Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes ...
Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the con- jecture that the primordial ...
Measuring the spins of accreting black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McClintock, Jeffrey E; Narayan, Ramesh; Gou, Lijun; Kulkarni, Akshay; Penna, Robert F; Steiner, James F; Davis, Shane W; Orosz, Jerome A; Remillard, Ronald A
2011-01-01
A typical galaxy is thought to contain tens of millions of stellar-mass black holes, the collapsed remnants of once massive stars, and a single nuclear supermassive black hole. Both classes of black holes accrete gas from their environments. The accreting gas forms a flattened orbiting structure known as an accretion disk. During the past several years, it has become possible to obtain measurements of the spins of the two classes of black holes by modeling the x-ray emission from their accretion disks. Two methods are employed, both of which depend upon identifying the inner radius of the accretion disk with the innermost stable circular orbit, whose radius depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. In the Fe Kα method, which applies to both classes of black holes, one models the profile of the relativistically broadened iron line with a special focus on the gravitationally redshifted red wing of the line. In the continuum-fitting (CF) method, which has so far only been applied to stellar-mass black holes, one models the thermal x-ray continuum spectrum of the accretion disk. We discuss both methods, with a strong emphasis on the CF method and its application to stellar-mass black holes. Spin results for eight stellar-mass black holes are summarized. These data are used to argue that the high spins of at least some of these black holes are natal, and that the presence or absence of relativistic jets in accreting black holes is not entirely determined by the spin of the black hole.
Hot Accretion onto Black Holes with Outflow
Park, Myeong-Gu; Han, Du-Hwan
2018-01-01
Classic Bondi accretion flow can be generalized to rotating viscous accretion flow. Study of hot accretion flow onto black holes show that its physical charateristics change from Bondi-like for small gas angular momentum to disk-like for Keperian gas angular momentum. Especially, the mass accretion rate divided by the Bondi accretion rate is proportional to the viscosity parameter alpha and inversely proportional to the gas angular momentum divided by the Keplerian angular momentum at the Bondi radius for gas angular momentum comparable to the Keplerian value. The possible presence of outflow will increase the mass inflow rate at the Bondi radius but decrease the mass accretion rate across the black hole horizon by many orders of magnitude. This implies that the growth history of supermassive black holes and their coevolution with host galaxies will be dramatically changed when the accreted gas has angular momentum or develops an outflow.
Hot Accretion onto Black Holes with Outflow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Park Myeong-Gu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Classic Bondi accretion flow can be generalized to rotating viscous accretion flow. Study of hot accretion flow onto black holes show that its physical charateristics change from Bondi-like for small gas angular momentum to disk-like for Keperian gas angular momentum. Especially, the mass accretion rate divided by the Bondi accretion rate is proportional to the viscosity parameter alpha and inversely proportional to the gas angular momentum divided by the Keplerian angular momentum at the Bondi radius for gas angular momentum comparable to the Keplerian value. The possible presence of outflow will increase the mass inflow rate at the Bondi radius but decrease the mass accretion rate across the black hole horizon by many orders of magnitude. This implies that the growth history of supermassive black holes and their coevolution with host galaxies will be dramatically changed when the accreted gas has angular momentum or develops an outflow.
Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory.
Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris
2013-01-01
This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).
The physics of accretion onto black holes
Belloni, Tomaso; Casella, Piergiorgio; Gilfanov, Marat; Jonker, Peter; King, Andrew
2015-01-01
This title reviews in-depth research on accretion on all scales, from galactic binaries to intermediate mass and supermassive black holes. Possible future directions of accretion are also discussed. The following main themes are covered: a historical perspective; physical models of accretion onto black holes of all masses; black hole fundamental parameters; and accretion, jets and outflows. An overview and outlook on the topic is also presented. This volume summarizes the status of the study of astrophysical black hole research and is aimed at astrophysicists and graduate students working in this field. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Vol 183/1-4, 2014.
Accretion of Ghost Condensate by Black Holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frolov, A
2004-06-02
The intent of this letter is to point out that the accretion of a ghost condensate by black holes could be extremely efficient. We analyze steady-state spherically symmetric flows of the ghost fluid in the gravitational field of a Schwarzschild black hole and calculate the accretion rate. Unlike minimally coupled scalar field or quintessence, the accretion rate is set not by the cosmological energy density of the field, but by the energy scale of the ghost condensate theory. If hydrodynamical flow is established, it could be as high as tenth of a solar mass per second for 10MeV-scale ghost condensate accreting onto a stellar-sized black hole, which puts serious constraints on the parameters of the ghost condensate model.
Observational constraints on black hole accretion disks
Liang, Edison P.
1994-01-01
We review the empirical constraints on accretion disk models of stellar-mass black holes based on recent multiwavelength observational results. In addition to time-averaged emission spectra, the time evolutions of the intensity and spectrum provide critical information about the structure, stability, and dynamics of the disk. Using the basic thermal Keplerian disk paradigm, we consider in particular generalizations of the standard optically thin disk models needed to accommodate the extremely rich variety of dynamical phenomena exhibited by black hole candidates ranging from flares of electron-positron annihilations and quasiperiodic oscillations in the X-ray intensity to X-ray novae activity. These in turn provide probes of the disk structure and global geometry. The goal is to construct a single unified framework to interpret a large variety of black hole phenomena. This paper will concentrate on the interface between basic theory and observational data modeling.
Black Hole Accretion in Gamma Ray Bursts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agnieszka Janiuk
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We study the structure and evolution of the hyperaccreting disks and outflows in the gamma ray bursts central engines. The torus around a stellar mass black hole is composed of free nucleons, Helium, electron-positron pairs, and is cooled by neutrino emission. Accretion of matter powers the relativistic jets, responsible for the gamma ray prompt emission. The significant number density of neutrons in the disk and outflowing material will cause subsequent formation of heavier nuclei. We study the process of nucleosynthesis and its possible observational consequences. We also apply our scenario to the recent observation of the gravitational wave signal, detected on 14 September 2015 by the two Advanced LIGO detectors, and related to an inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. A gamma ray burst that could possibly be related with the GW150914 event was observed by the Fermi satellite. It had a duration of about 1 s and appeared about 0.4 s after the gravitational-wave signal. We propose that a collapsing massive star and a black hole in a close binary could lead to the event. The gamma ray burst was powered by a weak neutrino flux produced in the star remnant’s matter. Low spin and kick velocity of the merged black hole are reproduced in our simulations. Coincident gravitational-wave emission originates from the merger of the collapsed core and the companion black hole.
Accreting fluids onto regular black holes via Hamiltonian approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jawad, Abdul [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); University of Central Punjab, CAMS, UCP Business School, Lahore (Pakistan)
2017-08-15
We investigate the accretion of test fluids onto regular black holes such as Kehagias-Sfetsos black holes and regular black holes with Dagum distribution function. We analyze the accretion process when different test fluids are falling onto these regular black holes. The accreting fluid is being classified through the equation of state according to the features of regular black holes. The behavior of fluid flow and the existence of sonic points is being checked for these regular black holes. It is noted that the three-velocity depends on critical points and the equation of state parameter on phase space. (orig.)
Stability of black hole accretion disks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Czerny B.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available We discuss the issues of stability of accretion disks that may undergo the limit-cycle oscillations due to the two main types of thermal-viscous instabilities. These are induced either by the domination of radiation pressure in the innermost regions close to the central black hole, or by the partial ionization of hydrogen in the zone of appropriate temperatures. These physical processes may lead to the intermittent activity in AGN on timescales between hundreds and millions of years. We list a number of observational facts that support the idea of the cyclic activity in high accretion rate sources. We conclude however that the observed features of quasars may provide only indirect signatures of the underlying instabilities. Also, the support from the sources with stellar mass black holes, whose variability timescales are observationally feasible, is limited to a few cases of the microquasars. Therefore we consider a number of plausible mechanisms of stabilization of the limit cycle oscillations in high accretion rate accretion disks. The newly found is the stabilizing effect of the stochastic viscosity fluctuations.
Relativistic jets from accreting black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coriat, Mickael
2010-01-01
Matter ejection processes, more commonly called jets, are among the most ubiquitous phenomena of the universe at ail scales of size and energy and are inseparable from accretion process. This intimate link, still poorly understood, is the main focus of this thesis. Through multi-wavelength observations of X-ray binary Systems hosting a black hole, I will try to bring new constraints on the physics of relativistic jets and the accretion - ejection coupling. We strive first to compare the simultaneous infrared, optical and X-ray emissions of the binary GX 339-4 over a period of five years. We study the nature of the central accretion flow, one of the least understood emission components of X-ray binaries, both in its geometry and in term of the physical processes that take place. This component is fundamental since it is could be the jets launching area or be highly connected to it. Then we focus on the infrared emission of the jets to investigate the physical conditions close to the jets base. We finally study the influence of irradiation of the outer accretion disc by the central X-ray source. Then, we present the results of a long-term radio and X-ray study of the micro-quasar H1743- 322. This System belongs to a population of accreting black holes that display, for a given X-ray luminosity, a radio emission fainter than expected. We make several assumptions about the physical origin of this phenomenon and show in particular that these sources could have a radiatively efficient central accretion flow. We finally explore the phases of return to the hard state of GX 339-4. We follow the re-emergence of the compact jets emission and try to bring new constraints on the physics of jet formation. (author) [fr
Shapes and Positions of Black Hole Shadows in Accretion Disks and Spin Parameters of Black Holes
Takahashi, Rohta
2004-01-01
Can we determine a spin parameter of a black hole by observation of a black hole shadow in an accretion disk? In order to answer this question, we make a qualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis of a shape and a position of a black hole shadow casted by a rotating black hole on an optically thick accretion disk and its dependence on an angular momentum of a black hole. We have found black hole shadows with a quite similar size and a shape for largely different black hole spin paramete...
Accretion onto some well-known regular black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U.
2016-01-01
In this work, we discuss the accretion onto static spherically symmetric regular black holes for specific choices of the equation of state parameter. The underlying regular black holes are charged regular black holes using the Fermi-Dirac distribution, logistic distribution, nonlinear electrodynamics, respectively, and Kehagias-Sftesos asymptotically flat regular black holes. We obtain the critical radius, critical speed, and squared sound speed during the accretion process near the regular black holes. We also study the behavior of radial velocity, energy density, and the rate of change of the mass for each of the regular black holes. (orig.)
Synchrotron radiation from spherically accreting black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ipser, J.R.; Price, R.H.
1982-01-01
Spherical accretion onto a Schwartzchild black hole, of gas with frozen-in magnetic field, is studied numerically and analytically for a range of hole masses and accretion rates in which synchrotron emission is the dominant radiative mechanism. At small radii the equipartition of magnetic, kinetic, and gravitational energy is assumed to apply, and the gas is heated by dissipation of infalling magnetic energy, turbulent energy, etc. The models can be classified into three types: (a) synchrotron cooling negligible, (b) synchrotron cooling important but synchrotron self-absorption negligible, (c) synchrotron cooling and self-absorption important. In the first case gas temperatures become very high near the horizon but luminosity efficiencies (luminosity/mass-energy accretion rate) are low. In cases (b) and (c) the gas flow near the horizon is essentially isothermal and luminosity efficiencies are fairly high. The analysis and results for the isothermal cases (b) and (c) are valid only for moderate dissipative heating and synchrotron self-absorption. If self-absorption is very strong or if dissipated energy is comparable to infall energy, Comptonization effects, not included in the analysis, become important
Regimes of mini black hole abandoned to accretion
Paik, Biplab
2018-01-01
Being inspired by the Eddington’s idea, along with other auxiliary arguments, it is unveiled that there exist regimes of a black hole that would prohibit accretion of ordinary energy. In explicit words, there exists a lower bound to black hole mass below which matter accretion process does not run for black holes. Not merely the baryonic matter, but, in regimes, also the massless photons could get prohibited from rushing into a black hole. However, unlike the baryon accretion abandoned black hole regime, the mass-regime of a black hole prohibiting accretion of radiation could vary along with its ambient temperature. For example, we discuss that earlier to 10‑8 s after the big-bang, as the cosmological temperature of the Universe grew above ˜ 1014 K, the mass range of black hole designating the radiation accretion abandoned regime, had to be in varying state being connected with the instantaneous age of the evolving Universe by an “one half” power law. It happens to be a fact that a black hole holding regimes prohibiting accretion of energy is gigantic by its size in comparison to the Planck length-scale. Hence the emergence of these regimes demands mini black holes for not being viable as profound suckers of energy. Consideration of accretion abandoned regimes could be crucial for constraining or judging the evolution of primordial black holes over the age of the Universe.
Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
loops [8]. In 1974, Hawking discovered that the black holes emit thermal radiation due to quantum effects [9]. So the black holes get evaporated depending upon their masses. Smaller the masses of the PBHs, quicker they evaporate. But the density of a black hole varies inversely with its mass. So high density is needed for ...
Advective accretion flow properties around rotating black holes ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
RAMIZ AKTAR
2018-02-10
Feb 10, 2018 ... in black hole source GRO J1655-40. While doing this, we attempt to constrain the range of ak based on observed. HFQPOs (∼300 Hz and ∼450 Hz) for the black hole source GRO J1655-40. Keywords. Accretion: accretion disc—black hole physics—shock waves—ISM: jets and outflows—X-ray: binaries. 1.
Thick accretion disks around black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paczynski, B.
1982-01-01
Theory of thick low viscosity disks accreting onto black holes is reviewed. Usefulness of a simplified pseudo-Newtonian potential for studies of disk models is emphasized. It is shown how very high accretion rate leads to a large disk thickness, large pressure gradients in the radial direction, formation of a narrow open funnel around the rotation axis, and a decrease of efficiency of convertion of rest mass into radiation. It is possible that the well collimated powerful radiation beam emerging from the funnel may accelerate some gas to moderately relativistic velocity in a form of a twin jet. The process is not efficient if the funnel is optically thin, but it is hoped that large optical depth of gas in the funnel may increase the fraction of total power coming out as kinetic energy of the jet. This class of models may be applied to SS 433, and possibly to other compact X-ray sources like Sco X-1 and Cyg X-1. These models may be relevant to some active galactic nuclei, but their relatively low efficiency in converting mass to radiation and kinetic energy does not permit too universal application. (orig.)
MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN STELLAR SYSTEMS: 'QUIESCENT' ACCRETION AND LUMINOSITY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volonteri, M.; Campbell, D.; Mateo, M.; Dotti, M.
2011-01-01
Only a small fraction of local galaxies harbor an accreting black hole, classified as an active galactic nucleus. However, many stellar systems are plausibly expected to host black holes, from globular clusters to nuclear star clusters, to massive galaxies. The mere presence of stars in the vicinity of a black hole provides a source of fuel via mass loss of evolved stars. In this paper, we assess the expected luminosities of black holes embedded in stellar systems of different sizes and properties, spanning a large range of masses. We model the distribution of stars and derive the amount of gas available to a central black hole through a geometrical model. We estimate the luminosity of the black holes under simple, but physically grounded, assumptions on the accretion flow. Finally, we discuss the detectability of 'quiescent' black holes in the local universe.
Accretion onto a noncommutative geometry inspired black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Rahul [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); Jamia Millia Islamia, Multidisciplinary Centre for Advanced Research and Studies (MCARS), New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)
2017-09-15
The spherically symmetric accretion onto a noncommutative (NC) inspired Schwarzschild black hole is treated for a polytropic fluid. The critical accretion rate M, sonic speed a{sub s} and other flow parameters are generalized for the NC inspired static black hole and compared with the results obtained for the standard Schwarzschild black holes. Also explicit expressions for gas compression ratios and temperature profiles below the accretion radius and at the event horizon are derived. This analysis is a generalization of Michel's solution to the NC geometry. Owing to the NC corrected black hole, the accretion flow parameters also have been modified. It turns out that M ∼ M{sup 2} is still achievable but r{sub s} seems to be substantially decreased due to the NC effects. They in turn do affect the accretion process. (orig.)
Analogue Hawking radiation from astrophysical black-hole accretion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Tapas K
2004-01-01
We show that spherical accretion onto astrophysical black holes can be considered as a natural example of an analogue system. We provide, for the first time, an exact analytical scheme for calculating the analogue Hawking temperature and surface gravity for general relativistic accretion onto astrophysical black holes. Our calculation may bridge the gap between the theory of transonic astrophysical accretion and the theory of analogue Hawking radiation. We show that the domination of the analogue Hawking temperature over the actual Hawking temperature may be a real astrophysical phenomenon, though observational tests of this fact will at best be difficult and at worst might prove to be impossible. We also discuss the possibilities of the emergence of analogue white holes around astrophysical black holes. Our calculation is general enough to accommodate accreting black holes with any mass
Black hole accretion: the quasar powerhouse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1983-01-01
A program is described which calculates the effects of material falling into the curved space-time surrounding a rotation black hole. The authors have developed a two-dimensional, general-relativistic hydrodynamics code to simulate fluid flow in the gravitational field of a rotating black hole. Such calculations represent models that have been proposed for the energy sources of both quasars and jets from radiogalaxies. In each case, the black hole that powers the quasar or jet would have a mass of about 100 million times the mass of the sun. The black hole would be located in the center of a galaxy whose total mass is 1000 time greater than the black hole mass. (SC)
Spinning up black holes with super-critical accretion flows
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sądowski, A.; Bursa, Michal; Abramowicz, M. A.; Kluzniak, W.; Lasota, J.-P.; Moderski, R.; Safarzadeh, M.
2011-01-01
Roč. 532, August (2011), A41/1-A41/11 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : black hole physics * accretion * accretion disks Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011
Understanding the Emission Region Geometry in Weakly Accreting Black Holes
Markoff, S.; Maitra, D.; van Oers, P.; Brocksopp, C.; Corbel, S.; Gallo, E.; Homan, J.; Migliari, S.; Nowak, M.; Tomsick, J.; Wilms, J.
2007-01-01
In the last several years, multiwavelength monitoring programs have allowed us to develop a general description of the observational characteristics of accreting black holes as they journey through their outburst cycles. Driven seemingly to a large extent by the accretion rate, these sources display
Spectral properties of the accretion discs around rotating black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Samir Mandal
2018-02-10
Feb 10, 2018 ... Abstract. We study the radiation properties of an accretion disc around a rotating black hole. We solve the hydrodynamic equations and calculate the transonic solutions of accretion disc in the presence of shocks. Then we use these solutions to generate the radiation spectrum in the presence of radiative ...
Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes.
Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A
2014-06-05
Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets.
Alternate Explosions: Collapse and Accretion Events with Red Holes instead of Black Holes
Graber, James S.
1999-01-01
A red hole is "just like a black hole" except it lacks an event horizon and a singularity. As a result, a red hole emits much more energy than a black hole during a collapse or accretion event. We consider how a red hole solution can solve the "energy crisis" and power extremely energetic gamma ray bursts and hypernovae.
High-redshift supermassive black holes: accretion through cold flows
Feng, Yu; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Khandai, Nishikanta
2014-05-01
We use zoom-in techniques to re-simulate three high-redshift (z ≥ 5.5) haloes which host 109 M⊙ black holes from the ˜Gpc volume, MassiveBlack cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. We examine a number of factors potentially affecting supermassive black hole growth at high redshift in cosmological simulations. We find insignificant differences in the black hole accretion history by (i) varying the region over which feedback energy is deposited directly, (ii) changing mass resolution by factors of up to 64, (iii) changing the black hole seed mass by a factor of 100. Switching from the density-entropy formulation to the pressure-entropy formulation of smoothed particle hydrodynamics slightly increases the accretion rate. In general numerical details/model parameters appear to have small effects on the main fuelling mechanism for black holes at these high redshifts. The insensitivity to simulation technique seems to be a hallmark of the cold flow feeding picture of these high-z supermassive black holes. We show that the gas that participates in critical accretion phases in these massive objects at z > 6-7 is in all cases colder, denser and forms more coherent streams than the average gas in the halo. This is also mostly the case when the black hole accretion is feedback regulated (z < 6), however, the distinction is less prominent. For our resimulated haloes, cold flows appear to be a viable mechanism for forming the most massive black holes in the early universe, occurring naturally in Λ cold dark matter models of structure formation, without requiring fine-tuning of numerical parameters.
ACCRETION DISKS AROUND KICKED BLACK HOLES: POST-KICK DYNAMICS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ponce, Marcelo; Faber, Joshua A.; Lombardi, James C.
2012-01-01
Numerical calculations of merging black hole binaries indicate that asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation can kick the merged black hole at up to thousands of km s –1 , and a number of systems have been observed recently whose properties are consistent with an active galactic nucleus containing a supermassive black hole moving with substantial velocity with respect to its broader accretion disk. We study here the effect of an impulsive kick delivered to a black hole on the dynamical evolution of its accretion disk using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, focusing attention on the role played by the kick angle with respect to the orbital angular momentum vector of the pre-kicked disk. We find that for more vertical kicks, for which the angle between the kick and the normal vector to the disk θ ∼ 45°, matter rapidly accretes toward the black hole. There is a systematic trend for higher potential luminosities for more oblique kick angles for a given black hole mass, disk mass, and kick velocity, and we find large amplitude oscillations in time in the case of a kick oriented 60° from the vertical.
Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.
Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W
2016-06-09
Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.
Can accretion disk properties distinguish gravastars from black holes?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S N
2009-01-01
Gravastars, hypothetic astrophysical objects, consisting of a dark energy condensate surrounded by a strongly correlated thin shell of anisotropic matter, have been proposed as an alternative to the standard black hole picture of general relativity. Observationally distinguishing between astrophysical black holes and gravastars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. This is due to the fact that in static gravastars large stability regions (of the transition layer of these configurations) exist that are sufficiently close to the expected position of the event horizon, so that it would be difficult to distinguish the exterior geometry of gravastars from an astrophysical black hole. However, in the context of stationary and axially symmetrical geometries, a possibility of distinguishing gravastars from black holes is through the comparative study of thin accretion disks around rotating gravastars and Kerr-type black holes, respectively. In the present paper, we consider accretion disks around slowly rotating gravastars, with all the metric tensor components estimated up to the second order in the angular velocity. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution and equilibrium radiation spectrum) are different for these two classes of compact objects, consequently giving clear observational signatures. In addition to this, it is also shown that the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation is always smaller than the conversion efficiency for black holes, i.e. gravastars provide a less efficient mechanism for converting mass to radiation than black holes. Thus, these observational signatures provide the possibility of clearly distinguishing rotating gravastars from Kerr-type black holes.
Retrograde versus Prograde Models of Accreting Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Garofalo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available There is a general consensus that magnetic fields, accretion disks, and rotating black holes are instrumental in the generation of the most powerful sources of energy in the known universe. Nonetheless, because magnetized accretion onto rotating black holes involves both the complications of nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics that currently cannot fully be treated numerically, and uncertainties about the origin of magnetic fields that at present are part of the input, the space of possible solutions remains less constrained. Consequently, the literature still bears witness to the proliferation of rather different black hole engine models. But the accumulated wealth of observational data is now sufficient to meaningfully distinguish between them. It is in this light that this critical paper compares the recent retrograde framework with standard “spin paradigm” prograde models.
X-ray properties of accreting black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, N.E.
1984-01-01
The X-ray signatures of Cyg X-1 and IMC X-3 have been taken as templates of binary systems which include a black hole component. Cyg X-1 exhibits rapid flickering on a time scale varying from 0.001-1 sec and bimodal spectral behavior in its X-ray emissions. Similar emissions from IMC X-3 have been detected, along with an absence of X-ray eclipses. Taking three characteristics, i.e., flickering, bimodal spectra and the estimated masses of the X ray components, of assumed black hole companions for Cyg X-1 and IMC X-3, an estimate is made of the number of black holes a whole sky survey would reveal, based on data from the HEAO-1 and Einstein Observatory satellites. Cin X-1, BX 339-4 and LMC X-1 are concluded to probably be accreting black holes. Eleven other objects are identified as possible candidates, as are active galactic nuclei
Constraining jet physics in weakly accreting black holes
Markoff, Sera
2007-04-01
Outflowing jets are observed in a variety of astronomical objects such as accreting compact objects from X-ray binaries (XRBs) to active galactic nuclei (AGN), as well as at stellar birth and death. Yet we still do not know exactly what they are comprised of, why and how they form, or their exact relationship with the accretion flow. In this talk I will focus on jets in black hole systems, which provide the ideal test population for studying the relationship between inflow and outflow over an extreme range in mass and accretion rate. I will present several recent results from coordinated multi-wavelength studies of low-luminosity sources. These results not only support similar trends in weakly accreting black hole behavior across the mass scale, but also suggest that the same underlying physical model can explain their broadband spectra. I will discuss how comparisons between small- and large-scale systems are revealing new information about the regions nearest the black hole, providing clues about the creation of these weakest of jets. Furthermore, comparisons between our Galactic center nucleus Sgr A* and other sources at slightly higher accretion rates can illucidate the processes which drive central activity, and pave the way for new tests with upcoming instruments.
Black Hole Event Horizons and Advection-Dominated Accretion
McClintock, Jeffrey; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The XMM data on black-hole X-ray novae are only now becoming available and they have so far not been included in any publications. This work is part of a larger project that makes use of both XMM and Chandra data. Our first publication on the Chandra results is the following: "New Evidence for Black Hole Event Horizons from Chandra" by M.R. Garcia, J.E. McClintock, R. Narayan, P. Callanan, D. Barret and S. Murray (2001, ApJ, 553, L47). Therein we present the luminosities of the two black-hole X-ray novae, GRO J0422+22 and 4U1 543-47, which were observed by Chandra. These results are combined with the luminosities of four additional black-hole X-ray novae, which were observed as part of a Chandra GTO program (PI: S. Murray). The very low, but nonzero, quiescent X-ray luminosities of these black hole binaries is very difficult to understand in the context of standard viscous accretion disk theory. The principal result of this work is that X-ray novae that contain black hole primaries are about 100 times fainter that X-ray novae that contain neutron star primaries. This result had been suggested in earlier work, but the present work very firmly establishes this large luminosity difference. The result is remarkable because the black-hole and the neutron-star systems are believed to be similar in many respects. Most importantly, the mass transfer rate from the secondary star is believed to be very comparable for the two kinds of systems for similar orbital periods. The advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) model provides a natural framework for understanding the extraordinarily low luminosities of the black hole systems and the hundred-fold greater luminosities of the neutron star systems. The chief feature of an ADAF is that the heat energy in the accreting gas is trapped in the gas and travels with it, rather than being radiated promptly. Thus the accreting gas reaches the central object with a huge amount of thermal energy. If the accretor is a black hole, the
Growth of Accreting Supermassive Black Hole Seeds and Neutrino Radiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gagik Ter-Kazarian
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the framework of microscopic theory of black hole (MTBH, which explores the most important processes of rearrangement of vacuum state and spontaneous breaking of gravitation gauge symmetry at huge energies, we have undertaken a large series of numerical simulations with the goal to trace an evolution of the mass assembly history of 377 plausible accreting supermassive black hole seeds in active galactic nuclei (AGNs to the present time and examine the observable signatures today. Given the redshifts, masses, and luminosities of these black holes at present time collected from the literature, we compute the initial redshifts and masses of the corresponding seed black holes. For the present masses MBH/M⊙≃1.1×106 to 1.3×1010 of 377 black holes, the computed intermediate seed masses are ranging from MBHSeed/M⊙≃26.4 to 2.9×105. We also compute the fluxes of ultrahigh energy (UHE neutrinos produced via simple or modified URCA processes in superdense protomatter nuclei. The AGNs are favored as promising pure UHE neutrino sources, because the computed neutrino fluxes are highly beamed along the plane of accretion disk, peaked at high energies, and collimated in smaller opening angle (θ≪1.
Black Hole Event Horizons and Advection-Dominated Accretion
McClintock, Jeffrey; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The work supported in part by this grant is part of a larger program on the detection of black hole event horizons, which is also partially supported by NASA grant GO0-1105A. This work has been carried out primarily in collaboration with Dr. M. Garcia and Prof. R. Narayan at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and with D. Barret and J. Hameury at Centre d'Etude Spoliate des Rayonnements, France. Our purpose is to confirm the existence of black-hole event horizons by comparing accreting black holes to secreting neutron stars in quiescent X-ray novae. Such a comparison is feasible because black holes and neutron stars are both present in similar environments in X-ray novae. Our second purpose is to assess the nature of accretion flows onto black holes at very low mass transfer rates. Observations of some XMM targets are still pending, whereas most of the Chandra observations have been completed. We anticipate further publications on this work in the future.
Chaotic cold accretion on to black holes in rotating atmospheres
Gaspari, M.; Brighenti, F.; Temi, P.
2015-07-01
The fueling of black holes is one key problem in the evolution of baryons in the universe. Chaotic cold accretion (CCA) profoundly differs from classic accretion models, as Bondi and thin disc theories. Using 3D high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, we now probe the impact of rotation on the hot and cold accretion flow in a typical massive galaxy. In the hot mode, with or without turbulence, the pressure-dominated flow forms a geometrically thick rotational barrier, suppressing the black hole accretion rate to ~1/3 of the spherical case value. When radiative cooling is dominant, the gas loses pressure support and quickly circularizes in a cold thin disk; the accretion rate is decoupled from the cooling rate, although it is higher than that of the hot mode. In the more common state of a turbulent and heated atmosphere, CCA drives the dynamics if the gas velocity dispersion exceeds the rotational velocity, i.e., turbulent Taylor number Tat 1), the broadening of the distribution and the efficiency of collisions diminish, damping the accretion rate ∝ Tat-1, until the cold disk drives the dynamics. This is exacerbated by the increased difficulty to grow TI in a rotating halo. The simulated sub-Eddington accretion rates cover the range inferred from AGN cavity observations. CCA predicts inner flat X-ray temperature and r-1 density profiles, as recently discovered in M 87 and NGC 3115. The synthetic Hα images reproduce the main features of cold gas observations in massive ellipticals, as the line fluxes and the filaments versus disk morphology. Such dichotomy is key for the long-term AGN feedback cycle. As gas cools, filamentary CCA develops and boosts AGN heating; the cold mode is thus reduced and the rotating disk remains the sole cold structure. Its consumption leaves the atmosphere in hot mode with suppressed accretion and feedback, reloading the cycle.
CMB bounds on disk-accreting massive primordial black holes
Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Calore, Francesca; Clesse, Sébastien; Kohri, Kazunori
2017-10-01
Stellar-mass primordial black holes (PBH) have been recently reconsidered as a dark matter (DM) candidate after the aLIGO discovery of several binary black hole (BH) mergers with masses of tens of M⊙ . Matter accretion on such massive objects leads to the emission of high-energy photons, capable of altering the ionization and thermal history of the universe. This, in turn, affects the statistical properties of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. Previous analyses have assumed spherical accretion. We argue that this approximation likely breaks down and that an accretion disk should form in the dark ages. Using the most up-to-date tools to compute the energy deposition in the medium, we derive constraints on the fraction of DM in PBH. Provided that disks form early on, even under conservative assumptions for accretion, these constraints exclude a monochromatic distribution of PBH with masses above ˜2 M⊙ as the dominant form of DM. The bound on the median PBH mass gets more stringent if a broad, log-normal mass function is considered. A deepened understanding of nonlinear clustering properties and BH accretion disk physics would permit an improved treatment and possibly lead to more stringent constraints.
Accreting Neutron Star and Black Hole Binaries with NICER
Chakrabarty, Deepto
2018-01-01
The NICER mission on the International Space Station has significant new capabilities for the study of accreting neutron stars and blackholes, including large effective area, low background, and excellent low-energy X-ray response. Both the NICER Burst and Accretion Working Group and the Observatory Science Working Group have designed observing programs that probe various aspects of accretion physics. I will present some early results from the first six months of the NICER mission, including observations of the black hole transients MAXI J1535-571 and GX 339-4, the high-mass X-ray binary pulsars GRO J1008-57 and Swift J02436+6124, and the X-ray burster 4U 1820-30.
Mass accretion rate fluctuations in black hole X-ray binaries
Rapisarda, S.
2017-01-01
This thesis is about the first systematic and quantitative application of propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations models to black hole X-ray binaries. Black hole X-ray binaries are systems consisting of a solar mass star orbiting around a stellar mass black hole. Eventually, the black hole
Periodic self-lensing from accreting massive black hole binaries
D'Orazio, Daniel J.; Di Stefano, Rosanne
2018-03-01
Nearly 150 massive black hole binary (MBHB) candidates at sub-pc orbital separations have been reported in recent literature. Nevertheless, the definitive detection of even a single such object remains elusive. If at least one of the black holes is accreting, the light emitted from its accretion disc will be lensed by the other black hole for binary orbital inclinations near to the line of sight. This binary self-lensing could provide a unique signature of compact MBHB systems. We show that, for MBHBs with masses in the range 106-1010 M⊙ and with orbital periods less than ˜10 yr, strong lensing events should occur in one to 10s of per cent of MBHB systems that are monitored for an entire orbit. Lensing events will last from days for the less massive, shorter period MBHBs to a year for the most massive ˜10 year orbital period MBHBs. At small inclinations of the binary orbit to the line of sight, lensing must occur and will be accompanied by periodicity due to the relativistic Doppler boost. Flares at the same phase as the otherwise average flux of the Doppler modulation would be a smoking gun signature of self-lensing and can be used to constrain binary parameters. For MBHBs with separation ≳100 Schwarzschild radii, we show that finite-sized source effects could serve as a probe of MBH accretion disc structure. Finally, we stress that our lensing probability estimate implies that ˜10 of the known MBHB candidates identified through quasar periodicity should exhibit strong lensing flares.
Effects of Black Hole Spin on the Limit-Cycle Behaviour of Accretion ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We present a spatially 1.5-dimensional, time-dependent numerical study of accretion disks around Kerr black holes. Our study focuses on the limit-cycle behavior of thermally unstable accretion disks. We find that maximal luminosity may be a more appropriate probe of black hole spin than the cycle duration and influence ...
The fundamental plane of accretion onto black holes with dynamical masses
Gültekin, K.; Cackett, E.M.; Miller, J.M.; Di Matteo, T.; Markoff, S.; Richstone, D.O.
2009-01-01
Black hole accretion and jet production are areas of intensive study in astrophysics. Recent work has found a relation between radio luminosity, X-ray luminosity, and black hole mass. With the assumption that radio and X-ray luminosities are suitable proxies for jet power and accretion power,
Powerful jets from accreting black holes: evidence from the optical and infrared
Russell, D.M.; Fender, R.P.; Wachter, A.D.; Propst, R.J.
2010-01-01
A common consequence of accretion onto black holes is the formation of powerful, relativistic jets that escape the system. In the case of supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies this has been known for decades, but for stellar-mass black holes residing within galaxies like our own, it
Black-Hole Accretion Disks --- Towards a New Paradigm ---
Kato, S.; Fukue, J.; Mineshige, S.
2008-03-01
Part I: Concepts of Accretion Disks: Chap. 1: Introduction, 1.1 Accretion Energy - Historical Origin, { Accretion-Disk Paradigm - Active Universe, 1.3 Accretion-Powered Objects - Observational Reviews, 1.4 X-Ray Binaries and Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources, 1.5 Active Galactic Nuclei, 1.6 Present Paradigm, Chap. 2: Physical Processes Related to Accretion, 2.1 Eddington Luminosity, 2.2 Bondi Accretion, 2.3 Viscous Process, 2.4 Magnetic Instabilities, 2.5 Relativistic Effects Part II: Classical Picture: Chap. 3: Classical Models, 3.1 Viscous Accretion Disks, 3.2 Standard Disks, 3.3 Optically Thin Disks, 3.4 Accretion Disk Coronae, 3.5 Relativistic Standard Disks, 3.6 Relativistic Tori Chap. 4: Secular and Thermal Instabilities, 4.1 Secular Instability, 4.2 Thermal Instability, 4.3 Stability Examination on dot{M}-Σ and T-Σ Planes, 4.4 Mathematical Derivation of the Stability Criterion, Chap. 5: Dwarf-Nova Type Instability, 5.1 Thermal-Ionization Instability, 5.2 Time Evolution of Disks in X-Ray Novae Chap. 6: Observability of Relativistic Effects, 6.1 Ray Tracing, 6.2 Imaging - Black Hole Silhouette, 6.3 Spectroscopy - Continuum and Line, 6.4 Photometry - Light Curve Diagnosis, 6.5 Other Effects - Lensing and Jets, Part III: Modern Picture: Chap. 7: Equations to Construct Generalized Models, 7.1 Basic Equations and Importance of Advection, 7.2 One-Temperature Disks, 7.3 Two-Temperature Disks, 7.4 Time-Dependent Equations Chap. 8: Transonic Nature of Accretion Flows, 8.1 Topology of Black-Hole Accretion, 8.2 Regularity Condition at a Critical Radius, 8.3 Topology around the Critical Radius in Isothermal Disks, 8.4 Numerical Examples of Transonic Flows, 8.5 Transonic Flows with Standing Shocks Chap. 9: Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows, 9.1 Advection-Dominated Accretion Flow, 9.2 Radial Structure of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.3 Radiation Spectra of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.4 Stability of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.5 Multi-Dimensional Effects, Chap. 10: Slim
The most massive black holes on the Fundamental Plane of black hole accretion
Mezcua, M.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Lucey, J. R.; Hogan, M. T.; Edge, A. C.; McNamara, B. R.
2018-02-01
We perform a detailed study of the location of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) on the Fundamental Plane of black hole (BH) accretion, which is an empirical correlation between a BH X-ray and radio luminosity and mass supported by theoretical models of accretion. The sample comprises 72 BCGs out to z ˜ 0.3 and with reliable nuclear X-ray and radio luminosities. These are found to correlate as L_X ∝ L_R^{0.75 ± 0.08}, favouring an advection-dominated accretion flow as the origin of the X-ray emission. BCGs are found to be on average offset from the Fundamental Plane such that their BH masses seem to be underestimated by the MBH-MK relation a factor ˜10. The offset is not explained by jet synchrotron cooling and is independent of emission process or amount of cluster gas cooling. Those core-dominated BCGs are found to be more significantly offset than those with weak core radio emission. For BCGs to on average follow the Fundamental Plane, a large fraction ( ˜ 40 per cent) should have BH masses >1010 M⊙ and thus host ultramassive BHs. The local BH-galaxy scaling relations would not hold for these extreme objects. The possible explanations for their formation, either via a two-phase process (the BH formed first, the galaxy grows later) or as descendants of high-z seed BHs, challenge the current paradigm of a synchronized galaxy-BH growth.
The Quasar Accretion Disk Size-Black Hole Mass Relation
Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E.
2010-04-01
We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 Å is related to the black hole mass by log(R 2500/cm) = (15.78 ± 0.12) + (0.80 ± 0.17)log(M BH/109 M sun). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R vprop M 2/3 BH), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T vprop R -3/4), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(η) = -1.77 ± 0.29 + log(L/L E), where η =L/(\\dot{M}c^2). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (η ≈ 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of ~4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 μm quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T vprop R -3/4 temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles. Based on observations obtained with the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 1.3 m, which is operated by the SMARTS Consortium, the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium, the WIYN Observatory which is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, which is a collaboration between the observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (OCIW), University of Arizona, Harvard University, University of Michigan, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and observations made
ON THE LAMPPOST MODEL OF ACCRETING BLACK HOLES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niedźwiecki, Andrzej; Szanecki, Michał [Łódź University, Department of Physics, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Zdziarski, Andrzej A. [Centrum Astronomiczne im. M. Kopernika, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland)
2016-04-10
We study the lamppost model, in which the X-ray source in accreting black hole (BH) systems is located on the rotation axis close to the horizon. We point out a number of inconsistencies in the widely used lamppost model relxilllp, e.g., neglecting the redshift of the photons emitted by the lamppost that are directly observed. They appear to invalidate those model fitting results for which the source distances from the horizon are within several gravitational radii. Furthermore, if those results were correct, most of the photons produced in the lamppost would be trapped by the BH, and the luminosity generated in the source as measured at infinity would be much larger than that observed. This appears to be in conflict with the observed smooth state transitions between the hard and soft states of X-ray binaries. The required increase of the accretion rate and the associated efficiency reduction also present a problem for active galactic nuclei. Then, those models imply the luminosity measured in the local frame is much higher than that produced in the source and measured at infinity, due to the additional effects of time dilation and redshift, and the electron temperature is significantly higher than that observed. We show that these conditions imply that the fitted sources would be out of the e{sup ±} pair equilibrium. On the other hand, the above issues pose relatively minor problems for sources at large distances from the BH, where relxilllp can still be used.
