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Sample records for black hills south

  1. Saturated thickness of the Minnelusa aquifer, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the saturated thickness of the Minnelusa aquifer, Black Hills area, South Dakota. The...

  2. Generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota. The...

  3. Atlas of water resources in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Williamson, Joyce E.; Lindquist, Van A.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills area is an important resource center that provides an economic base for western South Dakota through tourism, agriculture, the timber industry, and mineral resources. In addition, water originating from the area is used for municipal, industrial, agricultural, and recreational purposes throughout much of western South Dakota. The Black Hills area also is an important recharge area for aquifers in the northern Great Plains.Population growth, resource development, and periodic droughts have the potential to affect the quantity, quality, and availability of water within the Black Hills area. Growth has resulted in competing interests for available water supplies. The Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 to address these concerns. This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators.

  4. Engineering report on drilling in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Zied, S.; Callihan, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Black Hills drilling project was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The project consisted of five drill holes, ranging in depth from 365 feet (111.25 m) to 564 feet (171.90 m). A total of 2,211 feet (673.91 m) were drilled, all of which were cored. The objective of the project was to obtain subsurface data which would enable us to more accurately assess the favorability of the Precambrian Estes Conglomerate as a host of World Class uranium deposits. Drilling began on August 3, 1979, and concluded on September 7, 1979, with final site restoration and clean-up.

  5. Associations between iron concentration and productivity in montane streams of the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Cari Ann; Holcomb, Benjamin M.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an important micronutrient found in aquatic systems that can influence nutrient availability (e.g., phosphorus) and primary productivity. In streams, high iron concentrations often are associated with low pH as a result of acid mine drainage, which is known to affect fish and invertebrate communities. Streams in the Black Hills of South Dakota are generally circumneutral in pH, yet select streams exhibit high iron concentrations associated with natural iron deposits. In this study, we examined relationships among iron concentration, priphyton biomass, macroinvertebrate abundance, and fish assemblages in four Black Hills streams. The stream with the highest iron concentration (~5 mg Fe/L) had reduced periphyton biomass, invertebrate abundance, and fish biomass compared to the three streams with lower iron levels (0.1 to 0.6 mg Fe/L). Reduced stream productivity was attributed to indirect effects of ferric iron Fe+++), owing to iron-hydroxide precipitation that influenced habitat quality (i.e., substrate and turbidity) and food availability (periphyton and invertebrates) for higher trophic levels (e.g., fish). Additionally, reduced primary and secondary production was associated with reduced standing stocks of salmonid fishes. Our findings suggested that naturally occurring iron deposits may constrain macroinvertebrate and fish production.

  6. Generalized thickness of the Madison Limestone and Englewood Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the generalized thickness of the Madison Limestone and Englewood Formation, Black Hills,...

  7. Karst and Caves of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA; Karst y cuevas de las Black Hills, Dakota del Sur, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Black Hills are located in Carboniferous limestone and dolomite of the Madison Formation in western South Dakota. The climate is semi-arid, and surface karst features are few. Entrances to known caves are rather small, and the two largest caves, Wind Cave and Jewel Cave, were discovered only in the late 1880s and in 1900, respectively. Intermittent exploration and mapping have been conducted by local volunteers, National Park Service staff, and the National Speleological Society. Jewel Cave, in Jewel Cave National Monument, contains 290 km of mapped passages; and Wind Cave, in Wind Cave National Park, contains 230 km. They are the third and sixth longest known caves in the world. (Author)

  8. Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but he impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area. 26 refs

  9. Generalized average annual yield efficiency (in percent of annual precipitation) for the Black Hills area, South Dakota, water years 1950-98

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset provides lines of equal average annual yield efficiency for water years 1950-98 in the Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming.

  10. Measured and estimated monthly precipitation values for precipitation gages in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, water years 1931-98

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset provides monthly precipitation data for 94 precipitation stations in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. The dataset contains measured values for...

  11. 76 FR 22670 - Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... management direction provided by the Black Hills National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan (Forest..., 2011. ] Early Notice of Importance of Public Participation in Subsequent Environmental Review The... potential for high severity wildfire adjacent to the at-risk community of Custer, SD. The proposal is...

  12. Uranium roll-front deposits in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the southern Black Hills of South Dakota, uranium roll-type deposits are present in early Cretaceous Lakota Formation sandstone. Analysis of a 45-Foot drill core, representing a vertical section through the nose of the roll-front, by scanning X-ray fluorescence (XRF), standard XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD), organic petrography, electron microprobe, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is underway. The core is lithologically composed of an orthoquartzite with varying amounts of chert and consists of an oxidized zone, four reduced zones, and three ore zones. The oxidized zone is characterized by medium- to fine-grained, well-sorted, well-rounded orthoquartzite with minor hermatitic kaolinite weakly cementing and coating quartz grains. Reduced zones have angular to rounded, medium- to fine-grained gray to black quartz grains; coarse-grained, angular, white to black chert; thin laminae and small isolated fragments of carbonaceous material with pyrite. Ore zones are composed of trough cross-bedded, poorly-cemented, well-sorted mixtures of rounded quartz grains and angular to rounded chert with yellow to olive-green uranium- and vanadium-rich clays, and carbonaceous material with pyrite. The chemistry of the entire core was determined by scanning X-ray fluorescence for 46 elements. In the oxidized, reduced, and ore zones, uranium and vanadium averaged 40 ppm U and 3300 ppm V, 800 ppm U and 3000 ppm V, and 3800 ppm U and 5000 ppm V, respectively. No uranium or vanadium minerals have been found by XRD or microprobe analysis. However, certain segments of the core are enriched in U and V, including those with high clay content. Preliminary SEM analyses have shown smectite, kaolinite, and possibly illite as coatings on quartz grains. U and V are present in some of the clay coatings, and probable carnotite and an authigenic vanadium mineral were found. Carbonaceous laminae are present in the reduced and ore zones and commonly contain pyrite with associated uranium. (author

  13. Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, James Jennings

    1984-01-01

    Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear.

  14. Late Holocene flood probabilities in the Black Hills, South Dakota with emphasis on the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, James E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    A stratigraphic record of 35 large paleofloods and four large historical floods during the last 2000 years for four basins in the Black Hills of South Dakota reveals three long-term flooding episodes, identified using probability distributions, at A.D.: 120–395, 900–1290, and 1410 to present. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~ A.D. 900–1300) the four basins collectively experienced 13 large floods compared to nine large floods in the previous 800 years, including the largest floods of the last 2000 years for two of the four basins. This high concentration of extreme floods is likely caused by one or more of the following: 1) instability of air masses caused by stronger than normal westerlies; 2) larger or more frequent hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean; and/or 3) reduced land covering vegetation or increased forest fires caused by persistent regional drought.

  15. Lakota Formation, southern Black Hills, South Dakota: an Early Cretaceous evolving fluvial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom D.J.; Fox, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    The fluvial, Early Cretaceous Lakota Formation consists of four spatially and temporally distinct sandstone units in the southern Black Hills and southeastern Powder River basin. Three of these units crop out in proximity to an area of uranium roll-front development (Edgemont mining district) where approximately 2300 wells were drilled and logged. Comparison of the resistivity logs of several of these wells with continuous cores of the Lakota Formation confirms their lithologic sensitivity. These logs (utilized to assist in subsurface facies interpretations where cores were not available), cores, and outcrops are the basis for the following facies interpretations. The discharge, sediment load, and resulting sinuosity of this fluvial system varied substantially throughout the time of Lakota deposition. The oldest unit consists of tabular deposits with complex internal architecture comprised of cross-cutting lateral accretion deposits. Upward-fining grain size, upward-decreasing scale of sedimentary structures, and the angular relationship between lateral accretion surfaces and overlying crevasse-splay deposits support this conclusion. The intermediate unit of ephemeral stream sediments is characterized by abundant pebble- and cobble-strewn erosional surfaces with up to 1.5 m relief, very poor clast sorting, and trough and planar cross-bedding with concave-upward foresets. The youngest unit has a predominance of tabular cross-bedding with back flow climbing ripples and low dispersion of paleocurrent directions, suggesting a relatively straight, bed-load-type channel dominated by trains of sand waves.

  16. 2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean

  17. Relations of zoned pegmatites to other pegmatites, granite, and metamorphic rocks in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, J.J.; Redden, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The pegmatite field and the Harney Peak Granite of the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, form an igneous system that progresses from slightly biotitic muscovite granite through layered pegmatitic granite, with alternating sodic and potassic rocks, to simple plagioclase-quartz-perthite pegmatites, and on to zoned pegmatites. Most of the country rocks are Lower Proterozoic mica schists. At 1700 Ga, intrusion of the Harney Peak Granite created a large dome in these rocks, a thermal aureole with a staurolite, a first sillimanite isograd, and a small area of metamorphism above the second sillimanite isograd. The zoned pegmatites have a strong tendency to occur in clusters, and the types of pegmatites are different in different clusters. A less obvious tendency is a regional zonation in which rare-mineral pegmatites become more abundant and muscovite pegmatites less abundant toward the outskirts of the region. The composition of the granite indicates that its magma originated by partial melting of metasedimentary mica schists similar to those at the present surface. The pegmatitic nature of most of the granite probably reflects exsolution of an aqueous phase. -from Authors

  18. Influence of drought conditions on brown trout biomass and size structure in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of drought conditions on the biomass of brown trout Salmo trutta in Spearfish Creek, upper Rapid Creek, and lower Rapid Creek in the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Stream discharge, mean summer water temperature, the biomass of juvenile and adult brown trout, and brown trout size structure were compared between two time periods: early (2000–2002) and late drought (2005–2007). Mean summer water temperatures were similar between the early- and late-drought periods in Spearfish Creek (12.4°C versus 11.5°C), lower Rapid Creek (19.2°C versus 19.3°C), and upper Rapid Creek (9.8°C in both periods). In contrast, mean annual discharge differed significantly between the two time periods in Spearfish Creek (1.95 versus 1.50 m3/s), lower Rapid Creek (2.01 versus 0.94 m3/s), and upper Rapid Creek (1.41 versus 0.84 m3/s). The mean biomass of adult brown trout in all three stream sections was significantly higher in the early-drought than in the late-drought period (238 versus 69 kg/ha in Spearfish Creek, 272 versus 91 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and 159 versus 32 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek). The biomass of juvenile brown trout was similar (43 versus 23 kg/ha) in Spearfish Creek in the two periods, declined from 136 to 45 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and increased from 14 to 73 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek. Size structure did not differ between the early- and late-drought periods in lower Rapid and Spearfish creeks, but it did in upper Rapid Creek. In addition to drought conditions, factors such as angler harvest, fish movements, and the nuisance algal species Didymosphenia geminata are discussed as possible contributors to the observed changes in brown trout biomass and size structure in Black Hills streams.

  19. Nd, O and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Precambrian rocks, Southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nd, O and Sr isotopic characteristics of Precambrian metasedimentary, metavolcanic and granitic rocks from the Black Hills of South Dakota are examined. Two late-Archean granites (2.5-2.6 Ga) have Tsub(DM) ages of 3.05 and 3.30 Ga, suggesting that at least one of the granites was derived through the melting of significantly older crust. Early-Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have Tsub(DM) ages that range from 2.32 to 2.45 Ga. Two granite samples taken from the same sill, however, give two-point Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of 2.08 +- 0.08 and 2.20 +- 0.20 Ga (epsilon2200sub(Nd) = -15.5), respectively. In addition, whole-rock and apatite samples of the spatially associated Tin Mountain pegmatite give a Sm-Nd isochron age of 2000 +- 100 Ma (epsilon2000sub(Nd) = -5.8 +- 1.8). The Sm-Nd, O and Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of these granitic rocks have been complicated to some degree by both crystallization and post-crystallization processes, and the age of the pegmatite and parts of the Harney Peak Granite complex remain uncertain. Processes that probably complicated the isotopic systematics of these rocks include derivation from heterogeneous source material, assimilation, mixing of REE between granite and country rock during crystallization via a fluid phase, and post-crystallization mobility of Sr. The Nd isotopic compositions of the pegmatite and the Harney Peak Granite indicate that they were not derived primarily from the exposed metasedimentary rocks. (author)

  20. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Christopher T; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Rumble, Mark A; Lehman, Chad P; Kesler, Dylan C

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire. PMID:24736502

  1. An inferred relationship between some uranium deposits and calcium carbonate cement in southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, Garland B.

    1956-01-01

    Evidence resulting from geologic mapping in the southern Black Hills indicates that the areas marginal to some of the larger carbonate-cemented sandstones constitute favorable geochemical environments for the localization of uranium deposits. To determine whether these favorable environments are predictable a limited experimental core-drilling program was carried out. An extensive deposit was discovered in an area marginal to a sandstone well-cemented with calcium carbonate. The deposit has not yet been developed, but from the available data it appears that there is a significant quantity of mineralized rock present containing as much as 3.0 percent eU3O8.

  2. Spring point coverage for the potentiometric coverages for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood Aquifers in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes springs in the Black Hills area that were used to create potentiometric surface maps for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and...

  3. Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) of the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    The structure, format, and quality of the LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS photographic and digital products for one scene covering the Black Hills area of South Dakota were assessed and the extent to which major resource categories can be detected and identified on various photographic products generated from a subset of TM spectral bands and from all bands of the MSS was determined. The overall spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data was found to be excellent. Agricultural fields of variable shape, size, and orientation were detected with relative ease. The addition of the short-wave infrared band (TM5) has significantly improved the ability to detect and identify crop types on single date imagery.

  4. Geohydrology and water quality of the Inyan Kara, Minnelusa, and Madison aquifers of the northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyllonen, D.P.; Peter, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Inyan Kara, Minnelusa, and Madison aquifers are the principal sources of ground water in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming. The aquifers are exposed in the Bear Lodge Mountains and the Black Hills and are about 3,000 to 5,000 ft below the land surface in the northeast corner of the study area. The direction of groundwater movement is from the outcrop area toward central South Dakota. Recharge is by infiltration of precipitation and streamflow is by springs and well withdrawals. All three aquifers yield water to flowing wells in some part of the area. Measured and reported well yields in each of the three aquifers exceed 100 gal/min (gpm). A well open to the Minnelusa Formation and the upper part of the Madison Limestone yielded more than 2 ,000 gpm. Water from the Inyan Kara aquifer may require treatment for gross alpha radiation, iron, manganese, sulfate, and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Minnelusa aquifer in the northern one-half of the study area may require treatment for sulfate and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Madison aquifer in the northern one-half of the study area may require treatment of fluoride, gross alpha radiation, sulfate, and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers in the southern one-half of the study area, though very hard (more than 180 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate), is suitable for public water systems and irrigation. Flow between the Minnelusa and the Inyan Kara aquifers appears to be insignificant, based on the results of a digital model results. The model indicated there may be significant recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers by leakage between these two aquifers and perhaps deeper aquifers. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Microgravity methods for characterization of groundwater-storage changes and aquifer properties in the karstic Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koth, Karl R.; Long, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    A study of groundwater storage in the karstic Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota using microgravity methods was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with West Dakota Water Development District, South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and Lawrence County. Microgravity measurements from 2009 to 2012 were used to investigate groundwater-storage changes and effective porosity in unconfined areas of the Madison aquifer. Time-lapse microgravity surveys that use portable high-sensitivity absolute and relative gravimeters indicated temporal-gravity changes as a result of changing groundwater mass. These extremely precise measurements of gravity required characterization and removal of internal instrumental and external environmental effects on gravity from the raw data. The corrected data allowed groundwater-storage volume to be quantified with an accuracy of about plus or minus 0.5 foot of water per unit area of aquifer. Quantification of groundwater-storage change, coupled with water-level data from observation wells located near the focus areas, also was used to calculate the effective porosity at specific altitudes directly beneath gravity stations. Gravity stations were established on bedrock outcrops in three separate focus areas for this study. The first area, the Spring Canyon focus area, is located to the south of Rapid City with one gravity station on the rim of Spring Canyon near the area where Spring Creek sinks into the Madison aquifer. The second area, the Doty focus area, is located on outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation to the northwest of Rapid City, and consists of nine gravity stations. The third area, the Limestone Plateau focus area, consists of a single gravity station in the northwestern Black Hills located on an outcrop of the Madison Limestone. An absolute-gravity station, used to tie relative-gravity survey data together, was established on a relatively impermeable

  6. Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Altitudes of the top of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation are presented for the wells and test holes presented in this report.

