extended phase space, where the negative cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure in the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we find an asymptotically AdS metric whose thermodynamics matches exactly that of the Van der Waals fluid. We show that as a solution of Einstein's equations, the corresponding stress energy tensor obeys (at least for certain range of metric parameters) all three weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aruna Rajagopal
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In the context of extended phase space, where the negative cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure in the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we find an asymptotically AdS metric whose thermodynamics matches exactly that of the Van der Waals fluid. We show that as a solution of Einstein's equations, the corresponding stress energy tensor obeys (at least for certain range of metric parameters all three weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions.
Complexity, action, and black holes
Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying
2016-04-01
Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the "Wheeler-DeWitt" patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.
Gravitating discs around black holes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Karas, Vladimír; Huré, J.-M.; Semerák, O.
2004-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 7 (2004), R1-R5. ISSN 0264-9381 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/0902; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : black holes * accretion discs * general relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.941, year: 2004
Hawking, Stephen W; Strominger, Andrew
2016-01-01
It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the ho...
Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-01
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.
Hair of astrophysical black holes
Lyutikov, Maxim
2012-01-01
The "no hair" theorem is not applicable to black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar), where \\Phi_\\infty is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that...
Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-10
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units. PMID:27341223
Quantum Tunneling in Black Holes
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan
2011-01-01
This thesis is focussed towards the applications of the quantum tunneling mechanism to study black holes. Here we give a general frame work of the existing tunneling mechanism, both the radial null geodesic and Hamilton Jacobi methods. On the radial null geodesic method side, we study the modifications to the tunneling rate, Hawking temperature and the Bekenstein- Hawking area law by including the back reaction as well as non-commutative effects in the space-time. A reformulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is first introduced. Based on this, a close connection between the quantum tunneling and the gravitational anomaly mechanisms to discuss Hawking effect, is put forwarded. An interesting advantage of this reformulated HJ method is that one can get directly the emission spectrum from the event horizon of the black hole, which was missing in the earlier literature. Also, the quantization of the entropy and area of a black hole is discussed in this method. Another part of the thesis is the introduction ...
Entropy of Quantum Black Holes
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Romesh K. Kaul
2012-02-01
Full Text Available In the Loop Quantum Gravity, black holes (or even more general Isolated Horizons are described by a SU(2 Chern-Simons theory. There is an equivalent formulation of the horizon degrees of freedom in terms of a U(1 gauge theory which is just a gauged fixed version of the SU(2 theory. These developments will be surveyed here. Quantum theory based on either formulation can be used to count the horizon micro-states associated with quantum geometry fluctuations and from this the micro-canonical entropy can be obtained. We shall review the computation in SU(2 formulation. Leading term in the entropy is proportional to horizon area with a coefficient depending on the Barbero-Immirzi parameter which is fixed by matching this result with the Bekenstein-Hawking formula. Remarkably there are corrections beyond the area term, the leading one is logarithm of the horizon area with a definite coefficient −3/2, a result which is more than a decade old now. How the same results are obtained in the equivalent U(1 framework will also be indicated. Over years, this entropy formula has also been arrived at from a variety of other perspectives. In particular, entropy of BTZ black holes in three dimensional gravity exhibits the same logarithmic correction. Even in the String Theory, many black hole models are known to possess such properties. This suggests a possible universal nature of this logarithmic correction.
Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes
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Sergey N. Solodukhin
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as ’t Hooft’s brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the black-hole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.
Glory scattering by black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a physically motivated derivation of the JWKB backward glory-scattering cross section of massless waves by Schwarzschild black holes. The angular dependence of the cross section is identical with the one derived by path integration, namely, dsigma/dΩ = 4π2lambda-1B/sub g/ 2(dB mWπ, where lambda is the wavelength, B(theta) is the inverse of the classical deflection function CTHETA(B), B/sub g/ is the glory impact parameter, s is the helicity of the scattered wave, and J/sub 2s/ is the Bessel function of order 2s. The glory rings formed by scalar waves are bright at the center; those formed by polarized waves are dark at the center. For scattering of massless particles by a spherical black hole of mass M, B(theta)/Mapprox.3 √3 + 3.48 exp(-theta), theta > owigπ. The numerical values of dsigma/dΩ for this deflection function are found to agree with earlier computer calculations of glory cross sections from black holes
Formation of supermassive black hole seeds
Latif, Muhammad A
2016-01-01
The detection of quasars at $z>6$ unveils the presence of supermassive black holes (BHs) of a few billion solar masses. The rapid formation process of these extreme objects remains a fascinating and open issue. Such discovery implies that seed black holes must have formed early on, and grown via either rapid accretion or BH/galaxy mergers. In this theoretical review, we discuss in detail various BH seed formation mechanisms and the physical processes at play during their assembly. We discuss the three most popular BH formation scenarios, involving the (i) core-collapse of massive stars, (ii) dynamical evolution of dense nuclear star clusters, (iii) collapse of a protogalactic metal free gas cloud. This article aims at giving a broad introduction and an overview of the most advanced research in the field.
Aykutalp, A; Meijerink, R; Spaans, M
2013-01-01
Observational studies show that there is a strong link between the formation and evolution of galaxies and the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBH) at their centers. However, the underlying physics of this observed relation is poorly understood. In order to study the effects of X-ray radiation on the surroundings of the black hole, we implement X-ray Dominated Region (XDR) physics into Enzo and use the radiation transport module Moray to calculate the radiative transfer for a polychromatic spectrum. In this work, we investigate the effects of X-ray irradiation, produced by a central massive black hole (MBH) with a mass of M = 5x10^4 M_(solar), on ambient gas with solar and zero metallicity. We find that in the solar metallicity case, due to high opacity of the metals, the energy deposition rate in the central region (< 20 pc) is high and hence the temperatures in the center are on the order of 10^(5-7) K. Moreover, due to the cooling ability and high intrinsic opacity of solar metallicity gas, column ...
Massive Binary Black Holes in the Cosmic Landscape
Colpi, M
2009-01-01
Binary black holes occupy a special place in our quest for understanding the evolution of galaxies along cosmic history. If massive black holes grow at the center of (pre-)galactic structures that experience a sequence of merger episodes, then dual black holes form as inescapable outcome of galaxy assembly. But, if the black holes reach coalescence, then they become the loudest sources of gravitational waves ever in the universe. Nature seems to provide a pathway for the formation of these exotic binaries, and a number of key questions need to be addressed: How do massive black holes pair in a merger? Depending on the properties of the underlying galaxies, do black holes always form a close Keplerian binary? If a binary forms, does hardening proceed down to the domain controlled by gravitational wave back reaction? What is the role played by gas and/or stars in braking the black holes, and on which timescale does coalescence occur? Can the black holes accrete on flight and shine during their pathway to coales...
Shapes of rotating nonsingular black hole shadows
Amir, Muhammed; Ghosh, Sushant G.
2016-07-01
It is believed that curvature singularities are a creation of general relativity and, hence, in the absence of a quantum gravity, models of nonsingular black holes have received significant attention. We study the shadow (apparent shape), an optical appearance because of its strong gravitational field, cast by a nonsingular black hole which is characterized by three parameters, i.e., mass (M ), spin (a ), and a deviation parameter (k ). The nonsingular black hole under consideration is a generalization of the Kerr black hole that can be recognized asymptotically (r ≫k ,k >0 ) explicitly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and in the limit k →0 as the Kerr black hole. It turns out that the shadow of a nonsingular black hole is a dark zone covered by a deformed circle. Interestingly, it is seen that the shadow of a black hole is affected due to the parameter k . Indeed, for a given a , the size of a shadow reduces as the parameter k increases, and the shadow becomes more distorted as we increase the value of the parameter k when compared with the analogous Kerr black hole shadow. We also investigate, in detail, how the ergoregion of a black hole is changed due to the deviation parameter k .