Grzędzielski, Mikołaj; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Czerny, Bożena; Wu, Qingwen
2017-07-01
Aims: Black holes (BHs) surrounded by accretion disks are present in the Universe at different scales of masses, from microquasars up to the active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Since the work of Shakura & Sunyaev (1973, A&A, 24, 337) and their α-disk model, various prescriptions for the heat-production rate are used to describe the accretion process. The current picture remains ad hoc due the complexity of the magnetic field action. In addition, accretion disks at high Eddington rates can be radiation-pressure dominated and, according to some of the heating prescriptions, thermally unstable. The observational verification of their resulting variability patterns may shed light on both the role of radiation pressure and magnetic fields in the accretion process. Methods: We compute the structure and time evolution of an accretion disk, using the code GLADIS (which models the global accretion disk instability). We supplement this model with a modified viscosity prescription, which can to some extent describe the magnetisation of the disk. We study the results for a large grid of models, to cover the whole parameter space, and we derive conclusions separately for different scales of black hole masses, which are characteristic for various types of cosmic sources. We show the dependencies between the flare or outburst duration, its amplitude, and period, on the accretion rate and viscosity scaling. Results: We present the results for the three grids of models, designed for different black hole systems (X-ray binaries, intermediate mass black holes, and galaxy centres). We show that if the heating rate in the accretion disk grows more rapidly with the total pressure and temperature, the instability results in longer and sharper flares. In general, we confirm that the disks around the supermassive black holes are more radiation-pressure dominated and present relatively brighter bursts. Our method can also be used as an independent tool for the black hole mass determination
Accretion and jets from stellar-mass to supermassive black holes
Connors, R.M.T.
2017-01-01
Accretion and jets occur in many astrophysical systems across a multitude of size and mass scales, and environments. As such, the study of accretion and jet physics has for decades been, and still remains, a hot topic in astrophysics. Accretion onto black holes has particular significance for many
The contribution of accreting black holes to the background radiation density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, B.J.
1979-01-01
Black holes could generate radiation as a result of accretion. The requirement that this radiation should not have a density exceeding the observed background density places an interesting limit on the number of black holes, depending on the wavelength at which the radiation is generated and the efficiency with which it is produced from accreted material. Consideration of the radiation produced in the present epoch already constrains the mass range in which black holes could have a significant cosmological density. For pregalactic black holes, which may have been accreting more rapidly in the past, the constraint could be even stronger. However, because pregalactic accretion will in general increase the matter temperature of the Universe, it is a self-limiting process. For this reason the pregalactic accretion limit is not as strong as one might naively expect and it is generally weaker than the present epoch limit. (author)
Are BL Lac-type objects nearby black holes. [gas accretion model
Shapiro, S. L.; Elliot, J. L.
1974-01-01
It is pointed out that isolated black holes accreting interstellar gas can account for the characteristic properties of the Lacertids. Emission spectra for various interstellar gas densities and black hole masses are compared with the data plotted by Strittmatter et al. (1972) for the BL Lac-type objects. Rough estimates indicate that there may indeed be a finite number of stellar-mass black holes close to the earth as required by the theory. If it is determined that the BL Lac-type objects lie outside of the galactic disk a black hole accretion model may still apply if certain conditions are satisfied.
McNamara, B.R.; Kazemzadeh, F.; Rafferty, D.A.; Bîrzan, L.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Kirkpatrick, C.C.; Wise, M.W.
2009-01-01
Powering the 10(62) erg nuclear outburst in the MS0735.6+7421 cluster central galaxy by accretion with a 10% mass-to-energy conversion efficiency implies that its putative supermassive black hole (SMBH) grew by similar to 6 x 10(8) M-circle dot over the past 100 Myr. Guided by data at several
Revealing general relativity effects from accretion events near a supermassive black hole
Karas, Vladimír; Dovčiak, Michal; Eckart, Andreas; Kunneriath, Devaky; Zamaninasab, Mohammad
2014-12-01
Accretion onto black holes often proceeds via an accretion disc or a temporary disclike pattern. Variability features, observed in the light curves of such objects, and theoretical models of accretion flows suggest that inner accretion discs are inhomogeneous and clumpy. We discuss the general relativity effects acting on the radiation signal from the inner accretion flow. To this end we consider the radiation flux and polarization properties originating from a blob of gas near a rotating black hole. The predicted observed polarization at infinity is changed from its local value due to strong gravity and fast orbital motion. Different processes can produce the observed pattern: in the context of Sgr A* flares, the synchrotron mechanism and the inverse Compton upscattering appear to be the most likely mechanisms. The energy dependence of the changing degree and angle of polarization should allow us to discriminate between rotating (Kerr) and a non-rotating (Schwarzschild) black hole.
Vacuum birefringence and the x-ray polarization from black-hole accretion disks
Caiazzo, Ilaria; Heyl, Jeremy
2018-04-01
In the next decade, x-ray polarimetry will open a new window on the high-energy Universe, as several missions that include an x-ray polarimeter are currently under development. Observations of the polarization of x rays coming from the accretion disks of stellar-mass and supermassive black holes are among the new polarimeters' major objectives. In this paper, we show that these observations can be affected by the quantum electrodynamic (QED) effect of vacuum birefringence: after an x-ray photon is emitted from the accretion disk, its polarization changes as the photon travels through the accretion disk's magnetosphere, as a result of the vacuum becoming birefringent in the presence of a magnetic field. We show that this effect can be important for black holes in the energy band of the upcoming polarimeters and has to be taken into account in a complete model of the x-ray polarization that we expect to detect from black-hole accretion disks, both for stellar mass and for supermassive black holes. We find that, for a chaotic magnetic field in the disk, QED can significantly decrease the linear polarization fraction of edge-on photons, depending on the spin of the hole and on the strength of the magnetic field. This effect can provide, for the first time, a direct way to probe the magnetic field strength close to the innermost stable orbit of black-hole accretion disks and to study the role of magnetic fields in astrophysical accretion in general.
Tracing the Origin of Black Hole Accretion Through Numerical Hydrodynamic Simulations
Spicer, Sandy; Somerville, Rachel; Choi, Ena; Brennan, Ryan
2018-01-01
It is now widely accepted that supermassive black holes co-evolve with galaxies, and may play an important role in galaxy evolution. However, the origin of the gas that fuels black hole accretion, and the resulting observable radiation, is not well understood or quantified. We use high-resolution "zoom-in" cosmological numerical hydrodynamic simulations including modeling of black hole accretion and feedback to trace the inflow and outflow of gas within galaxies from the early formation period up to present day. We track gas particles that black holes interact with over time to trace the origin of the gas that feeds supermassive black holes. These gas particles can come from satellite galaxies, cosmological accretion, or be a result of stellar evolution. We aim to track the origin of the gas particles that accrete onto the central black hole as a function of halo mass and cosmic time. Answering these questions will help us understand the connection between galaxy and black hole evolution.
STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON EMISSION LINE PROFILES: KERR BLACK HOLES AND WARPED ACCRETION DISKS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yan; Li Xiangdong
2012-01-01
If an accretion disk around a black hole is illuminated by hard X-rays from non-thermal coronae, fluorescent iron lines will be emitted from the inner region of the accretion disk. The emission line profiles will show a variety of strong field effects, which may be used as a probe of the spin parameter of the black hole and the structure of the accretion disk. In this paper, we generalize the previous relativistic line profile models by including both the black hole spinning effects and the non-axisymmetries of warped accretion disks. Our results show different features from the conventional calculations for either a flat disk around a Kerr black hole or a warped disk around a Schwarzschild black hole by presenting, at the same time, multiple peaks, rather long red tails, and time variations of line profiles with the precession of the disk. We show disk images as seen by a distant observer, which are distorted by the strong gravity. Although we are primarily concerned with the iron K-shell lines in this paper, the calculation is general and is valid for any emission lines produced from a warped accretion disk around a black hole.
Super-Eddington Mechanical Power of an Accreting Black Hole in M83
Soria, R.; Long, K. S.; Blair, W. P.; Godfrey, L.; Kuntz, K. D.; Lenc, E.; Stockdale, C.; Winkler, P. F.
2014-01-01
Mass accretion onto black holes releases energy in the form of radiation and outflows. Although the radiative flux cannot substantially exceed the Eddington limit, at which the outgoing radiation pressure impedes the inflow of matter, it remains unclear whether the kinetic energy flux is bounded by this same limit. Here, we present the detection of a radio-optical structure, powered by outflows from a non-nuclear black hole. Its accretion disk properties indicate that this black hole is less than 100 solar masses. The optical-infrared line emission implies an average kinetic power of 3 × 10(exp 40) erg second(exp -1), higher than the Eddington luminosity of the black hole. These results demonstrate kinetic power exceeding the Eddington limit over a sustained period, which implies greater ability to influence the evolution of the black hole's environment.
Spherical accretion of matter by charged black holes on f(T) Gravity
Rodrigues, M. E.; Junior, E. L. B.
2018-03-01
We studied the spherical accretion of matter by charged black holes on f(T) Gravity. Considering the accretion model of a isentropic perfect fluid we obtain the general form of the Hamiltonian and the dynamic system for the fluid. We have analysed the movements of an isothermal fluid model with p=ω e and where p is the pressure and e the total energy density. The analysis of the cases shows the possibility of spherical accretion of fluid by black holes, revealing new phenomena as cyclical movement inside the event horizon.
The close environments of accreting massive black holes are shaped by radiative feedback.
Ricci, Claudio; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Koss, Michael J; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Schawinski, Kevin; Oh, Kyuseok; Lamperti, Isabella; Mushotzky, Richard; Treister, Ezequiel; Ho, Luis C; Weigel, Anna; Bauer, Franz E; Paltani, Stephane; Fabian, Andrew C; Xie, Yanxia; Gehrels, Neil
2017-09-27
The majority of the accreting supermassive black holes in the Universe are obscured by large columns of gas and dust. The location and evolution of this obscuring material have been the subject of intense research in the past decades, and are still debated. A decrease in the covering factor of the circumnuclear material with increasing accretion rates has been found by studies across the electromagnetic spectrum. The origin of this trend may be driven by the increase in the inner radius of the obscuring material with incident luminosity, which arises from the sublimation of dust; by the gravitational potential of the black hole; by radiative feedback; or by the interplay between outflows and inflows. However, the lack of a large, unbiased and complete sample of accreting black holes, with reliable information on gas column density, luminosity and mass, has left the main physical mechanism that regulates obscuration unclear. Here we report a systematic multi-wavelength survey of hard-X-ray-selected black holes that reveals that radiative feedback on dusty gas is the main physical mechanism that regulates the distribution of the circumnuclear material. Our results imply that the bulk of the obscuring dust and gas is located within a few to tens of parsecs of the accreting supermassive black hole (within the sphere of influence of the black hole), and that it can be swept away even at low radiative output rates. The main physical driver of the differences between obscured and unobscured accreting black holes is therefore their mass-normalized accretion rate.
Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes.
Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S; Barros, Susana C C
2015-10-01
The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies.
Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes
Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R.; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S.; Barros, Susana C. C.
2015-01-01
The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies. PMID:26601307
Thin accretion disk signatures of slowly rotating black holes in Horava gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S N
2011-01-01
In this work, we consider the possibility of observationally testing Horava gravity by using the accretion disk properties around slowly rotating black holes of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) solution in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The energy flux, temperature distribution, the emission spectrum as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard slowly rotating general relativistic Kerr solution. Comparing the mass accretion in a slowly rotating KS geometry in Horava gravity with the one of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for the slowly rotating Kehagias-Sfetsos solution than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating KS solution provides a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Thus, distinct signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, leading to the possibility of directly testing Horava gravity models by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.
Thin accretion disk signatures of slowly rotating black holes in Horava gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road (Hong Kong); Lobo, Francisco S N, E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk, E-mail: zkovacs@hku.hk, E-mail: flobo@cii.fc.ul.pt [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-08-21
In this work, we consider the possibility of observationally testing Horava gravity by using the accretion disk properties around slowly rotating black holes of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) solution in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The energy flux, temperature distribution, the emission spectrum as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard slowly rotating general relativistic Kerr solution. Comparing the mass accretion in a slowly rotating KS geometry in Horava gravity with the one of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for the slowly rotating Kehagias-Sfetsos solution than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating KS solution provides a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Thus, distinct signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, leading to the possibility of directly testing Horava gravity models by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.
Constraints on the evolution of black hole spin due to magnetohydrodynamic accretion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Masaaki; Tomimatsu, Akira
2008-01-01
Stationary and axisymmetric ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion onto a black hole is studied analytically. The accreting plasma ejected from a plasma source with low velocity must be superfast magnetosonic before passing through the event horizon. We work out and apply a trans-fast magnetosonic solution without detailed analysis of the regularity conditions at the magnetosonic point, by introducing the bending angle β of the magnetic field line, which is the ratio of the toroidal and poloidal components of the magnetic field. To accrete onto a black hole, the trans-magnetosonic solution has some restrictions on β, which are related to the field-aligned parameters of the MHD flows. One of the restrictions gives the boundary condition at the event horizon for the inclination of a magnetic field line. We find that this inclination is related to the energy and angular momentum transport to the black hole. Then, we discuss the spin-up/down process of a rotating black hole by cold MHD inflows in a secular evolution time scale. There are two asymptotic states for the spin evolution. One is that the angular velocity of the black hole approaches to that of the magnetic field line, and the other is that the spin-up effect by the positive angular momentum influx and the spin-down effect by the energy influx (as the mass-energy influx) are canceled. We also show that the MHD inflows prevents the evolution to the maximally rotating black hole.
ACCRETION DISKS WITH A LARGE SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD AROUND BLACK HOLES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gennady Bisnovatyi-Kogan
2013-12-01
Full Text Available We consider accretion disks around black holes at high luminosity, and the problem of the formation of a large-scale magnetic field in such disks, taking into account the non-uniform vertical structure of the disk. The structure of advective accretion disks is investigated, and conditions for the formation of optically thin regions in central parts of the accretion disk are found. The high electrical conductivity of the outer layers of the disk prevents outward diffusion of the magnetic field. This implies a stationary state with a strong magnetic field in the inner parts of the accretion disk close to the black hole, and zero radial velocity at the surface of the disk. The problem of jet collimation by magneto-torsion oscillations is investigated.
On accretion of dark energy onto black- and worm-holes
Madrid, José A. Jiménez; Martín-Moruno, Prado
2010-01-01
We review some of the possible models that are able to describe the current Universe which point out the future singularities that could appear. We show that the study of the dark energy accretion onto black- and worm-holes phenomena in these models could lead to unexpected consequences, allowing even the avoidance of the considered singularities. We also review the debate about the approach used to study the accretion phenomenon which has appeared in literature to demonstrate the advantages ...
EDDINGTON-LIMITED ACCRETION AND THE BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION AT REDSHIFT 6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Albert, Loic; Arzoumanian, Doris; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine
2010-01-01
We present discovery observations of a quasar in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) at redshift z = 6.44. We also use near-infrared spectroscopy of nine CFHQS quasars at z ∼ 6 to determine black hole masses. These are compared with similar estimates for more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars to investigate the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity. We find a strong correlation between Mg II FWHM and UV luminosity and that most quasars at this early epoch are accreting close to the Eddington limit. Thus, these quasars appear to be in an early stage of their life cycle where they are building up their black hole mass exponentially. Combining these results with the quasar luminosity function, we derive the black hole mass function at z = 6. Our black hole mass function is ∼10 4 times lower than at z = 0 and substantially below estimates from previous studies. The main uncertainties which could increase the black hole mass function are a larger population of obscured quasars at high redshift than is observed at low redshift and/or a low quasar duty cycle at z = 6. In comparison, the global stellar mass function is only ∼10 2 times lower at z = 6 than at z = 0. The difference between the black hole and stellar mass function evolution is due to either rapid early star formation which is not limited by radiation pressure as is the case for black hole growth or inefficient black hole seeding. Our work predicts that the black hole mass-stellar mass relation for a volume-limited sample of galaxies declines rapidly at very high redshift. This is in contrast to the observed increase at 4 < z < 6 from the local relation if one just studies the most massive black holes.
Beyond the standard model of the disc-line spectral profiles from black hole accretion discs
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sochora, Vjačeslav; Karas, Vladimír; Svoboda, Jiří; Dovčiak, Michal
2014-01-01
Roč. 54, č. 4 (2014), s. 301-304 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-00070J Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion discs * black hole physics * galactic nuclei Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
Black hole spin dependence of general relativistic multi-transonic accretion close to the horizon
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Das, T. K.; Nag, S.; Hedge, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Maity, I.; Czerny, B.; Barai, P.; Wiita, P. J.; Karas, Vladimír; Naskar, T.
2015-01-01
Roč. 37, May (2015), s. 81-104 ISSN 1384-1076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-00070J Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : black hole s * accretion discs Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.085, year: 2015
Black hole accretion rings revealed by future X-ray spectroscopy
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sochora, Vjačeslav; Karas, Vladimír; Svoboda, Jiří; Dovčiak, Michal
2011-01-01
Roč. 418, č. 1 (2011), s. 276-283 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0052; GA MŠk ME09036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : black hole s * accretion discs Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2011
BEYOND THE STANDARD MODEL OF THE DISC–LINE SPECTRAL PROFILES FROM BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISCS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vjaceslav Sochora
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The strong gravitational field of a black hole has distinct effects on the observed profile of a spectral line from an accretion disc near a black hole. The observed profile of the spectral line is broadened and skewed by a fast orbital motion and redshifted by a gravitational field. These effects can help us to constrain the parameters of a system with a black hole, both in active galactic nuclei and in a stellar-mass black hole. Here we explore the fact that an accretion disc emission can be mathematically imagined as a superposition of radiating accretion rings that extend from the inner edge to the outer rim of the disc, with some radially varying emissivity. In our work, we show that a characteristic double-horn profile of several radially confined (relatively narrow accretion rings or belts could be recognized by the planned instruments onboard future satellites (such as the proposed ESA Large Observatory for X-ray Timing.
Dynamic processes during accretion into a black hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. S. Bisonvatyi-kogan
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Accretion disc theory was first developed as a theory with the local heat balance, where the whole energy produced by a viscous heating was emitted to the sides of the disc. One of the most important new invention of this theory was a phenomenological treatment of the turbulent viscosity, known as “alpha” prescription, when the (rϕ component of the stress tensor was approximated by (αP with a unknown constant α This prescription played the role in the accretion disc theory as well important as the mixing-length theory of convection for stellar evolution. Sources of turbulence in the accretion disc are discussed, including nonlinear hydrodynamic turbulence, convection and magnetic filed role. In parallel to the optically thick geometrically thin accretion disc models, a new branch of the optically thin accretion disc models was discovered, with a larger thickness for the same total luminosity. The choice between these solutions should be done of the base of stability analysis. The ideas underlying the necessity to include advection into the accretion disc theory are presented and first models with advection are reviewed. The present status of the solution for a low-luminous optically thin accretion disc model with advection is discussed and the limits for an advection dominated accretion flows (ADAF imposed by the presence of magnetic field are analyzed.
Electron-positron pair production in a hot accretion plasma around a massive black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahara, Fumio; Kusunose, Masaaki.
1985-01-01
We investigate the electron-positron pair production in a hot accretion plasma around a supermassive black hole in connection with active galactic nuclei. Assuming that an optically thin two-temperature plasma is produced in the vicinity of the central black hole, we examine the condition for the significant pair production by comparing relevant time scales. Since the pair production is dominated by collisions between hard photons, the conditions for significant pair production depend on the production rate of hard photons. We examine the case where the unsaturated Comptonization of soft photons produces hard photons as well as that of bremsstrahlung. We show that significant pair production occurs for a moderately high accretion rate with relatively slow accretion flow as compared to the free fall velocity in both cases. Possible consequences of pair production are briefly discussed. (author)
An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10.
Reines, Amy E; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Johnson, Kelsey E; Brogan, Crystal L
2011-02-03
Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize 2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize 2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids.
Binary Black Holes, Accretion Disks and Relativistic Jets: Photocenters of Nearby AGN and Quasars
Wehrle, Ann E.; Jones, Dayton L.; Meier, David L.; Piner, B. Glenn; Unwin, Stephen C.
2004-01-01
One of the most challenging questions in astronomy today is to understand the origin, structure, and evolution of the central engines in the nuclei of quasars and active galaxies (AGNs). The favoured theory involves the activation of relativistic jets from the fueling of a supermassive black hole through an accretion disk. In some AGN an outer optically thick, dusty torus is seen orbiting the black hole system. This torus is probably related to an inner accretion disk - black hole system that forms the actual powerhouse of the AGN. In radio-loud AGN two oppositely-directed radio jets are ejected perpendicular to the torus/disk system. Although there is a wealth of observational data on AGN, some very basic questions have not been definitively answered. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) will address the following three key questions about AGN. 1) Does the most compact optical emission from an AGN come from an accretion disk or from a relativistic jet? 2) Does the separation of the radio core and optical photocenter of the quasars used for the reference frame tie, change on the timescales of their photometric variability, or is the separation stable at the level of a few microarcseconds? 3) Do the cores of galaxies harbor binary supermassive black holes remaining from galaxy mergers? It is not known whether such mergers are common, and whether binaries would persist for a significant time.
The abnormal temperature profile of accreting disk around the Kerr black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, J.; Jiang, S.
1983-01-01
In this paper, we used the more rigorous general relativistic viscous hydrodynamical equation to discuss and calculate the temperature profile in the accreting disk around a Kerr black hole. It is found that for an accreting disk around a Kerr black hole, the occurrence of extremum values in the temperature profile is indeed possible. Furthermore, the temperature profile is always the same - no matter what kind of viscous mechanism is adopted - if the radiative mechanism of the materials in the disk is black-body radiation. For free-free radiation, we adopted the so-called α-viscosity law model to get a solution analogous to that obtained earlier (Fang et al., 1980). The calculations show that there exists a fast cooling ring region lying just inside the temperature maximum. In this ring region, there are probably some pecularities which do not exist in the usual temperature profile calculation (Fang, 1981). (orig.)
Truncation of the Inner Accretion Disk Around a Black Hole at Low Luminosity
Tomsick, John A.; Yamoka, Kazutaka; Corbel, Stephane; Kaaret, Philip; Kalemci, Emrah; Migliari, Simone
2011-01-01
Most black hole binaries show large changes in X-ray luminosity caused primarily by variations in mass accretion rate. An important question for understanding black hole accretion and jet production is whether the inner edge of the accretion disk recedes at low accretion rate. Measurements of the location of the inner edge (R(sub in)) can be made using iron emission lines that arise due to fluorescence of iron in the disk, and these indicate that R(sub in) is very close to the black hole at high and moderate luminosities (greater than or equal to 1% of the Eddington luminosity, L(sub Edd). Here, we report on X-ray observations of the black hole GX 339-4 in the hard state by Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer that extend iron line studies to 0.14% L(sub Edd) and show that R(sub in) increases by a factor of greater than 27 over the value found when GX 339-4 was bright. The exact value of R(sub in) depends on the inclination of the inner disk (i), and we derive 90% confidence limits of R(sub in) greater than 35 R(sub g) at i = 0 degrees and R(sub in) greater than 175 R(sub g) at i = 30 degrees. This provides direct evidence that the inner portion of the disk is not present at low luminosity, allowing for the possibility that the inner disk is replaced by advection- or magnetically dominated accretion flows.
Spectral properties of the accretion discs around rotating black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Samir Mandal
2018-02-10
Feb 10, 2018 ... attention has also been paid to the variation in energy spectral index with Kerr parameter and accretion rate. We find that spectral index .... entropy generation equation (or equation of state). In the absence of dissipation in the ..... the study was confined around a stationary BH. Here, we intend to see the ...
Constraining jet physics in weakly accreting black holes
Markoff, S.
2007-01-01
Outflowing jets are observed in a variety of astronomical objects such as accreting compact objects from X-ray binaries (XRBs) to active galactic nuclei (AGN), as well as at stellar birth and death. Yet we still do not know exactly what they are comprised of, why and how they form, or their exact
Regulation of black-hole accretion by a disk wind during a violent outburst of V404 Cygni.
Muñoz-Darias, T; Casares, J; Mata Sánchez, D; Fender, R P; Armas Padilla, M; Linares, M; Ponti, G; Charles, P A; Mooley, K P; Rodriguez, J
2016-06-02
Accretion of matter onto black holes is universally associated with strong radiative feedback and powerful outflows. In particular, black-hole transients have outflows whose properties are strongly coupled to those of the accretion flow. This includes X-ray winds of ionized material, expelled from the accretion disk encircling the black hole, and collimated radio jets. Very recently, a distinct optical variability pattern has been reported in the transient stellar-mass black hole V404 Cygni, and interpreted as disrupted mass flow into the inner regions of its large accretion disk. Here we report observations of a sustained outer accretion disk wind in V404 Cyg, which is unlike any seen hitherto. We find that the outflowing wind is neutral, has a large covering factor, expands at one per cent of the speed of light and triggers a nebular phase once accretion drops sharply and the ejecta become optically thin. The large expelled mass (>10(-8) solar masses) indicates that the outburst was prematurely ended when a sizeable fraction of the outer disk was depleted by the wind, detaching the inner regions from the rest of the disk. The luminous, but brief, accretion phases shown by transients with large accretion disks imply that this outflow is probably a fundamental ingredient in regulating mass accretion onto black holes.
Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.
Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada
2014-09-12
Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Properties of two-temperature dissipative accretion flow around black holes
Dihingia, Indu K.; Das, Santabrata; Mandal, Samir
2018-04-01
We study the properties of two-temperature accretion flow around a non-rotating black hole in presence of various dissipative processes where pseudo-Newtonian potential is adopted to mimic the effect of general relativity. The flow encounters energy loss by means of radiative processes acted on the electrons and at the same time, flow heats up as a consequence of viscous heating effective on ions. We assumed that the flow is exposed with the stochastic magnetic fields that leads to Synchrotron emission of electrons and these emissions are further strengthen by Compton scattering. We obtain the two-temperature global accretion solutions in terms of dissipation parameters, namely, viscosity (α) and accretion rate ({\\dot{m}}), and find for the first time in the literature that such solutions may contain standing shock waves. Solutions of this kind are multitransonic in nature, as they simultaneously pass through both inner critical point (xin) and outer critical point (xout) before crossing the black hole horizon. We calculate the properties of shock-induced global accretion solutions in terms of the flow parameters. We further show that two-temperature shocked accretion flow is not a discrete solution, instead such solution exists for wide range of flow parameters. We identify the effective domain of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that parameter space shrinks as the dissipation is increased. Since the post-shock region is hotter due to the effect of shock compression, it naturally emits hard X-rays, and therefore, the two-temperature shocked accretion solution has the potential to explain the spectral properties of the black hole sources.
On the formalism of dark energy accretion onto black- and worm-holes
Martín-Moruno, Prado
2008-01-01
In this work a general formalism for the accretion of dark energy onto astronomical objects, black holes and wormholes, is considered. It is shown that in models with four dimensions or more, any singularity with a divergence in the Hubble parameter may be avoided by a big trip, if it is assumed that there is no coupling between the bulk and this accreting object. If this is not the case in more than four dimensions, the evolution of the cosmological object depends on the particular model.
On the formalism of dark energy accretion onto black- and worm-holes
Martin-Moruno, Prado
2007-01-01
In this work a general formalism for the accretion of dark energy onto astronomical objects, black holes and wormholes, is considered. It is shown that in models with four dimensions or more, any singularity with a divergence in the Hubble parameter may be avoided by a big trip, if it is assumed that there is no coupling between the bulk and this accreting object. If this is not the case in more than four dimensions, the evolution of the cosmological object depends on the particular model.
A comparative study of single-temperature and two-temperature accretion flows around black holes
Dihingia, Indu Kalpa; Das, Santabrata; Mandal, Samir
2018-02-01
We study the properties of sub-Keplerian accretion disk around a stationary black hole, considering bremsstrahlung, synchrotron and Comptonization of synchrotron photons as radiative cooling mechanisms active in the disk. We obtain the solutions of two-temperature global accretion flow (TTAF) and compare it with the results obtained from single-temperature (STAF) model. We observe that flow properties, in particular, the radial profile of electron and ion temperatures differ noticeably in the adopted models for flows with identical boundary conditions fixed at the outer edge of the disk. Since the electron temperature is one of the key factors to regulate the radiative processes, we argue that physically motivated description of electron temperature needs to be considered in studying the astrophysical phenomena around black holes.
Large-scale dynamo of accretion disks around supermassive nonrotating black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poplavsky A.L.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper one presents an analytical model of accretion disk magnetosphere dynamics around supermassive nonrotating black holes in the centers of active galactic nuclei. Based on general relativistic equations of magneto hydrodynamics, the nonstationary solutions for time-dependent dynamo action in the accretion disks, spatial and temporal distribution of magnetic field are found. It is shown that there are two distinct stages of dynamo process: the transient and the steady-state regimes, the induction of magnetic field at t > 6:6665 x 1011GM/c3 s becomes stationary, magnetic field is located near the innermost stable circular orbit, and its value rises up to ~ 105 G. Applications of such systems with nonrotating black holes in real active galactic nuclei are discussed.
Probing the Accretion Geometry of Black Holes with X-Ray Polarization
Schnitman, Jeremy D.
2011-01-01
In the coming years, new space missions will be able to measure X-ray polarization at levels of 1% or better in the approx.1-10 keV energy band. In particular, X-ray polarization is an ideal tool for determining the nature of black hole (BH) accretion disks surrounded by hot coronae. Using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code in full general relativity, we calculate the spectra and polarization features of these BH systems. At low energies, the signal is dominated by the thermal flux coming directly from the optically thick disk. At higher energies, the thermal seed photons have been inverse-Compton scattered by the corona, often reflecting back off the disk before reaching the observer, giving a distinctive polarization signature. By measuring the degree and angle of this X-ray polarization, we can infer the BH inclination, the emission geometry of the accretion flow, and also determine the spin of the black hole.
The Cosmic History of Black Hole Accretion from Chandra X-ray Stacking
Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C.; Schawinski, K.; Lee, N.; Natarajan, P.; Volonteri, M.; Sanders, D. B.
2012-05-01
In order to fully understand galaxy formation we need to know when in the cosmic history are black holes growing more intensively, in what type of galaxies this growth is happening and what fraction of these sources are invisible at most wavelengths due to obscuration. We take advantage of the rich multi-wavelength data available in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), including the 4 Msec Chandra observations (the deepest X-ray data to date), in order to measure the amount of black hole accretion as a function of cosmic history, from z 0 to z 6. We obtain stacked rest-frame X-ray spectra for samples of galaxies binned in terms of their IR luminosity, stellar mass and other galaxy properties. We find that the AGN fraction and their typical luminosities, and thus black hole accretion rates, increase with IR luminosity and stellar mass. The integrated intensity at high energies indicates that a significant fraction of the total black hole growth, 22%, occurs in heavily-obscured systems that are not individually detected in even the deepest X-ray observations. We find evidence for a strong connection between significant black hole growth events and major galaxy mergers from z 0 to z 3, while less spectacular but longer accretion episodes are most likely due to other (stochastic) processes. E.T. and K.S. gratefully acknowledges the support provided by NASA through Chandra Postdoctoral Fellowship Award Numbers PF8-90055 and PF9-00069, respectively issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center. E.T. also thanks support by NASA through Chandra Award SP1-12005X Center of Excellence in Astrophysics and Associated Technologies (PFB 06). C. M. Urry acknowledges support from NSF Grants AST-0407295, AST-0449678, AST-0807570, and Yale University.
Hoormann, Janie Katherine
2016-06-01
While Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) has been tested extensively in our solar system, it is just beginning to be tested in the strong gravitational fields that surround black holes. As a way to study the behavior of gravity in these extreme environments, I have used and added to a ray-tracing code that simulates the X-ray emission from the accretion disks surrounding black holes. In particular, the observational channels which can be simulated include the thermal and reflected spectra, polarization, and reverberation signatures. These calculations can be performed assuming GR as well as four alternative spacetimes. These results can be used to see if it is possible to determine if observations can test the No-Hair theorem of GR which states that stationary, astrophysical black holes are only described by their mass and spin. Although it proves difficult to distinguish between theories of gravity, it is possible to exclude a large portion of the possible deviations from GR using observations of rapidly spinning stellar mass black holes such as Cygnus X-1. The ray-tracing simulations can furthermore be used to study the inner regions of black hole accretion flows. I examined the dependence of X-ray reverberation observations on the ionization of the disk photosphere. My results show that X-ray reverberation and X-ray polarization provides a powerful tool to constrain the geometry of accretion disks which are too small to be imaged directly. The second part of my thesis describes the work on the balloon-borne X-Calibur hard X-ray polarimetry mission and on the space-borne PolSTAR polarimeter concept.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhadra, Jhumpa; Debnath, Ujjal
2012-01-01
In this work, we have studied accretion of the dark energies in new variable modified Chaplygin gas (NVMCG) and generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas (GCCG) models onto Schwarzschild and Kerr-Newman black holes. We find the expression of the critical four velocity component which gradually decreases for the fluid flow towards the Schwarzschild as well as the Kerr-Newman black hole. We also find the expression for the change of mass of the black hole in both cases. For the Kerr-Newman black hole, which is rotating and charged, we calculate the specific angular momentum and total angular momentum. We showed that in both cases, due to accretion of dark energy, the mass of the black hole increases and angular momentum increases in the case of a Kerr-Newman black hole. (orig.)
Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes of Unequal Mass: GRMHD Simulations Near Decoupling
Gold, Roman; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Pfeiffer, Harald, P.
2013-01-01
We report on simulations in general relativity of magnetized disks onto black hole binaries. We vary the binary mass ratio from 1:1 to 1:10 and evolve the systems when they orbit near the binary disk decoupling radius. We compare (surface) density profiles, accretion rates (relative to a single, non-spinning black hole), variability, effective alpha-stress levels and luminosities as functions of the mass ratio. We treat the disks in two limiting regimes: rapid radiative cooling and no radiative cooling. The magnetic field lines clearly reveal jets emerging from both black hole horizons and merging into one common jet at large distances. The magnetic fields give rise to much stronger shock heating than the pure hydrodynamic flows, completely alter the disk structure, and boost accretion rates and luminosities. Accretion streams near the horizons are among the densest structures; in fact, the 1:10 no-cooling evolution results in a refilling of the cavity. The typical effective temperature in the bulk of the disk is approx. 10(exp5) (M / 10(exp 8)M solar mass (exp -1/4(L/L(sub edd) (exp 1/4K) yielding characteristic thermal frequencies approx. 10 (exp 15) (M /10(exp 8)M solar mass) (exp -1/4(L/L (sub edd) (1+z) (exp -1)Hz. These systems are thus promising targets for many extragalactic optical surveys, such as LSST, WFIRST, and PanSTARRS.
Super-Eddington accreting massive black holes as long-lived cosmological standards.
Wang, Jian-Min; Du, Pu; Valls-Gabaud, David; Hu, Chen; Netzer, Hagai
2013-02-22
Super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) reach saturated luminosities above a certain accretion rate due to photon trapping and advection in slim accretion disks. We show that these SEAMBHs could provide a new tool for estimating cosmological distances if they are properly identified by hard x-ray observations, in particular by the slope of their 2-10 keV continuum. To verify this idea we obtained black hole mass estimates and x-ray data for a sample of 60 narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies that we consider to be the most promising SEAMBH candidates. We demonstrate that the distances derived by the new method for the objects in the sample get closer to the standard luminosity distances as the hard x-ray continuum gets steeper. The results allow us to analyze the requirements for using the method in future samples of active black holes and to demonstrate that the expected uncertainty, given large enough samples, can make them into a useful, new cosmological ruler.
X-Ray Spectra from MHD Simulations of Accreting Black Holes
Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Noble, Scott C.
2012-01-01
We present the results of a new global radiation transport code coupled to a general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulation of an accreting, nonrotating black hole. For the first time, we are able to explain from first principles in a self-consistent way the X-ray spectra observed from stellar-mass black holes, including a thermal peak, Compton reflection hump, power-law tail, and broad iron line. Varying only the mass accretion rate, we are able to reproduce the low/hard, steep power-law, and thermal-dominant states seen in most galactic black hole sources. The temperature in the corona is T(sub e) 10 keV in a boundary layer near the disk and rises smoothly to T(sub e) greater than or approximately 100 keV in low-density regions far above the disk. Even as the disk's reflection edge varies from the horizon out to approximately equal to 6M as the accretion rate decreases, we find that the shape of the Fe Ka line is remarkably constant. This is because photons emitted from the plunging region are strongly beamed into the horizon and never reach the observer. We have also carried out a basic timing analysis of the spectra and find that the fractional variability increases with photon energy and viewer inclination angle, consistent with the coronal hot spot model for X-ray fluctuations.
Low density, radiatively inefficient rotating-accretion flow onto a black hole
Inayoshi, Kohei; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Haiman, Zoltán; Kuiper, Rolf
2018-02-01
We study low-density axisymmetric accretion flows onto black holes (BHs) with two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, adopting the α-viscosity prescription. When the gas angular momentum is low enough to form a rotationally supported disk within the Bondi radius (RB), we find a global steady accretion solution. The solution consists of a rotational equilibrium distribution around r ˜ RB, where the density follows ρ∝(1 + RB/r)3/2, surrounding a geometrically thick and optically thin accretion disk at the centrifugal radius RC( energy generated by viscosity is transported via convection. Physical properties of the inner solution agree with those expected in convection-dominated accretion flows (CDAF; ρ∝r-1/2). In the inner solution, the gas inflow rate decreases towards the center due to convection (\\dot{M}∝ r), and the net accretion rate (including both inflows and outflows) is strongly suppressed by several orders of magnitude from the Bondi accretion rate \\dot{M}_B. The net accretion rate depends on the viscous strength, following \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_B∝ (α /0.01)^{0.6}. This solution holds for low accretion rates of \\dot{M}_B/\\dot{M}_Edd≲ 10^{-3} having minimal radiation cooling, where \\dot{M}_Edd is the Eddington accretion rate. In a hot plasma at the bottom (r energy flux. Since suppression of the accretion by convection ceases, the final BH feeding rate is found to be \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_B˜ 10^{-3}-10^{-2}. This rate is as low as \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_Edd˜ 10^{-7}-10^{-6} inferred for SgrA* and the nuclear BHs in M31 and M87, and can explain their low luminosities, without invoking any feedback mechanism.
Axisymmetric accretion flows very near black holes and Rosen-collapsed objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoeger, W.R.
1979-01-01
Motivated by the need for stronger observational leverage on the black hole hypothesis and for a more detailed characterization of axisymmetric accretion flows across the marginally stable circular orbit rsub(ms), a general approach for describing the non-Keplerian accretion in the region rsub(H) 0 , where rsub(H) = radius of the event horizon and r 0 > = rsub(ms) is developed. The procedure possesses many advantages, including easily imposed consistency with the Keplerian for r > rsub(o), the avoidance of ad hoc boundary conditions at rsub(ms) and/or at rsub(H) and its application also to accretion in Rosen's bimetric theory, whose spherically symmetric solution has the same qualitative orbital topography as that of general relativity. It becomes apparent, furthermore, that the particular viscosity law chosen in this procedure will have a crucial bearing on the flow in the region rsub(ms) 0 . (author)
Three-dimensional structure of clumpy outflow from supercritical accretion flow onto black holes
Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ohsuga, Ken; Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Asahina, Yuta; Takeuchi, Shun; Mineshige, Shin
2018-02-01
We perform global three-dimensional (3D) radiation-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of outflow from supercritical accretion flow around a 10 M⊙ black hole. We only solve the outflow part, starting from the axisymmetric 2D simulation data in a nearly steady state but with small perturbations in a sinusoidal form being added in the azimuthal direction. The mass accretion rate onto the black hole is ˜102LE/c2 in the underlying 2D simulation data, and the outflow rate is ˜10 LE/c2 (with LE and c being the Eddington luminosity and speed of light, respectively). We first confirm the emergence of clumpy outflow, which was discovered by the 2D RHD simulations, above the photosphere located at a few hundreds of Schwarzschild radii (rS) from the central black hole. As prominent 3D features we find that the clumps have the shape of a torn sheet, rather than a cut string, and that they are rotating around the central black hole with a sub-Keplerian velocity at a distance of ˜103 rS from the center. The typical clump size is ˜30 rS or less in the radial direction, and is more elongated in the angular directions, ˜ hundreds of rS at most. The sheet separation ranges from 50 to 150 rS. We expect stochastic time variations when clumps pass across the line of the sight of a distant observer. Variation timescales are estimated to be several seconds for a black hole with mass of ten to several tens of M⊙, in rough agreement with the observations of some ultra-luminous X-ray sources.
