Recoiling Black Holes: Electromagnetic Signatures, Candidates, and Astrophysical Implications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Komossa
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Supermassive black holes (SMBHs may not always reside right at the centers of their host galaxies. This is a prediction of numerical relativity simulations, which imply that the newly formed single SMBH, after binary coalescence in a galaxy merger, can receive kick velocities up to several 1000 km/s due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. Long-lived oscillations of the SMBHs in galaxy cores, and in rare cases even SMBH ejections from their host galaxies, are the consequence. Observationally, accreting recoiling SMBHs would appear as quasars spatially and/or kinematically offset from their host galaxies. The presence of the “kicks” has a wide range of astrophysical implications which only now are beginning to be explored, including consequences for black hole and galaxy assembly at the epoch of structure formation, black hole feeding, and unified models of active galactic nuclei (AGN. Here, we review the observational signatures of recoiling SMBHs and the properties of the first candidates which have emerged, including follow-up studies of the candidate recoiling SMBH of SDSSJ092712.65+294344.0.
Noncommutativity inspired Black Holes as Dark Matter Candidate
Kováčik, Samuel
2015-01-01
We study black holes with a source that is almost point-like (blurred), rather than exactly point-like, which could be caused by the noncommutativity of 3-space. Depending on its mass, such object has either none, one or two event horizons. It possesses new properties, which become important on microscopic scale, in particular the temperature of its Hawking radiation does not increase infinitely as its mass goes to zero, but vanishes instead. Such frozen, extremely dense pieces of matter are good dark matter candidate. In addition, we introduce an object oscillating between frozen black hole and naked (softened) singularity, such objects can serve as constituents of dark matter too. We call it gravimond.
Black Hole Atom as a Dark Matter Particle Candidate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. I. Dokuchaev
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We propose the new dark matter particle candidate—the “black hole atom,” which is an atom with the charged black hole as an atomic nucleus and electrons in the bound internal quantum states. As a simplified model we consider the the central Reissner-Nordström black hole with the electric charge neutralized by the internal electrons in bound quantum states. For the external observers these objects would look like the electrically neutral Schwarzschild black holes. We suppose the prolific production of black hole atoms under specific conditions in the early universe.
Black Hole Atom as a Dark Matter Particle Candidate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose the new dark matter particle candidate—the “black hole atom,” which is an atom with the charged black hole as an atomic nucleus and electrons in the bound internal quantum states. As a simplified model we consider the the central Reissner-Nordström black hole with the electric charge neutralized by the internal electrons in bound quantum states. For the external observers these objects would look like the electrically neutral Schwarzschild black holes. We suppose the prolific production of black hole atoms under specific conditions in the early universe
The Intrinsic Magnetic Fields of the Galactic Black Hole Candidates
Robertson, Stanley L.
1998-01-01
Recent work has linked the quiescent luminosities and hard/soft spectral state switches of neutron stars (NSs) to their spinning magnetic fields. It is shown here that the quiescent luminosities and spectral switches of galactic black hole candidates (BHCs) could be produced in the same way for spin rates below 100 Hz and magnetic fields above 10^10 G. It is also shown that the ultrasoft peaks and large flickering amplitudes of the BHCs would be expected from the surfaces of massive NSs. None...
The black hole candidate binary A0620-00
Haswell, Carole Ann
The compact object in A0620-00 was previously established as a leading black hole candidate by observations implying a minimum compact object mass, M1 approx. = 3M solar magnitude. To exclude the possibility of a neutron star primary, the constraints on M1 need to be improved. Two avenues of investigation were pursued. The mass ratio of the system, q = M1/M sub 2, was determined by observations of the radial velocity variations of the H(alpha) emission from the accretion disk around the compact object. If the wavelength shifts give an unbiased estimate of the orbital motion of the compact object, q = 10.6 + or - 2.0. However contamination by nonaxisymmetric disk emission is indicated, so q is more uncertain than the reported formal errors. The orbital inclination of the system was examined by modelling of multicolor orbital light curves, which exhibit ellipsoidal variations. The ellipsoidal amplitudes imply a spectra type of K3-K4 for the mass donor. Light curves obtained in 1986/1987 exhibit a grazing eclipse of the mass donor star by the accretion disk, providing tight constraints on the orbital inclination and the radius of the accretion disk. The accretion disk radius is comparable to the tidal radius. Limits on the orbital inclination were derived which lead to limits on the mass of the compact object: 5.50 + or - 0.15 less than or + = M1 less than or = 6.26 + or - 0.17 for q = 5.0; 4.28 + or - 0.12 less than or = M1 less than or = 4.86 + or - 0.13 for q = 10.6; 3.79 + or - 0.10 less than or = M1 less than or = 4.68 + or - 0.13 for q = 15.0. A lower limit on the mass ratio, q greater than 6.47, is established by demanding that M2 less than or = 0.85 M solar magnitude, the mass of a Roche lobe-filling main sequence star. The spectral type of the mass donor implies that q is greater than 10.6 is unlikely. Hence the results imply M1 greater than or = 4.28 + or - 0.12, which is well above the upper limit on the mass of a neutron star. This is compelling evidence
Multiwavelength observations of the black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127
Soleri, Paolo; Fender, Rob; Casella, Piergiorgio; Tudose, Valeriu; Maitra, Dipankar; Wijnands, Rudy; Belloni, Tomaso; Miller-Jones, James; Klein-Wolt, Marc; van der Klis, Michiel
2008-01-01
We present preliminary results from the analysis of simultaneous multiwavelength observations of the black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127. The source is still continuing its outburst started in May 2005, never leaving the Low/Hard State. In the X-ray energy spectra we confirm evidence for a thermal component at a very low luminosity possibly extending close to but not at the innermost stable orbit. This is unusual for black hole candidates in the Low/Hard State. Furthermore, we confirm that its radio emission is significantly fainter than expected from the relation observed in other black hole candidates between the observed radio/X-ray fluxes.
An intermediate-mass black hole candidate in M51?
Earnshaw, H. M.
2016-05-01
We present the current results of an investigation into M51 ULX-7, using archival data from XMM-Newton, Chandra and NuSTAR, and optical and radio data from HST and VLA. The source has a consistently hard power-law X-ray spectrum and high short-term variability. This is unusual variability behaviour for a ULX, as we would expect highly variable ULXs to have soft energy spectra. The power spectrum features a break at ˜ 10-3 Hz, from low frequency spectral index α=0.1 to high frequency spectral index α=0.8, analogous to the low frequency break found in power spectra of black holes accreting in the low/hard state. We do not observe a corresponding high frequency break, however taking the white noise level as a frequency lower limit of the break, we can calculate a black hole mass upper limit of 9.12×104 M⊙, assuming that the ULX is in the low/hard state. While there is no radio detection, we find a flux density upper limit of 87 μJy/beam. Using the X-ray/radio fundamental plane, we calculate a black hole mass upper limit of 1.95×105 M⊙. Therefore, this ULX is consistent with being an IMBH accreting in the low/hard state.
An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole Candidate in M51?
Earnshaw, H M
2015-01-01
We present the current results of an investigation into M51 ULX-7, using archival data from XMM-Newton, Chandra and NuSTAR, and optical and radio data from HST and VLA. The source has a consistently hard power-law X-ray spectrum and high short-term variability. This is unusual variability behaviour for a ULX, as we would expect highly variable ULXs to have soft energy spectra. The power spectrum features a break at ~1e-3 Hz, from low frequency spectral index alpha=0.1 to high frequency spectral index alpha=0.8, analogous to the low frequency break found in power spectra of black holes accreting in the low/hard state. We do not observe a corresponding high frequency break, however taking the white noise level as a frequency lower limit of the break, we can calculate a black hole mass upper limit of 9.12e4 solar masses, assuming that the ULX is in the low/hard state. While there is no radio detection, we find a flux density upper limit of 87 micro-Jy/beam. Using the X-ray/radio fundamental plane, we calculate a...
Search for Binary Black Hole Candidates from the VLBI Images of AGNs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Xiang Liu
2014-09-01
We have searched the core-jet pairs in the VLBI scales (< 1 kpc), from several VLBI catalogues, and found out 5 possible Binary Black Hole (BBH) candidates. We present here the search results and analyse the candidates preliminarily. We plan to study with multi-band VLBI observation. We also plan to carry out optical line investigation in future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is generally accepted that Einstein's theory will get some as yet unknown corrections, possibly large in the strong-field regime. An ideal place to look for these modifications is in the vicinities of compact objects such as black holes. Here, we study dilatonic black holes, which arise in the framework of Gauss-Bonnet couplings and one-loop corrected four-dimensional effective theory of heterotic superstrings at low energies. These are interesting objects as a prototype for alternative, yet well-behaved gravity theories: they evade the 'no-hair' theorem of general relativity but were proven to be stable against radial perturbations. We investigate the viability of these black holes as astrophysical objects and try to provide some means to distinguish them from black holes in general relativity. We start by extending previous works and establishing the stability of these black holes against axial perturbations. We then look for solutions of the field equations describing slowly rotating black holes and study geodesic motion around this geometry. Depending on the values of mass, dilaton charge, and angular momentum of the solution, one can have differences in the innermost-stable-circular-orbit location and orbital frequency, relative to black holes in general relativity. In the most favorable cases, the difference amounts to a few percent. Given the current state-of-the-art, we discuss the difficulty of distinguishing the correct theory of gravity from electromagnetic observations or even with gravitational-wave detectors.
A parametrization to test black hole candidates with the spectrum of thin disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss a parametrization to describe possible deviations from the Kerr metric and test astrophysical black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation. Our metric is a very simple generalization of the Kerr solution with two main properties: (1) the phenomenology is quite rich and, for example, it can describe black holes with high Novikov–Thorne radiative efficiency or black holes of very small size; (2) it is suitable for the numerical calculations required to study the spectrum of thin disks. The latter point is our principal motivation to study such a kind of parametrization, because in the analysis of real data there are usually several parameters to fit and the problem with current non-Kerr metrics is that the calculation times are too long
A parametrization to test black hole candidates with the spectrum of thin disks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Nan; Tsukamoto, Naoki; Ghasemi-Nodehi, M. [Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China); Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China); Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard-Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)
2015-12-15
We discuss a parametrization to describe possible deviations from the Kerr metric and test astrophysical black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation. Our metric is a very simple generalization of the Kerr solution with two main properties: (1) the phenomenology is quite rich and, for example, it can describe black holes with high Novikov-Thorne radiative efficiency or black holes of very small size; (2) it is suitable for the numerical calculations required to study the spectrum of thin disks. The latter point is our principal motivation to study such a kind of parametrization, because in the analysis of real data there are usually several parameters to fit and the problem with current non-Kerr metrics is that the calculation times are too long. (orig.)
A parametrization to test black hole candidates with the spectrum of thin disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss a parametrization to describe possible deviations from the Kerr metric and test astrophysical black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation. Our metric is a very simple generalization of the Kerr solution with two main properties: (1) the phenomenology is quite rich and, for example, it can describe black holes with high Novikov-Thorne radiative efficiency or black holes of very small size; (2) it is suitable for the numerical calculations required to study the spectrum of thin disks. The latter point is our principal motivation to study such a kind of parametrization, because in the analysis of real data there are usually several parameters to fit and the problem with current non-Kerr metrics is that the calculation times are too long. (orig.)
A parametrization to test black hole candidates with the spectrum of thin disks
Lin, Nan; Ghasemi-Nodehi, M; Bambi, Cosimo
2015-01-01
We discuss a parametrization to describe possible deviations from the Kerr metric and test astrophysical black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation. Our metric is a very simple generalization of the Kerr solution with two main properties: $i)$ the phenomenology is quite rich and, for example, it can describe black holes with high Novikov-Thorne radiative efficiency or black holes of very small size; $ii)$ it is suitable for the numerical calculations required to study the spectrum of thin disks. The latter point is our principal motivation to study such a kind of parametrization, because in the analysis of real data there are usually several parameters to fit and the problem with current non-Kerr metrics is that the calculation times are too long.
A parametrization to test black hole candidates with the spectrum of thin disks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Nan; Tsukamoto, Naoki; Ghasemi-Nodehi, M. [Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University, 200433, Shanghai (China); Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University, 200433, Shanghai (China); Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard-Karls Universität Tübingen, 72076, Tübingen (Germany)
2015-12-17
We discuss a parametrization to describe possible deviations from the Kerr metric and test astrophysical black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation. Our metric is a very simple generalization of the Kerr solution with two main properties: (1) the phenomenology is quite rich and, for example, it can describe black holes with high Novikov–Thorne radiative efficiency or black holes of very small size; (2) it is suitable for the numerical calculations required to study the spectrum of thin disks. The latter point is our principal motivation to study such a kind of parametrization, because in the analysis of real data there are usually several parameters to fit and the problem with current non-Kerr metrics is that the calculation times are too long.
Black hole, neutron star and white dwarf candidates from microlensing with OGLE-III★
Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Skowron, J.; Rybicki, K. A.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Iłkiewicz, K.; Rattenbury, N. J.
2016-05-01
Most stellar remnants so far have been found in binary systems, where they interact with matter from their companions. Isolated neutron stars and black holes are difficult to find as they are dark, yet they are predicted to exist in our Galaxy in vast numbers. We explored the OGLE-III data base of 150 million objects observed in years 2001-2009 and found 59 microlensing events exhibiting a parallax effect due to the Earth's motion around the Sun. Combining parallax and brightness measurements from microlensing light curves with expected proper motions in the Milky Way, we identified 13 microlensing events which are consistent with having a white dwarf, neutron star or a black hole lens and we estimated their masses and distances. The most massive of our black hole candidates has 9.3 M⊙ and is at a distance of 2.4 kpc. The distribution of masses of our candidates indicates a continuum in mass distribution with no mass gap between neutron stars and black holes. We also present predictions on how such events will be observed by the astrometric Gaia mission.
Black Holes, Neutron Stars and White Dwarf Candidates from Microlensing with OGLE-III
Wyrzykowski, L; Skowron, J; Rybicki, K A; Mroz, P; Kozlowski, S; Udalski, A; Szymanski, M K; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Ulaczyk, K; Pietrukowicz, P; Poleski, R; Pawlak, M; Ilkiewicz, K; Rattenbury, N J
2015-01-01
Most stellar remnants so far have been found in binary systems, where they interact with matter from their companions. Isolated neutron stars and black holes are difficult to find as they are dark, yet they are predicted to exist in our Galaxy in vast numbers. We explored the OGLE-III database of 150 million objects observed in years 2001-2009 and found 59 microlensing events exhibiting a parallax effect due to the Earth's motion around the Sun. Combining parallax and brightness measurements from microlensing light curves with expected proper motions in the Milky Way, we identified 15 microlensing events which are consistent with having a white dwarf, neutron star or a black hole lens and we estimated their masses and distances. The most massive of our black hole candidates has 8.3 M_Sun and is at a distance of 2.4 kpc. The distribution of masses of our candidates indicates a continuum in mass distribution with no mass gap between neutron stars and black holes. We also present predictions on how such events w...
Swift observations of black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 during outburst
Curran, P. A.; Casella, P.; Maccarone, T.J.; Evans, P. A.; Landsman, W.; Krimm, H. A.; Brocksopp, C.; Still, M.
2011-01-01
Here we summarise the Swift broadband observations of the recently discovered X-ray transient and black hole candidate, XTE J1752-223,obtained over the period of outburst from October 2009 to June 2010. We offer a phenomenological treatment of the spectra as an indication of the canonical spectral state of the source during different periods of the outburst. We find that the high energy hardness-intensity diagrams over two separate bands follows the canonical behavior, confirming the spectral...
Luminet, Jean-Pierre
1992-09-01
Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.
Bambi, Cosimo; Barausse, Enrico
2010-01-01
Black holes in General Relativity are known as Kerr black holes and are characterized solely by two parameters, the mass $M$ and the spin $J$. All the higher multipole moments of the gravitational field are functions of these two parameters. For instance, the quadrupole moment is $Q=-J^2/M$, which implies that a measurement of $M$, $J$, and $Q$ for black hole candidates would allow one to test whether these objects are really black holes as described by General Relativity. While future gravit...
Testing the Kerr Nature of Black Hole Candidates using Iron Line Spectra in the CPR Framework
Jiang, Jiachen; Steiner, James F
2015-01-01
The iron K$\\alpha$ line commonly observed in the X-ray spectrum of both stellar-mass and supermassive black hole candidates originates from X-ray fluorescence of the inner accretion disk. Accordingly, it can be used to map the spacetime geometry around these objects. In this paper, we extend previous work using the iron K$\\alpha$ line to test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. We adopt the Cardoso-Pani-Rico parametrization and we test the possibility of constraining possible deviations from the Kerr solution that can be obtained from observations across the range of black hole spins and inclination angles. We confirm previous claims that the iron K$\\alpha$ line is potentially a quite powerful probe for testing the Kerr metric given sufficiently high quality data and with systematics under control, especially in the case of fast-rotating black holes and high inclination angles since both conditions serve to maximize relativistic effects. We find that some geometric perturbations from Kerr geometry manifest more s...
Kinematically Identified Recoiling Supermassive Black Hole Candidates in SDSS QSOs with z $<$ 0.25
Kim, D -C; Stierwalt, S; Privon, G C
2016-01-01
We have performed a spectral decomposition to search for recoiling supermassive black holes (rSMBH) in the SDSS QSOs with $z<0.25$. Out of 1271 QSOs, we have identified 26 rSMBH candidates that are recoiling toward us. The projected recoil velocities range from $-76\\ \\kms$ to $-307\\ \\kms$ with a mean of $-149\\pm58\\ \\kms$. Most of the rSMBH candidates are hosted by gas-rich LIRGs/ULIRGs, but only 23\\% of them shows signs of tidal features suggesting majority of them are advanced mergers. We find that the black hole masses $M_{BH}$ of the rSMBH candidates are on average $\\sim$5 times smaller than that of their stationary counterparts and cause a scatter in $M_{BH}-\\sigma_*$ relation. The Eddington ratios of all of the rSMBH candidates are larger than 0.1, with mean of 0.52$\\pm$0.27, suggesting they are actively accreting mass. Velocity shifts in high-excitation coronal lines suggest that the rSMBH candidates are recoiling with an average velocity of about $-265\\ \\kms$. Electron density in the narrow line reg...
Bambi, Cosimo
2010-01-01
Black holes in General Relativity are known as Kerr black holes and are characterized solely by two parameters, the mass $M$ and the spin $J$. All the higher multipole moments of the gravitational field are functions of these two parameters. For instance, the quadrupole moment is $Q=-J^2/M$, which implies that a measurement of $M$, $J$, and $Q$ for black hole candidates would allow one to test whether these objects are really black holes as described by General Relativity. While future gravitational-wave experiments will be able to test the Kerr nature of these objects with very high accuracy, in this paper we show that it is possible to put constraints on the quadrupole moment of stellar-mass black hole candidates by using presently available X-ray data of the thermal spectrum of their accretion disk.
Monitoring of Transient Black Hole Candidates observed in the INTEGRAL survey
Capitanio, F; Bird, A J; Ubertini, P; Federici, M
2007-01-01
The INTEGRAL/IBIS survey was performed collecting all the GPS and GCDE data together with all the available public data . The second catalogue, published in 2006 by Bird et al., is dominated by detection of 113 X-ray binaries, with 38 being high-mass and 67 low-mass. In most systems the compact object is a neutron star, but the sample also contains 4 confirmed Black Holes and 6 LMXB black hole candidates (BHC). There are also, in additional, 6 tentative associations as BHCs based simply on spectral and timing properties. In the sample of 12 sources (BHC and tentatively associated BHC) there are 7 transient sources that went into outbursts during the INTEGRAL survey observations. We present here the monitoring of the time and spectral evolution of these 7 outbursts.
XMM search for $X$-ray emission from the black hole candidate MACHO-96-BLG-5
Nucita, A A; Ingrosso, G; Elia, D; De Plaa, J; Kaastra, J S
2006-01-01
MACHO-96-BLG-5 is a microlensing event observed towards the bulge of the Galaxy with exceptionally long duration of $\\sim 970$ days. The microlensing parallax fit parameters were used to estimate the lens mass $M=6^{+10}_{-3}$ M$_{\\odot}$ and its distance $d$ which results to be in the range 0.5 kpc - 2 kpc. The upper limit on the absolute brightness for main-sequence stars of the same mass is less than 1 $L_{\\odot}$ so that the lens is a good black hole candidate. If it is so, the black hole would accrete by interstellar medium thereby emitting in the $X$-ray band. Here, the analysis of an {\\it XMM} deep observation towards MACHO-96-BLG-5 lens position is reported. Only an upper limit (at 99.8% confidence level) to the $X$-ray flux from the lens position of $9.10\\times 10^{-15}$-- $1.45\\times 10^{-14}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ in the energy band $0.2-10$ keV has been obtained from that deep observation allowing to constrain the putative black hole accretion parameters.
Radio Observations of the Black Hole Candidate GX 339-4
Corbel, S.; Fender, R. P.; Durouchoux, P.; Sood, R. K.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Spencer, R. E.; Campbell-Wilson, D.
1997-01-01
The black hole candidate GX 339-4 was first detected as a variable radio source by Sood & Campbell-Wilson in May 1994 with the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST). Since then, several observations have been obtained with the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in order to study the radio behavior of this source in relation to its soft and hard X-ray activity. We present new results of high resolution radio observations performed with the ATCA in order to study the jet-like f...
On the Spectral Slopes of Hard X-ray Emission from Black Hole Candidates
Ebisawa, Ken; Titarchuk, Lev G.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.
1995-01-01
Most black hole candidates exhibit characteristic power-law like hard X-ray emission above $\\sim$ 10 keV. In the {\\em high state}, in which 2 -- 10 keV luminosity is relatively high, the energy index of the hard X-ray emission is usually greater than 1 --- typically $\\sim 1.5$. On the other hand, in the {\\em low state}, the hard X-ray energy index is 0.3 -- 0.9. In this paper, we suggest that this difference of the hard X-ray spectral slopes may be due to two different Comptonization mechanis...
A Radio-Selected Black Hole X-ray Binary Candidate in the Milky Way Globular Cluster M62
Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J; Miller-Jones, James C A; Heinke, Craig; Noyola, Eva; Seth, Anil C; Ransom, Scott
2013-01-01
We report the discovery of a candidate stellar-mass black hole in the Milky Way globular cluster M62. We detected the black hole candidate, which we term M62-VLA1, in the core of the cluster using deep radio continuum imaging from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. M62-VLA1 is a faint source, with a flux density of 18.7 +/- 1.9 microJy at 6.2 GHz and a flat radio spectrum (alpha=-0.24 +/- 0.42, for S_nu = nu^alpha). M62 is the second Milky Way cluster with a candidate stellar-mass black hole; unlike the two candidate black holes previously found in the cluster M22, M62-VLA1 is associated with a Chandra X-ray source, supporting its identification as a black hole X-ray binary. Measurements of its radio and X-ray luminosity, while not simultaneous, place M62-VLA1 squarely on the well-established radio--X-ray correlation for stellar-mass black holes. In archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging, M62-VLA1 is coincident with a star near the lower red giant branch. This possible optical counterpart shows a blue exce...
The Faint "Heartbeats" of IGR J17091-3624: An Exceptional Black Hole Candidate
Altamirano, D.; Belloni, T.; Linares, M.; VanDerKlis, M.; Wunands, R.; Curran, P. A.; Kalamkar, M.; Stiele, H.; Motta, S.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Casella, P.; Krimm, H.
2011-01-01
We report on the first 180 days of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations of the outburst of the black hole candidate IGR Jl7091-3624. This source exhibits a broad variety of complex light curve patterns including periods of strong flares alternating with quiet intervals. Similar patterns in the X-ray light curves have been seen in the (up to now) unique black hole system GRS 1915+105. In the context of the variability classes defined by Belloni et al. for GRS 1915+105, we find that JGR J17091-3624 shows the nu, rho, alpha, lambda, Beta, and mu classes as well as quiet periods which resemble the chi class, all occurring at 2-60 keY count rate levels which can be 10-50 times lower than observed in GRS 1915+\\05. The so-called rho class "heartbeats" occur as fast as every few seconds and as slow as approx 100 s, tracing a loop in the hardness-intensity diagram which resembles that previously seen in GRS 1915+\\05. However, while GRS 1915+105 traverses this loop clockwise, IGR Jl7091-3624 does so in the opposite sense. We briefly discuss our findings in the context of the models proposed for GRS 1915+105 and find that either all models requiring near Eddington luminosities for GRS 1915+105-like variability fail, or IGR Il7091-3624 lies at a distance well in excess of 20 kpc, or it harbors one of the least massive black holes known( <3 solar M).
THE FAINT 'HEARTBEATS' OF IGR J17091−3624: AN EXCEPTIONAL BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on the first 180 days of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations of the outburst of the black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624. This source exhibits a broad variety of complex light curve patterns including periods of strong flares alternating with quiet intervals. Similar patterns in the X-ray light curves have been seen in the (up to now) unique black hole system GRS 1915+105. In the context of the variability classes defined by Belloni et al. for GRS 1915+105, we find that IGR J17091-3624 shows the ν, ρ, α, λ, β, and μ classes as well as quiet periods which resemble the χ class, all occurring at 2-60 keV count rate levels which can be 10-50 times lower than observed in GRS 1915+105. The so-called ρ class 'heartbeats' occur as fast as every few seconds and as slow as ∼100 s, tracing a loop in the hardness-intensity diagram which resembles that previously seen in GRS 1915+105. However, while GRS 1915+105 traverses this loop clockwise, IGR J17091-3624 does so in the opposite sense. We briefly discuss our findings in the context of the models proposed for GRS 1915+105 and find that either all models requiring near Eddington luminosities for GRS 1915+105-like variability fail, or IGR J17091-3624 lies at a distance well in excess of 20 kpc, or it harbors one of the least massive black holes known (☉).
Multiwavelength Observations of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550-564 during the 2000 Outburst
Jain, R K; Orosz, J A; McClintock, J E; Remillard, R A
2001-01-01
We report optical, infrared, and X-ray light curves for the outburst, in 2000, of the black hole candidate XTE J1550-564. We find that the start of the outburst in the H and V bands precedes that seen in the RXTE All Sky Monitor by 11.5 +/- 0.9 and 8.8 +/- 0.6 days, respectively; a similar delay has been observed in two other systems. About 50 days after the primary maxima in the VIH light curves, we find secondary maxima, most prominently in H. This secondary peak is absent in the X-ray light curve, but coincides with a transition to the low/hard state. We suggest that this secondary peak may be due to non-thermal emission associated with the formation of a jet.
Globular Clusters Hosting Intermediate-Mass Black Holes: No Mass-Segregation Based Candidates
Pasquato, Mario; Miocchi, Paolo; Won, Sohn Bong; Lee, Young-Wook
2016-06-01
Recently, both stellar mass segregation and binary fractions were uniformly measured on relatively large samples of Galactic globular clusters (GCs). Simulations show that both sizable binary-star populations and intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) quench mass segregation in relaxed GCs. Thus mass segregation in GCs with a reliable binary-fraction measurement is a valuable probe to constrain IMBHs. In this paper we combine mass-segregation and binary-fraction measurements from the literature to build a sample of 33 GCs (with measured core binary fractions), and a sample of 43 GCs (with binary-fraction measurements in the area between the core radius and the half-mass radius). Within both samples we try to identify IMBH-host candidates. These should have relatively low mass segregation, a low binary fraction (segregated (and show a larger binary fraction), confirming the theoretical expectation that the energy sources responsible for the large core are also quenching mass segregation.
Multiwavelength Observations of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550-564 during the 2000 Outburst
Jain, Raj K.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Remillard, Ronald A.
2001-06-01
We report optical, infrared, and X-ray light curves for the outburst, in 2000, of the black hole candidate XTE J1550-564. We find that the start of the outburst in the H and V bands precedes that seen in the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor by 11.5+/-0.9 and 8.8+/-0.6 days, respectively; a similar delay has been observed in two other systems. About 50 days after the primary maxima in the VIH light curves, we find secondary maxima, most prominently in H. This secondary peak is absent in the X-ray light curve but coincides with a transition to the low/hard state. We suggest that this secondary peak may be due to nonthermal emission associated with the formation of a jet.
Initial Swift observations of the Aug 2016 outburst of the Black Hole Candidate 4U 1630-47
Beri, Aru; Altamirano, Diego; Gandhi, Poshak
2016-09-01
4U 1630-472 is one of the most active black hole candidates (BHCs) known, with a recurrence time between X-ray outbursts of about 600-700 days. Following the detection of an X-ray outburst in late Aug 2016 (ATEL #9427), we obtained Swift observations of the source.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are a common feature in the X-ray flux of stellar-mass black hole candidates, but their exact origin is not yet known. Recently, some authors have pointed out that data of GRO J1655-40 simultaneously show three QPOs that nicely fit in the relativistic precession model. However, they find an estimate of the spin parameter that disagrees with the measurement of the disk's thermal spectrum. In the present work, I explore the possibility of using the relativistic precession model to test the nature of the black hole candidate in GRO J1655-40. If properly understood, QPOs may become a quite powerful tool to probe the spacetime geometry around black hole candidates, especially if used in combination with other techniques. It turns out that the measurements of the relativistic precession model and of the disk's thermal spectrum may be consistent if we admit that the black hole candidate in GRO J1655-40 is not of the Kerr type. (orig.)
NuSTAR and SWIFT Observations of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1908+094 during its 2013 Outburst
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tao, Lian; Tomsick, John A.; Walton, Dominic J.;
2015-01-01
The black hole (BH) candidate XTE J1908+094 went into outburst for the first time since 2003 in 2013 October. We report on an observation with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and monitoring observations with Swift during the outburst. NuSTAR caught the source in the soft state...
Pacucci, Fabio; Ferrara, Andrea; Grazian, Andrea; Fiore, Fabrizio; Giallongo, Emanuele; Puccetti, Simonetta
2016-06-01
The first black hole seeds, formed when the Universe was younger than ˜500 Myr, are recognized to play an important role for the growth of early (z ˜ 7) supermassive black holes. While progresses have been made in understanding their formation and growth, their observational signatures remain largely unexplored. As a result, no detection of such sources has been confirmed so far. Supported by numerical simulations, we present a novel photometric method to identify black hole seed candidates in deep multiwavelength surveys. We predict that these highly obscured sources are characterized by a steep spectrum in the infrared (1.6-4.5 μm), i.e. by very red colours. The method selects the only two objects with a robust X-ray detection found in the CANDELS/GOODS-S survey with a photometric redshift z ≳ 6. Fitting their infrared spectra only with a stellar component would require unrealistic star formation rates (≳2000 M⊙ yr-1). To date, the selected objects represent the most promising black hole seed candidates, possibly formed via the direct collapse black hole scenario, with predicted mass >105 M⊙. While this result is based on the best photometric observations of high-z sources available to date, additional progress is expected from spectroscopic and deeper X-ray data. Upcoming observatories, like the JWST, will greatly expand the scope of this work.
The X-ray Spectrum Of The Black Hole Candidate Swift J1753.5-0127
Mostafa, Reham; Hiemstra, Beike; Soleri, Paolo; Belloni, Tomaso; Ibrahim, Alaa I; Yasein, Mohammed N; 10.1093/mnras/stt332
2013-01-01
We present a spectral analysis of the black hole candidate and X-ray transient source Swift J1753.5 0127 making use of simultaneous observations of XMM-Newton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 2006, when the source was in outburst. The aim of this paper is to test whether a thermal component due to the accretion disc is present in the X-ray spectrum. We fit the data with a range of spectral models, and we find that for all of these models the fits to the X-ray energy spectra significantly require the addition of the disc black-body component. We also find a broad iron emission line at around 6.5 keV, most likely due to iron in the accretion disc. Our results confirm the existence of a cool inner disc extending near or close to the innermost circular orbit (ISCO).We further discovered broad emission lines of NVII and OVIII at ~ 0.52 keV and 0.65 keV, respectively in the RGS spectrum of Swift J1753.5-0127.