A Black Hole in Our Galactic Center
Ruiz, Michael J.
2008-01-01
An introductory approach to black holes is presented along with astronomical observational data pertaining to the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Concepts of conservation of energy and Kepler's third law are employed so students can apply formulas from their physics class to determine the mass of the black hole…
5D Black Holes and Matrix Strings
Dijkgraaf, R.; Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.
1997-01-01
We derive the world-volume theory, the (non)-extremal entropy and background geometry of black holes and black strings constructed out of the NS IIA fivebrane within the framework of matrix theory. The CFT description of strings propagating in the black hole geometry arises as an effective field theory.
Accretion model of a rotating gas sphere onto a Schwarzschild black hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Mendoza
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Construimos un modelo simple de acreción de una esfera de gas sin presión hacia un agujero negro de Schwarzschild. Lejos del agujero, el flujo rota como un cuerpo rígido. Mostramos como construir soluciones analíticas en términos de las funciones elípticas de Jacobi. Esta construcción representa la generalización relativista del modelo Newtoniano de acreción primeramente propuesto por Ulrich (1976. De la misma manera que, como ocurre en el caso Newtoniano, el flujo naturalmente predice la existencia de un disco de acreción ecuatorial rotando alrededor del agujero negro. Sin embargo, el radio del disco se incrementa de manera monotónica sin límite a medida que el flujo se acerca al máximo momento angular permitido por el modelo.
SuperMassive Black Holes in Bulges
Sarzi, M; Shields, J C; Rudnick, G; Ho, L C; McIntosh, D H; Filippenko, A V; Sargent, W L W; Sarzi, Marc; Rix, Hans-Walter; Shields, Joseph C.; Rudnick, Greg; Ho, Luis C.; Intosh, Daniel H. Mc; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.
2001-01-01
We present spatially extended gas kinematics at parsec-scale resolution for the nuclear regions of four nearby disk galaxies, and model them as rotation of a gas disk in the joint potential of the stellar bulge and a putative central black hole. The targets were selected from a larger set of long-slit spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the Survey of Nearby Nuclei with STIS (SUNNS). They represents the 4 galaxies (of 24) that display symmetric gas velocity curves consistent with a rotating disk. We derive the stellar mass distribution from the STIS acquisition images adopting the stellar mass-to-light ratio normalized so as to match ground-based velocity dispersion measurements over a large aperture. Subsequently, we constrain the mass of a putative black hole by matching the gas rotation curve, following two distinct approaches. In the most general case we explore all the possible disk orientations, alternatively we constrain the gas disk orientation from the dust-lane morphology at s...
Destroying Kerr-Sen black holes
Siahaan, Haryanto M.
2016-03-01
By neglecting the self-force, self-energy, and radiative effects, it has been shown that an extremal or near-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole can turn into a naked singularity when it captures charged and spinning massive particles. A straightforward question then arises: do charged and rotating black holes in string theory possess the same property? In this paper we apply Wald's gedanken experiment, in his study on the possibility of destroying extremal Kerr-Newman black holes, to the case of (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black holes. We find that feeding a test particle into a (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black hole could lead to a violation of the extremal bound for the black hole.
Black hole chemistry: thermodynamics with Lambda
Kubiznak, David; Teo, Mae
2016-01-01
We review recent developments on the thermodynamics of black holes in extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is interpreted as thermodynamic pressure and treated as a thermodynamic variable in its own right. In this approach, the mass of the black hole is no longer regarded as internal energy, rather it is identified with the chemical enthalpy. This leads to an extended dictionary for black hole thermodynamic quantities, in particular a notion of thermodynamic volume emerges for a given black hole spacetime. This volume is conjectured to satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality - an inequality imposing a bound on the amount of entropy black hole can carry for a fixed thermodynamic volume. New thermodynamic phase transitions naturally emerge from these identifications. Namely, we show that black holes can be understood from the viewpoint of chemistry, in terms of concepts such as Van der Waals fluids, reentrant phase transitions, and triple points. We also review the recent attempts at exten...
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes
Neilsen, David; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Garret, T
2010-01-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes
Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W.; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Garrett, Travis
2011-01-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford–Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux. PMID:21768341
Black Holes and Abelian Symmetry Breaking
Chagoya, Javier; Tasinato, Gianmassimo
2016-01-01
Black hole configurations offer insights on the non-linear aspects of gravitational theories, and can suggest testable predictions for modifications of General Relativity. In this work, we examine exact black hole configurations in vector-tensor theories, originally proposed to explain dark energy by breaking the Abelian symmetry with a non-minimal coupling of the vector to gravity. We are able to evade the no-go theorems by Bekenstein on the existence of regular black holes in vector-tensor theories with Proca mass terms, and exhibit regular black hole solutions with a profile for the longitudinal vector polarization, characterised by an additional charge. We analytically find the most general static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions with and without a cosmological constant, and study in some detail their features, such as how the geometry depends on the vector charges. We also include angular momentum, and find solutions describing slowly-rotating black holes. Finally, we extend some of these solu...
Weighing black holes in the universe
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Xue-bing
2006-01-01
The determination of the mass of black holes in our universe is crucial to understand their physics nature but is a great challenge to scientists.In this paper Ⅰ briefly review some methods that are currently used to estimate the mass of black holes,especially those in X-ray binary systems and in galactic nuclei.Our recent progress in improving the mass estimates of supermasssive black holes in active galactic nuclei by involving some empirical relations is presented.Finally Ⅰ point out the similarities and common physics in Galactic black hole X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei,and demonstrate that the black hole mass estimation is very much helpful to understand the accretion physics around black holes.
Kerr-Newman Black Hole In Quintessence
Xu, Zhaoyi
2016-01-01
We study the Kerr-Newman solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equation in quintessence field around a black hole by Newman-Janis algorithm. From the horizon structure and stationary limit surfaces, we find that Kerr-Newman black hole exists an ergosphere with $r^{+} < r < r^{L}$, which is related to the parameters $\\omega$ and $\\alpha$. We obtain the general expression between $\\alpha$ and $\\omega$ if the cosmological horizon exists, in which for $\\omega=-1/2$, $\\alpha\\leq\\sqrt{2}/5$, and for $\\omega=-2/3$, $\\alpha\\leq 1/6$. For $\\omega=-2/3$, the result is same with rotational black hole in quintessence. The singularity of the black holes is the same with that of Kerr black hole. We also discuss the rotation velocity of the black holes on the equatorial plane for $\\omega =-2/3$ and $-1/2$.
Reversible Carnot cycle outside a black hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Deng Xi-Hao; Gao Si-Jie
2009-01-01
A Carnot cycle outside a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated in detail. We propose a reversible Carnot cycle with a black hole being the cold reservoir. In our model, a Carnot engine operates between a hot reservoir with temperature T1 and a black hole with Hawking temperature Th. By naturally extending the ordinary Carnot cycle to the black hole system, we show that the thermal efficiency for a reversible process can reach the maximal efficiency 1-TH/T1 Consequently, black holes can be used to determine the thermodynamic temperature by means of the Carnot cycle. The role of the atmosphere around the black hole is discussed. We show that the thermal atmosphere provides a necessary mechanism to make the process reversible.