The Dynamics of Truncated Black Hole Accretion Disks. I. Viscous Hydrodynamic Case
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2017-07-10
Truncated accretion disks are commonly invoked to explain the spectro-temporal variability in accreting black holes in both small systems, i.e., state transitions in galactic black hole binaries (GBHBs), and large systems, i.e., low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). In the canonical truncated disk model of moderately low accretion rate systems, gas in the inner region of the accretion disk occupies a hot, radiatively inefficient phase, which leads to a geometrically thick disk, while the gas in the outer region occupies a cooler, radiatively efficient phase that resides in the standard geometrically thin disk. Observationally, there is strong empirical evidence to support this phenomenological model, but a detailed understanding of the dynamics of truncated disks is lacking. We present a well-resolved viscous, hydrodynamic simulation that uses an ad hoc cooling prescription to drive a thermal instability and, hence, produce the first sustained truncated accretion disk. With this simulation, we perform a study of the dynamics, angular momentum transport, and energetics of a truncated disk. We find that the time variability introduced by the quasi-periodic transition of gas from efficient cooling to inefficient cooling impacts the evolution of the simulated disk. A consequence of the thermal instability is that an outflow is launched from the hot/cold gas interface, which drives large, sub-Keplerian convective cells into the disk atmosphere. The convective cells introduce a viscous θ − ϕ stress that is less than the generic r − ϕ viscous stress component, but greatly influences the evolution of the disk. In the truncated disk, we find that the bulk of the accreted gas is in the hot phase.
Dexter, J.; McKinney, J.C.; Markoff, S.; Tchekhovskoy, A.
2014-01-01
Magnetically arrested accretion discs (MADs), where the magnetic pressure in the inner disc is dynamically important, provide an alternative mechanism for regulating accretion to what is commonly assumed in black hole systems. We show that a global magnetic field inversion in the MAD state can
Gamma-ray bursts from stellar mass accretion disks around black holes
Woosley, S. E.
1993-01-01
A cosmological model for gamma-ray bursts is explored in which the radiation is produced as a broadly beamed pair fireball along the rotation axis of an accreting black hole. The black hole may be a consequence of neutron star merger or neutron star-black hole merger, but for long complex bursts, it is more likely to come from the collapse of a single Wolf-Rayet star endowed with rotation ('failed' Type Ib supernova). The disk is geometrically thick and typically has a mass inside 100 km of several tenths of a solar mass. In the failed supernova case, the disk is fed for a longer period of time by the collapsing star. At its inner edge the disk is thick to its own neutrino emission and evolves on a viscous time scale of several seconds. In a region roughly 30 km across, interior to the accretion disk and along its axis of rotation, a pair fireball is generated by neutrino annihilation and electron-neutrino scattering which deposit approximately 10 exp 50 ergs/s.
Wind from the black-hole accretion disk driving a molecular outflow in an active galaxy.
Tombesi, F; Meléndez, M; Veilleux, S; Reeves, J N; González-Alfonso, E; Reynolds, C S
2015-03-26
Powerful winds driven by active galactic nuclei are often thought to affect the evolution of both supermassive black holes and their host galaxies, quenching star formation and explaining the close relationship between black holes and galaxies. Recent observations of large-scale molecular outflows in ultraluminous infrared galaxies support this quasar-feedback idea, because they directly trace the gas from which stars form. Theoretical models suggest that these outflows originate as energy-conserving flows driven by fast accretion-disk winds. Proposed connections between large-scale molecular outflows and accretion-disk activity in ultraluminous galaxies were incomplete because no accretion-disk wind had been detected. Conversely, studies of powerful accretion-disk winds have until now focused only on X-ray observations of local Seyfert galaxies and a few higher-redshift quasars. Here we report observations of a powerful accretion-disk wind with a mildly relativistic velocity (a quarter that of light) in the X-ray spectrum of IRAS F11119+3257, a nearby (redshift 0.189) optically classified type 1 ultraluminous infrared galaxy hosting a powerful molecular outflow. The active galactic nucleus is responsible for about 80 per cent of the emission, with a quasar-like luminosity of 1.5 × 10(46) ergs per second. The energetics of these two types of wide-angle outflows is consistent with the energy-conserving mechanism that is the basis of the quasar feedback in active galactic nuclei that lack powerful radio jets (such jets are an alternative way to drive molecular outflows).
Galactic Black Holes in the Hard State: A Multi-Wavelength View of Accretion and Ejection
Kalemci; Tomsick, John A.; Migliari; Corbel; Markoff
2010-01-01
The canonical hard state is associated with emission from all three fundamental accretion components: the accretion disk, the hot accretion disk corona and the jet. On top of these, the hard state also hosts very rich temporal variability properties (low frequency QPOs in the PDS, time lags, long time scale evolution). Our group has been working on the major questions of the hard state both observationally (with mult i-wavelength campaigns using RXTE, Swift, Suzaku, Spitzer, VLA, ATCA, SMARTS) and theoretically (through jet models that can fit entire SEDs). Through spectral and temporal analysis we seek to determine the geometry of accretion components, and relate the geometry to the formation and emission from a jet. In this presentation I will review the recent contributions of our group to the field, including the Swift results on the disk geometry at low accretion rates, the jet model fits to the hard state SEDs (including Spitzer data) of GRO J1655-40, and the final results on the evolution of spectral (including X-ray, radio and infrared) and temporal properties of elected black holes in the hard states. I will also talk about impact of ASTROSAT to the science objective of our group.
X-ray Fe-lines from Relativistic Accretion Disks Around Neutron Stars and Black Holes
Stella, Luigi
2013-01-01
The Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter (GSPC) on board the European X-ray Satellite EXOSAT (1983-1986) provided detections of Fe K-alpha emission features around 6-7 keV in the X-ray spectra of accreting neutron star and black hole candidates in X-ray binaries. Surprisingly the width of these lines was found to be broader than the GSPC resolution 10% at 6 keV): it could not be explained by thermal broadening, nor blending of (unresolved) lines from different ionization stages of Fe; very large Doppler shifts and, perhaps, thermal Comptonisation provided more promising interpretations. In 1989 Nick White and I developed the first general relativistic model for the Fe-line profile that is produced by matter orbiting in an accretion disk. By fitting the GSPC Fe-line of the black hole candidate Cyg X-1 with our model we inferred an emitting line region extending to a few tens Schwarzschild radii from the black hole, where matter orbits at ~0.1-0.2 the speed of light and effects such as relativistic Doppler shifts and boosting, as well as gravitational and transverse redshifts are conspicuous. We joined forces with Andy Fabian and Martin Rees, who were working on the same interpretation, and published the results in a MNRAS paper. The relativistic disk interpretation of the broad Fe-lines gave rise to much interest on the possibility of measuring black hole mass and spin and probing the innermost regions of accretion flows and the very strong gravitational fields close to compact objects. Very broad and sometimes highly redshifted Fe-lines have been studied by now in tens of X-ray binaries and bright Active Galactic Nuclei with the CCD detectors of the Chandra and XMM/Newton X-ray telescopes; in some cases the line profile implies the presence of a fast spinning black hole. The potential of the Fe-line diagnostics remains to be largely exploited. Moreover some alternative interpretations are not yet ruled out. An X-ray instrument with a broad energy response
Tracing the accretion history of supermassive Black Holes through X-ray variability
Paolillo, M.; Papadakis, I.
2017-10-01
Using the 7Ms observations of the Chandra Deep Field South spanning more than 15 years, we study the variability properties of high-redshift AGNs. We show that distant supermassive Black Holes behave similarly to nearby sources, possessing a red noise PDS with a possible break at high frequencies. We test different models to describe the X-ray variability showing that the observations favour a dependence of the variability on both BH mass and accretion rate. Using this result we trace for the AGN accretion history up to z˜ 3 finding that it is consistent with values obtained by different tracers, suggesting an almost constant Eddington rate with a tentative slight increase at 2
Signature of Plausible Accreting Supermassive Black Holes in Mrk 261/262 and Mrk 266
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gagik Ter-Kazarian
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We address the neutrino radiation of plausible accreting supermassive black holes closely linking to the 5 nuclear components of galaxy samples of Mrk 261/262 and Mrk 266. We predict a time delay before neutrino emission of the same scale as the age of the Universe. The ultrahigh energy neutrinos are produced in superdense protomatter medium via simple (quark or pionic reactions or modified URCA processes (G. Gamow was inspired to name the process URCA after the name of a casino in Rio de Janeiro. The resulting neutrino fluxes for quark reactions are ranging from to , where is the opening parameter. For pionic and modified URCA reactions, the fluxes are and , respectively. These fluxes are highly beamed along the plane of accretion disk, peaked at ultrahigh energies, and collimated in smaller opening angle .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Antoni, Andrea; Macias, Phillip [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); MacLeod, Morgan, E-mail: armurgui@ucsc.edu [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2017-08-20
During a common envelope (CE) episode in a binary system, the engulfed companion spirals to tighter orbital separations under the influence of drag from the surrounding envelope material. As this object sweeps through material with a steep radial gradient of density, net angular momentum is introduced into the flow, potentially leading to the formation of an accretion disk. The presence of a disk would have dramatic consequences for the outcome of the interaction because accretion might be accompanied by strong, polar outflows with enough energy to unbind the entire envelope. Without a detailed understanding of the necessary conditions for disk formation during CE, therefore, it is difficult to accurately predict the population of merging compact binaries. This paper examines the conditions for disk formation around objects embedded within CEs using the “wind tunnel” formalism developed by MacLeod et al. We find that the formation of disks is highly dependent on the compressibility of the envelope material. Disks form only in the most compressible of stellar envelope gas, found in envelopes’ outer layers in zones of partial ionization. These zones are largest in low-mass stellar envelopes, but comprise small portions of the envelope mass and radius in all cases. We conclude that disk formation and associated accretion feedback in CE is rare, and if it occurs, transitory. The implication for LIGO black hole binary assembly is that by avoiding strong accretion feedback, CE interactions should still result in the substantial orbital tightening needed to produce merging binaries.
Fate of an accretion disc around a black hole when both the viscosity and dark energy is in effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutta, Sandip; Biswas, Ritabrata [The University of Burdwan, Department of Mathematics, Burdwan, West Bengal (India)
2017-10-15
This paper deals with the viscous accretion flow of a modified Chaplygin gas towards a black hole as the central gravitating object. A modified Chaplygin gas is a particular type of dark energy model which mimics of radiation era to phantom era depending on the different values of its parameters. We compare the dark energy accretion with the flow of adiabatic gas. An accretion disc flowing around a black hole is an example of a transonic flow. To construct the model, we consider three components of the Navier-Stokes equation, the equation of continuity and the modified Chaplygin gas equation of state. As a transonic flow passes through the sonic point, the velocity gradient being apparently singular there, it gives rise to two flow branches: one in-falling, the accretion and the other outgoing, the wind. We show that the wind curve is stronger and the wind speed reaches that of light at a finite distance from the black hole when dark energy is considered. Besides, if we increase the viscosity, the accretion disc is shortened in radius. These two processes acting together make the system deviate much from the adiabatic accretion case. It shows a weakening process for the accretion procedure by the work of the viscous system influencing both the angular momentum transport and the repulsive force of the modified Chaplygin gas. (orig.)
Kazanas, Demosthenes; Fukumura, K.
2009-01-01
We present detailed computations of photon orbits emitted by flares at the ISCO of accretion disks around rotating black holes. We show that for sufficiently large spin parameter, i.e. $a > 0.94 M$, following a flare at ISCO, a sufficient number of photons arrive at an observer after multiple orbits around the black hole, to produce an "photon echo" of constant lag, i.e. independent of the relative phase between the black hole and the observer, of $\\Delta T \\simeq 14 M$. This constant time delay, then, leads to the presence of a QPO in the source power spectrum at a frequency $\
IMPETUS: Consistent SPH calculations of 3D spherical Bondi accretion onto a black hole
Ramírez-Velasquez, J. M.; Sigalotti, L. Di G.; Gabbasov, R.; Cruz, F.; Klapp, J.
2018-04-01
We present three-dimensional calculations of spherically symmetric Bondi accretion onto a stationary supermassive black hole (SMBH) of mass 108M⊙ within a radial range of 0.02 - 10 pc, using a modified version of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) GADGET-2 code, which ensures approximate first-order consistency (i.e., second-order accuracy) for the particle approximation. First-order consistency is restored by allowing the number of neighbours, nneigh, and the smoothing length, h, to vary with the total number of particles, N, such that the asymptotic limits nneigh → ∞ and h → 0 hold as N → ∞. The ability of the method to reproduce the isothermal (γ = 1) and adiabatic (γ = 5/3) Bondi accretion is investigated with increased spatial resolution. In particular, for the isothermal models the numerical radial profiles closely match the Bondi solution, except near the accretor, where the density and radial velocity are slightly underestimated. However, as nneigh is increased and h is decreased, the calculations approach first-order consistency and the deviations from the Bondi solution decrease. The density and radial velocity profiles for the adiabatic models are qualitatively similar to those for the isothermal Bondi accretion. Steady-state Bondi accretion is reproduced by the highly resolved consistent models with a percent relative error of ≲ 1% for γ = 1 and ˜9% for γ = 5/3, with the adiabatic accretion taking longer than the isothermal case to reach steady flow. The performance of the method is assessed by comparing the results with those obtained using the standard GADGET-2 and the GIZMO codes.
X-ray Detectability of Accreting Isolated Black Holes in Our Galaxy
Tsuna, Daichi; Kawanaka, Norita; Totani, Tomonori
2018-03-01
Detectability of isolated black holes (IBHs) without a companion star but emitting X-rays by accretion from dense interstellar medium (ISM) or molecular cloud gas is investigated. We calculate orbits of IBHs in the Galaxy to derive a realistic spatial distribution of IBHs, for various mean values of kick velocity at their birth υavg. X-ray luminosities of these IBHs are then calculated considering various phases of ISM and molecular clouds, for a wide range of the accretion efficiency λ (a ratio of the actual accretion rate to the Bondi rate) that is rather uncertain. It is found that detectable IBHs mostly reside near the Galactic Centre (GC), and hence taking the Galactic structure into account is essential. In the hard X-ray band, where identification of IBHs from other contaminating X-ray sources may be easier, the expected number of IBHs detectable by the past survey by NuSTAR towards GC is at most order unity. However, 30-100 IBHs may be detected by the future survey by FORCE with an optimistic parameter set of υavg = 50 km s-1 and λ = 0.1, implying that it may be possible to detect IBHs or constrain the model parameters.
EPISODIC RANDOM ACCRETION AND THE COSMOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE SPINS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jianmin; Hu Chen; Li Yanrong; Chen Yanmei; Yan Changshuo; Zhang Shu; King, Andrew R.; Marconi, Alessandro; Ho, Luis C.; Staubert, Ruediger
2009-01-01
The growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) located at the centers of their host galaxies comes mainly from the accretion of gas, but how to fuel them remains an outstanding unsolved problem in quasar evolution. This issue can be elucidated by quantifying the radiative efficiency parameter (η) as a function of redshift, which also provides constraints on the average spin of the BHs and its possible evolution with time. We derive a formalism to link η with the luminosity density, BH mass density, and duty cycle of quasars, quantities we can estimate from existing quasars, and galaxy survey data. We find that η has a strong cosmological evolution: at z ∼ 2, η ∼ 0.3, and by z ∼ 0 it has decreased by an order of magnitude, to η ∼ 0.03. We interpret this trend as evolution in BH spin, and we appeal to episodic, random accretion as the mechanism for reducing the spin. The observation that the fraction of radio-loud quasars decreases with increasing redshift is inconsistent with the popular notion that BH spin is a critical factor for generating strong radio jets. In agreement with previous studies, we show that the derived history of BH accretion closely follows the cosmic history of star formation, consistent with other evidence that BHs and their host galaxies co-evolve.
The Effects of Accretion Disk Thickness on the Black Hole Reflection Spectrum
Taylor, Corbin; Reynolds, Christopher S.
2018-01-01
Despite being the gravitational engines that power galactic-scale winds and mega parsec-scale jets in active galaxies, black holes are remarkably simple objects, typically being fully described by their angular momenta (spin) and masses. The modelling of AGN X-ray reflection spectra has proven fruitful in estimating the spin of AGN, as well as giving insight into their accretion histories and into the properties of plasmas in the strong gravity regime. However, current models make simplifying assumptions about the geometry of the reflecting material in the accretion disk and the irradiating X-ray corona, approximating the disk as an optically thick, infinitely thin disk of material in the orbital plane. We present results from the new relativistic raytracing suite, Fenrir, that explore the effects that disk thickness may have on the reflection spectrum and the accompanying reverberation signatures. Approximating the accretion disk as an optically thick, geometrically thin, radiation pressure dominated disk (Shakura & Sunyaev 1973), one finds that the disk geometry is non-negligible in many cases, with significant changes in the broad Fe K line profile. Finally, we explore the systematic errors inherent in other contemporary models that approximate that disk as having negligible vertical extent.
X-rays from Quiescent Black Holes: Accretion or Jet Powered?
Cui, W.; Yuan, F.
2005-12-01
Most black hole candidates (BHCs) are transient X-ray sources -- they are extremely faint in quiescent but, once in a long while, becomes the brightest X-ray sources in the sky during an outburst. The evolution of a BHC throughout an outburst is often empirically characterized by a set of discrete states, such as the well-known low/hard and high/soft states. Though crude, the approach has been very useful in revealing qualitative differences among various stages of the evolution and thus the underlying physical processes involved. In comparison, the quiescent state is the least understood observationally, due to the lack of high-quality data. It is tempting to view it as a simple extension of the low/hard state in the direction of low mass accretion rates, given that the X-ray spectrum of BHCs in the later state is well described by the inverse-Compton scattering of soft photons by energetic electrons in hot accretion flows or some sort of hot coronae. Here, we argue that this is probably not the case, based on results from an investigation of the roles of accretion and jets in producing the observed radiation from radio to X-ray wavelengths. This work was supported in part by NASA Grants NAG5-9998 and NNG05GF91G and the One-Hundred Talent Program of China.
Puzzling accretion onto a black hole in the ultraluminous X-ray source M 101 ULX-1.
Liu, Ji-Feng; Bregman, Joel N; Bai, Yu; Justham, Stephen; Crowther, Paul
2013-11-28
There are two proposed explanations for ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) with luminosities in excess of 10(39) erg s(-1). They could be intermediate-mass black holes (more than 100-1,000 solar masses, M sun symbol) radiating at sub-maximal (sub-Eddington) rates, as in Galactic black-hole X-ray binaries but with larger, cooler accretion disks. Alternatively, they could be stellar-mass black holes radiating at Eddington or super-Eddington rates. On its discovery, M 101 ULX-1 had a luminosity of 3 × 10(39) erg s(-1) and a supersoft thermal disk spectrum with an exceptionally low temperature--uncomplicated by photons energized by a corona of hot electrons--more consistent with the expected appearance of an accreting intermediate-mass black hole. Here we report optical spectroscopic monitoring of M 101 ULX-1. We confirm the previous suggestion that the system contains a Wolf-Rayet star, and reveal that the orbital period is 8.2 days. The black hole has a minimum mass of 5 M sun symbol, and more probably a mass of 20 M sun symbol-30 M sun symbol, but we argue that it is very unlikely to be an intermediate-mass black hole. Therefore, its exceptionally soft spectra at high Eddington ratios violate the expectations for accretion onto stellar-mass black holes. Accretion must occur from captured stellar wind, which has hitherto been thought to be so inefficient that it could not power an ultraluminous source.
The response of relativistic outflowing gas to the inner accretion disk of a black hole.
Parker, Michael L; Pinto, Ciro; Fabian, Andrew C; Lohfink, Anne; Buisson, Douglas J K; Alston, William N; Kara, Erin; Cackett, Edward M; Chiang, Chia-Ying; Dauser, Thomas; De Marco, Barbara; Gallo, Luigi C; Garcia, Javier; Harrison, Fiona A; King, Ashley L; Middleton, Matthew J; Miller, Jon M; Miniutti, Giovanni; Reynolds, Christopher S; Uttley, Phil; Vasudevan, Ranjan; Walton, Dominic J; Wilkins, Daniel R; Zoghbi, Abderahmen
2017-03-01
The brightness of an active galactic nucleus is set by the gas falling onto it from the galaxy, and the gas infall rate is regulated by the brightness of the active galactic nucleus; this feedback loop is the process by which supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies may moderate the growth of their hosts. Gas outflows (in the form of disk winds) release huge quantities of energy into the interstellar medium, potentially clearing the surrounding gas. The most extreme (in terms of speed and energy) of these-the ultrafast outflows-are the subset of X-ray-detected outflows with velocities higher than 10,000 kilometres per second, believed to originate in relativistic (that is, near the speed of light) disk winds a few hundred gravitational radii from the black hole. The absorption features produced by these outflows are variable, but no clear link has been found between the behaviour of the X-ray continuum and the velocity or optical depth of the outflows, owing to the long timescales of quasar variability. Here we report the observation of multiple absorption lines from an extreme ultrafast gas flow in the X-ray spectrum of the active galactic nucleus IRAS 13224-3809, at 0.236 ± 0.006 times the speed of light (71,000 kilometres per second), where the absorption is strongly anti-correlated with the emission of X-rays from the inner regions of the accretion disk. If the gas flow is identified as a genuine outflow then it is in the fastest five per cent of such winds, and its variability is hundreds of times faster than in other variable winds, allowing us to observe in hours what would take months in a quasar. We find X-ray spectral signatures of the wind simultaneously in both low- and high-energy detectors, suggesting a single ionized outflow, linking the low- and high-energy absorption lines. That this disk wind is responding to the emission from the inner accretion disk demonstrates a connection between accretion processes occurring on very different
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulier, Andrea; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Lackner, Claire N.; Cen, Renyue; Natarajan, Priyamvada
2015-01-01
Accretion is thought to primarily contribute to the mass accumulation history of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) throughout cosmic time. While this may be true at high redshifts, at lower redshifts and for the most massive black holes (BHs) mergers themselves might add significantly to the mass budget. We explore this in two disparate environments—a massive cluster and a void region. We evolve SMBHs from 4 > z > 0 using merger trees derived from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of these two regions, scaled to the observed value of the stellar mass fraction to account for overcooling. Mass gains from gas accretion proportional to bulge growth and BH-BH mergers are tracked, as are BHs that remain ''orbiting'' due to insufficient dynamical friction in a merger remnant, as well as those that are ejected due to gravitational recoil. We find that gas accretion remains the dominant source of mass accumulation in almost all SMBHs; mergers contribute 2.5% ± 0.1% for all SMBHs in the cluster and 1.0% ± 0.1% in the void since z = 4. However, mergers are significant for massive SMBHs. The fraction of mass accumulated from mergers for central BHs generally increases for larger values of the host bulge mass: in the void, the fraction is 2% at M *, bul = 10 10 M ☉ , increasing to 4% at M *, bul ≳ 10 11 M ☉ , and in the cluster it is 4% at M *, bul = 10 10 M ☉ and 23% at 10 12 M ☉ . We also find that the total mass in orbiting SMBHs is negligible in the void, but significant in the cluster, in which a potentially detectable 40% of SMBHs and ≈8% of the total SMBH mass (where the total includes central, orbiting, and ejected SMBHs) is found orbiting at z = 0. The existence of orbiting and ejected SMBHs requires modification of the Soltan argument. We estimate this correction to the integrated accreted mass density of SMBHs to be in the range 6%-21%, with a mean value of 11% ± 3%. Quantifying the growth due to mergers at these late times
The Accretion Disk Wind in the Black Hole GRS 1915 + 105
Miller, J.M.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Gallo, E.; Kaastra, J.; Kallman, T.; King, A. L.; Proga, D.; Reynolds, C. S.; Zoghbi, A.
2016-01-01
We report on a 120 kiloseconds Chandra/HETG spectrum of the black hole GRS 1915+105. The observation was made during an extended and bright soft state in 2015 June. An extremely rich disk wind absorption spectrum is detected, similar to that observed at lower sensitivity in 2007. The very high resolution of the third-order spectrum reveals four components to the disk wind in the Fe K band alone; the fastest has a blueshift of v = 0.03 c (velocity equals 0.03 the speed of light). Broadened reemission from the wind is also detected in the first-order spectrum, giving rise to clear accretion disk P Cygni profiles. Dynamical modeling of the re-emission spectrum gives wind launching radii of r approximately equal to 10 (sup 2-4) GM (Gravitational constant times Mass) divided by c (sup 2) (the speed of light squared). Wind density values of n approximately equal to 10 (sup 13-16) per cubic centimeter are then required by the ionization parameter formalism. The small launching radii, high density values, and inferred high mass outflow rates signal a role for magnetic driving. With simple, reasonable assumptions, the wind properties constrain the magnitude of the emergent magnetic field to be B approximately equal to 10 (sup 3-4) G (Gravitational constant) if the wind is driven via magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure from within the disk and B approximately equal to 10 (sup 4-5) G (Gravitational constant) if the wind is driven by magnetocentrifugal acceleration. The MHD estimates are below upper limits predicted by the canonical alpha-disk model. We discuss these results in terms of fundamental disk physics and black hole accretion modes.
Multi-time-scale X-ray reverberation mapping of accreting black holes
Mastroserio, Guglielmo; Ingram, Adam; van der Klis, Michiel
2018-04-01
Accreting black holes show characteristic reflection features in their X-ray spectrum, including an iron Kα line, resulting from hard X-ray continuum photons illuminating the accretion disc. The reverberation lag resulting from the path-length difference between direct and reflected emission provides a powerful tool to probe the innermost regions around both stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. Here, we present for the first time a reverberation mapping formalism that enables modelling of energy-dependent time lags and variability amplitude for a wide range of variability time-scales, taking the complete information of the cross-spectrum into account. We use a pivoting power-law model to account for the spectral variability of the continuum that dominates over the reverberation lags for longer time-scale variability. We use an analytic approximation to self-consistently account for the non-linear effects caused by this continuum spectral variability, which have been ignored by all previous reverberation studies. We find that ignoring these non-linear effects can bias measurements of the reverberation lags, particularly at low frequencies. Since our model is analytic, we are able to fit simultaneously for a wide range of Fourier frequencies without prohibitive computational expense. We also introduce a formalism of fitting to real and imaginary parts of our cross-spectrum statistic, which naturally avoids some mistakes/inaccuracies previously common in the literature. We perform proof-of-principle fits to Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data of Cygnus X-1.
ACCRETION OF SUPERSONIC WINDS ONTO BLACK HOLES IN 3D: STABILITY OF THE SHOCK CONE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gracia-Linares, M.; Guzmán, F. S. [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo. Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)
2015-10-10
Using numerical simulations we present the accretion of supersonic winds onto a rotating black hole in three dimensions. We study five representative directions of the wind with respect to the axis of rotation of the black hole and focus on the evolution and stability of the high-density shock cone that is formed during the process. We explore both the regime in which the shock cone is expected to be stable in order to confirm previous results obtained with two-dimensional simulations, and the regime in which the shock cone is expected to show a flip–flop (FF) type of instability. The methods used to attempt a triggering of the instability were (i) the accumulation of numerical errors and (ii) the explicit application of a perturbation on the velocity field after the shock cone was formed. The result is negative, that is, we did not find the FF instability within the parameter space we explored, including cases that are expected to be unstable.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zhang, W.; Yu, W.; Karas, Vladimír; Dovčiak, Michal
2015-01-01
Roč. 807, č. 89 (2015), s. 1-12 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14049; GA ČR(CZ) GC13-00070J Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : black hole s * accretion discs Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.909, year: 2015
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Karas, Vladimír; Šubr, L.
2007-01-01
Roč. 470, č. 1 (2007), s. 11-19 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0052; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : black hole physics * accretion Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2007
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feast, M.W.
1981-01-01
This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied
A New Class of Transients Marking Intensified Accretion onto Supermassive Black Holes
Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Arcavi, Iair; Ricci, Claudio; Horesh, Assaf; Tacchella, Sandro; Stern, Daniel
2018-01-01
Our understanding of the demographics and evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) beyond the local universe is limited to actively growing SMBHs, where relatively stable accretion of gas persists over several hundreds of millions of years. A growing number of transient and/or variable phenomena in galaxy nuclei have recently begun to shed new light on SMBH demographics and the physics of gas accretion onto these objects, tracing events where this accretion has drastically intensified. We present such an event, identified in the nucleus of an early-type galaxy at z=0.064, in which a previously-active SMBH experienced a dramatic increase in ultraviolet-optical emission. The emerging optical spectrum exhibits a mix of emission features, some of which are typical of luminous, unobscured active galactic nuclei. Other observed emission features of high-ionization species are likely driven by Bowen fluorescence -- seen for the first time in high-velocity lines, with ~2000 km/s, in a galaxy nucleus -- originating in dense, metal-rich gas that is exposed to the recently intensified UV radiation. Our multiwavelength space- and ground-based monitoring campaign shows that the spectral features and elevated UV flux show little to no evolution, over a period of at least six months. This disfavours the tidal disruption of a star as the origin of the UV “flash”, but suggests a rather longer-term re-ignition event. This event joins two other recently reported transients with similar emission properties, forming a new class of transients which has important implications for the identification and understanding of tidal disruption events, as well as other drivers of SMBH re-ignition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McKinney, Jonathan C.; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Blandford, Roger D.
2012-04-26
Black hole (BH) accretion flows and jets are qualitatively affected by the presence of ordered magnetic fields. We study fully three-dimensional global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of radially extended and thick (height H to cylindrical radius R ratio of |H/R| {approx} 0.2-1) accretion flows around BHs with various dimensionless spins (a/M, with BH mass M) and with initially toroidally-dominated ({phi}-directed) and poloidally-dominated (R-z directed) magnetic fields. Firstly, for toroidal field models and BHs with high enough |a/M|, coherent large-scale (i.e. >> H) dipolar poloidal magnetic flux patches emerge, thread the BH, and generate transient relativistic jets. Secondly, for poloidal field models, poloidal magnetic flux readily accretes through the disk from large radii and builds-up to a natural saturation point near the BH. While models with |H/R| {approx} 1 and |a/M| {le} 0.5 do not launch jets due to quenching by mass infall, for sufficiently high |a/M| or low |H/R| the polar magnetic field compresses the inflow into a geometrically thin highly non-axisymmetric 'magnetically choked accretion flow' (MCAF) within which the standard linear magneto-rotational instability is suppressed. The condition of a highly-magnetized state over most of the horizon is optimal for the Blandford-Znajek mechanism that generates persistent relativistic jets with and 100% efficiency for |a/M| {approx}> 0.9. A magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetospheric interface forms between the compressed inflow and bulging jet magnetosphere, which drives a new jet-disk oscillation (JDO) type of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) mechanism. The high-frequency QPO has spherical harmonic |m| = 1 mode period of {tau} {approx} 70GM/c{sup 3} for a/M {approx} 0.9 with coherence quality factors Q {approx}> 10. Overall, our models are qualitatively distinct from most prior MHD simulations (typically, |H/R| << 1 and poloidal flux is
Formation Rates of Black Hole Accretion Disk Gamma-Ray Bursts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fryer, Chris L.; Woosley, S. E.; Hartmann, Dieter H.
1999-01-01
The cosmological origin of at least an appreciable fraction of classical gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is now supported by redshift measurements for a half-dozen faint host galaxies. Still, the nature of the central engine (or engines) that provide the burst energy remains unclear. While many models have been proposed, those currently favored are all based upon the formation of and/or rapid accretion into stellar-mass black holes. Here we discuss a variety of such scenarios and estimate the probability of each. Population synthesis calculations are carried out using a Monte Carlo approach in which the many uncertain parameters intrinsic to such calculations are varied. We estimate the event rate for each class of model as well as the propagation distances for those having significant delay between formation and burst production, i.e., double neutron star (DNS) mergers and black hole-neutron star (BH/NS) mergers. One conclusion is a 1-2 order of magnitude decrease in the rate of DNS and BH/NS mergers compared to that previously calculated using invalid assumptions about common envelope evolution. Other major uncertainties in the event rates and propagation distances include the history of star formation in the universe, the masses of the galaxies in which merging compact objects are born, and the radii of the hydrogen-stripped cores of massive stars. For reasonable assumptions regarding each, we calculate a daily event rate in the universe for (1) merging neutron stars: ∼100 day-1; (2) neutron star-black hole mergers: ∼450 day-1; (3) collapsars: ∼104 day-1; (4) helium star black hole mergers: ∼1000 day-1; and (5) white dwarf-black hole mergers: ∼20 day-1. The range of uncertainty in these numbers, however, is very large, typically 2-3 orders of magnitude. These rates must additionally be multiplied by any relevant beaming factor (f Ω <1) and sampling fraction (if the entire universal set of models is not being observed). Depending upon the mass of the host
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broderick, Avery E.; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Loeb, Abraham
2011-01-01
Millimeter very long baseline interferometry (mm-VLBI) provides the novel capacity to probe the emission region of a handful of supermassive black holes on sub-horizon scales. For Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, this provides access to the region in the immediate vicinity of the horizon. Broderick et al. have already shown that by leveraging spectral and polarization information as well as accretion theory, it is possible to extract accretion-model parameters (including black hole spin) from mm-VLBI experiments containing only a handful of telescopes. Here we repeat this analysis with the most recent mm-VLBI data, considering a class of aligned, radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. We find that the combined data set rules out symmetric models for Sgr A*'s flux distribution at the 3.9σ level, strongly favoring length-to-width ratios of roughly 2.4:1. More importantly, we find that physically motivated accretion flow models provide a significantly better fit to the mm-VLBI observations than phenomenological models, at the 2.9σ level. This implies that not only is mm-VLBI presently capable of distinguishing between potential physical models for Sgr A*'s emission, but further that it is sensitive to the strong gravitational lensing associated with the propagation of photons near the black hole. Based upon this analysis we find that the most probable magnitude, viewing angle, and position angle for the black hole spin are a = 0.0 +0.64+0.86 , θ=68 o+5 o +9 o -20 o -28 o , and ξ=-52 o+17 o +33 o -15 o -24 o east of north, where the errors quoted are the 1σ and 2σ uncertainties.
Beckmann, R. S.; Slyz, A.; Devriendt, J.
2018-04-01
Whilst in galaxy-size simulations, supermassive black holes (SMBH) are entirely handled by sub-grid algorithms, computational power now allows the accretion radius of such objects to be resolved in smaller scale simulations. In this paper, we investigate the impact of resolution on two commonly used SMBH sub-grid algorithms; the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) formula for accretion onto a point mass, and the related estimate of the drag force exerted onto a point mass by a gaseous medium. We find that when the accretion region around the black hole scales with resolution, and the BHL formula is evaluated using local mass-averaged quantities, the accretion algorithm smoothly transitions from the analytic BHL formula (at low resolution) to a supply limited accretion (SLA) scheme (at high resolution). However, when a similar procedure is employed to estimate the drag force it can lead to significant errors in its magnitude, and/or apply this force in the wrong direction in highly resolved simulations. At high Mach numbers and for small accretors, we also find evidence of the advective-acoustic instability operating in the adiabatic case, and of an instability developing around the wake's stagnation point in the quasi-isothermal case. Moreover, at very high resolution, and Mach numbers above M_∞ ≥ 3, the flow behind the accretion bow shock becomes entirely dominated by these instabilities. As a result, accretion rates onto the black hole drop by about an order of magnitude in the adiabatic case, compared to the analytic BHL formula.
Nuclear star formation activity and black hole accretion in nearby Seyfert galaxies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Esquej, P. [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Villafranca del Castillo, E-28850, Madrid (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); González-Martín, O.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea, E-38205, La Laguna (Spain); Hönig, S. F. [UCSB Department of Physics, Broida Hall 2015H, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Roche, P. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Mason, R. E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku, HI 96720 (United States); Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levenson, N. A. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Aretxaga, I. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Packham, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)
2014-01-01
Recent theoretical and observational works indicate the presence of a correlation between the star-formation rate (SFR) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity (and, therefore, the black hole accretion rate, M-dot {sub BH}) of Seyfert galaxies. This suggests a physical connection between the gas-forming stars on kpc scales and the gas on sub-pc scales that is feeding the black hole. We compiled the largest sample of Seyfert galaxies to date with high angular resolution (∼0.''4-0.''8) mid-infrared (8-13 μm) spectroscopy. The sample includes 29 Seyfert galaxies drawn from the AGN Revised Shapley-Ames catalog. At a median distance of 33 Mpc, our data allow us to probe nuclear regions on scales of ∼65 pc (median value). We found no general evidence of suppression of the 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the vicinity of these AGN, and we used this feature as a proxy for the SFR. We detected the 11.3 μm PAH feature in the nuclear spectra of 45% of our sample. The derived nuclear SFRs are, on average, five times lower than those measured in circumnuclear regions of 600 pc in size (median value). However, the projected nuclear SFR densities (median value of 22 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) are a factor of 20 higher than those measured on circumnuclear scales. This indicates that the SF activity per unit area in the central ∼65 pc region of Seyfert galaxies is much higher than at larger distances from their nuclei. We studied the connection between the nuclear SFR and M-dot {sub BH} and showed that numerical simulations reproduce our observed relation fairly well.
Grindlay, J.; Barret, D.; Belloni, T.; Corbel, S.; Kaaret, P.; Allen, B.; Bazzano, A.; Berger, E.; Bignami, G.; Caraveo, P.; De Luca, A.; Fabbiano, P.; Finger, M.; Feroci, M.; Hong, J.; Jernigan, G.; van der Klis, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kutyrev, A.; Loeb, A.; Paizis, A.; Pareschi, G.; Skinner, G.; Di Stefano, R.; Ubertini, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.
2010-01-01
The population of stellar black holes (SBHs) in the Galaxy and galaxies generally is poorly known in both number and distribution. SBHs are the fossil record of the massive stars in galaxy evolution and may have produced some (if not all) of the intermediate mass (≳100M⊙) black holes (IMBHs) and, in
DO MAGNETIC FIELDS DESTROY BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISK g-MODES?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortega-Rodríguez, Manuel; Solís-Sánchez, Hugo; Arguedas-Leiva, J. Agustín [Escuela de Física and Centro de Investigaciones Geofísicas, Universidad de Costa Rica, 11501-2060 San José (Costa Rica); Wagoner, Robert V.; Levine, Adam, E-mail: manuel.ortega@ucr.ac.cr [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)
2015-08-10
Diskoseismology, the theoretical study of normal-mode oscillations in geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disks, is a strong candidate for explaining some quasi-periodic oscillations in the power spectra of many black hole X-ray binary systems. The existence of g-modes, presumably the most robust and visible of the modes, depends on general relativistic gravitational trapping in the hottest part of the disk. As the existence of the required cavity in the presence of magnetic fields has been put into doubt by theoretical calculations, we will explore in greater generality what effect the inclusion of magnetic fields has on the existence of g-modes. We use an analytical perturbative approach on the equations of MHD to assess the impact of such effects. Our main conclusion is that there appears to be no compelling reason to discard g-modes. In particular, the inclusion of a non-zero radial component of the magnetic field enables a broader scenario for cavity non-destruction, especially taking into account recent simulations’ saturation values for the magnetic field.
Propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations in black hole X-ray binaries: quantitative tests
Rapisarda, S.; Ingram, A.; van der Klis, M.
2017-10-01
Over the past 20 years, a consistent phenomenology has been established to describe the variability properties of Black Hole X-ray Binaries (BHBs). However, the physics behind the observational data is still poorly understood. The recently proposed model PROPFLUC assumes a truncated disc/hot inner flow geometry, with mass accretion rate fluctuations propagating through a precessing inner flow. These two processes give rise respectively to broad band variability and QPO. Because of propagation, the emission from different regions of the disc/hot flow geometry is correlated. In our study we applied the model PROPFLUC on different BHBs (including XTE J1550-564 and Cygnus X-1) in different spectral states, fitting jointly the power spectra in two energy bands and the cross-spectrum between these two bands. This represents the first study to utilize quantitive fitting of a physical model simultaneously to observed power and cross-spectra. For the case of XTE J1550-564, which displays a strong QPO, we found quantitative and qualitative discrepancies between model predictions and data, whereas we find a good fit for the Cygnus X-1 data, which does not display a QPO. We conclude that the discrepancies are generic to the propagating fluctuations paradigm, and may be related to the mechanism originating the QPO.