Relativistic boost as the cause of periodicity in a massive black-hole binary candidate.
D'Orazio, Daniel J; Haiman, Zoltán; Schiminovich, David
2015-09-17
Because most large galaxies contain a central black hole, and galaxies often merge, black-hole binaries are expected to be common in galactic nuclei. Although they cannot be imaged, periodicities in the light curves of quasars have been interpreted as evidence for binaries, most recently in PG 1302-102, which has a short rest-frame optical period of four years (ref. 6). If the orbital period of the black-hole binary matches this value, then for the range of estimated black-hole masses, the components would be separated by 0.007-0.017 parsecs, implying relativistic orbital speeds. There has been much debate over whether black-hole orbits could be smaller than one parsec (ref. 7). Here we report that the amplitude and the sinusoid-like shape of the variability of the light curve of PG 1302-102 can be fitted by relativistic Doppler boosting of emission from a compact, steadily accreting, unequal-mass binary. We predict that brightness variations in the ultraviolet light curve track those in the optical, but with a two to three times larger amplitude. This prediction is relatively insensitive to the details of the emission process, and is consistent with archival ultraviolet data. Follow-up ultraviolet and optical observations in the next few years can further test this prediction and confirm the existence of a binary black hole in the relativistic regime. PMID:26381982
DUAL SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES IN THE AGN AND GALAXY EVOLUTION SURVEY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dual supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with kiloparsec-scale separations in merger-remnant galaxies are informative tracers of galaxy evolution, but the avenue for identifying them in large numbers for such studies is not yet clear. One promising approach is to target spectroscopic signatures of systems where both SMBHs are fueled as dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or where one SMBH is fueled as an offset AGN. Dual AGNs may produce double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines, while offset AGNs may produce single-peaked narrow AGN emission lines with line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to the host galaxy. We search for such dual and offset systems among 173 Type 2 AGNs at z +3.6-1.9% to 18+5-5%). This may be associated with the rise in the galaxy merger fraction over the same cosmic time. As further evidence for a link with galaxy mergers, the AGES offset and dual AGN candidates are tentatively ∼3 times more likely than the overall AGN population to reside in a host galaxy that has a companion galaxy (from 16/173 to 2/7, or 9+3-2% to 29-19+26%). Follow-up observations of the seven offset and dual AGN candidates in AGES will definitively distinguish velocity offsets produced by dual SMBHs from those produced by narrow-line region kinematics, and will help sharpen our observational approach to detecting dual SMBHs
Globular clusters hosting intermediate-mass black-holes: no mass-segregation based candidates
Pasquato, Mario; Sohn, Bong Won; Lee, Young-Wook
2016-01-01
Recently, both stellar mass-segregation and binary-fractions were uniformly measured on relatively large samples of Galactic Globular Clusters (GCs). Simulations show that both sizeable binary-star populations and Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) quench mass-segregation in relaxed GCs. Thus mass-segregation in GCs with a reliable binary-fraction measurement is a valuable probe to constrain IMBHs. In this paper we combine mass-segregation and binary-fraction measurements from the literature to build a sample of 33 GCs (with measured core-binary fractions), and a sample of 43 GCs (with a binary fraction measurement in the area between the core radius and the half-mass radius). Within both samples we try to identify IMBH-host candidates. These should have relatively low mass-segregation, a low binary fraction (< 5%), and short (< 1 Gyr) relaxation time. Considering the core binary fraction sample, no suitable candidates emerge. If the binary fraction between the core and the half-mass radius is consid...
Low Luminosity States of the Black Hole Candidate GX 339-4. 2; Timing Analysis
Nowak, Michael A.; Wilms, Joern; Dove, James B.
1999-01-01
Here we present timing analysis of a set of eight Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the black hole candidate GX 339-4 that were taken during its hard/low state. On long time scales, the RXTE All Sky Monitor data reveal evidence of a 240 day periodicity, comparable to timescales expected from warped, precessing accretion disks. On short timescales all observations save one show evidence of a persistent f(qpo approximately equals 0.3 Hz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO)). The broad band (10 (exp -3) to 10 (exp2) Hz) power appears to be dominated by two independent processes that can be modeled as very broad Lorentzians with Q approximately less than - 1. The coherence function between soft and hard photon variability shows that if these are truly independent processes, then they are individually coherent, but they are incoherent with one another. This is evidenced by the fact that the coherence function between the hard and soft variability is near unity between 5 x 10 (exp -3) but shows evidence of a dip at f approximately equals 1 Hz. This is the region of overlap between the broad Lorentzian fits to the Power Spectral Density (PSD). Similar to Cyg X-1, the coherence also drops dramatically at frequencies approximately greater than 1O Hz. Also similar to Cyg X-1, the hard photon variability is seen to lag the soft photon variability with the lag time increasing with decreasing Fourier frequency. The magnitude of this time lag appears to be positively correlated with the flux of GX 339-4. We discuss all of these observations in light of current theoretical models of both black hole spectra and temporal variability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cosimo Bambi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Black holes have the peculiar and intriguing property of having an event horizon, a one-way membrane causally separating their internal region from the rest of the Universe. Today, astrophysical observations provide some evidence for the existence of event horizons in astrophysical black hole candidates. In this short paper, I compare the constraint we can infer from the nonobservation of electromagnetic radiation from the putative surface of these objects with the bound coming from the ergoregion instability, pointing out the respective assumptions and limitations.
Bambi, Cosimo
2012-01-01
Black holes have the peculiar and intriguing property of having an event horizon, a one-way membrane causally separating their internal region from the rest of the Universe. Today astrophysical observations provide some evidence for the existence of event horizons in astrophysical black hole candidates. In this short paper, I compare the constraint we can infer from the non-observation of electromagnetic radiation from the putative surface of these objects with the bound coming from the ergoregion instability, pointing out the respective assumptions and limitations.
On the Nature of QPO Phase Lags in Black Hole Candidates
Shaposhnikov, Nikolai
2012-01-01
Observations of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries hold a key to understanding many aspects of these enigmatic systems. Complex appearance of the Fourier phase lags related to QPOs is one of the most puzzling observational effects in accreting black holes. In this Letter we show that QPO properties, including phase lags, can be explained in a framework of a simple scenario, where the oscillating media provides a feedback on the emerging spectrum. We demonstrate that the QPO waveform is presented by the product of a perturbation and a time delayed response factors, where the response is energy dependent. The essential property of this effect is its non-linear and multiplicative nature. Our multiplicative reverberation model successfully describes the QPO components in energy dependent power spectra as well as the appearance of the phase lags between signal in different energy bands. We apply our model to QPOs observed by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer in BH candidate XTE J1550-564. We briefly discuss the implications of the observed energy dependence of the QPO reverberation times and amplitudes to the nature of the power law spectral component and its variability.
Testing the Kerr Nature of Black Hole Candidates Using Iron Line Spectra in the CPR Framework
Jiang, Jiachen; Bambi, Cosimo; Steiner, James F.
2015-10-01
The iron Kα line commonly observed in the X-ray spectrum of both stellar-mass and supermassive black hole (BH) candidates originates from X-ray fluorescence of the inner accretion disk. Accordingly, it can be used to map the spacetime geometry around these objects. In this paper, we extend previous work using the iron Kα line to test the Kerr BH hypothesis. We adopt the Cardoso-Pani-Rico parametrization and we test the possibility of constraining possible deviations from the Kerr solution that can be obtained from observations across the range of BH spins and inclination angles. We confirm previous claims that the iron Kα line is potentially a quite powerful probe for testing the Kerr metric given sufficiently high quality data and with systematics under control, especially in the case of fast-rotating BHs and high inclination angles since both conditions serve to maximize relativistic effects. We find that some geometric perturbations from Kerr geometry manifest more strongly in the iron line profile than others. While the perturbation parameter {ɛ }3t can be well constrained by the iron line profile, an orthogonal data set is necessary to constrain departures from Kerr geometry in {ɛ }3r.
On the nature of QPO phase lags in black hole candidates
Shaposhnikov, Nikolai
2012-01-01
Observations of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries hold a key to understanding many aspects of these enigmatic systems. Complex appearance of the Fourier phase lags related to QPOs is one of the most puzzling observational effects in accreting black holes. In this Letter we show that QPO properties, including phase lags, can be explained in a framework of a simple scenario, where the oscillating media provides a feedback on the emerging spectrum. We demonstrate that the QPO waveform is presented by the product of a perturbation and a time delayed response factors, where the response is energy dependent. The essential property of this effect is its non-linear and multiplicative nature. Our multiplicative reverberation model successfully describes the QPO components in energy dependent power spectra as well as the appearance of the phase lags between signal in different energy bands. We apply our model to QPOs observed by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer in BH candidate XTE J1550-564. We briefly di...
THE IDENTIFICATION OF MAXI J1659-152 AS A BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on the analysis of all 65 pointed Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the recently discovered soft X-ray transient MAXI J1659-152 (initially referred to as GRB 100925A). The source was studied in terms of its evolution through the hardness-intensity diagram (HID), as well as its X-ray variability properties. MAXI J1659-152 traced out a counterclockwise loop in the HID, which is commonly seen in transient low-mass X-ray binaries. The variability properties of the source, in particular the detection of type-B and type-C low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations, and the way they evolve along the HID track, indicate that MAXI J1659-152 is a black hole candidate. The spectral and variability properties of MAXI J1659-152 imply that the source was observed in the hard and soft intermediate states during the RXTE observations, with several transitions between these two states.
Little Black Holes as Dark Matter Candidates with Feasible Cosmic and Terrestrial Interactions
Rabinowitz, M
2005-01-01
Little black holes (LBH) contribute to the accelerated expansion of the Universe, and interact with stars, neutron stars, and planets. A range of proposals are reviewed in which LBH are considered to be a component of dark matter/dark energy. A LBH is a candidate for the 1908 devastation of Tungus Siberia, as important LBH interactions were overlooked. LBH passing through neutron star pulsars are capable of causing a change in. Energy input due to the passage of LBH through the earth, sun, and neutron stars is examined to determine if they could initiate tremors and quakes in such bodies. In encounters with the earth.s atmosphere, LBH can manifest themselves as the core energy source of ball lightning (BL). Relating the LBH incidence rate on earth to BL occurrence has the potential of shedding light on the distribution of LBH in the universe, and their velocities relative to the earth. Most BL features can be explained by a testable LBH model. The total number of degrees of freedom of a d-dimensional body in ...
Dynamics of massive black holes as a possible candidate of Galactic dark matter
Xu, Guohong; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
1994-01-01
If the dark halo of the Galaxy is comprised of massive black holes (MBHs), then those within approximately 1 kpc will spiral to the center, where they will interact with one another, forming binaries which contract, owing to further dynamical friction, and then possibly merge to become more massive objects by emission of gravitational radiation. If successive mergers would invariably lead, as has been proposed by various authors, to the formation of a very massive nucleus of 10(exp 8) solar mass, then the idea of MBHs as a dark matter candidate could be excluded on observational grounds, since the observed limit (or value) for a Galactic central black hole is approximately 10(exp 6.5) solar mass. But, if successive mergers are delayed or prevented by other processes, such as the gravitational slingshot or rocket effect of gravitational radiation, then a large mass accumulation will not occur. In order to resolve this issue, we perform detailed N-body simulations using a modfied Aarseth code to explore the dynamical behavior of the MBHs, and we find that for a 'best estimate' model of the Galaxy a runaway does not occur. The code treates the MBHs as subject to the primary gravitational forces of one another and to the smooth stellar distribution, as well as the secondary perturbations in their orbits due to another and to the smooth stellar distribution, as well as the secondary perturbations in their orbits due to dynamical friction and gravitational radiation. Instead of a runaway, three-body interactions between hard binaries and single MBHs eject massive objects before accumulation of more than a few units, so that typically the center will contain zero, one, or two MBHs. We study how the situation depends in detail on the mass per MBH, the rotation of the halo, the mass distribution within the Galaxy, and other parameters. A runaway will most sensitively depend on the ratio of initial (spheroid/halo) central mass densities and secondarily on the typical values
Probing the Active Massive Black Hole Candidate in the Center of NGC 404 with VLBI
Paragi, Z; Kaaret, P; Cseh, D; Overzier, R; Kharb, P
2014-01-01
Recently Nyland et al. (2012) argued that the radio emission observed in the center of the dwarf galaxy NGC 404 originates in a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN) powered by a massive black hole ($M\\sim<10^6$ M$_{\\odot}$). High-resolution radio detections of MBHs are rare. Here we present sensitive, contemporaneous Chandra X-ray, and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio observations with the European VLBI Network (EVN). The source is detected in the X-rays, and shows no long-term variability. If the hard X-ray source is powered by accretion, the apparent low accretion efficiency would be consistent with a black hole in the hard state. Hard state black holes are known to show radio emission compact on the milliarcsecond scales. However, the central region of NGC 404 is resolved out on 10 milliarcsecond (0.15-1.5 pc) scales. Our VLBI non-detection of a compact, partially self-absorbed radio core in NGC 404 implies that either the black hole mass is smaller than $3^{+5}_{-2}\\times10^5$ M...
Pacucci, Fabio; Grazian, Andrea; Fiore, Fabrizio; Giallongo, Emanuele
2016-01-01
The first black hole seeds, formed when the Universe was younger than 500 Myr, are recognized to play an important role for the growth of early (z ~ 7) super-massive black holes. While progresses have been made in understanding their formation and growth, their observational signatures remain largely unexplored. As a result, no detection of such sources has been confirmed so far. Supported by numerical simulations, we present a novel photometric method to identify black hole seed candidates in deep multi-wavelength surveys. We predict that these highly-obscured sources are characterized by a steep spectrum in the infrared (1.6-4.5 micron), i.e. by very red colors. The method selects the only 2 objects with a robust X-ray detection found in the CANDELS/GOODS-S survey with a photometric redshift z > 6. Fitting their infrared spectra only with a stellar component would require unrealistic star formation rates (>2000 solar masses per year). To date, the selected objects represent the most promising black hole see...
Accretion, Primordial Black Holes and Standard Cosmology
Nayak, Bibekananda; Singh, Lambodar Prasad
2009-01-01
Primordial Black Holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation time of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included.Thus depending on accretion efficiency more and more number of primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the idea that the primordial black holes are the proper candidate for dark matter.
Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B Nayak; P Singh
2011-01-01
Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes are the proper candidates for dark matter.
ASM Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black-Hole Candidates
van der Klis, Michiel
Resubmission accepted Cycle 2-11 proposal. The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100.000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our RXTE work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black hole transient (if any) will reach 10^5 cps/5 PCU levels. When this occurs a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state of the art high count rate observations covering all of the most crusial aspects of the source variability.
The phase lags of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations in four black hole candidates
Méndez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso; Sanna, Andrea
2013-01-01
We measured the phase-lag spectrum of the high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in the black hole systems (at QPO frequencies) GRS 1915+105 (35 Hz and 67 Hz), GRO J1655-40 (300 Hz and 450 Hz), XTE J1550-564 (180 Hz and 280 Hz) and IGR J17091-3624 (67 Hz). The lag spectra of the 67-Hz QPO
Very long term observations of blazars candidates for supermassive black hole binaries
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hudec, René; Bašta, Milan
Trieste: Proceedings of Science, 2008, s. 1-7. ISSN 1824-8039. [Workshop on Blazar Variability across the Electromagnetic Spectrum. Palaiseau (FR), 22.04.2008-25.04.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207; GA ČR GA205/05/2167 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : cosmic sources * supermassive black holes * high-energy sources Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://pos.sissa.it
Radio continuum observations of the candidate supermassive black hole in the dwarf elliptical VCC128
Buyle, Pieter; Debattista, Victor P; Ferreras, Ignacio; Pasquali, Anna; Seth, Anil; Morelli, Lorenzo
2008-01-01
The presence of black holes (BHs) at the centers of dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) has been argued both theoretically and observationally. Using archival HST/WFPC2 data, we found the Virgo cluster dwarf elliptical galaxy VCC128 to harbor a binary nucleus, a feature that is usually interpreted as the observable signature of a stellar disk orbiting a central massive black hole. Debattista et al. 2006 estimated its mass M sim 6 10^6 - 5 10^7 Msun. One of the most robust means of verifying the existence of a BH is radio continuum and/or X-ray emission, however because of the deficiency of gas in dEs, radio continuum emission forms the best option here. We have tried to detect the X-band radio emission coming from the putative black hole in VCC128 when it accretes gas from the surrounding ISM. While we made a positive 4 sigma detection of a point source 4.63'' south-west of the binary nucleus, no statistically significant evidence for emission associated with the nuclei themselves was detected. This implies eithe...
An Extreme X-ray Disk Wind in the Black Hole Candidate IGR J17091-3624
King, A. L.; Miller, J. M.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R.; Maitra, D.; Cackett, E. M.; Rupen, M. P.
2012-01-01
Chandra spectroscopy of transient stellar-mass black holes in outburst has clearly revealed accretion disk winds in soft, disk-dominated states, in apparent anti-correlation with relativistic jets in low/hard states. These disk winds are observed to be highly ionized. dense. and to have typical velocities of approx 1000 km/s or less projected along our line of sight. Here. we present an analysis of two Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the Galactic black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 and contemporaneous EVLA radio observations. obtained in 2011. The second Chandra observation reveals an absorption line at 6.91+/-0.01 keV; associating this line with He-like Fe XXV requires a blue-shift of 9300(+500/-400) km/ s (0.03c. or the escape velocity at 1000 R(sub schw)). This projected outflow velocity is an order of magnitude higher than has previously been observed in stellar-mass black holes, and is broadly consistent with some of the fastest winds detected in active galactic nuclei. A potential feature at 7.32 keV, if due to Fe XXVI, would imply a velocity of approx 14600 km/s (0.05c), but this putative feature is marginal. Photoionization modeling suggests that the accretion disk wind in IGR J17091-3624 may originate within 43,300 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole, and may be expelling more gas than accretes. The contemporaneous EVLA observations strongly indicate that jet activity was indeed quenched at the time of our Chandra observations. We discuss the results in the context of disk winds, jets, and basic accretion disk physics in accreting black hole systems
An Extreme X-Ray Disk Wind in the Black Hole Candidate IGR J17091-3624
King, A. L.; Miller, J. M.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R.; Maitra, D.; Cackett, E. M.; Rupen, M. P.
2012-02-01
Chandra spectroscopy of transient stellar-mass black holes in outburst has clearly revealed accretion disk winds in soft, disk-dominated states, in apparent anti-correlation with relativistic jets in low/hard states. These disk winds are observed to be highly ionized, dense, and to have typical velocities of ~1000 km s-1 or less projected along our line of sight. Here, we present an analysis of two Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the Galactic black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 and contemporaneous Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) radio observations, obtained in 2011. The second Chandra observation reveals an absorption line at 6.91 ± 0.01 keV associating this line with He-like Fe XXV requires a blueshift of 9300+500 -400 km s-1 (0.03c, or the escape velocity at 1000 R Schw). This projected outflow velocity is an order of magnitude higher than has previously been observed in stellar-mass black holes, and is broadly consistent with some of the fastest winds detected in active galactic nuclei. A potential feature at 7.32 keV, if due to Fe XXVI, would imply a velocity of ~14, 600 km s-1 (0.05c), but this putative feature is marginal. Photoionization modeling suggests that the accretion disk wind in IGR J17091-3624 may originate within 43,300 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole and may be expelling more gas than it accretes. The contemporaneous EVLA observations strongly indicate that jet activity was indeed quenched at the time of our Chandra observations. We discuss the results in the context of disk winds, jets, and basic accretion disk physics in accreting black hole systems.
Estimation of Mass of the Black Hole Candidate MAXI J1659-152 using TCAF and POS Models
Molla, Aslam Ali; Chakrabarti, Sandip K; Mondal, Santanu; Jana, Arghajit
2016-01-01
The Galactic transient black hole candidate (BHC) MAXI~J1659-152 exhibited temporal and spectral evolution during its very first X-ray outburst (2010) after its discovery on 25th Sept. 2010. Our recent studies of a few transient BHCs including MAXI~J1659-152 using Chakrabarti-Titarchuk two-component advective flow (TCAF) solution as an additive table local model in XSPEC revealed details of accretion flow dynamics around the black hole (BH). The TCAF model fitted normalization (N) comes out to be almost constant throughout the entire outburst consisting of several spectral states. We introduce two independent methods to determine the mass ($M_{BH}$) of the BHC, namely, {\\it $i)$ keeping TCAF fitted normalization parameter in a narrow range}, and {\\it $ii)$ studying evolution of the Quasi-Periodic Oscillation frequency ($\
The soft spectral state of the black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 observed by INTEGRAL and Swift
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Del Santo, M.; Kuulkers, E.; Bozzo, E.;
2011-01-01
The currently on-going outburst of the black hole candidate (BHC) IGR J17091-3624 (ATel #3144, #3159, #3167) has been recently observed simultaneously with INTEGRAL and Swift. The source was in the IBIS FOV on 2011 Feb. 28 from 17:45 to 21:23 (UTC; exposure time 7.7 ks) during the Galactic Bulge......, a better description of the spectrum (confirmed by the F-test) can be obtained adding a disk black-body component (red. chi^2=1.1 (302 d.o.f.)). The fit of the joint XRT+IBIS/ISGRI broad-band spectrum (0.8-200 keV) gives an absorption column density of N_H=1.00+/-0.06, a disc black-body temperature of 1...
An Extreme X-ray Disk Wind in the Black Hole Candidate IGR J17091-3624
King, Ashley L; Raymond, John; Fabian, Andy C; Reynolds, Chris S; Kallman, Tim R; Maitra, Dipankar; Cackett, Edward M; Rupen, Michael P
2011-01-01
Chandra spectroscopy of transient stellar-mass black holes in outburst has clearly revealed accretion disk winds in soft, disk-dominated states, in apparent anti-correlation with relativistic jets in low/hard states. These disk winds are observed to be highly ionized, dense, and to have typical velocities of ~1000 km/s or less projected along our line of sight. Here, we present an analysis of two Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the Galactic black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 and contemporaneous EVLA radio observations, obtained in 2011. The second Chandra observation reveals an absorption line at 6.91+/-0.01 keV; associating this line with He-like Fe XXV requires a blue-shift of 9300^{+500}_{-400} km/s (0.03c, or the escape velocity at 1000 R_{Schw}). This projected outflow velocity is an order of magnitude higher than has previously been observed in stellar-mass black holes, and is broadly consistent with some of the fastest winds detected in active galactic nuclei. Potential features a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole
Debnath, Dipak
2013-01-01
In our study of the timing properties of few Galactic black hole candidates evolutions of the low and intermediate frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (LIFQPOs) are observed. In 2005, for explaining evolution of QPO frequency during rising phase of 2005 GRO J1655-40 outburst, Chakrabarti and his students introduced a new model, namely propagating oscillatory shock (POS) model. Here we present the results obtained from the same POS model fitted QPO evolutions during both the rising and declining phases of the outbursts of 2005 GRO J165540, 2010-11 GX 339-4, and 2010 & 2011 H 1743-322.
Wilms, Joern; Nowak, Michael; Dove, James B.; Fender, Robert P.; Di Matteo, Tiziana
1999-01-01
We discuss a series of observations of the black hole candidate GX 339-4 in low luminosity, spectrally hard states. We present spectral analysis of three separate archival Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data sets and eight separate Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data sets. Three of the RXTE observations were strictly simultaneous with 843 MHz and 8.3-9.1 GHz radio observations. All of these observations have (3-9 keV) flux approximately < 10^{-9} ergs s^{-1} cm^{...
Russell, D.M.; Curran, P.A.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Lewis, F.; Motta, S.; Stiele, H.; Belloni, T.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Jonker, P.G.; O'Brien, K; Homan, J.; P. Casella; P Gandhi; Soleri, P.; Markoff, S.
2011-01-01
We present optical monitoring of the black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 during its 2009 - 2010 outburst and decay to quiescence. The optical light curve can be described by an exponential decay followed by a plateau, then a more rapid fade towards quiescence. The plateau appears to be due to an extra component of optical emission that brightens and then fades over ~ 40 days. We show evidence for the origin of this optical 'flare' to be the synchrotron jet during the decaying hard state, and w...
An eclipsing binary black hole candidate system in the blazar Mrk 421
Benitez, E; Fraija, N; Hernandez, X; Lopez-Corona, O; Lora-Clavijo, F D; Mendoza, S
2015-01-01
Removing strong outbursts from multiwavelength light curves of the blazar Mrk 421, we construct outburstless time series for this system. A model-independent power spectrum light curve analysis in the optical, hard X-ray and gamma-rays of this outburstless state shows clear evidence for a periodicity of \\approx 400 days. A subsequent full maximum likelihood analysis fitting an eclipse model confirms a periodicity of 387.16 days. The power spectrum of the signal in the outburstless state of the source does not follow a flicker noise behaviour and so, the system producing it is not self-organised. This means that the periodicity is not produced by any internal physical processes associated to the central engine. The simplest physical mechanism to which this periodicity could be ascribed is a dynamical effect produced by an orbiting supermassive black hole companion of mass \\sim 10^7 M_\\odot eclipsing the central black hole, which has a mass \\sim 10^8 M_\\odot. The optimal model restricts the physics of the eclip...
Primordial Planck mass black holes (PPMBHs) as candidates for dark matter?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is proposed here that due to rapid cooling at the end of the Planck-era a second order phase transition with Planck-size space-time-energy fluctuations may have led to a precipitation of Planck-dimension real objects with masses around mP and hence a Schwarzschild radius R = 2GmP/c2. This equals twice their spatial dimension lP; hence they are black holes. They could have survived through inflation and expansion because of their extremely small cross section for the fluctuations that are supposed to cause the hypothetical Hawking decay. In the case of our galaxy they could thus be the missing WIMPS of the dark mass halo, consisting of ∼ 1050 PPMBHs – in contrast to the ∼ 1068 baryons in the stars – both bound together by gravitation with negligible other interaction between the two. They would constitute a storage of gravitational energy three orders of magnitude larger than the energy stock of H → He fusion, an energy to be released somehow when they very slowly coalesce to form big black holes.
Are black holes totally black?
Grib, A A
2014-01-01
Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.
A Population of Short-Period Variable Quasars from PTF as Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidates
Charisi, M; Haiman, Z; Price-Whelan, A M; Graham, M J; Bellm, E C; Laher, R R; Marka, S
2016-01-01
Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) at sub-parsec separations should be common in galactic nuclei, as a result of frequent galaxy mergers. Hydrodynamical simulations of circumbinary discs predict strong periodic modulation of the mass accretion rate on time-scales comparable to the orbital period of the binary. As a result, SMBHBs may be recognized by the periodic modulation of their brightness. We conducted a statistical search for periodic variability in a sample of 35,383 spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the photometric database of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We analysed Lomb-Scargle periodograms and assessed the significance of our findings by modeling each individual quasar's variability as a damped random walk (DRW). We identified 50 quasars with significant periodicity beyond the DRW model, typically with short periods of a few hundred days. We find 33 of these to remain significant after a re-analysis of their periodograms including additional optical data from the intermediate-PT...
Discovery and Evolution of the New Black Hole Candidate Swift J1539.2-6227 During Its 2008 Outburst
Krimm, H. A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Brocksopp, C.; Grise, F.; Kaaret, P.; Romano, P.
2010-01-01
We report on the discovery by the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer of the black hole candidate Swift J1539.2-6227 and the subsequent course of an outburst beginning in November 2008 and lasting at least seven months. The source was discovered during normal observations with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on 2008 November 25. An extended observing campaign with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and Swift provided near-daily coverage over 176 days, giving us a rare opportunity to track the evolution of spectral and timing parameters with fine temporal resolution through a series of spectral states. The source was first detected in a hard state during which strong low-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) were detected. The QPOs persisted for about 35 days and a signature of the transition from the hard to soft intermediate states was seen in the timing data. The source entered a short-lived thermal state about 40 days after the start of the outburst. There were variations in spectral hardness as the source flux declined and returned to a hard state at the end of the outburst. The progression of spectral states and the nature of the timing features provide strong evidence that Swift J1539.2-6227 is a candidate black hole in a low-mass X-ray binary system.
Probing the active massive black hole candidate in the center of NGC 404 with VLBI
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paragi, Z. [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Frey, S. [FÖMI Satellite Geodetic Observatory, P.O. Box 585, H-1592 Budapest (Hungary); Kaaret, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Cseh, D. [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Overzier, R. [Observatório Nacional, Rua José Cristino, 77. CEP 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Kharb, P., E-mail: zparagi@jive.nl [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India)
2014-08-10
Recently, Nyland et al. argued that the radio emission observed in the center of the dwarf galaxy NGC 404 originates in a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus powered by a massive black hole (MBH, M ≲ 10{sup 6} M{sub ☉}). High-resolution radio detections of MBHs are rare. Here we present sensitive, contemporaneous Chandra X-ray, and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio observations with the European VLBI Network. The source is detected in the X-rays, and shows no long-term variability. If the hard X-ray source is powered by accretion, the apparent low accretion efficiency would be consistent with a black hole (BH) in the hard state. Hard state BHs are known to show radio emission compact on the milliarcsecond scales. However, the central region of NGC 404 is resolved out on 10 mas (0.15-1.5 pc) scales. Our VLBI non-detection of a compact, partially self-absorbed radio core in NGC 404 implies that either the BH mass is smaller than 3{sub −2}{sup +5}×10{sup 5} M{sub ☉}, or the source does not follow the fundamental plane of BH activity relation. An alternative explanation is that the central BH is not in the hard state. The radio emission observed on arcsecond (tens of parsecs) scales may originate in nuclear star formation or extended emission due to AGN activity, although the latter would not be typical considering the structural properties of low-ionization nuclear emission-line region galaxies with confirmed nuclear activity.
Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Markwardt, Craig; Swank, Jean; Krimm, Hans
2010-11-01
We report on the discovery and monitoring observations of a new galactic black hole (BH) candidate XTE J1752-223 by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The new source appeared on the X-ray sky on 2009 October 21 and was active for almost 8 months. Phenomenologically, the source exhibited the low-hard/high-soft spectral state bi-modality and the variability evolution during the state transition that matches standard behavior expected from a stellar mass BH binary. We model the energy spectrum throughout the outburst using a generic Comptonization model assuming that part of the input soft radiation in the form of a blackbody spectrum gets reprocessed in the Comptonizing medium. We follow the evolution of fractional root-mean-square (rms) variability in the RXTE/PCA energy band with the source spectral state and conclude that broadband variability is strongly correlated with the source hardness (or Comptonized fraction). We follow changes in the energy distribution of rms variability during the low-hard state and the state transition, and find further evidence that variable emission is strongly concentrated in the power-law spectral component. We discuss the implication of our results to the Comptonization regimes during different spectral states. Correlations of spectral and variability properties provide measurements of the BH mass and distance to the source. The spectral-timing correlation scaling technique applied to the RXTE observations during the hard-to-soft state transition indicates a mass of the BH in XTE J1752-223 between 8 and 11 solar masses and a distance to the source of about 3.5 kpc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on the discovery and monitoring observations of a new galactic black hole (BH) candidate XTE J1752-223 by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The new source appeared on the X-ray sky on 2009 October 21 and was active for almost 8 months. Phenomenologically, the source exhibited the low-hard/high-soft spectral state bi-modality and the variability evolution during the state transition that matches standard behavior expected from a stellar mass BH binary. We model the energy spectrum throughout the outburst using a generic Comptonization model assuming that part of the input soft radiation in the form of a blackbody spectrum gets reprocessed in the Comptonizing medium. We follow the evolution of fractional root-mean-square (rms) variability in the RXTE/PCA energy band with the source spectral state and conclude that broadband variability is strongly correlated with the source hardness (or Comptonized fraction). We follow changes in the energy distribution of rms variability during the low-hard state and the state transition, and find further evidence that variable emission is strongly concentrated in the power-law spectral component. We discuss the implication of our results to the Comptonization regimes during different spectral states. Correlations of spectral and variability properties provide measurements of the BH mass and distance to the source. The spectral-timing correlation scaling technique applied to the RXTE observations during the hard-to-soft state transition indicates a mass of the BH in XTE J1752-223 between 8 and 11 solar masses and a distance to the source of about 3.5 kpc.