The thermal radiation from dynamic black holes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Using the related formula of dynamic black holes, the instantaneous radiation energy density of the general spherically symmetric charged dynamic black hole and the arbitrarily accelerating charged dynamic black hole is calculated. It is found that the instantaneous radiation energy density of black hole is always proportional to the quartic of the temperature of event horizon in the same direction. The proportional coefficient of generalized Stefan-Boltzmann is no longer a constant, and it becomes a dynamic coefficient that is related to the event horizon changing rate, space-time structure near event horizon and the radiation absorption coefficient of the black hole. It is shown that there should be an internal relation between the gravitational field around black hole and its thermal radiation.
Entropy, area, and black hole pairs
Hawking, Stephen William; Ross, S F; Hawking, S W; Horowitz, Gary T; Ross, Simon F
1995-01-01
We clarify the relation between gravitational entropy and the area of horizons. We first show that the entropy of an extreme Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is zero, despite the fact that its horizon has nonzero area. Next, we consider the pair creation of extremal and nonextremal black holes. It is shown that the action which governs the rate of this pair creation is directly related to the area of the acceleration horizon and (in the nonextremal case) the area of the black hole event horizon. This provides a simple explanation of the result that the rate of pair creation of non-extreme black holes is enhanced by precisely the black hole entropy. Finally, we discuss black hole annihilation, and argue that Planck scale remnants are not sufficient to preserve unitarity in quantum gravity.
Entropy, area, and black hole pairs
Hawking, S. W.; Horowitz, Gary T.; Ross, Simon F.
1995-04-01
We clarify the relation between gravitational entropy and the area of horizons. We first show that the entropy of an extreme Reissner-Nordström black hole is zero, despite the fact that its horizon has nonzero area. Next, we consider the pair creation of extremal and nonextremal black holes. It is shown that the action which governs the rate of this pair creation is directly related to the area of the acceleration horizon and (in the nonextremal case) the area of the black hole event horizon. This provides a simple explanation of the result that the rate of pair creation of nonextreme black holes is enhanced by precisely the black hole entropy. Finally, we discuss black hole annihilation, and argue that Planck scale remnants are not sufficient to preserve unitarity in quantum gravity.
Microcanonical Description of (Micro Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Harms
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The microcanonical ensemble is the proper ensemble to describe black holes which are not in thermodynamic equilibrium, such as radiating black holes. This choice of ensemble eliminates the problems, e.g., negative specific heat (not allowed in the canonical ensemble and loss of unitarity, encountered when the canonical ensemble is used. In this review we present an overview of the weaknesses of the standard thermodynamic description of black holes and show how the microcanonical approach can provide a consistent description of black holes and their Hawking radiation at all energy scales. Our approach is based on viewing the horizon area as yielding the ensemble density at fixed system energy. We then compare the decay rates of black holes in the two different pictures. Our description is particularly relevant for the analysis of micro-black holes whose existenceis predicted in models with extra-spatial dimensions.
Hawking temperature of constant curvature black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The constant curvature (CC) black holes are higher dimensional generalizations of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. It is known that these black holes have the unusual topology of MD-1xS1, where D is the spacetime dimension and MD-1 stands for a conformal Minkowski spacetime in D-1 dimensions. The unusual topology and time-dependence for the exterior of these black holes cause some difficulties to derive their thermodynamic quantities. In this work, by using a globally embedding approach, we obtain the Hawking temperature of the CC black holes. We find that the Hawking temperature takes the same form when using both the static and global coordinates. Also, it is identical to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the boundary de Sitter spaces of these CC black holes.
Reversible Carnot cycle outside a black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Carnot cycle outside a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated in detail. We propose a reversible Carnot cycle with a black hole being the cold reservoir. In our model, a Carnot engine operates between a hot reservoir with temperature T1 and a black hole with Hawking temperature TH. By naturally extending the ordinary Carnot cycle to the black hole system, we show that the thermal efficiency for a reversible process can reach the maximal efficiency 1 – TH/T1. Consequently, black holes can be used to determine the thermodynamic temperature by means of the Carnot cycle. The role of the atmosphere around the black hole is discussed. We show that the thermal atmosphere provides a necessary mechanism to make the process reversible. (general)
Information Retention by Stringy Black Holes
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556
2015-01-01
Building upon our previous work on two-dimensional stringy black holes and its extension to spherically-symmetric four-dimensional stringy black holes, we show how the latter retain information. A key r\\^ole is played by an infinite-dimensional $W_\\infty$ symmetry that preserves the area of an isolated black-hole horizon and hence its entropy. The exactly-marginal conformal world-sheet operator representing a massless stringy particle interacting with the black hole necessarily includes a contribution from $W_\\infty$ generators in its vertex function. This admixture manifests the transfer of information between the string black hole and external particles. We discuss different manifestations of $W_\\infty$ symmetry in black-hole physics and the connections between them.
Quantum Creation of a Black Hole
Chao, W Z
1997-01-01
Using the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal for the wave function of the universe, we can study the wave function and probability of a single black hole created at the birth of the universe. The black hole originates from a constrained gravitational instanton with conical singularities. The wave function and probability of a universe with a black hole are calculated at the $WKB$ level. The probability of a black hole creation is the exponential of one quarter of the sum of areas of the black hole and cosmological horizons. One quarter of this sum is the total entropy of the universe. We show that these arguments apply to all kinds of black holes in the de Sitter space background.
String condensation: Nemesis of Black Holes?
Hewitt, Michael
2015-01-01
This paper puts forward a conjecture that there are no black holes in M theory. We will show that a mechanism to prevent black hole formation is needed in 4 dimensions to make string theory a viable high energy model of quantum gravity. Black hole formation may be averted by a gravity regulation mechanism based on string condensation. In this scenario, black holes are replaced by `hot holograms' that form during gravitational collapse. The geometric conditions based on the properties of free thermalon solutions that are proposed for conversion to a high temperature hologram to occur, however, are local and generic in dimension and could apply throughout M space. This idea can be applied to resolve the problems presented by the process of black hole evaporation, which appears to be inconsistent with quantum information theory. Whereas, in the conventional view, black holes are real and firewalls are probably a chimera, in the scenario proposed here that situation would be reversed.
Charge Fluctuations of an Uncharged Black Hole
Schiffer, Marcelo
2016-01-01
In this paper we calculate charge fluctuations of a Schwarzschild black-hole of mass $M$ confined within a perfectly reflecting cavity of radius R in thermal equilibrium with various species of radiation and fermions . Charge conservation is constrained by a Lagrange multiplier (the chemical potential). Black hole charge fluctuations are expected owing to continuous absorption and emission of particles by the black hole. For black holes much more massive than $10^{16} g$ , these fluctuations are exponentially suppressed. For black holes lighter than this, the Schwarzschild black hole is unstable under charge fluctuations for almost every possible size of the confining vessel. The stability regime and the fluctuations are calculated through the second derivative of the entropy with respect to the charge. The expression obtained contains many puzzling terms besides the expected thermodynamical fluctuations: terms corresponding to instabilities that do not depend on the specific value of charge of the charge car...
Did supermassive black holes form by direct collapse?
Begelman, Mitchell C.
2007-01-01
Rapid infall of gas in the nuclei of galaxies could lead to the formation of black holes by direct collapse, without first forming stars. Black holes formed in this way would have initial masses of a few solar masses, but would be embedded in massive envelopes that would allow them to grow at a highly super-Eddington rate. Thus, seed black holes as large as 10^3-10^4 solar masses could form very rapidly. I will sketch the basic physics of the direct collapse process and the properties of the ...
Berman, M S
2004-01-01
We show that the gravitational collapse of a black-hole terminates in the birth of a white-hole, due to repulsive gravitation (antigravitation); in particular, the infinite energy density singularity does NOT occur.