A CORRELATION BETWEEN STAR FORMATION RATE AND AVERAGE BLACK HOLE ACCRETION IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Chien-Ting J.; Hickox, Ryan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Goulding, Andrew D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Murray, Stephen S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Alexander, David M.; Mullaney, James R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Assef, Roberto J.; Gorjian, Varoujan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria (Australia); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Le Floc' h, Emeric, E-mail: ctchen@dartmouth.edu [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2013-08-10
We present a measurement of the average supermassive black hole accretion rate (BHAR) as a function of the star formation rate (SFR) for galaxies in the redshift range 0.25 < z < 0.8. We study a sample of 1767 far-IR-selected star-forming galaxies in the 9 deg{sup 2} Booetes multi-wavelength survey field. The SFR is estimated using 250 {mu}m observations from the Herschel Space Observatory, for which the contribution from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is minimal. In this sample, 121 AGNs are directly identified using X-ray or mid-IR selection criteria. We combined these detected AGNs and an X-ray stacking analysis for undetected sources to study the average BHAR for all of the star-forming galaxies in our sample. We find an almost linear relation between the average BHAR (in M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) and the SFR (in M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) for galaxies across a wide SFR range 0.85 < log SFR < 2.56: log BHAR = (- 3.72 {+-} 0.52) + (1.05 {+-} 0.33)log SFR. This global correlation between SFR and average BHAR is consistent with a simple picture in which SFR and AGN activity are tightly linked over galaxy evolution timescales.
High Performance Simulations of Accretion Disk Dynamics and Jet Formations Around Kerr Black Holes
Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Watson, Michael
2007-01-01
We investigate jet formation in black-hole systems using 3-D General Relativistic Particle-In-Cell (GRPIC) and 3-D GRMHD simulations. GRPIC simulations, which allow charge separations in a collisionless plasma, do not need to invoke the frozen condition as in GRMHD simulations. 3-D GRPIC simulations show that jets are launched from Kerr black holes as in 3-D GRMHD simulations, but jet formation in the two cases may not be identical. Comparative study of black hole systems with GRPIC and GRMHD simulations with the inclusion of radiate transfer will further clarify the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disk-jet systems.
Merger of Multiple Accreting Black Holes Concordant with Gravitational-wave Events
Tagawa, Hiromichi; Umemura, Masayuki
2018-03-01
Recently, the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (aLIGO) has detected black hole (BH) merger events, most of which are sourced by BHs more massive than 30 M ⊙. Especially, the observation of GW170104 suggests dynamically assembled binaries favoring a distribution of misaligned spins. It has been argued that mergers of unassociated BHs can be engendered through a chance meeting in a multiple BH system under gas-rich environments. In this paper, we consider the merger of unassociated BHs, concordant with the massive BH merger events. To that end, we simulate a multiple BH system with a post-Newtonian N-body code incorporating gas accretion and general relativistic effects. As a result, we find that gas dynamical friction effectively promotes a three-body interaction of BHs in dense gas of n gas ≳ 106 cm‑3, so that BH mergers can take place within 30 Myr. This scenario predicts an isotropic distribution of spin tilts. In the concordant models with GW150914, the masses of seed BHs are required to be ≳25 M ⊙. The potential sites of such chance meeting BH mergers are active galactic nucleus (AGN) disks and dense interstellar clouds. Assuming the LIGO O1, we roughly estimate the event rates for PopI BHs and PopIII BHs in AGN disks to be ≃1–2 yr‑1 and ≃1 yr‑1, respectively. Multiple episodes of AGNs may enhance the rates by roughly an order of magnitude. For massive PopI BHs in dense interstellar clouds the rate is ≃0.02 yr‑1. Hence, high-density AGN disks are a more plausible site for mergers of chance meeting BHs.
Early Growth and Efficient Accretion of Massive Black Holes at High Redshift
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Marianne
2003-01-01
Black-hole masses of the highest redshift quasars (4 ~ 4 quasars are very massive (>~ 10^9 solar masses). It is argued that the mass estimates of the high-z quasars are not subject to larger uncertainties than those for nearby quasars. Specifically, the large masses are not overestimates and the ......Black-hole masses of the highest redshift quasars (4 ~ 4 quasars are very massive (>~ 10^9 solar masses). It is argued that the mass estimates of the high-z quasars are not subject to larger uncertainties than those for nearby quasars. Specifically, the large masses are not overestimates...... and the lack of similarly large black-hole masses in the nearby Universe does not rule out their existence at high-z. However, AGN host galaxies do not typically appear fully formed or evolved at these early epochs. This supports scenarios in which black holes build up mass very fast in a radiatively...... inefficient (or obscured) phase relative to the stars in their galaxies. Additionally, upper envelopes of black-hole mass of approximately 10^{10} solar masses and bolometric luminosity of ~ 10^{48} erg/s are observed at all redshifts....
THE SPIN OF THE BLACK HOLE GS 1124–683: OBSERVATION OF A RETROGRADE ACCRETION DISK?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morningstar, Warren R.; Miller, Jon M.; Reis, Rubens C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Ebisawa, Ken, E-mail: wmorning@umich.edu, E-mail: jonmm@umich.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)
2014-04-01
We re-examine archival Ginga data for the black hole binary system GS 1124–683, obtained when the system was undergoing its 1991 outburst. Our analysis estimates the dimensionless spin parameter a {sub *} = cJ/GM{sup 2} by fitting the X-ray continuum spectra obtained while the system was in the ''thermal dominant'' state. For likely values of mass and distance, we find the spin to be a{sub ∗}=−0.25{sub −0.64}{sup +0.05} (90% confidence), implying that the disk is retrograde (i.e., rotating antiparallel to the spin axis of the black hole). We note that this measurement would be better constrained if the distance to the binary and the mass of the black hole were more accurately determined. This result is unaffected by the model used to fit the hard component of the spectrum. In order to be able to recover a prograde spin, the mass of the black hole would need to be at least 15.25 M {sub ☉}, or the distance would need to be less than 4.5 kpc, both of which disagree with previous determinations of the black hole mass and distance. If we allow f {sub col} to be free, we obtain no useful spin constraint. We discuss our results in the context of recent spin measurements and implications for jet production.
Accretion of a symmetry-breaking scalar field by a Schwarzschild black hole.
Traykova, Dina; Braden, Jonathan; Peiris, Hiranya V
2018-03-06
We simulate the behaviour of a Higgs-like field in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole using a highly accurate numerical framework. We consider both the limit of the zero-temperature Higgs potential and a toy model for the time-dependent evolution of the potential when immersed in a slowly cooling radiation bath. Through these numerical investigations, we aim to improve our understanding of the non-equilibrium dynamics of a symmetry-breaking field (such as the Higgs) in the vicinity of a compact object such as a black hole. Understanding this dynamics may suggest new approaches for studying properties of scalar fields using black holes as a laboratory.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Higgs Cosmology'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Accretion of a symmetry-breaking scalar field by a Schwarzschild black hole
Traykova, Dina; Braden, Jonathan; Peiris, Hiranya V.
2018-01-01
We simulate the behaviour of a Higgs-like field in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole using a highly accurate numerical framework. We consider both the limit of the zero-temperature Higgs potential and a toy model for the time-dependent evolution of the potential when immersed in a slowly cooling radiation bath. Through these numerical investigations, we aim to improve our understanding of the non-equilibrium dynamics of a symmetry-breaking field (such as the Higgs) in the vicinity of a compact object such as a black hole. Understanding this dynamics may suggest new approaches for studying properties of scalar fields using black holes as a laboratory. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Higgs Cosmology'.
Growth of Primordial Black Holes
Harada, Tomohiro
Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.
Supermassive black hole feeding and star formation in massive accretion discs
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šubr, Ladislav
2008-01-01
Roč. 79, č. 4 (2008), s. 1071-1074 ISSN 0037-8720. [Central Kiloparsec - Active Galactic Nuclei and Their Hosts. Ierapetra, Crete, 04.06.2008-06.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : black holes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
Near-infrared polarimetry as a tool for testing properties of accreting supermassive black holes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zamaninasab, M.; Eckart, A.; Dovčiak, Michal; Karas, Vladimír; Schoedel, R.; Witzel, G.; Sabha, N.; García-Marín, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Muzic, K.; Straubmeier, C.; Valencia-S, M.; Zensus, J. A.
2011-01-01
Roč. 413, č. 1 (2011), s. 322-332 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/0052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : polarimetry * black holes * relativity * galactic centre Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2011
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Horák, Jiří; Karas, Vladimír
2006-01-01
Roč. 58, č. 1 (2006), s. 203-209 ISSN 0004-6264 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA ČR(CZ) GP205/06/P415; GA AV ČR IAA300030510; GA ČR GD205/03/H144 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : accretion disks * black holes * general relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.106, year: 2006
Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica
2016-01-01
Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.
Direct probe of the inner accretion flow around the supermassive black hole in NGC 2617
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Giustini, M.; Costantini, E.; De Marco, B.; Svoboda, Jiří; Motta, S. E.; Proga, D.; Saxton, R.; Ferrigno, C.; Longinotti, A. L.; Miniutti, G.; Grupe, D.; Mathur, S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Stanek, K.
2017-01-01
Roč. 597, January (2017), A66/1-A66/13 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20970P; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14049 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : black hole physics * observational methods * active galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy , Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016
T.Dauser; Garcia, J.; Wilms, J.; Boeck, M.; Brenneman, L. W.; Falanga, M.; Fukumura, Keigo; Reynolds, C. S.
2013-01-01
X-ray irradiation of the accretion disc leads to strong reflection features, which are then broadened and distorted by relativistic effects. We present a detailed, general relativistic approach to model this irradiation for different geometries of the primary X-ray source. These geometries include the standard point source on the rotational axis as well as more jet-like sources, which are radially elongated and accelerating. Incorporating this code in the RELLINE model for relativistic line emission, the line shape for any configuration can be predicted. We study how different irradiation geometries affect the determination of the spin of the black hole. Broad emission lines are produced only for compact irradiating sources situated close to the black hole. This is the only case where the black hole spin can be unambiguously determined. In all other cases the line shape is narrower, which could either be explained by a low spin or an elongated source. We conclude that for those cases and independent of the quality of the data, no unique solution for the spin exists and therefore only a lower limit of the spin value can be given
Jet Physics of Accreting Super-Massive Black Holes in the Era of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Filippo D'Ammando
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with its main instrument on-board, the Large Area Telescope (LAT, opened a new era in the study of high-energy emission from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN. When combined with contemporaneous ground- and space-based observations, Fermi-LAT achieves its full capability to characterize the jet structure and the emission mechanisms at work in radio-loud AGN with different black hole mass and accretion rate, from flat spectrum radio quasars to narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1 galaxies. Here, I discuss important findings regarding the blazar population included in the third LAT catalog of AGN and the γ-ray emitting NLSy1. Moreover, the detection of blazars at redshift beyond three in γ rays allows us to constrain the growth and evolution of heavy black holes over cosmic time, suggesting that the radio-loud phase may be important for a fast black hole growth in the early Universe. Finally, results on extragalactic objects from the third catalog of hard LAT sources are presented.
Jet Physics of Accreting Super-Massive Black Holes in the Era of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Ammando, Filippo, E-mail: dammando@ira.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Istituto di Radioastronomia (INAF), Bologna (Italy)
2017-11-28
The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with its main instrument on-board, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), opened a new era in the study of high-energy emission from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). When combined with contemporaneous ground- and space-based observations, Fermi-LAT achieves its full capability to characterize the jet structure and the emission mechanisms at work in radio-loud AGN with different black hole mass and accretion rate, from flat spectrum radio quasars to narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies. Here, I discuss important findings regarding the blazar population included in the third LAT catalog of AGN and the γ-ray emitting NLSy1. Moreover, the detection of blazars at redshift beyond three in γ rays allows us to constrain the growth and evolution of heavy black holes over cosmic time, suggesting that the radio-loud phase may be important for a fast black hole growth in the early Universe. Finally, results on extragalactic objects from the third catalog of hard LAT sources are presented.
The Possible Submillimeter Bump and Accretion-jet in the Central Supermassive Black Hole of NGC 4993
Wu, Qingwen; Feng, Jianchao; Fan, Xuliang
2018-03-01
NGC 4993, as a host galaxy of the electromagnetic counterpart of the first gravitational-wave detection of a binary neutron-star merger, was observed by many powerful telescopes from radio to γ-ray wavebands. The weak nuclear activities of NGC 4993 suggest that it is a low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). We build the multiwaveband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of NGC 4993 from the literature. We find that the radio spectrum at ∼100–300 GHz is much steeper than that of the low-frequency waveband (e.g., 6–100 GHz), where this break was also found in the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in our galaxy center (Sgr A*), and in some other nearby AGNs. The radio emission above and below this break may have different physical origins, which provide an opportunity to probe the accretion and jet properties. We model the multiwaveband SEDs of NGC 4993 with an advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) jet model. We find that the high-frequency steep radio emission at the millimeter waveband is consistent with the prediction of the ADAF, while the low-frequency flat radio spectrum is better fitted by the jet. Furthermore, the X-ray emission can also be simultaneously explained by the ADAF model. From the model fits, we estimate important parameters of the central engine (e.g., the accretion rate near the horizon of the black hole and the mass-loss rate in the jet) for NGC 4993. This result strengthens the theory that the millimeter, submillimeter, and deep X-ray observations are crucial to understanding the weak or quiescent activities in SMBH systems. Further simultaneous millimeter and X-ray monitoring of this kind of LLAGN will help us to better understand the physical origin of multiwaveband emission.
Merloni, Andrea; Sunyaev, Rashid A
2005-01-01
Supermassive black holes are now believed to play an important role in the evolution of the Universe. Every respectable galaxy hosts in its center a black hole that appears to regulate the growth of the galaxy itself. In this book, leading experts in the field review the most recent theoretical and observational results on the following topics: * formation and growth of the first black holes in the Universe and their role in the formation and evolution of galaxies * the physics of black-hole accretion and the production of relativistic jets * binary black-hole mergers and gravitational radiation. Theoretical work is supplemented by the most recent exciting results from space and ground based observatories. This volume is useful research and reference tool for the entire astrophysical community.
Du, Pu; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Kai; Huang, Ying-Ke; Zhang, Yue; Lu, Kai-Xing; Hu, Chen; Li, Yan-Rong; Bai, Jin-Ming; Bian, Wei-Hao; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Ho, Luis C.; Wang, Jian-Min; SEAMBH collaboration
2018-03-01
As one paper in a series reporting on a large reverberation mapping campaign of super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we present the results of 10 SEAMBHs monitored spectroscopically during 2015–2017. Six of them are observed for the first time, and have generally higher 5100 Å luminosities than the SEAMBHs monitored in our campaign from 2012 to 2015; the remaining four are repeat observations to check if their previous lags change. Similar to the previous SEAMBHs, the Hβ time lags of the newly observed objects are shorter than the values predicted by the canonical R Hβ –L 5100 relation of sub-Eddington AGNs, by factors of ∼2–6, depending on the accretion rate. The four previously observed objects have lags consistent with previous measurements. We provide linear regressions for the R Hβ –L 5100 relation, solely for the SEAMBH sample and for low-accretion AGNs. We find that the relative strength of Fe II and the profile of the Hβ emission line can be used as proxies of accretion rate, showing that the shortening of Hβ lags depends on accretion rates. The recent SDSS-RM discovery of shortened Hβ lags in AGNs with low accretion rates provides compelling evidence for retrograde accretion onto the black hole. These evidences show that the canonical R Hβ –L 5100 relation holds only in AGNs with moderate accretion rates. At low accretion rates, it should be revised to include the effects of black hole spin, whereas the accretion rate itself becomes a key factor in the regime of high accretion rates.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min; Lu, Kai-Xing; Wang, Fang; Bai, Jin-Ming; Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, Hagai
2014-01-01
We report first results from a large project to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Such objects may be different from other AGNs in being powered by slim accretion disks and showing saturated accretion luminosities, but both are not yet fully understood. The results are part of a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign using the 2.4 m Shangri-La telescope at the Yunnan Observatory in China. The goals are to investigate the gas distribution near the BH and the properties of the central accretion disks, to measure BH mass and Eddington ratios, and to test the feasibility of using such objects as a new type of cosmological candles. The paper presents results for three objects, Mrk 335, Mrk 142, and IRAS F12397+3333, with Hβ time lags relative to the 5100 Å continuum of 10.6 −2.9 +1.7 , 6.4 −2.2 +0.8 and 11.4 −1.9 +2.9 days, respectively. The corresponding BH masses are (8.3 −3.2 +2.6 )×10 6 M ⊙ , (3.4 −1.2 +0.5 )×10 6 M ⊙ , and (7.5 −4.1 +4.3 )×10 6 M ⊙ , and the lower limits on the Eddington ratios are 0.6, 2.3, and 4.6 for the minimal radiative efficiency of 0.038. Mrk 142 and IRAS F12397+333 (extinction corrected) clearly deviate from the currently known relation between Hβ lag and continuum luminosity. The three Eddington ratios are beyond the values expected in thin accretion disks and two of them are the largest measured so far among objects with RM-based BH masses. We briefly discuss implications for slim disks, BH growth, and cosmology.
Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Lu, Kai-Xing; Wang, Fang; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Bai, Jin-Ming; Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, Hagai; Wang, Jian-Min; SEAMBH Collaboration
2014-02-01
We report first results from a large project to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Such objects may be different from other AGNs in being powered by slim accretion disks and showing saturated accretion luminosities, but both are not yet fully understood. The results are part of a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign using the 2.4 m Shangri-La telescope at the Yunnan Observatory in China. The goals are to investigate the gas distribution near the BH and the properties of the central accretion disks, to measure BH mass and Eddington ratios, and to test the feasibility of using such objects as a new type of cosmological candles. The paper presents results for three objects, Mrk 335, Mrk 142, and IRAS F12397+3333, with Hβ time lags relative to the 5100 Å continuum of 10.6^{+1.7}_{-2.9}, 6.4^{+0.8}_{-2.2} and 11.4^{+2.9}_{-1.9} days, respectively. The corresponding BH masses are (8.3_{-3.2}^{+2.6})\\times 10^6\\,M_{\\odot }, (3.4_{-1.2}^{+0.5})\\times 10^6\\,M_{\\odot }, and (7.5_{-4.1}^{+4.3})\\times 10^6\\,M_{\\odot }, and the lower limits on the Eddington ratios are 0.6, 2.3, and 4.6 for the minimal radiative efficiency of 0.038. Mrk 142 and IRAS F12397+333 (extinction corrected) clearly deviate from the currently known relation between Hβ lag and continuum luminosity. The three Eddington ratios are beyond the values expected in thin accretion disks and two of them are the largest measured so far among objects with RM-based BH masses. We briefly discuss implications for slim disks, BH growth, and cosmology.
The Effects of High Density on the X-ray Spectrum Reflected from Accretion Discs Around Black Holes
Garcia, Javier A.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Kallman, Timothy R.; Dauser, Thomas; Parker, Micahel L.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Steiner, James F.; Wilms, Jorn
2016-01-01
Current models of the spectrum of X-rays reflected from accretion discs around black holes and other compact objects are commonly calculated assuming that the density of the disc atmosphere is constant within several Thomson depths from the irradiated surface. An important simplifying assumption of these models is that the ionization structure of the gas is completely specified by a single, fixed value of the ionization parameter (xi), which is the ratio of the incident flux to the gas density. The density is typically fixed at n(sub e) = 10(exp 15) per cu cm. Motivated by observations, we consider higher densities in the calculation of the reflected spectrum. We show by computing model spectra for n(sub e) approximately greater than 10(exp 17) per cu cm that high-density effects significantly modify reflection spectra. The main effect is to boost the thermal continuum at energies 2 approximately less than keV. We discuss the implications of these results for interpreting observations of both active galactic nuclei and black hole binaries. We also discuss the limitations of our models imposed by the quality of the atomic data currently available.
Zhang, Bing
2018-02-01
The origin of fast radio bursts (FRBs) remains mysterious. Recently, the only repeating FRB source, FRB 121102, was reported to possess an extremely large and variable rotation measure (RM). The inferred magnetic field strength in the burst environment is comparable to that in the vicinity of the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* of our Galaxy. Here, we show that all of the observational properties of FRB 121102 (including the high RM and its evolution, the high linear polarization degree, an invariant polarization angle across each burst and other properties previously known) can be interpreted within the “cosmic comb” model, which invokes a neutron star with typical spin and magnetic field parameters whose magnetosphere is repeatedly and marginally combed by a variable outflow from a nearby low-luminosity accreting supermassive black hole in the host galaxy. We propose three falsifiable predictions (periodic “on/off” states, and periodic/correlated variation of RM and polarization angle) of the model and discuss other FRBs within the context of the cosmic comb model as well as the challenges encountered by other repeating FRB models in light of the new observations.
Wu, Meng-Ru; Fernández, Rodrigo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D.
2016-12-01
We consider r-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion discs formed in double neutron star and neutron star-black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important - and in some cases dominant - contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disc outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second r-process peak (mass number A ˜ 130), independent of model parameters, with significant production of A spike at A = 132 that is absent in the Solar system r-process distribution. The spike arises from convection in the disc and depends on the treatment of nuclear heating in the simulations. We conclude that disc outflows provide an important - and perhaps dominant - contribution to the r-process yields of compact binary mergers, and hence must be included when assessing the contribution of these systems to the inventory of r-process elements in the Galaxy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lanzuisi, G.; Perna, M.; Comastri, A.
2016-01-01
PG1247+267 is one of the most luminous known quasars at z similar to 2 and is a strongly super-Eddington accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH) candidate. We obtained NuSTAR data of this intriguing source in December 2014 with the aim of studying its high-energy emission, leveraging the broad...
Constantin, Anca; Green, Paul; Haggard, Daryl
2018-01-01
For most of the nearby active galaxies, a mix of processes including emission from star-forming regions, other ionization sources (shocks, turbulence, etc.), nuclear obscuration, as well as host galaxy starlight obfuscate the true nature of their dominant ionization mechanism. X-ray emission is one of the most reliable primary signatures of accretion activity, and with the advent of the public catalogs, it became one of the most effective diagnostics as well. Working with large and significantly less biased samples that only serendipitous X-ray catalogs are able to provide, we were able to: 1) provide the most accurate estimates of the AGN fraction as a function of a diverse set of parameters; 2) confirm with X-rays a sequence from star-forming to active to passive galaxies that matches trends in both optical host galaxy characteristics and in the large scale environment; 3) discover intriguing similarities between accretion onto supermassive and stellar size black holes, with direct consequences for the physical significance of the Gamma-L/Ledd relation for AGN of both type I and II in the local universe. This presentation will summarize these exciting results, and will also report on novel extended efforts to decipher the link between the water megamaser emission and galactic nuclear activity, which are made possible only by the availability of the large sample statistics of carefully curated X-ray measurements uniquely offered by the combined Chandra and XMM catalogs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Lu, Kai-Xing [Astronomy Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Fang; Bai, Jin-Ming [Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011, Yunnan (China); Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, Hagai [Wise Observatory, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Collaboration: SEAMBH collaboration
2014-02-10
We report first results from a large project to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Such objects may be different from other AGNs in being powered by slim accretion disks and showing saturated accretion luminosities, but both are not yet fully understood. The results are part of a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign using the 2.4 m Shangri-La telescope at the Yunnan Observatory in China. The goals are to investigate the gas distribution near the BH and the properties of the central accretion disks, to measure BH mass and Eddington ratios, and to test the feasibility of using such objects as a new type of cosmological candles. The paper presents results for three objects, Mrk 335, Mrk 142, and IRAS F12397+3333, with Hβ time lags relative to the 5100 Å continuum of 10.6{sub −2.9}{sup +1.7}, 6.4{sub −2.2}{sup +0.8} and 11.4{sub −1.9}{sup +2.9} days, respectively. The corresponding BH masses are (8.3{sub −3.2}{sup +2.6})×10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, (3.4{sub −1.2}{sup +0.5})×10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, and (7.5{sub −4.1}{sup +4.3})×10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, and the lower limits on the Eddington ratios are 0.6, 2.3, and 4.6 for the minimal radiative efficiency of 0.038. Mrk 142 and IRAS F12397+333 (extinction corrected) clearly deviate from the currently known relation between Hβ lag and continuum luminosity. The three Eddington ratios are beyond the values expected in thin accretion disks and two of them are the largest measured so far among objects with RM-based BH masses. We briefly discuss implications for slim disks, BH growth, and cosmology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.
1979-01-01
Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)
Origin of supermassive black holes
Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S. G.
2007-01-01
The origin of supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei is quite uncertain in spite of extensive set of observational data. We review the known scenarios of galactic and cosmological formation of supermassive black holes. The common drawback of galactic scenarios is a lack of time and shortage of matter supply for building the supermassive black holes in all galaxies by means of accretion and merging. The cosmological scenarios are only fragmentarily developed but propose and pretend to...
A truncated accretion disk in the galactic black hole candidate source H1743-322
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sriram, Kandulapati; Agrawal, Vivek Kumar; Rao, Arikkala Raghurama
2009-01-01
To investigate the geometry of the accretion disk in the source H1743-322, we have carried out a detailed X-ray temporal and spectral study using RXTE pointed observations. We have selected all data pertaining to the Steep Power Law (SPL) state during the 2003 outburst of this source. We find anti-correlated hard X-ray lags in three of the observations and the changes in the spectral and timing parameters (like the QPO frequency) confirm the idea of a truncated accretion disk in this source. Compiling data from similar observations of other sources, we find a correlation between the fractional change in the QPO frequency and the observed delay. We suggest that these observations indicate a definite size scale in the inner accretion disk (the radius of the truncated disk) and we explain the observed correlation using various disk parameters like Compton cooling time scale, viscous time scale etc. (research papers)
Charged black holes in phantom cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad [National University of Sciences and Technology, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)
2008-11-15
In the classical relativistic regime, the accretion of phantom-like dark energy onto a stationary black hole reduces the mass of the black hole. We have investigated the accretion of phantom energy onto a stationary charged black hole and have determined the condition under which this accretion is possible. This condition restricts the mass-to-charge ratio in a narrow range. This condition also challenges the validity of the cosmic-censorship conjecture since a naked singularity is eventually produced due to accretion of phantom energy onto black hole. (orig.)
Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2014-01-01
Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.
Yang, G.; Brandt, W. N.; Vito, F.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Trump, J. R.; Luo, B.; Sun, M. Y.; Xue, Y. Q.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Schneider, D. P.; Vignali, C.; Wang, J.-X.
2018-04-01
Previous studies suggest that the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) may be fundamentally related to host-galaxy stellar mass (M⋆). To investigate this SMBH growth-M⋆ relation in detail, we calculate long-term SMBH accretion rate as a function of M⋆ and redshift [\\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z)] over ranges of log (M⋆/M⊙) = 9.5-12 and z = 0.4-4. Our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) is constrained by high-quality survey data (GOODS-South, GOODS-North and COSMOS), and by the stellar mass function and the X-ray luminosity function. At a given M⋆, \\overlineBHAR is higher at high redshift. This redshift dependence is stronger in more massive systems [for log (M⋆/M⊙) ≈ 11.5, \\overlineBHAR is three decades higher at z = 4 than at z = 0.5], possibly due to AGN feedback. Our results indicate that the ratio between \\overlineBHAR and average star formation rate (\\overlineSFR) rises towards high M⋆ at a given redshift. This \\overlineBHAR/\\overlineSFR dependence on M⋆ does not support the scenario that SMBH and galaxy growth are in lockstep. We calculate SMBH mass history [MBH(z)] based on our \\overlineBHAR(M_{\\star }, z) and the M⋆(z) from the literature, and find that the MBH-M⋆ relation has weak redshift evolution since z ≈ 2. The MBH/M⋆ ratio is higher towards massive galaxies: it rises from ≈1/5000 at log M⋆ ≲ 10.5 to ≈1/500 at log M⋆ ≳ 11.2. Our predicted MBH/M⋆ ratio at high M⋆ is similar to that observed in local giant ellipticals, suggesting that SMBH growth from mergers is unlikely to dominate over growth from accretion.
Lanzuisi, G.; Perna, M.; Comastri, A.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; Marinucci, A.; Masini, A.; Matt, G.; Vagnetti, F.; Vignali, C.;
2016-01-01
PG1247+267 is one of the most luminous known quasars at z approximately 2 and is a strongly super-Eddington accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH) candidate. We obtained NuSTAR data of this intriguing source in December 2014 with the aim of studying its high-energy emission, leveraging the broad band covered by the new NuSTAR and the archival XMM-Newton data. Several measurements are in agreement with the super-Eddington scenario for PG1247+267: the soft power law (gamma = 2.3 +/- 0.1); the weak ionized Fe emission line; and a hint of the presence of outflowing ionized gas surrounding the SMBH. The presence of an extreme reflection component is instead at odds with the high accretion rate proposed for this quasar. This can be explained with three different scenarios; all of them are in good agreement with the existing data, but imply very different conclusions: i) a variable primary power law observed in a low state, superimposed on a reflection component echoing a past, higher flux state; ii) a power law continuum obscured by an ionized, Compton thick, partial covering absorber; and iii) a relativistic disk reflector in a lamp-post geometry, with low coronal height and high BH spin. The first model is able to explain the high reflection component in terms of variability. The second does not require any reflection to reproduce the hard emission, while a rather low high-energy cutoff of approximately 100 keV is detected for the first time in such a high redshift source. The third model require a face-on geometry, which may affect the SMBH mass and Eddington ratio measurements. Deeper X-ray broad-band data are required in order to distinguish between these possibilities.
Colours of black holes: infrared flares from the hot accretion disc in XTE J1550-564
Poutanen, Juri; Veledina, Alexandra; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G.
2014-12-01
Outbursts of the black hole (BH) X-ray binaries are dramatic events occurring in our Galaxy approximately once a year. They are detected by the X-ray telescopes and often monitored at longer wavelengths. We analyse the X-ray and optical/infrared (OIR) light curves of the BH binary XTE J1550-564 during the 2000 outburst. By using the observed extreme colours as well as the characteristic decay time-scales of the OIR and X-ray light curves, we put strong constraints on the extinction towards the source. We accurately separate the contributions to the OIR flux of the irradiated accretion disc and a non-thermal component. We show that the OIR non-thermal component appears during the X-ray state transitions both during the rising and the decaying part of the outburst at nearly the same X-ray hardness but at luminosities differing by a factor of 3. The line marking the quenching/recovery of the non-thermal component at the X-ray hardness-flux diagram seems to coincide with the `jet line' that marks the presence of the compact radio jet. The inferred spectral shape and the evolution of the non-thermal component during the outburst, however, are not consistent with the jet origin, but are naturally explained in terms of the hybrid hot flow scenario, where non-thermal electrons emit synchrotron radiation in the OIR band. This implies a close, possibly causal connection between the presence of the hot flow and the compact jet. We find that the non-thermal component is hardening during the hard state at the decaying stage of the outburst, which indicates that the acceleration efficiency is a steep function of radius at low accretion rate.
Three-Layered Atmospheric Structure in Accretion Disks Around Stellar-Mass Black Holes
Zhang, S. N.; Cui, Wei; Chen, Wan; Yao, Yangsen; Zhang, Xiaoling; Sun, Xuejun; Wu, Xue-Bing; Xu, Haiguang
2000-01-01
Modeling of the x-ray spectra of the Galactic superluminal jet sources GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40 reveals a three-layered atmospheric structure in the inner region of the inner accretion disks. Above the cold and optically thick disk with a temperature of 0.2 to 0.5 kiloelectron volts, there is a warm layer with a temperature of 1.0 to 1.5 kiloelectron volts and an optical depth around 10. Sometimes there is also a much hotter, optically thin corona above the warm layer, with a temperature of 100 kiloelectron volts or higher and an optical depth around unity. The structural similarity between the accretion disks and the solar atmosphere suggests that similar physical processes may be operating in these different systems.
Viscous driving of global oscillations in accretion discs around black holes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Miranda, R.; Horák, Jiří; Lai, D.
2015-01-01
Roč. 446, č. 1 (2015), s. 240-253 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14049 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100031202 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion discs * hydrodynamics * waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.952, year: 2015
Magnetic fields around black holes
Garofalo, David A. G.
Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our
Measuring spin of black holes in the universe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Table of contents. Measuring spin of black holes in the universe · What is black hole? Accretion Disk and Jet · What is black hole's spin? Accretion Disk · Black Hole's Potential · Light Curves: Photon Count Rate Vs Time · Quasi-Periodic Oscillation · Slide 9 · Model · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Summary.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurent, Philippe; Titarchuk, Lev
2011-01-01
We present herein a theoretical study of correlations between spectral indexes of X-ray emergent spectra and mass accretion rate ( m-dot ) in black hole (BH) sources, which provide a definitive signature for BHs. It has been firmly established, using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in numerous BH observations during hard-soft state spectral evolution, that the photon index of X-ray spectra increases when m-dot increases and, moreover, the index saturates at high values of m-dot . In this paper, we present theoretical arguments that the observationally established index saturation effect versus mass accretion rate is a signature of the bulk (converging) flow onto the BH. Also, we demonstrate that the index saturation value depends on the plasma temperature of converging flow. We self-consistently calculate the Compton cloud (CC) plasma temperature as a function of mass accretion rate using the energy balance between energy dissipation and Compton cooling. We explain the observable phenomenon, index- m-dot correlations using a Monte Carlo simulation of radiative processes in the innermost part (CC) of a BH source and we account for the Comptonization processes in the presence of thermal and bulk motions, as basic types of plasma motion. We show that, when m-dot increases, BH sources evolve to high and very soft states (HSS and VSS, respectively), in which the strong blackbody(BB)-like and steep power-law components are formed in the resulting X-ray spectrum. The simultaneous detections of these two components strongly depends on sensitivity of high-energy instruments, given that the relative contribution of the hard power-law tail in the resulting VSS spectrum can be very low, which is why, to date RXTE observations of the VSS X-ray spectrum have been characterized by the presence of the strong BB-like component only. We also predict specific patterns for high-energy e-fold (cutoff) energy (E fold ) evolution with m-dot for thermal and dynamical (bulk
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Horák, Jiří; Lai, D.
2013-01-01
Roč. 434, č. 4 (2013), s. 2761-2771 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09036; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2004 Grant - others:NASA(US) NNX12AF85G; NSF(US) AST-1008245; NSF(US) AST-1211061; Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100031202 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion discs * hydrodynamics * X-ray binaries Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.226, year: 2013
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leiter, D.
1983-01-01
This work discusses a black hole accretion disk dynamo model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) sources of the cosmic X-ray and γ ray backgrounds which involves both thermal and nonthermal accretion disk processes around greater than or equal to 10 8 M/sub sun/ Kerr black holes. Before black hole spin-up to the Kerr metric state, the large value of the compactness parameter L(luminosity)/r(size of emitting region) > 10 30 erg/cm-sec associated with the L/L/sub Edd/ less than or equal to l luminosity ratio in Precursor Active Galaxies (PAG) suppresses all nonthermal emission mechanisms. In this PAG state the resulting emission is predominantly thermal and is due to Comptonization of soft photons by an electron-positron plasma, generated within the hot accretion disk region by γ + γ reversible e+/- processes in the transrelativistic regime. While the underlying plasma in the PAG accretion disk hot inner region may be optically thin initially, the overall effect of the copious γ + γ reversible e+/- generated electron-positron plasma is to push the overall optical depth to tau greater than or equal to 1. This has two main effects: a) it causes the resulting Comptonized spectrum of X-radiation from PAG to be associated with a flat spectral index comparable to that of the residual Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB), and b) the copious γ + γ reversible e+/- within the hot accretion disk region play the role of a phase transition thermostat, and act to maintain the temperature of the hot inner region at greater than or equal to 109 0 K. 16 references
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, B.
1980-01-01
In years 1920 as a result of quantum mechanics principles governing the structure of ordinary matter, a sudden importance for a problem raised a long time ago by Laplace: what happens when a massive body becomes so dense that even light cannot escape from its gravitational field. It is difficult to conceive how could be avoided in the actual universe the accumulation of important masses of cold matter having been submitted to gravitational breaking down followed by the formation of what is called to day a black hole [fr
Chamani, Wara; Dörschner, Stephanie; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.
2017-06-01
While supermassive black-holes are known to co-evolve with their host galaxy, the precise nature and origin of this co-evolution is not clear. In this paper we explore the possible connection between star formation and black-hole growth in the circumnuclear disk (CND) to probe this connection in the vicinity close to the black-hole. We adopt here a circumnuclear disk model developed by previous works and explore both the dependence on the star formation recipe as well as the role of the gravitational field, which can be dominated by the central black-hole, the CND itself or the host galaxy. A specific emphasis is put on the turbulence regulated star formation model to explore the impact of a realistic star formation recipe. It is shown that this model helps to introduce realistic fluctuations in the black-hole and star formation rate, without overestimating them. Consistent with previous works, we show that the final black-hole masses are rather insensitive to the masses of the initial seeds, even for seed masses of up to 106M⊙. In addition, we apply our model to the formation of high-redshift quasars, as well as to the nearby system NGC 6951, where a tentative comparison is made in spite of the presence of a bar in the galaxy. We show that our model can reproduce the high black-hole masses of the high-redshift quasars within a sufficiently short time, provided a high mass supply rate from the host galaxy. In addition, it reproduces several of the properties observed in NGC 6951. With respect to the latter system, our analysis suggests that supernovae (SN) feedback may be important in creating the observed fluctuations in the star formation history as a result of negative feedback effects.
Black hole critical phenomena without black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Black holes; numerical relativity; nonlinear sigma. Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. ... Theoretical and Computational Studies Group, Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA ...
Will black holes eventually engulf the Universe?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin-Moruno, Prado; Jimenez Madrid, Jose A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.
2006-01-01
The Babichev-Dokuchaev-Eroshenko model for the accretion of dark energy onto black holes has been extended to deal with black holes with non-static metrics. The possibility that for an asymptotic observer a black hole with large mass will rapidly increase and eventually engulf the Universe at a finite time in the future has been studied by using reasonable values for astronomical parameters. It is concluded that such a phenomenon is forbidden for all black holes in quintessential cosmological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torn, K.
1976-01-01
Conceivable experimental investigations to prove the existence of black holes are discussed. Double system with a black hole turning around a star-satellite are in the spotlight. X-radiation emmited by such systems and resulting from accretion of the stellar gas by a black hole, and the gas heating when falling on the black hole might prove the model suggested. A source of strong X-radiation observed in the Cygnus star cluster and referred to as Cygnus X-1 may be thus identified as a black hole. Direct registration of short X-ray pulses with msec intervals might prove the suggestion. The lack of appropriate astrophysic facilities is pointed out to be the major difficulty on the way of experimental verifications
Orbital resonances around black holes.
Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja
2015-02-27
We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.
Titarchuk, Lev; Chardonnet, Pascal
2006-01-01
Various balloon and satellite observatories have revealed what appears to be an extended source of 0.511 MeV annihilation radiation with flux of approx. 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s centered on the Galactic Center. Positrons from radioactive products of stellar explosions can account for a significant fraction of the emission. We discuss an additional source for this emission: namely e(+)e(-) pairs produced when X-rays generated from the approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 6) solar mass Galactic Center Black Hole interact with approx. 10 MeV temperature blackbody emission from 10(exp 17) g black holes within 10(exp 14-l5) cm of the center. The number of such Small Mass Black Holes (SMMBHs) can account for the production of the 10(exp 42) e(+)/s that produces the observed annihilation in the inner Galaxy when transport effects are taken into account. We consider the possibility for confirming the presence of these SMMBHs in the Galactic Center region with future generations of gamma-ray instruments if a blackbody like emission of approx. 10 MeV temperature would be detected by them. Small Mass Black Hole can be a potential candidate for dark (invisible) matter hal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penrose, R.
1980-01-01
Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M
2003-01-01
Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)
Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects
Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Anderson, Scott F.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Körding, Elmar; Trager, Scott C.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Belloni, Tomaso
Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole
Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects
Plotkin, R.M.; Markoff, S.; Anderson, S.F.; Kelly, B.C.; Körding, E.; Trager, S.C.
2010-01-01
Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole
Windhorst, Rogier A.; Timmes, F. X.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Andrews, Stephen K.; Coe, Daniel; Diego, Jose M.; Dijkstra, Mark; Driver, Simon P.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Kim, Duho
2018-02-01
We summarize panchromatic Extragalactic Background Light data to place upper limits on the integrated near-infrared surface brightness (SB) that may come from Population III stars and possible accretion disks around their stellar-mass black holes (BHs) in the epoch of First Light, broadly taken from z ≃ 7–17. Theoretical predictions and recent near-infrared power spectra provide tighter constraints on their sky signal. We outline the physical properties of zero-metallicity Population III stars from MESA stellar evolution models through helium depletion and of BH accretion disks at z≳ 7. We assume that second-generation non-zero-metallicity stars can form at higher multiplicity, so that BH accretion disks may be fed by Roche-lobe overflow from lower-mass companions. We use these near-infrared SB constraints to calculate the number of caustic transits behind lensing clusters that the James Webb Space Telescope and the next-generation ground-based telescopes may observe for both Population III stars and their BH accretion disks. Typical caustic magnifications can be μ ≃ {10}4{--}{10}5, with rise times of hours and decline times of ≲ 1 year for cluster transverse velocities of {v}T≲ 1000 km s‑1. Microlensing by intracluster-medium objects can modify transit magnifications but lengthen visibility times. Depending on BH masses, accretion-disk radii, and feeding efficiencies, stellar-mass BH accretion-disk caustic transits could outnumber those from Population III stars. To observe Population III caustic transits directly may require monitoring 3–30 lensing clusters to {AB}≲ 29 mag over a decade.