A candidate supermassive binary black hole system in the brightest cluster galaxy of RBS 797
Gitti, M; Giovannini, G; Feretti, L; Liuzzo, E
2013-01-01
The radio source at the center of the cool core galaxy cluster RBS 797 (z=0.35) is known to exhibit a misalignment of its radio jets and lobes observed at different VLA-scale, with the innermost kpc-scale jets being almost orthogonal to the radio emission which extends for tens of kpc filling the X-ray cavities. Gitti et al. suggested that this peculiar radio morphology may indicate a recurrent activity of the central radio source, where the jet orientation is changing between the different outbursts due to the effects of supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs). We aim at unveiling the nuclear radio properties of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in RBS 797 and at investigating the presence of a SMBBH system in its center. We have performed new high-resolution observations at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN), reaching an angular resolution of 9x5 mas^2 and a sensitivity of 36 microJy/beam. We report the EVN detection of two compact components in the BCG of RBS 797, with a projected separation of ~...
Disc-jet coupling in the 2009 outburst of the black hole candidate H1743-322
Miller-Jones, J C A; Altamirano, D; Coriat, M; Corbel, S; Dhawan, V; Krimm, H A; Remillard, R A; Rupen, M P; Russell, D M; Fender, R P; Heinz, S; Körding, E G; Maitra, D; Markoff, S; Migliari, S; Sarazin, C L; Tudose, V
2012-01-01
We present an intensive radio and X-ray monitoring campaign on the 2009 outburst of the Galactic black hole candidate X-ray binary H1743-322. With the high angular resolution of the Very Long Baseline Array, we resolve the jet ejection event and measure the proper motions of the jet ejecta relative to the position of the compact core jets detected at the beginning of the outburst. This allows us to accurately couple the moment when the jet ejection event occurred with X-ray spectral and timing signatures. We find that X-ray timing signatures are the best diagnostic of the jet ejection event in this outburst, which occurred as the X-ray variability began to decrease and the Type C quasi-periodic oscillations disappeared from the X-ray power density spectrum. However, this sequence of events does not appear to be replicated in all black hole X-ray binary outbursts, even within an individual source. In our observations of H1743-322, the ejection was contemporaneous with a quenching of the radio emission, prior t...
Jiang, Jiachen; Steiner, James F
2016-01-01
The iron K$\\alpha$ line commonly observed in the X-ray spectrum of black hole candidates is produced by X-ray fluorescence of the inner accretion disk. This line can potentially be quite a powerful tool to probe the spacetime geometry around these objects and test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. In a previous paper, we studied the ability to constrain possible deviations from the Kerr solution from the standard time-integrated iron line spectrum within the Cardoso-Pani-Rico framework. In the present work, we expand on that study and consider iron line reverberation mapping in the CPR framework. That is, we consider the time-evolution of the iron line profile in response to fluctuations in the X-ray primary source. Our simulations clearly show that the time information in reverberation mapping can better constrain the background metric than the time-integrated approach, and this is true, notably, for the deformation parameter $\\epsilon^r_3$, which is only weakly informed by a time-integrated observation.
Estimation of Mass of the Black Hole Candidate MAXI J1659-152 using TCAF and POS Models
Molla, Aslam Ali; Debnath, Dipak; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Mondal, S.; Jana, A.
2016-04-01
The Galactic transient black hole candidate (BHC) MAXI J1659-152 exhibited temporal and spectral evolution during its very first X-ray outburst (2010) after its discovery on 25th Sept. 2010. Our recent studies of a few transient BHCs including MAXI J1659-152 using Chakrabarti-Titarchuk two-component advective flow (TCAF) solution as an additive table local model in XSPEC revealed details of accretion flow dynamics around the black hole (BH). The TCAF model fitted normalization (N) comes out to be almost constant throughout the entire outburst consisting of several spectral states. We introduce two independent methods to determine the mass (MBH) of the BHC, namely, i) keeping TCAF fitted normalization parameter in a narrow range, and ii) studying evolution of the Quasi-Periodic Oscillation frequency (νQPO) with time, fitted with the propagating oscillatory shock (POS) model. The predicted mass ranges of the source with these two methods are 4.7 - 7.8 M⊙, and 5.1 - 7.4 M⊙ respectively. Combining results of these two methods, we obtain a most probable mass range of the source to be 4.7 - 7.8 M⊙ or 6^{+1.8}_{-1.3} M_⊙.
SDSS J0159+0105: A Radio-Quiet Quasar with a Centi-Parsec Supermassive Black Hole Binary Candidate
Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Shen, Yue; Jiang, Linhua; Wang, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xian; Cuadra, Jorge
2015-01-01
We report a candidate centi-parsec supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) in the radio-quiet quasar SDSS J0159+0105 at z=0.217. The 8.1-year Catalina V-band light curve for this quasar reveals two significant (at P>99%) periodic signals at ~741 day and ~1500 day. The period ratio, which is close to 1:2, is typical of a black-hole binary system with a mass ratio of 0.05
The accretion-ejection coupling in the black hole candidate X-ray binary MAXI J1836-194
Russell, T D; Miller-Jones, J C A; Curran, P A; Markoff, S; Russell, D M; Sivakoff, G R
2013-01-01
We present the results of our quasi-simultaneous radio, sub-mm, infrared, optical and X-ray study of the Galactic black hole candidate X-ray binary MAXI J1836-194 during its 2011 outburst. We consider the full multi-wavelength spectral evolution of the outburst, investigating whether the evolution of the jet spectral break (the transition between optically-thick and optically-thin synchrotron emission) is caused by any specific properties of the accretion flow. Our observations show that the break does not scale with the X-ray luminosity or with the inner radius of the accretion disk, and is instead likely to be set by much more complex processes. We find that the radius of the acceleration zone at the base of the jet decreases from ~10$^6$ gravitational radii during the hard intermediate state to ~10$^3$ gravitational radii as the outburst fades (assuming a black hole mass of 8 M$_{\\odot}$), demonstrating that the electrons are accelerated on much larger scales than the radius of the inner accretion disk and...
The evolution of the X-ray phase lags during the outbursts of the black hole candidate GX 339–4
Altamirano, Diego; Mendez, Mariano
2015-01-01
Owing to the frequency and reproducibility of its outbursts, the black hole candidate GX 339–4 has become the standard against which the outbursts of other black hole candidate are matched up. Here we present the first systematic study of the evolution of the X-ray lags of the broad-band variability component (0.008–5 Hz) in GX 339?4 as a function of the position of the source in the hardness–intensity diagram. The hard photons always lag the soft ones, consistent with previous results. In th...
Nonstationary analogue black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bel, M.C.; Rodriguez, J.; Sizun, P.;
2004-01-01
We report the results of extensive high-energy observations of the X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTE J1720-318 performed with INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and RXTE. The source, which underwent an X-ray outburst in 2003 January, was observed in February in a spectral state dominated by a soft......, typical of a black-hole binary in the so-called High/Soft State. We then followed the evolution of the source outburst over several months using the INTEGRAL Galactic Centre survey observations. The source became active again at the end of March: it showed a clear transition towards a much harder state...... of the black hole X-ray novae class which populate our galactic bulge and we discuss its properties in the frame of the spectral models used for transient black hole binaries....
Hayward, Sean A.
2008-01-01
This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)
2007-11-15
We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.
Strominger, Andrew
1993-01-01
The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ``infinite statist...
Gao, C. J.; Zhang, S. N.
2006-01-01
The exact solutions of electrically charged phantom black holes with the cosmological constant are constructed. They are labelled by the mass, the electrical charge, the cosmological constant and the coupling constant between the phantom and the Maxwell field. It is found that the phantom has important consequences on the properties of black holes. In particular, the extremal charged phantom black holes can never be achieved and so the third law of thermodynamics for black holes still holds. ...
Broad-line AGNs with Candidate Intermediate-mass Black holes in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
Dong, X; Yuan, W; Zhou, H; Shan, H; Wang, H; Lü, H; Zhang, K; Dong, Xiaobo; Wang, Tinggui; Yuan, Weimin; Zhou, Hongyan; Shan, Hongguang; Wang, Huiyuan; Lu, Honglin
2006-01-01
We have conducted a systematic search of AGNs with IMBHs from the SDSS DR4. As results we found 245 candidates of broad-line AGN with M_{BH}<10^6 \\Msun estimated from the luminosity and width of the broad Halpha component. Compared to the pioneer Greene & Ho (2004) sample of 19 IMBH AGNs, our sample has improved in covering a larger range of the Eddington ratio, as well as black hole mass and redshift, taking the advantage of our AGN-galaxy spectral decomposition algorithm. Among these, thirty-six have L_{bol}/L_{Edd} < 0.1, hinting that a significant fraction of IMBHs might exist with weak or no nuclear activity.
Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel
2016-03-01
Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.
Hiemstra, Beike; Mendez, Mariano; Done, Chris; Diaz Trigo, Maria; Altamirano, Diego; Casella, Piergiorgio
2011-01-01
We observed the new X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTEJ1652-453 simultaneously with XMM-Newton and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observation was done during the decay of the 2009 outburst, when XTEJ1652-453 was in the hard-intermediate state. The spectrum shows a strong and b
Hiemstra, Beike; Soleri, Paolo; Mendez, Mariano; Belloni, Tomaso; Mostafa, Reham; Wijnands, Rudy
2009-01-01
We analysed simultaneous archival XMM-Newton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the X-ray binary and black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127. In a previous analysis of the same data, a soft thermal component was found in the X-ray spectrum, and the presence of an accretion disc extendin
Disc-jet Coupling in the 2009 Outburst of the Black Hole Candidate H1743-322
Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Altamirano, D.; Coriat, M.; Corbel, S.; Dhawan, V.; Krimm, H. A.; Remillard, R. A.; Rupen, M. P.; Russell, D. M.; Fender, R. P.; Heinz, S.; Kording, E. G.; Maitra, D.; Markoff, S.; Migliari, S.; Sarazin, C. L.; Tudose, V.
2012-01-01
We present an intensive radio and X-ray monitoring campaign on the 2009 outburst of the Galactic black hole candidate X-ray binary H1743-322. With the high angular resolution of the Very Long Baseline Array, we resolve the jet ejection event and measure the proper motions of the jet ejecta relative to the position of the compact core jets detected at the beginning of the outburst. This allows us to accurately couple the moment when the jet ejection event occurred with X-ray spectral and timing signatures. We find that X-ray timing signatures are the best diagnostic of the jet ejection event in this outburst, which occurred as the X-ray variability began to decrease and the Type C quasi-periodic oscillations disappeared from the X-ray power density spectrum. However, this sequence of events does not appear to be replicated in all black hole X-ray binary outbursts, even within an individual source. In our observations of H1743-322, the ejection was contemporaneous with a quenching of the radio emission, prior to the start of the major radio flare. This contradicts previous assumptions that the onset of the radio flare marks the moment of ejection. The jet speed appears to vary between outbursts with a positive correlation outburst luminosity. The compact core radio jet reactivated on transition to the hard intermediate state at the end of the outburst and not when the source reached the low hard spectral state. Comparison with the known near-infrared behaviour of the compact jets suggests a gradual evolution of the compact jet power over a few days near beginning the and end of an outburst
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a detailed spectral analysis of new XMM-Newton data of the source CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, detected in the COSMOS survey at z = 0.359. Previous works suggested that CID-42 is a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) showing also an inverted P-Cygni profile in the X-ray spectra at ∼6 keV (rest) with an iron emission line plus a redshifted absorption line (detected at 3σ in previous XMM-Newton and Chandra observations). Detailed analysis of the absorption line suggested the presence of ionized material flowing into the black hole at high velocity. In the new long XMM-Newton observation, while the overall spectral shape remains constant, the continuum 2-10 keV flux decrease of ∼20% with respect to previous observation and the absorption line is undetected. The upper limit on the intensity of the absorption line is EW < 162 eV. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations show that the nondetection of the line is solely due to variation in the properties of the inflowing material, in agreement with the transient nature of these features, and that the intensity of the line is lower than the previously measured with a probability of 98.8%. In the scenario of CID-42 as a recoiling SMBH, the absorption line can be interpreted as being due to an inflow of gas with variable density that is located in the proximity of the SMBH and recoiling with it. New monitoring observations will be requested to further characterize this line.
The X-ray view of black-hole candidate Swift J1842.5-1124 during its 2008 outburst
Zhao, H.-H.; Weng, S.-S.; Cai, J.-L. Qu, J.-P.; Yuan, Q.-R.
2016-08-01
Context. The spectral and temporal evolution during X-ray outbursts give important clues on the accretion process and radiation mechanism in black-hole X-ray binaries (BH XRBs). Aims: A set of Swift and RXTE observations were executed to monitor the 2008 outburst of the black-hole candidate Swift J1842.5-1124. We investigate these data to explore the accretion physics in BH XRBs. Methods: We carry out a comprehensive spectral and timing analysis on all the available pointing observations, including fitting both X-ray spectra and power density spectra, measuring the optical and near-ultraviolet flux density. We also search for correlations among the spectral and timing parameters. Results: The observed properties of Swift J1842.5-1124 are similar to other BH XRBs in many respects, for example the hardness-intensity diagram and hardness-rms diagram. The type-C quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) were observed as the source started to transit from the low-hard state to the high-soft state. The frequency of QPOs correlate with intensity and the hard component index, and anti-correlate with the hardness and the total fractional rms. These relations are consistent with the Lense-Thirring precession model. The estimated U-band flux changed with the X-ray flux, while the flux density at the V-band remained 0.26 mJy. These results imply that the X-ray reprocessing or the tail of thermal emission from the outer disk contributes a significant fraction of the U-band radiation; alternatively, the companion star or the jet dominates the flux at longer wavelengths.
Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation
Spaans, Marco
2016-01-01
Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.
Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica
2016-01-01
Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.
Begelman, Mitchell C
2003-06-20
Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather, they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ''infinite statistics'' which resembles that of distinguishable particles and is realized by a q deformation of the quantum commutation relations
Neves, J C S
2015-01-01
In this work, we have deformed regular black holes which possess a general mass term described by a function which generalizes the Bardeen and Hayward mass terms. Using linear constraints in the energy-momentum tensor, the solutions are either regular or singular. That is, with this approach, it is possible to generate singular black holes from regular black holes and vice versa. Moreover, contrary to the Bardeen and Hayward regular solutions, the regular deformed metrics may violate the weak energy condition despite the presence of the spherical symmetry. Some comments on accretion of deformed black holes in cosmological scenarios are made.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
General relativity makes clear predictions about the spacetime geometry around black holes. In the near future, new facilities will have the capability to explore the metric around SgrA*, the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of our Galaxy, and to open a new window to test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. In this paper, we compute light curves and images associated with compact emission regions (hot spots) orbiting around Kerr and non-Kerr black holes. We study how the analysis of the properties of the radiation emitted by a hot spot can be used to test the Kerr nature of SgrA*. We find that the sole observation of the hot spot light curve can at most constrain a combination of the black hole spin and of possible deviations from the Kerr solution. This happens because the same orbital frequency around a Kerr black hole can be found for a non-Kerr object with a different spin parameter. Second order corrections in the light curve due to the background geometry are typically too small to be identified. While the observation of the hot spot centroid track can potentially bound possible deviations from the Kerr solution, that is out of reach for the near future for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer instrument GRAVITY. The Kerr black hole hypothesis could really be tested in the case of the discovery of a radio pulsar in a compact orbit around SgrA*. Radio observations of such a pulsar would provide precise estimates of the mass and the spin of SgrA*, and the combination of these measurements (probing the weak field) with the hot spot light curve information (probing the strong field) may constrain/find possible deviations from the Kerr solution with quite good precision.
White holes and eternal black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)
White holes and eternal black holes
Stephen D. H. Hsu
2010-01-01
We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi- thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for instance, the UK
A reduced orbital period for the supermassive black hole binary candidate in the quasar PG 1302-102?
D'Orazio, Daniel J; Duffell, Paul; Farris, Brian D; MacFadyen, Andrew I
2015-01-01
Graham et al. (2015) have detected a 5.2 year periodic optical variability of the quasar PG 1302-102 at redshift $z=0.3$, which they interpret as the redshifted orbital period $(1+z)t_{\\rm bin}$ of a putative supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB). Here we consider the implications of a $3-8$ times shorter orbital period, suggested by hydrodynamical simulations of circumbinary discs (CBDs) with nearly equal--mass SMBHBs ($q\\equiv M_2/M_1\\gtrsim 0.3$). With the corresponding $2-4$ times tighter binary separation, PG 1302 would be undergoing gravitational wave dominated inspiral, and serve as a proof that the BHs can be fueled and produce bright emission even in this late stage of the merger. The expected fraction of binaries with the shorter $t_{\\rm bin}$, among bright quasars, would be reduced by 1-2 orders of magnitude, compared to the 5.2 year period, in better agreement with the rarity of candidates reported by Graham et al. (2015). Finally, shorter periods would imply higher binary speeds, possibly imprin...
Fabian, A C; Haehnelt, M; Rees, M J; Miller, J M
2013-01-01
We study the X-ray emission from NGC1277, a galaxy in the core of the Perseus cluster, for which van den Bosch et al. have recently claimed the presence of an UltraMassive Black Hole (UMBH) of mass 1.7 times 10^10 Msun, unless the IMF of the stars in the stellar bulge is extremely bottom heavy. The X-rays originate in a power-law component of luminosity 1.3 times 10^40 erg/s embedded in a 1 keV thermal minicorona which has a half-light radius of about 360 pc, typical of many early-type galaxies in rich clusters of galaxies. If Bondi accretion operated onto the UMBH from the minicorona with a radiative efficiency of 10 per cent, then the object would appear as a quasar with luminosity 10^46 erg/s, a factor of almost 10^6 times higher than observed. The accretion flow must be highly radiatively inefficient, similar to past results on M87 and NGC3115. The UMBH in NGC1277 is definitely not undergoing any significant growth at the present epoch. We note that there are 3 UMBH candidates in the Perseus cluster and t...
Charisi, Maria; Haiman, Zoltán; Price-Whelan, Adrian M; Márka, Szabolcs
2015-01-01
Graham et al. (2015) discovered a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) candidate and identified the detected 5.2 yr period of the optical variability as the orbital period of the binary. Hydrodynamical simulations predict multiple periodic components for the variability of SMBHBs, thus raising the possibility that the true period of the binary is different from 5.2 yr. We analyse the periodogram of PG1302 and find no compelling evidence for additional peaks. We derive upper limits on any additional periodic modulations in the available data, by modeling the light-curve as the sum of red noise and the known 5.2 yr periodic component, and injecting additional sinusoidal signals. We find that, with the current data, we would be able to detect with high significance (false alarm probability <1%) secondary periodic terms with periods in the range predicted by the simulations, if the amplitude of the variability was at least ~0.07 mag (compared to 0.14 mag for the main peak). A three-year follow-up monitoring ...
On the radio properties of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1
Cseh, D.; Webb, N. A.; Godet, O.; D. Barret(IRAP, Toulouse, France); Corbel, S.; Coriat, M.; Falcke, H.; Farrell, S. A.; Körding, E.; Lenc, E.; Wrobel, J. M.
2014-01-01
We present follow-up radio observations of ESO 243-49 HLX-1 from 2012 using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We report the detection of radio emission at the location of HLX-1 during its hard X-ray state using the ATCA. Assuming that the `Fundamental Plane' of accreting black holes is applicable, we provide an independent estimate of the black hole mass of $M_{\\rm{BH}}\\leq2.8^{+7.5}_{-2.1} \\times 10^{6}$ M$_{\\odot}$ at 90% confidence....
An Extreme X-ray Disk Wind in the Black Hole Candidate IGR J17091-3624
King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M.; Raymond, John; Fabian, Andy C.; Reynolds, Chris S.; Kallman, Tim R.; Maitra, Dipankar; Cackett, Edward M.; Rupen, Michael P.
2011-01-01
{\\it Chandra} spectroscopy of transient stellar-mass black holes in outburst has clearly revealed accretion disk winds in soft, disk--dominated states, in apparent anti-correlation with relativistic jets in low/hard states. These disk winds are observed to be highly ionized, dense, and to have typical velocities of $\\sim$1000 km/s or less projected along our line of sight. Here, we present an analysis of two {\\it Chandra} High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the Galactic black hole can...
Noncommutative Singular Black Holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t - r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.
Noncommutative Singular Black Holes
Hamid Mehdipour, S.
2010-11-01
In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t — r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kragh, Helge Stjernholm
2016-01-01
Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....
Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.
1997-08-01
We summarise recent work on the quantum production of black holes in the inflationary era. We describe, in simple terms, the Euclidean approach used, and the results obtained both for the pair creation rate and for the evolution of the black holes.
Andersson, N
2000-01-01
This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Koustubh Ajit Kabe
2012-09-01
In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.
Kuchiev, M Yu
2003-01-01
Black holes are presumed to have an ideal ability to absorb and keep matter. Whatever comes close to the event horizon, a boundary separating the inside region of a black hole from the outside world, inevitably goes in and remains inside forever. This work shows, however, that quantum corrections make possible a surprising process, reflection: a particle can bounce back from the event horizon. For low energy particles this process is efficient, black holes behave not as holes, but as mirrors, which changes our perception of their physical nature. Possible ways for observations of the reflection and its relation to the Hawking radiation process are outlined.
Evolution of massive black holes
Volonteri, Marta
2007-01-01
Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I'll discuss black hole formation processes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and how massive black hole evolve in a hierarchical Universe...
Fluctuating Black Hole Horizons
Mei, Jianwei
2013-01-01
In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.
Hajdukovic, D
2006-01-01
We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.
Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal ε-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal ε-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to be less
Ahn, Eun-Joo; Cavaglia, Marco
2003-01-01
Production of high-energy gravitational objects is a common feature of gravitational theories. The primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities. Cosmic black holes can be used to probe physical properties of the very early universe which would usually require the knowledge of the theory of quantum gravity. They may be the only tool to explore thermalisation of the early universe. Whereas the creation of cosmic black ...
ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production
Shapovalova, A. I.; Popović, L. Č.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Burenkov, A. N.; Ilić, D.; Kollatschny, W.; Kovačević, A.; Valdés, J. R.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; León-Tavares, J.; Torrealba, J.; Zhdanova, V. E.
2016-02-01
We report the results of the first long-term (1990-2014) optical spectrophotometric monitoring of a binary black hole candidate QSO E1821+643, a low-redshift, high-luminosity, radio-quiet quasar. In the monitored period, the continua and Hγ fluxes changed about two times, while the Hβ flux changed about 1.4 times. We found periodical variations in the photometric flux with periods of 1200, 1850, and 4000 days, and 4500-day periodicity in the spectroscopic variations. However, the periodicity of 4000-4500 days covers only one cycle of variation and should be confirmed with a longer monitoring campaign. There is an indication of the period around 1300 days in the spectroscopic light curves, buts with small significance level, while the 1850-day period could not be clearly identified in the spectroscopic light curves. The line profiles have not significantly changed, showing an important red asymmetry and broad line peak redshifted around +1000 km s-1. However, Hβ shows a broader mean profile and has a larger time lag (τ ˜ 120 days) than Hγ (τ ˜ 60 days). We estimate that the mass of the black hole is ˜2.6 × 109 M⊙. The obtained results are discussed in the frame of the binary black hole hypothesis. To explain the periodicity in the flux variability and high redshift of the broad lines, we discuss a scenario where dense, gas-rich, cloudy-like structures are orbiting around a recoiling black hole.
SDSS J013127.34-032100.1: a candidate blazar with a 11 billion solar mass black hole at $z$=5.18
Ghisellini, G; Sbarrato, T; Gehrels, N
2015-01-01
The radio-loud quasar SDSS J013127.34-032100.1 at a redshift z=5.18 is one of the most distant radio-loud objects. The radio to optical flux ratio (i.e. the radio-loudness) of the source is large, making it a promising blazar candidate. Its overall spectral energy distribution, completed by the X-ray flux and slope derived through Target of Opportunity Swift/XRT observations, is interpreted by a jet non-thermal plus an accretion disc and molecular torus model. We estimate that its black hole mass is (1.1+-0.2)e10 Msun, the largest found at these redshifts. We derive a viewing angle between 3 and 5 degrees. This implies that there must be other (hundreds) sources with the same black hole mass of SDSS J013127.34-032100.1, but whose jets are pointing away from Earth. We discuss the problems posed by the existence of such large black hole masses at such redshifts, especially in jetted quasars. In fact, if they are associated to rapidly spinning black holes, the accretion efficiency is high, implying a slower pace...
Noncommutative Solitonic Black Hole
Chang-Young, Ee; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone
2012-01-01
We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field using the Moyal product expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in the two noncommutative spatial directions. By numerical simulation we look for black hole solutions by increasing the non- commutativity parameter value starting from regular solutions with vanishing noncommutativity. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.
Hayward, Sean Alan
2013-01-01
Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)
2015-05-11
In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2015-01-01
In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.
Gravitational waves from inspiralling binary black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binary black holes are the most promising candidate sources for the first generation of earth-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. We summarize and discuss the state-of-the-art analytical techniques developed during the last few years to better describe the late dynamical evolution of binary black holes of comparable masses
The evolution of the X-ray phase lags during the outbursts of the black hole candidate GX 339-4
Altamirano, Diego; Méndez, Mariano
2015-06-01
Owing to the frequency and reproducibility of its outbursts, the black hole candidate GX 339-4 has become the standard against which the outbursts of other black hole candidate are matched up. Here we present the first systematic study of the evolution of the X-ray lags of the broad-band variability component (0.008-5 Hz) in GX 339-4 as a function of the position of the source in the hardness-intensity diagram. The hard photons always lag the soft ones, consistent with previous results. In the low-hard state the lags correlate with X-ray intensity, and as the source starts the transition to the intermediate/soft states, the lags first increase faster, and then appear to reach a maximum, although the exact evolution depends on the outburst and the energy band used to calculate the lags. The time of the maximum of the lags appears to coincide with a sudden drop of the optical/near-infrared flux, the fractional rms amplitude of the broad-band component in the power spectrum, and the appearance of a thermal component in the X-ray spectra, strongly suggesting that the lags can be very useful to understand the physical changes that GX 339-4 undergoes during an outburst. We find strong evidence for a connection between the evolution of the cut-off energy of the hard component in the energy spectrum and the phase lags, suggesting that the average magnitude of the lags is correlated with the properties of the corona/jet rather than those of the disc. Finally, we show that the lags in GX 339-4 evolve in a similar manner to those of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1, suggesting similar phenomena could be observable in other black hole systems.
Lanzoni, B; Ferraro, F R; Miocchi, P; Valenti, E; Rood, R T
2007-01-01
We have used a combination of high resolution (HST ACS-HRC, ACS-WFC, and WFPC2) and wide-field (ESO-WFI) observations of the galactic globular cluster NGC 6388 to derive its center of gravity, projected density profile, and central surface brightness profile. While the overall projected profiles are well fit by a King model with intermediate concentration (c=1.8) and sizable core radius (rc=7"), a significant power law (with slope \\alpha=-0.2) deviation from a flat core behavior has been detected within the inner 1 arcsecond. These properties suggest the presence of a central intermediate mass black hole. The observed profiles are well reproduced by a multi-mass isotropic, spherical model including a black hole with a mass of ~5.7x10^3 Msol.
ASM Triggered too Observations of 100,000 C/s Black-Hole Candidates (core Program)
Resubmission accepted Cycle 2-11 proposal. The PCA is unique by the high count rates (~100.000 c/s) it can record, and its resulting extreme sensitivity to weak variability. Only few sources get this bright. Our RXTE work on Sco X-1 and 1744-28 shows that high count rate observations are very rewarding, but also difficult and not without risk. In the life of the satellite probably only one black hole transient (if any) will reach 10^5 cps/5 PCU levels. When this occurs a window of discovery will be opened on black holes, which will nearly certainly close again within a few days. This proposal aims at ensuring that optimal use is made of this opportunity by performing state of the art high count rate observations covering all of the most crusial aspects of the source variability.
SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF THE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE MAXI J1836-194 IN A HARD/INTERMEDIATE SPECTRAL STATE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report on a Suzaku observation of the newly discovered X-ray binary MAXI J1836-194. The source is found to be in the hard/intermediate spectral state and displays a clear and strong relativistically broadened iron emission line. We fit the spectra with a variety of phenomenological, as well as physically motivated disk reflection models, and find that the breadth and strength of the iron line are always characteristic of emission within a few gravitational radii around a black hole. This result is independent of the continuum used and strongly points toward the central object in MAXI J1836-194 being a stellar mass black hole rotating with a spin of a = 0.88 ± 0.03 (90% confidence). We discuss this result in the context of spectral state definitions, physical changes (or lack thereof) in the accretion disk, and on the potential importance of the accretion disk corona in state transitions.
On Noncommutative Black Holes Thermodynamics
Faizal, Mir; Ulhoa, S C
2015-01-01
In this paper, we will analyze noncommutative deformation of the Schwarzschild black holes and Kerr black holes. We will perform our analysis by relating the commutative and the noncommutative metrics using an Moyal product. We will also analyze the thermodynamics of these noncommutative black hole solutions. We will explicitly derive expression for the corrected entropy and temperature of these black hole solutions.
The Thermodynamics of Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wald Robert M.
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.
The Thermodynamics of Black Holes
Wald Robert M.
1999-01-01
We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.
Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.
1971-01-01
discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this review we shall concentrate on the application of the concept of black hole to different areas in astrophysics. Models in which this idea is involved are connected with basically two areas in astrophysics: a) The death of massive stars due to gravitational collapse. This process would lead to the formation of black holes with stellar masses (10-20 M sun). The detection of these kind of - objects is in principle possible, by means of studying the so-called X-ray binary system. b) Active nuclei of galaxies, including quasars as an extreme case. In this case, the best model available to explain the generation of the enormous amounts of energy observed as well as several other properties, is accretion into a supermassive black hole (106-1010 M sun) in the center. The problem of the origin of such black holes is related to cosmology. (author)
Topics in black hole evaporation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two major aspects of particle creation by gravitational fields of black holes are studied: the neutrino emission from rotating black holes; and interactions between scalar particles emitted by a black hole. Neutrino emission is investigated under three topics: The asymmetry of the angular dependence of neutrino emission from rotating black holes; the production of a local matter excess by rotating black holes in a baryon symmetric universe; and cosmological magnetic field generation by neutrinos from evaporating black holes. Finally the author studies the effects of interactions on the black hole evaporation process
Stornaiolo, Cosimo
2001-01-01
In this paper we propose a model for the formation of the cosmological voids. We show that cosmological voids can form directly after the collapse of extremely large wavelength perturbations into low-density black holes or cosmological black holes (CBH). Consequently the voids are formed by the comoving expansion of the matter that surrounds the collapsed perturbation. It follows that the universe evolves, in first approximation, according to the Einstein-Straus cosmological model. We discuss...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references
Thermal corpuscular black holes
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-01-01
We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number $N$ of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy $\\omega>m$). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temp...
Black hole critical phenomena without black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Steven L Liebling
2000-10-01
Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I brieﬂy review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.
2002-10-01
Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar
2015-05-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.
Science Teacher, 2005
2005-01-01
Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…
Cosmic censorship inside black holes
Thorlacius, L
2006-01-01
A simple argument is given that a traversable Cauchy horizon inside a black hole is incompatible with unitary black hole evolution. The argument assumes the validity of black hole complementarity and applies to a generic black hole carrying angular momentum and/or charge. In the second part of the paper we review recent work on the semiclassical geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes.
Bekenstein, Jacob D.