Big rip avoidance via black holes production
Fabris, Julio C.; Pavon, Diego
2008-01-01
We consider a cosmological scenario in which the expansion of the Universe is dominated by phantom dark energy and black holes which condense out of the latter component. The mass of black holes decreases via Hawking evaporation and by accretion of phantom fluid but new black holes arise continuously whence the overall evolution can be rather complex. We study the corresponding dynamical system to unravel this evolution and single out scenarios where the big rip singularity does not occur.
Cosmological Constraints from Primordial Black Holes
Liddle, Andrew R.; Green, Anne M.
1998-01-01
Primordial black holes may form in the early Universe, for example from the collapse of large amplitude density perturbations predicted in some inflationary models. Light black holes undergo Hawking evaporation, the energy injection from which is constrained both at the epoch of nucleosynthesis and at the present. The failure as yet to unambiguously detect primordial black holes places important constraints. In this article, we are particularly concerned with the dependence of these constrain...
Qubit Models of Black Hole Evaporation
Avery, Steven G.
2011-01-01
Recently, several simple quantum mechanical toy models of black hole evaporation have appeared in the literature attempting to illuminate the black hole information paradox. We present a general class of models that is large enough to describe both unitary and nonunitary evaporation, and study a few specific examples to clarify some potential confusions regarding recent results. We also generalize Mathur's bound on small corrections to black hole dynamics. Conclusions are then drawn about the...
Quantum Evaporation of Liouville Black Holes
Mann, R. B.
1993-01-01
The classical field equations of a Liouville field coupled to gravity in two spacetime dimensions are shown to have black hole solutions. Exact solutions are also obtained when quantum corrections due to back reaction effects are included, modifying both the ADM mass and the black hole entropy. The thermodynamic limit breaks down before evaporation of the black hole is complete, indicating that higher-loop effects must be included for a full description of the process. A scenario for the fina...
Black holes and the LHC: A review
Park, Seong Chan
2012-01-01
In low-scale gravity models, a particle collider with trans-Planckian collision energies can be an ideal place for producing black holes because a large amount of energy can be concentrated at the collision point, which can ultimately lead to black hole formation. In this article, the theoretical foundation for microscopic higher dimensional black holes is reviewed and the possible production and detection at the LHC is described and critically examined.
Primordial Structure of Massive Black Hole Clusters
Khlopov, Maxim Yu.; Rubin, Sergei G.; Sakharov, Alexander S.(Department of Physics, CERN, 1211, Geneva 23, Switzerland)
2004-01-01
We describe a mechanism of the primordial black holes formation that can explain the existence of a population of supermassive black holes in galactic bulges. The mechanism is based on the formation of black holes from closed domain walls. The origin of such domain walls could be a result of the evolution of an effectively massless scalar field during inflation. The initial non-equilibrium distribution of the scalar field imposed by background de-Sitter fluctuations gives rise to the spectrum...
Black Holes in the Early Universe
Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian
2012-01-01
The existence of massive black holes was postulated in the sixties, when the first quasars were discovered. In the late nineties their reality was proven beyond doubt, in the Milky way and a handful nearby galaxies. Since then, enormous theoretical and observational efforts have been made to understand the astrophysics of massive black holes. We have discovered that some of the most massive black holes known, weighing billions of solar masses, powered luminous quasars within the first billion...
A New Model of Black Hole Formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thayer G. D.
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The formation of a black hole and its event horizon are described. Conclusions, which are the result of a thought experiment, show that Schwarzschild [1] was correct: A singularity develops at the event horizon of a newly-formed black hole. The intense gravitational field that forms near the event horizon results in the mass-energy of the black hole accumulating in a layer just inside the event horizon, rather than collapsing into a central singularity.
Shadow of noncommutative geometry inspired black hole
Wei, Shao-Wen; Cheng, Peng; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Xiang-Nan
2015-01-01
In this paper, the shadow casted by the rotating black hole inspired by noncommutative geometry is investigated. In addition to the dimensionless spin parameter $a/M_{0}$ with $M_{0}$ black hole mass and inclination angle $i$, the dimensionless noncommutative parameter $\\sqrt{\\vartheta}/M_{0}$ is also found to affect the shape of the black hole shadow. The result shows that the size of the shadow slightly decreases with the parameter $\\sqrt{\\vartheta}/M_{0}$, while the distortion increases wi...
Voros product and noncommutative inspired black holes
Gangopadhyay, Sunandan
2013-01-01
We emphasize the importance of the Voros product in defining noncommutative inspired black holes. The computation of entropy for both the noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black holes show that the area law holds upto order $\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{\\theta}}e^{-M^2/\\theta}$. The leading correction to the entropy (computed in the tunneling formalism) is shown to be logarithmic. The Komar energy $E$ for these black holes is then obtained and a deviation from the standard id...
Noncommutative Black Holes and the Singularity Problem
Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Dias, N. C.; Prata, J. N.
2011-09-01
A phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model is considered to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. Due to the divergence of the probability of finding the black hole at the singularity from a canonical noncommutativity, one considers a non-canonical noncommutativity. It is shown that this more involved type of noncommutativity removes the problem of the singularity in a Schwarzschild black hole.
Noncommutative Black Holes and the Singularity Problem
Bastos, C; Dias, N C; Prata, J N
2011-01-01
A phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model is considered to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. Due to the divergence of the probability of finding the black hole at the singularity from a canonical noncommutativity, one considers a non-canonical noncommutativity. It is shown that this more involved type of noncommutativity removes the problem of the singularity in a Schwarzschild black hole.
Noncommutative Black Holes and the Singularity Problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bastos, C; Bertolami, O [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, N C; Prata, J N, E-mail: cbastos@fisica.ist.utl.pt, E-mail: orfeu.bertolami@fc.up.pt, E-mail: ncdias@mail.telepac.pt, E-mail: joao.prata@mail.telepac.pt [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Avenida Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-09-22
A phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model is considered to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. Due to the divergence of the probability of finding the black hole at the singularity from a canonical noncommutativity, one considers a non-canonical noncommutativity. It is shown that this more involved type of noncommutativity removes the problem of the singularity in a Schwarzschild black hole.
Noncommutative Black Holes and the Singularity Problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model is considered to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. Due to the divergence of the probability of finding the black hole at the singularity from a canonical noncommutativity, one considers a non-canonical noncommutativity. It is shown that this more involved type of noncommutativity removes the problem of the singularity in a Schwarzschild black hole.
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes
Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W.; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M; Garrett, Travis
2011-01-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet tha...
Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes
Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo
2016-09-01
We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr–Newman or Kerr–Newman–anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes.
The thermodynamics in a dynamical black hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bo LIU; Wen-biao LIU
2009-01-01
Considering the back-reaction of emitting particles to the black hole, a "new" horizon is suggested where thermodynamics can be built in the dynamical black hole. It, at least, means that the thermodynamics of a dynamical black hole should not be constructed at the original event horizon any more. The temperature, "new" horizon position and radiating particles' energy will be consistent again under the theory of equilibrium thermodynamical system.
Charged rotating black holes at large D
Tanabe, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We study odd dimensional charged equally rotating black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell theory with/without a cosmological constant by using the large D expansion method, where D is a spacetime dimension. Solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations in the 1/D expansion we obtain the large D effective equations for charged equally rotating black holes. The effective equations describe the nonlinear dynamics of charged equally rotating black holes. Especially the perturbation analysis of the effective...