The third law of black hole mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sullivan, B.T.; Israel, W.
1980-01-01
By consideration of a simple example it is demonstrated that a third law of black hole mechanics cannot be valid unless the energy tensor of accreting matter is bounded and satisfies a positive energy condition outside apparent horizons. (orig.)
Black hole evaporation in an expanding universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saida, Hiromi; Harada, Tomohiro; Maeda, Hideki
2007-01-01
We calculate the quantum radiation power of black holes which are asymptotic to the Einstein-de Sitter universe at spatial and null infinities. We consider two limiting mass accretion scenarios, no accretion and significant accretion. We find that the radiation power strongly depends on not only the asymptotic condition but also the mass accretion scenario. For the no accretion case, we consider the Einstein-Straus solution, where a black hole of constant mass resides in the dust Friedmann universe. We find negative cosmological correction besides the expected redshift factor. This is given in terms of the cubic root of ratio in size of the black hole to the cosmological horizon, so that it is currently of order 10 -5 (M/10 6 M o-dot ) 1/3 (t/14Gyr) -1/3 but could have been significant at the formation epoch of primordial black holes. Due to the cosmological effects, this black hole has not settled down to an equilibrium state. This cosmological correction may be interpreted in an analogy with the radiation from a moving mirror in a flat spacetime. For the significant accretion case, we consider the Sultana-Dyer solution, where a black hole tends to increase its mass in proportion to the cosmological scale factor. In this model, we find that the radiation power is apparently the same as the Hawking radiation from the Schwarzschild black hole of which mass is that of the growing mass at each moment. Hence, the energy loss rate decreases and tends to vanish as time proceeds. Consequently, the energy loss due to evaporation is insignificant compared to huge mass accretion onto the black hole. Based on this model, we propose a definition of quasi-equilibrium temperature for general conformal stationary black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke
2009-01-01
Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.
Primordial braneworld black holes: significant enhancement of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The Randall-Sundrum (RS-II) braneworld cosmological model with a frac- tion of the total energy density in primordial black holes is considered. Due to their 5d geometry, these black holes undergo modified Hawking evaporation. It is shown that dur- ing the high-energy regime, accretion from the surrounding ...
Hayward, Sean A.
2008-01-01
This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gibbons, G.
1976-01-01
Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)
Moss, I.G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.
2000-01-01
Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...
Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself
2009-03-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don
Wijers, R.A.M.J.
1996-01-01
Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.
2010-01-01
We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.
Black holes: the membrane paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorne, K.S.; Price, R.H.; Macdonald, D.A.
1986-01-01
The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, Miguel S.; Perry, Malcolm J.
2000-01-01
We revisit the geometry representing l collinear Schwarzschild black holes. It is seen that the black holes' horizons are deformed by their mutual gravitational attraction. The geometry has a string like conical singularity that connects the holes but has nevertheless a well defined action. Using standard gravitational thermodynamics techniques we determine the free energy for two black holes at fixed temperature and distance, their entropy and mutual force. When the black holes are far apart the results agree with Newtonian gravity expectations. This analyses is generalized to the case of charged black holes. Then we consider black holes embedded in string/M-theory as bound states of branes. Using the effective string description of these bound states and for large separation we reproduce exactly the semi-classical result for the entropy, including the correction associated with the interaction between the holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camenzind, M.
2005-01-01
While physicists have been grappling with the theory of black holes (BH), as shown by the many contributions to the Einstein year, astronomers have been successfully searching for real black holes in the Universe. Black hole astrophysics began in the 1960s with the discovery of quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGN) in distant galaxies. Already in the 1960s it became clear that the most natural explanation for the quasar activity is the release of gravitational energy through accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes. The remnants of this activity have now been found in the centers of about 50 nearby galaxies. BH astrophysics received a new twist in the 1970s with the discovery of the X-ray binary (XRB) Cygnus X-1. The X-ray emitting compact object was too massive to be explained by a neutron star. Today, about 20 excellent BH candidates are known in XRBs. On the extragalactic scale, more than 100.000 quasars have been found in large galaxy surveys. At the redshift of the most distant ones, the Universe was younger than one billion year. The most enigmatic black hole candidates identified in the last years are the compact objects behind the Gamma-Ray Bursters. The formation of all these types of black holes is accompanied by extensive emission of gravitational waves. The detection of these strong gravity events is one of the biggest challenges for physicists in the near future. (author)
Destroying black holes with test bodies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacobson, Ted [Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4111 (United States); Sotiriou, Thomas P, E-mail: jacobson@umd.ed, E-mail: T.Sotiriou@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2010-04-01
If a black hole can accrete a body whose spin or charge would send the black hole parameters over the extremal limit, then a naked singularity would presumably form, in violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture. We review some previous results on testing cosmic censorship in this way using the test body approximation, focusing mostly on the case of neutral black holes. Under certain conditions a black hole can indeed be over-spun or over-charged in this approximation, hence radiative and self-force effects must be taken into account to further test cosmic censorship.
Particle accelerators inside spinning black holes.
Lake, Kayll
2010-05-28
On the basis of the Kerr metric as a model for a spinning black hole accreting test particles from rest at infinity, I show that the center-of-mass energy for a pair of colliding particles is generically divergent at the inner horizon. This shows not only that classical black holes are internally unstable, but also that Planck-scale physics is a characteristic feature within black holes at scales much larger that the Planck length. The novel feature of the divergence discussed here is that the phenomenon is present only for black holes with rotation, and in this sense it is distinct from the well-known Cauchy horizon instability.
Massive Black Holes and Galaxies
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.
Gravitating discs around black holes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Karas, Vladimír; Huré, J.-M.; Semerák, O.
2004-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 7 (2004), R1-R5 ISSN 0264-9381 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/0902; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : black holes * accretion discs * general relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.941, year: 2004
White holes and eternal black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, Stephen D H
2012-01-01
We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.
1997-01-01
It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Nonextremal stringy black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, K.
1997-01-01
We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Plasma horizons of a charged black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanni, R.S.
1977-01-01
The most promising way of detecting black holes seems to be through electromagnetic radiation emitted by nearby charged particles. The nature of this radiation depends strongly on the local electromagnetic field, which varies with the charge of the black hole. It has often been purported that a black hole with significant charge will not be observed, because, the dominance of the Coulomb interaction forces its neutralization through selective accretion. This paper shows that it is possible to balance the electric attraction of particles whose charge is opposite that of the black hole with magnetic forces and (assuming an axisymmetric, stationary solution) covariantly define the regions in which this is possible. A Kerr-Newman hole in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field and a current ring centered about a Reissner-Nordstroem hole are used as examples, because of their relevance to processes through which black holes may be observed. (Auth.)
Seeding black holes in cosmological simulations
Taylor, P.; Kobayashi, C.
2014-08-01
We present a new model for the formation of black holes in cosmological simulations, motivated by the first star formation. Black holes form from high density peaks of primordial gas, and grow via both gas accretion and mergers. Massive black holes heat the surrounding material, suppressing star formation at the centres of galaxies, and driving galactic winds. We perform an investigation into the physical effects of the model parameters, and obtain a `best' set of these parameters by comparing the outcome of simulations to observations. With this best set, we successfully reproduce the cosmic star formation rate history, black hole mass-velocity dispersion relation, and the size-velocity dispersion relation of galaxies. The black hole seed mass is ˜103 M⊙, which is orders of magnitude smaller than that which has been used in previous cosmological simulations with active galactic nuclei, but suggests that the origin of the seed black holes is the death of Population III stars.
A Black Hole Spectral Signature
Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe
2000-03-01
An accreting black hole is, by definition, characterized by the drain. Namely, the matter falls into a black hole much the same way as water disappears down a drain matter goes in and nothing comes out. As this can only happen in a black hole, it provides a way to see ``a black hole'', an unique observational signature. The accretion proceeds almost in a free-fall manner close to the black hole horizon, where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces. In this paper we present analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations of the specific features of X-ray spectra formed as a result of upscattering of the soft (disk) photons in the converging inflow (CI) into the black hole. The full relativistic treatment has been implemented to reproduce these spectra. We show that spectra in the soft state of black hole systems (BHS) can be described as the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the CI upscattering spread (Greens) function. The latter boosted photon component is seen as an extended power-law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We demonstrate the stability of the power spectral index over a wide range of the plasma temperature 0 - 10 keV and mass accretion rates (higher than 2 in Eddington units). We also demonstrate that the sharp high energy cutoff occurs at energies of 200-400 keV which are related to the average energy of electrons mec2 impinging upon the event horizon. The spectrum is practically identical to the standard thermal Comptonization spectrum when the CI plasma temperature is getting of order of 50 keV (the typical ones for the hard state of BHS). In this case one can see the effect of the bulk motion only at high energies where there is an excess in the CI spectrum with respect to the pure thermal one. Furthermore we demonstrate that the change of spectral shapes from the soft X-ray state to the hard X-ray state is clearly to be
Interior structure of rotating black holes. III. Charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, Andrew J. S.
2011-01-01
This paper extends to the case of charged rotating black holes the conformally stationary, axisymmetric, conformally separable solutions presented for uncharged rotating black holes in a companion paper. In the present paper, the collisionless fluid accreted by the black hole may be charged. The charge of the black hole is determined self-consistently by the charge accretion rate. As in the uncharged case, hyper-relativistic counterstreaming between ingoing and outgoing streams drives inflation at (just above) the inner horizon, followed by collapse. If both ingoing and outgoing streams are charged, then conformal separability holds during early inflation, but fails as inflation develops. If conformal separability is imposed throughout inflation and collapse, then only one of the ingoing and outgoing streams can be charged: the other must be neutral. Conformal separability prescribes a hierarchy of boundary conditions on the ingoing and outgoing streams incident on the inner horizon. The dominant radial boundary conditions require that the incident ingoing and outgoing number densities be uniform with latitude, but the charge per particle must vary with latitude such that the incident charge densities vary in proportion to the radial electric field. The subdominant angular boundary conditions require specific forms of the incident number- and charge-weighted angular motions. If the streams fall freely from outside the horizon, then the prescribed angular conditions can be achieved by the charged stream, but not by the neutral stream. Thus, as in the case of an uncharged black hole, the neutral stream must be considered to be delivered ad hoc to just above the inner horizon.
Cowley, M. J.; Spitler, L. R.; Quadri, R. F.; Goulding, A. D.; Papovich, C.; Tran, K. V. H.; Labbé, I.; Alcorn, L.; Allen, R. J.; Forrest, B.; Glazebrook, K.; Kacprzak, G. G.; Morrison, G.; Nanayakkara, T.; Straatman, C. M. S.; Tomczak, A. R.
2018-01-01
We investigate the relationship between the black hole accretion rate (BHAR) and star formation rate (SFR) for Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31)-mass progenitors from z = 0.2 to 2.5. We source galaxies from the Ks-band-selected ZFOURGE survey, which includes multiwavelength data spanning 0.3-160 μm. We use decomposition software to split the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our galaxies into their active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star-forming components, which allows us to estimate BHARs and SFRs from the infrared (IR). We perform tests to check the robustness of these estimates, including a comparison with BHARs and SFRs derived from X-ray stacking and far-IR analysis, respectively. We find that, as the progenitors evolve their relative black hole-galaxy growth (i.e. their BHAR/SFR ratio) increases from low to high redshift. The MW-mass progenitors exhibit a log-log slope of 0.64 ± 0.11, while the M31-mass progenitors are 0.39 ± 0.08. This result contrasts with previous studies that find an almost flat slope when adopting X-ray-/AGN-selected or mass-limited samples and is likely due to their use of a broad mixture of galaxies with different evolutionary histories. Our use of progenitor-matched samples highlights the potential importance of carefully selecting progenitors when searching for evolutionary relationships between BHAR/SFRs. Additionally, our finding that BHAR/SFR ratios do not track the rate at which progenitors quench casts doubts over the idea that the suppression of star formation is predominantly driven by luminous AGN feedback (i.e. high BHARs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravndal, F.
1978-01-01
Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Black hole candidates. In the case of X-ray sources such as Cyg X-1, the mass of the compact object inferred from combined optical and X-ray data, suggest M_compact object > 3.4 M_sun => Black Hole! A remarkable discovery!! Thus X-ray emitting binary systems ...
de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.
2009-01-01
Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kragh, Helge Stjernholm
2016-01-01
Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....
Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.
2010-01-01
We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of ...
Lifshitz topological black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mann, R.B.
2009-01-01
I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.
Paolillo, M.; Papadakis, I.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Tozzi, P.; Shemmer, O.; Allevato, V.; Bauer, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Liu, T.; Vignali, C.; Vito, F.; Yang, G.; Wang, J. X.; Zheng, X. C.
2017-11-01
We study the X-ray variability properties of distant active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the ChandraDeep Field-South region over 17 yr, up to z ˜ 4, and compare them with those predicted by models based on local samples. We use the results of Monte Carlo simulations to account for the biases introduced by the discontinuous sampling and the low-count regime. We confirm that variability is a ubiquitous property of AGNs, with no clear dependence on the density of the environment. The variability properties of high-z AGNs, over different temporal time-scales, are most consistent with a power spectral density (PSD) described by a broken (or bending) power law, similar to nearby AGNs. We confirm the presence of an anticorrelation between luminosity and variability, resulting from the dependence of variability on black hole (BH) mass and accretion rate. We explore different models, finding that our acceptable solutions predict that BH mass influences the value of the PSD break frequency, while the Eddington ratio λEdd affects the PSD break frequency and, possibly, the PSD amplitude as well. We derive the evolution of the average λEdd as a function of redshift, finding results in agreement with measurements based on different estimators. The large statistical uncertainties make our results consistent with a constant Eddington ratio, although one of our models suggest a possible increase of λEdd with lookback time up to z ˜ 2-3. We conclude that variability is a viable mean to trace the accretion history of supermassive BHs, whose usefulness will increase with future, wide-field/large effective area X-ray missions.
Black hole critical phenomena without black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
as a star or dispersing altogether. Were we engineers with advanced technology, we might attempt to find that critical amount of energy necessary to form a black hole. However, despite some fears to the contrary, such technology does not exist, so instead we investigate this critical regime numerically. The first step is to pick ...
Black hole critical phenomena without black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
denotes the partial derivatives of . The construction of a numerical method with which ... which configurations form black holes and which disperse (the only two options in this model). The problem in picturing such a space is that it is infinite ..... 4.1 The future: Less symmetry. The work described above all assumes spherical ...
The Formation and Evolution of the First Massive Black Holes
Haiman, Zoltan; Quataert, Eliot
2004-01-01
The first massive astrophysical black holes likely formed at high redshifts (z>10) at the centers of low mass (~10^6 Msun) dark matter concentrations. These black holes grow by mergers and gas accretion, evolve into the population of bright quasars observed at lower redshifts, and eventually leave the supermassive black hole remnants that are ubiquitous at the centers of galaxies in the nearby universe. The astrophysical processes responsible for the formation of the earliest seed black holes...
Black holes and relativitic gravity theories
Fennelly, A. J.; Pavelle, R.
1977-01-01
All presently known relativistic gravitation theories were considered which have a Riemannian background geometry and possess exact static, spherically symmetric solutions which are asymptotically flat. Each theory predicts the existence of trapped surfaces (black holes). For a general static isotropic metric, MACSYMA was used to compute the Newman-Penrose equations, the black hole radius, the impact parameter, and capture radius for photon accretion. These results were then applied to several of the better known gravitation theories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kroon, John J.; Becker, Peter A.
2014-01-01
Accreting black hole sources show a wide variety of rapid time variability, including the manifestation of time lags during X-ray transients, in which a delay (phase shift) is observed between the Fourier components of the hard and soft spectra. Despite a large body of observational evidence for time lags, no fundamental physical explanation for the origin of this phenomenon has been presented. We develop a new theoretical model for the production of X-ray time lags based on an exact analytical solution for the Fourier transform describing the diffusion and Comptonization of seed photons propagating through a spherical corona. The resulting Green's function can be convolved with any source distribution to compute the associated Fourier transform and time lags, hence allowing us to explore a wide variety of injection scenarios. We show that thermal Comptonization is able to self-consistently explain both the X-ray time lags and the steady-state (quiescent) X-ray spectrum observed in the low-hard state of Cyg X-1. The reprocessing of bremsstrahlung seed photons produces X-ray time lags that diminish with increasing Fourier frequency, in agreement with the observations for a wide range of sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kroon, John J.; Becker, Peter A., E-mail: jkroon@gmu.edu, E-mail: pbecker@gmu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States)
2016-04-20
Many accreting black holes manifest time lags during outbursts, in which the hard Fourier component typically lags behind the soft component. Despite decades of observations of this phenomenon, the underlying physical explanation for the time lags has remained elusive, although there are suggestions that Compton reverberation plays an important role. However, the lack of analytical solutions has hindered the interpretation of the available data. In this paper, we investigate the generation of X-ray time lags in Compton scattering coronae using a new mathematical approach based on analysis of the Fourier-transformed transport equation. By solving this equation, we obtain the Fourier transform of the radiation Green’s function, which allows us to calculate the exact dependence of the time lags on the Fourier frequency, for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous coronal clouds. We use the new formalism to explore a variety of injection scenarios, including both monochromatic and broadband (bremsstrahlung) seed photon injection. We show that our model can successfully reproduce both the observed time lags and the time-averaged (quiescent) X-ray spectra for Cyg X-1 and GX 339-04, using a single set of coronal parameters for each source. The time lags are the result of impulsive bremsstrahlung injection occurring near the outer edge of the corona, while the time-averaged spectra are the result of continual distributed injection of soft photons throughout the cloud.
Simulations of jets driven by black hole rotation.
Semenov, Vladimir; Dyadechkin, Sergey; Punsly, Brian
2004-08-13
The origin of jets emitted from black holes is not well understood; however, there are two possible energy sources: the accretion disk or the rotating black hole. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations show a well-defined jet that extracts energy from a black hole. If plasma near the black hole is threaded by large-scale magnetic flux, it will rotate with respect to asymptotic infinity, creating large magnetic stresses. These stresses are released as a relativistic jet at the expense of black hole rotational energy. The physics of the jet initiation in the simulations is described by the theory of black hole gravitohydromagnetics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narayan, Ramesh
2005-01-01
This paper reviews the current status of black hole (BH) astrophysics, focusing on topics of interest to a physics audience. Astronomers have discovered dozens of compact objects with masses greater than 3M o-dot , the likely maximum mass of a neutron star. These objects are identified as BH candidates. Some of the candidates have masses ∼5M o-dot -20M o-dot and are found in x-ray binaries, while the rest have masses ∼10 6 M o-dot -10 9.5 M o-dot and are found in galactic nuclei. A variety of methods are being tried to estimate the spin parameters of the candidate BHs. There is strong circumstantial evidence that many of the objects have event horizons, so there is good reason to believe that the candidates are true BHs. Recent MHD simulations of magnetized plasma accreting on rotating BHs seem to hint that relativistic jets may be produced by a magnetic analogue of the Penrose process
Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, Xiaoling; Sun, Xuejun; Yao, Yangsen; Cui, Wei; Chen, Wan; Wu, Xuebing; Xu, Haiguang
1999-01-01
We have carried out systematic modeling of the X-ray spectra of the Galactic superluminal jet sources GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40, using our newly developed spectral fitting methods. Our results reveal, for the first time, a three-layered structure of the atmosphere in the inner region of the accretion disks. Above the conanonly known, cold and optically thick disk of a blackbody temperature 0.2-0.5 keV, there is a layer of warm gas with a temperature of 1.0-1.5 keV and an optical depth of around 10. Compton scattering of the underlying disk blackbody photons produces the soft X-ray component we comonly observe. Under certain conditions, there is also a much hotter, optically thin corona above the warm layer, characterized by a temperature of 100 keV or higher and an optical depth of unity or less. The corona produces the hard X-ray component typically seen in these sources. We emphasize that the existence of the warm layer seem to be independent of the presence of the hot corona and, therefore, it is not due to irradiation of the disk by hard X-rays from the corona. Our results suggest a striking structural similarity between the accretion disks and the solar atmosphere, which may provide a new stimulus to study the common underlying physical processes operating in these vastly different systems. We also report the first unambiguous detection of an emission line around 6.4 keV in GRO J1655-40, which may allow further constraining of the accretion disk structure. We acknowledge NASA GSFC and MFC for partial financial support. (copyright) 1999: American Astronomical Society. All rights reverved.
ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter
2015-01-01
Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production
On accretion of dark energy onto black and wormholes
Jiménez Madrid, J. A.; Martín Moruno, Prado
2010-01-01
We review some of the possible models that are able to describe the current Universe which point out the future singularities that could appear. We show that the study of the dark energy accretion onto black- and worm-holes phenomena in these models could lead to unexpected consequences, allowing even the avoidance of the considered singularities. We also review the debate about the approach used to study the accretion phenomenon which has appeared in literature to demonstrate the advantages ...
Micro black holes and the democratic transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, Gia; Pujolas, Oriol
2009-01-01
Unitarity implies that the evaporation of microscopic quasiclassical black holes cannot be universal in different particle species. This creates a puzzle, since it conflicts with the thermal nature of quasiclassical black holes, according to which all of the species should see the same horizon and be produced with the same Hawking temperatures. We resolve this puzzle by showing that for the microscopic black holes, on top of the usual quantum evaporation time, there is a new time scale which characterizes a purely classical process during which the black hole loses the ability to differentiate among the species and becomes democratic. We demonstrate this phenomenon in a well-understood framework of large extra dimensions, with a number of parallel branes. An initially nondemocratic black hole is the one localized on one of the branes, with its high-dimensional Schwarzschild radius being much shorter than the interbrane distance. Such a black hole seemingly cannot evaporate into the species localized on the other branes that are beyond its reach. We demonstrate that in reality the system evolves classically in time, in such a way that the black hole accretes the neighboring branes. The end result is a completely democratic static configuration, in which all of the branes share the same black hole and all of the species are produced with the same Hawking temperature. Thus, just like their macroscopic counterparts, the microscopic black holes are universal bridges to the hidden sector physics.
Black Hole Universe Model and Dark Energy
Zhang, Tianxi
2011-01-01
Considering black hole as spacetime and slightly modifying the big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach principle and Einsteinian general relativity and self consistently explains various observations of the universe without difficulties. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole and gradually grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient material and merging with other black holes. The entire space is infinitely and hierarchically layered and evolves iteratively. The innermost three layers are the universe that we lives, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and zero limits for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of spacetime, and tend to expand outward physically. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of black hole universe have been presented in the recent sequence of American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and published in peer-review journals. This study will show how this new model explains the acceleration of the universe and why dark energy is not required. We will also compare the black hole universe model with the big bang cosmology.
Hayward, Sean Alan
2013-01-01
Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)
2015-05-11
In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.; Tremonti, C. A.
2007-01-01
We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3......We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3...
Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.
1971-01-01
discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, Mainuddin
2005-01-01
A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)
Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.
2016-07-01
Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.
Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara
2018-02-01
We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.
The Thermodynamics of Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wald Robert M.
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
't Hooft, G.
1987-01-01
No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references
Science Teacher, 2005
2005-01-01
Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar
2015-01-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2002-02-01
Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for
BLACK HOLE FORAGING: FEEDBACK DRIVES FEEDING
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehnen, Walter; King, Andrew
2013-01-01
We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy, but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back toward the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (1) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (2) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (3) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (4) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible flares and ejection of hypervelocity stars; (5) super-solar abundances of the matter accreting on to the SMBH; and (6) a lower central dark-matter density, and hence annihilation signal, than adiabatic SMBH growth implies. We also suggest a simple subgrid recipe for implementing this process in numerical simulations
Vigneron, Quentin; Lodato, Giuseppe; Guidarelli, Alessio
2018-03-01
The disruption of a star by a supermassive black hole generates a sudden bright flare. Previous studies have focused on the disruption by single black holes, for which the fallback rate decays as ∝t-5/3. In this paper, we generalise the study to the case of a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB), using both analytical estimates and hydrodynamical simulations, looking for specific observable signatures. The range of binary separation for which it is possible to distinguish between the disruption created by a single or a binary black hole concerns typically separations of order a few milliparsecs for a primary of mass ˜106M⊙. When the fallback rate is affected by the secondary, it undergoes two types interruptions, depending on the initial inclination θ of the orbit of the star relative to the plane of the SMBHB. For θ ≲ 70°, periodic sharp interruptions occur and the time of first interruption depends on the distance of the secondary black hole with the debris. If θ ≳ 70°, a first smooth interruption occurs, but not always followed by a further recovery of the fallback rate. This implies that most of the TDEs around a SMBHB will undergo periodic sharp interruptions of their lightcurve.
LIGO Finds Lightest Black-Hole Binary
Kohler, Susanna
2017-11-01
of the components have all been estimated at 20 solar masses or more. This has made it difficult to compare these black holes to those detected by electromagnetic means which are mostly under 10 solar masses in size.GW170608 is the lowest-mass of the LIGO/Virgo black-hole mergers shown in blue. The primary mass is comparable to the masses of black holes we have measured by electromagnetic means (purple detections). [LIGO-Virgo/Frank Elavsky/Northwestern]One type of electromagnetically detected black hole are those in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). LMXBs consist of a black hole and a non-compact companion: a low-mass donor star that overflows its Roche lobe, feeding material onto the black hole. It is thought that these black holes form without significant spin, and are later spun up as a result of the mass accretion. Before LIGO, however, we didnt have any non-accreting black holes of this size to observe for comparison.Now, detections like GW170608 and the Boxing Day event (which was also on the low end of the mass scale) are allowing us to start exploring spin distributions of non-accreting black holes to determine if were right in our understanding of black-hole spins. We dont yet have a large enough comparison sample to make a definitive statement, but GW170608 is indicative of a wealth of more discoveries we can hope to find in LIGOs next observing run, after a series of further design upgrades scheduled to conclude in 2018. The future of gravitational wave astronomy continues to look promising!CitationLIGO collaboration, submitted to ApJL. https://arxiv.org/abs/1711.05578
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics
Gao, Changjun; Lu, Youjun; Shen, You-Gen; Faraoni, Valerio
2018-01-01
The Hawking-Penrose singularity theorem states that a singularity forms inside a black hole in general relativity. To remove this singularity one must resort to a more fundamental theory. Using a corrected dynamical equation arising in loop quantum cosmology and braneworld models, we study the gravitational collapse of a perfect fluid sphere with a rather general equation of state. In the frame of an observer comoving with this fluid, the sphere pulsates between a maximum and a minimum size, avoiding the singularity. The exterior geometry is also constructed. There are usually an outer and an inner apparent horizon, resembling the Reissner-Nordström situation. For a distant observer the horizon crossing occurs in an infinite time and the pulsations of the black hole quantum "beating heart" are completely unobservable. However, it may be observable if the black hole is not spherical symmetric and radiates gravitational wave due to the quadrupole moment, if any.
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
Furmann, John M.
2003-03-01
Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.
Black hole gravitohydromagnetics
Punsly, Brian
2008-01-01
Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...
Nonisolated dynamic black holes and white holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McClure, M. L.; Anderson, Kaem; Bardahl, Kirk
2008-01-01
Modifying the Kerr-Schild transformation used to generate black and white hole spacetimes, new dynamic black and white holes are obtained using a time-dependent Kerr-Schild scalar field. Physical solutions are found for black holes that shrink with time and for white holes that expand with time. The black hole spacetimes are physical only in the vicinity of the black hole, with the physical region increasing in radius with time. The white hole spacetimes are physical throughout. Unlike the standard Schwarzschild solution the singularities are nonisolated, since the time dependence introduces a mass-energy distribution. The surfaces in the metrics where g tt =g rr =0 are dynamic, moving inward with time for the black holes and outward for the white holes, which leads to a question of whether these spacetimes truly have event horizons--a problem shared with Vaidya's cosmological black hole spacetimes. By finding a surface that shrinks or expands at the same rate as the null geodesics move, and within which null geodesics move inward or outward faster than the surfaces shrink or expand, respectively, it is verified that these do in fact behave like black and white holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-01-01
The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson
2017-01-13
We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.
Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin
2015-02-01
A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.
Hawking, Stephen W.
1995-01-01
One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Susskind, L.; Griffin, P.
1994-01-01
A light-front renormalization group analysis is applied to study matter which falls into massive black holes, and the related problem of matter with transplankian energies. One finds that the rate of matter spreading over the black hole's horizon unexpectedly saturates the causality bound. This is related to the transverse growth behavior of transplankian particles as their longitudinal momentum increases. This growth behavior suggests a natural mechanism to implement 't Hooft's scenario that the universe is an image of data stored on a 2 + 1 dimensional hologram-like projection
Role of primordial black holes in the direct collapse scenario of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
KANHAIYA L. PANDEY
2018-02-09
2010) and references therein. We explore the possibility of accreting primordial black holes as the heating source. The idea that primordial black holes (PBHs) might comprise some or all of the dark matter has been around for ...
Yu, W.; Lamb, F.K.; Fender, R.; van der Klis, M.
2007-01-01
We have analyzed observations of the black hole transient GX 339-4 made with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). We have found a nearly linear relation between the peak flux during the
Kalamkar, M.; van der Klis, M.; Heil, L.; Homan, J.
2015-01-01
We present an energy dependent X-ray variability study of the 2010 outburst of the black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1659-152 with the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT). The broadband noise components and the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) observed in the power spectra show a strong and varied energy
Quantum aspects of black holes
2015-01-01
Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)
2015-03-26
We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-09-22
A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.
Baker, John
2010-01-01
Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Neitzke, A.; Pioline, B.; Vandoren, S.
2007-01-01
Motivated by black hole physics in N = 2,D = 4 supergravity, we study the geometry of quaternionic-K¨ahler manifolds Mobtained by the c-map construction from projective special Kähler manifolds Ms. Improving on earlier treatments, we compute the Käahler potentials on the twistor space Z and Swann
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borsten, L.
2011-01-01
An unexpected interplay between the seemingly disparate fields of M-theory and Quantum Information has recently come to light. We summarise these developments, culminating in a classification of 4-qubit entanglement from the physics of STU black holes. Based on work done in collaboration with D. Dahanayake, M. J. Duff, H. Ebrahim, A. Marrani and W. Rubens.
Borsten, L.
2011-07-01
An unexpected interplay between the seemingly disparate fields of M-theory and Quantum Information has recently come to light. We summarise these developments, culminating in a classification of 4-qubit entanglement from the physics of STU black holes. Based on work done in collaboration with D. Dahanayake, M. J. Duff, H. Ebrahim, A. Marrani and W. Rubens.
Warped products and black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Soon-Tae
2005-01-01
We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes
Black holes in the presence of dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babichev, E O; Dokuchaev, V I; Eroshenko, Yu N
2013-01-01
The new, rapidly developing field of theoretical research—studies of dark energy interacting with black holes (and, in particular, accreting onto black holes)–—is reviewed. The term 'dark energy' is meant to cover a wide range of field theory models, as well as perfect fluids with various equations of state, including cosmological dark energy. Various accretion models are analyzed in terms of the simplest test field approximation or by allowing back reaction on the black-hole metric. The behavior of various types of dark energy in the vicinity of Schwarzschild and electrically charged black holes is examined. Nontrivial effects due to the presence of dark energy in the black hole vicinity are discussed. In particular, a physical explanation is given of why the black hole mass decreases when phantom energy is being accreted, a process in which the basic energy conditions of the famous theorem of nondecreasing horizon area in classical black holes are violated. The theoretical possibility of a signal escaping from beneath the black hole event horizon is discussed for a number of dark energy models. Finally, the violation of the laws of thermodynamics by black holes in the presence of noncanonical fields is considered. (reviews of topical problems)
Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A
2017-02-10
We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.
Statistical mechanics of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harms, B.; Leblanc, Y.
1992-01-01
We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed
Moon, Taeyoon; Myung, Yun Soo; Son, Edwin J.
2011-01-01
We study the $f(R)$-Maxwell black hole imposed by constant curvature and its all thermodynamic quantities, which may lead to the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-AdS black hole by redefining Newtonian constant and charge. Further, we obtain the $f(R)$-Yang-Mills black hole imposed by constant curvature, which is related to the Einstein-Yang-Mills black hole in AdS space. Since there is no analytic black hole solution in the presence of Yang-Mills field, we obtain asymptotic solutions. Then, we confirm th...
The formation and evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies
Haehnelt, Martin G.; Kauffmann, Guinevere
1999-01-01
We discuss constraints on the assembly history of supermassive black holes from the observed remnant black holes in nearby galaxies and from the emission caused by accretion onto these black holes. We also summarize the results of a specific model for the evolution of galaxies and their central black holes which traces their hierachical build-up in CDM-like cosmogonies. The model assumes (i) that black holes, ellipticals and starburts form during major mergers of galaxies (ii) that the gas fr...
Rotating black hole and quintessence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Sushant G.
2016-01-01
We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass (M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α = -e 2 ≠ 0 and ω = 1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α = 0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = a E ), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < a E , it describes a nonextremal black hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and no black hole for a > a E . We find that the extremal value a E is also influenced by the parameter ω and so is the ergoregion. (orig.)
Internal structure of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cvetic, Mirjam
2013-01-01
Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)
Astrophysical flows near f(T) gravity black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmed, Ayyesha K.; Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Department of Mathematics, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Baglica Campus, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)
2016-05-15
In this paper, we study the accretion process for fluids flowing near a black hole in the context of f(T) teleparallel gravity. Specifically, by performing a dynamical analysis by a Hamiltonian system, we are able to find the sonic points. After that, we consider different isothermal test fluids in order to study the accretion process when they are falling onto the black hole. We find that these flows can be classified according to the equation of state and the black hole features. Results are compared in f(T) and f(R) gravity. (orig.)
Astrophysical flows near [Formula: see text] gravity black holes.
Ahmed, Ayyesha K; Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Jamil, Mubasher
In this paper, we study the accretion process for fluids flowing near a black hole in the context of f ( T ) teleparallel gravity. Specifically, by performing a dynamical analysis by a Hamiltonian system, we are able to find the sonic points. After that, we consider different isothermal test fluids in order to study the accretion process when they are falling onto the black hole. We find that these flows can be classified according to the equation of state and the black hole features. Results are compared in f ( T ) and f ( R ) gravity.
Polchinski, Joseph
2015-04-01
Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.
Gravitating discs around black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karas, V; Hure, J-M; Semerak, O
2004-01-01
Fluid discs and tori around black holes are discussed within different approaches and with the emphasis on the role of disc gravity. First reviewed are the prospects of investigating the gravitational field of a black hole-disc system using analytical solutions of stationary, axially symmetric Einstein equations. Then, more detailed considerations are focused to the middle and outer parts of extended disc-like configurations where relativistic effects are small and the Newtonian description is adequate. Within general relativity, only a static case has been analysed in detail. Results are often very inspiring. However, simplifying assumptions must be imposed: ad hoc profiles of the disc density are commonly assumed and the effects of frame-dragging are completely lacking. Astrophysical discs (e.g. accretion discs in active galactic nuclei) typically extend far beyond the relativistic domain and are fairly diluted. However, self-gravity is still essential for their structure and evolution, as well as for their radiation emission and the impact on the surrounding environment. For example, a nuclear star cluster in a galactic centre may bear various imprints of mutual star-disc interactions, which can be recognized in observational properties, such as the relation between the central mass and stellar velocity dispersion. (topical review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boslough, J.
1985-01-01
This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)
Growth of black holes in the interior of rotating neutron stars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kouvaris, C.; Tinyakov, P.
2014-01-01
Mini-black holes made of dark matter that can potentially form in the interior of neutron stars always have been thought to grow by accreting the matter of the core of the star via a spherical Bondi accretion. However, neutron stars have sometimes significant angular velocities that can...... in principle stall the spherical accretion and potentially change the conclusions derived about the time it takes for black holes to destroy a star. We study the effect of the star rotation on the growth of such black holes and the evolution of the black hole spin. Assuming no mechanisms of angular momentum...... evacuation, we find that even moderate rotation rates can in fact destroy spherical accretion at the early stages of the black hole growth. However, we demonstrate that the viscosity of nuclear matter can alleviate the effect of rotation, making it possible for the black hole to maintain spherical accretion...
Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reall Harvey S.
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.
Capture of particles from plunge orbits by a black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Young, P.J.
1976-01-01
Photon and ''parabolic'' particle orbits around a Kerr-Newman black hole are considered, both for uncharged particles moving along geodesics and for charged particles under the influence of the Lorentz force (neglecting radiative processes). Investigation of the radial equation of motion gives conditions under which a photon or particle is captured from a ''plunge'' orbit when incident from a large distance; the cross sections and accreted angular momenta are calculated for various fluxes of particles incident on the black hole. For example, the cross section of an extreme Kerr (a = 1) black hole to an isotropic flux of particles is 0.90 of that for a Schwarzschild hole, and the accreted angular momentum per unit mass of swallowed flux is -0.828 leading to rapid spin-down of the hole. The periastra of ''escape'' orbits are considered, and also the minimum periastron corresponding to the unstable spherical orbit that divides plunge and escape orbits. The evolution of the spin and charge of a black hole accreting particles and photons is discussed, including that of primordial black holes. It is shown that such black holes may be of the Schwarzschild type having spun-down due to consumption of radiation and particles at early times and subsequent neutralization in an ionized intergalactic medium. The statistics of proton and electron capture by the smallest surviving primordial black holes, M = 10 15 g, suggests that they are most likely to be found possessing a single quantum of positive charge
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
most sensitive scientific instrument ever ... sion, expelling a lot of the mass, but leaving behind a black hole that is at least ... hole, and indeed such a phenomenon may explain the disappear- ance of a star in the galaxy N6946 [21]. The collapse of stars into black holes might account for some of the extraordinarily powerful ...
From X-ray binaries to quasars black holes on all mass scales black holes on all mass scales
Ho, L C; Maccarone, T J
2005-01-01
This volume brings together contributions from many of the world's leading authorities on black hole accretion. The papers within represent part of a new movement to make use of the relative advantages of studying stellar mass and supermassive black holes and to bring together the knowledge gained from the two approaches. The topics discussed here run the gamut of the state of the art in black hole observational and theoretical work-variability, spectroscopy, disk-jet connections, and multi-wavelength campaigns on black holes are all covered. Reprinted from ASTROPHYSICS AND SPACE SCIENCE, 300:1-3 (2005)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathur, Samir D
2012-01-01
The idea of holography in gravity arose from the fact that the entropy of black holes is given by their surface area. The holography encountered in gauge/gravity duality has no such relation however; the boundary surface can be placed at an arbitrary location in AdS space and its area does not give the entropy of the bulk. The essential issues are also different between the two cases: in black holes we get Hawking radiation from the 'holographic surface' which leads to the information issue, while in gauge/gravity duality there is no such radiation. To resolve the information paradox we need to show that there are real degrees of freedom at the horizon of the hole; this is achieved by the fuzzball construction. In gauge/gravity duality we have instead a field theory defined on an abstract dual space; there are no gravitational degrees of freedom at the holographic boundary. It is important to understand the relations and differences between these two notions of holography to get a full understanding of the lessons from the information paradox.
Cosmic microwave background radiation of black hole universe
Zhang, T. X.
2010-11-01
Modifying slightly the big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe. This new cosmological model is consistent with the Mach principle, Einsteinian general theory of relativity, and observations of the universe. The origin, structure, evolution, and expansion of the black hole universe have been presented in the recent sequence of American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and published recently in a scientific journal: Progress in Physics. This paper explains the observed 2.725 K cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present universe with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses. According to the black hole universe model, the observed cosmic microwave background radiation can be explained as the black body radiation of the black hole universe, which can be considered as an ideal black body. When a hot and dense star-like black hole accretes its ambient materials and merges with other black holes, it expands and cools down. A governing equation that expresses the possible thermal history of the black hole universe is derived from the Planck law of black body radiation and radiation energy conservation. The result obtained by solving the governing equation indicates that the radiation temperature of the present universe can be ˜2.725 K if the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and is therefore consistent with the observation of the cosmic microwave background radiation. A smaller or younger black hole universe usually cools down faster. The characteristics of the original star-like or supermassive black hole are not critical to the physical properties of the black hole universe at present, because matter and radiation are mainly from the outside space, i.e., the mother universe.
Black hole feedback on the first galaxies
Jeon, Myoungwon; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Greif, Thomas H.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Bromm, Volker; Milosavljević, Miloš; Klessen, Ralf S.