1997-01-01
In some respects the black hole plays the same role in gravitation that the atom played in the nascent quantum mechanics. This analogy suggests that black hole mass $M$ might have a discrete spectrum. I review the physical arguments for the expectation that black hole horizon area eigenvalues are uniformly spaced, or equivalently, that the spacing between stationary black hole mass levels behaves like 1/M. This sort of spectrum has also emerged in a variety of formal approaches to black hole ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2002-02-01
Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome ‘remnants’. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a ‘fuzzball’ structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: ► The information paradox is a serious problem. ► To solve it we need to find ‘hair’ on black holes. ► In string theory we find ‘hair’ by the fuzzball construction. ► Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.
New insights on the recoiling/binary black hole candidate J0927+2943 via molecular gas observations
Decarli, Roberto; Dotti, Massimo; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Montuori, Carmen; Volonteri, Marta
2014-01-01
The peculiar QSO J0927+2943 shows multiple sets of emission lines in its optical spectrum. This signature has been interpreted as the relative motion between a black hole, either recoiling or bound in a binary system, and its host galaxy, or as a superposition of two galaxies along the line of sight. In order to test these scenarios, we have collected 2mm CO(2-1) observations using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, and optical images and spectroscopy at the Calar Alto observatory. Toge...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astrophysical black hole (BH) candidates are thought to be the Kerr BHs predicted by general relativity, but the actual nature of these objects has still to be proven. The analysis of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a geometrically thin and optically thick accretion disk around a BH candidate can provide information about the geometry of the spacetime around the compact object and it can thus test the Kerr BH hypothesis. In this paper, I present a code based on a ray-tracing approach and capable of computing some basic properties of thin accretion disks in spacetimes with deviations from the Kerr background. The code can be used to fit current and future X-ray data of stellar-mass BH candidates and constrain possible deviations from the Kerr geometry in the spin parameter-deformation parameter plane.
Hawking, S. W.
1996-03-01
One would expect spacetime to have a foamlike structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the nontrivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S2×S2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S2×S2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix S/ that does not factorize into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the θ angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The picture of virtual black holes given here also suggests that macroscopic black holes will evaporate down to the Planck size and then disappear in the sea of virtual black holes.
Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar
2015-01-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...
Miller, J M; Wijnands, R; Reynolds, C S; Ehle, M; Freyberg, M J; Van der Klis, M; Lewin, W H G; Sánchez-Fernández, C; Castro-Tirado, A J
2002-01-01
We observed the Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1650-500 early in its Fall, 2001 outburst with the XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging pn Camera (EPIC-pn). The observed spectrum is consistent with the source having been in the "very high" state. We find a broad, skewed Fe K-alpha emission line which suggests that the primary in this system may be a Kerr black hole, and which indicates a steep emissivity profile that is hard to explain in terms of a standard accretion disk model. These results are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those from an XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert galaxy MCG--6-30-15. The steep emissivity in MCG--6-30-15 may be explained by the extraction and dissipation of rotational energy from a black hole with nearly- maximal angular momentum or material in the plunging region via magnetic connections to the inner accretion disk. If this process is at work in both sources, an exotic but fundamental general relativistic prediction may be confirmed across a factor of 10^6 in bla...
Brightman, Murray; Barret, Didier; Davis, Shane W; Fürst, Felix; Madsen, Kristin K; Middleton, Matthew; Miller, Jon M; Stern, Daniel; Tao, Lian; Walton, Dominic J
2016-01-01
M82 X-1 is one of the brightest ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) known, which, assuming Eddington-limited accretion and other considerations, makes it one of the best intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) candidates. However, the ULX may still be explained by super-Eddington accretion onto a stellar-remnant black hole. We present simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra and Swift/XRT observations during the peak of a flaring episode with the aim of modeling the emission of M82 X-1 and yielding insights into its nature. We find that thin-accretion disk models all require accretion rates at or above the Eddington limit in order to reproduce the spectral shape, given a range of black hole masses and spins. Since at these high Eddington ratios the thin-disk model breaks down due to radial advection in the disk, we discard the results of the thin-disk models as unphysical. We find that the temperature profile as a function of disk radius ($T(r)\\propto r^{-p}$) is significantly flatter ($p=0.55^{+ 0.07}_{- 0.04}$) than expecte...
Noncommutative black hole thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We give a general derivation, for any static spherically symmetric metric, of the relation Th=(K/2π) connecting the black hole temperature (Th) with the surface gravity (K), following the tunneling interpretation of Hawking radiation. This derivation is valid even beyond the semi-classical regime, i.e. when quantum effects are not negligible. The formalism is then applied to a spherically symmetric, stationary noncommutative Schwarzschild space-time. The effects of backreaction are also included. For such a black hole the Hawking temperature is computed in a closed form. A graphical analysis reveals interesting features regarding the variation of the Hawking temperature (including corrections due to noncommutativity and backreaction) with the small radius of the black hole. The entropy and tunneling rate valid for the leading order in the noncommutative parameter are calculated. We also show that the noncommutative Bekenstein-Hawking area law has the same functional form as the usual one
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids. PMID:25768746
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a cold, stable remnant
Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
2013-12-01
General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a "cold", stable remnant.
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics
Yang, Huan; Lehner, Luis
2014-01-01
We show that rapidly-spinning black holes can display turbulent gravitational behavior which is mediated by a new type of parametric instability. This instability transfers energy from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies--- a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse energy cascade displayed by 2+1-dimensional turbulent fluids. Our finding reveals a path towards gravitational turbulence for perturbations of rapidly-spinning black holes, and provides the first evidence for gravitational turbulence in an asymptotically flat spacetime. Interestingly, this finding predicts observable gravitational wave signatures from such phenomena in black hole binaries with high spins and gives a gravitational description of turbulence relevant to the fluid-gravity duality.
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-01
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability—which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold—akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies—a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2 +1 )-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
Correlated X-ray Spectral and Timing Behavior of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550-564
Homan, J; Van der Klis, M; Belloni, T; Van Paradijs, J; Klein-Wolt, M; Fender, R P; Méndez, M; Homan, Jeroen; Wijnands, Rudy; Klis, Michiel van der; Belloni, Tomaso; Paradijs, Jan van; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Fender, Robert P; Mendez, Mariano
2000-01-01
We present an analysis of data of the black hole X-ray transient XTE J1550-564, taken with RXTE between 1998 Nov 22 and 1999 May 20. The source went through several different states, which were divided into soft and hard states, based on the relative strength of the high energy power law tail. The states showed up as distinct branches in the color-color diagram, connecting to form a structure with a comb-like topology, the branch corresponding to the soft state forming the spine and the branches corresponding to the various hard states forming the teeth of the comb. The power spectral properties of each branch were correlated with their spectral properties. Three types of QPOs were found: 1-18 Hz and 100-285 Hz QPOs on the hard branches, and 15-18 Hz QPOs on and near the soft branch. The frequency of the high and low frequency QPOs on the hard branches were correlated with each other, and with spectral hardness. The behavior of the XTE J1550-564 strongly favors a two-dimensional description of black hole beha...
On the radio properties of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1
Cseh, D; Godet, O; Barret, D; Corbel, S; Coriat, M; Falcke, H; Farrell, S A; Koerding, E; Lenc, E; Wrobel, J M
2014-01-01
We present follow-up radio observations of ESO 243-49 HLX-1 from 2012 using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We report the detection of radio emission at the location of HLX-1 during its hard X-ray state using the ATCA. Assuming that the `Fundamental Plane' of accreting black holes is applicable, we provide an independent estimate of the black hole mass of $M_{\\rm{BH}}\\leq2.8^{+7.5}_{-2.1} \\times 10^{6}$ M$_{\\odot}$ at 90% confidence. However, we argue that the detected radio emission is likely to be Doppler-boosted and our mass estimate is an upper limit. We discuss other possible origins of the radio emission such as being due to a radio nebula, star formation, or later interaction of the flares with the large-scale environment. None of these were found adequate. The VLA observations were carried out during the X-ray outburst. However, no new radio flare was detected, possibly due to a sparse time sampling. The deepest, combined VLA data suggests a ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black hole predicted by General Relativity. However, in order to confirm the Kerr-nature of these objects, we need to probe the geometry of the space-time around them and check that observations are consistent with the predictions of the Kerr metric. That can be achieved, for instance, by studying the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the accretion disk. The high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in the X-ray flux of some stellar-mass black hole candidates might do the job. As the frequencies of these oscillations depend only very weakly on the observed X-ray flux, it is thought they are mainly determined by the metric of the space-time. In this paper, I consider the resonance models proposed by Abramowicz and Kluzniak and I extend previous results to the case of non-Kerr space-times. The emerging picture is more complicated than the one around a Kerr black hole and there is a larger number of possible combinations between different modes. I then compare the bounds inferred from the twin peak high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in three micro-quasars (GRO J1655-40, XTE J1550-564, and GRS 1915+105) with the measurements from the continuum-fitting method of the same objects. For Kerr black holes, the two approaches do not provide consistent results. In a non-Kerr geometry, this conflict may be solved if the observed quasi-periodic oscillations are produced by the resonance νθ:νr = 3:1, where νθ and νr are the two epicyclic frequencies. It is at least worth mentioning that the deformation from the Kerr solution required by observations would be consistent with the one suggested in another recent work discussing the possibility that steady jets are powered by the spin of these compact objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ∞≅2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
Noncommutative solitonic black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value. (paper)
Noncommutative solitonic black hole
Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone
2012-05-01
We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.
Hennigar, Robie A; Tjoa, Erickson
2016-01-01
We present what we believe is the first example of a "$\\lambda$-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid $^4$He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically AdS hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.
Hawking, Stephen W.
1995-01-01
One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...
Aarseth, Sverre J
2007-01-01
We describe efforts over the last six years to implement regularization methods suitable for studying one or more interacting black holes by direct N-body simulations. Three different methods have been adapted to large-N systems: (i) Time-Transformed Leapfrog, (ii) Wheel-Spoke, and (iii) Algorithmic Regularization. These methods have been tried out with some success on GRAPE-type computers. Special emphasis has also been devoted to including post-Newtonian terms, with application to moderately massive black holes in stellar clusters. Some examples of simulations leading to coalescence by gravitational radiation will be presented to illustrate the practical usefulness of such methods.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.
1987-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging
Visser, M
1999-01-01
Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.
Good, Michael R R
2014-01-01
A $(3+1)$-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed $\\Omega_+$ can be used to define an effective spring constant, $k=m\\Omega_+^2$. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, $k = \\kappa $, which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: $2\\pi T = \\kappa - k$. Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force $F = 1/4$, which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.
Horndeski black hole geodesics
Tretyakova, D A
2016-01-01
We examine geodesics for the scalar-tensor black holes in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits may not be present within some model parameters range. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations. We also present a new (although very similar to those previously known) solution, which contains the orbits we expect from a compact object, admits regular scalar field at the horizon and and can fit into the known stability criteria.
Horowitz, Gary T.; Maldacena, Juan
2003-01-01
We propose that in quantum gravity one needs to impose a final state boundary condition at black hole singularities. This resolves the apparent contradiction between string theory and semiclassical arguments over whether black hole evaporation is unitary.
Quantum aspects of black holes
2015-01-01
Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-10-01
The “no-hair” theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively “frozen in” the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πcℏ), where Φ∞≈2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole’s magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
Kerr black holes are not fragile
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McInnes, Brett, E-mail: matmcinn@nus.edu.sg [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECs), Valdivia (Chile); National University of Singapore (Singapore)
2012-04-21
Certain AdS black holes are 'fragile', in the sense that, if they are deformed excessively, they become unstable to a fundamental non-perturbative stringy effect analogous to Schwinger pair-production [of branes]. Near-extremal topologically spherical AdS-Kerr black holes, which are natural candidates for string-theoretic models of the very rapidly rotating black holes that have actually been observed to exist, do represent a very drastic deformation of the AdS-Schwarzschild geometry. One therefore has strong reason to fear that these objects might be 'fragile', which in turn could mean that asymptotically flat rapidly rotating black holes might be fragile in string theory. Here we show that this does not happen: despite the severe deformation implied by near-extremal angular momenta, brane pair-production around topologically spherical AdS-Kerr-Newman black holes is always suppressed.
Black hole and holographic dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the connection between black hole and holographic dark energy. We examine the issue of the equation of state (EOS) for holographic energy density as a candidate for the dark energy carefully. This is closely related to the EOS for black hole, because the holographic dark energy comes from the black hole energy density. In order to derive the EOS of a black hole, we may use its dual (quantum) systems. Finally, a regular black hole without the singularity is introduced to describe an accelerating universe inside the cosmological horizon. Inspired by this, we show that the holographic energy density with the cosmological horizon as the IR cutoff leads to the dark energy-dominated universe with ωΛ=-1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-09-22
A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.
Exact solutions of higher dimensional black holes
Tomizawa, Shinya
2011-01-01
We review exact solutions of black holes in higher dimensions, focusing on asymptotically flat black hole solutions and Kaluza-Klein type black hole solutions. We also summarize some properties which such black hole solutions reveal.
Black Hole Evaporation. A Survey
Benachenhou, Farid
1994-01-01
This thesis is a review of black hole evaporation with emphasis on recent results obtained for two dimensional black holes. First, the geometry of the most general stationary black hole in four dimensions is described and some classical quantities are defined. Then, a derivation of the spectrum of the radiation emitted during the evaporation is presented. In section four, a two dimensional model which has black hole solutions is introduced, the so-called CGHS model. These two dimensional blac...
Towards noncommutative quantum black holes
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In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole
Towards Noncommutative Quantum Black Holes
Lopez-Dominguez, J. C.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.; Sabido, M.
2006-01-01
In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole.
Black Hole: The Interior Spacetime
Ong, Yen Chin
2016-01-01
The information loss paradox is often discussed from the perspective of the observers who stay outside of a black hole. However, the interior spacetime of a black hole can be rather nontrivial. We discuss the open problems regarding the volume of a black hole, and whether it plays any role in information storage. We also emphasize the importance of resolving the black hole singularity, if one were to resolve the information loss paradox.
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We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.
Baker, John
2010-01-01
Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.
The evolution of the X-ray phase lags during the outbursts of the black hole candidate GX 339-4
Altamirano, Diego
2015-01-01
Owing to the frequency and reproducibility of its outbursts, the black-hole candidate GX 339-4 has become the standard against which the outbursts of other black-hole candidate are matched up. Here we present the first systematic study of the evolution of the X-ray lags of the broad-band variability component (0.008-5 Hz) in GX 339-4 as a function of the position of the source in the hardness-intensity diagram. The hard photons always lag the soft ones, consistent with previous results. In the low-hard state the lags correlate with X-ray intensity, and as the source starts the transition to the intermediate/soft states, the lags first increase faster, and then appear to reach a maximum, although the exact evolution depends on the outburst and the energy band used to calculate the lags. The time of the maximum of the lags appears to coincide with a sudden drop of the Optical/NIR flux, the fractional RMS amplitude of the broadband component in the power spectrum, and the appearance of a thermal component in the...
Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
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In four space-time dimensions black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory satisfy a number of theorems. In more than four space-time dimensions, however, some of the properties of black holes can change. In particular, uniqueness of black holes no longer holds. In five and more dimensions black rings arise. Thus in a certain region of the phase diagram there are three black objects with the same global charges present. Here we discuss properties of higher-dimensional vacuum and charged black holes, which possess a spherical horizon topology, and of vacuum and charged black rings, which have a ringlike horizon topology
Warped products and black holes
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We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes
Warped products and black holes
Hong, S T
2005-01-01
We apply the warped product spacetime scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others
1995-07-01
Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.
Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Swank, Jean; Krimm, Hans
2010-01-01
We report on the discovery and monitoring observations of a new galactic black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The new source appeared on the X-ray sky on October 21 2009 and was active for almost 8 months. Phenomenologically, the source exhibited the low-hard/high-soft spectral state bi-modality and the variability evolution during the state transition that matches standard behavior expected from a stellar mass black hole binary. We model the energy spectrum throughout the outburst using a generic Comptonization model assuming that part of the input soft radiation in the form of a black body spectrum gets reprocessed in the Comptonizing medium. We follow the evolution of fractional root-mean-square (RMS) variability in the RXTE/PCA energy band with the source spectral state and conclude that broad band variability is strongly correlated with the source hardness (or Comptonized fraction). We follow changes in the energy distribution of rms variability during the low-hard st...
Spacetime and orbits of bumpy black holes
Vigeland, Sarah J
2009-01-01
Our universe contains a great number of extremely compact and massive objects which are generally accepted to be black holes. Precise observations of orbital motion near candidate black holes have the potential to determine if they have the spacetime structure that general relativity demands. As a means of formulating measurements to test the black hole nature of these objects, Collins and Hughes introduced "bumpy black holes": objects that are almost, but not quite, general relativity's black holes. The spacetimes of these objects have multipoles that deviate slightly from the black hole solution, reducing to black holes when the deviation is zero. In this paper, we extend this work in two ways. First, we show how to introduce bumps which are smoother and lead to better behaved orbits than those in the original presentation. Second, we show how to make bumpy Kerr black holes -- objects which reduce to the Kerr solution when the deviation goes to zero. This greatly extends the astrophysical applicability of b...
Rotating Brane World Black Holes
Modgil, Moninder Singh; Panda, Sukanta; Sengupta, Gautam
2001-01-01
A five dimensional rotating black string in a Randall-Sundrum brane world is considered. The black string intercepts the three brane in a four dimensional rotating black hole. The geodesic equations and the asymptotics in this background are discussed.
Evaporation Time of Horava Gravity Black Holes
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Recently it has been a lot of interest in the theory proposed by Horava because is a remormalizable theory of gravity and may be a candidate for the UV completion of Einstein gravity. In the present work we study thermodynamical properties of black hole type solutions in this setup. In particular we are able to obtain times of evaporation for black hole solution in this formalism.
Observational Evidence for Black Holes
Narayan, Ramesh; McClintock, Jeffrey E.
2013-01-01
Astronomers have discovered two populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range 10^6 to 10^{10} solar masses, one each in the nucleus of every galaxy. There is strong circumstantial evidence that all these objects are true black holes with event horizons. The measured masses of supermassive black hole are strongly corr...
Statistical mechanics of black holes
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We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed
Prisons of light : black holes
Ferguson, Kitty
What is a black hole? Could we survive a visit to one -- perhaps even venture inside? Have we yet discovered any real black holes? And what do black holes teach us about the mysteries of our Universe? These are just a few of the tantalizing questions examined in this tour-de-force, jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light - Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
Point mass Cosmological Black Holes
Firouzjaee, Javad T
2016-01-01
Real black holes in the universe are located in the expanding accelerating background which are called the cosmological black holes. Hence, it is necessary to model these black holes in the cosmological background where the dark energy is the dominant energy. In this paper, we argue that most of the dynamical cosmological black holes can be modeled by point mass cosmological black holes. Considering the de Sitter background for the accelerating universe, we present the point mass cosmological background in the cosmological de Sitter space time. Our work also includes the point mass black holes which have charge and angular momentum. We study the mass, horizons, redshift structure and geodesics properties for these black holes.
Chamblin, A; Reall, H S
2000-01-01
Gravitational collapse of matter trapped on a brane will produce a black hole on the brane. We discuss such black holes in the models of Randall and Sundrum where our universe is viewed as a domain wall in five dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We present evidence that a non-rotating uncharged black hole on the domain wall is described by a ``black cigar'' solution in five dimensions.
Chamblin, A.; Hawking, S. W.; Reall, H. S.
2000-03-01
Gravitational collapse of matter trapped on a brane will produce a black hole on the brane. We discuss such black holes in the models of Randall and Sundrum where our universe is viewed as a domain wall in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We present evidence that a non-rotating uncharged black hole on the domain wall is described by a ``black cigar'' solution in five dimensions.
Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reall Harvey S.
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.
Bena, Iosif; Vercnocke, Bert
2012-01-01
We establish the relation between the structure governing supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric four- and five-dimensional black holes and multicenter solutions and Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of M-theory and type IIB string theory. We find that the known BPS and almost-BPS multicenter black hole solutions can be interpreted as GKP compactifications with (2,1) and (0,3) imaginary self-dual flux. We also show that the most general GKP compactification leads to new classes of BPS and non-BPS multicenter solutions. We explore how these solutions fit into N=2 truncations, and elucidate how supersymmetry becomes camouflaged. As a necessary tool in our exploration we show how the fields in the largest N=2 truncation fit inside the six-torus compactification of eleven-dimensional supergravity.
Clement, María E Gabach
2015-01-01
It is well known that celestial bodies tend to be spherical due to gravity and that rotation produces deviations from this sphericity. We discuss what is known and expected about the shape of black holes' horizons from their formation to their final, stationary state. We present some recent results showing that black hole rotation indeed manifests in the widening of their central regions, limits their global shapes and enforces their whole geometry to be close to the extreme Kerr horizon geometry at almost maximal rotation speed. The results depend only on the horizon area and angular momentum. In particular they are entirely independent of the surrounding geometry of the spacetime and of the presence of matter satisfying the strong energy condition. We also discuss the the relation of this result with the Hoop conjecture.
Bastos, C; Dias, N C; Prata, J N
2010-01-01
One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.
Noncommutative Solitonic Black Hole
Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone
2011-01-01
We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find t...
Infinitely Coloured Black Holes
Mavromatos, Nick E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth(Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH, United Kingdom)
1999-01-01
We formulate the field equations for $SU(\\infty)$ Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, and find spherically symmetric black-hole solutions. This model may be motivated by string theory considerations, given the enormous gauge symmetries which characterize string theory. The solutions simplify considerably in the presence of a negative cosmological constant, particularly for the limiting cases of a very large cosmological constant or very small gauge field. The situation of an arbitrarily small gauge f...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)
Roberto Casadio(INFN, Bologna); Andrea Giugno; Octavian Micu; Alessio Orlandi
2015-01-01
We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractiv...
Spacetime and orbits of bumpy black holes
Vigeland, Sarah J.; Hughes, Scott A.
2010-01-01
Our Universe contains a great number of extremely compact and massive objects which are generally accepted to be black holes. Precise observations of orbital motion near candidate black holes have the potential to determine if they have the spacetime structure that general relativity demands. As a means of formulating measurements to test the black hole nature of these objects, Collins and Hughes introduced “bumpy black holes”: objects that are almost, but not quite, general relativity’s black holes. The spacetimes of these objects have multipoles that deviate slightly from the black hole solution, reducing to black holes when the deviation is zero. In this paper, we extend this work in two ways. First, we show how to introduce bumps which are smoother and lead to better behaved orbits than those in the original presentation. Second, we show how to make bumpy Kerr black holes—objects which reduce to the Kerr solution when the deviation goes to zero. This greatly extends the astrophysical applicability of bumpy black holes. Using Hamilton-Jacobi techniques, we show how a spacetime’s bumps are imprinted on orbital frequencies, and thus can be determined by measurements which coherently track the orbital phase of a small orbiting body. We find that in the weak field, orbits of bumpy black holes are modified exactly as expected from a Newtonian analysis of a body with a prescribed multipolar structure, reproducing well-known results from the celestial mechanics literature. The impact of bumps on strong-field orbits is many times greater than would be predicted from a Newtonian analysis, suggesting that this framework will allow observations to set robust limits on the extent to which a spacetime’s multipoles deviate from the black hole expectation.
Helfer, Adam D
2011-01-01
I review elements of the foundations of black-hole theory with attention to problematic issues, and describe some techniques which either seem to help with the difficulties or at least investigate their scope. The definition of black holes via event horizons has been problematic because it depends on knowing the global structure of space-time; often attempts to avoid this (e.g. apparent horizons) require knowledge of the interior geometry. I suggest studying instead the holonomy relating the exterior neighborhood of the incipient horizon to the regime of distant observers; at least in the spherically symmetric case, this holonomy will develop certain universal features, in principle observable from signals emitted from infalling objects. I discuss the theory of quantum fields in curved space-time, and the difficulties with Hawking's prediction of black-hole radiation. I then show that the usual, very natural, theory of quantum fields in curved space-time runs into difficulties when applied to measurement prob...
Lyutikov, Maxim
2011-01-01
The "no hair" theorem, a key result in General Relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the "no hair" theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes $N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar)$, where $\\Phi_\\infty \\approx 2 \\pi^2 B_{NS} R_{NS}^3 /(P_{\\rm NS} c)$ is the initial magnetic flux through the hemisphere...
Thermal corpuscular black holes
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-06-01
We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number N of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy m (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy ω >m ). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature in the continuum. We first find that, assuming the Hawking radiation is the leading effect of the internal scatterings, the corresponding N -particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M =N m and a Planckian distribution for E >M at the same Hawking temperature. From this collective state, we compute the partition function and obtain an entropy which reproduces the usual area law with a logarithmic correction precisely related with the Hawking component. By means of the horizon wave function for the system, we finally show the backreaction of modes with ω >m reduces the Hawking flux. Both corrections, to the entropy and to the Hawking flux, suggest the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass, if the black hole is in this particular quantum state.
Deep radio imaging of 47 Tuc identifies the peculiar X-ray source X9 as a new black hole candidate
Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Strader, J.; Heinke, C. O.; Maccarone, T. J.; van den Berg, M.; Knigge, C.; Chomiuk, L.; Noyola, E.; Russell, T. D.; Seth, A. C.; Sivakoff, G. R.
2015-11-01
We report the detection of steady radio emission from the known X-ray source X9 in the globular cluster 47 Tuc. With a double-peaked C IV emission line in its ultraviolet spectrum providing a clear signature of accretion, this source had been previously classified as a cataclysmic variable. In deep ATCA (Australia Telescope Compact Array) imaging from 2010 and 2013, we identified a steady radio source at both 5.5 and 9.0 GHz, with a radio spectral index (defined as Sν ∝ να) of α = -0.4 ± 0.4. Our measured flux density of 42 ± 4 μJy beam-1 at 5.5 GHz implies a radio luminosity (νLν) of 5.8 × 1027 erg s-1, significantly higher than any previous radio detection of an accreting white dwarf. Transitional millisecond pulsars, which have the highest radio-to-X-ray flux ratios among accreting neutron stars (still a factor of a few below accreting black holes at the same LX), show distinctly different patterns of X-ray and radio variability than X9. When combined with archival X-ray measurements, our radio detection places 47 Tuc X9 very close to the radio/X-ray correlation for accreting black holes, and we explore the possibility that this source is instead a quiescent stellar-mass black hole X-ray binary. The nature of the donor star is uncertain; although the luminosity of the optical counterpart is consistent with a low-mass main-sequence donor star, the mass transfer rate required to produce the high quiescent X-ray luminosity of 1033 erg s-1 suggests the system may instead be ultracompact, with an orbital period of order 25 min. This is the fourth quiescent black hole candidate discovered to date in a Galactic globular cluster, and the only one with a confirmed accretion signature from its optical/ultraviolet spectrum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examined 134 Chandra observations of the population of X-ray sources associated with globular clusters (GCs) in the central region of M31. These are expected to be X-ray binary systems (XBs), consisting of a neutron star or black hole accreting material from a close companion. We created long-term light curves for these sources, correcting for background, interstellar absorption, and instrumental effects. We tested for variability by examining the goodness of fit for the best-fit constant intensity. We also created structure functions (SFs) for every object in our sample, the first time this technique has been applied to XBs. We found significant variability in 28 out of 34 GCs and GC candidates; the other 6 sources had 0.3-10 keV luminosities fainter than ∼2 × 1036 erg s–1, limiting our ability to detect similar variability. The SFs of XBs with 0.3-10 keV luminosities ∼2-50 × 1036 erg s–1 generally showed considerably more variability than the published ensemble SF of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our brightest XBs were mostly consistent with the AGN SF; however, their 2-10 keV fluxes could be matched by <1 AGN per square degree. These encouraging results suggest that examining the long-term light curves of other X-ray sources in the field may provide an important distinction between X-ray binaries and background galaxies, as the X-ray emission spectra from these two classes of X-ray sources are similar. Additionally, we identify 3 new black hole candidates (BHCs) using additional XMM-Newton data, bringing the total number of M31 GC BHCs to 9, with 8 covered in this survey.
Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Markwardt, Craig; Swank, Jean; Krimm, Hans
2010-12-01
I will report on the discovery and monitoring observations of a new galactic black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The new source appeared on the X-ray sky on October 21 2009 and was active for almost 8 months. Phenomenologically, the source exhibited the low-hard/high-soft spectral state bi-modality and the variability evolution during the state transition that matches standard behavior expected from a stellar mass black hole binary. We model the energy spectrum throughout the outburst using a generic Comptonization model assuming that part of the input soft radiation in the form of a black body spectrum gets reprocessed in the Compromising medium. We follow the evolution of fractional root-mean-square (RMS) variability in the RXTE/PCA energy band with the source spectral state and conclude that broad band variability is strongly correlated with the source hardness (or Comptonized fraction). We follow changes in the energy distribution of rms variability during the low-hard state and the state transition and find further evidence that variable emission is strongly concentrated in the power-law spectral component. We discuss the implication of our results to the Comptonization regimes during different spectral states. Correlations of spectral and variability properties provide measurements of the BH mass and distance to the source. The spectral-timing correlation scaling technique applied to the RXTE observation during the hard-to-soft state transition indicates a mass of the BH in XTE J1752-223 between 8 and 11 solar masses and a distance to the source about 3.5 kiloparsec.
Shaposhinikov, Nikolai; Markwardt, Craig; Swank, Jean; Krimm, Hans
2010-01-01
We report on the discovery and monitoring observations of a new galactic black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The new source appeared on the X-ray sky on October 21 2009 and was active for almost 8 months. Phenomenologically, the source exhibited the low-hard/highsoft spectral state bi-modality and the variability evolution during the state transition that matches standard behavior expected from a stellar mass black hole binary. We model the energy spectrum throughout the outburst using a generic Comptonization model assuming that part of the input soft radiation in the form of a black body spectrum gets reprocessed in the Comptonizing medium. We follow the evolution of fractional root-mean-square (RMS) variability in the RXTE/PCA energy band with the source spectral state and conclude that broad band variability is strongly correlated with the source hardness (or Comptonized fraction). We follow changes in the energy distribution of rms variability during the low-hard state and the state transition and find further evidence that variable emission is strongly concentrated in the power-law spectral component. We discuss the implication of our results to the Comptonization regimes during different spectral states. Correlations of spectral and variability properties provide measurements of the BH mass and distance to the source. The spectral-timing correlation scaling technique applied to the RXTE observations during the hardto- soft state transition indicates a mass of the BH in XTE J1752-223 between 8 and 11 solar masses and a distance to the source about 3.5 kiloparsec.
Stimulated emission and black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The probability of a black hole emitting m particles when n particles are incident on the black hole was first derived by Bekenstein and Meisels, and later, using a different method, by Panangaden and Wald. In another paper by Bekenstein, it was argued that black holes should have stimulated emission in all modes including the nonsuperradiant ones. In this paper, we use a model based on quantum field theory. We show that Bose-Einstein statistics enhances the probability for particles to scatter in the same direction. We also prove that a black hole is equivalent to a perfect blackbody surrounded by a mirror. In our model, the black hole does not exhibit stimulated emission in nonsuperradiant modes. We also compare the black hole to a gray body
Dvali, Gia
2013-01-01
According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.