Hawking emission from quantum gravity black holes
Nicolini, Piero; Winstanley, Elizabeth(Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH, United Kingdom)
2011-01-01
We address the issue of modelling quantum gravity effects in the evaporation of higher dimensional black holes in order to go beyond the usual semi-classical approximation. After reviewing the existing six families of quantum gravity corrected black hole geometries, we focus our work on non-commutative geometry inspired black holes, which encode model independent characteristics, are unaffected by the quantum back reaction and have an analytical form compact enough for numerical simulations. ...
Remarks on Renormalization of Black Hole Entropy
Kim, Sang Pyo; Kim, Sung Ku; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Yee, Jae Hyung
1996-01-01
We elaborate the renormalization process of entropy of a nonextremal and an extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole by using the Pauli-Villars regularization method, in which the regulator fields obey either the Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac distribution depending on their spin-statistics. The black hole entropy involves only two renormalization constants. We also discuss the entropy and temperature of the extremal black hole.
On minor black holes in galactic nuclei
McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik; Yaqoob, Tahir; Winter, Lisa M.
2011-01-01
Small and intermediate mass black holes should be expected in galactic nuclei as a result of stellar evolution, minor mergers and gravitational dynamical friction. If these minor black holes accrete as X-ray binaries or ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and are associated with star formation, they could account for observations of many low luminosity AGN or LINERs. Accreting and inspiralling intermediate mass black holes could provide a crucial electromagnetic counterpart to strong gravitational ...
Quantum aspects of black hole entropy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Parthasarathi Majumdar
2000-10-01
This survey intends to cover recent approaches to black hole entropy which attempt to go beyond the standard semiclassical perspective. Quantum corrections to the semiclassical Bekenstein–Hawking area law for black hole entropy, obtained within the quantum geometry framework, are treated in some detail. Their ramiﬁcation for the holographic entropy bound for bounded stationary spacetimes is discussed. Four dimensional supersymmetric extremal black holes in string-based = 2 supergravity are also discussed, albeit more brieﬂy.
Thermodynamic Metrics and Black Hole Physics
Åman, Jan; Pidokrajt, Narit
2015-01-01
We give a brief survey of thermodynamic metrics, in particular the Hessian of the entropy function, and how they apply to black hole thermodynamics. We then provide a detailed discussion of the Gibbs surface of Kerr black holes. In particular we analyze its global properties, and extend it to take the entropy of the inner horizon into account. A brief discussion of Kerr-Newman black holes is included.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aykutalp, A.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wise, J. H., E-mail: aycin.aykutalp@sns.it, E-mail: meijerink@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: spaans@astro.rug.nl, E-mail: jwise@physics.gatech.edu [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)
2013-07-01
Observational studies show that there is a strong link between the formation and evolution of galaxies and the growth of their supermassive black holes. However, the underlying physics behind this observed relation is poorly understood. In order to study the effects of X-ray radiation on black hole surroundings, we implement X-ray-dominated region physics into Enzo and use the radiation transport module Moray to calculate the radiative transfer for a polychromatic spectrum. In this work, we investigate the effects of X-ray irradiation, produced by a central massive black hole (MBH) with a mass of M = 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }, on ambient gas with solar and zero metallicity. We find that in the solar metallicity case, the energy deposition rate in the central region ({<=}20 pc) is high due to the high opacity of the metals. Hence, the central temperatures are on the order of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K. Moreover, due to the cooling ability and high intrinsic opacity of solar metallicity gas, column densities of 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} are reached at a radius of 20 pc from the MBH. These column densities are about three orders of magnitudes higher than in the zero metallicity case. Furthermore, in the zero metallicity case, an X-ray-induced H II region is already formed after 5.8 Myr. This causes a significant outflow of gas ({approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }) from the central region; the gas reaches outflow velocities up to {approx}100 km s{sup -1}. At later times, {approx}23 Myr after we insert the MBH, we find that the solar metallicity case also develops an X-ray-induced H II region, but it is delayed by {approx}17 Myr compared to the zero metallicity case.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Observational studies show that there is a strong link between the formation and evolution of galaxies and the growth of their supermassive black holes. However, the underlying physics behind this observed relation is poorly understood. In order to study the effects of X-ray radiation on black hole surroundings, we implement X-ray-dominated region physics into Enzo and use the radiation transport module Moray to calculate the radiative transfer for a polychromatic spectrum. In this work, we investigate the effects of X-ray irradiation, produced by a central massive black hole (MBH) with a mass of M = 5 × 104 M☉, on ambient gas with solar and zero metallicity. We find that in the solar metallicity case, the energy deposition rate in the central region (≤20 pc) is high due to the high opacity of the metals. Hence, the central temperatures are on the order of 105-107 K. Moreover, due to the cooling ability and high intrinsic opacity of solar metallicity gas, column densities of 1024 cm–2 are reached at a radius of 20 pc from the MBH. These column densities are about three orders of magnitudes higher than in the zero metallicity case. Furthermore, in the zero metallicity case, an X-ray-induced H II region is already formed after 5.8 Myr. This causes a significant outflow of gas (∼8 × 106 M☉) from the central region; the gas reaches outflow velocities up to ∼100 km s–1. At later times, ∼23 Myr after we insert the MBH, we find that the solar metallicity case also develops an X-ray-induced H II region, but it is delayed by ∼17 Myr compared to the zero metallicity case.
The odd couple: quasars and black holes
Tremaine, Scott
2014-01-01
Quasars emit more energy than any other objects in the universe, yet are not much bigger than the solar system. We are almost certain that quasars are powered by giant black holes of up to $10^{10}$ times the mass of the Sun, and that black holes of between $10^6$ and $10^{10}$ solar masses---dead quasars---are present at the centers of most galaxies. Our own galaxy contains a black hole of $4.3\\times10^6$ solar masses. The mass of the central black hole appears to be closely related to other...
On ADM quantities of multiple black holes
Rácz, István
2016-01-01
In [11] a proposal was made to construct initial data for binary black hole configurations. It was done by using the parabolic-hyperbolic form of the constraints and choosing the free data provided by superposed Kerr-Schild black holes. The proposal of [11] do also apply to multiple systems involving generic Kerr-Schild black holes. Notably, the specific choice made for the free data allows---without making detailed use of the to be solutions to the constraints---to determine explicitly, the ADM quantities of the multiple system in terms of the separations velocities and spins of the individual Kerr-Schild black holes.
Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs
Barranco, Juan; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-01-01
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultra-light scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axion-like scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic, in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolves, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.
Noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the behavior of a noncommutative radiating Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that coordinate noncommutativity cures usual problems encountered in the description of the terminal phase of black hole evaporation. More in detail, we find that: the evaporation end-point is a zero temperature extremal black hole even in the case of electrically neutral, non-rotating, objects; there exists a finite maximum temperature that the black hole can reach before cooling down to absolute zero; there is no curvature singularity at the origin, rather we obtain a regular de Sitter core at short distance
Noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nicolini, Piero [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy) and Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste (Italy) and Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: nicolini@cmfd.univ.trieste.it; Smailagic, Anais [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: anais@ictp.trieste.it; Spallucci, Euro [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy) and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: spallucci@trieste.infn.it
2006-01-19
We investigate the behavior of a noncommutative radiating Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that coordinate noncommutativity cures usual problems encountered in the description of the terminal phase of black hole evaporation. More in detail, we find that: the evaporation end-point is a zero temperature extremal black hole even in the case of electrically neutral, non-rotating, objects; there exists a finite maximum temperature that the black hole can reach before cooling down to absolute zero; there is no curvature singularity at the origin, rather we obtain a regular de Sitter core at short distance.