  7. Estimated recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1931-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.M.; Driscoll, D.G.; Hamade, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area. Long-term estimates of recharge to the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are important for managing the water resources in the Black Hills area. Thus, annual recharge from streamflow losses and infiltration of precipitation on outcrop areas is estimated for water years 1931-98. All estimates are for recharge that contributes to regional ground-water flow patterns and that occurs in outcrop areas connected to the regional flow system. Estimates exclude recharge to outcrop areas that are isolated from the regional flow system, which generally results in ground-water discharge to area streams. Streamflow recharge is calculated directly for 11 streams in the Black Hills area that have continuous-record gaging stations located upstream from loss zones, using available records of daily streamflow, against which estimated loss thresholds (from previous investigations) are applied. Daily streamflow records are extrapolated, when necessary, using correlations with long-term gages, to develop annual estimates of streamflow recharge for 1950-98. Streamflow recharge is estimated for a number of smaller basins using loss thresholds for miscellaneous-record sites. Annual recharge estimates are derived from synthetic records of daily streamflow for 1992-98, which are based on drainage-area ratios applied to continuous-record gaging stations. Recharge estimates are further extrapolated for 1950-91, based on the average percentage of streamflow recharge contributed by these basins during 1992-98, relative to overall streamflow recharge.Streamflow recharge also is estimated for small drainage areas with undetermined loss thresholds that are situated between larger basins with known thresholds. Estimates for 1992-98 are based on estimates of annual streamflow derived using drainage-area ratios, with assumed losses equal to 90 percent of annual streamflow. Recharge estimates also are

  8. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  9. Thunderstorms and Flooding of August 17, 2007, with a Context Provided by a History of Other Large Storm and Flood Events in the Black Hills Area of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bunkers, Matthew J.; Carter, Janet M.; Stamm, John F.; Williamson, Joyce E.

    2010-01-01

    The Black Hills area of western South Dakota has a history of damaging flash floods that have resulted primarily from exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. The best known example is the catastrophic storm system of June 9-10, 1972, which caused severe flooding in several major drainages near Rapid City and resulted in 238 deaths. More recently, severe thunderstorms caused flash flooding near Piedmont and Hermosa on August 17, 2007. Obtaining a thorough understanding of peak-flow characteristics for low-probability floods will require a comprehensive long-term approach involving (1) documentation of scientific information for extreme events such as these; (2) long-term collection of systematic peak-flow records; and (3) regional assessments of a wide variety of peak-flow information. To that end, the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the South Dakota Department of Transportation and National Weather Service to produce this report, which provides documentation regarding the August 17, 2007, storm and associated flooding and provides a context through examination of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area. The area affected by the August 17, 2007, storms and associated flooding generally was within the area affected by the larger storm of June 9-10, 1972. The maximum observed 2007 precipitation totals of between 10.00 and 10.50 inches occurred within about 2-3 hours in a small area about 5 miles west of Hermosa. The maximum documented precipitation amount in 1972 was 15.0 inches, and precipitation totals of 10.0 inches or more were documented for 34 locations within an area of about 76 square miles. A peak flow of less than 1 cubic foot per second occurred upstream from the 2007 storm extent for streamflow-gaging station 06404000 (Battle Creek near Keystone); whereas, the 1972 peak flow of 26,200 cubic feet per second was large, relative to the drainage area of only 58.6 square miles. Farther downstream along Battle Creek, a 2007

  10. 77 FR 17402 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., Black Hills National Forest, in the wake of increasingly severe and intense wild fires and mountain pine... forest issues such as forest plan revisions or amendments, forest health including fire management and... Plan, a priority following the major fires including the 86,000 acre Jasper Fire in 2000; 2. A...

  11. Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims, and classification of mineral deposits in the Silver City 7 1/2-minute Quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Ed; Buscher, David; Wilson, A.B.; Johnson, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    This map is one in a set of 26 maps (see index map) at 1:24,000 scale of the Black Hills region of South Dakota and Wyoming om which are shown a geologic classification of mines, a bibliography of mineral deposits, and locations of active and inactive mines, prospects, and patented mining claims. Some of these maps are published as U. S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps (MF series) and some as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports (QF series); see index map. An earlier unpublished version of this set of maps was the data base from which plate 4 (scale 1:250,000) of DeWitt and others (1986) was compiled. Subsequent to that publication, the set has been revised and updated, and prospects and patented claims have been added. These revised and more detailed 1:24,000-scale maps should be used for the equivalent areas of plate 4 of DeWitt and others (1986).

  12. Digital Geologic Map of the Butcher Hill quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Butcher Hill quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary...

  13. Saturated thickness of the Madison aquifer, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the saturated thickness of the Madison aquifer, which includes the entire thickness of the...

  14. Poverty and ethnicity among black South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Gradin, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates inequalities across the major black ethnic groups in South Africa, accounting for 80 per cent of the country's population. We demonstrate that there is an important ethnic gap in the poverty levels of the Xhosa and the Zulu with respect to the Sotho/Tswana. We also show that these gaps are largely associated with the former groups having an accumulation of disadvantages in location, demographic structure, education, and labour market outcomes. The analysis of the evolu...

  15. 33 CFR 117.624 - Black River (South Haven).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black River (South Haven). 117... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.624 Black River (South Haven). The draw of the Dyckman Avenue bridge, mile 1.9 at South Haven, shall open as follows: (a) From May...

  16. Estimating age in black South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, A; Fabris-Rotelli, I; Bernitz, H

    2014-03-01

    Forensic dentists are frequently required to determine the age at death of unidentified skeletons, or to age live individuals who have no record/documentation of their chronological age. In order to be of the greatest value, the method used should have the lowest possible standard deviation and be validated for the individual's specific population group. The method most frequently used in Forensic Dentistry for the estimation of age in children, was described by Demirjian et al. The maturity standards determined were based on samples of French Canadian origin and it has been recommended by several authors that correction factors be incorporated when applying this method to different population groups. The current research was carried out on a sample of 838 black South African children. A new model for age estimation in the said population was developed, to accurately determine the chronological age from dental development. A sample of 604 black South African children was used to test the validity of the method described by Demirjian. PMID:24974518

  17. The Berkeley Low Background Facility and the Black Hills State University Underground Campus at SURF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Keenan; Mount, Brianna; Lesko, Kevin; Norman, Eric; Smith, Alan; Poon, Alan; Chan, Yuen-Dat

    2015-10-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility at LBNL provides a variety of low background gamma spectroscopy services to a variety of projects and experiments. It operates HPGe spectrometers in two unique facilities: a surface low background lab at LBNL and underground (4300 m.w.e.) at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. A large component of the measurements performed by the BLBF are for ultralow background experiments concerned with U, Th, K, and other radioisotopes within candidate construction materials to be used to construct sensitive detectors, such as those studying dark matter or neutrinos. The BLBF also makes a variety of environmental measurements in search of other radioisotopes, such as fallout from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011 and other radioisotope monitoring activities. A general overview of the services and facilities will be presented. In 2015, the BLBF will be relocating its underground counting stations to a new, dedicated space on the 4850L of SURF. The Black Hills State University Underground Campus will host several low background counting stations and operate in a coordinated manner to provide low background measurements to the scientific community. An overview and description of the BHUC will be presented.

  18. Uranium mineralisation in the Mahadek formation of Balphakram area, South Garo Hills district, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant sandstone-type uranium mineralisation is recorded from the Rongcheng Plateau and Rongdinala, located north and WNW of Balphakram Plateau, South Garo Hills district, Meghalaya. Mineralisation is associated with grey coloured, medium to coarse grained, poorly sorted arkosic Wacke-Subarkose suite of sandstones, belonging to the late Cretaceous Mahaek Formation. Sixteen uranium occurrences located 2-30 m above crystalline basement and with dimensions varying from 5 to 300 m x 0.5 to 4 m, have been identified. Grab samples have assayed up to 0.52% eU3O8, 0.46% U3O8 (beta/gamma) and 2. The fertile precambrian basement crystallines constitute the source of uranium. Presence of organic matter and pyrite in the sandstone provided reducing environment for deposition of pitchblende as the principal discrete uranium mineral. (author)

  19. BUSHFIRE BEHAVIOUR MODELLING USING FARSITE WITH GIS INTEGRATION FOR THE MITCHAM HILLS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAAD ALSHARRAH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bushfire behaviour modelling using FARSITE with GIS integration for the Mitcham Hills, South Australia. Bushfires are now becoming of serious concern as they can have devastating effects on the natural and human ecosystems. An important element of bushfires is fire behaviour. Fire behaviour describes the mode in which a fire reacts to the influences of fuel, weather, topography and fire fighting. In order to understand and predict fire growth and the behaviour of fires, decision makers use fire models to simulate fire behaviour. Fire behaviour modelling can assist forest managers and environmental decision makers in the understanding of how a fire will behave with the influences of environmental factors such as fuels, weather and topography. This study models (spatially and temporally the behaviour of a hypothetical fire for the Mitcham Hills in South Australia using FARSITE (Fire Area Simulator. FARSITE, a two-dimensional deterministic model, takes into account the factors that influence fire behaviour (fuels, weather and topography and simulates the spread and behaviours of fires based on the parameters inputted. Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS techniques were utilised for data preparation and the mapping of parameters that are needed and welcomed by FARSITE. The results are a simulation of spread of fire, fireline intensity, flame length and time of arrival for the area of interest. The simulation confirmed that it can be used for predicting how a fire will spread and how long it will take which can be very beneficial for fire suppression and control and risk assessment.

  20. Selectivity of Black Return Migration to the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Larry H.; Hansen, Kristin A.

    1977-01-01

    The probability of blacks moving from the South has been directly related to years of school completed. Of those who leave, the most highly educated are the most likely to return. This and other evidence fails to support the hypothesis that return of the least capable migrants accounts for why southern-born blacks in the North earn more than…

  1. Physical dispersion of radioactive mine waste at the rehabilitated Radium Hill uranium mine site, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radium Hill uranium deposit, in semiarid eastern South Australia, was discovered in 1906 and mined for radium between 1906 and 1931 and for uranium between 1954 and 1961 (production of 969 300 t of davidite ore averaging 0.12% U3O8). Rehabilitation was limited to removal of mine facilities, sealing of underground workings and capping of selected waste repositories. In 2002, gamma-ray data and samples of tailings, uncrushed and crushed waste rock, stream sediment, topsoil and vegetation were collected to assist in examining the current environmental status of the mine site. The data indicate that capping of tailings storage facilities did not ensure the long-term containment of the low-level radioactive wastes due to the erosion of sides of the impoundments. Moreover, wind erosion of waste fines (phyllosilicates, ore minerals) from various, physically unstable waste repositories has caused increasing radiochemical (from a background dose of 35 - 70 nSv/h to max. 0.94 μSv/h) and geochemical (Ce, Cr, La, Lu, Rb, Sc, Th, U, V, Y, Yb) impacts on local soils. Plants (saltbush, pepper tree) growing on waste dumps display evidence of biological uptake of lithophile elements, with values being up to 1 - 2 orders of magnitude above values for plants of the same species at background sites. However, radiation doses associated with the mine and processing site average 0.67 μSv/h; hence, visitors to the Radium Hill site will not be exposed to excessive radiation levels. Although rehabilitation procedures have been partly successful in reducing dispersion of U and related elements into the surrounding environment, it is apparent that 20 years after rehabilitation, there is significant physical and limited chemical mobility, including transfer into plants. Additional capping and landform design of the crushed waste and tailings repositories are required in order to minimise erosion and impacts on surrounding soils and sediments

  2. South African black generation Y students' perceptions of local black celebrity endorsers' credibility / Boitumelo Vincent Molelekeng

    OpenAIRE

    Molelekeng, Boitumelo Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The use of celebrity endorsers is a popular marketing strategy in many countries. Typically, many marketers believe that using celebrities is a viable marketing strategy for attracting customers, increasing market share and improving sales for their market offerings. The celebrity endorsement strategy using local celebrities is increasing in South Africa. Many South African marketers are now using popular local black celebrities in an attempt to attract the prosperous black emerging middle cl...

  3. What do young black South Africans think about AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, D

    1992-07-01

    In South Africa, a fatalistic attitude prevails among young black youth toward prevention of HIV transmission. Many of the 3 million black migrant laborers in single-sex hostels have many partners who are prostitutes. Due to culture, race, and class, black women are so oppressed that they cannot even require sex partners to wear condoms. Blacks perceive condoms as a governmental means to control population growth. The Centre for Health and Social Studies has learned that 14-17 year old blacks have been sexually active for a long time, so it has decided to also market its AIDS prevention program to 11-13 year olds. AIDS has not yet reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, however, and a full scale intervention program implemented between the end of 1992 and mid-1993 could stem the epidemic. The Health and Refugee Trust has developed a data base about the attitudes of South African refugees toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. It plans to distribute educational materials to hostels, squatter settlements, and rural communities. The Transport and General Workers Union has also set up an AIDS prevention program since truckers are at high risk of HIV infection. At the end of 1991, 445,000 people in South Africa have been infected with HIV. Heterosexuality is the predominate mode of HIV transmission among blacks, but among whites, it is homosexuality. Educated, affluent whites tend to be knowledge about AIDS and practice safer sex. Among the working class whites, however, knowledge levels are high, but they do not necessarily practice safer sex. Awareness tends to be quite high among blacks, but they do not generally practice safer sex. South Africa and the US are the only 2 developed countries that do not provide health care for all. This weak system limits AIDS prevention efforts. 80% of whites have health insurance compared with only 7% of blacks. PMID:12317691

  4. Inventory of forest and rangeland resources, including forest stress. [Atlanta, Georgia, Black Hills, and Manitou, Colorado test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. C.; Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Some current beetle-killed ponderosa pine can be detected on S190-B photography imaged over the Bear Lodge mountains in the Black Hills National Forest. Detections were made on SL-3 imagery (September 13, 1973) using a zoom lens microscope to view the photography. At this time correlations have not been made to all of the known infestation spots in the Bear Lodge mountains; rather, known infestations have been located on the SL-3 imagery. It was determined that the beetle-killed trees were current kills by stereo viewing of SL-3 imagery on one side and SL-2 on the other. A successful technique was developed for mapping current beetle-killed pine using MSS imagery from mission 247 flown by the C-130 over the Black Hills test site in September 1973. Color enhancement processing on the NASA/JSC, DAS system using three MSS channels produced an excellent quality detection map for current kill pine. More importantly it provides a way to inventory the dead trees by relating PCM counts to actual numbers of dead trees.

  5. Intraspecific Genetic Diversity of Two Black Fly Species (Diptera: Simuliidae from South India using DNA Barcode Based RFLP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimalanathan Arunprasanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The population genetic diversity of two black fly species (S. (S. gurneyae and S. (S. nilgiricum was investigated along an elevational gradient in two hills of South India by mitochondrial gene sequence of cytochrome coxidase subunit I (COI based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP. By comparing the similarity of the bands produced by three restriction endonuclease enzymes, the genetic distance was calculated among sampling sites. The mean Kimura two parameter divergences of two black fly species between sampling sites was observed less than 13% and the higher genetic differentiation occurred at higher elevational sites (>1000 m. These result suggest that hypothesis of speciation is related with higher elevational site in black flies.