Black Hole Masses are Quantized
Dvali, Gia; Mukhanov, Slava
2011-01-01
We give a simple argument showing that in any sensible quantum field theory the masses of black holes cannot assume continuous values and must be quantized. Our proof solely relies on Poincare-invariance of the asymptotic background, and is insensitive to geometric characteristics of black holes or other peculiarities of the short distance physics. Therefore, our results are equally-applicable to any other localized objects on asymptotically Poincare-invariant space, such as classicalons. By adding a requirement that in large mass limit the quantization must approximately account for classical results, we derive an universal quantization rule applicable to all classicalons (including black holes) in arbitrary number of dimensions. In particular, this implies, that black holes cannot emit/absorb arbitrarily soft quanta. The effect has phenomenological model-independent implications for black holes and other classicalons that may be created at LHC. We predict, that contrary to naive intuition, the black holes a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers
Small black holes on cylinders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We find the metric of small black holes on cylinders, i.e. neutral and static black holes with a small mass in d-dimensional Minkowski space times a circle. The metric is found using an ansatz for black holes on cylinders proposed in J. High Energy Phys. 05, 032 (2002). We use the new metric to compute corrections to the thermodynamics which is seen to deviate from that of the (d+1)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. Moreover, we compute the leading correction to the relative binding energy which is found to be non-zero. We discuss the consequences of these results for the general understanding of black holes and we connect the results to the phase structure of black holes and strings on cylinders
The quantum gravitational black hole is neither black nor white
Singh, T P; Vaz, Cenalo
2004-01-01
Understanding the end state of black hole evaporation, the microscopic origin of black hole entropy, the information loss paradox, and the nature of the singularity arising in gravitational collapse - these are outstanding challenges for any candidate quantum theory of gravity. Recently, a midisuperspace model of quantum gravitational collapse has been solved using a lattice regularization scheme. It is shown that the mass of an eternal black hole follows the Bekenstein spectrum, and a related argument provides a fairly accurate estimate of the entropy. The solution also describes a quantized mass-energy distribution around a central black hole, which in the WKB approximation, is precisely Hawking radiation. The leading quantum gravitational correction makes the spectrum non-thermal, thus providing a plausible resolution of the information loss problem.
Information Storage in Black Holes
Maia, M. D.
2005-01-01
The information loss paradox for Schwarzschild black holes is examined, using the ADS/CFT correspondence extended to the $M_6 (4,2)$ bulk. It is found that the only option compatible with the preservation of the quantum unitarity is when a regular remnant region of the black hole survives to the black hole evaporation process, where information can be stored and eventually retrieved.
Origin of supermassive black holes
Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S. G.
2007-01-01
The origin of supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei is quite uncertain in spite of extensive set of observational data. We review the known scenarios of galactic and cosmological formation of supermassive black holes. The common drawback of galactic scenarios is a lack of time and shortage of matter supply for building the supermassive black holes in all galaxies by means of accretion and merging. The cosmological scenarios are only fragmentarily developed but propose and pretend to...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this talk, I present and discuss a number of attempts to construct black hole solutions in models with Warped Extra Dimensions. Then, a contact is made with models with Large Extra Dimensions, where black-hole solutions are easily constructed - here the focus will be on the properties of microscopic black holes and the possibility of using phenomena associated with them, such as the emission of Hawking radiation, to discover fundamental properties of our spacetime.
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Micu, Octavian; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-10-01
We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (the bosons forming the black hole), and a continuous spectrum with energy $\\omega > m$ (representing the Hawking radiation and modelled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature). The $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M = N m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E > M$ at the same Hawking temperature. The partition function is then found to yield the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related with the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with $\\omega > m$ is also shown to reduce the Hawking flux and the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass.
Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes
Black holes and the multiverse
Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun
2016-02-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.
Statistical Hair on Black Holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
How black holes saved relativity
Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda
2016-02-01
While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.
Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes
Appels, Michael; Kubiznak, David
2016-01-01
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of a charged accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon -- even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability and phase structure of these black holes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Cabrera-Munguia
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Armen Yeranyan
2008-10-01
Full Text Available The general solutions of the radial attractor flow equations for extremal black holes, both for non-BPS with non-vanishing central charge Z and for Z = 0, are obtained for the so-called stu model, the minimal rank-3 N = 2 symmetric supergravity in d = 4 space-time dimensions. Comparisons with previous partial results, as well as the fake supergravity (first order formalism and an analysis of the marginal stability of corresponding D-brane configurations, are given.
Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Dias, N. C.; Prata, J. N.
2010-04-01
One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, η. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bastos, C; Bertolami, O [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, N C; Prata, J N, E-mail: cbastos@fisica.ist.utl.p, E-mail: orfeu@cosmos.ist.utl.p, E-mail: ncdias@mail.telepac.p, E-mail: joao.prata@mail.telepac.p [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Avenida Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)
2010-04-01
One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, {eta}. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, η. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Casadio
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce
Holographic Black Hole Chemistry
Karch, Andreas
2015-01-01
Thermodynamic quantities associated with black holes in Anti-de Sitter space obey an interesting identity when the cosmological constant is included as one of the dynamical variables, the generalized Smarr relation. We show that this relation can easily be understood from the point of view of the dual holographic field theory. It amounts to the simple statement that the extensive thermodynamic quantities of a large $N$ gauge theory only depend on the number of colors, $N$, via an overall factor of $N^2$.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bodaghee, A.; Kuulkers, E.; Tomsick, J. A.;
2012-01-01
During monitoring observations of the Norma and Inner Perseus Arms (rev. 1209: 2012 Sept. 6 from 18:18:23 to 22:00:21 UTC), INTEGRAL-ISGRI revealed that the accreting black hole candidates 4U 1630-47 and IGR J17091-3624 have brightened in the hard X-rays. Mosaic images consisting of 12.6 ks worth...
Casadio, Roberto; Micu, Octavian; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-01-01
We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a...
Thermal corpuscular black holes
Casadio, Roberto; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-01-01
We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number $N$ of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy $\\omega>m$). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature in the continuum. We first find that, assuming the Hawking radiation is the leading effect of the internal scatterings, the corresponding $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M=N\\,m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E>M$ at the same Hawking temperature. From this collective state, we compute the partition function and obtain an entropy which reproduces the usual area law with a logarithmic correction preci...
Hawking, Stephen William
1996-01-01
One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S^2\\times S^2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S^2\\times S^2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix \\ that does not factorise into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the \\theta angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The pic...
Black hole thermodynamical entropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsallis, Constantino [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Cirto, Leonardo J.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2013-07-15
As early as 1902, Gibbs pointed out that systems whose partition function diverges, e.g. gravitation, lie outside the validity of the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) theory. Consistently, since the pioneering Bekenstein-Hawking results, physically meaningful evidence (e.g., the holographic principle) has accumulated that the BG entropy S{sub BG} of a (3+1) black hole is proportional to its area L{sup 2} (L being a characteristic linear length), and not to its volume L{sup 3}. Similarly it exists the area law, so named because, for a wide class of strongly quantum-entangled d-dimensional systems, S{sub BG} is proportional to lnL if d=1, and to L{sup d-1} if d>1, instead of being proportional to L{sup d} (d {>=} 1). These results violate the extensivity of the thermodynamical entropy of a d-dimensional system. This thermodynamical inconsistency disappears if we realize that the thermodynamical entropy of such nonstandard systems is not to be identified with the BG additive entropy but with appropriately generalized nonadditive entropies. Indeed, the celebrated usefulness of the BG entropy is founded on hypothesis such as relatively weak probabilistic correlations (and their connections to ergodicity, which by no means can be assumed as a general rule of nature). Here we introduce a generalized entropy which, for the Schwarzschild black hole and the area law, can solve the thermodynamic puzzle. (orig.)
Belloni, T M
2016-01-01
The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...
Quantum black hole evaporation
Schoutens, K; Verlinde, Erik; Schoutens, Kareljan; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman
1993-01-01
We investigate a recently proposed model for a full quantum description of two-dimensional black hole evaporation, in which a reflecting boundary condition is imposed in the strong coupling region. It is shown that in this model each initial state is mapped to a well-defined asymptotic out-state, provided one performs a certain projection in the gravitational zero mode sector. We find that for an incoming localized energy pulse, the corresponding out-going state contains approximately thermal radiation, in accordance with semi-classical predictions. In addition, our model allows for certain acausal strong coupling effects near the singularity, that give rise to corrections to the Hawking spectrum and restore the coherence of the out-state. To an asymptotic observer these corrections appear to originate from behind the receding apparent horizon and start to influence the out-going state long before the black hole has emitted most of its mass. Finally, by putting the system in a finite box, we are able to deriv...
van der Horst, A. J.; Curran, P. A.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Linford, J. D.; Gorosabel, J.; Russell, D. M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Lundgren, A. A.; Taylor, G. B.; Maitra, D.; Guziy, S.; Belloni, T. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Jonker, P. G.; Kamble, A.; Paragi, Z.; Homan, J.; Kuulkers, E.; Granot, J.; Altamirano, D.; Buxton, M. M.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Fender, R. P.; Garrett, M. A.; Gehrels, N.; Hartmann, D. H.; Kennea, J. A.; Krimm, H. A.; Mangano, V.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Romano, P.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wijnands, R.; Yang, Y. J.
2013-12-01
MAXI J1659-152 was discovered on 2010 September 25 as a new X-ray transient, initially identified as a gamma-ray burst, but was later shown to be a new X-ray binary with a black hole as the most likely compact object. Dips in the X-ray light curves have revealed that MAXI J1659-152 is the shortest period black hole candidate identified to date. Here we present the results of a large observing campaign at radio, submillimetre, near-infrared (nIR), optical and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. We have combined this very rich data set with the available X-ray observations to compile a broad-band picture of the evolution of this outburst. We have performed broad-band spectral modelling, demonstrating the presence of a spectral break at radio frequencies and a relationship between the radio spectrum and X-ray states. Also, we have determined physical parameters of the accretion disc and put them into context with respect to the other parameters of the binary system. Finally, we have investigated the radio-X-ray and nIR/optical/UV-X-ray correlations up to ˜3 yr after the outburst onset to examine the link between the jet and the accretion disc, and found that there is no significant jet contribution to the nIR emission when the source is in the soft or intermediate X-ray spectral state, consistent with our detection of the jet break at radio frequencies during these states.
New Directions in Black Hole Astrophysics
Reynolds, C. S.
2002-12-01
The astrophysics of accreting black holes has been a scientific focus of most major future X-ray missions. In this presentation, I will describe how our science goals and expectations have been effected by new data from Chandra and XMM-Newton as well as new theoretical work. I will argue on the basis of XMM-Newton data that black hole spin does not manifest itself through subtle effects but may have dramatic astrophysical consequences. If this is correct, the exotic astrophysics of black hole spin, including astrophysical realizations of the Penrose and Blandford-Znajek processes, will be a principal focus of Constellation-X, XEUS and MAXIM. On the other hand, data from the late stages of the RXTE/ASCA missions as well as XMM-Newton suggest that the simple technique of relativistic X-ray iron line reverberation mapping, which was originally touted as a good method for studying the inner accretion disk, may be hard to realize. Finally, I will discuss recent theoretical/simulation work on the appearance of a MHD turbulent accretion disk around a black hole. Such simulations may be a good framework to understand future timing observations of Galactic Black Hole Candidates and their quasi-periodic oscillations. They also suggest a quantitative way of measuring the space-time geometry around supermassive black holes in AGN.
Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes
Myung, Yun Soo
2010-01-01
We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.
Spacetime Duality of BTZ Black Hole
Ho, Jeongwon; Kim, Won T.; Park, Young-Jai
1999-01-01
We consider the duality of the quasilocal black hole thermodynamics, explicitly the quasilocal black hole thermodynamic first law, in BTZ black hole solution as a special one of the three-dimensional low energy effective string theory.
What, no black hole evaporation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tipler has claimed that the inward flux of negative energy across the horizon which (according to the semi-classical approximation) accompanies the evaporation of a black hole would cause a solar mass black hole to evaporate in less than a second. It is shown that this claim is in error. (orig.)
Nonlinear Electrodynamics and black holes
Breton, N; Breton, Nora; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo
2007-01-01
It is addressed the issue of black holes with nonlinear electromagnetic field, focussing mainly in the Born-Infeld case. The main features of these systems are described, for instance, geodesics, energy conditions, thermodynamics and isolated horizon aspects. Also are revised some black hole solutions of alternative nonlinear electrodynamics and its inconveniences.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Marianne
2004-01-01
The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....
Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?
Solodukhin, S N
2004-01-01
We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.
Quantum black hole without singularity
Kiefer, Claus
2015-01-01
We discuss the quantization of a spherical dust shell in a rigorous manner. Classically, the shell can collapse to form a black hole with a singularity. In the quantum theory, we construct a well-defined self-adjoint extension for the Hamilton operator. As a result, the evolution is unitary and the singularity is avoided. If we represent the shell initially by a narrow wave packet, it will first contract until it reaches the region where classically a black hole would form, but then re-expands to infinity. In a way, the state can be interpreted as a superposition of a black hole with a white hole.
Supersymmetric black holes in string theory
Mohaupt, T.
2007-01-01
We review recent developments concerning supersymmetric black holes in string theory. After a general introduction to the laws of black hole mechanics and to black hole entropy in string theory, we discuss black hole solutions in N=2 supergravity, special geometry, the black hole attractor equations and the underlying variational principle. Special attention is payed to the crucial role of higher derivative corrections. Finally we discuss black hole partition functions and their relation to t...
Prisons of Light - Black Holes
Ferguson, Kitty
1998-05-01
In this jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science, acclaimed science writer Kitty Ferguson examines the discovery of black holes, their nature, and what they can teach us about the mysteries of the universe. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light--Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
Black Holes and Galaxy Metamorphosis
Holley-Bockelmann, K
2001-01-01
Supermassive black holes can be seen as an agent of galaxy transformation. In particular, a supermassive black hole can cause a triaxial galaxy to evolve toward axisymmetry by inducing chaos in centrophilic orbit families. This is one way in which a single supermassive black hole can induce large-scale changes in the structure of its host galaxy -- changes on scales far larger than the Schwarzschild radius ($O(10^{-5}) \\rm{pc}$) and the radius of influence of the black hole ($O(1)-O(100) \\rm{pc}$). We will discuss the transformative power of supermassive black holes in light of recent high resolution N-body realizations of cuspy triaxial galaxies.
Black holes and the multiverse
Garriga, Jaume; Zhang, Jun
2015-01-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive blac...
Quantum strings and black holes
Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume
2001-01-01
The transition between (non supersymmetric) quantum string states and Schwarzschild black holes is discussed. This transition occurs when the string coupling $g^2$ (which determines Newton's constant) increases beyond a certain critical value $g_c^2$. We review a calculation showing that self-gravity causes a typical string state of mass $M$ to shrink, as the string coupling $g^2$ increases, down to a compact string state whose mass, size, entropy and luminosity match (for the critical value $g_c^2 \\sim (M \\sqrt{\\alpha'})^{-1}$) those of a Schwarzschild black hole. This confirms the idea (proposed by several authors) that the entropy of black holes can be accounted for by counting string states. The level spacing of the quantum states of Schwarzschild black holes is expected to be exponentially smaller than their radiative width. This makes it very difficult to conceive (even Gedanken) experiments probing the discreteness of the quantum energy levels of black holes.
Bini, Donato; Bittencourt, Eduardo; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.
2015-04-01
A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand, properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T
2015-01-01
A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.
Primordial black holes as all dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We argue that a primordial black hole is a natural and unique candidate for all dark matter. We show that, in a smooth-hybrid new double inflation model, a right amount of the primordial black holes, with a sharply-defined mass, can be produced at the end of the smooth-hybrid regime, through preheating. We first consider masses −7Msun which are allowed by all the previous constraints. We next discuss much heavier mass 105Msun hinted at by entropy, and galactic size evolution, arguments. Effects on the running of the scalar spectral index are computed
THE QUASAR SDSS J153636.22+044127.0: A DOUBLE-PEAKED EMITTER IN A CANDIDATE BINARY BLACK HOLE SYSTEM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Double-peaked emission lines are believed to be originated from accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and about 3% of z < 0.33 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are found to be double-peaked emitters. The quasar SDSS J153636.22+044127.0 has recently been identified with peculiar broad-line emission systems exhibiting multiple redshifts. We decompose the Hα and Hβ profiles into a circular Keplerian disk-line component and other Gaussian components. We propose that the system is both a double-peaked emitter and a binary SMBH system, where the extra flux in the blue peaks of the broad lines comes from the region around the secondary black hole. We suggest that such black hole binary systems might also exist in many known double-peaked emitters, where the tidal torques from the secondary black hole clear the outer region of the disk around the primary black hole, similar to the gap in a protostellar disk due to the process of planetary migration, and might also stimulate the formation of a vertical extended source in the inner region around the primary which illuminates the disk. However, most secondary SMBHs in such systems might be too small to maintain a detectable broad-line region (BLR), so that the disk line from the primary dominates.
Rotating black hole and quintessence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag 54001, Durban (South Africa)
2016-04-15
We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass (M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α = -e{sup 2} ≠ 0 and ω = 1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α = 0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = a{sub E}), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < a{sub E}, it describes a nonextremal black hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and no black hole for a > a{sub E}. We find that the extremal value a{sub E} is also influenced by the parameter ω and so is the ergoregion. (orig.)
Phase transition in black holes
Roychowdhury, Dibakar
2014-01-01
The present thesis is devoted towards the study of various aspects of the phase transition phenomena occurring in black holes defined in an Anti-de-Sitter (AdS) space. Based on the fundamental principles of thermodynamics and considering a grand canonical framework we examine various aspects of the phase transition phenomena occurring in AdS black holes. We analytically check that this phase transition between the smaller and larger mass black holes obey Ehrenfest relations defined at the critical point and hence confirm a second order phase transition. This include both the rotating and charged black holes in Einstein gravity. Apart from studying these issues, based on a canonical framework, we also investigate the critical behavior in charged AdS black holes. The scaling laws for these black holes are found to be compatible with the static scaling hypothesis. Finally, based on the usual framework of AdS/CFT duality, we investigate the phase transition phenomena occurring in charged hairy black holes defined...
A nonsingular rotating black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)
Acceleration of Black Hole Universe
Zhang, Tianxi
2012-05-01
An alternative cosmological model called black hole universe has been recently proposed by the author. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole to the present state by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with an infinite number of layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we live, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of space-time, and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. In this study. we will analyze the acceleration of black hole universe that accretes its ambient matter in an increasing rate. We will also compare the result obtained from the black hole universe model with the measurement of type Ia supernova and the result from the big bang cosmology.
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end. The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light. The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.
A nonsingular rotating black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Durban (South Africa)
2015-11-15
The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)
Black holes and Higgs stability
Tetradis, Nikolaos
2016-01-01
We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.
Black Hole Bound State Metamorphosis
Chowdhury, Abhishek; Saha, Arunabha; Sen, Ashoke
2012-01-01
N=4 supersymmetric string theories contain negative discriminant states whose numbers are known precisely from microscopic counting formulae. On the macroscopic side, these results can be reproduced by regarding these states as multi-centered black hole configurations provided we make certain identification of apparently distinct multi-centered black hole configurations according to a precise set of rules. In this paper we provide a physical explanation of such identifications, thereby establishing that multi-centered black hole configurations reproduce correctly the microscopic results for the number of negative discriminant states without any ad hoc assumption.
Orbital resonances around black holes.
Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja
2015-02-27
We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here. PMID:25768747
The Black Hole Information Problem
Polchinski, Joseph
2016-01-01
The black hole information problem has been a challenge since Hawking's original 1975 paper. It led to the discovery of AdS/CFT, which gave a partial resolution of the paradox. However, recent developments, in particular the firewall puzzle, show that there is much that we do not understand. I review the black hole, Hawking radiation, and the Page curve, and the classic form of the paradox. I discuss AdS/CFT as a partial resolution. I then discuss black hole complementarity and its limitations, leading to many proposals for different kinds of `drama.' I conclude with some recent ideas.
Evaporation of primordial black holes
Hawking, S. W.
The usual explanation of the isotropy of the universe is that inflation would have smoothed out any inhomogeneities. However, if the universe was initially fractal or in a foam like state, an overall inflation would have left it in the same state. I suggest that the universe did indeed begin with a tangled web of wormholes connecting pairs of black holes but that the inflationary expansion was unstable: wormholes that are slightly smaller correspond to black holes that are hotter than the cosmological background and evaporate away. This picture is supported by calculations with Raphael Bousso of the evaporation of primordial black holes in the s-wave and large N approximations.
Thermodynamics of Lifshitz black holes
Devecioǧlu, Deniz Olgu; Sarıoǧlu, Özgür
2011-06-01
We apply the recently extended conserved Killing charge definition of Abbott-Deser-Tekin formalism to compute, for the first time, the energies of analytic Lifshitz black holes in higher dimensions. We then calculate the temperature and the entropy of this large family of solutions, and study and discuss the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Along the way we also identify the possible critical points of the relevant quadratic curvature gravity theories. Separately, we also apply the generalized Killing charge definition to compute the energy and the angular momentum of the warped AdS3 black hole solution of the three-dimensional new massive gravity theory.
Tomsick, J A; Corbel, S; Kaaret, P E; Tomsick, John A.; Kalemci, Emrah; Corbel, Stephane; Kaaret, Philip
2003-01-01
We report on X-ray observations made with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer of the black hole candidate (BHC) transient XTE J1650-500 at the end of its first, and currently only, outburst. By monitoring the source at low luminosities over several months, we found 6 bright ~100 second X-ray flares and long time scale oscillations of the X-ray flux. The oscillations are aperiodic with a characteristic time scale of 14.2 days and an order of magnitude variation in the 2.8-20 keV flux. The oscillations may be related to optical "mini-outbursts" that have been observed at the ends of outbursts for other short orbital period BHC transients. The X-ray flares have durations between 62 and 215 seconds and peak fluxes that are 5-24 times higher than the persistent flux. The flares have non-thermal energy spectra and occur when the persistent luminosity is near 3E34 (d/4 kpc)^2 erg/s (2.8-20 keV). The rise time for the brightest flare demonstrates that physical models for BHC systems must be able to account for the situat...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bel, M.C.; Rodriguez, J.; Sizun, P.; Farinelli, R.; Del Santo, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Goldoni, P.; Corbel, S.; Parmar, A.N.; Kuulkers, E.; Ubertini, P.; Capitanio, F.; Roques, J.P.; Frontera, F.; Amati, L.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt
2004-01-01
We report the results of extensive high-energy observations of the X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTE J1720-318 performed with INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and RXTE. The source, which underwent an X-ray outburst in 2003 January, was observed in February in a spectral state dominated by a soft...... component with a weak high-energy tail. The XMM-Newton data provided a high column density N-H of 1.2 x 10(22) cm(-2) which suggests that the source lies at the Galactic Centre distance. The simultaneous RXTE and INTEGRAL Target of Opportunity observations allowed us to measure the weak and steep tail......, and then decayed to a quiescent state after April. In the hard state, the source was detected up to 200 keV with a power law index of similar to1.9 and a peak luminosity of similar to7 x 10(36) erg s(-1) in the 20-200 keV band, for an assumed distance of 8 kpc. We conclude that XTE J1720-318 is indeed...
Shapovalova, A I; Chavushyan, V H; Burenkov, A N; Ilic, D; Kollatschny, W; Kovacevic, A; Valdes, J R; Patino-Alvarez, V; Leon-Tavares, J; Torrealba, J; Zhdanova, V E
2016-01-01
We report the results of the first long-term (1990-2014) optical spectro-photometric monitoring of a binary black hole candidate QSO E1821+643, a low-redshift high-luminosity radio-quiet quasar. In the monitored period the continua and H$\\gamma$ fluxes changed for around two times, while the H$\\beta$ flux changed around 1.4 times. We found the periodical variations in the photometric flux with the periods of 1200, 1850 and 4000 days, and 4500 days periodicity in the spectroscopic variations. However, the periodicity of 4000-4500 days covers only one cycle of variation and should be confirmed with a longer monitoring campaign. There is an indication of the period around 1300 days in the spectroscopic light curves, but with small significance level, while the 1850 days period could not be clearly identified in the spectroscopic light curves. The line profiles have not significantly changed, showing an important red asymmetry and broad line peak redshifted around +1000 km s$^{-1}$. However, H$\\beta$ shows broade...
Black hole unitarity and antipodal entanglement
Hooft, Gerard t
2016-01-01
Hawking particles emitted by a black hole are usually found to have thermal spectra, if not exactly, then by a very good approximation. Here, we argue differently. Locally, Hawking particles are thermal, but globally not: the Hawking particles emerging from one hemisphere of a black hole are 100 % entangled with the Hawking particles emerging from the other hemisphere. Consequently, their thermal fluctuations are identical, so if a rare event takes place on one hemisphere, the same event will be seen at the antipodal point on the other hemisphere. We explain why such bizarre behaviour is demanded by the requirement that black hole evaporation is described by a unitary scattering matrix. Region I and the diametrically opposite region II of the Penrose diagram represent antipodal points in a CPT relation, as was suggested before. On the horizon itself, antipodal points are identified, as long as there is no matter falling in. A candidate instanton is proposed to describe the formation and evaporation of virtual...
Supersymmetry versus black holes at the LHC
Roy, Arunava
2007-01-01
Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. We propose a simple but powerful method to discriminate the two models: the analysis of isolated leptons with high transverse momentum. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our results show the measure of the dilepton invariant mass provides a strong signature to differentiate supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider. Analysis of event-shape variables and multilepton events complement and strengthen this conclusion.
Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself
2009-03-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don
Massive Black Hole Binaries: Dynamical Evolution and Observational Signatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Dotti
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The study of the dynamical evolution of massive black hole pairs in mergers is crucial in the context of a hierarchical galaxy formation scenario. The timescales for the formation and the coalescence of black hole binaries are still poorly constrained, resulting in large uncertainties in the expected rate of massive black hole binaries detectable in the electromagnetic and gravitational wave spectra. Here, we review the current theoretical understanding of the black hole pairing in galaxy mergers, with a particular attention to recent developments and open issues. We conclude with a review of the expected observational signatures of massive binaries and of the candidates discussed in literature to date.
On black hole thermodynamics of 2-D type 0A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics of two dimensional black hole solutions to type 0A with q units of electric and magnetic flux. We compute the free energy and derived quantities such as entropy and mass for an arbitrary non-extremal black hole. The free energy is non-vanishing, in contrast to the case of dilatonic 2-d black holes without electric and magnetic fluxes. The entropy of the extremal black holes is obtained, and we find it to be proportional to q2, the square of the RR flux. We compare these thermodynamics quantities with those from candidate matrix model duals. (author)
Black Hole Complementary Principle and Noncommutative Membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the spirit of black hole complementary principle, we have found the noncommutative membrane of Scharzchild black holes. In this paper we extend our results to Kerr black hole and see the same story. Also we make a conjecture that spacetimes are noncommutative on the stretched membrane of the more general Kerr-Newman black hole.
Towards a Theory of Quantum Black Hole
Berezin, V.
2001-01-01
We describe some specific quantum black hole model. It is pointed out that the origin of a black hole entropy is the very process of quantum gravitational collapse. The quantum black hole mass spectrum is extracted from the mass spectrum of the gravitating source. The classical analog of quantum black hole is constructed.
Black hole evaporation: a paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved
Switching off black hole evaporation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The inclusion of the back-reaction in the Hawking effect leads to the result that, if vector boson fields predominate in nature, then black holes stop evaporating when their mass reaches a non-vanishing limiting value. (author)
Formation of Supermassive Black Holes
Volonteri, Marta
2010-01-01
Evidence shows that massive black holes reside in most local galaxies. Studies have also established a number of relations between the MBH mass and properties of the host galaxy such as bulge mass and velocity dispersion. These results suggest that central MBHs, while much less massive than the host (~ 0.1%), are linked to the evolution of galactic structure. In hierarchical cosmologies, a single big galaxy today can be traced back to the stage when it was split up in hundreds of smaller components. Did MBH seeds form with the same efficiency in small proto-galaxies, or did their formation had to await the buildup of substantial galaxies with deeper potential wells? I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I will discuss black hole formation processes for `seed' black holes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and possible observational tests of these scenarios.
Black hole thermodynamics from decoherence
Guo, Xiao-Kan
2015-01-01
We present an approach to the four laws of black hole thermodynamics by utilizing the thermodynamics of quantum coherence. Firstly, Hawking effect is attributed to the decoherence of the two-mode squeezed state in a black hole spacetime. Then use is made of the relative entropy between undecohered and decohered squeezed states whose monotonicity gives the zeroth and the second law, while the first law can be obtained either by the vanishing of the first derivative of relative entropy or by studying the effective thermal model generated by the modular Hamiltonian. Futhermore, information-theoretic arguments give a Planck's form of the third law of black hole thermodynamics. With this approach we can understand the laboratory analogues of black holes solely by quantum theory. This approach also opens a way to reconstruct classical geometry from quantum gravity.
Black hole accretion disc impacts
Pihajoki, P.
2016-04-01
We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.
Black hole accretion disc impacts
Pihajoki, Pauli
2015-01-01
We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.
Black hole interior mass formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We argue by explicit computations that, although the area product, horizon radii product, entropy product, and irreducible mass product of the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are universal, the surface gravity product, the surface temperature product and the Komar energy product of the said horizons do not seem to be universal for Kerr-Newman black hole spacetimes. We show the black hole mass formula on the Cauchy horizon following the seminal work by Smarr [Phys Rev Lett 30:71 (1973), Phys Rev D 7:289 (1973)] for the outer horizon. We also prescribe the four laws of black hole mechanics for the inner horizon. A new definition of the extremal limit of a black hole is discussed. (orig.)
Van Herck, Walter
2009-01-01
The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, arXiv:0810.4301. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the `chromosomes' of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as `crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle'. Our results improve on hep-th/0702012, provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity...
van Herck, Walter; Wyder, Thomas
2010-04-01
The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, [1]. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the ‘chromosomes’ of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as ‘crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle’. Our results improve on [2], provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into ‘generic’ and ‘special’ states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.
Royzen, Ilya I
2009-01-01
Along with compacting baryon (neutron) spacing, two very important factors come into play at once: the lack of self-stabilization within a compact neutron star (NS) associated with possible black hole (BH) horizon appearance and the phase transition - color deconfinement and QCD-vacuum reconstruction - within the nuclear matter. That is why both phenomena should be taken into account side by side, as the gravitational collapse is considered. Since, under the above transition, the hadronic-phase vacuum (filled up with gluon and chiral $q\\bar q$-condensates) turns into the "empty" (perturbation) subhadronic-phase one and, thus, the corresponding (very high) pressure falls down rather abruptly, the formerly cold (degenerated) nuclear medium starts to implode into the new vacuum. If the mass of a star is sufficiently large, then this implosion produces an enormous heating, which stops only after quark-gluon plasma of a temperature about 100 MeV (or even higher) is formed to withstand the gravitational compression...
Zhang, Tianxi
2014-06-01
The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin
Vacuum metastability with black holes.
Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian
2015-01-01
We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evapor...
Energy Extraction from Black Holes
Straumann, Norbert
2007-01-01
In this lecture I give an introduction to the rotational energy extraction of black holes by the electromagnetic Blandford-Znajek process and the generation of relativistic jets. After some basic material on the electrodynamics of black hole magnetospheres, we derive the most important results of Blandford and Znajek by making use of Kerr-Schild coordinates, which are regular on the horizon. In a final part we briefly describe results of recent numerical simulations of accretion flows on rota...
Myers, R C
2001-01-01
This is a short summary of my lectures given at the Fourth Mexican School on Gravitation and Mathematical Physics. These lectures gave a brief introduction to black holes in string theory, in which I primarily focussed on describing some of the recent calculations of black hole entropy using the statistical mechanics of D-brane states. The following overview will also provide the interested students with an introduction to the relevant literature.
Charged rotating noncommutative black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.
Charged rotating noncommutative black holes
Modesto, Leonardo; Nicolini, Piero
2010-11-01
In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.
Charged rotating noncommutative black holes
Modesto, Leonardo
2010-01-01
In this paper we complete the program of the Noncomutative Geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newmann-Janis algorithm in case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.
Geometric inequalities for black holes
Dain, Sergio
2014-01-01
It is well known that the three parameters that characterize the Kerr black hole (mass, angular momentum and horizon area) satisfy several important inequalities. Remarkably, some of these inequalities remain valid also for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this article recent results in this subject are reviewed.