2012-09-01
We study how the first galaxies were assembled under feedback from the accretion onto a central black hole (BH) that is left behind by the first generation of metal-free stars through selfconsistent, cosmological simulations. X-ray radiation fromthe accretion of gas onto BH remnants of Population III (Pop III) stars, or from high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), again involving Pop III stars, influences the mode of second generation star formation. We track the evolution of the black hole accretion rate and the associated X-ray feedback startingwith the death of the Pop III progenitor star inside a minihalo and following the subsequent evolution of the black hole as the minihalo grows to become an atomically cooling galaxy. We find that X-ray photoionization heating from a stellar-mass BH is able to quench further star formation in the host halo at all times before the halo enters the atomic cooling phase. X-ray radiation from a HMXB, assuming a luminosity close to the Eddington value, exerts an even stronger, and more diverse, feedback on star formation. It photoheats the gas inside the host halo, but also promotes the formation of molecular hydrogen and cooling of gas in the intergalactic medium and in nearby minihalos, leading to a net increase in the number of stars formed at early times. Our simulations further show that the radiative feedback from the first BHs may strongly suppress early BH growth, thus constraining models for the formation of supermassive BHs.
Dvali, Gia
2013-01-01
According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.
Quantum effects in black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, V.P.
1979-01-01
A strict definition of black holes is presented and some properties with regard to their mass are enumerated. The Hawking quantum effect - the effect of vacuum instability in the black hole gravitational field, as a result of shich the black hole radiates as a heated body is analyzed. It is shown that in order to obtain results on the black hole radiation it is sufficient to predetermine the in-vacuum state at a time moment in the past, when the collapsing body has a large size, and its gravitational field can be neglected. The causes and the place of particle production by the black hole, and also the space-time inside the black hole, are considered
Particle creation by black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawking, S.W.
1975-01-01
In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 10 15 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law: S + 1/4 A never decreases where S is the entropy of matter outside black holes and A is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon. (orig.) [de
Destroying extremal magnetized black holes
Siahaan, Haryanto M.
2017-07-01
The gedanken experiment by Wald to destroy a black hole using a test particle in the equatorial plane is adapted to the case of extremal magnetized black holes. We find that the presence of external magnetic fields resulting from the "Ernst magnetization" permits a test particle to have strong enough energy to destroy the black hole. However, the corresponding effective potentials show that such particles would never reach the horizon.
Visser, Matt; Volovik, Grigory E
2009-01-01
Physicists are pondering on the possibility of simulating black holes in the laboratory by means of various "analog models". These analog models, typically based on condensed matter physics, can be used to help us understand general relativity (Einstein's gravity); conversely, abstract techniques developed in general relativity can sometimes be used to help us understand certain aspects of condensed matter physics. This book contains 13 chapters - written by experts in general relativity, particle physics, and condensed matter physics - that explore various aspects of this two-way traffic.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Casadio
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce
Statistical black-hole thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekenstein, J.D.
1975-01-01
Traditional methods from statistical thermodynamics, with appropriate modifications, are used to study several problems in black-hole thermodynamics. Jaynes's maximum-uncertainty method for computing probabilities is used to show that the earlier-formulated generalized second law is respected in statistically averaged form in the process of spontaneous radiation by a Kerr black hole discovered by Hawking, and also in the case of a Schwarzschild hole immersed in a bath of black-body radiation, however cold. The generalized second law is used to motivate a maximum-entropy principle for determining the equilibrium probability distribution for a system containing a black hole. As an application we derive the distribution for the radiation in equilibrium with a Kerr hole (it is found to agree with what would be expected from Hawking's results) and the form of the associated distribution among Kerr black-hole solution states of definite mass. The same results are shown to follow from a statistical interpretation of the concept of black-hole entropy as the natural logarithm of the number of possible interior configurations that are compatible with the given exterior black-hole state. We also formulate a Jaynes-type maximum-uncertainty principle for black holes, and apply it to obtain the probability distribution among Kerr solution states for an isolated radiating Kerr hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Cabrera-Munguia
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.
Statistical Hair on Black Holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strominger, A.
1996-01-01
The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
On black hole horizon fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuchin, K.L.
1999-01-01
A study of the high angular momentum particles 'atmosphere' near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon suggested that strong gravitational interactions occur at invariant distance of the order of 3 √M [2]. We present a generalization of this result to the Kerr-Newman black hole case. It is shown that the larger charge and angular momentum black hole bears, the larger invariant distance at which strong gravitational interactions occur becomes. This invariant distance is of order 3 √((r + 2 )/((r + - r - ))). This implies that the Planckian structure of the Hawking radiation of extreme black holes is completely broken
Black holes and the multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)
2016-02-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.
Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.
Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David
2016-09-23
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.
Braneworld Black Hole Gravitational Lensing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang Jun
2017-01-01
A class of braneworld black holes, which I called as Bronnikov–Melnikov–Dehen (BMD) black holes, are studied as gravitational lenses. I obtain the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, and further calculate the angular positions and magnifications of relativistic images as well as the time delay between different relativistic images. I also compare the results with those obtained for Schwarzschild and two braneworld black holes, i.e., the tidal Reissner-Nordström (R-N) and the Casadio–Fabbri–Mazzacurati (CFM) black holes. (paper)
How black holes saved relativity
Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda
2016-02-01
While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.
Nariai black holes with quintessence
Fernando, Sharmanthie
2014-01-01
In this paper we study the properties of Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by quintessence matter. The main objective of the paper is to show the existence of Nariai type black hole for special values of the parameters in the theory. The Nariai black hole with the quintessence has the topology $dS_2 \\times S_2$ with $dS_2$ with a different scalar curvature than what would be expected for the Schwarzschild-de Sitter degenerate black hole. Temperature and the entropy for the Schwarzschild-de ...
Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kol, Barak; Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi
2004-01-01
In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes
Study of high energy emissions from stellar mass accreting holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cadolle-Bel, Marion
2006-01-01
The present work is dedicated to the study of various X-ray binary Systems harbouring accreting stellar mass black holes (or candidates) associated in X-ray binary Systems mainly through the spectral and timing properties of the high energy 3 keV -1 MeV emission, sometimes completed by observations performed in radio, near-infrared and optical. The first part is devoted to accretion physics phenomena and the challenges of understanding the X-ray/gamma emission produced with the modeling of such high energy processes. Then I will define in a second part the instruments on board INTEGRAL and the way coded masked aperture is employed. In a third part, I will develop the standard data reduction analysis and my own contribution in improving the usual software before detailing the specific informatics tools I have developed for my own analysis. In the fourth part I will turn towards the deep analysis and interpretations I have performed on several black hole X-ray binary Systems chosen properly: the persistent black hole source Cygnus X-1 which has been studied since several years and surprised us by a high-energy excess detected; two new transient sources which provide interesting information, XTE J1720-318 located in the galactic bulge and SWIFT J1753.5-0127, probably situated in the halo. I will also detail my work on H 1743-322, recently identified by INTEGRAL as the HEAO source discovered in 1977, and on three (almost) persistent micro-quasars with superluminal jets, 1E 1740.7-2942, GRS 1758-258 and GRS 1915+105. I will analyze for each source spectral parameter evolutions and their links with each other during state transitions. I will then discuss the presence of two different X/gamma-ray emitting media with a relatively changing geometry. While establishing a cyclic order for the different variability classes of GRS 1915+105 observed during ten years, I will propose an interpretation for such behaviour, compatible with the theoretical predictions of the Accretion
Black hole based tests of general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C
2016-01-01
General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar–tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory. (paper)
Numerical Simulations Reveal the Origin of QPOs in Black Hole Candidates
Chakrabarti, Sandip K.
2005-01-01
We present results of various types of numerical simulations of black hole accretion disks and find that those flows which are relatively non-dissipative and which contain accretion shocks are the best candidates so far. The power density spectra (PDS) reveal the aspects which are similar to what are observed in black hole candidates.
Role of primordial black holes in the direct collapse scenario of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we explore the possibility of accreting primordial black holes as the source of heating for the collapsing gas in the context of the direct collapse black hole scenario for the formation of super-massive black holes (SMBHs) at high redshifts, z ∼ 6 – 7 . One of the essential requirements for the direct collapse model ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lake, Matthew J. [The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Ministry of Education, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [Department of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Department of Mathematics, University College London (United Kingdom)
2017-10-15
The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes (SMBH) at redshifts z > 6, when the Universe was only 900 million years old, raises the question of how such massive compact objects could form in a cosmologically short time interval. Each of the standard scenarios proposed, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short-time formation of supermassive objects. In this work we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of SMBH in the early Universe, in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings piercing small seed black holes is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. As a toy model, the accretion rate of a seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings carrying constant current is considered. Using an effective action approach, which phenomenologically incorporates a large class of superconducting string models, we estimate the minimum current required to form SMBH with masses of order M = 2 x 10{sup 9} M {sub CircleDot} by z = 7.085. This corresponds to the mass of the central black hole powering the quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 and is taken as a test case scenario for early-epoch SMBH formation. For GUT scale strings, the required fractional increase in the string energy density, due to the presence of the current, is of order 10{sup -7}, so that their existence remains consistent with current observational bounds on the string tension. In addition, we consider an ''exotic'' scenario, in which an SMBH is generated when a small seed black hole is pierced by a higher-dimensional F-string, predicted by string theory. We find that both topological defect strings and fundamental strings are able to carry currents large enough to generate early-epoch SMBH via our proposed mechanism. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Cyclotron emission near stellar mass black holes
Apparao, K. M. V.
1984-01-01
Cyclotron emission in the inner regions of an accretion disk around a matter accreting black hole can be appreciable. In the case of the X-ray source Cyg X-1, cyclotron emission may provide the soft photons needed for 'Comptonization' to produce high energy X-rays. The inverse correlation between the fluxes of high energy and low energy X-rays during the 'high' and 'low' states of Cyg X-1, may be understood as a result of the variation of the rate of accretion and the Compton scattering of the cyclotron photons. In the case of the X-ray source GX 339-4, the observed optical flux during the high states does not seem to be due to cyclotron emission, but probably due to reprocessing of high energy X-rays by the outer regions of the disk.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
was discovered in the constellation Cygnus; a bright X-ray emit- ter associated with a twin-star system, and christened Cygnus X-. 1. It has a massive star and a black hole orbiting each other. With an optical telescope it is the companion star of the black hole which is visible, which produces stellar winds blowing away from.
Black holes and quantum mechanics
t Hooft, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074127888
2010-01-01
After a brief review of quantum black hole physics, it is shown how the dynamical properties of a quantum black hole may be deduced to a large extent from Standard Model Physics, extended to scales near the Planck length, and combined with results from perturbative quantum gravity. Together, these
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Marianne
2004-01-01
The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....
ATLAS simulated black hole event
Pequenão, J
2008-01-01
The simulated collision event shown is viewed along the beampipe. The event is one in which a microscopic-black-hole was produced in the collision of two protons (not shown). The microscopic-black-hole decayed immediately into many particles. The colors of the tracks show different types of particles emerging from the collision (at the center).
What, no black hole evaporation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hajicek, P.; Israel, W.
1980-01-01
Tipler has claimed that the inward flux of negative energy across the horizon which (according to the semi-classical approximation) accompanies the evaporation of a black hole would cause a solar mass black hole to evaporate in less than a second. It is shown that this claim is in error. (orig.)
Black Hole Astrophysics The Engine Paradigm
Meier, David L
2012-01-01
As a result of significant research over the past 20 years, black holes are now linked to some of the most spectacular and exciting phenomena in the Universe, ranging in size from those that have the same mass as stars to the super-massive objects that lie at the heart of most galaxies, including our own Milky Way. This book first introduces the properties of simple isolated holes, then adds in complications like rotation, accretion, radiation, and magnetic fields, finally arriving at a basic understanding of how these immense engines work. Black Hole Astrophysics • reviews our current knowledge of cosmic black holes and how they generate the most powerful observed pheonomena in the Universe; • highlights the latest, most up-to-date theories and discoveries in this very active area of astrophysical research; • demonstrates why we believe that black holes are responsible for important phenomena such as quasars, microquasars and gammaray bursts; • explains to the reader the nature of the violent and spe...
Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?
Solodukhin, S. N.
2005-03-01
We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.
Dance of Two Monster Black Holes
Kohler, Susanna
2016-03-01
This past December, researchers all over the world watched an outburst from the enormous black hole in OJ 287 an outburst that had been predicted years ago using the general theory of relativity.Outbursts from Black-Hole OrbitsOJ 287 is one of the largest supermassive black holes known, weighing in at 18 billion solar masses. Located about 3.5 billion light-years away, this monster quasar is bright enough that it was first observed as early as the 1890s. What makes OJ 287 especially interesting, however, is that its light curve exhibits prominent outbursts roughly every 12 years.Diagram illustrating the orbit of the secondary black hole (shown in blue) in OJ 287 from 2000 to 2023. We see outbursts (the yellow bubbles) every time the secondary black hole crosses the accretion disk (shown in red, ina side view) surrounding the primary (the black circle). [Valtonen et al. 2016]What causes the outbursts? Astronomers think that there is a second supermassive black hole, ~100 times smaller, inspiraling as it orbits the central monster and set to merge within the next 10,000 years. In this model, the primary black hole of OJ 287 is surrounded by a hot accretion disk. As the secondary black hole orbits the primary, it regularly punches through this accretion disk, heating the material and causing the release of expanding bubbles of hot gas pulled from the disk. This gas then radiates thermally, causing the outbursts we see.Attempts to model this scenario using Newtonian orbits all fail; the timing of the secondary black holes crossings through the accretion disk (as measured by when we see the outbursts) can only be explained by a model incorporating general-relativistic effects on the orbit. Careful observations and precise timing of these outbursts therefore provide an excellent test of general relativity.Watching a Predicted CrossingThe model of OJ 287 predicted another disk crossing in December 2015, so professional and amateur astronomers around the world readied more
Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes
Myung, Yun Soo
2010-01-01
We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hubeny, V.
2005-01-12
We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.
Compressibility of rotating black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolan, Brian P.
2011-01-01
Interpreting the cosmological constant as a pressure, whose thermodynamically conjugate variable is a volume, modifies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Properties of the resulting thermodynamic volume are investigated: the compressibility and the speed of sound of the black hole are derived in the case of nonpositive cosmological constant. The adiabatic compressibility vanishes for a nonrotating black hole and is maximal in the extremal case--comparable with, but still less than, that of a cold neutron star. A speed of sound v s is associated with the adiabatic compressibility, which is equal to c for a nonrotating black hole and decreases as the angular momentum is increased. An extremal black hole has v s 2 =0.9 c 2 when the cosmological constant vanishes, and more generally v s is bounded below by c/√(2).
Bronnikov, K A; Fabris, J C
2006-06-30
We study self-gravitating, static, spherically symmetric phantom scalar fields with arbitrary potentials (favored by cosmological observations) and single out 16 classes of possible regular configurations with flat, de Sitter, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. Among them are traversable wormholes, bouncing Kantowski-Sachs (KS) cosmologies, and asymptotically flat black holes (BHs). A regular BH has a Schwarzschild-like causal structure, but the singularity is replaced by a de Sitter infinity, giving a hypothetic BH explorer a chance to survive. It also looks possible that our Universe has originated in a phantom-dominated collapse in another universe, with KS expansion and isotropization after crossing the horizon. Explicit examples of regular solutions are built and discussed. Possible generalizations include k-essence type scalar fields (with a potential) and scalar-tensor gravity.
Black hole decay as geodesic motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha
2003-01-01
We show that a formalism for analyzing the near-horizon conformal symmetry of Schwarzschild black holes using a scalar field probe is capable of describing black hole decay. The equation governing black hole decay can be identified as the geodesic equation in the space of black hole masses. This provides a novel geometric interpretation for the decay of black holes. Moreover, this approach predicts a precise correction term to the usual expression for the decay rate of black holes
Black holes and quantum processes in them
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, V.P.
1976-01-01
The latest achievements in the physics of black holes are reviewed. The problem of quantum production in a strong gravitational field of black holes is considered. Another parallel discovered during investigation of interactions between black holes and between black holes and surrounding media, is also drawn with thermodynamics. A gravitational field of rotating black holes is considered. Some cosmological aspects of evaporation of small black holes are discussed as well as possibilities to observe them
Are LIGO's Black Holes Made From Smaller Black Holes?
Kohler, Susanna
2017-05-01
The recent successes of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has raised hopes that several long-standing questions in black-hole physics will soon be answerable. Besides revealing how the black-hole binary pairs are built, could detections with LIGO also reveal how the black holes themselves form?Isolation or HierarchyThe first detection of gravitational waves, GW150914, was surprising for a number of reasons. One unexpected result was the mass of the two black holes that LIGO saw merging: they were a whopping 29 and 36 solar masses.On the left of this schematic, two first-generation (direct-collapse) black holes form a merging binary. The right illustrates a second-generation hierarchical merger: each black hole in the final merging binary was formed by the merger of two smaller black holes. [Adapted fromGerosa et al., a simultaneously published paper that also explores the problem of hierarchical mergers and reaches similar conclusions]How do black holes of this size form? One possibility is that they form in isolation from the collapse of a single massive star. In an alternative model, they are created through the hierarchical merger of smaller black holes, gradually building up to the size we observed.A team of scientists led by Maya Fishbach (University of Chicago) suggests that we may soon be able to tell whether or not black holes observed by LIGO formed hierarchically. Fishbach and collaborators argue that hierarchical formation leaves a distinctive signature on the spins of the final black holes and that as soon as we have enough merger detections from LIGO, we can use spin measurements to statistically determine if LIGO black holes were formed hierarchically.Spins from Major MergersWhen two black holes merge, both their original spins and the angular momentum of the pair contribute to the spin of the final black hole that results. Fishbach and collaborators calculate the expected distribution of these final spins assuming that
Magnetic Origin of Black Hole Winds Across the Mass Scale
Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Tombesi, Francesco; Contopoulos, Ioannis
2017-01-01
Black hole accretion disks appear to produce invariably plasma outflows that result in blue-shifted absorption features in their spectra. The X-ray absorption-line properties of these outflows are quite diverse, ranging in velocity from non-relativistic (approx. 300 km/sec) to sub-relativistic (approx. 0.1c where c is the speed of light) and a similarly broad range in the ionization states of the wind plasma. We report here that semi-analytic, self-similar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind models that have successfully accounted for the X-ray absorber properties of supermassive black holes, also fit well the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the accreting stellar-mass black hole, GRO J1655-40. This provides an explicit theoretical argument of their MHD origin (aligned with earlier observational claims) and supports the notion of a universal magnetic structure of the observed winds across all known black hole sizes.
A New Cosmological Model: Black Hole Universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang T. X.
2009-07-01
Full Text Available A new cosmological model called black hole universe is proposed. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient mate- rials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we are living, the outside called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer is infinite in radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. The relationships among all layers or universes can be connected by the universe family tree. Mathematically, the entire space can be represented as a set of all universes. A black hole universe is a subset of the en- tire space or a subspace. The child universes are null sets or empty spaces. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics - the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-walker metric of spacetime - and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. The entire life of a universe begins from the birth as a hot star-like or supermassive black hole, passes through the growth and cools down, and expands to the death with infinite large and zero mass density and absolute temperature. The black hole universe model is consistent with the Mach principle, the observations of the universe, and the Einstein general theory of relativity. Its various aspects can be understood with the well-developed physics without any difficulty. The dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate its expansion. The inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe
The Cosmogony of Super-Massive Black Holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duschl, Wolfgang J; Strittmatter, Peter A
2012-01-01
We summarize our recent results on the evolution of super-massive black holes in the cores of galaxies. Our models are based on the viscous, Eddington-limited evolution of self-gravitating accretion disks. We find that, within this framework, one can explain the growth time scales and the luminosities of individual objects as well as the variation of these quantities for AGN with different black hole masses.
Galactic nuclei evolution with spinning black holes: method and implementation
Fiacconi, Davide; Sijacki, Debora; Pringle, J. E.
2018-04-01
Supermassive black holes at the centre of galactic nuclei mostly grow in mass through gas accretion over cosmic time. This process also modifies the angular momentum (or spin) of black holes, both in magnitude and in orientation. Despite being often neglected in galaxy formation simulations, spin plays a crucial role in modulating accretion power, driving jet feedback, and determining recoil velocity of coalescing black hole binaries. We present a new accretion model for the moving-mesh code AREPO that incorporates (i) mass accretion through a thin α-disc, and (ii) spin evolution through the Bardeen-Petterson effect. We use a diverse suite of idealised simulations to explore the physical connection between spin evolution and larger scale environment. We find that black holes with mass ≲ 107 M⊙ experience quick alignment with the accretion disc. This favours prolonged phases of spin-up, and the spin direction evolves according to the gas inflow on timescales as short as ≲ 100 Myr, which might explain the observed jet direction distribution in Seyfert galaxies. Heavier black holes (≳ 108 M⊙) are instead more sensitive to the local gas kinematic. Here we find a wider distribution in spin magnitudes: spin-ups are favoured if gas inflow maintains a preferential direction, and spin-downs occur for nearly isotropic infall, while the spin direction does not change much over short timescales ˜100 Myr. We therefore conclude that supermassive black holes with masses ≳ 5 × 108 M⊙ may be the ideal testbed to determine the main mode of black hole fuelling over cosmic time.
Disks around merging binary black holes: From GW150914 to supermassive black holes
Khan, Abid; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Ruiz, Milton; Shapiro, Stuart L.
2018-02-01
We perform magnetohydrodynamic simulations in full general relativity of disk accretion onto nonspinning black hole binaries with mass ratio q =29 /36 . We survey different disk models which differ in their scale height, total size and magnetic field to quantify the robustness of previous simulations on the initial disk model. Scaling our simulations to LIGO GW150914 we find that such systems could explain possible gravitational wave and electromagnetic counterparts such as the Fermi GBM hard x-ray signal reported 0.4 s after GW150915 ended. Scaling our simulations to supermassive binary black holes, we find that observable flow properties such as accretion rate periodicities, the emergence of jets throughout inspiral, merger and postmerger, disk temperatures, thermal frequencies, and the time delay between merger and the boost in jet outflows that we reported in earlier studies display only modest dependence on the initial disk model we consider here.
A nonsingular rotating black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, Sushant G.
2015-01-01
The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)
A Lovelock black hole bestiary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camanho, Xián O; Edelstein, José D
2013-01-01
We revisit the study of (A)dS black holes in Lovelock theories. We present a new tool that allows to attack this problem in full generality. In analyzing maximally symmetric Lovelock black holes with non-planar horizon topologies, many distinctive and interesting features are observed. Among them, the existence of maximally symmetric vacua does not support black holes in vast regions of the space of gravitational couplings, multi-horizon black holes and branches of solutions that suggest the existence of a rich diagram of phase transitions. The appearance of naked singularities seems unavoidable in some cases, raising the question about the fate of the cosmic censorship conjecture in these theories. There is a preferred branch of solutions for planar black holes, as well as for non-planar black holes with high enough mass or temperature. Our study clarifies the role of all branches of solutions, including asymptotically dS black holes, and whether they should be considered when studying these theories in the context of AdS/CFT. (paper)
Reconstructing the massive black hole cosmic history through gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sesana, Alberto; Gair, Jonathan; Berti, Emanuele; Volonteri, Marta
2011-01-01
The massive black holes we observe in galaxies today are the natural end-product of a complex evolutionary path, in which black holes seeded in proto-galaxies at high redshift grow through cosmic history via a sequence of mergers and accretion episodes. Electromagnetic observations probe a small subset of the population of massive black holes (namely, those that are active or those that are very close to us), but planned space-based gravitational wave observatories such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) can measure the parameters of 'electromagnetically invisible' massive black holes out to high redshift. In this paper we introduce a Bayesian framework to analyze the information that can be gathered from a set of such measurements. Our goal is to connect a set of massive black hole binary merger observations to the underlying model of massive black hole formation. In other words, given a set of observed massive black hole coalescences, we assess what information can be extracted about the underlying massive black hole population model. For concreteness we consider ten specific models of massive black hole formation, chosen to probe four important (and largely unconstrained) aspects of the input physics used in structure formation simulations: seed formation, metallicity ''feedback'', accretion efficiency and accretion geometry. For the first time we allow for the possibility of 'model mixing', by drawing the observed population from some combination of the 'pure' models that have been simulated. A Bayesian analysis allows us to recover a posterior probability distribution for the ''mixing parameters'' that characterize the fractions of each model represented in the observed distribution. Our work shows that LISA has enormous potential to probe the underlying physics of structure formation.
Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pacucci, Fabio; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Ferrara, Andrea
2017-01-01
The most massive black holes observed in the universe weigh up to ∼10 10 M ⊙ , nearly independent of redshift. Reaching these final masses likely required copious accretion and several major mergers. Employing a dynamical approach that rests on the role played by a new, relevant physical scale—the transition radius—we provide a theoretical calculation of the maximum mass achievable by a black hole seed that forms in an isolated halo, one that scarcely merged. Incorporating effects at the transition radius and their impact on the evolution of accretion in isolated halos, we are able to obtain new limits for permitted growth. We find that large black hole seeds ( M • ≳ 10 4 M ⊙ ) hosted in small isolated halos ( M h ≲ 10 9 M ⊙ ) accreting with relatively small radiative efficiencies ( ϵ ≲ 0.1) grow optimally in these circumstances. Moreover, we show that the standard M • – σ relation observed at z ∼ 0 cannot be established in isolated halos at high- z , but requires the occurrence of mergers. Since the average limiting mass of black holes formed at z ≳ 10 is in the range 10 4–6 M ⊙ , we expect to observe them in local galaxies as intermediate-mass black holes, when hosted in the rare halos that experienced only minor or no merging events. Such ancient black holes, formed in isolation with subsequent scant growth, could survive, almost unchanged, until present.
On the detection of high-redshift black holes with ALMA through CO and H(2) emission
Spaans, Marco; Meijerink, Rowin
2008-01-01
Many present-day galaxies are known to harbor supermassive, >= 10(6) M(circle dot), black holes. These central black holes must have grown through accretion from less massive seeds in the early universe. The molecules CO and H 2 can be used to trace this young population of accreting massive black
Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes
Witten, Edward
2012-08-01
The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.
Tunnelling from Goedel black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerner, Ryan; Mann, R. B.
2007-01-01
We consider the spacetime structure of Kerr-Goedel black holes, analyzing their parameter space in detail. We apply the tunnelling method to compute their temperature and compare the results to previous calculations obtained via other methods. We claim that it is not possible to have the closed timelike curve (CTC) horizon in between the two black hole horizons and include a discussion of issues that occur when the radius of the CTC horizon is smaller than the radius of both black hole horizons
Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide
Pickover, Clifford A.
1998-03-01
BLACK HOLES A TRAVELER'S GUIDE Clifford Pickover's inventive and entertaining excursion beyond the curves of space and time. "I've enjoyed Clifford Pickover's earlier books . . . now he has ventured into the exploration of black holes. All would-be tourists are strongly advised to read his traveler's guide." -Arthur C. Clarke. "Many books have been written about black holes, but none surpass this one in arousing emotions of awe and wonder towards the mysterious structure of the universe." -Martin Gardner. "Bucky Fuller thought big. Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -Wired. "The book is fun, zany, in-your-face, and refreshingly addictive." -Times Higher Education Supplement.
Quantum mechanics of black holes.
Witten, Edward
2012-08-03
The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.
Vacuum metastability with black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G. annd
2015-01-01
We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.
Gravitational polarizability of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria
2009-01-01
The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h l of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h l EM . The Love numbers h l give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.
Black holes and Higgs stability
Tetradis, Nikolaos
2016-09-20
We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.
Primordial black hole evolution in two-fluid cosmology
Gutiérrez, E. M.; Vieyro, F. L.; Romero, G. E.
2018-02-01
Several processes in the early Universe might lead to the formation of primordial black holes with different masses. These black holes would interact with the cosmic plasma through accretion and emission processes. Such interactions might have affected the dynamics of the Universe and generated a considerable amount of entropy. In this paper, we investigate the effects of the presence of primordial black holes on the evolution of the early Universe. We adopt a two-fluid cosmological model with radiation and a primordial black hole gas. The latter is modelled with different initial mass functions taking into account the available constraints over the initial primordial black hole abundances. We find that certain populations with narrow initial mass functions are capable to produce significant changes in the scalefactor and the entropy.
The Extreme Spin of the Black Hole Cygnus X-1
Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; Narayan, Ramesh; Xiang, Jingen; Remillard, Ronald A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Davis, Shane W.
2011-01-01
Remarkably, an astronomical black hole is completely described by the two numbers that specify its mass and its spin. Knowledge of spin is crucial for understanding how, for example, black holes produce relativistic jets. Recently, it has become possible to measure the spins of black holes by focusing on the very inner region of an accreting disk of hot gas orbiting the black hole. According to General Relativity (GR), this disk is truncated at an inner radius 1 that depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. We measure the radius of the inner edge of this disk by fitting its continuum X-ray spectrum to a fully relativistic model. Using our measurement of this radius, we deduce that the spin of Cygnus X-1 exceeds 97% of the maximum value allowed by GR.
Phase transition for black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes
Myung, Yun Soo
2008-01-01
We study phase transitions between black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. As the ground state solutions, we introduce the non-rotating BTZ black hole in three dimensions and topological black hole with hyperbolic horizon in four dimensions. For the temperature matching only, we show that the phase transition between black hole with scalar hair (Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli black hole) and topological black hole is second-order by usi...
The CASTER Black Hole Finder Probe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McConnell, M. L.; Bloser, P. F.; Macri, J. R.; Ryan, J. M.; Case, G. L.; Stacy, J. G.; Cherry, M. L.; Guzik, T. G.; Schaefer, B.; Wefel, J. P.; Cravens, J.; Hurley, K.; Kippen, R. M.; Vestrand, W. T.; Miller, R. S.; Paciesas, W.
2006-01-01
The primary scientific mission of the Black Hole Finder Probe (BHFP), part of the NASA Beyond Einstein program, is to survey the local Universe for black holes over a wide range of mass and accretion rate. One approach to such a survey is a hard X-ray coded-aperture imaging mission operating in the 10-600 keV energy band. The development of new inorganic scintillator materials provides improved performance that is well suited to the BHFP science requirements. Detection planes formed with these materials coupled with a new generation of readout devices represent a major advancement in the performance capabilities of scintillator-based gamma cameras. Here, we discuss the Coded Aperture Survey Telescope for Energetic Radiation (CASTER), a concept that represents a BHFP based on the use of the latest scintillator technology
Collisions Around a Black Hole Mean Mealtime
Kohler, Susanna
2017-08-01
When a normally dormant supermassive black hole burps out a brief flare, its assumed that a star was torn apart and fell into the black hole. But a new study suggests that some of these flares might have a slightly different cause.Not a Disruption?Artists impression of a tidal disruption event, in which a star has been pulled apart and its gas feeds the supermassive black hole. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]When a star swings a little too close by a supermassive black hole, the black holes gravity can pull the star apart, completely disrupting it. The resulting gas can then accrete onto the black hole, feeding it and causing it to flare. The predicted frequency of these tidal disruption events and their expected light curves dont perfectly match all our observations of flaring black holes, however.This discrepancy has led two scientists from the Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Brian Metzger and Nicholas Stone, to wonder if we can explain flares from supermassive black holes in another way. Could a differentevent masquerade as a tidal disruption?Evolution of a stars semimajor axis (top panel) and radius (bottom panel) as a function of time since Roche-lobe overflow began onto a million-solar-mass black hole. Curves show stars of different masses. [Metzger Stone 2017]Inspirals and OutspiralsIn the dense nuclear star cluster surrounding a supermassive black hole, various interactions can send stars on new paths that take them close to the black hole. In many of these interactions, the stars will end up on plunging orbits, often resulting in tidal disruption. But sometimes stars can approach the black hole on tightly bound orbits with lower eccentricities.A main-sequence star on such a path, in what is known as an extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI), slowly approaches the black hole over a period of millions of years, eventually overflowing its Roche lobe and losing mass. Theradius of the star inflates, driving more mass loss and halting the stars inward progress. The star then
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, Martin Elias
2010-01-01
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered a key process for driving efficient angular momentum transport in astrophysical disks. Understanding its nonlinear saturation constitutes a fundamental problem in modern accretion disk theory. The large dynamical range in physical conditions i...
The end of the black hole dark ages and the origin of warm absorbers
King, A.R.; Pounds, K.A.
2014-01-01
We consider how the radiation pressure of an accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH) affects the interstellar medium around it. Much of the gas originally surrounding the hole is swept into a shell with a characteristic radius somewhat larger than the black hole's radius of influence (∼1-100 pc).
Black holes and quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hooft, G. ' t, E-mail: g.thooft@uu.n [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University and Spinoza Institute, P.O. Box 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)
2010-07-15
After a brief review of quantum black hole physics, it is shown how the dynamical properties of a quantum black hole may be deduced to a large extent from Standard Model Physics, extended to scales near the Planck length, and combined with results from perturbative quantum gravity. Together, these interactions generate a Hilbert space of states on the black hole horizon, which can be investigated, displaying interesting systematics by themselves. To make such approaches more powerful, a study is made of the black hole complementarity principle, from which one may deduce the existence of a hidden form of local conformal invariance. Finally, the question is raised whether the principles underlying Quantum Mechanics are to be sharpened in this domain of physics as well. There are intriguing possibilities.
Black hole evaporation: a paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin
2005-01-01
A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved
Black Hole Complementary Principle and Noncommutative Membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Ren
2006-01-01
In the spirit of black hole complementary principle, we have found the noncommutative membrane of Scharzchild black holes. In this paper we extend our results to Kerr black hole and see the same story. Also we make a conjecture that spacetimes are noncommutative on the stretched membrane of the more general Kerr-Newman black hole.
Black holes from extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, S.D.H.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA
1990-01-01
It is argued that models of extended inflation, in which modified Einstein gravity allows a graceful exit from the false vacuum, lead to copious production of black holes. The critical temperature of the inflationary phase transition must be >10 8 GeV in order to avoid severe cosmological problems in a universe dominated by black holes. We speculate on the possibility that the interiors of false vacuum regions evolve into baby universes. (orig.)
Frampton, Paul H.
2009-01-01
While the energy of the universe has been established to be about 0.04 baryons, 0.24 dark matter and 0.72 dark energy, the cosmological entropy is almost entirely, about $(1 - 10^{-15})$, from black holes and only $10^{-15}$ from everything else. This identification of all dark matter as black holes is natural in statistical mechanics. Cosmological history of dark matter is discussed.
Black holes from fluid mechanics
Lahiri, Subhaneil
2009-12-01
We use the AdS/CFT correspondence in a regime where the field theory is well described by fluid mechanics to study large black holes in asymptotically locally anti de Sitter spaces. In particular, we use the fluid description to study the thermodynamics of the black holes and the existence of exotic horizon topologies in higher dimensions. First we test this method by comparing large rotating black holes in global AdSD spaces to stationary solutions of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations on SD-2. Reading off the equation of state of this fluid from the thermodynamics of non-rotating black holes, we proceed to construct the nonlinear spinning solutions of fluid mechanics that are dual to rotating black holes. In all known examples, the thermodynamics and the local stress tensor of our solutions are in precise agreement with the thermodynamics and boundary stress tensor of the spinning black holes. Our results yield predictions for the thermodynamics of all large black holes in all theories of gravity on AdS spaces, for example, IIB string theory on AdS5 x S 5 and M theory on AdS4 x S7 and AdS7 x S 4. We then construct solutions to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations that describe the long wavelength collective dynamics of the deconfined plasma phase of N = 4 Yang Mills theory compactified down to d = 3 on a Scherk-Schwarz circle. Our solutions are stationary, axially symmetric spinning balls and rings of plasma. These solutions, which are dual to (yet to be constructed) rotating black holes and black rings in Scherk-Schwarz compactified AdS 5, and have properties that are qualitatively similar to those of black holes and black rings in flat five dimensional gravity. We also study the stability of these solutions to small fluctuations, which provides an indirect method for studying Gregory-Laflamme instabilities. We also extend the construction to higher dimensions, allowing one to study the existence of new black hole topologies and their phase diagram.
GROWTH OF MASSIVE BLACK HOLES AT THEIR LATE STAGE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Yadi; Cao Xinwu
2010-01-01
It is believed that the growth of local massive black holes was dominated by accretion during quasar phases, while a fraction of the local black hole mass was accumulated through accreting gases at very low rates. We derive the black hole mass density as a function of redshift with the bolometric luminosity function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) assuming that massive black holes grew via accreting the circumnuclear gases, in which the derived black hole mass density is required to match the measured local black hole mass density at z = 0. Advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) are supposed to be present in low-luminosity AGNs/normal galaxies, which are very hot and radiate mostly in the hard X-ray band. Most of the X-ray background (XRB) is contributed by bright AGNs, and a variety of AGN population synthesis models were developed to model the observed XRB in the last two decades. Based on our derived black hole mass density, we calculate the contribution to the XRB from the ADAFs in faint AGNs/normal galaxies with a given Eddington ratio distribution, which is mostly in the hard X-ray energy band with an energy peak at ∼200 keV. The growth of massive black holes during the ADAF phase can therefore be constrained with the observed XRB. Combining an AGN population synthesis model with our results, we find that the fitting on the observed XRB, especially at the hard X-ray energy band with ∼>100 keV, is improved provided the contribution of the ADAFs in low-luminosity AGNs/normal galaxies is properly included. It is found that less than ∼15% of local massive black hole mass density was accreted during ADAF phases. We suggest that more accurate measurements of the XRB in the energy band with ∼>100 keV in the future may help constrain the growth of massive black holes at their late stage. We also calculate their contribution to the extragalactic γ-ray background (EGRB), and find that less than ∼1% of the observed EGRB is contributed by the ADAFs in
Flip-flopping binary black holes.
Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James
2015-04-10
We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.
Black Hole Spin Measurement Uncertainty
Salvesen, Greg; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2018-01-01
Angular momentum, or spin, is one of only two fundamental properties of astrophysical black holes, and measuring its value has numerous applications. For instance, obtaining reliable spin measurements could constrain the growth history of supermassive black holes and reveal whether relativistic jets are powered by tapping into the black hole spin reservoir. The two well-established techniques for measuring black hole spin can both be applied to X-ray binaries, but are in disagreement for cases of non-maximal spin. This discrepancy must be resolved if either technique is to be deemed robust. We show that the technique based on disc continuum fitting is sensitive to uncertainties regarding the disc atmosphere, which are observationally unconstrained. By incorporating reasonable uncertainties into black hole spin probability density functions, we demonstrate that the spin measured by disc continuum fitting can become highly uncertain. Future work toward understanding how the observed disc continuum is altered by atmospheric physics, particularly magnetic fields, will further strengthen black hole spin measurement techniques.
Atomic structure in black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagatani, Yukinori
2006-01-01
We propose that any black hole has atomic structure in its inside and has no horizon as a model of black holes. Our proposal is founded on a mean field approximation of gravity. The structure of our model consists of a (charged) singularity at the center and quantum fluctuations of fields around the singularity, namely, it is quite similar to that of atoms. Any properties of black holes, e.g. entropy, can be explained by the model. The model naturally quantizes black holes. In particular, we find the minimum black hole, whose structure is similar to that of the hydrogen atom and whose Schwarzschild radius is approximately 1.1287 times the Planck length. Our approach is conceptually similar to Bohr's model of the atomic structure, and the concept of the minimum Schwarzschild radius is similar to that of the Bohr radius. The model predicts that black holes carry baryon number, and the baryon number is rapidly violated. This baryon number violation can be used as verification of the model. (author)
Can black holes be torn up by phantom dark energy in cyclic cosmology?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xin
2009-01-01
Infinitely cyclic cosmology is often frustrated by the black hole problem. It has been speculated that this obstacle in cyclic cosmology can be removed by taking into account a peculiar cyclic model derived from loop quantum cosmology or the braneworld scenario, in which phantom dark energy plays a crucial role. In this peculiar cyclic model, the mechanism of solving the black hole problem is through tearing up black holes by phantom. However, using the theory of fluid accretion onto black holes, we show in this paper that there exists another possibility: that black holes cannot be torn up by phantom in this cyclic model. We discussed this possibility and showed that the masses of black holes might first decrease and then increase, through phantom accretion onto black holes in the expanding stage of the cyclic universe. (orig.)
Corda, Christian
2013-12-01
Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum "overtone" number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the "hydrogen atom" and the "quasi-thermal emission" in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox.
Regular black hole in three dimensions
Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok
2008-01-01
We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.