  6. Clastic metasediments of the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group, New South Wales, Australia: Geochemistry, provenance, and metallogenic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Stevens, B.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Whole-rock analyses of samples of pelite, psammite, and psammopelite from the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group (Willyama Supergroup) in the Broken Hill Block, New South Wales, Australia, reveal distinctive geochemical signatures. Major-element data show high Al2O3 and K2O, low MgO and Na2O, and relatively high Fe2O3T MgO ratios, compared to average Early Proterozoic clastic metasediments. High field strength elements (HFSE) are especially abundant, including Nb (most 15-27 ppm), Ta (most 1.0-2.2 ppm), Th (17-36 ppm), Hf (4-15 ppm), and Zr (most 170-400 ppm); Y (33-74 ppm) is also high. Concentrations of ferromagnesian elements are generally low (Sc = Broken Hill Group by the erosion mainly of felsic igneous (or meta-igneous) rocks. High concentrations of HFSE, Y, and REEs in the metasediments suggest a provenance dominanted by anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites, including those with A-type chemistry. Likely sources of the metasediments were the rhyolitic to rhyodacitic protoliths of local quartz + feldspar ?? biotite ?? garnet gneisses (e.g., Potosi-type gneiss) that occur within the lower part of the Willyama Supergroup, or chemically similar basement rocks in the region; alternative sources may have included Early Proterozoic anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites in the Mount Isa and(or) Pine Creek Blocks of northern Australia, or in the Gawler craton of South Australia. Metallogenic considerations suggest that the metasediments of the Broken Hill Block formed enriched source rocks during the generation of pegmatite-hosted deposits and concentrations of La, Ce, Nb, Ta, Th, and Sn in the region. Li, Be, B, W, and U in pegmatite minerals of the district may have been acquired during granulite-facies metamorphism of the local metasediments. ?? 1994.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in black infants in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, A. D.; Alexander, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infections in black infants in Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa, was investigated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Between 1983 and 1986, 14 different RNA electrophoretic patterns were observed for children with acute gastroenteritis. These electrophoretypes showed a sequential pattern of appearance, with a limited number being present at any one time. In contrast, for neonates only one RNA electrophoretype was detected, which persisted for at least 3 years.

  8. Smokeless tobacco use among urban white and black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K

    1999-12-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to compare the extent of smokeless tobacco use and perception of related health risks by white and black urban South Africans. Using systematic random sampling, one out of every 20 phone numbers was selected from the Seshego (blacks) and Pietersburg (whites) telephone directory until 300 tobacco users in each site were identified. Among the white group, cigarette smoking was clearly predominant (290) and only 10 used snuff, whereas among the black sample almost half (46.7%) of the tobacco users used snuff, especially women (40%). Although a majority acknowledged negative effects of snuff use on their health and its addictive character, 42% either do not believe or do not know that snuff contains nicotine and causes cancer. PMID:10672753

  9. The Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa: A Product of The Entire Black World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgwebi Snail

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo ilustra cómo el surgimiento del Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica puede estar diametralmente unido a la emergencia de los movimientos de Conciencia Negra y Black Power en América. Pretende demostrar además cómo, en el contexto africano, el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra fue impulsado por el nacionalismo africano y cómo ese nacionalismo fue moldeado y transformado por pensadores africanos de la década de los 50 y 60 en el Panafricanismo. El artículo también mostrará similitudes y diferencias entre la Negritud Africana y el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra. El texto de nuevo explicará de manera cronológica cómo el Garveyismo, la Conciencia Negra en América y el nacionalismo africano, la personalidad africana y la Negritud en África contribuyeron al surgimiento del Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica. El estudio advierte de que la falta de comprensión de estos antecedentes, podría llevar a la confusión y a una mala interpretación de concepto vital en la historia de África. Finalmente, este trabajo busca hacer hincapié en la historización del desarrollo del por qué el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica no puede estar divorciado del contexto global.____________________ABSTRACT:The paper illustrates how the rise of the Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa can be diametrically tied up with the emergence of the Black Consciousness and Black-Power Movements in America. It goes further to demonstrate how, in the African context, the Black Consciousness Movement was given impetus by African nationalism and how that nationalism was later moulded and shaped by African thinkers of the 1950’s and 1960’s into Pan Africanism. The paper, will also try to show similarities and the disparities between Negritude African personality and the Black Consciousness Movement. The paper will again explain in a chronological manner how Garveyism, Black Consciousness in America and African Nationalism in

  10. Ecological differences of south polar skua populations from Fildes Peninsula of King George Island and eastern Larsemann Hills,Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zipan; Hans-Ulrich Peter

    2004-01-01

    A study has been done on the comparison of nesting and feeding behavior, population variances as well as breeding success between two populations of south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki) from near Great Wall station on Fildes Peninsula and near Zhongshan station in Eastern Larsemann Hills, Antarctica. There are evident differences in their population ecology. The foraging habit is much related to regional ecosystem and food resources near their territorial area. Dependence on human food waste influences skua's diet,which considerably affects their behavior even population variation in both areas. The skuas in Zhongshan Station,could shorten and/or regulate the timing for their egg laying and hatching, and take precedence of one chick brooding, for keeping their breeding success, and subsequent species continuation.

  11. A geochemical drainage survey of the Preseli Hills, south-west Dyfed, Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, D G; Cooper, D. C.; P M Allen; Haslam, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    A geochemical drainage survey at a density of 1 sample per km2 was carried out across the Preseli Hills, southwest Dyfed. Stream sediment, water and panned concentrate samples were collected from each of 358 sites, and Cu, Pb, Zn, Ba, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, V, Cr, B, Zr, As, MO and Sn were determined in sediment, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ba, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ni, Sn, As, Ca, Ce, Sr, Sb, Zr, U and MO in panned concentrate and Cu and Zn in water. From a study of regional variation patterns and ...

  12. Re-imagining South Africa: Black Consciousness, radical Christianity and the New Left, 1967 – 1977

    OpenAIRE

    Macqueen, Ian Martin

    2011-01-01

    This thesis places Black Consciousness in comparative perspective with progressive politics in South Africa in the late 1960s and the 1970s. It argues that the dominant scholarly focus on Black Consciousness, which is passed over as a ‘stage’ in the Black struggle against white supremacy, insufficiently historicises the deeper roots, and the wider resonances and ideological contestations of the Black Consciousness movement. As they refined their political discourse, Black Consciousness activi...

  13. Fibrinogen concentration and its role in CVD risk in black South Africans - effect of urbanisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Marlien; De Maat, Moniek P. M.; Jerling, Johann C.; Hoekstra, Tiny; Kruger, Annamarie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate correlates of fibrinogen concentration in black South Africans, as well as its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and whether urbanisation influences this association. A total of 1,006 rural and 1,004 urban black South Africans from the PURE s

  14. Examining the Generalizability of Problem-Solving Appraisal in Black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, P. Paul; Pretorius, T. B.; Wei, Meifen; Lee, Dong-gwi; Wang, Yu-Wei

    2002-01-01

    Examines the generalizability of the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) through research with Black South African samples. The estimates of the factor structure as well as other reliability and validity estimates provided strong support for the generalizability of the PSI to South African Black college students. The results also provided partial…

  15. The significance and lag-time of deep through flow: an example from a small, ephemeral catchment with contrasting soil types in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Bestland, E.; S. Milgate; D. Chittleborough; J. VanLeeuwen; Pichler, M.; L. Soloninka

    2009-01-01

    The importance of deep soil-regolith through flow in a small (3.4 km2) ephemeral catchment in the Adelaide Hills of South Australia was investigated by detailed hydrochemical analysis of soil water and stream flow during autumn and early winter rains. In this Mediterranean climate with strong summer moisture deficits, several significant rainfalls are required to generate soil through flow and stream flow [in ephemeral streams]. During autumn 2007, a large (127 mm) drou...

  16. 76 FR 35396 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone Mining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Mining Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of intent to prepare an... the purpose of mining for chemical grade limestone within mining claims on National Forest System land... publication dates. A Notice of Availability for the Section 30 Limestone Mining Project Draft EIS...

  17. Overlying surficial deposits and absent areas for Minnekahta Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes areas where the Minnekahta Limestone is directly overlain by surficial deposits, as well as those areas where the Minnekahta Limestone is...

  18. 76 FR 65681 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Calumet Project Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... pine beetle) epidemic. Restore resource conditions to a healthy, resilient fire- adapted ecosystem... and occurrence of severe wildfire in the fire adapted ecosystems, especially near at risk communities... fire and fuels hazard reduction needs in the wildland-urban interface; support or opposition to...

  19. Overlying surficial deposits and absent areas for the Madison Limestone, Black Hills area, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes areas where the Madison Limestone is directly overlain by surficial deposits, as well as those areas where the Madison Limestone is absent...

  20. Chemical weathering and chemical runoffs in the seashore granite hills in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Surface runoffs and the contents of major ions and dissolved silicon were surveyed and analyzed based on weekly sampling for one year in a granite watershed of Zhuhai City, Guangdong Province. The results demonstrated that the slope runoff played an essential role in feeding the rivulet during precipitation, whereas the groundwater was more important for the rivulet in the non-raining stages. Dissolved silicon, Na+, HCO3-, and Clions constituted the major chemical components of the rivulet water. Atmospheric CO2 and H2SO4 sourced from the oxidation of pyrite were the main erosive mediums in the natural chemical weathering. Natural chemical weathering, the wet and dry deposition of sea-salt, and acids precipitation contributed approximately equal shares of anions to the rivulet water. The ratio of NO3- to SO42- was more than 1.0 in the runoff of the studied seashore watershed, whereas it is less than 1.0 in the Xijiang River that is adjacent to the study area. This implied that the chemical composition of runoff is controlled mainly by the differences in atmospheric acid precipitation caused by human activities and lithology within the catchments under the same bio-climate zone. The CO2 flux consumed by the rock chemical weathering processes within the seashore granite watershed in South China was (0.35-1.37)×105 mol km-2 a-1.

  1. Employers' perceptions of Black South African English usage / Henrietta Ntombi Tlaka

    OpenAIRE

    Tlaka, Henrietta Ntombi

    2001-01-01

    The common usage of Black South African English (BSAE) forms the main focus of this study. Its usage by members of the black population has caused a major debate on language standards and usage, and acceptance of BSAE as a variety of English. The purpose of this study was to establish employers' perceptions of BSAE usage by employees (and prospective employees). The employers' preferences, views on re-standardisation of English and the usage of English in South Africa were established. ...

  2. Stability of grammatical features of Black South African English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Singh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the level of stability of some grammatical features of Black South African English (BSAE. The study involved testing a group of undergraduate speakers of BSAE using an exercise in which students judged the grammaticality of sentences and rewrote those they considered non-standard. Students were then alerted to grammatical differences between BSAE and Standard English (SE. Awareness of these differences developed during a student writing assignment in which BSAE features were discussed and compared with the standard forms, and students learnt to distinguish between SE and BSAE forms in assessing the rewritten sentences of their fellow students. After an interval of two months, the same participants were re-tested on their use of these features using a second similar grammaticality exercise. The results suggest that this minor intervention increased students’ ability to recognise most of the non-standard forms and rewrite them in the standard form. This indicates present lack of stability in the BSAE variety, and is in line with previous findings (Van der Walt and Van Rooy, 2002 that BSAE is in a transition phase in which standard and BSAE forms are both regarded as options. The study also found also that some features of BSAE are more stable than others. The last part of the article considers qualitative data reflecting students’ attitudes to BSAE and suggests that a sense of ownership of this variety might be an important step towards students’ extending their repertoire to include a more formal written variety.

  3. Adjustment of Black Students at a Historically White South African University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennett, Justin; Finchilescu, Gillian; Gibson, Kerry; Strauss, Rosanna

    2003-01-01

    Examined the adjustment of African black and white freshman students(n=335) at a white South African university. Finds that the black students reported lower levels of social adjustment and personality adjustment, but not differences in academic adjustment or institutional commitment. Includes references. (CMK)

  4. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob; de Neergaard, Andreas; van Deventer, Ross; Bruun, Sander; Hill, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii, De Wild.) is a fast growing tree species introduced into South Africa in the nineteenth century for commercial purposes. While being an important source of timber and firewood for local communities, black wattle is an aggressive invasive species and has pervasive...

  5. Physical activity energy expenditure and sarcopenia in black South African urban women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) we

  6. "Community Psychology Is for Poor, Black People": Pedagogy and Teaching of Community Psychology in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolissen, Ronelle; Rohleder, Poul; Bozalek, Vivienne; Swartz, Leslie; Leibowitz, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The term "community" holds historical connotations of political, economic, and social disadvantage in South Africa. Many South African students tend to interpret the term "community" in ways that suggest that community and community psychology describe the experiences of exclusively poor, black people. Critical pedagogies that position the…

  7. Rising diabetes prevalence among urban-dwelling black South Africans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheeta Peer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of and the association of psychosocial risk factors with diabetes in 25-74-year-old black Africans in Cape Town in 2008/09 and to compare the prevalence with a 1990 study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A randomly selected cross-sectional sample had oral glucose tolerance tests. The prevalence of diabetes (1998 WHO criteria, other cardiovascular risk factors and psychosocial measures, including sense of coherence (SOC, locus of control and adverse life events, were determined. The comparison of diabetes prevalence between this and a 1990 study used the 1985 WHO diabetes criteria. RESULTS: There were 1099 participants, 392 men and 707 women (response rate 86%. The age-standardised (SEGI prevalence of diabetes was 13.1% (95% confidence interval (CI 11.0-15.1, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT 11.2% (9.2-13.1 and impaired fasting glycaemia 1.2% (0.6-1.9. Diabetes prevalence peaked in 65-74-year-olds (38.6%. Among diabetic participants, 57.9% were known and 38.6% treated. Using 1985 WHO criteria, age-standardised diabetes prevalence was higher by 53% in 2008/09 (12.2% (10.2-14.2 compared to 1990 (8.0% (5.8-10.3 and IGT by 67% (2008/09: 11.7% (9.8-13.7; 1990: 7.0% (4.9-9.1. In women, older age (OR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.03-1.08, p<0.001, diabetes family history (OR: 3.13, 95%CI: 1.92-5.12, p<0.001, higher BMI (OR: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.20-1.82, p = 0.001, better quality housing (OR: 2.08, 95%CI: 1.01-3.04, p = 0.047 and a lower SOC score (≤ 40 was positively associated with diabetes (OR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.37-4.80, p = 0.003. Diabetes was not associated with the other psychosocial measures in women or with any psychosocial measure in men. Only older age (OR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.02-1.08, p = 0.002 and higher BMI (OR: 1.10, 95%CI: 1.04-1.18, p = 0.003 were significantly associated with diabetes in men. CONCLUSIONS: The current high prevalence of diabetes in urban-dwelling South Africans, and the likelihood of further rises given the high

  8. Ethnic differences in bone geometry between White, Black and South Asian men in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, A; Pye, S R; Cook, M J; Adams, J E; Wu, F C W; O'Neill, T W; Ward, K A

    2016-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the bone health of ethnic groups within the UK and data are largely restricted to women. The aim of this study was to investigate ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone geometry and strength in UK men. White European, Black Afro-Caribbean and South Asian men aged over 40years were recruited from Greater Manchester, UK. aBMD at the spine, hip, femoral neck and whole body were measured by DXA. Bone geometry, strength and vBMD were measured at the radius and tibia using pQCT at the metaphysis (4%) and diaphysis (50% radius; 38% tibia) sites. Adjustments were made for age, weight and height. Black men had higher aBMD at the whole body, total hip and femoral neck compared to White and South Asian men independent of body size adjustments, with no differences between the latter two groups. White men had longer hip axis lengths than both Black and South Asian men. There were fewer differences in vBMD but White men had significantly lower cortical vBMD at the tibial diaphysis than Black and South Asian men (p<0.001). At the tibia and radius diaphysis, Black men had larger bones with thicker cortices and greater bending strength than the other groups. There were fewer differences between White and South Asian men. At the metaphysis, South Asian men had smaller bones (p=0.02) and lower trabecular vBMD at the tibia (p=0.003). At the diaphysis, after size-correction, South Asian men had similar sized bones but thinner cortices than White men; measures of strength were not broadly reduced in the South Asian men. Combining pQCT and DXA measurements has given insight into differences in bone phenotype in men from different ethnic backgrounds. Understanding such differences is important in understanding the aetiology of male osteoporosis. PMID:27457689

  9. The price of corporate social responsibility: The case of black economic empowerment transactions in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, William E.; Todd M Alessandri; Black, Sylvia Sloan

    2005-01-01

    Since the demise of apartheid in South Africa, corporations have been encouraged to participate in the governmental goal of increasing corporate ownership by the black majority population. One vehicle that has arisen to help facilitate an increase in corporate ownership has been black economic empowerment (BEE) transactions. BEE transactions are essentially private placements of equity. Firms that have taken this socially activist position of selling portions of their equity, usually at a sub...