Black holes and cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is widely accepted that the complete gravitational collapse of a body always yields a black hole, and that naked singularities are never produced (the cosmic censorship hypothesis). The local (or strong) cosmic censorship hypothesis states that singularities which are even locally naked (e.g., to an observer inside a black hole) are never produced. This dissertation studies the validity of these two conjectures. The Kerr-Newman metrics describes the black holes only when M2 greater than or equal to Q2 + P2, where M is the mass of the black hole, a = J/M its specific angular momentum, Q its electric charge, and P its magnetic charge. In the first part of this dissertation, the possibility of converting an extreme Kerr-Newman black hole (M2 = a2 + Q2 + P2) into a naked singularity by the accretion of test particles is considered. The motion of test particles is studied with a large angular momentum to energy ratio, and also test particles with a large charge to energy ratio. The final state is always found to be a black hole if the angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the black hole are all much greater than the corresponding angular momentum, electric charge, and magnetic charge of the test particle. In Part II of this dissertation possible black hole interior solutions are studied. The Cauchy horizons and locally naked timelike singularities of the charged (and/or rotating) solutions are contrasted with the spacelike all-encompassing singularity of the Schwarzschild solution. It is determined which portions of the analytic extension of the Reissner-Nordstroem solution are relevant to realistic gravitational collapse
Hayward, Sean A.; Mukohyama, Shinji; Ashworth, M. C.
1998-01-01
We consider two non-statistical definitions of entropy for dynamic (non-stationary) black holes in spherical symmetry. The first is analogous to the original Clausius definition of thermodynamic entropy: there is a first law containing an energy-supply term which equals surface gravity times a total differential. The second is Wald's Noether-charge method, adapted to dynamic black holes by using the Kodama flow. Both definitions give the same answer for Einstein gravity: one-quarter the area ...
Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew
2016-01-01
It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that com...
Probability for primordial black holes
Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.
1995-11-01
We consider two quantum cosmological models with a massive scalar field: an ordinary Friedmann universe and a universe containing primordial black holes. For both models we discuss the complex solutions to the Euclidean Einstein equations. Using the probability measure obtained from the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal we find that the only unsuppressed black holes start at the Planck size but can grow with the horizon scale during the roll down of the scalar field to the minimum.
Constraints on Black Hole Remnants
Giddings, S. B.
1993-01-01
One possible fate of information lost to black holes is its preservation in black hole remnants. It is argued that a type of effective field theory describes such remnants (generically referred to as informons). The general structure of such a theory is investigated and the infinite pair production problem is revisited. A toy model for remnants clarifies some of the basic issues; in particular, infinite remnant production is not suppressed simply by the large internal volumes as proposed in c...
Information retrieval from black holes
Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta; Padmanabhan, T.
2016-01-01
It is generally believed that, when matter collapses to form a black hole, the complete information about the initial state of the matter cannot be retrieved by future asymptotic observers, through local measurements. This is contrary to the expectation from a unitary evolution in quantum theory and leads to (a version of) the black hole information paradox. Classically, nothing else, apart from mass, charge and angular momentum is expected to be revealed to such asymptotic observers after th...
Black hole thermodynamics from decoherence
Guo, Xiao-Kan
2015-01-01
We present an approach to the four laws of black hole thermodynamics by utilizing the thermodynamics of quantum coherence. Firstly, Hawking effect is attributed to the decoherence of the two-mode squeezed state in a black hole spacetime. Then use is made of the relative entropy between undecohered and decohered squeezed states whose monotonicity gives the zeroth and the second law, while the first law can be obtained either by the vanishing of the first derivative of relative entropy or by st...
New regular black hole solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.
Frampton, Paul H.
2009-01-01
While the energy of the universe has been established to be about 0.04 baryons, 0.24 dark matter and 0.72 dark energy, the cosmological entropy is almost entirely, about $(1 - 10^{-15})$, from black holes and only $10^{-15}$ from everything else. This identification of all dark matter as black holes is natural in statistical mechanics. Cosmological history of dark matter is discussed.
Are Black Holes Elementary Particles?
Ha, Yuan K.
2009-01-01
Quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest conceivable elementary particles. They have a microscopic size but a macroscopic mass. Several fundamental types have been constructed with some remarkable properties. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected in Earth's atmosphere. They may also play a role as dark matter in cosmology.
Black holes: the membrane paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole
Destroying a near-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We revisit here a previous argument due to Wald showing the impossibility of turning an extremal Kerr-Newman black hole into a naked singularity by plunging test particles across the black hole event horizon. We extend Wald's analysis to the case of near-extremal black holes and show that it is indeed possible to destroy their event horizon, giving rise to naked singularities, by pushing test particles toward the black hole as, in fact, it has been demonstrated explicitly by several recent works. Our analysis allows us to go a step further and to determine the optimal values, in the sense of keeping to a minimum the backreaction effects, of the test particle electrical charge and angular momentum necessary to destroy a given near-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole. We describe briefly a possible realistic scenario for the creation of a Kerr naked singularity from some recently discovered candidates to be rapidly rotating black holes in radio galaxies.
Soleri, P.; Fender, R.; Tudose, V.; Maitra, D.; Bell, M.; Linares, M.; Altamirano, D.; Wijnands, R.; Belloni, T.; Casella, P.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Muxlow, T.; Klein-Wolt, M.; Garrett, M.; van der Klis, M.
2010-01-01
In studies of accreting black holes in binary systems, empirical relations have been proposed to quantify the coupling between accretion processes and ejection mechanisms. These processes are probed, respectively, by means of X-ray and radio/optical-infrared observations. The relations predict, give
Massive Black Holes: formation and evolution
Rees, Martin J.; Volonteri, Marta
2007-01-01
Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Observations have revealed us vast information on the population of local and distant black holes, but the detailed physical properties of these dark massive objects are still to be proven. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. We briefly review here the basic properties of the population of supermassive black holes,...
Regular black hole in three dimensions
Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok
2008-01-01
We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.
Regular black hole in three dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We find a new black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare the thermodynamics of this black hole with that of a non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. (orig.)
Regular black hole in three dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myung, Yun Soo [Inje University, Institute of Basic Science and School of Computer Aided Science, Gimhae (Korea); Yoon, Myungseok [Sogang University, Center for Quantum Spacetime, Seoul (Korea)
2009-07-15
We find a new black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare the thermodynamics of this black hole with that of a non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum ''overtone'' number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the ''hydrogen atom'' and the ''quasi-thermal emission'' in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corda, Christian [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics (IFM) Einstein-Galilei, Prato (Italy); Istituto Universitario di Ricerca ' ' Santa Rita' ' , Prato (Italy); International Institute for Applicable Mathematics and Information Sciences (IIAMIS), Hyderabad (India)
2013-12-15
Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum ''overtone'' number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the ''hydrogen atom'' and the ''quasi-thermal emission'' in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study dissipative test electromagnetic fields in a black-hole background. Quantities such as surface velocity, tangential electric field, normal magnetic induction, total surface current, and conduction surface current are introduced and are shown to satisfy Ohm's law with a surface resistivity of 4π approx. = 377 ohms. Associated with these currents there exists a ''Joule heating''. These currents can exist when the black hole is inserted in an external electric circuit, but they can exist even in the absence of external currents. In particular, we study the eddy currents induced by the rotation of a black hole in an oblique uniform magnetic field, and we show how the computation of the ohmic losses allows a very simple derivation of the torque exerted on the hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li-Hong Yan; Jian-Cheng Wang
2012-01-01
We present the results of the spectral fits made to 59 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the Galactic X-Ray Black-Hole Candidate XTE J1650-500 covering the first 30d of its 2001/2002 outburst when the source was in a transition from the hard state to the soft state.The photon spectra can be well fitted with a phenomenological model of a power-law/cutoff power-law and a physical model of bulk-motion Comptonization.The spectral properties smoothly evolve away from the hard state and then stay in the soft state.The fitting results of the physical model reveal the peak of the burst had a flux of 2.90 × 10-8 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 2-100 keV energy range and was observed on 2001 Sep.9; it transitioned to the hard state.The total flux decays by a factor of ～3 as it evolves into the soft state.The photon index Γ increases from ～ 1.5 in the hard state and stays at ～2.5 in the soft state.We found that the effective area of the high-energy X-ray emission region (the Compton cloud) decreases,i.e.the area of the Compton cloud decreases by a factor of ～23 during the transition from the hard state to the soft state.Combining the new radio and quasi-periodic oscillation studies,the model of total flux in the 2-100 keV energy range,the jet emission and the timing analysis during the state transition,we suggest a possible geometry and evolution for the (jet+corona+disk) system,like that proposed by Kalemci et al.based on enhanced lags and peak frequency shift during the transition.
Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes
Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson
2012-01-01
We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.
Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes
Gallo, Elena
2008-01-01
This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stability of black holes, numerical simulations, collisions, the production of gravity waves, black hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation, quantum treatments of black holes, black holes in both higher and lower dimensions, and connections to nuclear and condensed matter physics. On the astronomical end, we also cover the physics of gas accretion onto black holes, relativistic jets, gravitationally red-shifted emission lines, evidence for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems and super-massive black holes at the centers...
Black holes and branes in string theory
Skenderis, K
1999-01-01
This is a set of introductory lecture notes on black holes in string theory. After reviewing some aspects of string theory such as dualities, brane solutions, supersymmetric and non-extremal intersection rules, we analyze in detail extremal and non-extremal 5d black holes. We first present the D-brane counting for extremal black holes. Then we show that 4d and 5d non-extremal black holes can be mapped to the BTZ black hole (times a compact manifold) by means of dualities. The validity of these dualities is analyzed in detail. We present an analysis of the same system in the spirit of the adS/CFT correspondence. In the ``near-horizon'' limit (which is actually a near inner-horizon limit for non-extremal black holes) the black hole reduces again to the BTZ black hole. A state counting is presented in terms of the BTZ black hole.
Black holes: a slanted overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The black hole saga spanning some seventy years may be broadly divided into four phases, namely, (a) the dark ages when little was known about black holes even though they had come into existence quite early through the Schwarzschild solution, (b) the age of enlightenment bringing in deep and prolific discoveries, (c) the age of fantasy that cast black holes in all sorts of extraordinary roles, and (d) the golden age of relativistic astrophysics - to some extent similar to Dirac's characterisation of the development of quantum theory - in which black holes have been extensively used to elucidate a number of astrophysical phenomena. It is impossible to give here even the briefest outline of the major developments in this vast area. We shall only attempt to present a few aspects of black hole physics which have been actively pursued in the recent past. Some details are given in the case of those topics that have not found their way into text books or review articles. (author)
Macroscopic black holes, microscopic black holes and noncommutative membrane
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Miao [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academia Sinica, PO Box 2735, Beijing 100080 (China)
2004-07-21
We study the stretched membrane of a black hole as consisting of a perfect fluid. We find that the pressure of this fluid is negative and the specific heat is also negative. A surprising result is that if we are to assume the fluid to be composed of some quanta, then the dispersion relation of the fundamental quantum is E = m{sup 2}/k, with m at the scale of the Planck mass. There are two possible interpretations of this dispersion relation. One is the noncommutative spacetime on the stretched membrane and the other is that the fundamental quanta are microscopic black holes.
Macroscopic black holes, microscopic black holes and noncommutative membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the stretched membrane of a black hole as consisting of a perfect fluid. We find that the pressure of this fluid is negative and the specific heat is also negative. A surprising result is that if we are to assume the fluid to be composed of some quanta, then the dispersion relation of the fundamental quantum is E = m2/k, with m at the scale of the Planck mass. There are two possible interpretations of this dispersion relation. One is the noncommutative spacetime on the stretched membrane and the other is that the fundamental quanta are microscopic black holes
Time dependent black holes and scalar hair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show how to correctly account for scalar accretion onto black holes in scalar field models of dark energy by a consistent expansion in terms of a slow roll parameter. At leading order, we find an analytic solution for the scalar field within our Hubble volume, which is regular on both black hole and cosmological event horizons, and compute the back reaction of the scalar on the black hole, calculating the resulting expansion of the black hole. Our results are independent of the relative size of black hole and cosmological event horizons. We comment on the implications for more general black hole accretion, and the no hair theorems. (paper)
Implementing black hole as efficient power plant
Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao
2016-01-01
Treating the black hole molecules as working substance and considering its phase structure, we study the black hole heat engine by a charged anti-de Sitter black hole. In the reduced temperature-entropy chart, it is found that the work, heat, and efficiency of the engine are independent of the black hole charge. Applying the Rankine cycle with or without a back pressure mechanism to the black hole heat engine, the efficiency is numerically solved. The result shows that the black hole engine w...
Energy on black hole spacetimes
Corichi, Alejandro
2012-01-01
We consider the issue of defining energy for test particles on a background black hole spacetime. We revisit the different notions of energy as defined by different observers. The existence of a time-like isometry allows for the notion of a total conserved energy to be well defined, and subsequently the notion of a gravitational potential energy is also meaningful. We then consider the situation in which the test particle is adsorbed by the black hole, and analyze the energetics in detail. In particular, we show that the notion of horizon energy es defined by the isolated horizons formalism provides a satisfactory notion of energy compatible with the particle's conserved energy. As another example, we comment a recent proposal to define energy of the black hole as seen by an observer at rest. This account is intended to be pedagogical and is aimed at the level of and as a complement to the standard textbooks on the subject.
Scrambling with matrix black holes
Brady, Lucas; Sahakian, Vatche
2013-08-01
If black holes are not to be dreaded sinks of information but rather fully described by unitary evolution, they must scramble in-falling data and eventually leak it through Hawking radiation. Sekino and Susskind have conjectured that black holes are fast scramblers; they generate entanglement at a remarkably efficient rate, with the characteristic time scaling logarithmically with the entropy. In this work, we focus on Matrix theory—M-theory in the light-cone frame—and directly probe the conjecture. We develop a concrete test bed for quantum gravity using the fermionic variables of Matrix theory and show that the problem becomes that of chains of qubits with an intricate network of interactions. We demonstrate that the black hole system evolves much like a Brownian quantum circuit, with strong indications that it is indeed a fast scrambler. We also analyze the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase model and reach the same tentative conclusion.
Liouvillian perturbations of black holes
Couch, W. E.; Holder, C. L.
2007-10-01
We apply the well-known Kovacic algorithm to find closed form, i.e., Liouvillian solutions, to the differential equations governing perturbations of black holes. Our analysis includes the full gravitational perturbations of Schwarzschild and Kerr, the full gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations of Reissner-Nordstrom, and specialized perturbations of the Kerr-Newman geometry. We also include the extreme geometries. We find all frequencies ω, in terms of black hole parameters and an integer n, which allow Liouvillian perturbations. We display many classes of black hole parameter values and their corresponding Liouvillian perturbations, including new closed-form perturbations of Kerr and Reissner-Nordstrom. We also prove that the only type 1 Liouvillian perturbations of Schwarzschild are the known algebraically special ones and that type 2 Liouvillian solutions do not exist for extreme geometries. In cases where we do not prove the existence or nonexistence of Liouvillian perturbations we obtain sequences of Diophantine equations on which decidability rests.
Massive Black Holes and Galaxies
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.
Disrupting Entanglement of Black Holes
Leichenauer, Stefan
2014-01-01
We study entanglement in thermofield double states of strongly coupled CFTs by analyzing two-sided Reissner-Nordstrom solutions in AdS. The central object of study is the mutual information between a pair of regions, one on each asymptotic boundary of the black hole. For large regions the mutual information is positive and for small ones it vanishes; we compute the critical length scale, which goes to infinity for extremal black holes, of the transition. We also generalize the butterfly effect of Shenker and Stanford to a wide class of charged black holes, showing that mutual information is disrupted upon perturbing the system and waiting for a time of order $\\log E/\\delta E$ in units of the temperature. We conjecture that the parametric form of this timescale is universal.
The physics of black hole x ray novae
Wheeler, J. C.; Kim, S.-W.; Moscoso, M. D.; Mineshige, S.
1994-01-01
X-ray transients that are established or plausible black hole candidates have been discovered at a rate of about one per year in the galaxy for the last five years. There are now well over a dozen black hole candidates, most being in the category of X-ray novae with low-mass companions. There may be hundreds of such transient systems in the galaxy yet to be discovered. Classic black hole candidates like Cygnus X-1 with massive companions are in the minority, and their census in the galaxy and magellanic clouds is likely to be complete. The black hole X-ray novae (BHXN) do not represent only the most common environment in which to discover black holes. Their time dependence gives a major new probe with which to study the physics of accretion into black holes. The BHXN show both a soft X-ray flux from an optically thick disk and a hard power law tail that is reminiscent of AGN spectra. The result may be new insight into the classical systems like Cyg X-1 and LMC X-1 that show similar power law tails, but also to accretion into supermassive black holes and AGN.
Begelman, Mitchell C
2012-01-01
We propose that the growth of supermassive black holes is associated mainly with brief episodes of highly super-Eddington infall of gas ("hyperaccretion"). This gas is not swallowed in real time, but forms an envelope of matter around the black hole that can be swallowed gradually, over a much longer timescale. However, only a small fraction of the black hole mass can be stored in the envelope at any one time. We argue that any infalling matter above a few per cent of the hole's mass is ejected as a result of the plunge in opacity at temperatures below a few thousand degrees K, corresponding to the Hayashi track. The speed of ejection of this matter, compared to the velocity dispersion (sigma) of the host galaxy's core, determines whether the ejected matter is lost forever or returns eventually to rejoin the envelope, from which it can be ultimately accreted. The threshold between matter recycling and permanent loss defines a relationship between the maximum black hole mass and sigma that resembles the empiri...
Control of black hole evaporation?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contradiction between Hawking's semi-classical arguments and the string theory on the evaporation of a black hole has been one of the most intriguing problems in fundamental physics. A final-state boundary condition inside the black hole was proposed by Horowitz and Maldacena to resolve this contradiction. We point out that the original Hawking effect can also be regarded as a separate boundary condition at the event horizon for this scenario. Here, we found that the change of the Hawking boundary condition may affect the information transfer from the initial collapsing matter to the outgoing Hawking radiation during the evaporation process and as a result the evaporation process itself, significantly
Asymptotic black hole quasinormal frequencies
Motl, Lubos; Neitzke, Andrew
2003-01-01
We give a new derivation of the quasinormal frequencies of Schwarzschild black holes in d greater than or equal to 4 and Reissner-Nordstrom black holes in d = 4, in the limit of infinite damping. For Schwarzschild in d greater than or equal to 4 we find that the asymptotic real part is THawkinglog(3) for scalar perturbations and for some gravitational perturbations; this confirms a result previously obtained by other means in the case d = 4. For Reissner-Nordstrom in d = 4 w...
Geometric inequalities for black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)
2013-07-01
Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)
Black Hole Statistics from Holography
Shepard, Peter G.
2005-01-01
We study the microstates of the ``small'' black hole in the $\\half$-BPS sector of AdS$_5\\times S^5$, the superstar of Myers and Tafjord, using the powerful holographic description provided by LLM. The system demonstrates the inherently statistical nature of black holes, with the geometry of Myer and Tafjord emerging only after averaging over an ensemble of geometries. The individual microstate geometries differ in the highly non-trivial topology of a quantum foam at their core, and the entrop...
Information Loss in Black Holes
Hawking, Stephen William
2005-01-01
The question of whether information is lost in black holes is investigated using Euclidean path integrals. The formation and evaporation of black holes is regarded as a scattering problem with all measurements being made at infinity. This seems to be well formulated only in asymptotically AdS spacetimes. The path integral over metrics with trivial topology is unitary and information preserving. On the other hand, the path integral over metrics with non-trivial topologies leads to correlation functions that decay to zero. Thus at late times only the unitary information preserving path integrals over trivial topologies will contribute. Elementary quantum gravity interactions do not lose information or quantum coherence.
Information loss in black holes
Hawking, S. W.
2005-10-01
The question of whether information is lost in black holes is investigated using Euclidean path integrals. The formation and evaporation of black holes is regarded as a scattering problem with all measurements being made at infinity. This seems to be well formulated only in asymptotically AdS spacetimes. The path integral over metrics with trivial topology is unitary and information preserving. On the other hand, the path integral over metrics with nontrivial topologies leads to correlation functions that decay to zero. Thus at late times only the unitary information preserving path integrals over trivial topologies will contribute. Elementary quantum gravity interactions do not lose information or quantum coherence.
Black holes and warped spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black holes (BHs) and their warping effect on spacetime are described, beginning with a discussion on stellar evolution that includes white dwarfs, supernovas and neutron stars. The structure of static, rotating, and electrically charged BHs are considered, as well as the general theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, the Einstein-Rosen bridge, and wormholes in spacetime. Attention is also given to gravitational lenses, various space geometries, quasars, Seyfert galaxies, supermassive black holes, the evaporation and particle emission of BHs, and primordial BHs, including their temperature and lifetime
Introduction to Black Hole Evaporation
Lambert, Pierre-Henry
2013-01-01
These lecture notes are an elementary and pedagogical introduction to the black hole evaporation, based on a lecture given by the author at the Ninth Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics and are intended for PhD students. First, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is studied and tools needed for the remaining of the course are introduced. Then quantum field theory in Rindler spacetime in 1+1 dimensions and in the spacetime of a spherically collapsing star are considered, leading to Unruh and Hawking effects, respectively. Finally some consequences such as thermodynamics of black holes and information loss paradox are discussed.
Regular Black Holes with Cosmological Constant
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MO Wen-Juan; CAI Rong-Gen; SU Ru-Keng
2006-01-01
We present a class of regular black holes with cosmological constant Λ in nonlinear electrodynamics. Instead of usual singularity behind black hole horizon, all fields and curvature invariants are regular everywhere for the regular black holes. Through gauge invariant approach, the linearly dynamical stability of the regular black hole is studied. In odd-parity sector, we find that the Λ term does not appear in the master equations of perturbations, which shows that the regular black hole is stable under odd-parity perturbations. On the other hand, for the even-parity sector, the master equations are more complicated than the case without the cosmological constant. We obtain the sufficient conditions for stability of the regular black hole. We also investigate the thermodynamic properties of the regular black hole, and find that those thermodynamic quantities do not satisfy the differential form of first law of black hole thermodynamics. The reason for violating the first law is revealed.
Implementing black hole as efficient power plant
Wei, Shao-Wen
2016-01-01
Treating the black hole molecules as working substance and considering its phase structure, we study the black hole heat engine by a charged anti-de Sitter black hole. In the reduced temperature-entropy chart, it is found that the work, heat, and efficiency of the engine are independent of the black hole charge. Applying the Rankine cycle with or without a back pressure mechanism to the black hole heat engine, the efficiency is numerically solved. The result shows that the black hole engine working along the Rankine cycle with a back pressure mechanism has a higher efficiency. This provides a novel and efficient mechanism to produce the useful mechanical work with black hole, and such heat engine may act as a possible energy source for the high energy astrophysical phenomena near the black hole.
A Practical Foundation for Mapping Black Hole Spacetimes
Vigeland, Sarah; Hughes, Scott
2010-02-01
Observations have shown that the universe contains many compact and massive objects that are believed to be black holes. Precise observations of orbital motion near candidate black holes have the potential to determine if they have the spacetime structure predicted by general relativity. We propose to compare strong-field observations of compact objects with the spacetime of bumpy black holes: objects whose multipolar structure is almost, but not quite, equal to that of the Kerr spacetime. We build bumpy black hole spacetimes by adding a perturbation onto a Kerr black hole, and we show how to map the perturbation onto changes in the multipole moments. The perturbation results in changes to the orbital frequencies which we calculate using Hamilton-Jacobi techniques. )
Quantum Gravity Effects On Charged Micro Black Holes Thermodynamics
Abbasvandi, N; Radiman, Shahidan; Abdullah, W A T Wan
2016-01-01
The charged black hole thermodynamics is corrected in terms of the quantum gravity effects. Most of the quantum gravity theories support the idea that near the Planck scale, the standard Heisenberg uncertainty principle should be reformulated by the so-called Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) which provides a perturbation framework to perform required modifications of the black hole quantities. In this paper, we consider the effects of the minimal length and maximal momentum as GUP type I and the minimal length, minimal momentum, and maximal momentum as GUP type II on thermodynamics of the charged TeV-scale black holes. We also generalized our study to the universe with the extra dimensions based on the ADD model. In this framework, the effect of the electrical charge on thermodynamics of the black hole and existence of the charged black hole remnants as a potential candidate for the dark matter particles are discussed.
Missing Black Holes Driven Out
2004-05-01
-ECF/ESO) was able to use the first prototype of the AVO to provide unprecedented results on the existence of Type-2 quasars by discovering an entire population of obscured, powerful supermassive black holes. For this, they specifically scrutinised the so-called GOODS fields [2], i.e., the Hubble Deep Field-North and the Chandra Deep Field-South (see ESO Press Photos 02a-d/03). These GOODS fields include some of the deepest observations from space- and ground-based facilities ever made and are the most data-rich deep survey areas in the sky. Combining data from many telescopes Padovani and the team used the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory to combine information from multiple wavelengths, originating from ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Chandra X-ray satellite. This allowed them to discover 66 Type-2 AGN candidates in the GOODS fields, among which 30 qualify as optically obscured quasars, i.e. Type-2 quasars. Only 9 objects of this type were previously known to exist in the GOODS fields, so this result effectively quadruples the known population of Type-2 quasars. From this, the astronomers can infer the total number of Type-2 quasars and their associated black holes. According to Paolo Padovani: "This discovery means that surveys of powerful supermassive black holes have so far underestimated their numbers by at least a factor of two, and possibly by up to a factor of five." The newly discovered type-2 AGNs have a mean redshift [3] close to 3. The new Type-2 quasars are even further, with a mean redshift of 3.7. Thus, they are seen as when the Universe was only 1,600 million years old. "These discoveries highlight the kind of scientific impact that Virtual Observatory technologies and standards will have on astronomy world-wide", says Peter Quinn (ESO), Director of the AVO. "The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory wants to continue to work with astronomers in Europe to enable more discoveries like this, using combined data from ground
Modified dispersion relations and black hole physics
Ling, Yi; Hu, Bo; Li, Xiang
2005-01-01
A modified formulation of energy-momentum relation is proposed in the context of doubly special relativity. We investigate its impact on black hole physics. It turns out that such modification will give corrections to both the temperature and the entropy of black holes. In particular this modified dispersion relation also changes the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of black holes approaching the Planck scale. It can prevent black holes from total evaporation, as a result pr...
Black-hole formation from stellar collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
I review the end-state of massive stellar evolution, following the evolution of these massive stars from the onset of collapse through the formation of a compact remnant and the possible supernova or hypernova explosion. In particular, I concentrate on the formation of black holes from stellar collapse: the fraction of stars that form black holes, the black-hole mass distribution and the velocities these black-hole remnants may receive during their formation process
Black holes sourced by a massless scalar
Cadoni, Mariano
2015-01-01
We construct asymptotically flat black hole solutions of Einstein-scalar gravity sourced by a nontrivial scalar field with 1/r asymptotic behaviour. Near the singularity the black hole behaves as the Janis-Newmann-Winicour-Wyman solution. The hairy black hole solutions allow for a consistent thermodynamical description. At large mass they have the same thermodynamical behaviour of the Schwarzschild black hole, whereas for small masses they differ substantially from the latter.
Merging galaxies and black hole ejections
Valtonen, M. J.
1990-01-01
In mergers of galaxies their central black holes are accumulated together. Researchers show that few black hole systems arise which decay through black hole collisions and black hole ejections. The ejection statistics are calculated and compared with two observed systems where ejections have been previously suggested: double radio sources and high redshift quasars near low redshift galaxies. In both cases certain aspects of the associations are explained by the merger hypothesis.
Noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild black hole
Nicolini, Piero; Smailagic, Anais; Spallucci, Euro
2005-01-01
We investigate the behavior of a noncommutative radiating Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that coordinate noncommutativity cures usual problems encountered in the description of the terminal phase of black hole evaporation. More in detail, we find that: the evaporation end-point is a zero temperature extremal black hole even in the case of electrically neutral, non-rotating, objects; there exists a finite maximum temperature that the black hole can reach before cooling down to absolute ...
Energy conservation for dynamical black holes
Hayward, Sean A.
2004-01-01
An energy conservation law is described, expressing the increase in mass-energy of a general black hole in terms of the energy densities of the infalling matter and gravitational radiation. For a growing black hole, this first law of black-hole dynamics is equivalent to an equation of Ashtekar & Krishnan, but the new integral and differential forms are regular in the limit where the black hole ceases to grow. An effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor is obtained, providing measures o...
Supermassive Black Holes and Their Environments
Colberg, Joerg M.; Di Matteo, Tiziana
2008-01-01
We make use of the first high--resolution hydrodynamic simulations of structure formation which self-consistently follows the build up of supermassive black holes introduced in Di Matteo et al. (2007) to investigate the relation between black holes (BH), host halo and large--scale environment. There are well--defined relations between halo and black hole masses and between the activities of galactic nuclei and halo masses at low redshifts. A large fraction of black holes forms anti--hierarchi...
Black hole growth in hierarchical galaxy formation.
Malbon, R. K.; Baugh, C M; Frenk, C. S.; Lacey, C. G.
2007-01-01
We incorporate a model for black hole growth during galaxy mergers into the semi-analytical galaxy formation model based on Lambda-CDM proposed by Baugh et al. (2005). Our black hole model has one free parameter, which we set by matching the observed zeropoint of the local correlation between black hole mass and bulge luminosity. We present predictions for the evolution with redshift of the relationships between black hole mass and bulge properties. Our simulations reproduce the evolution of ...
Will black holes eventually engulf the universe?
Martin-Moruno, Prado; Madrid, Jose A. Jimenez; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.
2006-01-01
The Babichev-Dokuchaev-Eroshenko model for the accretion of dark energy onto black holes has been extended to deal with black holes with non-static metrics. The possibility that for an asymptotic observer a black hole with large mass will rapidly increase and eventually engulf the Universe at a finite time in the future has been studied by using reasonable values for astronomical parameters. It is concluded that such a phenomenon is forbidden for all black holes in quintessential cosmological...
Quantum Black Holes As Elementary Particles
Ha, Yuan K.
2008-01-01
Are black holes elementary particles? Are they fermions or bosons? We investigate the remarkable possibility that quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest elementary particles. We are able to construct various fundamental quantum black holes: the spin-0, spin 1/2, spin-1, and the Planck-charge cases, using the results in general relativity. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox posed by the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit on the energy of cosmi...
Stationary Scalar Clouds Around Rotating Black Holes
Hod, Shahar
2012-01-01
Motivated by novel results in the theory of wave dynamics in black-hole spacetimes, we analyze the dynamics of a massive scalar field surrounding a rapidly rotating Kerr black hole. In particular, we report on the existence of stationary (infinitely long-lived) regular field configurations in the background of maximally rotating black holes. The effective height of these scalar "clouds" above the central black hole is determined analytically. Our results support the possible existence of stat...
Volonteri, Marta
2012-01-01
I briefly outline recent theoretical developments on the formation of the first massive black holes (MBHs) that may grow into the population of MBHs powering quasars and inhabiting galactic centers today. I also touch upon possible observational tests that may give insights on what the properties of the first MBHs were.
Close encounters of black holes
Giulini, D
2003-01-01
This is an introduction into the problem of how to set up black hole initial-data for the matter-free field equations of General Relativity. The approach is semi-pedagogical and addresses a more general audience of astrophysicists and students with no specialized training in General Relativity beyond that of an introductory lecture.
Black Holes and Exotic Spinors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Hoff da Silva
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime exoticness. Black holes are then studied as the generators of a non-trivial topology that also can correspond to some inequivalent spin structure. Moreover, we investigate exotic spinor fields in this context and the way exotic spinor fields branch new physics. We also calculate the tunneling probability of exotic fermions across a Kerr-Sen black hole, showing that the exotic term does affect the tunneling probability, altering the black hole evaporation rate. Finally we show that it complies with the Hawking temperature universal law.