Charged black holes in phantom cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad [National University of Sciences and Technology, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)
2008-11-15
In the classical relativistic regime, the accretion of phantom-like dark energy onto a stationary black hole reduces the mass of the black hole. We have investigated the accretion of phantom energy onto a stationary charged black hole and have determined the condition under which this accretion is possible. This condition restricts the mass-to-charge ratio in a narrow range. This condition also challenges the validity of the cosmic-censorship conjecture since a naked singularity is eventually produced due to accretion of phantom energy onto black hole. (orig.)
Destroying black holes with test bodies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacobson, Ted [Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4111 (United States); Sotiriou, Thomas P, E-mail: jacobson@umd.ed, E-mail: T.Sotiriou@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2010-04-01
If a black hole can accrete a body whose spin or charge would send the black hole parameters over the extremal limit, then a naked singularity would presumably form, in violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture. We review some previous results on testing cosmic censorship in this way using the test body approximation, focusing mostly on the case of neutral black holes. Under certain conditions a black hole can indeed be over-spun or over-charged in this approximation, hence radiative and self-force effects must be taken into account to further test cosmic censorship.
Destroying black holes with test bodies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If a black hole can accrete a body whose spin or charge would send the black hole parameters over the extremal limit, then a naked singularity would presumably form, in violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture. We review some previous results on testing cosmic censorship in this way using the test body approximation, focusing mostly on the case of neutral black holes. Under certain conditions a black hole can indeed be over-spun or over-charged in this approximation, hence radiative and self-force effects must be taken into account to further test cosmic censorship.
Microscopic theory of black hole superradiance
Óscar J.C. Dias(CAMGSD, Departamento de Matemática and LARSyS, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal); Emparan García de Salazar, Roberto A.; Maccarrone, Alessandro
2008-01-01
We study how black hole superradiance appears in string microscopic models of rotating black holes. In order to disentangle superradiance from finite-temperature effects, we consider an extremal, rotating D1-D5-P black hole that has an ergosphere and is not supersymmetric. We explain how the microscopic dual accounts for the superradiant ergosphere of this black hole. The bound 0< omega < m Omega_H on superradiant mode frequencies is argued to be a consequence of Fermi-Dirac statistics for th...
The horizon of the lightest black hole
Calmet, Xavier; Casadio, Roberto
2015-09-01
We study the properties of the poles of the resummed graviton propagator obtained by resumming bubble matter diagrams which correct the classical graviton propagator. These poles have been previously interpreted as black holes precursors. Here, we show using the horizon wave-function formalism that these poles indeed have properties which make them compatible with being black hole precursors. In particular, when modeled with a Breit-Wigner distribution, they have a well-defined gravitational radius. The probability that the resonance is inside its own gravitational radius, and thus that it is a black hole, is about one half. Our results confirm the interpretation of these poles as black hole precursors.
The horizon of the lightest black hole
Calmet, Xavier
2015-01-01
We study the properties of the poles of the resummed graviton propagator obtained by resumming bubble matter diagrams which correct the classical graviton propagator. These poles have been previously interpreted as black holes precursors. Here, we show using the Horizon Wave-Function formalism that these poles indeed have properties which make them compatible with being black hole precursors. In particular, when modeled with a Breit-Wigner distribution, they have a well defined gravitational radius. The probability that the resonance is inside its own gravitational radius, and thus that it is black hole, is about one half. Our results confirm the interpretation of these poles as black hole precursors.
Hydrodynamics, horizons, holography and black hole entropy
Sivaram, C
2011-01-01
The usual discussions about black hole dynamics involve analogies with laws of thermodynamics especially in connection with black hole entropy and the associated holographic principle. We explore complementary aspects involving hydrodynamics of the horizon geometry through the membrane paradigm. New conceptual connections complementing usual thermodynamic arguments suggest deep links between diverse topics like black hole decay, quantum circulation and viscosity. Intriguing connections between turbulence cascades, quantum diffusion via quantum paths following Fokker- Planck equation and Hawking decay also result from this combination of thermodynamic and hydrodynamic analogies to black hole dynamics.
The horizon of the lightest black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calmet, Xavier [University of Sussex, Physics and Astronomy, Falmer, Brighton (United Kingdom); Casadio, Roberto [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy)
2015-09-15
We study the properties of the poles of the resummed graviton propagator obtained by resumming bubble matter diagrams which correct the classical graviton propagator. These poles have been previously interpreted as black holes precursors. Here, we show using the horizon wave-function formalism that these poles indeed have properties which make them compatible with being black hole precursors. In particular, when modeled with a Breit-Wigner distribution, they have a well-defined gravitational radius. The probability that the resonance is inside its own gravitational radius, and thus that it is a black hole, is about one half. Our results confirm the interpretation of these poles as black hole precursors. (orig.)
Primordial Black Holes in Phantom Cosmology
Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar
2009-01-01
We investigate the effects of accretion of phantom energy onto primordial black holes. Since Hawking radiation and phantom energy accretion contribute to a {\\it decrease} of the mass of the black hole, the primordial black hole that would be expected to decay now due to the Hawking process would decay {\\it earlier} due to the inclusion of the phantom energy. Equivalently, to have the primordial black hole decay now it would have to be more massive initially. We find that the effect of the pha...
On black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang Qingquan, E-mail: qqjiangphys@yeah.net [College of Physics and Electronic Information, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637002 (China); Han Yan [College of Mathematic and Information, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637002 (China)
2012-12-05
In this Letter, we obtain the black hole spectroscopy by combining the black hole property of adiabaticity and the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. This velocity is obtained in the tunneling framework. In particular, we declare, if requiring canonical invariance, the adiabatic invariant quantity should be of the covariant form I{sub adia}= Contour-Integral p{sub i}dq{sub i}. Using it, the horizon area of a Schwarzschild black hole is quantized independently of the choice of coordinates, with an equally spaced spectroscopy always given by {Delta}A=8{pi}l{sub p}{sup 2} in the Schwarzschild and Painleve coordinates.
Light geodesics near an evaporating black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guerreiro, Thiago, E-mail: thiago.barbosa@unige.ch; Monteiro, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.monteiro@unige.ch
2015-10-16
Quantum effects imply that an infalling observer cannot cross the event horizon of an evaporating black hole, even in her proper time. The Penrose diagram of an evaporating black hole is different from the one usually reported in the literature. We show that before the observer can cross the horizon the black hole disappears. Possible observational consequences are discussed. - Highlights: • We calculate the in-falling light geodesics in an evaporating black hole. • For our calculation we use a non-static metric called Vaydia metric. • We show that in-falling light cannot cross the event horizon. • In this case there is no information paradox.
Strong Gravitational Lensing by Kiselev Black Hole
Younas, Azka; Jamil, Mubasher
2015-01-01
We investigate the gravitational lensing scenario due to Schwarzschild-like black hole surrounded by quintessence (Kiselev black hole). We discuss here these special cases of Kiselev black hole: non-extreme, extreme and naked singularity. We present the detailed derivation for the bending angles of light as it traverses in the equatorial plane of the black hole. We also calculate the approximate bending angle and compare it with exact bending angle expressions. In the weak field approximation we calculate the expression for relativistic images.
Black hole thermodynamics from Euclidean horizon constraints.
Carlip, S
2007-07-13
To explain black hole thermodynamics in quantum gravity, one must introduce constraints to ensure that a black hole is actually present. I show that for a large class of black holes, such "horizon constraints" allow the use of conformal field theory techniques to compute the density of states, reproducing the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in a nearly model-independent manner. One standard string theory approach to black hole entropy arises as a special case, lending support to the claim that the mechanism may be "universal." I argue that the relevant degrees of freedom are Goldstone-boson-like excitations arising from the weak breaking of symmetry by the constraints. PMID:17678209
Galaxies of all Shapes Host Black Holes
2008-01-01
This artist's concept illustrates the two types of spiral galaxies that populate our universe: those with plump middles, or central bulges (upper left), and those lacking the bulge (foreground). New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope provide strong evidence that the slender, bulgeless galaxies can, like their chubbier counterparts, harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. Previously, astronomers thought that a galaxy without a bulge could not have a supermassive black hole. In this illustration, jets shooting away from the black holes are depicted as thin streams. The findings are reshaping theories of galaxy formation, suggesting that a galaxy's 'waistline' does not determine whether it will be home to a big black hole.