  10. Job-hopping amongst African Black senior management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanyile C.C. Nzukuma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study focuses on understanding labour turnover trends amongst African Black senior managers in South Africa. There is a perception that turnover amongst African Black senior managers is higher than average. There is also a perception that African Black senior managers are only motivated by financial rewards when considering job change.Research purpose: The study focused on understanding why African Black senior managers have a propensity to change jobs and how organisations can resolve the trend.Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the push and pull factors for African Black senior managers in organisations.Research design, approach and method: The research was conducted in two phases, namely as part of a qualitative study and a quantitative study: Creswell (2003 refers to this approach as triangulation. The target population was African Black senior managers on the database of a large Human Resources Consultancy, The South African Rewards Association and the Association of Black Actuaries and Investment Professionals (ABSIP (n = 2600. A total of 208 usable responses were received.Main findings: The main findings and contribution to the field of study was that African Black senior managers do not trust organisations with their career development. They would rather take control of their own career development by moving from organisation to organisation to build their repertoire of skills and competence. They want to be in charge of their careers. This finding has profound implications for organisations employing African Black managers in the senior cadre.Practical/managerial implications: Managers of African Black senior managers need to create attractive employee value propositions that address the main findings. Contribution/value-add: The research shows that African Black senior managers generally seek corporate environments that encourage a sense of belonging and with a clear career growth plan.

  11. Exploring South Africa’s ‘black diamonds’ at live music performances

    OpenAIRE

    Martinette Kruger; Melville Saayman

    2014-01-01

    Problem under investigation: This exploratory study fills a gap in the literature by profiling ‘black diamonds’, the South African up-and-coming middle-class market, at live music concerts. Design, methodology and approach: A destination-based survey at five concerts in South Africa in 2012 extracted a sample of 164 black diamond attendees from the rest of the audience. The attendance motives of this sample were used to identify different market segments within the sample.Findings and implica...

  12. 77 FR 60945 - 2012-2013 Accountability Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... sector of black sea bass from June 1, 2012 to July 1, 2012 (77 FR 28305, May 14, 2012). The commercial... Measure and Closure for Commercial Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... bass in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the South Atlantic through this temporary final rule....

  13. Black Economic Empowerment Disclosures by South African Listed Corporations: The Influence of Ownership and Board Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ntim, Collins G.; Soobaroyen, Teerooven

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which South African listed corporations voluntarily disclose information on black economic empowerment (BEE) in their annual and sustainability reports using a sample of 75 listed corporations from 2003 to 2009. BEE is a form of socio-economic affirmative action championed by the African National Congress (ANC)-led government to address historical imbalances in business participation and ownership in South Africa. We find that block ownership and institut...

  14. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    OpenAIRE

    Relebohile Phatoli; Nontembeko Bila; Eleanor Ross

    2015-01-01

    Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation.Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability...

  15. Impact of Bryo-Diversity depletion on Land Slides in Nilgiri Hills, Western Ghats (South India) –A Study

    OpenAIRE

    ALAM, AFROZ; Kambaska Kumar BEHERA; Vats, Sharad; Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    Since the existence of Nilgiri hills, bryophyte- the miniatures of plant kingdom play an important and crucial role in the stabilization of Blue Mountains ecology. Unlike Himalayas, the landslides were rare in the area, but with the time and changing global environment it had become a common sight. Significantly ever increasing population and vehicular traffic is the prime reason for them, to cater the need, roads are periodically broadened by cutting road sides destroying the habitat as also...

  16. The emergence of the Black Methodist Consultation and its possible prophetic voice in post-apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Racism is an issue which the activism of the Black Methodist Consultation (BMC was set to address during the South African apartheid rule, a view which black theologians and church historians generally accept. This observation brought to mind, in turn, the influence that the Black Consciousness philosophy and the black theology of liberation had on the establishment of the BMC. Recounting such an influence, this article provides a reflection on the formation of the BMC in 1975. In such a reflection, the hypothesis is that the prophetic voice of the BMC is crucial in post-apartheid South Africa. Firstly, the interconnectedness of the Black Consciousness philosophy, the black theology of liberation and the BMC is highlighted. Secondly, the article proceeds to navigate the possible prophetic voice of the BMC in post- apartheid South Africa. In the end, this article sees the BMC as a crucial interlocutor of liberation in present South Africa.

  17. Reverse Migration, the Black Church and Sexual Health: Implications for Building HIV/AIDS Prevention Capacity in the Deep South

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Payne Foster; Martina Thomas; Dwight Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The Black Church has long been purported as being strongly influential in the lives of Blacks in America. Recent U.S. census data trends highlight a “reverse migration” pattern where Blacks are moving back to the South from larger metropolitan areas in other U.S. geographical regions. This migration pattern parallels the increasing HIV/AIDS prevalence among Blacks in the Deep South. This paper reviews both the historical and current migration patterns among Blacks, as well as the current HIV...

  18. Reverse Migration, the Black Church and Sexual Health: Implications for Building HIV/AIDS Prevention Capacity in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Payne Foster

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Black Church has long been purported as being strongly influential in the lives of Blacks in America. Recent U.S. census data trends highlight a “reverse migration” pattern where Blacks are moving back to the South from larger metropolitan areas in other U.S. geographical regions. This migration pattern parallels the increasing HIV/AIDS prevalence among Blacks in the Deep South. This paper reviews both the historical and current migration patterns among Blacks, as well as the current HIV/AIDS epidemic among Blacks in the Deep South. Thereafter, the authors discuss an existing framework for increasing HIV/AIDS prevention capacity through a conceptual connection of migration, religion and sexual health. The authors use case studies to support the proposed framework. It is hoped that the framework could be used to address HIV/AIDS health disparities and other chronic diseases affecting Blacks in America.

  19. Padrões de miniestacas e sazonalidade na produção de mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill X E. urophylla S. T. Black Patterns of mini-cuttings and seasonality in seedlings production Eucalyptus grandis Hill X E. urophylla Hybrid S. T. Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chaves Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes padrões de miniestacas no enraizamento e produção de mudas do híbrido do Eucalyptus grandis Hill x E. urophylla S.T. Black no verão e no inverno. Experimentos com cinco clones e 12 diferentes padrões de miniestacas foram conduzidos em duas épocas do ano (verão e inverno. A sobrevivência e enraizamento das miniestacas foram avaliados na saída da casa de vegetação e na saída da casa de sombra e, a pleno sol, a sobrevivência, a altura, o diâmetro do colo, o peso de massa seca da parte aérea e o da raiz. Os resultados indicaram que a manutenção das folhas é importante para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, e as folhas basais obtiveram maiores valores de enraizamento. Mudas produzidas no verão, utilizando miniestacas de 10 cm de tamanho, tiveram maior crescimento. A metodologia de não redução das folhas mostrou-se procedimento adequado para produção de mudas nas duas épocas do ano.The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of different patterns of mini-cuttigs on rooting and production of hybrid Eucalyptus grandis Hill x E. urophylla S. T. Black hybrid in summer and winter. Experiments with five clones and 12 different patterns of mini-cuttings were conducted in two seasons (summer and winter. The survival and rooting were evaluated ate the output greenhouse and output of the shade and in full sun, survival, height, diameter, the dry weight of shoot and root. The results indicated that the maintenance of leaves is important for rooting mini-cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis Hill x E. urophylla S. T. Black hybrids, and the basal leaves had higher values of rooting. Seedlings produced in summer, using cuttings of 10 cm in size, had higher growth's methodology leaves no reduction procedure proved suitable for seedling production in both seasons.

  20. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea

    2006-01-01

    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  1. Agreements concerning the employment of foreign black labour in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteside, Alan; Patel C

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub. Working paper, comparison of bilateral international agreements concerning black African migrant workers from countries of Southern Africa employed in South Africa R - covers recruitment, labour contracts, workers representation, remittances, tax deduction, administrative aspects of frontier crossing, health insurance, unemployment benefit, irregular migrants, and duration of agreements.

  2. The emergence of the Black Methodist Consultation and its possible prophetic voice in post-apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2015-01-01

    Racism is an issue which the activism of the Black Methodist Consultation (BMC) was set to address during the South African apartheid rule, a view which black theologians and church historians generally accept. This observation brought to mind, in turn, the influence that the Black Consciousness philosophy and the black theology of liberation had on the establishment of the BMC. Recounting such an influence, this article provides a reflection on the formation of the BMC in 1975. In such ...

  3. Padrões de miniestacas e sazonalidade na produção de mudas clonais de Eucalyptus grandis Hill X E. urophylla S. T. Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chaves Souza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes padrões de miniestacas no enraizamento e produção de mudas do híbrido do Eucalyptus grandis Hill x E. urophylla S.T. Black no verão e no inverno. Experimentos com cinco clones e 12 diferentes padrões de miniestacas foram conduzidos em duas épocas do ano (verão e inverno. A sobrevivência e enraizamento das miniestacas foram avaliados na saída da casa de vegetação e na saída da casa de sombra e, a pleno sol, a sobrevivência, a altura, o diâmetro do colo, o peso de massa seca da parte aérea e o da raiz. Os resultados indicaram que a manutenção das folhas é importante para o enraizamento de miniestacas de Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, e as folhas basais obtiveram maiores valores de enraizamento. Mudas produzidas no verão, utilizando miniestacas de 10 cm de tamanho, tiveram maior crescimento. A metodologia de não redução das folhas mostrou-se procedimento adequado para produção de mudas nas duas épocas do ano.

  4. Gammaherpesvirus carrier status of black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Pretorius

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is an economically important disease primarily of domestic cattle with a high case fatality rate. It is caused by either alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (AlHV-1 or ovine herpesvirus type 2 (OvHV-2. The major reservoir host of AlHV-1 is the blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus, but it is generally accepted that the black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou is also a reservoir host. No viral studies in the black wildebeest have been reported and the carrier status of black wildebeest has not been documented. Specimens were collected from several game farms and conservation areas in central South Africa representing the geographical area historically linked to the natural habitat of the black wildebeest. Specimens were obtained from 304 black wildebeest of different ages and sex, as well as 51 black wildebeest foetuses at different stages of gestation. Virus was isolated from a black wildebeest calf. Morphological features and antigenic characteristics suggested it to be a gammaherpesvirus closely related to AlHV-1. All serum samples tested positive with a competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA for group-specific malignant catarrhal fever virus antibody. ASYBR Green real-time PCR assay was developed for the detection of gammaherpesviral DNA. Only 15.8 % of the animals tested positive with the real-time PCR assay whereas 90 % of the foetuses tested positive. This finding suggests that, unlike OvHV-2 infection in lambs in which the infection takes place after weaning, the virus in black wildebeest is mainly transmitted in utero or soon after birth. The results suggest that black wildebeest are latent carriers of a gammaherpesvirus similar or closely related to AlHV-1 present in blue wildebeest and that it is likely that all black wildebeest are persistently infected.

  5. Untold Stories of a group of Black South Africans about the Apartheid Era

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Christiaan; E.J. van der Merwe; Temane, Qambeshile

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the alternative stories of a group of black adults who survived the apartheid years in South Africa. In common parlance it is held that there are two sides to a story and surely, there must have been alternative stories of how people in the black community survived the apartheid years, other than only the dominant stories of suffering that came to the fore during the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) hearings. It was surmised that the lives of m...

  6. Sex discrimination from the glenoid cavity in black South Africans: morphometric analysis of digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, P James

    2011-11-01

    Given that skeletal material recovered from medicolegal contexts is often incomplete or damaged, forensic anthropologists need to have a variety of techniques at their disposal in order to correctly determine the sex of unidentified human remains. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to produce practical standards for discriminating the sex of black South Africans using measurements of the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Standardized digital photographs of the left glenoid fossa were taken for 60 males and 60 females drawn from the Pretoria Bone Collection. An image analysis software program was then used to collect height, breadth, area, and perimeter data from each digital photograph. All four dimensions of the glenoid cavity were highly sexually dimorphic in this population group (p Classification sex biases were below 5.0% for all equations. These results demonstrate that the analysis of glenoid cavity size provides a highly accurate method for discriminating the sex of black South Africans. PMID:20814691

  7. Disclosure, discrimination and desire: experiences of Black and South Asian gay men in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    McKeown, E.; Nelson, S; Anderson, J.; Low, N.; Elford, J

    2010-01-01

    Using findings from a qualitative investigation based on in-depth email interviews with 47 Black and South Asian gay men in Britain, this paper explores the cross-cutting identities and discourses in relation to being both gay and from an ethnic minority background. Taking an intersectional approach, detailed accounts of identity negotiation, cultural pressures, experiences of discrimination and exclusion, and the relationship between minority ethnic gay men and mainstream White gay culture a...

  8. The Genetics of POAG in Black South Africans: A Candidate Gene Association Study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Susan E. I.; Carmichael, Trevor R.; Allingham, R. Rand; Hauser, Michael; Ramsay, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Multiple loci have been associated with either primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or heritable ocular quantitative traits associated with this condition. This study examined the association of these loci with POAG, with central corneal thickness (CCT), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and with diabetes mellitus in a group of black South Africans (215 POAG cases and 214 controls). The population was homogeneous and distinct from other African and European populations. Single SNPs in the MYOC,...

  9. The chimera of redistribution: 'Black Economic Empowerment' (BEE) in the South African fishing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ponte, Stefano; van Sittert, Lance

    2006-01-01

    Redistributive processes do not belong to the pantheon of Neo-liberalism. In this framework, inequality of resources can only be addressed by equality of opportunity. Even in ‘softer’ impersonations of Neo-liberalism, corporate (mis)behaviour is tamed by corporate social responsibility, not by state disciplinary action. Yet, in the context of post-apartheid South Africa, the state can not ignore political pressure for redistribution, even if only rhetorically. The process of Black Economic Em...

  10. Education services and resilience processes: Resilient Black South African students' experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Linda C. Theron; Adam M.C. Theron

    2014-01-01

    The resilience literature is increasingly drawing attention to formal service provision as a means for social ecologies to support children's and youths' positive adjustment to challenging life circumstances. This article interrogates the universality and simplicity of this argument. Using a secondary data analysis of the life stories of 16 resilient, Black South African students from impoverished families, we show that education services predominated students' childhood and youth experie...

  11. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, Tiffany L.; Renee Desmond; Sharonda Hardy; Sh’Nese Townsend; Ard, Jamy D; Karen Meneses; Partridge, Edward E.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2015-01-01

    Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-s...

  12. Exploring South Africa’s ‘black diamonds’ at live music performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinette Kruger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem under investigation: This exploratory study fills a gap in the literature by profiling ‘black diamonds’, the South African up-and-coming middle-class market, at live music concerts. Design, methodology and approach: A destination-based survey at five concerts in South Africa in 2012 extracted a sample of 164 black diamond attendees from the rest of the audience. The attendance motives of this sample were used to identify different market segments within the sample.Findings and implications: Factor analysis identified five key motives and five key management factors for a memorable experience, and a cluster analysis found three types of black diamond concertgoers: Enthusiasts, Sentimentalists and Novices. The three clusters differed significantly in terms of their socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and especially in terms of what they regarded as important for a memorable experience at a live concert. These results will enable managers to package live concerts accordingly in order to develop this market in South Africa. The research emphasises that attendees at live concerts cannot be regarded as homogeneous in terms of their profiles, needs and preferences.