Information retrieval from black holes
Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T
2016-01-01
It is generally believed that, when matter collapses to form a black hole, the complete information about the initial state of the matter cannot be retrieved by future asymptotic observers, through local measurements. This is contrary to the expectation from a unitary evolution in quantum theory and leads to (a version of) the black hole information paradox. Classically, nothing else, apart from mass, charge and angular momentum is expected to be revealed to such asymptotic observers after the formation of a black hole. Semi-classically, black holes evaporate after their formation through the Hawking radiation. The dominant part of the radiation is expected to be thermal and hence one cannot know anything about the initial data from the resultant radiation. However, there can be sources of distortions which make the radiation non-thermal. Although the distortions are not strong enough to make the evolution unitary, these distortions carry some part of information regarding the in-state. In this work, we show ...
Extremal Higher Spin Black Holes
Bañados, Máximo; Faraggi, Alberto; Jottar, Juan I
2015-01-01
The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole extremality which is appropriate to the topological character of 3d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of extremality does not require nor implies the existence of supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) + sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory. Remarkably, while as usual not all extremal solutions preserve supersymmetries, we find that the higher spin setup allows for non-extremal supersymmetric black hole solutio...
Gravitating Disks Around Black Holes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Karas, Vladimír; Šubr, Ladislav
Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2010 - (Peterson, B.), s. 332-332 ISBN 978-0-521-76502-2. - (IAU Symposium Proceedings Series. 267). [Symposium of the International Astronomical Union /267./. Rio de Janeiro (BR), 10.08.2009-14.08.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : accretion disks * gravitation * black hole physics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-10-06
Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.
Quantum Geometry and Black Holes
Ashtekar, Abhay; Ashtekar, Abhay; Krasnov, Kirill
1998-01-01
Non-perturbative quantum general relativity provides a possible framework to analyze issues related to black hole thermodynamics from a fundamental perspective. A pedagogical account of the recent developments in this area is given. The emphasis is on the conceptual and structural issues rather than technical subtleties. The article is addressed to post-graduate students and beginning researchers.
Scalar fields versus black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that if a body is endowed with a scalar charge, the event horizon associated with the modified Schwarzchild solution is reduced to a point, this avoiding the black holes formation. The discussion is restricted to ordinary scalar fields and conformally invariant scalar fields, respectively. (authors)
Magnetospheres around rotating black holes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dovčiak, Michal; Karas, V.
Singapor: World Scientific Publishing Co., 2003 - (Ruffini, R.; Sigismondi, C.), s. 288-295 [Nonlinear gravitodynamics. Rome (IT), 29.06.1998-04.07.1998] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : black holes * general relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
General Overview of Black Hole Accretion Theory
Blaes, Omer
2013-01-01
I provide a broad overview of the basic theoretical paradigms of black hole accretion flows. Models that make contact with observations continue to be mostly based on the four decade old alpha stress prescription of Shakura & Sunyaev (1973), and I discuss the properties of both radiatively efficient and inefficient models, including their local properties, their expected stability to secular perturbations, and how they might be tied together in global flow geometries. The alpha stress is a prescription for turbulence, for which the only existing plausible candidate is that which develops from the magnetorotational instability (MRI). I therefore also review what is currently known about the local properties of such turbulence, and the physical issues that have been elucidated and that remain uncertain that are relevant for the various alpha-based black hole accretion flow models.
Superradiant amplification by stars and black holes
Rosa, João Luís de Figueiredo
2016-01-01
In this thesis we study the phenomenon of superradiance and its implications to the stability of black-holes (BH) and perfect-fluid stars. Superradiance is a radiation enhancement process that involves rotating dissipative systems. In BH spacetimes, superradiance is due to dissipation at the event horizon, with interesting associated phenomena, namely floating orbits and BH-bombs. BH superradiance is a very interdisciplinary topic, and its study allows us to obtain important results in the area of particle physics. The scattering of a scalar field by a rotating BH leads to the formation of quasi-boundstates. In rotational systems, these states can give rise to superradiant instabilities. These results were recently used to impose constraints to the mass of fundamental particles and darkmatter candidates. In this work, it is shown that, when dissipation is properly included, similar results are achievable in self-gravitating systems other than black-holes, such as perfect fluid stars. It is also demonstrated t...
Signatures of black holes at the LHC
Cavaglia, Marco; Godang, Romulus; Cremaldi, Lucien M.; Summers, Donald J.
2007-01-01
Signatures of black hole events at CERN's Large Hadron Collider are discussed. Event simulations are carried out with the Fortran Monte Carlo generator CATFISH. Inelasticity effects, exact field emissivities, color and charge conservation, corrections to semiclassical black hole evaporation, gravitational energy loss at formation and possibility of a black hole remnant are included in the analysis.
Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."
Roth, Lane
The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for transcendent…
Light geodesics near an evaporating black hole
Guerreiro, Thiago; Monteiro, Fernando
2015-10-01
Quantum effects imply that an infalling observer cannot cross the event horizon of an evaporating black hole, even in her proper time. The Penrose diagram of an evaporating black hole is different from the one usually reported in the literature. We show that before the observer can cross the horizon the black hole disappears. Possible observational consequences are discussed.
Dilatonic Black Holes, Naked Singularities and Strings
Cox, P. H.; B. Harms(University of Alabama); Leblanc, Y.
1992-01-01
We extend a previous calculation which treated Schwarschild black hole horizons as quantum mechanical objects to the case of a charged, dilaton black hole. We show that for a unique value of the dilaton parameter `a', which is determined by the condition of unitarity of the S matrix, black holes transform at the extremal limit into strings.
Extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity
Katmadas, S.
2011-01-01
An explanation for the entropy of black holes has been an outstanding problem in recent decades. A special case where this is possible is that of extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity in four and five dimensions. The best developed case is for black holes preserving some supersymmetry (BPS), whic
Scalar field radiation from dilatonic black holes
Gohar, H.; Saifullah, K.
2012-12-01
We study radiation of scalar particles from charged dilaton black holes. The Hamilton-Jacobi method has been used to work out the tunneling probability of outgoing particles from the event horizon of dilaton black holes. For this purpose we use WKB approximation to solve the charged Klein-Gordon equation. The procedure gives Hawking temperature for these black holes as well.
Micro black holes in the laboratory
Bleicher, Marcus; Nicolini, Piero; Sprenger, Martin; Winstanley, Elizabeth(Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH, United Kingdom)
2011-01-01
The possibility of creating microscopic black holes is one of the most exciting predictions for the LHC, with potentially major consequences for our current understanding of physics. We briefly review the theoretical motivation for micro black hole production, and our understanding of their subsequent evolution. Recent work on modelling the radiation from quantum-gravity-corrected black holes is also discussed.
Resource Letter BH-1: Black Holes.
Detweiler, Steven
1981-01-01
Lists resources on black holes, including: (1) articles of historical interest; (2) books and journal articles on elementary expositions; (3) elementary and advanced textbooks; and (4) research articles on analytic structure of black holes, black hole dynamics, and astrophysical processes. (SK)
Black Hole Monodromy and Conformal Field Theory
A. Castro; J.M. Lapan; A. Maloney; M.J. Rodriguez
2013-01-01
The analytic structure of solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in a black hole background, as represented by monodromy data, is intimately related to black hole thermodynamics. It encodes the "hidden conformal symmetry" of a nonextremal black hole, and it explains why features of the inner event h
On Quantum Contributions to Black Hole Growth
Spaans, M.
2013-01-01
The effects of Wheeler’s quantum foam on black hole growth are explored from an astrophysical per- spective. Quantum fluctuations in the form of mini (10−5 g) black holes can couple to macroscopic black holes and allow the latter to grow exponentially in mass on a time scale of 109 years. Consequent
Comments on Black Holes in Matrix Theory
Horowitz, Gary T.; Martinec, Emil J.
1997-01-01
The recent suggestion that the entropy of Schwarzschild black holes can be computed in matrix theory using near-extremal D-brane thermodynamics is examined. It is found that the regime in which this approach is valid actually describes black strings stretched across the longitudinal direction, near the transition where black strings become unstable to the formation of black holes. It is argued that the appropriate dynamics on the other (black hole) side of the transition is that of the zero m...
Extremal higher spin black holes
Bañados, Máximo; Castro, Alejandra; Faraggi, Alberto; Jottar, Juan I.
2016-04-01
The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole extremality which is appropriate to the topological character of 3 d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of extremality does not require supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and show that, as usual, not all extremal solutions preserve supersymmetries. Remarkably, we find in addition that the higher spin setup allows for non-extremal supersymmetric black hole solutions. Furthermore, we discuss our results from the perspective of the holographic duality between sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and two-dimensional CFTs with W (3|2) symmetry, the simplest higher spin extension of the N = 2 super-Virasoro algebra. In particular, we compute W (3|2) BPS bounds at the full quantum level, and relate their semiclassical limit to extremal black hole or conical defect solutions in the 3 d bulk. Along the way, we discuss the role of the spectral flow automorphism and provide a conjecture for the form of the semiclassical BPS bounds in general N = 2 two-dimensional CFTs with extended symmetry algebras.
Scattering by regular black holes: Planar massless scalar waves impinging upon a Bardeen black hole
Macedo, Caio F B; Crispino, Luís C B
2015-01-01
Singularities are common features of general relativity black holes. However, within general relativity, one can construct black holes that present no singularities. These regular black hole solutions can be achieved by, for instance, relaxing one of the energy conditions on the stress energy tensor sourcing the black hole. Some regular black hole solutions were found in the context of non-linear electrodynamics, the Bardeen black hole being the first one proposed. In this paper, we consider a planar massless scalar wave scattered by a Bardeen black hole. We compare the scattering cross section computed using a partial-wave description with the classical geodesic scattering of a stream of null geodesics, as well as with the semi-classical glory approximation. We obtain that, for some values of the corresponding black hole charge, the scattering cross section of a Bardeen black hole has a similar interference pattern of a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole.
Tunnelling from black holes and tunnelling into white holes
Chatterjee, Bhramar; Ghosh, A.; Mitra, P.
2008-03-01
Hawking radiation is nowadays being understood as tunnelling through black hole horizons. Here, the extension of the Hamilton-Jacobi approach to tunnelling for non-rotating and rotating black holes in different non-singular coordinate systems not only confirms this quantum emission from black holes but also reveals the new phenomenon of absorption into white holes by quantum mechanical tunnelling. The rôle of a boundary condition of total absorption or emission is also clarified.
Nonlinear interactions between black holes and Proca fields
Zilhão, Miguel; Cardoso, Vitor
2015-01-01
Physics beyond the Standard Model is an important candidate for dark matter, and an interesting testing ground for strong-field gravity: the equivalence principle "forces" all forms of matter to fall in the same way, and it is therefore natural to look for imprints of these fields in regions with strong gravitational fields, such as compact stars or black holes. Here we study General Relativity minimally coupled to a massive vector field, and how black holes in this theory lose "hair". Our results indicate that black holes can sustain Proca field condensates for extremely long time-scales.
Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe
Zhang, T. X.
2015-07-01
Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.
Black Hole Evaporation in Horava and New Massive Gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently it has been a lot of interest in the theory proposed by Horava due to the renormalizability properties of the theory and as a candidate for the UV completion of Einstein gravity. On the other hand, we also investigate three dimensional black holes at a Lifshitz point. In the present work we study thermodynamical properties in this setups. In particular we are able to obtain time of evaporation for black hole solutions for the two formalisim.
A comparison of remnants in noncommutative Bardeen black holes
Mehdipour, S. Hamid; Ahmadi, M. H.
2016-01-01
We derive the mass term of the Bardeen metric in the presence of a noncommutative geometry induced minimal length. In this setup, the proposal of a stable black hole remnant as a candidate to store information is confirmed. We consider the possibility of having an extremal configuration with one degenerate event horizon and compare different sizes of black hole remnants. As a result, once the magnetic charge $g$ of the noncommutative Bardeen solution becomes larger, both the minimal nonzero m...
Chandra Catches "Piranha" Black Holes
2007-07-01
Supermassive black holes have been discovered to grow more rapidly in young galaxy clusters, according to new results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These "fast-track" supermassive black holes can have a big influence on the galaxies and clusters that they live in. Using Chandra, scientists surveyed a sample of clusters and counted the fraction of galaxies with rapidly growing supermassive black holes, known as active galactic nuclei (or AGN). The data show, for the first time, that younger, more distant galaxy clusters contained far more AGN than older, nearby ones. Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe, consisting of many individual galaxies, a few of which contain AGN. Earlier in the history of the universe, these galaxies contained a lot more gas for star formation and black hole growth than galaxies in clusters do today. This fuel allows the young cluster black holes to grow much more rapidly than their counterparts in nearby clusters. Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus "The black holes in these early clusters are like piranha in a very well-fed aquarium," said Jason Eastman of Ohio State University (OSU) and first author of this study. "It's not that they beat out each other for food, rather there was so much that all of the piranha were able to really thrive and grow quickly." The team used Chandra to determine the fraction of AGN in four different galaxy clusters at large distances, when the Universe was about 58% of its current age. Then they compared this value to the fraction found in more nearby clusters, those about 82% of the Universe's current age. The result was the more distant clusters contained about 20 times more AGN than the less distant sample. AGN outside clusters are also more common when the Universe is younger, but only by factors of two or three over the same age span. "It's been predicted that there would be fast-track black holes in clusters, but we never
Stationary Scalar Clouds Around Rotating Black Holes
Hod, Shahar
2012-01-01
Motivated by novel results in the theory of wave dynamics in black-hole spacetimes, we analyze the dynamics of a massive scalar field surrounding a rapidly rotating Kerr black hole. In particular, we report on the existence of stationary (infinitely long-lived) regular field configurations in the background of maximally rotating black holes. The effective height of these scalar "clouds" above the central black hole is determined analytically. Our results support the possible existence of stationary scalar field dark matter distributions surrounding rapidly rotating black holes.
Toroidal Horizons in Binary Black Hole Mergers
Bohn, Andy; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Teukolsky, Saul A.
2016-01-01
We find the first binary black hole event horizon with a toroidal topology. It had been predicted that generically the event horizons of merging black holes should briefly have a toroidal topology, but such a phase has never been seen prior to this work. In all previous binary black hole simulations, in the coordinate slicing used to evolve the black holes, the topology of the event horizon transitions directly from two spheres during the inspiral to a single sphere as the black holes merge. ...
Moving black holes via singularity excision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a singularity excision algorithm appropriate for numerical simulations of black holes moving throughout the computational domain. The method is an extension of the excision procedure previously used to obtain stable simulations of single, non-moving black holes. The excision procedure also shares elements used in recent work to study the dynamics of a scalar field in the background of a single, boosted black hole. The excision method is tested with single black-hole evolutions using a coordinate system in which the coordinate location of the black hole, and thus the excision boundary, moves throughout the computational domain
Black holes under external inﬂuence
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Jiří Bičák
2000-10-01
The work on black holes immersed in external ﬁelds is reviewed in both test-ﬁeld approximation and within exact solutions. In particular we pay attention to the effect of the expulsion of the ﬂux of external ﬁelds across charged and rotating black holes which are approaching extremal states. Recently this effect has been shown to occur for black hole solutions in string theory. We also discuss black holes surrounded by rings and disks and rotating black holes accelerated by strings.
Could supermassive black holes be quintessential primordial black holes?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There is growing observational evidence for a population of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic bulges. We examine in detail the conditions under which these black holes must have originated from primordial black holes (PBHs). We consider the merging and accretion history experienced by SMBHs to find that, whereas it is possible that they were formed by purely astrophysical processes, this is unlikely and most probably a population of primordial progenitors is necessary. We identify the mass distribution and comoving density of this population and then propose a cosmological scenario producing PBHs with the right properties. Although this is not essential we consider PBHs produced at the end of a period of inflation with a blue spectrum of fluctuations. We constrain the value of the spectral tilt in order to obtain the required PBH comoving density. We then assume that PBHs grow by accreting quintessence, showing that their mass scales like the horizon mass while the quintessence field itself is scaling. We find that if scaling is broken just before nucleosynthesis (as is the case with some attractive nonminimally coupled models) we obtain the appropriate PBH mass distribution. Hawking evaporation is negligible in most cases, but we also discuss situations in which the interplay of accretion and evaporation is relevant
Black Holes Shed Light on Galaxy Formation
2000-01-01
This videotape is comprised of several segments of animations on black holes and galaxy formation, and several segments of an interview with Dr. John Kormendy. The animation segments are: (1) a super massive black hole, (2) Centarus A active black hole found in a collision, (3) galaxy NGC-4261 (active black hole and jet model), (4) galaxy M-32 (orbits of stars are effected by the gravity of the black hole), (5) galaxy M-37 (motion of stars increases as mass of black hole increases), (6) Birth of active galactic nuclei, (7) the collision of two galaxy leads to merger of the black holes, (8) Centarus A and simulation of the collision of 2 galaxies. There are also several segments of an interview with John Kormendy. In these segments he discusses the two most important aspects of his recent black hole work: (1) the correlations between galaxies speed and the mass of the black holes, and (2) the existence of black holes and galactic formation. He also discusses the importance of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to the study of black holes. He also shows the methodology of processing images from the spectrograph in his office.
Mathur, Samir D.
2007-01-01
String theory tells us that quantum gravity has a dual description as a field theory (without gravity). We use the field theory dual to ask what happens to an object as it falls into the simplest black hole: the 2-charge extremal hole. In the field theory description the wavefunction of a particle is spread over a large number of `loops', and the particle has a well-defined position in space only if it has the same `position' on each loop. For the infalling particle we find one definition of ...
Charged rotating black holes at large D
Tanabe, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We study odd dimensional charged equally rotating black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell theory with/without a cosmological constant by using the large D expansion method, where D is a spacetime dimension. Solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations in the 1/D expansion we obtain the large D effective equations for charged equally rotating black holes. The effective equations describe the nonlinear dynamics of charged equally rotating black holes. Especially the perturbation analysis of the effective equations gives analytic formula for quasinormal mode frequencies, and we can show charged equally rotating black holes have instabilities. As one interesting feature of instabilities, we observe that the ultraspinning instability of neutral equally rotating black holes in de Sitter is connected with the instability of de Sitter Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in a rotation-charge plane of the solution parameter space. So these instabilities have same origin as dynamical properties of charged rotating black holes. We also ...
Quantum information erasure inside black holes
Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus
2015-12-01
An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. This property, combined with the requirement that outside observers need at least of order the scrambling time to extract quantum information from the black hole, ensures that a typical infalling observer does not encounter drama upon crossing the black hole horizon in a theory where black hole information is preserved for asymptotic observers.
Quasistars: Accreting black holes inside massive envelopes
Begelman, Mitchell C; Armitage, Philip J
2007-01-01
We study the structure and evolution of "quasistars," accreting black holes embedded within massive hydrostatic gaseous envelopes. These configurations may model the early growth of supermassive black hole seeds. The accretion rate onto the black hole adjusts so that the luminosity carried by the convective envelope equals the Eddington limit for the total mass. This greatly exceeds the Eddington limit for the black hole mass alone, leading to rapid growth of the black hole. We use analytic models and numerical stellar structure calculations to study the structure and evolution of quasistars. We derive analytically the scaling of the photospheric temperature with the black hole mass and envelope mass, and show that it decreases with time as the black hole mass increases. Once the photospheric temperature becomes lower than 10000 K, the photospheric opacity drops precipitously and the photospheric temperature hits a limiting value, analogous to the Hayashi track for red giants and protostars, below which no hy...
From Schwinger Balls to Black Holes
Allahbakhshi, Davood
2016-01-01
We have shown intriguing similarities between Schwinger balls and black holes. By considering black hole as a gravitational Schwinger ball, we have derived the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the first law of black hole thermodynamics as a direct result of the inverse area dependence of the gravitational force. It is also shown that the Planck length is nothing but the gravitational Schwinger length. The relation between the mass and the radius of the black hole is derived by considering the black hole as a Schwinger ball of gravitons. We show how the evolution of the entanglement entropy of the black hole, as Page introduced many years ago, can be obtained by including gravitons in the black hole's evaporation process and using a deformed EPR mechanism. Also this deformed EPR mechanism can solve the information paradox. We show how naive simultaneous usage of Page's argument and equivalence principle leads to firewall problem.
Quantum information erasure inside black holes
Lowe, David A
2015-01-01
An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. This property, combined with the requirement that outside observers need at least of order the scrambling time to extract quantum information from the black hole, ensures that a typical infalling observer does not encounter drama upon crossing the black hole horizon in a theory where black hole information is preserved for asymptotic observers.
Dark Spinors Hawking Radiation in String Theory Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. T. Cavalcanti
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The Hawking radiation spectrum of Kerr-Sen axion-dilaton black holes is derived, in the context of dark spinors tunnelling across the horizon. Since a black hole has a well defined temperature, it should radiate in principle all the standard model particles, similar to a black body at that temperature. We investigate the tunnelling of mass dimension one spin-1/2 dark fermions, which are beyond the standard model and are prime candidates to the dark matter. Their interactions with the standard model matter and gauge fields are suppressed by at least one power of unification scale, being restricted just to the Higgs field and to the graviton likewise. The tunnelling method for the emission and absorption of mass dimension one particles across the event horizon of Kerr-Sen axion-dilaton black holes is shown here to provide further evidence for the universality of black hole radiation, further encompassing particles beyond the standard model.
An Introduction to Black Hole Evaporation
Traschen, Jennie
2000-01-01
Classical black holes are defined by the property that things can go in, but don't come out. However, Stephen Hawking calculated that black holes actually radiate quantum mechanical particles. The two important ingredients that result in back hole evaporation are (1) the spacetime geometry, in particular the black hole horizon, and (2) the fact that the notion of a "particle" is not an invariant concept in quantum field theory. These notes contain a step-by-step presentation of Hawking's calc...
Black Hole Unitarity and Antipodal Entanglement
't Hooft, Gerard
2016-05-01
Hawking particles emitted by a black hole are usually found to have thermal spectra, if not exactly, then by a very good approximation. Here, we argue differently. It was discovered that spherical partial waves of in-going and out-going matter can be described by unitary evolution operators independently, which allows for studies of space-time properties that were not possible before. Unitarity dictates space-time, as seen by a distant observer, to be topologically non-trivial. Consequently, Hawking particles are only locally thermal, but globally not: we explain why Hawking particles emerging from one hemisphere of a black hole must be 100 % entangled with the Hawking particles emerging from the other hemisphere. This produces exclusively pure quantum states evolving in a unitary manner, and removes the interior region for the outside observer, while it still completely agrees locally with the laws of general relativity. Unitarity is a starting point; no other assumptions are made. Region I and the diametrically opposite region II of the Penrose diagram represent antipodal points in a PT or CPT relation, as was suggested before. On the horizon itself, antipodal points are identified. A candidate instanton is proposed to describe the formation and evaporation of virtual black holes of the type described here.
Black Hole Unitarity and Antipodal Entanglement
't Hooft, Gerard
2016-09-01
Hawking particles emitted by a black hole are usually found to have thermal spectra, if not exactly, then by a very good approximation. Here, we argue differently. It was discovered that spherical partial waves of in-going and out-going matter can be described by unitary evolution operators independently, which allows for studies of space-time properties that were not possible before. Unitarity dictates space-time, as seen by a distant observer, to be topologically non-trivial. Consequently, Hawking particles are only locally thermal, but globally not: we explain why Hawking particles emerging from one hemisphere of a black hole must be 100 % entangled with the Hawking particles emerging from the other hemisphere. This produces exclusively pure quantum states evolving in a unitary manner, and removes the interior region for the outside observer, while it still completely agrees locally with the laws of general relativity. Unitarity is a starting point; no other assumptions are made. Region I and the diametrically opposite region II of the Penrose diagram represent antipodal points in a PT or CPT relation, as was suggested before. On the horizon itself, antipodal points are identified. A candidate instanton is proposed to describe the formation and evaporation of virtual black holes of the type described here.
The coalescence rates of double black holes
Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; Dominik, Michal; Prestwich, Andrea
2011-01-01
We present the summary of the recent investigations of double black hole binaries in context of their formation and merger rates. In particular we discuss the spectrum of black hole masses, the formation scenarios in the local Universe and the estimates of detection rates for gravitational radiation detectors like LIGO and VIRGO. Our study is based on observed properties of known Galactic and extra-galactic stellar mass black holes and evolutionary predictions. We argue that the binary black ...
Fan, Zhong-Ying
2016-01-01
In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a Proca field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type $V=2\\Lambda_0+ m^2 A^2/2 + \\gamma_4 A^4$. For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with $\\Lambda_0=m=\\gamma_4=0$, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find that the thermodynamical first laws of the extremal black holes are modified by a one form associated with the Proca. In particular, due to the existence of the non-minimal coupling, the Proca forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and partly contributes to the one form modifying the first laws. For a minimally coupled theory with $\\Lambda_0\
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The cosmic censorship conjecture posits that singularities forming to the future of a regular Cauchy surface are hidden by an event horizon. Consequently any topological structures will ultimately collapse within the horizon of a black hole and so no observer can actively probe them classically. We consider here a quantum analogue of this problem, in which we compare the transition rates of an Unruh–DeWitt detector placed outside the horizon of an eternal BTZ black hole and its associated geon counterpart. We find the transition rates differ, with the latter being time-dependent, implying that we are indeed able to probe the structure of the singularity from outside the horizon. (fast track communications)
Cosmological Parameters and Black Holes
Harun-al-Rashid, S M
2002-01-01
This work is related to different questions within cosmology. The principal idea herein is to develop cosmological knowledge making use of the analyses of observational data in order to find the values of the matter density Omega_m and vacuum energy density Omega_Lambda. Data fitting is carried out using two statistical methods, chi^2 and maximum likelihood. The data analysis exhibits that a low density and flat Universe is strongly favoured. Applying the Omega_m value found for clusters of galaxies, we demonstrate that clusters have very little room for baryonic dark matter. An upper limit to the small but non-negligible sum of baryonic dark matter and galaxy mass can be estimated, requiring the use of special statistics. A Toroidal Black Hole (TBH) study, in contrast to the Spherical Black Hole (SBH), shows that the TBH can be used as an important tool in explaining AGN phenomena.
Geometrodynamics of Schwarzschild black holes
Kuchar, K V
1994-01-01
The curvature coordinates $T,R$ of a Schwarz\\-schild spacetime are turned into canonical coordinates $T(r), {\\sf R}(r)$ on the phase space of spherically symmetric black holes. The entire dynamical content of the Hamiltonian theory is reduced to the constraints requiring that the momenta $P_{T}(r), P_{\\sf R}(r)$ vanish. What remains is a conjugate pair of canonical variables $m$ and $p$ whose values are the same on every embedding. The coordinate $m$ is the Schwarzschild mass, and the momentum $p$ the difference of parametrization times at right and left infinities. The Dirac constraint quantization in the new representation leads to the state functional $\\Psi (m; T, {\\sf R}] = \\Psi (m)$ which describes an unchanging superposition of black holes with different masses. The new canonical variables may be employed in the study of collapsing matter systems.
Black hole with quantum potential
Ali, Ahmed Farag; Khalil, Mohammed M.
2016-08-01
In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.
Black hole statistics from holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the microstates of the 'small' black hole in the 1/2-BPS sector of AdS5 x S5, the superstar, using the powerful holographic description provided by LLM. The system demonstrates the inherently statistical nature of black holes, with the geometry presented elsewhere emerging only after averaging over an ensemble of geometries. The individual microstate geometries differ in the highly non-trivial topology of a quantum foam at their core, and the entropy can be understood as a partition of N units of flux among 5-cycles, as required by flux quantization. While the system offers confirmation of the most controversial aspect of Mathur and Lunin's recent 'fuzzball' proposal, we see signs of a discrepancy in interpreting its details
Black hole with quantum potential
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Farag Ali
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this work, we investigate black hole (BH physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE. From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.
Black Hole with Quantum Potential
Ali, Ahmed Farag
2015-01-01
In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which introduces a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. It also ameliorates the black hole singularity and the information loss problem.
Symmetries of supergravity black holes
Chow, David D K
2008-01-01
We investigate Killing tensors for various black hole solutions of supergravity theories. Rotating black holes of an ungauged theory, toroidally compactified heterotic supergravity, with NUT parameters and two U(1) gauge fields are constructed. If both charges are set equal, then the solutions simplify, and then there are concise expressions for rank-2 conformal Killing-Stackel tensors. These are induced by rank-2 Killing-Stackel tensors of a conformally related metric that possesses a separability structure. We directly verify the separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on this conformally related metric, and of the null Hamilton-Jacobi and massless Klein-Gordon equations on the "physical" metric. Similar results are found for more general solutions; we mainly focus on those with certain charge combinations equal in gauged supergravity, but also consider certain other solutions.
Black holes in magnetic monopoles
Lee, Kimyeong; Nair, V. P.; Weinberg, Erick J.
1991-01-01
We study magnetically charged classical solutions of a spontaneously broken gauge theory interacting with gravity. We show that nonsingular monopole solutions exist only if the Higgs field vacuum expectation value v is less than or equal to a critical value v sub cr, which is of the order of the Planck mass. In the limiting case, the monopole becomes a black hole, with the region outside the horizon described by the critical Reissner-Nordstrom solution. For v less than v sub cr, we find additional solutions which are singular at f = 0, but which have this singularity hidden within a horizon. These have nontrivial matter fields outside the horizon, and may be interpreted as small black holes lying within a magnetic monopole. The nature of these solutions as a function of v and of the total mass M and their relation to the Reissner-Nordstrom solutions is discussed.
Massive BTZ black hole thermodynamics
Hendi, S H; Panahiyan, S
2016-01-01
Motivated by large applications of BTZ black holes and interesting results of massive gravity, we investigate massive BTZ black holes in presence of Maxwell and Born-Infeld (BI) electrodynamics. We study geometric as well as thermodynamic structure of the solutions through canonical ensemble. Despite the existence of massive term, obtained solutions are asymptotically (a)dS and have a curvature singularity at the origin. Next, we regard varying cosmological constant and examine Van der Waals like behavior of the solutions in the extended phase space. In addition, we employ geometrical thermodynamic approaches and show that using Weinhold, Ruppeiner and Quevedo metrics leads to existence of ensemble dependency while HPEM metric yields uniform picture. For neutral case, it will be shown that generalization to massive gravity leads to presence of non-zero temperature and heat capacity for vanishing horizon radius. Such behavior is not observed for linearly charged solutions while generalization to nonlinearly on...
Black hole remnants and dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We argue that, when the gravity effect is included, the generalized uncertainty principle (CUP) may prevent black holes from total evaporation in a similar way that the standard uncertainty principle prevents the hydrogen atom from total collapse. Specifically we invoke the GUP to obtain a modified Hawking temperature, which indicates that there should exist non-radiating remnants (BHR) of about Planck mass. BHRs are an attractive candidate for cold dark matter. We investigate an alternative cosmology in which primordial BHRs are the primary source of dark matter
Black Holes and Exotic Spinors
Hoff da Silva, J. M.(Departamento de Física e Química, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Guaratinguetá, SP, Brazil); C. H. Coronado Villalobos; Roldao da Rocha
2016-01-01
Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime ex...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The superstrong gravitational field is the protagonist of this book. This gravitation is the power that warps space and time into a funnel and generates a black hole when a cosmic body undergoes catastrophic collapse. This superstrong gravitation reigns in the Universe, controlling the motion of infinitely large masses. The book describes natural phenomena caused by superstrong gravitation but perceived as nothing short of miracles, but it also explains how these miracles are studied and understood. (author)
Black holes, singularities and predictability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper favours the view that singularities may play a central role in quantum gravity. The author reviews the arguments leading to the conclusion, that in the process of black hole formation and evaporation, an initial pure state evolves to a final density matrix, thus signaling a breakdown in ordinary quantum dynamical evolution. Some related issues dealing with predictability in the dynamical evolution, are also discussed. (U.K.)
Black Hole Thermodynamics and Electromagnetism
Sidharth, Burra G.