On the thermodynamics of hairy black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the thermodynamics of a general class of exact 4-dimensional asymptotically Anti-de Sitter hairy black hole solutions and show that, for a fixed temperature, there are small and large hairy black holes similar to the Schwarzschild–AdS black hole. The large black holes have positive specific heat and so they can be in equilibrium with a thermal bath of radiation at the Hawking temperature. The relevant thermodynamic quantities are computed by using the Hamiltonian formalism and counterterm method. We explicitly show that there are first order phase transitions similar to the Hawking–Page phase transition
The horizon of the lightest black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the properties of the poles of the resummed graviton propagator obtained by resumming bubble matter diagrams which correct the classical graviton propagator. These poles have been previously interpreted as black holes precursors. Here, we show using the horizon wave-function formalism that these poles indeed have properties which make them compatible with being black hole precursors. In particular, when modeled with a Breit-Wigner distribution, they have a well-defined gravitational radius. The probability that the resonance is inside its own gravitational radius, and thus that it is a black hole, is about one half. Our results confirm the interpretation of these poles as black hole precursors. (orig.)
Light geodesics near an evaporating black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum effects imply that an infalling observer cannot cross the event horizon of an evaporating black hole, even in her proper time. The Penrose diagram of an evaporating black hole is different from the one usually reported in the literature. We show that before the observer can cross the horizon the black hole disappears. Possible observational consequences are discussed. - Highlights: • We calculate the in-falling light geodesics in an evaporating black hole. • For our calculation we use a non-static metric called Vaydia metric. • We show that in-falling light cannot cross the event horizon. • In this case there is no information paradox
Black Hole Universe Model and Dark Energy
Zhang, Tianxi
2011-01-01
Considering black hole as spacetime and slightly modifying the big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach principle and Einsteinian general relativity and self consistently explains various observations of the universe without difficulties. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole and gradually grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient material and merging with other black holes. The entire space is infinitely and hierarchically layered and evolves iteratively. The innermost three layers are the universe that we lives, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and zero limits for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of spacetime, and tend to expand outward physically. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of black hole universe have been presented in the recent sequence of American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and published in peer-review journals. This study will show how this new model explains the acceleration of the universe and why dark energy is not required. We will also compare the black hole universe model with the big bang cosmology.
Black hole collapse and democratic models
Jansen, Aron
2016-01-01
We study the evolution of black hole entropy and temperature in collapse scenarios, finding three generic lessons. First, entropy evolution is extensive. Second, at large times, entropy and temperature ring with twice the frequency of the lowest quasinormal mode. Third, the entropy oscillations saturate black hole area theorems in general relativity. The first two features are characteristic of entanglement dynamics in `democratic' models. Solely based on general relativity and Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula, our results point to democratic models as microscopic theories of black holes. The third feature can be taken as a prediction for democratic models coming from black hole physics.
Rotating Black Holes and Coriolis Effect
Wu, Xiaoning; Yuan, Pei-Hung; Cho, Chia-Jui
2015-01-01
In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the Petrov-like boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.
Taking the Temperature of a Black Hole
Brynjolfsson, Erling J.; Thorlacius, Larus
2008-01-01
We use the global embedding of a black hole spacetime into a higher dimensional flat spacetime to define a local temperature for observers in free fall outside a static black hole. The local free-fall temperature remains finite at the event horizon and in asymptotically flat spacetime it approaches the Hawking temperature at spatial infinity. Freely falling observers outside an AdS black hole do not see any high-temperature thermal radiation even if the Hawking temperature of such black holes...
Black holes are almost optimal quantum cloners
Adami, C
2006-01-01
We show that black holes clone incoming quantum states with a fidelity that depends on the black hole's absorption coefficient. Perfectly reflecting black holes are optimal universal quantum cloners of the type described by Simon, Weihs, and Zeilinger [1], and operate on the principle of stimulated emission. In the limit of perfect absorption, the fidelity of clones is equal to what can be obtained via quantum state estimation methods, which is suboptimal. But for any absorption probability less than one, the cloning fidelity is nearly optimal as long as omega/T >=10, a common parameter for modest-sized black holes.
Factorization of unitarity and black hole firewalls
Hsu, Stephen D H
2013-01-01
Unitary black hole evaporation necessarily involves a late-time superposition of decoherent states, including states describing distinct spacetimes (e.g., different center of mass trajectories of the black hole). Typical analyses of the black hole information problem, including the argument for the existence of firewalls, assume approximate unitarity ("factorization of unitarity") on each of the decoherent spacetimes. This factorization assumption is non-trivial, and indeed may be incorrect. We describe an ansatz for the radiation state that violates factorization and which allows unitarity and the equivalence principle to coexist (no firewall). Unitarity without factorization provides a natural realization of the idea of black hole complementarity.
Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-08-24
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations. PMID:23002734
Skyrmion Black Hole Hair: Conservation of Baryon Number by Black Holes and Observable Manifestations
Dvali, Gia; Gußmann, Alexander
2016-01-01
We show that the existence of black holes with classical skyrmion hair invalidates standard proofs that global charges, such as the baryon number, cannot be conserved by a black hole. By carefully analyzing the standard arguments based on a Gedankenexperiment in which a black hole is seemingly-unable to return the baryon number that it swallowed, we identify inconsistencies in this reasoning, which does not take into the account neither the existence of skyrmion black holes nor the baryon/sky...
Locking information in black holes.
Smolin, John A; Oppenheim, Jonathan
2006-03-01
We show that a central presumption in the debate over black-hole information loss is incorrect. Ensuring that information not escape during evaporation does not require that it all remain trapped until the final stage of the process. Using the recent quantum information-theoretic result of locking, we show that the amount of information that must remain can be very small, even as the amount already radiated is negligible. Information need not be additive: A small system can lock a large amount of information, making it inaccessible. Only if the set of initial states is restricted can information leak. PMID:16606164
Black Hole Researchers in Schools
Doran, Rosa
2016-07-01
"Black Holes in my School" is a research project that aims to explore the impact of engaging students in real research experiences while learning new skills and topics addressed in the regular school curriculum. The project introduces teachers to innovative tools for science teaching, explore student centered methodologies such as inquiry based learning and provides a setting where students take the role of an astrophysicist researching the field of compact stellar mass objects in binary systems. Students will study already existing data and use the Faulkes Telescopes to acquire new data. In this presentation the main aim is to present the framework being built and the results achieved so far.
Fan, Zhong-Ying
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a vector field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type $V=2\\Lambda_0+\\ft 12 m^2 A^2+\\gamma_4 A^4$. For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with $\\Lambda_0=m=\\gamma_4=0$, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corda, Christian [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Istituto Universitario di Ricerca Scientifica ' Santa Rita' , Centro di Scienze Naturali, Via di Galceti, 74, 59100 Prato (Italy); Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics (IFM) Einstein-Galilei, Via Santa Gonda 14, 59100 Prato (Italy); International Institute for Applicable Mathematics and Information Sciences (IIAMIS), B.M. Birla Science Centre, Adarsh Nagar, Hyderabad - 500 463 (India)
2015-03-10
The idea that black holes (BHs) result in highly excited states representing both the “hydrogen atom” and the “quasi-thermal emission” in quantum gravity is today an intuitive but general conviction. In this paper it will be shown that such an intuitive picture is more than a picture. In fact, we will discuss a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. The model is completely consistent with existing results in the literature, starting from the celebrated result of Bekenstein on the area quantization.