  13. Paleoclimatic reconstructions for the south of Valdai Hills (European Russia) as paleo-analogs of possible regional vegetation changes under global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible response of forest ecosystems of south taiga at the south of Valdai Hills on projected future global warming was assessed using analysis of pollen, plant macrofossil and radiocarbon data from four profiles of buried organic sediments of the last interglacial and several cores from modern raised bogs and two small forest mires in the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (CFSNBR; Twer region, Russia). The future pattern of climatic conditions for the period up to 2100 was derived using the data of A2, B1 and A1B emission scenarios calculated by the global climatic model ECHAM5-MPIOM (Roeckner E et al 2003 The Atmospheric General Circulation Model ECHAM 5. PART I: Model Description, Report 349 (Hamburg: Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) p 127). The paleoclimatic reconstructions showed that the optimum of the Holocene (the Late Atlantic period, 4500-4800 14C yr BP) and the optimal phases of the last interglacial (Mikulino, Eemian, 130 000-115 000 yr BP) can be considered as possible analogs for projected climatic conditions of the middle and the end of the 21st century, respectively. The climate of the CFSNBR during the Holocene climatic optimum was characterized by higher winter (about 3 deg. C higher than at present) and summer temperatures (about 1 deg. C higher than present values). Precipitation was close to present values (about 600-800 mm yr-1). Vegetation was represented by mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest. In the warmest phases of the last interglacial the winter temperature was 5-8 deg. C higher than present values. The summer temperatures were also about 2-4 deg. C higher. Broad-leaved and hornbeam trees were the dominant tree species in vegetation cover.

  14. Paleoclimatic reconstructions for the south of Valdai Hills (European Russia) as paleo-analogs of possible regional vegetation changes under global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novenko, E; Zuganova, I [Institute of Geography of RAS, Staromonetny Lane 29, Moscow 119017 (Russian Federation); Olchev, A [A N Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Leninsky Prospekt 33, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Desherevskaya, O, E-mail: lenanov@mail.r [Faculty of Geography, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    The possible response of forest ecosystems of south taiga at the south of Valdai Hills on projected future global warming was assessed using analysis of pollen, plant macrofossil and radiocarbon data from four profiles of buried organic sediments of the last interglacial and several cores from modern raised bogs and two small forest mires in the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (CFSNBR; Twer region, Russia). The future pattern of climatic conditions for the period up to 2100 was derived using the data of A2, B1 and A1B emission scenarios calculated by the global climatic model ECHAM5-MPIOM (Roeckner E et al 2003 The Atmospheric General Circulation Model ECHAM 5. PART I: Model Description, Report 349 (Hamburg: Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) p 127). The paleoclimatic reconstructions showed that the optimum of the Holocene (the Late Atlantic period, 4500-4800 {sup 14}C yr BP) and the optimal phases of the last interglacial (Mikulino, Eemian, 130 000-115 000 yr BP) can be considered as possible analogs for projected climatic conditions of the middle and the end of the 21st century, respectively. The climate of the CFSNBR during the Holocene climatic optimum was characterized by higher winter (about 3 deg. C higher than at present) and summer temperatures (about 1 deg. C higher than present values). Precipitation was close to present values (about 600-800 mm yr{sup -1}). Vegetation was represented by mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest. In the warmest phases of the last interglacial the winter temperature was 5-8 deg. C higher than present values. The summer temperatures were also about 2-4 deg. C higher. Broad-leaved and hornbeam trees were the dominant tree species in vegetation cover.

  15. EVALUATION OF FACTORS OF THE WORKPLACES IN MATE INDUSTRY (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill. AT CENTRAL-SOUTH IN PARANA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Lopes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed in the maté process industry workplaces, located in central-south of the Parana State, Brazil, from June to August 2005. The climate conditions, noise and light level were analyzed using suitable ergonomic methods. The results showed that the climate conditions through the Wet Bulle Globe Temperature (WBGT was in accordance with NR 15 standard, with a maximum of 17.0 ºC at 15:00 p.m. in the “Barbaquá” sector. The noise levels were above allowed by legislation in the “Barbaquá” sector at finally work day. The light conditions were not in accordance with NBR 5413/92 in the majority of the workplaces evaluated, mainly after the 18:00 p.m, when the artificial illumination became necessary.

  16. Portraits of resilience: writing a socio-cultural history of a black South African location with the Ngilima photographic collection. Benoni, 1950s-1960s.

    OpenAIRE

    Feyder, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    This thesis engages with the ongoing debate regarding how photographs can contribute to the writing of black South African history. In the field of South African visual history, a significant literature explores the “white gaze” that emanates from the administrative and missionary photographic archives of the colonial period. Comparatively fewer studies, however, have addressed how black South Africans pictured themselves, largely due to the presumption that black visual archives are scarce a...

  17. Seasonal variation of black carbon over the South China Sea and in various continental locations in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is an important atmospheric constitute as an air pollutant and as a climate forcer. To our knowledge, field measurements of BC have not been reported over the South China Sea. Observation of light absorption coefficients (σabs and BC concentrations by Aethalometer were conducted on Yongxing Island in the South China Sea and at five continental sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, South China during the South China Sea monsoon period (rainy season, 16 May–20 June 2008 and the northeast monsoon period (dry season, 12 December 2008–8 January 2009. At the oceanic site, the daily average BC concentrations vary from 0.28 to 2.14 μg m−3 and seasonal variations of BC were small (0.67 in dry season and 0.54 μg m−3 in rainy season. Similarly, little seasonal difference was found at a background site in PRD (2.88 in dry season and 2.62 μg m−3 in rainy season. At PRD urban sites, the daily average concentration of BC ranges from 1.56 to 37.9 μg m−3, higher in the dry season (12.6 μg m−3 and lower in the rainy season (6.4 μg m−3. The observed average σabs values in rainy vs. dry seasons are 119 vs. 62 Mm−1 at the PRD urban sites, 29 vs. 26 Mm−1 at the PRD background site, and 8.4 vs. 7.2 Mm−1 at the marine site. A bi-peak pattern in diurnal BC variation was observed at all sites while this pattern is the most prominent at the urban sites. The first peak appears in the early morning rush hour and the second peak in early evening, with the evening peak more pronounced in dry season.

  18. Overlying surficial deposits and absent areas for the Inyan Kara Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes areas where the Inyan Kara Group is directly overlain by surficial deposits, as well as those areas where the Inyan Kara Group is absent in...

  19. Pegmatite/wallrock interactions, Black Hills, South Dakota: Progressive boron metasomatism adjacent to the Tip Top pegmatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.; Simon, S.B.; Laul, J.C.; Christian, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Interaction between country rock and fluids derived from the Tip Top pegmatite has resulted in a series of boron enriched assemblages. Between unaltered quartz-mica schist to the pegmatite contact is a succession of four mineral assemblages: 1. (1) Quartz-Biotite-Potassium Feldspar assemblage (Q-B-K), which consists essentially of the original metamorphic silicate assemblage plus anomalously high amounts of modal tourmaline 2. (2) Quartz-Biotite-Tourmaline assemblage (Q-B-T) 3. (3) Tourmaline-Quartz-Muscovite assemblage (T-Q-M) 4. (4) Tourmaline-Quartz assemblage (T-Q). Alkali elements (Cs, Rb, K, Li), SiO2, and Ba show a decrease from the Q-B-K assemblage to the T-Q assemblage. A12O3, Ga, B, total Fe and Zn increase moderately from the Q-B-K assemblage to the T-Q assemblage. The mineral chemistries also change considerably. The Mg/(Mg + Fe2+) ratios in biotites range from 0.54 to 0.50 in samples from the Q-B-K assemblage to 0.39 in the (Q-B-T) assemblage. The range in tourmaline end-member components from the Q-B-K assemblage to the T-Q assemblage is as follows: Q-B-K: Dravite.63 Schorl.23 Elbaite.05 Buergerite.09 T-Q: Dravite.23 Schorl.37 Elbaite.17 Buergerite.23. Observed variations in mineral assemblage and whole rock chemistry within the alteration zone appear to a first approximation to be a function of ??B2O3 (boron metasomatism) and ??K2O (alkali leaching). The breakdown of feldspar and biotite may be approximated by reactions: 2HCl + 2(K, Na)AlSi3O8 /ai 2(K, Na)Cl + Al2SiO5 + 5SiO2 + H2O and 2 Annite + SiO2 + 5Al2SiO5 + 2NaCl + 6H3BO3 /ai 2 Tourmaline + 2KCl + 7H2O. The alteration zone may represent either a single episode (B-, Cs-, Li-, Rb-enriched fluid) or multiple episodes (B, Zn, Mn fluid and Cs, Li, Rb fluid) of pegmatite fluid-schist interactions. In both situations, B in the aqueous fluid from the pegmatite reacts with the schist breaking down sheet silicate "traps" for Cs, Rb, Li, and K and forming tourmaline-rich assemblages. ?? 1984.

  20. Ocean Hill-Brownsville, 40 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Forty years ago--on May 9, 1968--the local school board in Brooklyn's black ghetto of Ocean Hill-Brownsville sent telegrams to 19 unionized educators, informing them that their employment in the district was terminated. Eighteen were white. One black teacher was mistakenly included on the list, but reinstated almost immediately after the error was…

  1. Construct equivalence of the OPQ32n for Black and White people in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deléne Visser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The construct equivalence of the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32n for black and white groups was investigated.Research purpose: The objective was to investigate the structural invariance of the OPQ32n for two South African population groups.Motivation for the study: The OPQ32n is often used for making a variety of personnel decisions in South Africa. Evidence regarding the suitability of personality questionnaires for use across South Africa’s various population groups is required by practitioners for selecting appropriate psychometric instruments.Research design, approach and method: Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and the results were analysed using quantitative statistical methods. The sample consisted of 248 Black and 476 White people from the SHL (South Africa database. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the structural equivalence of the OPQ32n scale scores for these two groups.Main findings: A good fit regarding factor correlations and covariances on the 32 scales was obtained, partially supporting the structural equivalence of the questionnaire for the two groups. The analyses furthermore indicated that there was structural invariance, with the effect of the Social Desirability scale partialled out.Practical/managerial implications: The present study focused on aspects of structural equivalence only. The OPQ32n therefore passed the first hurdle in this particular context, but further investigation is necessary to provide evidence that the questionnaire is suitable for use in personnel decisions comparing the population groups.Contribution: Despite the positive findings with regard to structural equivalence and social desirability response style, it should be borne in mind that no assumptions regarding full scale equivalence can be made on the basis of the present findings.

  2. The genetics of POAG in black South Africans: a candidate gene association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan E I; Carmichael, Trevor R; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael; Ramsay, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Multiple loci have been associated with either primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or heritable ocular quantitative traits associated with this condition. This study examined the association of these loci with POAG, with central corneal thickness (CCT), vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) and with diabetes mellitus in a group of black South Africans (215 POAG cases and 214 controls). The population was homogeneous and distinct from other African and European populations. Single SNPs in the MYOC, COL8A2, COL1A1 and ZNF469 gene regions showed marginal associations with POAG. No association with POAG was identified with tagging SNPs in TMCO1, CAV1/CAV2, CYP1B1, COL1A2, COL5A1, CDKN2B/CDKN2BAS-1, SIX1/SIX6 or the chromosome 2p16 regions and there were no associations with CCT or VCDR. However, SNP rs12522383 in WDR36 was associated with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.00008). This first POAG genetic association study in black South Africans has therefore identified associations that require additional investigation in this and other populations to determine their significance. This highlights the need for larger studies in this population if we are to achieve the goal of facilitating early POAG detection and ultimately preventing irreversible blindness from this condition. PMID:25669751

  3. Disclosure, discrimination and desire: experiences of Black and South Asian gay men in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Eamonn; Nelson, Simon; Anderson, Jane; Low, Nicola; Elford, Jonathan

    2010-10-01

    Using findings from a qualitative investigation based on in-depth email interviews with 47 Black and South Asian gay men in Britain, this paper explores the cross-cutting identities and discourses in relation to being both gay and from an ethnic minority background. Taking an intersectional approach, detailed accounts of identity negotiation, cultural pressures, experiences of discrimination and exclusion and the relationship between minority ethnic gay men and mainstream White gay culture are presented and explored. The major findings common to both groups were: cultural barriers limiting disclosure of sexuality to family and wider social networks; experiences of discrimination by White gay men that included exclusion as well as objectification; a lack of positive gay role models and imagery relating to men from minority ethnic backgrounds. Among South Asian gay men, a major theme was regret at being unable to fulfil family expectations regarding marriage and children, while among Black gay men, there was a strong belief that same-sex behaviour subverted cultural notions related to how masculinity is configured. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of social location, particularly education and income, when examining the intersection of ethnicity and sexuality in future research. PMID:20665298

  4. The professional identity of black South African teachers : personal and professional struggles in a disjunction between policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Problem area for discussion This thesis sets out to describe and deliberate on the concept of the professional identity of black teachers in South Africa. The historical and cultural context of South Africa stretching from apartheid rule to the first years of democratisation creates a frame around this study, within which I have investigated the life and work of this professional group who performs a very significant job in the process of developing a young democracy. Although this study ...