2005-01-01
We show a strong parallel between the Hawking, Beckenstein black hole Thermodynamics and electromagnetism: When the gravitational coupling constant transform into the electromagnetic coupling constant, the Schwarzchild radius, the Beckenstein temperature, the Beckenstein decay time and the Planck mass transform to respectively the Compton wavelength, the Hagedorn temperature, the Compton time and a typical elementary particle mass. The reasons underlying this parallalism are then discussed in...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the context of extended phase space, where the negative cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure in the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we find an asymptotically AdS metric whose thermodynamics matches exactly that of the Van der Waals fluid. We show that as a solution of Einstein's equations, the corresponding stress energy tensor obeys (at least for certain range of metric parameters) all three weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aruna Rajagopal
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In the context of extended phase space, where the negative cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure in the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we find an asymptotically AdS metric whose thermodynamics matches exactly that of the Van der Waals fluid. We show that as a solution of Einstein's equations, the corresponding stress energy tensor obeys (at least for certain range of metric parameters all three weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions.
Complexity, action, and black holes
Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying
2016-04-01
Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the "Wheeler-DeWitt" patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.
Gravitating discs around black holes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Karas, Vladimír; Huré, J.-M.; Semerák, O.
2004-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 7 (2004), R1-R5. ISSN 0264-9381 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/0902; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : black holes * accretion discs * general relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.941, year: 2004
Hawking, Stephen W; Strominger, Andrew
2016-01-01
It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the ho...
Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-01
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.
Hair of astrophysical black holes
Lyutikov, Maxim
2012-01-01
The "no hair" theorem is not applicable to black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar), where \\Phi_\\infty is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that...
Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-10
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units. PMID:27341223
Quantum Tunneling in Black Holes
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan
2011-01-01
This thesis is focussed towards the applications of the quantum tunneling mechanism to study black holes. Here we give a general frame work of the existing tunneling mechanism, both the radial null geodesic and Hamilton Jacobi methods. On the radial null geodesic method side, we study the modifications to the tunneling rate, Hawking temperature and the Bekenstein- Hawking area law by including the back reaction as well as non-commutative effects in the space-time. A reformulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) method is first introduced. Based on this, a close connection between the quantum tunneling and the gravitational anomaly mechanisms to discuss Hawking effect, is put forwarded. An interesting advantage of this reformulated HJ method is that one can get directly the emission spectrum from the event horizon of the black hole, which was missing in the earlier literature. Also, the quantization of the entropy and area of a black hole is discussed in this method. Another part of the thesis is the introduction ...
Entropy of Quantum Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Romesh K. Kaul
2012-02-01
Full Text Available In the Loop Quantum Gravity, black holes (or even more general Isolated Horizons are described by a SU(2 Chern-Simons theory. There is an equivalent formulation of the horizon degrees of freedom in terms of a U(1 gauge theory which is just a gauged fixed version of the SU(2 theory. These developments will be surveyed here. Quantum theory based on either formulation can be used to count the horizon micro-states associated with quantum geometry fluctuations and from this the micro-canonical entropy can be obtained. We shall review the computation in SU(2 formulation. Leading term in the entropy is proportional to horizon area with a coefficient depending on the Barbero-Immirzi parameter which is fixed by matching this result with the Bekenstein-Hawking formula. Remarkably there are corrections beyond the area term, the leading one is logarithm of the horizon area with a definite coefficient −3/2, a result which is more than a decade old now. How the same results are obtained in the equivalent U(1 framework will also be indicated. Over years, this entropy formula has also been arrived at from a variety of other perspectives. In particular, entropy of BTZ black holes in three dimensional gravity exhibits the same logarithmic correction. Even in the String Theory, many black hole models are known to possess such properties. This suggests a possible universal nature of this logarithmic correction.
Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes
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Sergey N. Solodukhin
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as ’t Hooft’s brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the black-hole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.
Glory scattering by black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a physically motivated derivation of the JWKB backward glory-scattering cross section of massless waves by Schwarzschild black holes. The angular dependence of the cross section is identical with the one derived by path integration, namely, dsigma/dΩ = 4π2lambda-1B/sub g/ 2(dB mWπ, where lambda is the wavelength, B(theta) is the inverse of the classical deflection function CTHETA(B), B/sub g/ is the glory impact parameter, s is the helicity of the scattered wave, and J/sub 2s/ is the Bessel function of order 2s. The glory rings formed by scalar waves are bright at the center; those formed by polarized waves are dark at the center. For scattering of massless particles by a spherical black hole of mass M, B(theta)/Mapprox.3 √3 + 3.48 exp(-theta), theta > owigπ. The numerical values of dsigma/dΩ for this deflection function are found to agree with earlier computer calculations of glory cross sections from black holes
Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries
van Meter, James R; Miller, M Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S; Centrella, Joan M; Baker, John G; Boggs, William D; Kelly, Bernard J; McWilliams, Sean T
2009-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases where the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a step towards solving this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We find qualitative differences in collision and outflow speeds, including a signature of the merger when the net angular momentum of the matter is low, between the results from single and binary black holes, and between nonrotating and rotating holes in binaries. If future magnetohydrodynamic results confirm ...
Shapes of rotating nonsingular black hole shadows
Amir, Muhammed; Ghosh, Sushant G.
2016-07-01
It is believed that curvature singularities are a creation of general relativity and, hence, in the absence of a quantum gravity, models of nonsingular black holes have received significant attention. We study the shadow (apparent shape), an optical appearance because of its strong gravitational field, cast by a nonsingular black hole which is characterized by three parameters, i.e., mass (M ), spin (a ), and a deviation parameter (k ). The nonsingular black hole under consideration is a generalization of the Kerr black hole that can be recognized asymptotically (r ≫k ,k >0 ) explicitly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and in the limit k →0 as the Kerr black hole. It turns out that the shadow of a nonsingular black hole is a dark zone covered by a deformed circle. Interestingly, it is seen that the shadow of a black hole is affected due to the parameter k . Indeed, for a given a , the size of a shadow reduces as the parameter k increases, and the shadow becomes more distorted as we increase the value of the parameter k when compared with the analogous Kerr black hole shadow. We also investigate, in detail, how the ergoregion of a black hole is changed due to the deviation parameter k .
Probing the Galactic Binary Black Hole Spin with Photon Timing
Kazanas, Demosthenes
2007-01-01
It is generally considered that the X-ray emission in AGN and Galactic Black Hole Candidates is produced by flares above the surface of a geometrically thin optically thick accretion disk, which extends down to the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO) of the black hole. We consider the influence of the black hole geometry on the light curves of these flares. To this end we follow a large number of photon orbits emitted impulsively in a locally isotropic fashion, at any phase of the disk orbit and examine their arrival times at infinity by an observer near the plane of the disk. We find out that the presence of the black hole spin induces a certain delay in the photon arrivals, as prograde photon orbits reach the observer on shorter (on the average) times than the retrograde ones. We form a histogram of the differences in photon time arrivals and we find that it exhibits several well defined peaks depending on the flare position and the black hole spin separated by $\\Delta t \\simeq 30 M$, where M is the black hole mass. The peaks disappear as the spin parameter goes to zero, implying that one could in principle measure the value of the black hole spin with timing measurements of sufficiently high signal to noise ratio.
A Black Hole in Our Galactic Center
Ruiz, Michael J.
2008-01-01
An introductory approach to black holes is presented along with astronomical observational data pertaining to the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Concepts of conservation of energy and Kepler's third law are employed so students can apply formulas from their physics class to determine the mass of the black hole…
5D Black Holes and Matrix Strings
Dijkgraaf, R.; Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.
1997-01-01
We derive the world-volume theory, the (non)-extremal entropy and background geometry of black holes and black strings constructed out of the NS IIA fivebrane within the framework of matrix theory. The CFT description of strings propagating in the black hole geometry arises as an effective field theory.
Nonviolent information transfer from black holes: a field theory parameterization
Giddings, Steven B
2013-01-01
A candidate parameterization is introduced, in an effective field theory framework, for the quantum information transfer from a black hole that is necessary to restore unitarity. This in particular allows description of the effects of such information transfer in the black hole atmosphere, for example seen by infalling observers. In the presence of such information transfer, it is shown that infalling observers need not experience untoward violence. Moreover, the presence of general moderate-frequency couplings to field modes with high angular momenta offers a mechanism to enhance information transfer rates, commensurate with the increased energy flux, when a string is introduced to "mine" a black hole. Generic such models for nonviolent information transfer predict extra energy flux from a black hole, beyond that of Hawking.
Destroying Kerr-Sen black holes
Siahaan, Haryanto M.
2016-03-01
By neglecting the self-force, self-energy, and radiative effects, it has been shown that an extremal or near-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole can turn into a naked singularity when it captures charged and spinning massive particles. A straightforward question then arises: do charged and rotating black holes in string theory possess the same property? In this paper we apply Wald's gedanken experiment, in his study on the possibility of destroying extremal Kerr-Newman black holes, to the case of (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black holes. We find that feeding a test particle into a (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black hole could lead to a violation of the extremal bound for the black hole.
Black hole chemistry: thermodynamics with Lambda
Kubiznak, David; Teo, Mae
2016-01-01
We review recent developments on the thermodynamics of black holes in extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is interpreted as thermodynamic pressure and treated as a thermodynamic variable in its own right. In this approach, the mass of the black hole is no longer regarded as internal energy, rather it is identified with the chemical enthalpy. This leads to an extended dictionary for black hole thermodynamic quantities, in particular a notion of thermodynamic volume emerges for a given black hole spacetime. This volume is conjectured to satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality - an inequality imposing a bound on the amount of entropy black hole can carry for a fixed thermodynamic volume. New thermodynamic phase transitions naturally emerge from these identifications. Namely, we show that black holes can be understood from the viewpoint of chemistry, in terms of concepts such as Van der Waals fluids, reentrant phase transitions, and triple points. We also review the recent attempts at exten...
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes
Neilsen, David; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Garret, T
2010-01-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes
Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W.; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Garrett, Travis
2011-01-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford–Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux. PMID:21768341
Black Holes and Abelian Symmetry Breaking
Chagoya, Javier; Tasinato, Gianmassimo
2016-01-01
Black hole configurations offer insights on the non-linear aspects of gravitational theories, and can suggest testable predictions for modifications of General Relativity. In this work, we examine exact black hole configurations in vector-tensor theories, originally proposed to explain dark energy by breaking the Abelian symmetry with a non-minimal coupling of the vector to gravity. We are able to evade the no-go theorems by Bekenstein on the existence of regular black holes in vector-tensor theories with Proca mass terms, and exhibit regular black hole solutions with a profile for the longitudinal vector polarization, characterised by an additional charge. We analytically find the most general static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions with and without a cosmological constant, and study in some detail their features, such as how the geometry depends on the vector charges. We also include angular momentum, and find solutions describing slowly-rotating black holes. Finally, we extend some of these solu...
Weighing black holes in the universe
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Xue-bing
2006-01-01
The determination of the mass of black holes in our universe is crucial to understand their physics nature but is a great challenge to scientists.In this paper Ⅰ briefly review some methods that are currently used to estimate the mass of black holes,especially those in X-ray binary systems and in galactic nuclei.Our recent progress in improving the mass estimates of supermasssive black holes in active galactic nuclei by involving some empirical relations is presented.Finally Ⅰ point out the similarities and common physics in Galactic black hole X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei,and demonstrate that the black hole mass estimation is very much helpful to understand the accretion physics around black holes.
Kerr-Newman Black Hole In Quintessence
Xu, Zhaoyi
2016-01-01
We study the Kerr-Newman solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equation in quintessence field around a black hole by Newman-Janis algorithm. From the horizon structure and stationary limit surfaces, we find that Kerr-Newman black hole exists an ergosphere with $r^{+} < r < r^{L}$, which is related to the parameters $\\omega$ and $\\alpha$. We obtain the general expression between $\\alpha$ and $\\omega$ if the cosmological horizon exists, in which for $\\omega=-1/2$, $\\alpha\\leq\\sqrt{2}/5$, and for $\\omega=-2/3$, $\\alpha\\leq 1/6$. For $\\omega=-2/3$, the result is same with rotational black hole in quintessence. The singularity of the black holes is the same with that of Kerr black hole. We also discuss the rotation velocity of the black holes on the equatorial plane for $\\omega =-2/3$ and $-1/2$.
Reversible Carnot cycle outside a black hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Deng Xi-Hao; Gao Si-Jie
2009-01-01
A Carnot cycle outside a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated in detail. We propose a reversible Carnot cycle with a black hole being the cold reservoir. In our model, a Carnot engine operates between a hot reservoir with temperature T1 and a black hole with Hawking temperature Th. By naturally extending the ordinary Carnot cycle to the black hole system, we show that the thermal efficiency for a reversible process can reach the maximal efficiency 1-TH/T1 Consequently, black holes can be used to determine the thermodynamic temperature by means of the Carnot cycle. The role of the atmosphere around the black hole is discussed. We show that the thermal atmosphere provides a necessary mechanism to make the process reversible.
The thermal radiation from dynamic black holes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Using the related formula of dynamic black holes, the instantaneous radiation energy density of the general spherically symmetric charged dynamic black hole and the arbitrarily accelerating charged dynamic black hole is calculated. It is found that the instantaneous radiation energy density of black hole is always proportional to the quartic of the temperature of event horizon in the same direction. The proportional coefficient of generalized Stefan-Boltzmann is no longer a constant, and it becomes a dynamic coefficient that is related to the event horizon changing rate, space-time structure near event horizon and the radiation absorption coefficient of the black hole. It is shown that there should be an internal relation between the gravitational field around black hole and its thermal radiation.
NASA's Chandra Finds Black Holes Are "Green"
2006-04-01
Black holes are the most fuel efficient engines in the Universe, according to a new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By making the first direct estimate of how efficient or "green" black holes are, this work gives insight into how black holes generate energy and affect their environment. The new Chandra finding shows that most of the energy released by matter falling toward a supermassive black hole is in the form of high-energy jets traveling at near the speed of light away from the black hole. This is an important step in understanding how such jets can be launched from magnetized disks of gas near the event horizon of a black hole. Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine "Just as with cars, it's critical to know the fuel efficiency of black holes," said lead author Steve Allen of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. "Without this information, we cannot figure out what is going on under the hood, so to speak, or what the engine can do." Allen and his team used Chandra to study nine supermassive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies. These black holes are relatively old and generate much less radiation than quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes seen in the early Universe. The surprise came when the Chandra results showed that these "quiet" black holes are all producing much more energy in jets of high-energy particles than in visible light or X-rays. These jets create huge bubbles, or cavities, in the hot gas in the galaxies. Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy The efficiency of the black hole energy-production was calculated in two steps: first Chandra images of the inner regions of the galaxies were used to estimate how much fuel is available for the black hole; then Chandra images were used to estimate the power required to produce
Entropy, area, and black hole pairs
Hawking, Stephen William; Ross, S F; Hawking, S W; Horowitz, Gary T; Ross, Simon F
1995-01-01
We clarify the relation between gravitational entropy and the area of horizons. We first show that the entropy of an extreme Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is zero, despite the fact that its horizon has nonzero area. Next, we consider the pair creation of extremal and nonextremal black holes. It is shown that the action which governs the rate of this pair creation is directly related to the area of the acceleration horizon and (in the nonextremal case) the area of the black hole event horizon. This provides a simple explanation of the result that the rate of pair creation of non-extreme black holes is enhanced by precisely the black hole entropy. Finally, we discuss black hole annihilation, and argue that Planck scale remnants are not sufficient to preserve unitarity in quantum gravity.
Entropy, area, and black hole pairs
Hawking, S. W.; Horowitz, Gary T.; Ross, Simon F.
1995-04-01
We clarify the relation between gravitational entropy and the area of horizons. We first show that the entropy of an extreme Reissner-Nordström black hole is zero, despite the fact that its horizon has nonzero area. Next, we consider the pair creation of extremal and nonextremal black holes. It is shown that the action which governs the rate of this pair creation is directly related to the area of the acceleration horizon and (in the nonextremal case) the area of the black hole event horizon. This provides a simple explanation of the result that the rate of pair creation of nonextreme black holes is enhanced by precisely the black hole entropy. Finally, we discuss black hole annihilation, and argue that Planck scale remnants are not sufficient to preserve unitarity in quantum gravity.
Microcanonical Description of (Micro Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Harms
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The microcanonical ensemble is the proper ensemble to describe black holes which are not in thermodynamic equilibrium, such as radiating black holes. This choice of ensemble eliminates the problems, e.g., negative specific heat (not allowed in the canonical ensemble and loss of unitarity, encountered when the canonical ensemble is used. In this review we present an overview of the weaknesses of the standard thermodynamic description of black holes and show how the microcanonical approach can provide a consistent description of black holes and their Hawking radiation at all energy scales. Our approach is based on viewing the horizon area as yielding the ensemble density at fixed system energy. We then compare the decay rates of black holes in the two different pictures. Our description is particularly relevant for the analysis of micro-black holes whose existenceis predicted in models with extra-spatial dimensions.
Hawking temperature of constant curvature black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The constant curvature (CC) black holes are higher dimensional generalizations of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. It is known that these black holes have the unusual topology of MD-1xS1, where D is the spacetime dimension and MD-1 stands for a conformal Minkowski spacetime in D-1 dimensions. The unusual topology and time-dependence for the exterior of these black holes cause some difficulties to derive their thermodynamic quantities. In this work, by using a globally embedding approach, we obtain the Hawking temperature of the CC black holes. We find that the Hawking temperature takes the same form when using both the static and global coordinates. Also, it is identical to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the boundary de Sitter spaces of these CC black holes.
Reversible Carnot cycle outside a black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Carnot cycle outside a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated in detail. We propose a reversible Carnot cycle with a black hole being the cold reservoir. In our model, a Carnot engine operates between a hot reservoir with temperature T1 and a black hole with Hawking temperature TH. By naturally extending the ordinary Carnot cycle to the black hole system, we show that the thermal efficiency for a reversible process can reach the maximal efficiency 1 – TH/T1. Consequently, black holes can be used to determine the thermodynamic temperature by means of the Carnot cycle. The role of the atmosphere around the black hole is discussed. We show that the thermal atmosphere provides a necessary mechanism to make the process reversible. (general)
Information Retention by Stringy Black Holes
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556
2015-01-01
Building upon our previous work on two-dimensional stringy black holes and its extension to spherically-symmetric four-dimensional stringy black holes, we show how the latter retain information. A key r\\^ole is played by an infinite-dimensional $W_\\infty$ symmetry that preserves the area of an isolated black-hole horizon and hence its entropy. The exactly-marginal conformal world-sheet operator representing a massless stringy particle interacting with the black hole necessarily includes a contribution from $W_\\infty$ generators in its vertex function. This admixture manifests the transfer of information between the string black hole and external particles. We discuss different manifestations of $W_\\infty$ symmetry in black-hole physics and the connections between them.
Quantum Creation of a Black Hole
Chao, W Z
1997-01-01
Using the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal for the wave function of the universe, we can study the wave function and probability of a single black hole created at the birth of the universe. The black hole originates from a constrained gravitational instanton with conical singularities. The wave function and probability of a universe with a black hole are calculated at the $WKB$ level. The probability of a black hole creation is the exponential of one quarter of the sum of areas of the black hole and cosmological horizons. One quarter of this sum is the total entropy of the universe. We show that these arguments apply to all kinds of black holes in the de Sitter space background.
String condensation: Nemesis of Black Holes?
Hewitt, Michael
2015-01-01
This paper puts forward a conjecture that there are no black holes in M theory. We will show that a mechanism to prevent black hole formation is needed in 4 dimensions to make string theory a viable high energy model of quantum gravity. Black hole formation may be averted by a gravity regulation mechanism based on string condensation. In this scenario, black holes are replaced by `hot holograms' that form during gravitational collapse. The geometric conditions based on the properties of free thermalon solutions that are proposed for conversion to a high temperature hologram to occur, however, are local and generic in dimension and could apply throughout M space. This idea can be applied to resolve the problems presented by the process of black hole evaporation, which appears to be inconsistent with quantum information theory. Whereas, in the conventional view, black holes are real and firewalls are probably a chimera, in the scenario proposed here that situation would be reversed.
Charge Fluctuations of an Uncharged Black Hole
Schiffer, Marcelo
2016-01-01
In this paper we calculate charge fluctuations of a Schwarzschild black-hole of mass $M$ confined within a perfectly reflecting cavity of radius R in thermal equilibrium with various species of radiation and fermions . Charge conservation is constrained by a Lagrange multiplier (the chemical potential). Black hole charge fluctuations are expected owing to continuous absorption and emission of particles by the black hole. For black holes much more massive than $10^{16} g$ , these fluctuations are exponentially suppressed. For black holes lighter than this, the Schwarzschild black hole is unstable under charge fluctuations for almost every possible size of the confining vessel. The stability regime and the fluctuations are calculated through the second derivative of the entropy with respect to the charge. The expression obtained contains many puzzling terms besides the expected thermodynamical fluctuations: terms corresponding to instabilities that do not depend on the specific value of charge of the charge car...
Berman, M S
2004-01-01
We show that the gravitational collapse of a black-hole terminates in the birth of a white-hole, due to repulsive gravitation (antigravitation); in particular, the infinite energy density singularity does NOT occur.
Big rip avoidance via black holes production
Fabris, Julio C.; Pavon, Diego
2008-01-01
We consider a cosmological scenario in which the expansion of the Universe is dominated by phantom dark energy and black holes which condense out of the latter component. The mass of black holes decreases via Hawking evaporation and by accretion of phantom fluid but new black holes arise continuously whence the overall evolution can be rather complex. We study the corresponding dynamical system to unravel this evolution and single out scenarios where the big rip singularity does not occur.
Cosmological Constraints from Primordial Black Holes
Liddle, Andrew R.; Green, Anne M.
1998-01-01
Primordial black holes may form in the early Universe, for example from the collapse of large amplitude density perturbations predicted in some inflationary models. Light black holes undergo Hawking evaporation, the energy injection from which is constrained both at the epoch of nucleosynthesis and at the present. The failure as yet to unambiguously detect primordial black holes places important constraints. In this article, we are particularly concerned with the dependence of these constrain...
Qubit Models of Black Hole Evaporation
Avery, Steven G.
2011-01-01
Recently, several simple quantum mechanical toy models of black hole evaporation have appeared in the literature attempting to illuminate the black hole information paradox. We present a general class of models that is large enough to describe both unitary and nonunitary evaporation, and study a few specific examples to clarify some potential confusions regarding recent results. We also generalize Mathur's bound on small corrections to black hole dynamics. Conclusions are then drawn about the...
Quantum Evaporation of Liouville Black Holes
Mann, R. B.
1993-01-01
The classical field equations of a Liouville field coupled to gravity in two spacetime dimensions are shown to have black hole solutions. Exact solutions are also obtained when quantum corrections due to back reaction effects are included, modifying both the ADM mass and the black hole entropy. The thermodynamic limit breaks down before evaporation of the black hole is complete, indicating that higher-loop effects must be included for a full description of the process. A scenario for the fina...
Black holes and the LHC: A review
Park, Seong Chan
2012-01-01
In low-scale gravity models, a particle collider with trans-Planckian collision energies can be an ideal place for producing black holes because a large amount of energy can be concentrated at the collision point, which can ultimately lead to black hole formation. In this article, the theoretical foundation for microscopic higher dimensional black holes is reviewed and the possible production and detection at the LHC is described and critically examined.
Primordial Structure of Massive Black Hole Clusters
Khlopov, Maxim Yu.; Rubin, Sergei G.; Sakharov, Alexander S.(Department of Physics, CERN, 1211, Geneva 23, Switzerland)
2004-01-01
We describe a mechanism of the primordial black holes formation that can explain the existence of a population of supermassive black holes in galactic bulges. The mechanism is based on the formation of black holes from closed domain walls. The origin of such domain walls could be a result of the evolution of an effectively massless scalar field during inflation. The initial non-equilibrium distribution of the scalar field imposed by background de-Sitter fluctuations gives rise to the spectrum...
Black Holes in the Early Universe
Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian
2012-01-01
The existence of massive black holes was postulated in the sixties, when the first quasars were discovered. In the late nineties their reality was proven beyond doubt, in the Milky way and a handful nearby galaxies. Since then, enormous theoretical and observational efforts have been made to understand the astrophysics of massive black holes. We have discovered that some of the most massive black holes known, weighing billions of solar masses, powered luminous quasars within the first billion...
A New Model of Black Hole Formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thayer G. D.
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The formation of a black hole and its event horizon are described. Conclusions, which are the result of a thought experiment, show that Schwarzschild [1] was correct: A singularity develops at the event horizon of a newly-formed black hole. The intense gravitational field that forms near the event horizon results in the mass-energy of the black hole accumulating in a layer just inside the event horizon, rather than collapsing into a central singularity.
Shadow of noncommutative geometry inspired black hole
Wei, Shao-Wen; Cheng, Peng; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Xiang-Nan
2015-01-01
In this paper, the shadow casted by the rotating black hole inspired by noncommutative geometry is investigated. In addition to the dimensionless spin parameter $a/M_{0}$ with $M_{0}$ black hole mass and inclination angle $i$, the dimensionless noncommutative parameter $\\sqrt{\\vartheta}/M_{0}$ is also found to affect the shape of the black hole shadow. The result shows that the size of the shadow slightly decreases with the parameter $\\sqrt{\\vartheta}/M_{0}$, while the distortion increases wi...
Voros product and noncommutative inspired black holes
Gangopadhyay, Sunandan
2013-01-01
We emphasize the importance of the Voros product in defining noncommutative inspired black holes. The computation of entropy for both the noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black holes show that the area law holds upto order $\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{\\theta}}e^{-M^2/\\theta}$. The leading correction to the entropy (computed in the tunneling formalism) is shown to be logarithmic. The Komar energy $E$ for these black holes is then obtained and a deviation from the standard id...
Noncommutative Black Holes and the Singularity Problem
Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Dias, N. C.; Prata, J. N.
2011-09-01
A phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model is considered to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. Due to the divergence of the probability of finding the black hole at the singularity from a canonical noncommutativity, one considers a non-canonical noncommutativity. It is shown that this more involved type of noncommutativity removes the problem of the singularity in a Schwarzschild black hole.
Noncommutative Black Holes and the Singularity Problem
Bastos, C; Dias, N C; Prata, J N
2011-01-01
A phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model is considered to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. Due to the divergence of the probability of finding the black hole at the singularity from a canonical noncommutativity, one considers a non-canonical noncommutativity. It is shown that this more involved type of noncommutativity removes the problem of the singularity in a Schwarzschild black hole.
Noncommutative Black Holes and the Singularity Problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bastos, C; Bertolami, O [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, N C; Prata, J N, E-mail: cbastos@fisica.ist.utl.pt, E-mail: orfeu.bertolami@fc.up.pt, E-mail: ncdias@mail.telepac.pt, E-mail: joao.prata@mail.telepac.pt [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Avenida Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-09-22
A phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model is considered to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. Due to the divergence of the probability of finding the black hole at the singularity from a canonical noncommutativity, one considers a non-canonical noncommutativity. It is shown that this more involved type of noncommutativity removes the problem of the singularity in a Schwarzschild black hole.
Noncommutative Black Holes and the Singularity Problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model is considered to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. Due to the divergence of the probability of finding the black hole at the singularity from a canonical noncommutativity, one considers a non-canonical noncommutativity. It is shown that this more involved type of noncommutativity removes the problem of the singularity in a Schwarzschild black hole.
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes
Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W.; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M; Garrett, Travis
2011-01-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet tha...
Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes
Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo
2016-09-01
We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr–Newman or Kerr–Newman–anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes.
The thermodynamics in a dynamical black hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bo LIU; Wen-biao LIU
2009-01-01
Considering the back-reaction of emitting particles to the black hole, a "new" horizon is suggested where thermodynamics can be built in the dynamical black hole. It, at least, means that the thermodynamics of a dynamical black hole should not be constructed at the original event horizon any more. The temperature, "new" horizon position and radiating particles' energy will be consistent again under the theory of equilibrium thermodynamical system.
Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries
van Meter, James R.; Wise, John H.; Miller, M. Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Centrella, Joan M.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.
2009-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases where the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the stron...
Charged rotating black holes at large D
Tanabe, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We study odd dimensional charged equally rotating black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell theory with/without a cosmological constant by using the large D expansion method, where D is a spacetime dimension. Solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations in the 1/D expansion we obtain the large D effective equations for charged equally rotating black holes. The effective equations describe the nonlinear dynamics of charged equally rotating black holes. Especially the perturbation analysis of the effective...
Hawking emission from quantum gravity black holes
Nicolini, Piero; Winstanley, Elizabeth(Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH, United Kingdom)
2011-01-01
We address the issue of modelling quantum gravity effects in the evaporation of higher dimensional black holes in order to go beyond the usual semi-classical approximation. After reviewing the existing six families of quantum gravity corrected black hole geometries, we focus our work on non-commutative geometry inspired black holes, which encode model independent characteristics, are unaffected by the quantum back reaction and have an analytical form compact enough for numerical simulations. ...
Remarks on Renormalization of Black Hole Entropy
Kim, Sang Pyo; Kim, Sung Ku; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Yee, Jae Hyung
1996-01-01
We elaborate the renormalization process of entropy of a nonextremal and an extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole by using the Pauli-Villars regularization method, in which the regulator fields obey either the Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac distribution depending on their spin-statistics. The black hole entropy involves only two renormalization constants. We also discuss the entropy and temperature of the extremal black hole.
On minor black holes in galactic nuclei
McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik; Yaqoob, Tahir; Winter, Lisa M.
2011-01-01
Small and intermediate mass black holes should be expected in galactic nuclei as a result of stellar evolution, minor mergers and gravitational dynamical friction. If these minor black holes accrete as X-ray binaries or ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and are associated with star formation, they could account for observations of many low luminosity AGN or LINERs. Accreting and inspiralling intermediate mass black holes could provide a crucial electromagnetic counterpart to strong gravitational ...
Quantum aspects of black hole entropy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Parthasarathi Majumdar
2000-10-01
This survey intends to cover recent approaches to black hole entropy which attempt to go beyond the standard semiclassical perspective. Quantum corrections to the semiclassical Bekenstein–Hawking area law for black hole entropy, obtained within the quantum geometry framework, are treated in some detail. Their ramiﬁcation for the holographic entropy bound for bounded stationary spacetimes is discussed. Four dimensional supersymmetric extremal black holes in string-based = 2 supergravity are also discussed, albeit more brieﬂy.
Joint evolution of black holes and galaxies
Colpi, M; Haardt, F
2006-01-01
OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES Introduction Some Useful Formalism General Considerations Resolved Stellar Dynamics Gas as a Tracer of the Gravitational Potential Tackling the Unresolvable: Reverberation Mapping Scaling Relations for SMBHs Black Hole Demographics The Future JOINT EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLES AND GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONAL ISSUES Galaxy Activity: Generalities Local Evidence on the Interplay Between the Stellar and Gravitational Origin of AGN Activity The Cosmic History of Galaxy Activity Constraints on the Cosmic Energy Budget Current Observational Programs and Fut
Thermodynamic Metrics and Black Hole Physics
Åman, Jan; Pidokrajt, Narit
2015-01-01
We give a brief survey of thermodynamic metrics, in particular the Hessian of the entropy function, and how they apply to black hole thermodynamics. We then provide a detailed discussion of the Gibbs surface of Kerr black holes. In particular we analyze its global properties, and extend it to take the entropy of the inner horizon into account. A brief discussion of Kerr-Newman black holes is included.
Dark Spinors Hawking Radiation in String Theory Black Holes
Cavalcanti, R. T.; Roldão da Rocha
2016-01-01
The Hawking radiation spectrum of Kerr-Sen axion-dilaton black holes is derived, in the context of dark spinors tunnelling across the horizon. Since a black hole has a well defined temperature, it should radiate in principle all the standard model particles, similar to a black body at that temperature. We investigate the tunnelling of mass dimension one spin-1/2 dark fermions, which are beyond the standard model and are prime candidates to the dark matter. Their interactions with the standard...
Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation.
Greene, Jenny E
2012-01-01
Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism. PMID:23250434