Comparisons of Black Hole Entropy
Kupferman, Judy
2016-01-01
In this thesis I examine several different concepts of black hole entropy in order to understand whether they describe the same quantity. I look at statistical and entanglement entropies, Wald entropy and Carlip's entropy from conformal field theory, and compare their behavior in a few specific aspects: divergence at the BH horizon, dependence on space time curvature and behavior under a geometric variation. I find that statistical and entanglement entropy may be similar but they seem to differ from the entropy of Wald and Carlip. Chapters 2 and 3 overlap with 1010.4157 and 1310.3938. Chapter 4 does not appear elsewhere.
New insights on the recoiling/binary black hole candidate J0927+2943 via molecular gas observations
Decarli, Roberto; Dotti, Massimo; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Montuori, Carmen; Volonteri, Marta
2014-01-01
The peculiar QSO J0927+2943 shows multiple sets of emission lines in its optical spectrum. This signature has been interpreted as the relative motion between a black hole, either recoiling or bound in a binary system, and its host galaxy, or as a superposition of two galaxies along the line of sight. In order to test these scenarios, we have collected 2mm CO(2-1) observations using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, and optical images and spectroscopy at the Calar Alto observatory. Toge...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new theoretical model for active galaxy nuclei which describes the continuous spectrum of rest massless particles (photons, neutrinos and gravitons) in the frequency range from radiofrequency to gamma ray frequency, is presented. The model consists in a black hole gas interacting with a background gravitacional field. The previously models proposed for active galaxy nuclei are exposured. Whole theoretical fundaments based on Einstein general relativity theory for defining and studying singularity properties (black holes) are also presented. (M.C.K.)
Kim, Wontae; Son, Edwin J.; Yoon, Myungseok
2008-01-01
We study thermodynamic quantities and examine the stability of a black hole in a cavity inspired by the noncommutative geometry. It turns out that thermodynamic behavior of the noncommutative black hole is analogous to that of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole in the near extremal limit. Moreover, we identify the noncommutative parameter with the squared electric charge with some constants.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study thermodynamic quantities and examine the stability of a black hole in a cavity inspired by the noncommutative geometry. It turns out that thermodynamic behavior of the noncommutative black hole is analogous to that of the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole in the near extremal limit. Moreover, we identify the noncommutative parameter with the squared electric charge with some constants
Toroidal Horizons in Binary Black Hole Mergers
Bohn, Andy; Teukolsky, Saul A
2016-01-01
We find the first binary black hole event horizon with a toroidal topology. It had been predicted that generically the event horizons of merging black holes should briefly have a toroidal topology, but such a phase has never been seen prior to this work. In all previous binary black hole simulations, in the coordinate slicing used to evolve the black holes, the topology of the event horizon transitions directly from two spheres during the inspiral to a single sphere as the black holes merge. We present a coordinate transformation to a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces that "cut a hole" through the event horizon surface, resulting in a toroidal event horizon. A torus could potentially provide a mechanism for violating topological censorship. However, these toroidal event horizons satisfy topological censorship by construction, because we can always trivially apply the inverse coordinate transformation to remove the topological feature.
Charged Black Holes with Scalar Hair
Fan, Zhong-Ying
2015-01-01
We consider a class of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories, in which the dilaton coupling to the Maxwell field is not the usual single exponential function, but one with a stationary point. The theories admit two charged black holes: one is the Reissner-Nordstr\\o m (RN) black hole and the other has a varying dilaton. For a given charge, the new black hole in the extremal limit has the same AdS$_2\\times$Sphere near-horizon geometry as the RN black hole, but it carries larger mass. We then introduce some scalar potentials and obtain exact charged AdS black holes. We also generalize the results to black $p$-branes with scalar hair.
The information entropy of a static dilaton black hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU ChengZhou
2008-01-01
In accordance with holographic principle, by calculating the statistical entropy of the quantum field just at the event horizon of the Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger dilaton black hole, the information entropy of the black hole was investigated and the Bekenstein-Hawking formula was obtained. The results show that black hole entropy is identical with the statistical entropy of the quantum field at the horizon. Using the generalized uncertainty relation, the divergence of the state density near the event horizon in usual quantum field theory was removed, and the cutoffs and the little mass approximation in the heat gas method of black hole entropy were avoided. Thus, the microstates of the massive scalar field just at the event horizon of the static dilaton black hole were studied directly and a description on holograph principle was presented. By using residue theorem, the integral difficulty in the calculation was overcome, and the information entropy and the Bekenstein-Hawking formula were obtained quantitatively. Compared with the black hole entropy from the loop quantum gravity, the consistency of methods and results of calculating black hole entropy in non-commutative quantum field theory and loop quantum gravity was investigated. By this, the gravity correction constant in the generalized uncertainty relation was suggested and the sense of holographic principle was discussed.
Modelling the Growth of Supermassive Black Holes in Cosmological Simulations
Muldrew, Stuart I; Power, Chris
2013-01-01
There is strong evidence that supermassive black holes reside in all galaxies that contain a stellar spheroid and their mass is tightly correlated with properties such as stellar bulge mass and velocity dispersion. There are also strong theoretical arguments that feedback from supermassive black holes plays an important role in shaping the high mass end of the galaxy mass function, hence to accurately model galaxies we also need to model the black holes. We present a comparison of two black hole growth models implemented within a large-scale, cosmological SPH simulation including star formation and feedback. One model is a modified Bondi-Hoyle prescription that grows black holes based on the smooth density of local gas, while the other is the recently proposed Accretion Disc Particle (ADP) method. This model swallows baryonic particles that pass within an accretion radius of the black hole and adds them to a subgrid accretion disc. Black holes are then grown by material from this disc. We find that both model...
GOODS Missing Black Hole Report: Hundreds Found!
2007-10-01
Astronomers have unmasked hundreds of black holes hiding deep inside dusty galaxies billions of light-years away Normal Galaxies Normal Galaxies The massive, growing black holes, discovered by NASA's Spitzer and Chandra space telescopes, represent a large fraction of a long-sought missing population. Their discovery implies there are hundreds of millions of additional black holes growing in our young universe, more than doubling the total amount known at that distance. "Active, supermassive black holes are everywhere in the early universe," said Mark Dickinson of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. "We had seen the tip of the iceberg before in our search for these objects. Now, we can see the iceberg itself." Dickinson is a co-author of two new papers appearing in the Nov. 10 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. Emanuele Daddi of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in France led the research. The findings are also the first direct evidence that most, if not all, massive galaxies in the distant universe spend their youths building monstrous black holes at their cores. For decades, large populations of active black holes have been considered missing. These highly energetic structures, also called quasars, consist of a dusty, doughnut-shaped cloud that surrounds and feeds a growing supermassive black hole. They give off a lot of X-rays that can be detected as a general glow in space, but sometimes the quasars themselves can't be seen because dust and gas blocks their X-rays from our point of view. "We knew from other studies from about 30 years ago that there must be more quasars in the universe, but we didn't know where to find them until now," said Daddi. Daddi and his team initially set out to study 1,000 dusty, massive galaxies that are busy making stars, and were thought to lack quasars. The galaxies are about the same mass as our own spiral Milky Way galaxy, but irregular in shape. At 9 to 11 billion light-years away, they exist at a