  5. Sediment pore-water interactions associated with arsenic and uranium transport from the North Cave Hills mining region, South Dakota, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent of historical U mining impacts is well documented for the North Cave Hills region of Harding County, South Dakota, USA. While previous studies reported watershed sediment and surface water As and U concentrations up to 90× established background concentrations, it was unclear whether or how localized changes in sediment redox behavior may influence contaminant remobilization. Five pore-water equilibration samplers (peepers) were spatially and temporally deployed within the study area to evaluate seasonal solid–liquid As and U distributions as a function of sediment depth. Pore-water and solid phase As and U concentrations, Fe speciation, Eh and pH were measured to ascertain specific geochemical conditions responsible for As and U remobilization and transport behavior. At a mine overburden sedimentation pond adjacent to the mine sites, high total aqueous As and U concentrations (4920 and 674 μg/L, respectively) were found within surface water during summer sampling; however pond dredging prior to autumn sampling resulted in significantly lower aqueous As and U concentrations (579 and 108 μg/L, respectively); however, both As and U still exceeded regional background concentrations (20 and 18 μg/L, respectively). At a wetlands-dominated deposition zone approximately 2 km downstream of the sedimentation pond, pore-water geochemical conditions varied seasonally. Summer conditions promoted reducing conditions in pore water, resulting in active release of As(III) to the water column. Autumn conditions promoted oxidizing conditions, decreasing pore-water As (Aspw) 5× and increasing Upw 10×. Peak U pore-water concentrations (781 μg/L) were 3.5× greater than determined for the surface water (226 μg/L), and approximately 40× background concentrations. At the Bowman–Haley reservoir backwaters 45 km downstream from the mine sites, As and U pore-water concentrations increased significantly between the summer and autumn deployments, attributed to

  6. The significance and lag-time of deep throughflow: an example from a small, ephemeral catchment with contrasting soil types in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bestland

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of deep throughflow in a small (3.4 km2 ephemeral catchment in the Adelaide Hills of South Australia was investigated by detailed hydrochemical analysis of soil water and stream flow during autumn and early winter rains. In this Mediterranean climate with strong summer moisture deficits, several significant rainfalls are required to generate soil throughflow and stream flow (in ephemeral streams. During Autumn 2007, a large (127 mm drought-breaking rain occurred in April followed by significant May rains; most of this precipitation occurred prior to the initiation of stream flow in late May. These early events, especially the 127 mm event, had low (depleted stable water isotope values compared with both later rains and average winter precipitation. Thus, this large depleted early rain event provided an excellent natural tracer. During the June and July rainfall events, daily stream and soil water samples were collected and analysed. Results from major and trace elements, water isotopes (δ18O, δD, and dissolved organic carbon analysis clearly demonstrate that a large component of this early April and May rain was stored and later pushed out of deep soil or regolith zones. This pre-event water was identified in the stream as well as identified in deeper soil horizons due to its different isotopic signature which contrasted sharply with the June–July event water. Based on this data, the regolith and throughflow system for this catchment has been re-thought. The catchment area consists of about half sandy and half clayey soils. Regolith flow is now thought to be dominated by the sandy soil system not the clayey soil system. The clayey duplex soils had rapid response to rain events and saturation excess overland flow. The sandy soils had delayed soil throughflow and infiltration excess overland flow. A pulse of macropore throughflow was observed in the sandy soils three days after the rainfall event

  7. The significance and lag-time of deep through flow: an example from a small, ephemeral catchment with contrasting soil types in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VanLeeuwen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of deep soil-regolith through flow in a small (3.4 km2 ephemeral catchment in the Adelaide Hills of South Australia was investigated by detailed hydrochemical analysis of soil water and stream flow during autumn and early winter rains. In this Mediterranean climate with strong summer moisture deficits, several significant rainfalls are required to generate soil through flow and stream flow [in ephemeral streams]. During autumn 2007, a large (127 mm drought-breaking rain occurred in April followed by significant May rains; most of this April and May precipitation occurred prior to the initiation of stream flow in late May. These early events, especially the 127 mm April event, had low stable water isotope values compared with later rains during June and July and average winter precipitation. Thus, this large early autumn rain event with low isotopic values (δ18O, δD provided an excellent natural tracer. During later June and July rainfall events, daily stream and soil water samples were collected and analysed. Results from major and trace elements, water isotopes (δ18O, δD, and dissolved organic carbon analysis clearly demonstrate that a large component of this early April and May rain was stored and later pushed out of deep soil and regolith zones. This pre-event water was identified in the stream as well as identified in deep soil horizons due to its different isotopic signature which contrasted sharply with the June–July event water. Based on this data, the soil-regolith hydrologic system for this catchment has been re-thought. The catchment area consists of about 60% sandy and 40% clayey soils. Regolith flow in the sandy soil system and not the clayey soil system is now thought to dominate the deep subsurface flow in this catchment. The clayey texture contrast soils had rapid response to rain events and saturation excess overland flow. The sandy soils had delayed soil through flow and

  8. Identifying the pollen of an extinct spruce species in the Late Quaternary sediments of the Tunica Hills region, south-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke Mander; Jacklyn Rodriguez; Pietra G. Mueller; Jackson, Stephen T.; Surangi W. Punyasena

    2014-01-01

    Late Quaternary fluvial deposits in the Tunica Hills region of Louisiana and Mississippi are rich in spruce macrofossils of the extinct species Picea critchfieldii, the one recognized plant extinction of the Late Quaternary. However, the morphology of P. critchfieldii pollen is unknown, presenting a barrier to the interpretation of pollen spectra from the last glacial of North America. To address this issue, we undertook a morphometric study of Picea pollen from Tunica Hills. Morphometric data, together with qualitative observations of pollen morphology using Apotome fluorescence microscopy, indicate that Picea pollen from Tunica Hills is morphologically distinct from the pollen of P. glauca, P. mariana and P. rubens. Measurements of grain length, corpus width and corpus height indicate that Picea pollen from Tunica Hills is larger than the pollen of P. mariana and P. rubens, and is slightly larger than P. glauca pollen. We argue that the morphologically distinctive Tunica Hills Picea pollen was probably produced by the extinct spruce species P. critchfieldii. These morphological differences could be used to identify P. critchfieldii in existing and newly collected pollen records, which would refine its paleoecologic and biogeographic history and clarify the nature and timing of its extinction in the Late Quaternary.

  9. Triglyceride concentration and waist circumference influence alcohol-related plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity increase in black South Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Marlien; de Lange, Zelda; Hoekstra, Tiny; Ellis, Suria M.; Kruger, Annamarie

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the association between alcohol consumption and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1(act)) and fibrinogen concentration in a black South African population presenting with lower PAI-1(act) and higher fibrinogen than what is typically observed in white populations. We, fu

  10. The physical activity and health status of two generations of Black South African professional women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J.L. Venter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Increased health risks associated with physical inactivity in the Black population have been reported in recent years. Black women, suffering the highest levels of inactivity, overweight and obesity, are at greatest risk of developing chronic diseases of lifestyle. This explorativedescriptive study investigated the physical activity patterns and health status of two generations of Black professional women, reflecting pre-democracy and post-democracy age groups. Quantitative measures were used, including the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer, the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. Sample groups comprised teachers, nurses, social workers and public sector managers. Participants aged between 35 and 45 years were allocated to the older generation group (n = 111, whilst those aged between 18 and 21 years (students in the mentioned professional fields were allocated to the younger generation group (n = 69. The results indicated that these women displayed lower levels of health-promoting behavioural practices than expected, significantly lower levels of physical activity and significantly higher levels of overweight and obesity than the South African norms. The observation that the younger group appeared to be replicating the patterns of the older women is a cause of concern. Greater compliance to health-promoting behaviours was expected in this group owing to participants’ professional involvement in health, education and social development fields. Wide-ranging initiatives are necessary to promote physical activity and health amongst the Black female population in South Africa.

    Opsomming
    Gedurende die afgelope jare het navorsing onder die Swart bevolking ʼn toename in gesondheidsrisiko’s wat met fisieke onaktiwiteit geassosieer is, getoon. Swart vroue, wat die hoogste vlakke van onaktiwiteit, oorgewig en obesiteit toon, blyk ook die grootste risiko te loop om

  11. Weathering characteristics of the Lower Paleozoic black shale in northwestern Guizhou Province, south China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yang Liu; Jinchuan Zhang; Xuan Tang; Chao Yang; Shuai Tang

    2016-07-01

    The northwestern Guizhou in the Yangtze Craton of south China has a tremendous potential of shale gas resource. In this paper, we present results from major and trace elements, total organic carbon, mineralogical composition analysis and petrophysical parameters to characterise shale weathering features. Further, the differences of black shale between underground and outcrops have also been presented to examine the changes of black shale after weathering. Our results show that the trace elements of shale have varying degrees of loss in the weathering leaching process, both in Niutitang shale and Longmaxi shale, the loss of B, V, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba is obvious, but the element migration quantity in the formeris greater than in the latter. Decomposition of minerals such as pyrite, feldspar and calcite result in the leaching of Na, Ca, Mg and Fe. The loss rate of total organic carbon (TOC) in black shales ranges from 18% to 70% with an average of 43%; moreover, the loss of organic carbon in samples with high TOC contentis larger than in those samples with low TOC content. Results following the testing of porosity and permeability show that porosity increases significantly after weathering but permeability changes little. Furthermore, the increment of porosity is greater in the Niutitang shale (with more sulphide minerals) than in the Longmaxi shale, suggesting that the oxidation of sulphide minerals may have led to the formationof an acidic environment, causing the other minerals in the black shale to weather more quickly, thus resulting in increased porosity. The content of clay minerals in the core samples is slightly lesser than the outcrop samples, but the TOC content in the core samples is greater and has a larger specific surface area. This suggest that the TOC content played a decisive role on the specific surface area of shale. In addition, changes in the black shale caused by the weathering process mainly depend on the mineral composition and the TOC content in

  12. Heightened free radical activity in blacks with chronic pancreatitis at Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, A; Shiel, N; Kay, P M; Segal, I; Braganza, J M

    1994-10-31

    Four indices of free radical activity were measured in fasting serum/plasma samples from 14 consecutive blacks with clinically quiescent chronic pancreatitis and 15 outwardly healthy hospital personnel at Soweto, the township near Johannesburg in South Africa. The patients had higher serum levels than did controls of lipid isomerisation (P radical activity is thus a common denominator in chronic pancreatitis irrespective of geography, or putative aetiological factors whether alcoholism or idiopathic, since that ratio was approximately 95:5 at Johannesburg and 50:50 at Manchester. The further finding of subclinical oxidative stress in Sowetan controls and the endemic nature of chronic pancreatitis in that area supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress may be involved in its pathogenesis. PMID:7834869

  13. The Frequency of Cytochrome P450 2E1 Polymorphisms in Black South Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Chelule

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1 gene reportedly modify the metabolic activity of CYP2E1 enzyme, and have been associated with increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oesophagus in high prevalence areas such as China. To assess the frequency of these polymorphisms in Black South Africans, a population with a high incidence of oesophageal SCC, this study examined genomic DNA from 331 subjects for restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 (RsaI and PstI digestion. The frequency of the CYP2E1 c1/c1 and c1/c3 genotypes was 95% and 5% respectively. The frequency of the CYP2E1 allele distribution was found to be markedly different between Chinese and South African populations; hence it is important to place racial differences into consideration when proposing allelic variants as genetic markers for cancer.

  14. Being black in a white skin: Beliefs and stereotypes around albinism at a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relebohile Phatoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Partly because of the legacy of apartheid, and despite being a constitutional democracy, South Africa continues to be a deeply divided society, particularly along racial lines. In this context many people with albinism do not fit neatly into black and white categories and are likely to experience social discrimination and marginalisation.Objectives: The study endeavoured to explore the beliefs and practices regarding albinism within a South African university, and the availability of support services. Method: The research was located within an interpretive qualitative paradigm and was framed within the theories of stigma, discrimination and ‘othering’. Interviews were conducted with five students with albinism and 10 students without albinism. Results: Findings confirmed the existence of myths and stereotypes regarding albinism. Students with albinism tended to exclude themselves from the rest of the student community to avoid discrimination and stereotypes around their condition. Conclusion: People with albinism can teach us about social constructions of race, colour and relations between minority groups and the majority culture. Results have implications for schools, disability units at universities, and albinism societies in terms of opening up channels of communication between people with albinism and the general public and fostering knowledge and awareness thereof.

  15. Pb-Pb isotope dating of black shales from the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation, Guizhou Province, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yongquan; JIANG Shaoyong; LING Hongfei; FENG Hongzhen; YANG Jinghong; CHEN Jianhua

    2003-01-01

    The Lower Cambrian black shales of the Niutitang Formation and their lateral equivalents occur widely on the Yangtze Platform, South China. In this study, we examine two sections of the Niutitang Formation in Guizhou Province. We employ a stepwise acid-leaching technique to obtain Pb-isotope compositions of the black shales. At the Zhongnan section, the black shales display large Pb isotope variations, with 206Pb/204Pb of 20.5396~33.5709, and 207Pb/204Pb of 15.8407~16.5782. In contrast, Pb isotope data show a relatively limited range in 206Pb/204Pb (18.2797~18.5972) and 207Pb/204Pb (15.6813~15.7159) at the Zhijin section. Data for all acid-leached black shale samples from the two sections yield a Pb-Pb isochron age of 531±24 Ma. This age may represent the sedimentary age of the black shales. The initial Pb-isotope composition of the black shales falls near the upper-crust evolution curve in a Zartman Pb-Pb evolution diagram. Hence, it is likely that the Pb in the black shales may have been derived from an upper continental crustal source.

  16. Loess Hills of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage outlines the boundary of the Loess Hills in Iowa at 1:100,000 scale. Criteria applied to the delineation of the Loess Hills included drainage density,...

  17. An enigmatic source of hematitic carbonate beds containing vast amounts of iron oxidizers in a paleozoic metamorphic complex, South Hungary, Geresd-Hills, Ófalu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáger, Viktor; Dabi, Gergely; Menyhárt, Adrienn

    2013-04-01

    Near the village of Ófalu, in the Geresd Hills, South Hungary, within the "Mecsekalja tectonic belt", low and intermediate grade paleozoic metamorphic complex (phyllite, gneiss) contains vein-like hematitic carbonate beds, up to 30 cm in thickness. The carbonate mineral is calcite. These hematitic carbonate beds cross-cut the foliation of the phyllite, and show no signs of any metamorphic alteration. In the studied section the red carbonate beds are associated with a vein system filled with multiple generations of vein carbonates(Dabi et al., 2011). The red carbonate beds contain a vaste number of twisted stalks of the iron oxidizing taxon of Gallionella. Rarely in some siliceous parts, Leptothrix-like microbial fossils can be found and these beds also contain numerous unidentifiable, hematitic foraminifers. According to ICP-AES measurements, the hematitic carbonate beds contains 8 % Fe, 0.86 % Mn and 0.12 % Ba. XRD and Raman measurements proved that the iron phase is hematite. The SEM observations revealed that the bacterial microfossils and foraminifers are built up of micron-submicron sized pseudohexagonal platy hematite. The bacterial microfossils of the Gallionella iron oxidizer are very well preserved and reaches about 80 µm length and about 2-3 µm width. The above observations raise the following issues: 1. how did these non metamorphic hematitic-carbonatic beds get inside into the metamorphic complex?, 2. what is the age of the formation of these beds?, and 3. what was the source of the iron? If we consider that the hematitic beds contain foraminifers and iron oxidizing bacteria, and no signs of metamorphic alteration nor foliations can be observed in these beds, the only answer for the first question is that the formations are fractures filled with lime-mud, i.e. neptunian dykes, which penetrated into the cracks of the phyllite. The presence of foraminifers and the geotectonic situation of the unit imply marine origin. Considering that these beds are

  18. Proposed conservation plan for the black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis in South Africa, the TBVC* states and Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Brooks

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Papers from the Rhinoceros Conservation Workshop, Skukuza, Kruger National Park,31 August – 4 September 1988 The conservation plan for the black rhinoceros presents specific aims and management guidelines for the conservation of the African black rhinoceros Diceros bicomis in the Republic of South Africa, the TBVC states and Namibia. The adoption of this plan, and the application of the strategies described therein (managing existing populations, establishing new populations and aspects of captive breeding by the relevant conservation authorities should enhance the survival prospects of this species, both in the region and globally.

  19. BLACK SOILS DEGRADATION IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN BLACK SEA REGION AT IRRIGATION AND IN THE POST-IRRIGATION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilanchyn Yaroslav

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many years’ studies of process of changes in composition, properties and fertility of the black soils of the North-Western Black Sea area in Ukraine with irrigation have revealed mobility of carbonates and humus in them, decrease of capacity of cationic consumption and content of consumed calcium, increase of share of consumed magnesium and sodium. Indicators of agro-physical state of soils under irrigation conditions are worsening significantly.