Thermodynamics of Horava-Lifshitz black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan
2010-01-01
We study black holes in the Horava-Lifshitz gravity with a parameter λ. For 1/3≤λ 3, the black holes behave the Reissner-Nordstroem type black hole in asymptotically flat spacetimes. Hence, these all are quite different from the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole of Einstein gravity. The temperature, mass, entropy, and heat capacity are derived for investigating thermodynamic properties of these black holes. (orig.)
Detecting Black Hole Binaries by Gaia
Yamaguchi, Masaki S.; Kawanaka, Norita; Bulik, Tomasz; Piran, Tsvi
2017-01-01
We study the prospect of the Gaia satellite to identify black hole binary systems by detecting the orbital motion of the companion stars. Taking into account the initial mass function, mass transfer, common envelope phase, interstellar absorption and identifiability of black holes, we estimate the number of black hole binaries detected by Gaia and their distributions with respect to the black hole mass for several models with different parameters. We find that $\\sim 300-6000$ black hole binar...
Giant Black Hole Rips Apart Star
2004-02-01
was equivalent to a supernova. "Now, with all the data in hand, we have the smoking gun proof that this spectacular event has occurred," said coauthor Günther Hasinger, also of MPE. The black hole in the center of RX J1242-11 is estimated to have a mass of about 100 million times Earth's Sun. By contrast, the destroyed star probably had a mass about equal to the Sun, making it a lopsided battle of gravity. "This is the ultimate David versus Goliath battle, but here David loses," said Hasinger. The astronomers estimated about one percent of the star's mass was ultimately consumed, or accreted, by the black hole. This small amount is consistent with predictions that the momentum and energy of the accretion process will cause most of the destroyed star's gas to be flung away from the black hole. XMM-Newton Spectrum &Illustration of RX J1242-11 XMM-Newton Spectrum & Illustration of RX J1242-11 The force that disrupted the star in RX J1242-11 is an extreme example of the tidal force caused by differences in gravity acting on the front and back of an object. The tidal force from the Moon causes tides in Earth's oceans. A tidal force from Jupiter pulled Comet Shoemaker-Levy apart, before it plunged into the giant planet. The odds stellar tidal disruption will happen in a typical galaxy are low, about one in 10,000 annually. If it happened at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy, 26,000 light-years from Earth, the resulting X-ray outburst would be about 50,000 times brighter than the brightest X-ray source in our galaxy, beside the Sun, but it would not pose a threat to Earth. Other dramatic flares have been seen from galaxies, but this is the first studied with the high-spatial resolution of Chandra and the high-spectral resolution of XMM-Newton. Both instruments made a critical advance. Chandra showed the RX J1242-11 event occurred in the center of a galaxy, where the black hole lurks. The XMM-Newton spectrum revealed the fingerprints expected for the surroundings of a black
Black holes on all scales: similarities and differences
Done, Chris
2015-04-01
I will review what we know about astrophysical black holes, from the stellar mass back holes formed from the death of massive stars, to the supermassive black holes in galaxy centres. Where material falls onto a black hole of any size, the enourmous gravitational energy released transforms these darkest objects in the Universe into the brightest. The luminous accretion flow lights up the regions of intensely curved spacetime, and its spectrum and variabilty carry the imprint of strong gravity as well as the geometry and dynamics of the emitting material. I will show how the stellar mass black holes form a homogeneous set, and how their large changes in mass accretion rate on easily observable timescales mean that they form a a template for how the spectrum and variability of the accretion flow, and its associated jet, change with mass accretion rate. They ubiquitously show a dramatic switch in both spectral, variability and jet properties as the mass accretion rate changes, probably associated with a change from a hot, geometrically thick flow to a cool, geometrically thin disc. Since the geometry and dynamics of the disc are well understood, these spectra give a clean test of Einstin's gravity in the strong field limit, with clear evidence for the existance of a last stable circular orbit. The hot flows are less well understood, but it is possible that the characteristic timescale for variabilty seen in these data is from Lens-Thirring (vertical) precession of the flow around the black hole. Scaling these models of a changing accretion flow up to the supermassive black holes can give an explanation for the multiple different types of unobscured AGN. However, as well as similarities, there are also some differences in the properties of the spectra, variability and particularly in the jet. A small subset of the most massive black holes have highly relativistic jets, with relativisitically emitting out to GeV or TeV energies. I show that the statistics of these jets
A RAPIDLY SPINNING BLACK HOLE POWERS THE EINSTEIN CROSS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.; Reis, Rubens C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Walton, Dominic J., E-mail: markrey@umich.edu [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2014-09-01
Observations over the past 20 yr have revealed a strong relationship between the properties of the supermassive black hole lying at the center of a galaxy and the host galaxy itself. The magnitude of the spin of the black hole will play a key role in determining the nature of this relationship. To date, direct estimates of black hole spin have been restricted to the local universe. Herein, we present the results of an analysis of ∼0.5 Ms of archival Chandra observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar Q 2237+305 (aka the {sup E}instein-cross{sup )}, lying at a redshift of z = 1.695. The boost in flux provided by the gravitational lens allows constraints to be placed on the spin of a black hole at such high redshift for the first time. Utilizing state of the art relativistic disk reflection models, the black hole is found to have a spin of a{sub ∗}=0.74{sub −0.03}{sup +0.06} at the 90% confidence level. Placing a lower limit on the spin, we find a {sub *} ≥ 0.65 (4σ). The high value of the spin for the ∼10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} black hole in Q 2237+305 lends further support to the coherent accretion scenario for black hole growth. This is the most distant black hole for which the spin has been directly constrained to date.
Black holes, qubits and octonions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borsten, L.; Dahanayake, D.; Duff, M.J.; Ebrahim, H.; Rubens, W.
2009-01-01
We review the recently established relationships between black hole entropy in string theory and the quantum entanglement of qubits and qutrits in quantum information theory. The first example is provided by the measure of the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (Alice, Bob and Charlie), known as the 3-tangle, and the entropy of the 8-charge STU black hole of N=2 supergravity, both of which are given by the [SL(2)] 3 invariant hyperdeterminant, a quantity first introduced by Cayley in 1845. Moreover the classification of three-qubit entanglements is related to the classification of N=2 supersymmetric STU black holes. There are further relationships between the attractor mechanism and local distillation protocols and between supersymmetry and the suppression of bit flip errors. At the microscopic level, the black holes are described by intersecting D3-branes whose wrapping around the six compact dimensions T 6 provides the string-theoretic interpretation of the charges and we associate the three-qubit basis vectors, |ABC>(A,B,C=0 or 1), with the corresponding 8 wrapping cycles. The black hole/qubit correspondence extends to the 56 charge N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the measure is provided by Cartan's E 7 contains [SL(2)] 7 invariant. The qubits are naturally described by the seven vertices ABCDEFG of the Fano plane, which provides the multiplication table of the seven imaginary octonions, reflecting the fact that E 7 has a natural structure of an O-graded algebra. This in turn provides a novel imaginary octonionic interpretation of the 56=7x8 charges of N=8: the 24=3x8 NS-NS charges correspond to the three imaginary quaternions and the 32=4x8 R-R to the four complementary imaginary octonions. We contrast this approach with that based on Jordan algebras and the Freudenthal triple system. N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions are also related to the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits (3-state systems
Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability of black holes with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2015-11-27
Nov 27, 2015 ... Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (Chandra) was just eight years old when the ﬁrst astrophysical jet was discovered in M87. Since then, jets have been uncovered with a wide variety of sources including accretion disks orbiting stellar and massive black holes, neutron stars, isolated pulsars, -ray bursts, ...
Standing Shocks around Black Holes and Estimation of Outflow ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Abstract. We self-consistently obtain shock locations in an accretion flow by using an analytical method. One can obtain the spectral properties, quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies and the outflow rates when the inflow parameters are known. Since temperature of the CENBOL decides the spectral states of the black hole, ...
Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability of black holes with ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (Chandra) was just eight years old when the first astro- physical jet was discovered in M87. Since then, jets have been uncovered with a wide variety of sources including accretion disks orbiting stellar and massive black holes, neutron stars, iso- lated pulsars, γ-ray bursts, protostars ...
Violent flickering in Black Holes
2008-10-01
Unique observations of the flickering light from the surroundings of two black holes provide new insights into the colossal energy that flows at their hearts. By mapping out how well the variations in visible light match those in X-rays on very short timescales, astronomers have shown that magnetic fields must play a crucial role in the way black holes swallow matter. Flickering black hole ESO PR Photo 36/08 Flickering black hole Like the flame from a candle, light coming from the surroundings of a black hole is not constant -- it flares, sputters and sparkles. "The rapid flickering of light from a black hole is most commonly observed at X-ray wavelengths," says Poshak Gandhi, who led the international team that reports these results. "This new study is one of only a handful to date that also explore the fast variations in visible light, and, most importantly how these fluctuations relate to those in X-rays." The observations tracked the shimmering of the black holes simultaneously using two different instruments, one on the ground and one in space. The X-ray data were taken using NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellite. The visible light was collected with the high speed camera ULTRACAM, a visiting instrument at ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), recording up to 20 images a second. ULTRACAM was developed by team members Vik Dhillon and Tom Marsh. "These are among the fastest observations of a black hole ever obtained with a large optical telescope," says Dhillon. To their surprise, astronomers discovered that the brightness fluctuations in the visible light were even more rapid than those seen in X-rays. In addition, the visible-light and X-ray variations were found not to be simultaneous, but to follow a repeated and remarkable pattern: just before an X-ray flare the visible light dims, and then surges to a bright flash for a tiny fraction of a second before rapidly decreasing again. None of this radiation emerges directly from the black hole, but from the
New observational constraints on the growth of the first supermassive black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treister, E.; Schawinski, K.; Volonteri, M.; Natarajan, P.
2013-01-01
We constrain the total accreted mass density in supermassive black holes at z > 6, inferred via the upper limit derived from the integrated X-ray emission from a sample of photometrically selected galaxy candidates. Studying galaxies obtained from the deepest Hubble Space Telescope images combined with the Chandra 4 Ms observations of the Chandra Deep Field-South, we achieve the most restrictive constraints on total black hole growth in the early universe. We estimate an accreted mass density <1000 M ☉ Mpc –3 at z ∼ 6, significantly lower than the previous predictions from some existing models of early black hole growth and earlier prior observations. These results place interesting constraints on early black hole growth and mass assembly by accretion and imply one or more of the following: (1) only a fraction of the luminous galaxies at this epoch contain active black holes; (2) most black hole growth at early epochs happens in dusty and/or less massive—as yet undetected—host galaxies; (3) there is a significant fraction of low-z interlopers in the galaxy sample; (4) early black hole growth is radiatively inefficient, heavily obscured, and/or due to black hole mergers as opposed to accretion; or (5) the bulk of the black hole growth occurs at late times. All of these possibilities have important implications for our understanding of high-redshift seed formation models.
Black holes: a slanted overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vishveshwara, C.V.
1988-01-01
The black hole saga spanning some seventy years may be broadly divided into four phases, namely, (a) the dark ages when little was known about black holes even though they had come into existence quite early through the Schwarzschild solution, (b) the age of enlightenment bringing in deep and prolific discoveries, (c) the age of fantasy that cast black holes in all sorts of extraordinary roles, and (d) the golden age of relativistic astrophysics - to some extent similar to Dirac's characterisation of the development of quantum theory - in which black holes have been extensively used to elucidate a number of astrophysical phenomena. It is impossible to give here even the briefest outline of the major developments in this vast area. We shall only attempt to present a few aspects of black hole physics which have been actively pursued in the recent past. Some details are given in the case of those topics that have not found their way into text books or review articles. (author)
Cosmology with primordial black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindley, D.
1981-09-01
Cosmologies containing a substantial amount of matter in the form of evaporating primordial black holes are investigated. A review of constraints on the numbers of such black holes, including an analysis of a new limit found by looking at the destruction of deuterium by high energy photons, shows that there must be a negligible population of small black holes from the era of cosmological nucleosynthesis onwards, but that there are no strong constraints before this time. The major part of the work is based on the construction of detailed, self-consistent cosmological models in which black holes are continually forming and evaporating The interest in these models centres on the question of baryon generation, which occurs via the asymmetric decay of a new type of particle which appears as a consequence of the recently developed Grand Unified Theories of elementary particles. Unfortunately, there is so much uncertainty in the models that firm conclusions are difficult to reach; however, it seems feasible in principle that primordial black holes could be responsible for a significant part of the present matter density of the Universe. (author)
Quasar Formation and Energy Emission in Black Hole Universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang T. X.
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Formation and energy emission of quasars are investigated in accord with the black hole universe, a new cosmological model recently developed by Zhang. According to this new cosmological model, the universe originated from a star-like black hole and grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe have been fully ex- plained in Paper I and II. This study as Paper III explains how a quasar forms, ignites and releases energy as an amount of that emitted by dozens of galaxies. A main sequence star, after its fuel supply runs out, will, in terms of its mass, form a dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. A normal galaxy, after its most stars have run out of their fuels and formed dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, will eventually shrink its size and collapse towards the center by gravity to form a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses. This collapse leads to that extremely hot stellar black holes merge each other and further into the massive black hole at the center and meantime release a huge amount of radiation energy that can be as great as that of a quasar. Therefore, when the stellar black holes of a galaxy collapse and merge into a supermassive black hole, the galaxy is activated and a quasar is born. In the black hole universe, the observed dis- tant quasars powered by supermassive black holes can be understood as donuts from the mother universe. They were actually formed in the mother universe and then swallowed into our universe. The nearby galaxies are still very young and thus quiet at the present time. They will be activated and further evolve into quasars after billions of years. At that time, they will enter the universe formed by the currently observed distant quasars as similar to the distant quasars entered our universe
2010-07-01
Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help
NuSTAR observations of the black holes GS 1354-645: Evidence of rapid black hole spin
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
El-Batal, A. M.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.
2016-01-01
We present the results of a NuSTAR study of the dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black hole GS 1354-645. The source was observed during its 2015 "hard" state outburst; we concentrate on spectra from two relatively bright phases. In the higher-flux observation, the broadband NuSTAR spectra reveal...... a clear, strong disk reflection spectrum, blurred by a degree that requires a black hole spin of a = cf/GM(2) >= 0.98 (1 sigma statistical limits only). The fits also require a high inclination: 0 similar or equal to 75 (2)degrees. Strong "dips" are sometimes observed in the X-ray light curves of sources...... in stellar-mass black holes, and inner accretion flow geometries at moderate accretion rates....
Black holes and galaxy formation
Propst, Raphael J
2010-01-01
Galaxies are the basic unit of cosmology. The study of galaxy formation is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning. The physics of galaxy formation is complicated because it deals with the dynamics of stars, thermodynamics of gas and energy production of stars. A black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense that it prevents any form of matter or radiation to escape. It is hypothesized that the most massive galaxies in the universe- "elliptical galaxies"- grow simultaneously with the supermassive black holes at their centers, giving us much stronger evidence that black holes control galaxy formation. This book reviews new evidence in the field.
The black hole quantum atmosphere
Dey, Ramit; Liberati, Stefano; Pranzetti, Daniele
2017-11-01
Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan-Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4 MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.
The black hole quantum atmosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ramit Dey
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan–Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.
Black holes a very short introduction
Blundell, Katherine
2015-01-01
Black holes are a constant source of fascination to many due to their mysterious nature. Black Holes: A Very Short Introduction addresses a variety of questions, including what a black hole actually is, how they are characterized and discovered, and what would happen if you came too close to one. It explains how black holes form and grow—by stealing material that belongs to stars—as well as how many there may be in the Universe. It also explores the large black holes found in the centres of galaxies, and how black holes power quasars and lie behind other spectacular phenomena in the cosmos.
High Frequency QPOs due to Black Hole Spin
Kazanas, Demos; Fukumura, K.
2009-01-01
We present detailed computations of photon orbits emitted by flares at the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) of accretion disks around rotating black holes. We show that for sufficiently large spin parameter, i.e. a > 0.94 M, flare a sufficient number of photons arrive at an observer after multiple orbits around the black hole, to produce an "photon echo" of constant lag, i.e. independent of the relative phase between the black hole and the observer, of T approximates 14 M. This constant time delay, then, leads to a power spectrum with a QPO at a frequency nu approximates 1/14M, even for a totally random ensemble of such flares. Observation of such a QPO will provide incontrovertible evidence for the high spin of the black hole and a very accurate, independent, measurement of its mass.
Black-hole galactic nuclei: a high-energy perspective
Boldt, E; Loewenstein, M
2002-01-01
The gravitational radiation signals to be anticipated from events involving black-hole galactic nuclei depend on the spin of the underlying object. To obtain evidence about the spin of Seyfert AGN black holes, we can rely on future ultra-high resolution spectral/spatial x-ray studies of iron K line fluorescence from the innermost regions of accreting matter. Normal galaxies present more of a challenge. To account for the highest energy cosmic rays, we propose that ultra-relativistic particle acceleration can occur near the event horizons of spun-up supermassive black-holes at the non-active nuclei of giant elliptical galaxies. This conjecture about the black hole spin associated with such nuclei is subject to verification via the characteristic TeV curvature radiation expected to be detected with upcoming gamma-ray observatories.
Geometric inequalities for black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)
2013-07-01
Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)
Geometric inequalities for black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dain, Sergio
2013-01-01
Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)
Giant black hole rips star apart
2004-02-01
Astronomers believe that a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after a close encounter with another star threw it off course. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information on how these black holes grow and affect the surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Dr Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, who led the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighbourhood." While other observations have hinted that stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as ‘stellar tidal disruptions’), these new results are the first strong evidence. Observations with XMM-Newton and Chandra, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgensatellite (ROSAT), detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the centre of the galaxy RXJ1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in this process is equivalent to that of a supernova. "Now, with all of the data in hand, we have the smoking gun proof that this spectacular event has occurred," said co-author Prof. Guenther Hasinger, also of MPE. The black hole in the centre of RX J1242-11 is estimated to have a mass about 100 million times that of the Sun. By contrast, the destroyed star probably had a mass about equal to that of the Sun, making it a lopsided battle of gravity. "This is the ultimate ‘David versus Goliath’ battle, but here David loses," said Hasinger. The astronomers estimated that about one hundredth of the mass of the star was ultimately consumed, or accreted, by the black hole. This small
Relativistic hydrodynamics in the presence of puncture black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faber, Joshua A.; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Baumgarte, Thomas W.
2007-01-01
Many of the recent numerical simulations of binary black holes in vacuum adopt the moving puncture approach. This successful approach avoids the need to impose numerical excision of the black hole interior and is easy to implement. Here we wish to explore how well the same approach can be applied to moving black hole punctures in the presence of relativistic hydrodynamic matter. First, we evolve single black hole punctures in vacuum to calibrate our Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura implementation and to confirm that the numerical solution for the exterior spacetime is invariant to any junk (i.e., constraint-violating) initial data employed in the black hole interior. Then we focus on relativistic Bondi accretion onto a moving puncture Schwarzschild black hole as a numerical test bed for our high-resolution shock-capturing relativistic hydrodynamics scheme. We find that the hydrodynamical equations can be evolved successfully in the interior without imposing numerical excision. These results help motivate the adoption of the moving puncture approach to treat the binary black hole-neutron star problem using conformal thin-sandwich initial data
No-hair theorem for black holes in astrophysical environments.
Gürlebeck, Norman
2015-04-17
According to the no-hair theorem, static black holes are described by a Schwarzschild spacetime provided there are no other sources of the gravitational field. This requirement, however, is in astrophysical realistic scenarios often violated, e.g., if the black hole is part of a binary system or if it is surrounded by an accretion disk. In these cases, the black hole is distorted due to tidal forces. Nonetheless, the subsequent formulation of the no-hair theorem holds: The contribution of the distorted black hole to the multipole moments that describe the gravitational field close to infinity and, thus, all sources is that of a Schwarzschild black hole. It still has no hair. This implies that there is no multipole moment induced in the black hole and that its second Love numbers, which measure some aspects of the distortion, vanish as was already shown in approximations to general relativity. But here we prove this property for astrophysical relevant black holes in full general relativity.
Black holes in binary stellar systems and galactic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherepashchuk, A M
2014-01-01
In the last 40 years, following pioneering papers by Ya B Zeldovich and E E Salpeter, in which a powerful energy release from nonspherical accretion of matter onto a black hole (BH) was predicted, many observational studies of black holes in the Universe have been carried out. To date, the masses of several dozen stellar-mass black holes (M BH =(4−20)M ⊙ ) in X-ray binary systems and of several hundred supermassive black holes (M BH =(10 6 −10 10 )M ⊙ ) in galactic nuclei have been measured. The estimated radii of these massive and compact objects do not exceed several gravitational radii. For about ten stellar-mass black holes and several dozen supermassive black holes, the values of the dimensionless angular momentum a ∗ have been estimated, which, in agreement with theoretical predictions, do not exceed the limiting value a ∗ =0.998. A new field of astrophysics, so-called black hole demography, which studies the birth and growth of black holes and their evolutionary connection to other objects in the Universe, namely stars, galaxies, etc., is rapidly developing. In addition to supermassive black holes, massive stellar clusters are observed in galactic nuclei, and their evolution is distinct from that of supermassive black holes. The evolutionary relations between supermassive black holes in galactic centers and spheroidal stellar components (bulges) of galaxies, as well as dark-matter galactic haloes are brought out. The launch into Earth's orbit of the space radio interferometer RadioAstron opened up the real possibility of finally proving that numerous discovered massive and highly compact objects with properties very similar to those of black holes make up real black holes in the sense of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Similar proofs of the existence of black holes in the Universe can be obtained by intercontinental radio interferometry at short wavelengths λ≲1 mm (the international program, Event Horizon Telescope). (100
Black hole entropy, curved space and monsters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Reeb, David
2008-01-01
We investigate the microscopic origin of black hole entropy, in particular the gap between the maximum entropy of ordinary matter and that of black holes. Using curved space, we construct configurations with entropy greater than the area A of a black hole of equal mass. These configurations have pathological properties and we refer to them as monsters. When monsters are excluded we recover the entropy bound on ordinary matter S 3/4 . This bound implies that essentially all of the microstates of a semiclassical black hole are associated with the growth of a slightly smaller black hole which absorbs some additional energy. Our results suggest that the area entropy of black holes is the logarithm of the number of distinct ways in which one can form the black hole from ordinary matter and smaller black holes, but only after the exclusion of monster states
Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons
He, Yun; Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren
2018-05-01
We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and "quintessence horizon" for the black holes surrounded by quintessence). Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.
Model problems for gravitationally perturbed black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.; Macdonald, D.A.; Crowley, R.J.; Redmount, I.H.
1986-01-01
The membrane formalism is applied to various types of gravitational perturbations of a black hole. Attention is given to the disturbance of the horizon of a black hole by compact masses lowered toward a nonrotating hole and the deformations experienced by a rotating hole. Nonaxisymmetric gravitational tidal fields in rigid motion about a rotating hole are considered, along with the behavior of massive particle moving along the equator of a rotating hole, and the spindown of a rotating hole in an external tidal field. The extraction of rotational energy from a black hole by orbiting bodies is examined, as are superradiant scattering of gravitational waves and the quasi-normal modes of a black hole. The perturbations imparted to a black hole by a compact body plunging into the membrane (a stretched horizon) at a velocity close to the local light speed and by a radially accelerated particle above the horizon of a nonrotating hole are also explored
Stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources.
Fender, Rob; Belloni, Tomaso
2012-08-03
We review the likely population, observational properties, and broad implications of stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources. We focus on the clear empirical rules connecting accretion and outflow that have been established for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems in the past decade and a half. These patterns of behavior are probably the keys that will allow us to understand black hole feedback on the largest scales over cosmological time scales.
Stellar-Mass Black Holes and Ultraluminous X-ray Sources
Fender, Rob; Belloni, Tomaso
2012-08-01
We review the likely population, observational properties, and broad implications of stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources. We focus on the clear empirical rules connecting accretion and outflow that have been established for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems in the past decade and a half. These patterns of behavior are probably the keys that will allow us to understand black hole feedback on the largest scales over cosmological time scales.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Current technologies have enabled glimpses at the many facetsof black holes, which we know to be plentiful in our cosmos.A panoramic view of the evidence for them is presented hereacross the large range of masses that they span. Author Affiliations. Prajval Shastri. Resonance – Journal of Science Education.
'Black holes': escaping the void.
Waldron, Sharn
2013-02-01
The 'black hole' is a metaphor for a reality in the psyche of many individuals who have experienced complex trauma in infancy and early childhood. The 'black hole' has been created by an absence of the object, the (m)other, so there is no internalized object, no (m)other in the psyche. Rather, there is a 'black hole' where the object should be, but the infant is drawn to it, trapped by it because of an intrinsic, instinctive need for a 'real object', an internalized (m)other. Without this, the infant cannot develop. It is only the presence of a real object that can generate the essential gravity necessary to draw the core of the self that is still in an undeveloped state from deep within the abyss. It is the moving towards a real object, a (m)other, that relativizes the absolute power of the black hole and begins a reformation of its essence within the psyche. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Stellar dynamics and black holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Stellar dynamics and black holes. DAVID MERRITT. Department of Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 78 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester,. NY 14623, USA. E-mail: merritt@astro.rit.edu. Abstract. Chandrasekhar's most important contribution to stellar dynamics was the concept of dynamical friction. I briefly review ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-10-06
Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.
Black Holes and Exotic Spinors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Hoff da Silva
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime exoticness. Black holes are then studied as the generators of a non-trivial topology that also can correspond to some inequivalent spin structure. Moreover, we investigate exotic spinor fields in this context and the way exotic spinor fields branch new physics. We also calculate the tunneling probability of exotic fermions across a Kerr-Sen black hole, showing that the exotic term does affect the tunneling probability, altering the black hole evaporation rate. Finally we show that it complies with the Hawking temperature universal law.
Dvali, Gia
2014-01-01
It is a common wisdom that properties of macroscopic bodies are well described by (semi)classical physics. As we have suggested this wisdom is not applicable to black holes. Despite being macroscopic, black holes are quantum objects. They represent Bose-Einstein condensates of N-soft gravitons at the quantum critical point, where N Bogoliubov modes become gapless. As a result, physics governing arbitrarily-large black holes (e.g., of galactic size) is a quantum physics of the collective Bogoiliubov modes. This fact introduces a new intrinsically-quantum corrections in form of 1/N, as opposed to exp(-N). These corrections are unaccounted by the usual semiclassical expansion in h and cannot be recast in form of a quantum back-reaction to classical metric. Instead the metric itself becomes an approximate entity. These 1/N corrections abolish the presumed properties of black holes, such as non existence of hair, and are the key to nullifying the so-called information paradox.
Black Holes: A Selected Bibliography.
Fraknoi, Andrew
1991-01-01
Offers a selected bibliography pertaining to black holes with the following categories: introductory books; introductory articles; somewhat more advanced articles; readings about Einstein's general theory of relativity; books on the death of stars; articles on the death of stars; specific articles about Supernova 1987A; relevant science fiction…
STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLE SPIN CONSTRAINTS FROM DISK REFLECTION AND CONTINUUM MODELING
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, C. S.; Fabian, A. C.; Miniutti, G.; Gallo, L. C.
2009-01-01
Accretion disk reflection spectra, including broad iron emission lines, bear the imprints of the strong Doppler shifts and gravitational redshifts close to black holes. The extremity of these shifts depends on the proximity of the innermost stable circular orbit to the black hole, and that orbit is determined by the black hole spin parameter. Modeling relativistic spectral features, then, gives a means of estimating black hole spin. We report on the results of fits made to archival X-ray spectra of stellar-mass black holes and black hole candidates, selected for strong disk reflection features. Following recent work, these spectra were fit with reflection models and disk continuum emission models (where required) in which black hole spin is a free parameter. Although our results must be regarded as preliminary, we find evidence for a broad range of black hole spin parameters in our sample. The black holes with the most relativistic radio jets are found to have high spin parameters, though jets are observed in a black hole with a low spin parameter. For those sources with constrained binary system parameters, we examine the distribution of spin parameters versus black hole mass, binary mass ratio, and orbital period. We discuss the results within the context of black hole creation events, relativistic jet production, and efforts to probe the innermost relativistic regime around black holes.
Black holes, white dwarfs and neutron stars: The physics of compact objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, S.A.
1983-01-01
The contents include: Star deaths and the formation of compact objects; White dwarfs; Rotation and magnetic fields; Cold equation of state above neutron drip; Pulsars; Accretion onto black holes; Supermassive stars and black holes; Appendices; and Indexes. This book discusses one aspect, compact objects, of astronomy and provides information of astrophysics or general relativity
No evidence for black hole spin powering of jets in X-ray binaries
Fender, R.P.; Gallo, E.; Russell, D.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we consider the reported measurements of black hole spin for black hole X-ray binaries and compare them against the measurements of jet power and speed across all accretion states in these systems. We find no evidence for any correlation between the properties of the jets and the
Bosonic instability of charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaina, A.B.; Ternov, I.M.
1986-01-01
The processes of spontaneous and induced production and accumulation of charged bosons on quasibound superradiant levels in the field of Kerr-Newman black hole is analysed. It is shown that bosonic instability may be caused exclusively by the rotation of the black hole. Particulary, the Reissner-Nordstrom configuration is stable. In the case of rotating and charged black hole the bosonic instability may cause an increase of charge of the black hole
Black hole holography and mean field evolution
Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus
2018-01-01
Holographic theories representing black holes are expected to exhibit quantum chaos. We argue if the laws of quantum mechanics are expected to hold for observers inside such black holes, then such holographic theories must have a mean field approximation valid for typical black hole states, and for timescales approaching the scrambling time. Using simple spin models as examples, we examine the predictions of such an approach for observers inside black holes, and more speculatively inside cosmological horizons.
Black holes and traversible wormholes: a synthesis
Hayward, Sean A.
2002-01-01
A unified framework for black holes and traversible wormholes is described, where both are locally defined by outer trapping horizons, two-way traversible for wormholes and one-way traversible for black or white holes. In a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model, examples are given of: construction of wormholes from black holes; operation of wormholes for transport, including back-reaction; maintenance of an operating wormhole; and collapse of wormholes to black holes. In spherically symmetric...
Building blocks of a black hole
Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Gour, Gilad
2002-01-01
What is the nature of the energy spectrum of a black hole ? The algebraic approach to black hole quantization requires the horizon area eigenvalues to be equally spaced. As stressed long ago by by Mukhanov, such eigenvalues must be exponentially degenerate with respect to the area quantum number if one is to understand black hole entropy as reflecting degeneracy of the observable states. Here we construct the black hole states by means of a pair of "creation operators" subject to a particular...
Radiation from the LTB black hole
Firouzjaee, J. T.; Mansouri, Reza
2011-01-01
Does a dynamical black hole embedded in a cosmological FRW background emit Hawking radiation where a globally defined event horizon does not exist? What are the differences to the Schwarzschild black hole? What about the first law of black hole mechanics? We face these questions using the LTB cosmological black hole model recently published. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi and radial null geodesic-methods suitable for dynamical cases, we show that it is the apparent horizon which contributes to the...
Black holes as parts of entangled systems
Basini, G.; Capozziello, S.; Longo, G.
A possible link between EPR-type quantum phenomena and astrophysical objects like black holes, under a new general definition of entanglement, is established. A new approach, involving backward time evolution and topology changes, is presented bringing to a definition of the system black hole-worm hole-white hole as an entangled system.
Tidal disruption of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bode T.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Modeling ultra-close encounters between a white dwarf and a spinning, intermediate mass black hole requires a full general relativistic treatment of gravity. This paper summarizes results from such a study. Our results show that the disruption process and prompt accretion of the debris strongly depend on the magnitude and orientation of the black hole spin. On the other hand, the late-time accretion onto the black hole follows the same decay, Ṁ ∝ t−5/3, estimated from Newtonian gravity disruption studies. The spectrum of the fallback material peaks in the soft X-rays and sustains Eddington luminosity for 1–3 yrs after the disruption. The orientation of the black hole spin has also a profound effect on how the outflowing debris obscures the central region. The disruption produces a burst of gravitational radiation with characteristic frequencies of ∼3.2 Hz and strain amplitudes of ∼10−18 for galactic intermediate mass black holes.
On black holes and gravitational waves
Loinger, Angelo
2002-01-01
Black holes and gravitational waves are theoretical entities of today astrophysics. Various observed phenomena have been associated with the concept of black hole ; until now, nobody has detected gravitational waves. The essays contained in this book aim at showing that the concept of black holes arises from a misinterpretation of general relativity and that gravitational waves cannot exist.
Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."
Roth, Lane
The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for…
Area spectra of near extremal black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Deyou; Yang, Haitang; Zu, Xiaotao
2010-01-01
Motivated by Maggiore's new interpretation of quasinormal modes, we investigate area spectra of a near extremal Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole and a higher-dimensional near extremal Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole. The result shows that the area spectra are equally spaced and irrelevant to the parameters of the black holes. (orig.)
Extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity
Katmadas, S.
2011-01-01
An explanation for the entropy of black holes has been an outstanding problem in recent decades. A special case where this is possible is that of extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity in four and five dimensions. The best developed case is for black holes preserving some supersymmetry (BPS),
On Quantum Contributions to Black Hole Growth
Spaans, M.
2013-01-01
The effects of Wheeler’s quantum foam on black hole growth are explored from an astrophysical per- spective. Quantum fluctuations in the form of mini (10−5 g) black holes can couple to macroscopic black holes and allow the latter to grow exponentially in mass on a time scale of 109 years.
Black Hole Monodromy and Conformal Field Theory
Castro, A.; Lapan, J.M.; Maloney, A.; Rodriguez, M.J.
2013-01-01
The analytic structure of solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in a black hole background, as represented by monodromy data, is intimately related to black hole thermodynamics. It encodes the "hidden conformal symmetry" of a nonextremal black hole, and it explains why features of the inner event
Black holes under external inﬂuence
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In particular we pay attention to the effect of the expulsion of the ﬂux of external ﬁelds across charged and rotating black holes which are approaching extremal states. Recently this effect has been shown to occur for black hole solutions in string theory. We also discuss black holes surrounded by rings and disks and rotating ...
The fuzzball proposal for black holes
Skenderis, K.; Taylor, M.
2008-01-01
The fuzzball proposal states that associated with a black hole of entropy S, there are expS horizon-free non-singular solutions that asymptotically look like the black hole but generically differ from the black hole up to the horizon scale. These solutions, the fuzzballs, are considered to be the
Black holes, qubits and octonions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borsten, L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: leron.borsten@imperial.ac.uk; Dahanayake, D. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: duminda.dahanayake@imperial.ac.uk; Duff, M.J. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.duff@imperial.ac.uk; Ebrahim, H. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Theory Group, Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, MS057, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)], E-mail: hebrahim@brandeis.edu; Rubens, W. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: william.rubens06@imperial.ac.uk
2009-02-15
We review the recently established relationships between black hole entropy in string theory and the quantum entanglement of qubits and qutrits in quantum information theory. The first example is provided by the measure of the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (Alice, Bob and Charlie), known as the 3-tangle, and the entropy of the 8-charge STU black hole of N=2 supergravity, both of which are given by the [SL(2)]{sup 3} invariant hyperdeterminant, a quantity first introduced by Cayley in 1845. Moreover the classification of three-qubit entanglements is related to the classification of N=2 supersymmetric STU black holes. There are further relationships between the attractor mechanism and local distillation protocols and between supersymmetry and the suppression of bit flip errors. At the microscopic level, the black holes are described by intersecting D3-branes whose wrapping around the six compact dimensions T{sup 6} provides the string-theoretic interpretation of the charges and we associate the three-qubit basis vectors, |ABC>(A,B,C=0 or 1), with the corresponding 8 wrapping cycles. The black hole/qubit correspondence extends to the 56 charge N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the measure is provided by Cartan's E{sub 7} contains [SL(2)]{sup 7} invariant. The qubits are naturally described by the seven vertices ABCDEFG of the Fano plane, which provides the multiplication table of the seven imaginary octonions, reflecting the fact that E{sub 7} has a natural structure of an O-graded algebra. This in turn provides a novel imaginary octonionic interpretation of the 56=7x8 charges of N=8: the 24=3x8 NS-NS charges correspond to the three imaginary quaternions and the 32=4x8 R-R to the four complementary imaginary octonions. We contrast this approach with that based on Jordan algebras and the Freudenthal triple system. N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions are also related to the bipartite entanglement of
Phase transition for black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myung, Yun Soo
2008-01-01
We study phase transitions between black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. As the ground state solutions, we introduce the non-rotating BTZ black hole in three dimensions and topological black hole with hyperbolic horizon in four dimensions. For the temperature matching only, we show that the phase transition between black hole with scalar hair (Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli black hole) and topological black hole is second-order by using differences between two free energies. However, we do not identify what order of the phase transition between scalar and non-rotating BTZ black holes occurs in three dimensions, although there exists a possible decay of scalar black hole to non-rotating BTZ black hole
Neutrino constraints that transform black holes into grey holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruderfer, M.
1982-01-01
Existing black hole theory is found to be defective in its neglect of the physical properties of matter and radiation at superhigh densities. Nongravitational neutrino effects are shown to be physically relevant to the evolution of astronomical black holes and their equations of state. Gravitational collapse to supernovae combined with the Davis and Ray vacuum solution for neutrinos limit attainment of a singularity and require black holes to evolve into ''grey holes''. These allow a better justification than do black holes for explaining the unique existence of galactic masses. (Auth.)
Star clusters containing massive, central black holes: evolution calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marchant, A.B.
1980-01-01
This dissertation presents a detailed, two-dimensional simulations of star cluster evolution. A Monte-Carlo method is adapted to simulate the development with time of isolated star clusters. Clusters which evolve on relaxation timescales with and without central black holes are treated. The method is flexible and rugged, rather than highly accurate. It treats the boundary conditions of stellar evaporation and tidal disruption by a central black hole in a precise, stochastic fashion. Dynamical cloning and renormalization and the use of a time-step adjustment algorithm enhance the feasibility of the method which simulates systems with wide ranges of intrinsic length and time scales. First, the method is applied to follow the development and core collapse of an initial Plummer-model cluster without a central black hole. Agreement of these results for early times with the results of previous authors serves as a verification of this method. Three calculations of cluster re-expansion, each beginning with the insertion of a black hole at the center of a highly collapsed cluster core is presented. Each case is characterized by a different value of initial black hole mass or black hole accretion efficiency for the consumption of debris from disrupted stars. It is found that for the special cases examined here substantial, but not catastrophic, growth of the central black hole may accompany core re-expansion. Also, the observability of the evolutionary phases associated with core collapse and re-expansion, constraints on x-ray sources which could be associated with growing black holes, and the observable signature of the cusp of stars surrounding a central black hole are discussed
Chandra Catches "Piranha" Black Holes
2007-07-01
Supermassive black holes have been discovered to grow more rapidly in young galaxy clusters, according to new results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These "fast-track" supermassive black holes can have a big influence on the galaxies and clusters that they live in. Using Chandra, scientists surveyed a sample of clusters and counted the fraction of galaxies with rapidly growing supermassive black holes, known as active galactic nuclei (or AGN). The data show, for the first time, that younger, more distant galaxy clusters contained far more AGN than older, nearby ones. Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe, consisting of many individual galaxies, a few of which contain AGN. Earlier in the history of the universe, these galaxies contained a lot more gas for star formation and black hole growth than galaxies in clusters do today. This fuel allows the young cluster black holes to grow much more rapidly than their counterparts in nearby clusters. Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus "The black holes in these early clusters are like piranha in a very well-fed aquarium," said Jason Eastman of Ohio State University (OSU) and first author of this study. "It's not that they beat out each other for food, rather there was so much that all of the piranha were able to really thrive and grow quickly." The team used Chandra to determine the fraction of AGN in four different galaxy clusters at large distances, when the Universe was about 58% of its current age. Then they compared this value to the fraction found in more nearby clusters, those about 82% of the Universe's current age. The result was the more distant clusters contained about 20 times more AGN than the less distant sample. AGN outside clusters are also more common when the Universe is younger, but only by factors of two or three over the same age span. "It's been predicted that there would be fast-track black holes in clusters, but we never
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beheshtipour, Banafsheh; Hoormann, Janie K.; Krawczynski, Henric, E-mail: b.beheshtipour@wustl.edu [Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, CB 1105, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)
2016-08-01
Observations with RXTE ( Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ) revealed the presence of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) of the X-ray flux from several accreting stellar-mass black holes. HFQPOs (and their counterparts at lower frequencies) may allow us to study general relativity in the regime of strong gravity. However, the observational evidence today does not yet allow us to distinguish between different HFQPO models. In this paper we use a general-relativistic ray-tracing code to investigate X-ray timing spectroscopy and polarization properties of HFQPOs in the orbiting Hotspot model. We study observational signatures for the particular case of the 166 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the galactic binary GRS 1915+105. We conclude with a discussion of the observability of spectral signatures with a timing-spectroscopy experiment such as the LOFT ( Large Observatory for X-ray Timing ) and polarization signatures with space-borne X-ray polarimeters such as IXPE ( Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer ), PolSTAR ( Polarization Spectroscopic Telescope Array ), PRAXyS ( Polarimetry of Relativistic X-ray Sources ), or XIPE ( X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer ). A mission with high count rate such as LOFT would make it possible to get a QPO phase for each photon, enabling the study of the QPO-phase-resolved spectral shape and the correlation between this and the flux level. Owing to the short periods of the HFQPOs, first-generation X-ray polarimeters would not be able to assign a QPO phase to each photon. The study of QPO-phase-resolved polarization energy spectra would thus require simultaneous observations with a first-generation X-ray polarimeter and a LOFT -type mission.