  20. Coronation Hill U-Au mine, South Alligator Valley, Northern Territory: an epigenetic sandstone-type deposit hosted by debris-flow conglomerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The host rock at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is a debris flow conglomerate, developed in a high-energy fluvial environment during deposition of the Coronation Sandstone of the El Sherana Group. Mineralisation took place by movement of low-temperature fluids from the U-enriched volcanics into the conduit sandstone and eventually into the reduced debris flow conglomerate and carbonaceous shale

  1. Black carbon and trace gases over South Asia: Measurements and Regional Climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Pradip; Pathak, Binita; Parottil, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    Trace gases and aerosols are simulated with 50 km spatial resolution over South Asian CORDEX domain enclosing the Indian sub-continent and North-East India for the year 2012 using two regional climate models RegCM4 coupled with CLM4.5 and WRF-Chem 3.5. Both models are found to capture the seasonality in the simulated O3 and its precursors, NOx and CO and black carbon concentrations together with the meteorological variables over the Indian Subcontinent as well as over the sub-Himalayan North-Eastern region of India including Bangladesh. The model simulations are compared with the measurements made at Dibrugarh (27.3°N, 94.6°E, 111 m amsl). Both the models are found to capture the observed diurnal and seasonal variations in O3 concentrations with maximum in spring and minimum in monsoon, the correlation being better for WRF-Chem (R~0.77) than RegCM (R~0.54). Simulated NOx and CO is underestimated in all the seasons by both the models, the performance being better in the case of WRF-Chem. The observed difference may be contributed by the bias in the estimation of the O3 precursors NOx and CO in the emission inventories or the error in the simulation of the meteorological variables which influences O3 concentration in both the models. For example, in the pre-monsoon and winter season, the WRF-Chem model simulated shortwave flux overestimates the observation by ~500 Wm-2 while in the monsoon and post monsoon season, simulated shortwave flux is equivalent to the observation. The model predicts higher wind speed in all the seasons especially during night-time. In the post-monsoon and winter season, the simulated wind pattern is reverse to observation with daytime low and night-time high values. Rainfall is overestimated in all the seasons. RegCM-CLM4.5 is found to underestimate rainfall and other meteorological parameters. The WRF-Chem model closely captured the observed values of black carbon mass concentrations during pre-monsoon and summer monsoon seasons, but

  2. The Cross River gorillas (Gorilla gorilla diehli) at Mawambi Hills, South-West Cameroon: habitat suitability and vulnerability to anthropogenic disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiendem, Denis N; Funwi-Gabga, Neba; Tagg, Nikki; Hens, Luc; Indah, Eni K

    2013-01-01

    Only about 300 individuals of the Cross River gorilla (CRG; Gorilla gorilla diehli) survive today. The subspecies is endemic to approximately 12-14 sites at the Cameroon-Nigeria border, and is critically endangered. To understand survival prospects of the CRG at Mawambi Hills, Cameroon, a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) distribution model was used to predict the distribution of gorillas. Overall, 24% of the study area was predicted to be suitable for gorillas. The most important predictors of gorilla distribution were elevation as a surrogate for accessibility (52.4%), distance to nearby villages which represents proximity to anthropogenic disturbance (22.7%), and slope steepness as a proxy for security (19.4%). Gorillas mainly occupied slopes of steep hills and avoided areas of human disturbance. To evaluate the spatial relationship between gorilla distribution and human activities, the predicted habitat suitability map was overlaid with a kernel density map of human activities. A positive correlation was found between locations of human activity and suitable habitat for gorillas (r = 0.5). This suggests that anthropogenic pressures in previously unused forest areas are increasing as a result of resource depletion at lower altitudes, consequently putting the gorillas at greater risk. Conservation management plans that seek to reduce human encroachment into habitats preferred by gorillas such as steep hills will probably contribute to gorilla survival. PMID:23307035

  3. Potential role of environmental contaminants in the pathology of beak deformities among Black-capped chickadees in South-central Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — More than 1,400 individual Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) with beak deformities were recorded in south-central Alaska between 1991 and 2005. Over...

  4. Affirmative Action Application or Black and White in South Africa Higher Education Institutions: Is it the way forward or not?

    OpenAIRE

    Christiena Maria van der Bank; Jafta Mphahlani; Kholeka C Moloi

    2015-01-01

    We will, demonstrate what affirmative action entails, its origin and the relationship with discrimination and equality. The paper will also highlight the implementation of affirmative action in the Higher Education sector in South Africa.  Affirmative action or black and white are the additional corrective steps which must be taken in order that those who have been historically disadvantage by unfair discrimination before 1994 are able to derive full benefits from an equitable employment envi...

  5. Insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in obese black South African women : a focus on risk factors / by Elmarié Jonker

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, Elmarié

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: High rates of obesity occur in black South African women, up to double the rate in whites. Concern about the potential health burden of obesity in these women as well as a lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms of obesity, motivated the POWIRS study (Profiles of Women with the Insulin Resistance Syndrome). Subjects and methods: The study population consisted of 100 urbanised black women of the North- West Province, South Africa. These women we...

  6. Effect of Black Economic Empowerment on profit and competitiveness of firms in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert P.J. Kleynhans

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The key obstacle hindering optimal profitability levels and competitiveness in firms in South Africa is the application of labour legislation policies and tools aimed at narrowing the income gap between different racial groups and resolving inequality amongst a diverse workforce.Research purpose: This article determined whether the implementation of a Black Economic Empowerment (BEE policy by companies has a positive effect on their growth in terms of profits and competitiveness.Motivation for the study: This study determined whether the implementation of BEE could be profitable for companies.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative study was undertaken in order to find empirical evidence supporting the relation between high BEE Scores, profitability and competitiveness. The empirical investigation utilised regression analysis, correlations and other methods, based on data between January 2009 and December 2011. The BEE Scorecard was used to obtain BEE scores of the top 50 BEE companies. Thereafter, the top 50 companies’ financial information was gathered from the Johannesburg Securities Exchange.Main findings: The implementation of BEE within companies has a positive effect on profitability, turnover and investment. Numerous factors have, however, been hindering,while other factors enhanced the success of BEE.Practical/managerial implications: The findings encourage mangers to engage in BEE as it may facilitate higher profits and indicates where labour legislation could be improved.Contribution/value-add: Value was added through new research determining the effects of BEE and labour legislation on profitability and competitiveness of firms on a micro-level.

  7. A Study of the Relationship between Food Group Recommendations and Perceived Stress: Findings from Black Women in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Carson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Black women in the Deep South experience excess morbidity/mortality from obesity-related diseases, which may be partially attributable to poor diet. One reason for poor dietary intake may be high stress, which has been associated with unhealthy diets in other groups. Limited data are available regarding dietary patterns of black women in the Deep South and to our knowledge no studies have been published exploring relationships between stress and dietary patterns among this group. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between stress and adherence to food group recommendations among black women in the Deep South. Participants (n=355 provided demographic, anthropometric, stress (PSS-10, and dietary (NCI ASA-24 hour recall data. Participants were obese (BMI = 36.5 kg/m2 and reported moderate stress (PSS-10 score = 16 and minimal adherence to Dietary Guidelines for Americans food group recommendations (1/3 did not meet recommendations for any food group. Participants reporting higher stress had higher BMIs than those reporting lower stress. There was no observed relationship between stress and dietary intake in this sample. Based on these study findings, which are limited by potential misreporting of dietary intake and limited variability in stress measure outcomes, there is insufficient evidence to support a relationship between stress and dietary intake.

  8. Wave modelling south of the Danube Delta in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Eugen; Butunoiu, Dorin

    2015-04-01

    A multilevel wave modelling system, based on SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) spectral model, was implemented in the Black Sea and focused on the western coast. Model simulations have been performed for a 10-year time interval (1999-2008). Validations have been carried out against both satellite data and in situ measurements. A high resolution SWAN computational domain (100m x100m), which is focused on the coastal environment south of the Danube Delta, was also implemented. This coastal area includes Sacalin, which is a newly formed island in the Black Sea, south of the Saint George branch of the Danube. Initially, this was an island system, which consisted of two smaller islands, Greater Sacalin and Lesser Sacalin. In time, due to the enhanced sedimentary processes, the two islands merged into a single continuous landmass. The island has become the habitat of a great variety of rare species and for this reason it was declared an ecological reserve. In the high resolution computational domain, focused on the Sacalin Island, the effect of the currents induced by the Danube River outflow was also accounted in the model, together with some other processes specific to the coastal environment as diffraction, triad wave-wave interactions and wave induced set up. Considering the results of the ten-year SWAN model simulations with the modelling system covering the entire sea basin, the most relevant configurations of the environmental matrix, characteristic to this side of the sea, were defined. On this basis, by performing SWAN simulations in the high resolution coastal domain, the wave propagation patterns in the nearshore, together with some parameters related to the shoreline conditions, were evaluated. A great number of possible situations were analyzed. The most relevant correspond to different directions of the incoming waves (N, NE, E and SE, respectively) and significant wave energy conditions. The results provided by the modelling system indicate two different

  9. “Coming to Town”: The Impact of Urbanicity, Cigarette Advertising, and Network Norms on the Smoking Attitudes of Black Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Chyvette T.; Grier, Sonya A.; Marks, Amy Seidel

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women’s smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, whi...

  10. Black Carbon aerosol measurements and simulation in two cities in south-west Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milford, Celia; Fernández-Camacho, R.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Rodríguez, Sergio; Castell, Nuria; Marrero, Carlos; Bustos, J. J.; de la Rosa, J. D.; Stein, Ariel F.

    2016-02-01

    Black carbon (BC) has been simulated for south-west Spain with the air quality model CAMx driven by the MM5 meteorological model, with a spatial resolution of 2 km × 2 km and a temporal resolution of 1 h. The simulation results were evaluated against hourly equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations obtained in the cities of Seville and Huelva for a winter period (January 2013) and a summer period (June 2013). A large seasonal variability was observed in PM2.5 EBC concentration in the two cities, with higher concentrations in wintertime; summertime EBC concentrations were typically less than half those of the wintertime. The model captured the large diurnal, seasonal and day to day variability in these urban areas, mean biases ranged between -0.14 and 0.07 μg m-3 in winter and between 0.01 and 0.29 μg m-3 in summer while hourly PM2.5 EBC observations ranged between 0.03 μg m-3 to 10.9 μg m-3. The diurnal variation in EBC concentrations was bimodal, with a morning and evening peak. However, the EBC evening peak was much smaller in summer than in winter. The modelling analysis demonstrates that the seasonal and day to day variability in EBC concentration in these urban areas is primarily driven by the variation in meteorological conditions. An evaluation of the role of regional versus local contributions to EBC concentrations indicates that in the medium size city of Seville, local on-road sources are dominant, whereas in the small size city of Huelva, local as well as regional sources produce a similar contribution. Considering the large diesel share of the vehicle fleet in Spain (currently ˜ 56%), we conclude that continued reduction of BC from diesel on-road sources in these urban areas is indeed a priority, and we suggest that targeted mitigation strategies, for example reducing the heaviest emitters in wintertime, would yield the greatest benefits.

  11. Near vision anomalies in Black high school children in Empangeni, South Africa: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O. Wajuihian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to read efficiently and comfortably is important in the intellectual development and academic performance of a child. Some children experience difficulties when reading due to symptoms related to near vision anomalies. Aim: To explore the feasibility of conducting a large study to determine the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in high school children in Empangeni, South Africa. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive pilot study designed to provide preliminary data on prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in a sample of high school-children in South Africa. Study participants comprised 65 Black children (30 males and 35 females, ages ranged between 13 and 19 years with a mean age and standard deviation of 17 ± 1.43 years. The visual functions evaluated and the techniques used included visual acuity (LogMAR acuity chart, refractive error (autorefractor and subjective refraction, heterophoria (von Graefe, near point of convergence (push-in-to-double, amplitude of accommodation (push-in-to-blur accommodation facility (± 2 D flipper lenses, relative accommodation, accommodation response (monocular estimation method and fusional vergences (step vergence with prism bars. Possible associations between symptoms and near vision anomalies were explored using a 20-point symptoms questionnaire. Results: Prevalence estimates were: Myopia 4.8%, hyperopia 1.6% and astigmatism 1.6%.  For accommodative anomalies, 1.6% had accommodative insufficiency while 1.6% had accommodative infacility. For convergence anomalies, 3.2% had receded near point of convergence, 16% had low suspect convergence insufficiency, no participant had high suspect convergence insufficiency, 1.6% had definite convergence insufficiency and 3.2% had convergence excess. Female participants reported more symptoms than the males and the association between clinical measures and symptoms

  12. Reconsidering the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African proverb about the locust’s head in the context of poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikho Mtshiselwa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While South Africa attained liberation from the apartheid rule in 1994, the legacy of colonialism and apartheid – in the form of poverty and economic inequality – continues to haunt black South Africans. The aim of this article is to make a case for the equitable sharing of South Africa’s mineral wealth amongst all its citizens with the view to alleviate poverty. Firstly, this article provides a reflection on the Freedom Charter and suggests that the values of the Charter, for instance, the sharing of resources and wealth, are relevant in South Africa today. Secondly, it is argued in the present article that the preferential option for the poor which is upheld in the black theology of liberation is equally relevant in post-apartheid South Africa where many black South Africans remain poor. Thirdly, this article argues that the African proverb, Bana ba motho ba ngwathelana hlogo ya tšie [The siblings share the head of a locust], also echoes the idea of equitable sharing of resources with a view to alleviate poverty. Lastly, the author submits that the idea of equitable sharing of resources and wealth that is echoed in the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African wise saying support the equitable redistribution of the mineral wealth to the benefit of all South Africans.

  13. Evaluation of ERTS-1 data for inventory of forest and rangeland and detection of forest stress. [Atlanta, Georgia, Manitou, Colorado, and Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. C. (Principal Investigator); Aldrich, R. C.; Driscoll, R. S.; Francis, R. E.; Weber, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of photointerpretation indicated that ERTS is a good classifier of forest and nonforest lands (90 to 95 percent accurate). Photointerpreters could make this separation as accurately as signature analysis of the computer compatible tapes. Further breakdowns of cover types at each site could not be accurately classified by interpreters (60 percent) or computer analysts (74 percent). Exceptions were water, wet meadow, and coniferous stands. At no time could the large bark beetle infestations (many over 300 meters in size) be detected on ERTS images. The ERTS wavebands are too broad to distinguish the yellow, yellow-red, and red colors of the dying pine foliage from healthy green-yellow foliage. Forest disturbances could be detected on ERTS color composites about 90 percent of the time when compared with six-year-old photo index mosaics. ERTS enlargements (1:125,000 scale, preferably color prints) would be useful to forest managers of large ownerships over 5,000 hectares (12,500 acres) for broad area planning. Black-and-white enlargements can be used effectively as aerial navigation aids for precision aerial photography where maps are old or not available.

  14. A group of black South Africans' experience of telling their untold stories about the apartheid era / Jacques Vermeulen

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The aim or this research was to explore a group of black South Africans' experiences of telling their untold stories of survival about the apartheid era. The expectation was that if they did become more aware of these alternative stories, it could have a far-reaching effect on their lives. Research indicates that when attention is given to these narratives they may be a powerful tool in not only recovering the story but also in focusing on the survivors' own consciousness and g...

  15. Cephalopods in the diet of nonbreeding black-browed and grey-headed albatrosses from South Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Alvito, Pedro M.; Rosa, Rui; Phillips, Richard A.; Cherel, Yves; Ceia, Filipe; Guerreiro, Miguel; Seco, José; BAETA Alexandra; Vieira, Rui P.; Jose C Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The food and feeding ecology of albatrosses during the nonbreeding season is still poorly known, particularly with regard to the cephalopod component. This was studied in black-browed Thalassarche melanophris and grey-headed T. chrysostoma albatrosses by analysing boluses collected shortly after adults returned to colonies at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°S, 38°W), in 2009. Based on stable isotopic analyses of the lower beaks, we determined the habitat and trophic level (from δ13C and δ15N, ...

  16. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  17. 'Begging to be Black': Liminality and Critique in Post Apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Motha, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the distinction between anti-colonial longing and postcolonial becoming through a commentary on Antjie Krog’s Begging to Be Black. The epistemology and ontology of postcolonial becoming is the central concern. Begging to Be Black is a mytho-poetic narrative in which a world is imagined where King Moshoeshoe, missionaries from the 19th century, Antjie Krog and her friends and colleagues, ANC cadres, the Deleuzian philosopher Paul Patton, Nelson Mandela, Archbishop Desmond...

  18. Differences in the distribution of stroke subtypes in a UK black stroke population – final results from the South London Ethnicity and Stroke Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gulli, Giosue; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Kalra, Lalit; Rudd, Anthony G.; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Markus, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    Background Stroke incidence is increased in Black individuals but the reasons for this are poorly understood. Exploring the differences in aetiological stroke subtypes, and the extent to which they are explained by conventional and novel risk factors, is an important step in elucidating the underlying mechanisms for this increased stroke risk. Methods Between 1999 and 2010, 1200 black and 1200 white stroke patients were prospectively recruited from a contiguous geographical area in South Lond...