Modified dispersion relations and black hole physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ling Yi; Li Xiang; Hu Bo
2006-01-01
A modified formulation of the energy-momentum relation is proposed in the context of doubly special relativity. We investigate its impact on black hole physics. It turns out that such a modification will give corrections to both the temperature and the entropy of black holes. In particular, this modified dispersion relation also changes the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of black holes approaches the Planck scale. It can prevent black holes from total evaporation, as a result providing a plausible mechanism to treat the remnant of black holes as a candidate for dark matter
Dyonic black hole in heterotic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jatkar, D.P.; Mukherji, S.
1997-01-01
We study some features of the dyonic black hole solution in heterotic string theory on a six-torus. This solution has 58 parameters. Of these, 28 parameters denote the electric charge of the black hole, another 28 correspond to the magnetic charge, and the other two parameters are the mass and the angular momentum of the black hole. We discuss the extremal limit and show that in various limits it reduces to the known black hole solutions. The solutions saturating the Bogomolnyi bound are identified. An explicit solution is presented for the non-rotating dyonic black hole. (orig.)
Black-hole creation in quantum cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhong Chao, Wu [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics]|[Specola Vaticana, Vatican City State (Vatican City State, Holy See)
1997-11-01
It is proven that the probability of a black hole created from the de Sitter space-time background, at the Wkb level, is the exponential of one quarter of the sum of the black hole and cosmological horizon areas, or the total entropy of the universe. This is true not only for the spherically symmetric cases of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, but also for the rotating cases of the Kerr black hole and the rotating charged case of the Newman black hole. The de Sitter metric is the most probable evolution at the Planckian era of the universe.
Black hole entropy and quantum information
Duff, M J
2006-01-01
We review some recently established connections between the mathematics of black hole entropy in string theory and that of multipartite entanglement in quantum information theory. In the case of N=2 black holes and the entanglement of three qubits, the quartic [SL(2)]^3 invariant, Cayley's hyperdeterminant, provides both the black hole entropy and the measure of tripartite entanglement. In the case of N=8 black holes and the entanglement of seven qubits, the quartic E_7 invariant of Cartan provides both the black hole entropy and the measure of a particular tripartite entanglement encoded in the Fano plane.
Hydrodynamics of primordial black hole formation
Nadezhin, D. K.; Novikov, I. D.; Polnarev, A. G.
1979-01-01
The hydrodynamic picture of the formation of primordial black holes (PBH) at the early stages of expansion of the Universe is considered. It is assumed that close to singularity, expansion occurs in a quasi-isotropic way. Using an EVM, a spherically symmetrical nonlinear problem of the evolution of primary strong deviation from the Fridman solution was solved. What these deviations must be, so that the formation of PBH occurred was clarified. Attention was devoted to the role of pressure gradients. It is pointed out that at the moment of formation of PBH, only a small part of matter enters into it, primarily the component of perturbation. It is also pointed out that at this moment, the mass of PBH essentially is smaller than the mass considered within the cosmic horizon. The possibility of changing the mass of the PBH as a result of accretion is analyzed.
The Astrophysics of Merging Black Holes
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2011-01-01
When two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) approach within 1-10 mpc, gravitational wave (GW) losses begin to dominate the evolution of the binary, pushing the system to merge in a relatively small time. During this final inspiral regime, the system will emit copious energy in GWs, which should be directly detectable by pulsar timing arrays and space-based interferometers. At the same time, any gas or stars in the immediate vicinity of the merging 5MBHs can get heated and produce bright electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to the GW signals. We present here a number of possible mechanisms by which simultaneous EM and GW signals will yield valuable new information about galaxy evolution, accretion disk dynamics, and fundamental physics in the most extreme gravitational fields.
Black Holes Shed Light on Galaxy Formation
2000-01-01
This videotape is comprised of several segments of animations on black holes and galaxy formation, and several segments of an interview with Dr. John Kormendy. The animation segments are: (1) a super massive black hole, (2) Centarus A active black hole found in a collision, (3) galaxy NGC-4261 (active black hole and jet model), (4) galaxy M-32 (orbits of stars are effected by the gravity of the black hole), (5) galaxy M-37 (motion of stars increases as mass of black hole increases), (6) Birth of active galactic nuclei, (7) the collision of two galaxy leads to merger of the black holes, (8) Centarus A and simulation of the collision of 2 galaxies. There are also several segments of an interview with John Kormendy. In these segments he discusses the two most important aspects of his recent black hole work: (1) the correlations between galaxies speed and the mass of the black holes, and (2) the existence of black holes and galactic formation. He also discusses the importance of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to the study of black holes. He also shows the methodology of processing images from the spectrograph in his office.
The stable problem of the black-hole connected region in the Schwarzschild black hole
Tian, Guihua
2005-01-01
The stability of the Schwarzschild black hole is studied. Using the Painlev\\'{e} coordinate, our region can be defined as the black-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole or the white-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole. We study the stable problems of the black-hole-connected region. The conclusions are: (1) in the black-hole-connected region, the initially regular perturbation fields must have real frequency or complex frequen...
NuSTAR Observations of the Black Hole GS 1354-645: Evidence of Rapid Black Hole Spin
El-Batal, A. M.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fuerst, F.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D. K.;
2016-01-01
We present the results of a NuSTAR study of the dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black hole GS 1354-645. The source was observed during its 2015 "hard" state outburst; we concentrate on spectra from two relatively bright phases. In the higher-flux observation, the broadband NuSTAR spectra reveal a clear, strong disk reflection spectrum, blurred by a degree that requires a black hole spin of a = cJ/ GM(sup 2) > or = 0.98 (1(sigma) statistical limits only). The fits also require a high inclination: theta approx. = 75(2)deg. Strong "dips" are sometimes observed in the X-ray light curves of sources viewed at such an angle; these are absent, perhaps indicating that dips correspond to flared disk structures that only manifest at higher accretion rates. In the lower flux observation, there is evidence of radial truncation of the thin accretion disk. We discuss these results in the context of spin in stellar-mass black holes, and inner accretion flow geometries at moderate accretion rates.
Two stellar-mass black holes in the globular cluster M22.
Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J; Miller-Jones, James C A; Seth, Anil C
2012-10-04
Hundreds of stellar-mass black holes probably form in a typical globular star cluster, with all but one predicted to be ejected through dynamical interactions. Some observational support for this idea is provided by the lack of X-ray-emitting binary stars comprising one black hole and one other star ('black-hole/X-ray binaries') in Milky Way globular clusters, even though many neutron-star/X-ray binaries are known. Although a few black holes have been seen in globular clusters around other galaxies, the masses of these cannot be determined, and some may be intermediate-mass black holes that form through exotic mechanisms. Here we report the presence of two flat-spectrum radio sources in the Milky Way globular cluster M22, and we argue that these objects are black holes of stellar mass (each ∼10-20 times more massive than the Sun) that are accreting matter. We find a high ratio of radio-to-X-ray flux for these black holes, consistent with the larger predicted masses of black holes in globular clusters compared to those outside. The identification of two black holes in one cluster shows that ejection of black holes is not as efficient as predicted by most models, and we argue that M22 may contain a total population of ∼5-100 black holes. The large core radius of M22 could arise from heating produced by the black holes.
Slow relaxation of rapidly rotating black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hod, Shahar
2008-01-01
We study analytically the relaxation phase of perturbed, rapidly rotating black holes. In particular, we derive a simple formula for the fundamental quasinormal resonances of near-extremal Kerr black holes. The formula is expressed in terms of the black hole physical parameters: ω=mΩ-i2πT BH (n+(1/2)), where T BH and Ω are the temperature and angular velocity of the black hole, and m is the azimuthal harmonic index of a corotating equatorial mode. This formula implies that the relaxation period τ∼1/ω of the black hole becomes extremely long as the extremal limit T BH →0 is approached. The analytically derived formula is shown to agree with direct numerical computations of the black hole resonances. We use our results to demonstrate analytically the fact that near-extremal Kerr black holes saturate the recently proposed universal relaxation bound.
Quantum information erasure inside black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus
2015-01-01
An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. This property, combined with the requirement that outside observers need at least of order the scrambling time to extract quantum information from the black hole, ensures that a typical infalling observer does not encounter drama upon crossing the black hole horizon in a theory where black hole information is preserved for asymptotic observers.
Quantum information erasure inside black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lowe, David A. [Department of Physics, Brown University,Providence, RI, 02912 (United States); Thorlacius, Larus [University of Iceland, Science Institute,Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics,Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
2015-12-15
An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. This property, combined with the requirement that outside observers need at least of order the scrambling time to extract quantum information from the black hole, ensures that a typical infalling observer does not encounter drama upon crossing the black hole horizon in a theory where black hole information is preserved for asymptotic observers.
Black hole with quantum potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Khalil, Mohammed M., E-mail: moh.m.khalil@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 12544 (Egypt)
2016-08-15
In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.
Black hole with quantum potential
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Farag Ali
2016-08-01
Full Text Available In this work, we investigate black hole (BH physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE. From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlitz, R.D.; Willey, R.S.
1987-01-01
We study the constraints placed by quantum mechanics upon the lifetime of a black hole. In the context of a moving-mirror analog model for the Hawking radiation process, we conclude that the period of Hawking radiation must be followed by a much longer period during which the remnant mass (of order m/sub P/) may be radiated away. We are able to place a lower bound on the time required for this radiation process, which translates into a lower bound for the lifetime of the black hole. Particles which are emitted during the decay of the remnant, like the particles which comprise the Hawking flux, may be uncorrelated with each other. But each particle emitted from the decaying remnant is correlated with one particle emitted as Hawking radiation. The state which results after the remnant has evaporated is one which locally appears to be thermal, but which on a much larger scale is marked by extensive correlations
Manschot, Jan; Sen, Ashoke
2012-01-01
Middle cohomology states on the Higgs branch of supersymmetric quiver quantum mechanics - also known as pure Higgs states - have recently emerged as possible microscopic candidates for single-centered black hole micro-states, as they carry zero angular momentum and appear to be robust under wall-crossing. Using the connection between quiver quantum mechanics on the Coulomb branch and the quantum mechanics of multi-centered black holes, we propose a general algorithm for reconstructing the full moduli-dependent cohomology of the moduli space of an arbitrary quiver, in terms of the BPS invariants of the pure Higgs states. We analyze many examples of quivers with loops, including all cyclic Abelian quivers and several examples with two loops or non-Abelian gauge groups, and provide supporting evidence for this proposal. We also develop methods to count pure Higgs states directly.
Black holes in magnetic monopoles
Lee, Kimyeong; Nair, V. P.; Weinberg, Erick J.
1991-01-01
We study magnetically charged classical solutions of a spontaneously broken gauge theory interacting with gravity. We show that nonsingular monopole solutions exist only if the Higgs field vacuum expectation value v is less than or equal to a critical value v sub cr, which is of the order of the Planck mass. In the limiting case, the monopole becomes a black hole, with the region outside the horizon described by the critical Reissner-Nordstrom solution. For v less than v sub cr, we find additional solutions which are singular at f = 0, but which have this singularity hidden within a horizon. These have nontrivial matter fields outside the horizon, and may be interpreted as small black holes lying within a magnetic monopole. The nature of these solutions as a function of v and of the total mass M and their relation to the Reissner-Nordstrom solutions is discussed.
Accelerating and rotating black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, J B; Podolsky, J
2005-01-01
An exact solution of Einstein's equations which represents a pair of accelerating and rotating black holes (a generalized form of the spinning C-metric) is presented. The starting point is a form of the Plebanski-Demianski metric which, in addition to the usual parameters, explicitly includes parameters which describe the acceleration and angular velocity of the sources. This is transformed to a form which explicitly contains the known special cases for either rotating or accelerating black holes. Electromagnetic charges and a NUT parameter are included, the relation between the NUT parameter l and the Plebanski-Demianski parameter n is given, and the physical meaning of all parameters is clarified. The possibility of finding an accelerating NUT solution is also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Debney, G.; Farnsworth, D.
1983-01-01
Motivated by the fact that 2m/r is of the order of magnitude unity for the observable universe, we explore the possibility that a Schwarzschild or black hole cosmological model is appropriate. Luminosity distance and frequency shifts of freely-falling, standard, monochromatic objects are viewed by a freely-falling observer. The observer is inside r=2m. The observer in such a world does not see the same universe as do astronomers. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aruna Rajagopal
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In the context of extended phase space, where the negative cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure in the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we find an asymptotically AdS metric whose thermodynamics matches exactly that of the Van der Waals fluid. We show that as a solution of Einstein's equations, the corresponding stress energy tensor obeys (at least for certain range of metric parameters all three weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions.
Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-10
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.
Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey N. Solodukhin
2011-10-01
Full Text Available The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as ’t Hooft’s brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the black-hole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.
Glory scattering by black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matzner, R.A.; DeWitte-Morette, C.; Nelson, B.; Zhang, T.
1985-01-01
We present a physically motivated derivation of the JWKB backward glory-scattering cross section of massless waves by Schwarzschild black holes. The angular dependence of the cross section is identical with the one derived by path integration, namely, dsigma/dΩ = 4π 2 lambda -1 B/sub g/ 2 (dB mWπ, where lambda is the wavelength, B(theta) is the inverse of the classical deflection function CTHETA(B), B/sub g/ is the glory impact parameter, s is the helicity of the scattered wave, and J/sub 2s/ is the Bessel function of order 2s. The glory rings formed by scalar waves are bright at the center; those formed by polarized waves are dark at the center. For scattering of massless particles by a spherical black hole of mass M, B(theta)/Mapprox.3 √3 + 3.48 exp(-theta), theta > owigπ. The numerical values of dsigma/dΩ for this deflection function are found to agree with earlier computer calculations of glory cross sections from black holes
Black Holes, Worm Holes, and Future Space Propulsion
Barret, Chris
2000-01-01
NASA has begun examining the technologies needed for an Interstellar Mission. In 1998, a NASA Interstellar Mission Workshop was held at the California Institute of Technology to examine the technologies required. Since then, a spectrum of research efforts to support such a mission has been underway, including many advanced and futuristic space propulsion concepts which are being explored. The study of black holes and wormholes may provide some of the breakthrough physics needed to travel to the stars. The first black hole, CYGXI, was discovered in 1972 in the constellation Cygnus X-1. In 1993, a black hole was found in the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. In 1994, the black hole GRO J1655-40 was discovered by the NASA Marshall Space Flight center using the Gamma Ray Observatory. Today, we believe we have found evidence to support the existence of 19 black holes, but our universe may contain several thousands. This paper discusses the dead star states - - both stable and unstable, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars, quasars, the basic features and types of black holes: nonspinning, nonspinning with charge, spinning, and Hawking's mini black holes. The search for black holes, gravitational waves, and Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) are reviewed. Finally, concepts of black hole powered space vehicles and wormhole concepts for rapid interstellar travel are discussed in relation to the NASA Interstellar Mission.
The Growth of Black Holes and Bulges at the Cores of Cooling Flows
Rafferty, D.A.; McNamara, B.R.; Nulsen, P.E.J.; Wise, M.
2007-01-01
Central cluster galaxies (cDs) in cooling flows are growing rapidly through gas accretion and star formation. At the same time, AGN outbursts fueled by accretion onto supermassive black holes are generating X-ray cavity systems and driving outflows that exceed those in powerful quasars. We show that
Black holes turn white fast, otherwise stay black: no half measures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Garay, Luis J.
2016-01-01
Recently, various authors have proposed that the dominant ultraviolet effect in the gravitational collapse of massive stars to black holes is the transition between a black-hole geometry and a white-hole geometry, though their proposals are radically different in terms of their physical interpretation and characteristic time scales http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S021827181442022X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.92.104020. Several decades ago, it was shown by Eardley that white holes are highly unstable to the accretion of small amounts of matter, being rapidly turned into black holes http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.33.442. Studying the crossing of null shells on geometries describing the black-hole to white-hole transition, we obtain the conditions for the instability to develop in terms of the parameters of these geometries. We conclude that transitions with long characteristic time scales are pathologically unstable: occasional perturbations away from the perfect vacuum around these compact objects, even if being imperceptibly small, suffocate the white-hole explosion. On the other hand, geometries with short characteristic time scales are shown to be robust against perturbations, so that the corresponding processes could take place in real astrophysical scenarios. This motivates a conjecture about the transition amplitudes of different decay channels for black holes in a suitable ultraviolet completion of general relativity.
Black-hole bomb and superradiant instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Dias, Oscar J.C.; Lemos, Jose P.S.; Yoshida, Shijun
2004-01-01
A wave impinging on a Kerr black hole can be amplified as it scatters off the hole if certain conditions are satisfied, giving rise to superradiant scattering. By placing a mirror around the black hole one can make the system unstable. This is the black-hole bomb of Press and Teukolsky. We investigate in detail this process and compute the growing time scales and oscillation frequencies as a function of the mirror's location. It is found that in order for the system black hole plus mirror to become unstable there is a minimum distance at which the mirror must be located. We also give an explicit example showing that such a bomb can be built. In addition, our arguments enable us to justify why large Kerr-AdS black holes are stable and small Kerr-AdS black holes should be unstable
Black-hole thermodynamics and Riemann surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnov, Kirill
2003-01-01
We use the analytic continuation procedure proposed in our earlier works to study the thermodynamics of black holes in 2 + 1 dimensions. A general black hole in 2 + 1 dimensions has g handles hidden behind h horizons. The result of the analytic continuation of a black-hole spacetime is a hyperbolic 3-manifold having the topology of a handlebody. The boundary of this handlebody is a compact Riemann surface of genus G = 2g + h - 1. Conformal moduli of this surface encode in a simple way the physical characteristics of the black hole. The moduli space of black holes of a given type (g, h) is then the Schottky space at genus G. The (logarithm of the) thermodynamic partition function of the hole is the Kaehler potential for the Weil-Peterson metric on the Schottky space. The Bekenstein bound on the black-hole entropy leads us to conjecture a new strong bound on this Kaehler potential
Hawking radiation and strong gravity black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.; Sayed, W.A.
1979-01-01
It is shown that the strong gravity theory of Salam et al. places severe restrictions on black hole evaporation. Two major implications are that: mini blck holes (down to masses approximately 10 -16 kg) would be stable in the present epoch; and that some suggested mini black hole mechanisms to explain astrophysical phenomena would not work. The first result implies that f-gravity appears to make black holes much safer by removing the possibility of extremely violent black hole explosions suggested by Hawking. (Auth.)
The connection between the formation of galaxies and that of their central supermassive black holes.
Haehnelt, Martin G
2005-03-15
Massive black holes appear to be an essential ingredient of massive galactic bulges but little is known yet to what extent massive black holes reside in dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. Massive black holes most likely grow by a mixture of merging and accretion of gas in their hierarchically merging host galaxies. While the hierarchical merging of dark matter structures extends to sub-galactic scales and very high redshift, it is uncertain if the same is true for the build-up of massive black holes. I discuss here some of the relevant problems and open questions.
Black Hole Dynamic Potentials Koustubh Ajit Kabe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been ... the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those ..... work. This makes K, the energy which is available for work in time-reversible pro- cesses (white holes) observing constancy of surface gravity. Since the area of the.
Stellar-Mass Black Holes in the Solar Neighborhood
Chisholm, J S R; Kolb, Edward W; Chisholm, James R.; Dodelson, Scott; Kolb, Edward W.
2003-01-01
We search for nearby, isolated, accreting, ``stellar-mass'' (3 to $100M_\\odot$) black holes. Models suggest a synchrotron spectrum in visible wavelengths and some emission in X-ray wavelengths. Of 3.7 million objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Early Data Release, about 150,000 have colors and properties consistent with such a spectrum, and 47 of these objects are X-ray sources from the ROSAT All Sky Survey. Optical spectra exclude seven of these. We give the positions and colors of these 40 black-hole candidates, as well as a measure of their distances from the stellar loci in color--color space. We discuss uncertainties the expected number of sources, and the contribution of black holes to local dark matter.
Black holes a laboratory for testing strong gravity
Bambi, Cosimo
2017-01-01
This textbook introduces the current astrophysical observations of black holes, and discusses the leading techniques to study the strong gravity region around these objects with electromagnetic radiation. More importantly, it provides the basic tools for writing an astrophysical code and testing the Kerr paradigm. Astrophysical black holes are an ideal laboratory for testing strong gravity. According to general relativity, the spacetime geometry around these objects should be well described by the Kerr solution. The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the inner part of the accretion disk can probe the metric of the strong gravity region and test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. With exercises and examples in each chapter, as well as calculations and analytical details in the appendix, the book is especially useful to the beginners or graduate students who are familiar with general relativity while they do not have any background in astronomy or astrophysics.
Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune
2010-01-01
It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/√(3))≤(a/M)≤1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.
Black holes, cuspy atmospheres and galaxy formation.
Binney, James
2005-03-15
In cuspy atmospheres, jets driven by supermassive black holes (BHs) offset radiative cooling. The jets fire episodically, but often enough that the cuspy atmosphere does not move very far towards a cooling catastrophe in the intervals of jet inactivity. The ability of energy released on the sub-parsec scale of the BH to balance cooling on scales of several tens of kiloparsecs arises through a combination of the temperature sensitivity of the accretion rate and the way in which the radius of jet disruption varies with ambient density. Accretion of hot gas does not significantly increase BH masses, which are determined by periods of rapid BH growth and star formation when cold gas is briefly abundant at the galactic centre. Hot gas does not accumulate in shallow potential wells. As the Universe ages, deeper wells form, and eventually hot gas accumulates. This gas soon prevents the formation of further stars, since jets powered by the BH prevent it from cooling, and it mops up most cold infalling gas before many stars can form. Thus, BHs set the upper limit to the masses of galaxies. The formation of low-mass galaxies is inhibited by a combination of photo- heating and supernova-driven galactic winds. Working in tandem, these mechanisms can probably explain the profound difference between the galaxy luminosity function and the mass function of dark haloes expected in the cold dark matter cosmology.
Electrically charged matter in rigid rotation around magnetized black hole
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kovář, J.; Slaný, P.; Cremaschini, C.; Stuchlík, Z.; Karas, Vladimír; Trova, Audrey
2014-01-01
Roč. 90, č. 4 (2014), 044029/1-044029/14 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37086G Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP14-07753P Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : black hole s * accretion disks Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014
Critical emission from a high-spin black hole
Lupsasca, Alexandru; Porfyriadis, Achilleas P.; Shi, Yichen
2018-03-01
We consider a rapidly spinning black hole surrounded by an equatorial, geometrically thin, slowly accreting disk that is stationary and axisymmetric. We analytically compute the broadening of electromagnetic line emissions from the innermost part of the disk, which resides in the near-horizon region. The result is independent of the disk's surface emissivity and therefore universal. This is an example of critical behavior in astronomy that is potentially observable by current or future telescopes.
A Black Hole in Our Galactic Center
Ruiz, Michael J.
2008-01-01
An introductory approach to black holes is presented along with astronomical observational data pertaining to the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Concepts of conservation of energy and Kepler's third law are employed so students can apply formulas from their physics class to determine the mass of the black hole…
BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole
Wang, Liancheng; He, Feng; Fu, Xiangyun
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study the BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole. It can be found that the BSW process will also arise near black hole horizon when the evaporation of charged black hole is very slow. But now the background black hole does not have to be an extremal black hole, and it will be approximately an extremal black hole unless it is nearly a huge stationary black hole.
A CONNECTION BETWEEN PLASMA CONDITIONS NEAR BLACK HOLE EVENT HORIZONS AND OUTFLOW PROPERTIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koljonen, K. I. I.; Russell, D. M.; Bernardini, F. [New York University Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 129188, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali (INAF-IAPS), Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Markoff, Sera [Astronomical Institute “Anton Pannekoek”, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Curran, P. A.; Soria, R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research—Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Van der Horst, A. J. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Casella, P. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Gandhi, P., E-mail: karri.koljonen@nyu.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
2015-12-01
Accreting black holes are responsible for producing the fastest, most powerful outflows of matter in the universe. The formation process of powerful jets close to black holes is poorly understood, and the conditions leading to jet formation are currently hotly debated. In this paper, we report an unambiguous empirical correlation between the properties of the plasma close to the black hole and the particle acceleration properties within jets launched from the central regions of accreting stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. In these sources the emission of the plasma near the black hole is characterized by a power law at X-ray energies during times when the jets are produced. We find that the photon index of this power law, which gives information on the underlying particle distribution, correlates with the characteristic break frequency in the jet spectrum, which is dependent on magnetohydrodynamical processes in the outflow. The observed range in break frequencies varies by five orders of magnitude in sources that span nine orders of magnitude in black hole mass, revealing a similarity of jet properties over a large range of black hole masses powering these jets. This correlation demonstrates that the internal properties of the jet rely most critically on the conditions of the plasma close to the black hole, rather than other parameters such as the black hole mass or spin, and will provide a benchmark that should be reproduced by the jet formation models.
Investigating Supermassive Black Hole Spin at Different Redshift
Sinanan-Singh, Jasmine
2018-01-01
Supermassive black hole (SMBH) spin encodes vital information about the history of SMBH growth. High spins indicate a history of growth through large mass accretion events, which spin-up the black hole; Intermediate spins indicate a history of galactic mergers, which don't tend to systemcatically spin-up or spin-down black holes; low spins are attributed to successive, small accretion events with random orientations. Examining spin over different redshifts will help us understand the relative growth of SMBHs by mergers or accretion over cosmic time, an important part of understanding how SMBHs and their host galaxies co-evolved over time. To study spin, we compute the Fe K alpha emission line from the X-ray spectra of AGN sources in the Chandra-COSMOS Legacy Survey. We stack rest frame AGN spectra to improve the signal-to-noise ratio since the photon counts are low for individual spectra, and then average the spectra using an unwieghted mean. Our method is derived from Corral et al. (2008). We test our method on the two brightest sources in the COSMOS Survey and compute the rest frame average Fe K alpha emission line for different redshift bins. The SAO REU program is funded by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant AST-1659473, and by the Smithsonian Institution.
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes.
Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Garrett, Travis
2011-08-02
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.
Escape of Black Holes from the Brane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flachi, Antonino; Tanaka, Takahiro
2005-01-01
TeV-scale gravity theories allow the possibility of producing small black holes at energies that soon will be explored at the CERN LHC or at the Auger observatory. One of the expected signatures is the detection of Hawking radiation that might eventually terminate if the black hole, once perturbed, leaves the brane. Here, we study how the 'black hole plus brane' system evolves once the black hole is given an initial velocity that mimics, for instance, the recoil due to the emission of a graviton. The results of our dynamical analysis show that the brane bends around the black hole, suggesting that the black hole eventually escapes into the extra dimensions once two portions of the brane come in contact and reconnect. This gives a dynamical mechanism for the creation of baby branes
Hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju
2010-01-01
We study the hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many extremal black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS 3 , and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the extremal black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.
Information Retention by Stringy Black Holes
Ellis, John
2015-01-01
Building upon our previous work on two-dimensional stringy black holes and its extension to spherically-symmetric four-dimensional stringy black holes, we show how the latter retain information. A key r\\^ole is played by an infinite-dimensional $W_\\infty$ symmetry that preserves the area of an isolated black-hole horizon and hence its entropy. The exactly-marginal conformal world-sheet operator representing a massless stringy particle interacting with the black hole necessarily includes a contribution from $W_\\infty$ generators in its vertex function. This admixture manifests the transfer of information between the string black hole and external particles. We discuss different manifestations of $W_\\infty$ symmetry in black-hole physics and the connections between them.
What does a black hole look like?
Bailyn, Charles D
2014-01-01
Emitting no radiation or any other kind of information, black holes mark the edge of the universe--both physically and in our scientific understanding. Yet astronomers have found clear evidence for the existence of black holes, employing the same tools and techniques used to explore other celestial objects. In this sophisticated introduction, leading astronomer Charles Bailyn goes behind the theory and physics of black holes to describe how astronomers are observing these enigmatic objects and developing a remarkably detailed picture of what they look like and how they interact with their surroundings. Accessible to undergraduates and others with some knowledge of introductory college-level physics, this book presents the techniques used to identify and measure the mass and spin of celestial black holes. These key measurements demonstrate the existence of two kinds of black holes, those with masses a few times that of a typical star, and those with masses comparable to whole galaxies--supermassive black holes...
Charged topological black hole pair creation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mann, R.B.
1998-01-01
I examine the pair creation of black holes in space-times with a cosmological constant of either sign. I consider cosmological C-metrics and show that the conical singularities in this metric vanish only for three distinct classes of black hole metric, two of which have compact event horizons on each spatial slice. One class is a generalization of the Reissner-Nordstroem (anti-)de Sitter black holes in which the event horizons are the direct product of a null line with a 2-surface with topology of genus g. The other class consists of neutral black holes whose event horizons are the direct product of a null conoid with a circle. In the presence of a domain wall, black hole pairs of all possible types will be pair created for a wide range of mass and charge, including even negative mass black holes. I determine the relevant instantons and Euclidean actions for each case. (orig.)
Reversible Carnot cycle outside a black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xi-Hao, Deng; Si-Jie, Gao
2009-01-01
A Carnot cycle outside a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated in detail. We propose a reversible Carnot cycle with a black hole being the cold reservoir. In our model, a Carnot engine operates between a hot reservoir with temperature T 1 and a black hole with Hawking temperature T H . By naturally extending the ordinary Carnot cycle to the black hole system, we show that the thermal efficiency for a reversible process can reach the maximal efficiency 1 – T H /T 1 . Consequently, black holes can be used to determine the thermodynamic temperature by means of the Carnot cycle. The role of the atmosphere around the black hole is discussed. We show that the thermal atmosphere provides a necessary mechanism to make the process reversible. (general)
Hawking temperature of constant curvature black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Ronggen; Myung, Yun Soo
2011-01-01
The constant curvature (CC) black holes are higher dimensional generalizations of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. It is known that these black holes have the unusual topology of M D-1 xS 1 , where D is the spacetime dimension and M D-1 stands for a conformal Minkowski spacetime in D-1 dimensions. The unusual topology and time-dependence for the exterior of these black holes cause some difficulties to derive their thermodynamic quantities. In this work, by using a globally embedding approach, we obtain the Hawking temperature of the CC black holes. We find that the Hawking temperature takes the same form when using both the static and global coordinates. Also, it is identical to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the boundary de Sitter spaces of these CC black holes.
Superradiance by mini black holes with mirror
Lee, Jong-Phil
2011-01-01
The superradiant scattering of massive scalar particles by a rotating mini black hole is investigated. Imposing the mirror boundary condition, the system becomes the so called black-hole bomb where the rotation energy of the black hole is transferred to the scattered particle exponentially with time. Bulk emissions as well as brane emissions are considered altogether. It is found that the largest effects are expected for the brane emission of lower angular modes with lighter mass and larger a...
Geometrothermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes
Bravetti, Alessandro; Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Quevedo, Hernando
2013-08-01
We study the thermodynamics and geometrothermodynamics of different black hole configurations in more than four spacetime dimensions. We use the response functions to find the conditions under which second order phase transitions occur in higher-dimensional static Reissner-Nordström and stationary Kerr black holes. Our results indicate that the equilibrium manifold of all these black hole configurations is in general curved and that curvature singularities appear exactly at those places where second order phase transitions occur.
Effective Stringy Description of Schwarzschild Black Holes
Krasnov , Kirill; Solodukhin , Sergey N.
2004-01-01
We start by pointing out that certain Riemann surfaces appear rather naturally in the context of wave equations in the black hole background. For a given black hole there are two closely related surfaces. One is the Riemann surface of complexified ``tortoise'' coordinate. The other Riemann surface appears when the radial wave equation is interpreted as the Fuchsian differential equation. We study these surfaces in detail for the BTZ and Schwarzschild black holes in four and higher dimensions....
Observability of Quantum State of Black Hole
David, J R; Mandal, G; Wadia, S R; David, Justin R.; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R.
1997-01-01
We analyze terms subleading to Rutherford in the $S$-matrix between black hole and probes of successively high energies. We show that by an appropriate choice of the probe one can read off the quantum state of the black hole from the S-matrix, staying asymptotically far from the BH all the time. We interpret the scattering experiment as scattering off classical stringy backgrounds which explicitly depend on the internal quantum numbers of the black hole.
Black hole mergers in the universe
Zwart, Simon Portegies; McMillan, Stephen
1999-01-01
Mergers of black-hole binaries are expected to release large amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation. However, binary evolution models predict merger rates too low to be of observational interest. In this paper we explore the possibility that black holes become members of close binaries via dynamical interactions with other stars in dense stellar systems. In star clusters, black holes become the most massive objects within a few tens of millions of years; dynamical relaxation...
A New Model of Black Hole Formation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thayer G. D.
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The formation of a black hole and its event horizon are described. Conclusions, which are the result of a thought experiment, show that Schwarzschild [1] was correct: A singularity develops at the event horizon of a newly-formed black hole. The intense gravitational field that forms near the event horizon results in the mass-energy of the black hole accumulating in a layer just inside the event horizon, rather than collapsing into a central singularity.
Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badia, Javier [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2017-11-15
In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)
Unified geometric description of black hole thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, Jose L.; Quevedo, Hernando; Sanchez, Alberto
2008-01-01
In the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states we introduce a Legendre invariant metric which contains all the information about the thermodynamics of black holes. The curvature of this thermodynamic metric becomes singular at those points where, according to the analysis of the heat capacities, phase transitions occur. This result is valid for the Kerr-Newman black hole and all its special cases and, therefore, provides a unified description of black hole phase transitions in terms of curvature singularities.
Shaping Globular Clusters with Black Holes
Kohler, Susanna
2018-03-01
How many black holes lurk within the dense environments of globular clusters, and how do these powerful objects shape the properties of the cluster around them? One such cluster, NGC 3201, is now helping us to answer these questions.Hunting Stellar-Mass Black HolesSince the detection of merging black-hole binaries by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the dense environments of globular clusters have received increasing attention as potential birthplaces of these compact binary systems.The central region of the globular star cluster NGC 3201, as viewed by Hubble. The black hole is in orbit with the star marked by the blue circle. [NASA/ESA]In addition, more and more stellar-mass black-hole candidates have been observed within globular clusters, lurking in binary pairs with luminous, non-compact companions. The most recent of these detections, found in the globular cluster NGC 3201, stands alone as the first stellar-mass black hole candidate discovered via radial velocity observations: the black holes main-sequence companion gave away its presence via a telltale wobble.Now a team of scientists led by Kyle Kremer (CIERA and Northwestern University) is using models of this system to better understand the impact that black holes might have on their host clusters.A Model ClusterThe relationship between black holes and their host clusters is complicated. Though the cluster environment can determine the dynamical evolution of the black holes, the retention rate of black holes in a globular cluster (i.e., how many remain in the cluster when they are born as supernovae, rather than being kicked out during the explosion) influences how the host cluster evolves.Kremer and collaborators track this complex relationship by modeling the evolution of a cluster similar to NGC 3201 with a Monte Carlo code. The code incorporates physics relevant to the evolution of black holes and black-hole binaries in globular clusters, such as two-body relaxation
Extremal Black Holes and Attractors
Ferrara, S
2010-01-01
These lectures give an elementary introduction to the subject of four dimensional black holes (BHs) in supergravity and the Attractor Mechanism in the extremal case. Some thermodynamical properties are discussed and some relevant formula for the critical points of the BH effective potential are given. The case of Maxwell-Einstein-axion-dilaton (super)gravity is discussed in detail. Analogies among BH entropy and multipartite entanglement of qubits in quantum information theory, as well moduli spaces of extremal BH attractors, are also discussed.
Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation.
Greene, Jenny E
2012-01-01
Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism.
Quantum capacity of quantum black holes
Adami, Chris; Bradler, Kamil
2014-03-01
The fate of quantum entanglement interacting with a black hole has been an enduring mystery, not the least because standard curved space field theory does not address the interaction of black holes with matter. We discuss an effective Hamiltonian of matter interacting with a black hole that has a precise analogue in quantum optics and correctly reproduces both spontaneous and stimulated Hawking radiation with grey-body factors. We calculate the quantum capacity of this channel in the limit of perfect absorption, as well as in the limit of a perfectly reflecting black hole (a white hole). We find that the white hole is an optimal quantum cloner, and is isomorphic to the Unruh channel with positive quantum capacity. The complementary channel (across the horizon) is entanglement-breaking with zero capacity, avoiding a violation of the quantum no-cloning theorem. The black hole channel on the contrary has vanishing capacity, while its complement has positive capacity instead. Thus, quantum states can be reconstructed faithfully behind the black hole horizon, but not outside. This work sheds new light on black hole complementarity because it shows that black holes can both reflect and absorb quantum states without violating the no-cloning theorem, and makes quantum firewalls obsolete.
On the thermodynamics of hairy black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)
2015-04-09
We investigate the thermodynamics of a general class of exact 4-dimensional asymptotically Anti-de Sitter hairy black hole solutions and show that, for a fixed temperature, there are small and large hairy black holes similar to the Schwarzschild–AdS black hole. The large black holes have positive specific heat and so they can be in equilibrium with a thermal bath of radiation at the Hawking temperature. The relevant thermodynamic quantities are computed by using the Hamiltonian formalism and counterterm method. We explicitly show that there are first order phase transitions similar to the Hawking–Page phase transition.
Black hole evaporation in conformal gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bambi, Cosimo; Rachwał, Lesław [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Modesto, Leonardo [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Porey, Shiladitya, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: lmodesto@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: shilp@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: rachwal@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, 208016 Kanpur (India)
2017-09-01
We study the formation and the evaporation of a spherically symmetric black hole in conformal gravity. From the collapse of a spherically symmetric thin shell of radiation, we find a singularity-free non-rotating black hole. This black hole has the same Hawking temperature as a Schwarzschild black hole with the same mass, and it completely evaporates either in a finite or in an infinite time, depending on the ensemble. We consider the analysis both in the canonical and in the micro-canonical statistical ensembles. Last, we discuss the corresponding Penrose diagram of this physical process.
Light geodesics near an evaporating black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guerreiro, Thiago, E-mail: thiago.barbosa@unige.ch; Monteiro, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.monteiro@unige.ch
2015-10-16
Quantum effects imply that an infalling observer cannot cross the event horizon of an evaporating black hole, even in her proper time. The Penrose diagram of an evaporating black hole is different from the one usually reported in the literature. We show that before the observer can cross the horizon the black hole disappears. Possible observational consequences are discussed. - Highlights: • We calculate the in-falling light geodesics in an evaporating black hole. • For our calculation we use a non-static metric called Vaydia metric. • We show that in-falling light cannot cross the event horizon. • In this case there is no information paradox.
Noncommutative Black Holes at the LHC
Villhauer, Elena Michelle
2017-12-01
Based on the latest public results, 13 TeV data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has not indicated any evidence of hitherto tested models of quantum black holes, semiclassical black holes, or string balls. Such models have predicted signatures of particles with high transverse momenta. Noncommutative black holes remain an untested model of TeV-scale gravity that offers the starkly different signature of particles with relatively low transverse momenta. Considerations for a search for charged noncommutative black holes using the ATLAS detector will be discussed.
Tidal interactions with Kerr black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiscock, W.A.
1977-01-01
The tidal deformation of an extended test body falling with zero angular momentum into a Kerr black hole is calculated. Numerical results for infall along the symmetry axis and in the equatorial plane of the black hole are presented for a range of values of a, the specific angular momentum of the black hole. Estimates of the tidal contribution to the gravitational radiation are also given. The tidal contribution in equatorial infall into a maximally rotating Kerr black hole may be of the same order as the center-of-mass contribution to the gravitational radiation
Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-08-24
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.
Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Chia-Jui, E-mail: agoodmanjerry.ep02g@nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Xiaoning, E-mail: wuxn@amss.ac.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Science, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yiyang@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yuan, Pei-Hung, E-mail: phyuan.py00g@nctu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China)
2016-10-10
In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.