  19. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): Black sea bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, L.P.

    1989-07-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The black sea bass, Centropristis striata, is an abundant species associated with the inshore sponge-coral habitat in the South Atlantic Bight (Cape Hatteras to Cape Canaveral). It is a protogynous hermaphrodite (each individual is first a female and then a male) that spawns from January to June on the Continental shelf. Juveniles utilize estuaries, as well as offshore areas, for nurseries. It is a slow growing species with a life span of about 10 years. Juveniles and adults are bottom-feeding carnivores. Adults have been collected at temperatures as low as 6 /degree/C but are most abundant at temperatures of 8 to 10 /degree/C and above. Juveniles tolerate lower temperatures and greater salinity ranges than adults. Black sea bass are primarily harvested by the recreational hook and line fishery and the commercial trap fishery. Yield-per-recruit analyses indicate that the harvest of black sea bass is less than the maximum possible due to a combination of high fishing pressure and harvest of small fish. 58 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Depressive symptoms are doubled in older British South Asian and Black Caribbean people compared with Europeans: associations with excess co-morbidity and socioeconomic disadvantage

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, E. D.; Tillin, T; Richards, M.; C, T.; Chaturvedi, N.; Hughes, A.D.; Stewart, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite elevated risk profiles for depression among South Asian and Black Caribbean people in the UK, prevalences of late-life depressive symptoms across the UK's three major ethnic groups have not been well characterized. Method Data were collected at baseline and 20-year follow-up from 632 European, 476 South Asian and 181 Black Caribbean men and women (aged 58–88 years), of a community-based cohort study from north-west London. The 10-item Geriatric Depression Scale was intervie...

  1. Race and Assessment Practice in South Africa: Understanding Black Academic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawitz, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Despite efforts to transform the racialised system of higher education in South Africa inherited from apartheid, there has been little research published that interrogates the relationship between race and the experience of academic staff within the South African higher education environment. Drawing on critical discourse analysis and critical…

  2. Affirmative Action Application or Black and White in South Africa Higher Education Institutions: Is it the way forward or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiena Maria van der Bank

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We will, demonstrate what affirmative action entails, its origin and the relationship with discrimination and equality. The paper will also highlight the implementation of affirmative action in the Higher Education sector in South Africa.  Affirmative action or black and white are the additional corrective steps which must be taken in order that those who have been historically disadvantage by unfair discrimination before 1994 are able to derive full benefits from an equitable employment environment. While there has been a significant increase in the number of women appointed into management positions, the proportion in relation to the total number of women in senior posts such as those of Vice Chancellors, Deputy-Vice Chancellors and Executive Deans still remains problematic. Considerations should be taken with regard to issues of access, equity and relevance.  Indeed, affirmative action should be located within a rigorous process that will ensure that those who are for example, promoted to senior positions both in private and public sectors are able to demonstrate strategic thinking and action, quality execution of tasks, efficiency and effectiveness in achieving organisational goals.  This will also be followed by a brief South Africa’s case study of different entities (South African Breweries and Sowetan Newspaper.  A comparison of USA’s affirmative action and whether “there is a light at the end of a tunnel – affirmative action” will be done.

  3. What Matters to Girls and Boys in a Black Primary School in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the construction of gender identities among young boys and girls in a black primary school. Against the backdrop of food insecurity, young boys' and girls' vulnerability to violence and to using violence as a means of getting food is increased. Violence is a clear manifestation of gender inequalities. Drawing on data…

  4. Venereal Disease Control Demonstrations among Rural Blacks in the American South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, John H.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the 1929-32 Venereal Disease Control Demonstration Project conducted among Southern Blacks with the 1932 Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. Asserts that while the latter involved unethical research activities, the former fell outside the realm of research ethics, because it exploited human subjects for political gain. (Author/MJL)

  5. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Efficacy of Non-Cognitive Measures: Predicting Academic Success in a Historically Black University in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, B. Dean; Schauer, Edward J.; Osho, G. Solomon

    2011-01-01

    Universities have long used standardized American College Tests (ACT), Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT), and high school Grade Point Averages (HS GPA) for academic admission requirements. The current study of 127 minority college students in a Historically Black University in South Texas assesses an alternative measure, the Non-Cognitive…

  6. Present regulatory situation in South East European and Black Sea countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, after the energy reforms beginning, various regulatory models are either actually used or contemplated in the countries of Southeastern Europe and the Black Sea region. The 'models' are country-specific and five of them are described in this report. Certain common issues emerge specific to these countries can be grouped in three categories. The first category, called 'framework issues', includes the policy issues that determine the context in which the regulator will have to evolve. The second category, called 'regulatory issues proper', includes licensing, setting of prices, tariffs, transmission fees, establishment of codes for markets, grids and metering. The third category, called 'international issues', includes these issues requiring the international cooperation among regulators. The countries in Southeastern Europe and around the Black Sea have a long experience with regulation of grid-based energies and this experience should be adapted to the market-oriented context bearing in mind the benefits of competition and of regional integration and markets

  7. A pastoral evaluation on the issue of ‘vat en sit’ with special reference to the Black Reformed Churches of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate and give practical guidelines to the church councils of the mainly Black Reformed Churches in South Africa and also to the couples and families involved in vat en sit relationship. Vat en sit is now becoming a common thing in South Africa. This however does not only affect the black members in the Reformed Churches in South Africa but moreover affect the family structures of the society. Therefore the aim of this article is to find out why in most cases couples opt for vat en sit relationship and also how the church councils could be assisted in dealing with the issue of vat en sit.   The Biblical overview regarding the issue of vat en sit will be discussed and thereafter the practical guidelines be given in order to help both the church councils; the couples in the vat en sit relationship and also their families.

  8. Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Deadwood Formation that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Deadwood...

  9. Psychosocial Determinants of Suicide Attempts among Black South African Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilubane, Hilda N.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bos, Arjan E. R..; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S.

    2012-01-01

    In South Africa, one in five adolescents attempt suicide. Suicide attempts continue to rise. We aimed to identify psychosocial target points for future educational interventions. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore psychosocial factors associated with past suicide attempts among suicide survivors in Limpopo province,…

  10. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of a hot orogen during Gondwanaland assembly: a case study from Palni hills metapelite granulite, south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, S.; Nasipuri, P.

    2012-04-01

    This study deals with the tectono-metamorphic evolution of Sapphirine-cordierite-bearing metapelite granulite at Perumalmalai, south India, that occurs as enclave within deformed migmatitic enderbite gneiss of Kodaikanal massif, Madurai granulite block (MB), south India. Pre-peak mineral paragenesis is represented by an inclusion assemblage of sillimanite + plagioclase + Ti-rich biotite ±quartz in Al-rich orthopyroxene. Dehydration melting of biotite marked the onset of ultra-high temperature metamorphism (M1A, ~1000 °C, 10 Kbar). Early stage of retrograde metamorphism (M1B) is characterized by the development of type1-symplectite and corona textures. In type1-symplectite an innermost vermicular sapphirine (Spr - XMg: 0.90, Al/Si: 6.17) - cordierite (Crd) symplectite on sillimanite is followed by cordierite (XMg: 0.94) moat. A meso-perthitic layer laced the interface between cordierite moat and orthopyroxene porphyroblast, the latter showing prominent rim-ward decrease in Al2O3 (up to 3 wt%). The cordierite rim at the interface between sillimanite and orthopyroxene characterizes corona texture. Type1-symplectite and corona domains are circumnavigated by Ti-poor biotite (TiO2: ~3.2 wt%) showing shape preferred alignment, and set in a feldspar matrix showing wide compositional range. By implication, leucosome crystallization was possibly prolonged and enhanced by deformation. Type1-symplectite and corona textures were resulted from melt-solid interaction or silica-metasomatism during early stage of retrogression, Opx+Sil = Spr+Crd → Opx+Sil+melt = Crd. The retrograde metamorphism is constrained at 9 kbar and 950°C, implying an early stage of near-isothermal decompression. Late stage retrograde metamorphism (M2) is also characterized by symplectite textures, type2-symplectite, with innermost sapphirine-cordierite symplectite followed by cordierite corona. Sapphirine in type2-symplectite domain (XMg: 0.89; Al/Si: 5.92), which occurs as inclusion in Opx, is

  11. Gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makusha, Tawanda; Richter, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Involved and caring fatherhood contributes to the health and wellbeing of children, women and men. The corollary is also true - men, women and children are affected when fathers are not involved or supportive of their children. Many factors affect fathers' involvement, including women's attitudes, the history and nature of the relationship between mother and father, and the cultural context. This study explores gatekeeping and its impact on father involvement among Black South Africans in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Among married couples, gatekeeping occurs with respect to childcare and housework through women's attempts to validate their maternal identity according to socially and culturally constructed gender roles. Among unmarried, non-resident parents, women control father-child contact and involvement, with mothers and/or their families either facilitating or inhibiting father involvement. In this context, we found that cultural gatekeeping had a huge impact on father involvement, with the non-payment of inhlawulo or lobola regulating father-child involvement. In a country like South Africa, where there is high non-marital fertility and father-child non-residence, future research, parenting and family programmes should focus on strategies that encourage positive paternal involvement as well as maternal and cultural support for father involvement, regardless of parental relationship and residence status. PMID:26501893

  12. Foraging ecology of an endemic shorebird, the African Black Oystercatcher ( Haematopus moquini) on the south-east coast of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Sophie; Bonnevie, Bo; McQuaid, Christopher; Jaquemet, Sébastien

    2009-09-01

    We investigated small-medium (1-300 km) scale variation in the foraging ecology of the African Black Oystercatcher during its breeding season, using traditional diet analysis coupled with carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Fieldwork was conducted between January and March 2006 and 2007, on rocky shores on the south-east coast of South Africa at East London, Kenton and Port Elizabeth. Middens of shelled prey left by adults feeding their chicks were collected from five territories and the abundances of the collected prey on the foraging areas were estimated using quadrats. Blood samples from 45 birds (16 females, 10 males and 19 chicks) and tissues from the predominant prey species on the territory of each breeding pair were collected for isotope analysis. The Manly-Chesson selectivity index revealed that adults feed their chicks preferentially with the limpet Scutellastra cochlear and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, if available. A slight enrichment in the 15N stable-carbon isotope signature was observed towards the west in both prey and oystercatchers. Differences in isotope signatures between males and females from the same breeding pair indicate sex-related differences in the diet. Both had signatures indicating a mixed diet, but with males exhibiting a signature closer to that of limpets and females closer to that of mussels. In the single case where mussels were rare on the feeding territory, the two members of a pair showed carbon signatures which were identical and very similar to that of limpets. These results indicate dietary partitioning between genders in breeding pairs.

  13. Quality of life in South Africa - with a focus on the black individual

    OpenAIRE

    Kræmer, Amalie; Larsen, Katrine Hejslet; Winther, Vibeke Amber; Rutkovska, Elina; Arnadóttir, Ingibjörg Bryndís; Zymberi, Fitore

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to investigate how quality of the black individual is affected by racial identity. The project takes its point of departure in the theories of quality of life by Søren Ventegodt, Neil T. Higgs and Valerie Møller. According to these scholars quality of life is understood as a person’s own evaluation of the person’s life, taking into consideration both subjective and objective measures and furthermore both external and internal factors. In addition, Maykel Verkuyten’s un- ders...

  14. Paralysis due to the high tackle--a black spot in South African rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, A T

    1991-05-18

    The high tackle around the neck is illegal but still commonplace in South African rugby. An analysis of 40 rugby players who sustained spinal cord injury during the period 1985-1989 revealed that 8 were injured by a high tackle. The case histories and radiographs of these 8 players were analysed. The majority sustained flexion-rotation injuries after being tackled from the side. Another mechanism of injury was hyper-extension during a tackle from the rear. Disturbingly, 4 of the 8 players sustained complete permanent paralysis. This was consequent upon the orthopaedic injuries sustained--specifically facet dislocations or 'tear-drop' fractures, both injuries carrying with them a high risk of serious spinal cord injury. It is concluded that foul play in the form of the high tackle is still a major cause of serious spinal cord injury in South African rugby. PMID:2028356

  15. Near vision anomalies in Black high school children in Empangeni, South Africa: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sam O. Wajuihian; Rekha Hansraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ability to read efficiently and comfortably is important in the intellectual development and academic performance of a child. Some children experience difficulties when reading due to symptoms related to near vision anomalies. Aim: To explore the feasibility of conducting a large study to determine the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in high school children in Empangeni, South Africa. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive p...

  16. Tectonic and eustatic control on the distribution of black-shale source beds in the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations (Ordovician-Silurian),South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Wenbo; ZHAO Huijing; LI Zhiming; Ettensohn F.R.; Johnson M.E.; Huff W.D.; WANG Wei; MA Chao; LI Lu; ZHANG Lei

    2007-01-01

    It is known that high-quality,black-shale source rocks occur in the uppermost Ordovician Wufeng Formation and in the lowermost Silurian Longmaxi Formation in South China.Hence,it is important to understand their lithostratigraphy and the controls on their deposition.A review of lithostratigraphic criteria for subdividing the two adjacent formations provides new regional correlations between the formations and related stratigraphic successions and facies.Both the black shales and the related,overlying flysch deposits at the Ordovician-Silurian transition in South China appear to have migrated northwestward in time and space,reflecting probable flexural control in a foreland basin that developed in response to subduction-type orogeny southeast of the Yangtze block.The black shales also contain K-bentonites from explosive,felsic-intermediate volcanism,the distribution of which also supports orogeny to the southeast.Finally,the analysis of sequence stratigraphy,which shows that the initiation of transgressive system tracts (TST) and condensed section (CS) in the related third-order sequences coincided with the two black-shale horizons respectively,indicates that the main controlling factors for the deposition of the Ordovician-Silurian black shales in South China are (1)northwestwardly migrating,foreland-basin subsidence caused by deformational loading related to episodic accretion of the Cathaysia block to the Yangtze block during this period,and (2) the anoxic,sediment-starved water column caused by rapid rise of the sea-level during the two successive phases of third-order global sea-level rise near the Ordovician-Silurian transition in South China.In future exploration for hydrocarbon source rocks in the area,it is important to consider likely flexural and eustatic causes for subsiding,deep,anoxic seas in recognizing other source rock intervals,and our understanding of the Wufeng and Longmaxi formations may serve as models for future source rock exploration.

  17. Significance of Morphometry Studies, Soil Characteristics, Erosion Phenomena and Landform Processes Using Remote Sensing and GIS for Kodaikanal Hills, A Global Biodiversity Hotpot in Western Ghats, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu, South India

    OpenAIRE

    M. Bagyaraj; B. Gurugnanam

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made to study the significance of morphometry, integrating Remote Sensing data and techniques in addition to the conventional methods in a GIS platform. The Western Ghats are amongst the eighteen biodiversity hot-spots recognized globally (WCMC, 1992) and are known for their high levels of endemism. Kodaikkanal Hills are parts of Palani hills of Western Ghats. The study has demonstrated the potential use of remotely sensed data and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in evalu...

  18. Impacts of Alterations of Organic Inputs on the Bacterial Community within the sediments of Wind Cave, South Dakota, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Chelius Marisa K.; Beresford Guy; Horton Howard; Quirk Megan; Selby Greg; Simpson Rodney T.; Horrocks Rodney; Moore John C.

    2009-01-01

    Wind Cave (WICA) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, like many mostly dry caves in temperate regions is an energy-starved system.The biotic communities that reside in these systems are low in diversity and simple in structure, and sensitive to changes in externalinputs of organic matter. Caves open to tourist traffic offer an opportunity to study the impacts of organic matter amendments in theform of human and rodent hair and dander, clothing lint, material from rodent activity (nesting mater...

  19. Nose Hill Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    A Blackfoot woman, caught in the act of adultery, was condemned at this site to have her nose cut off as a penalty for her actions. People do not know her story. The tribe cast it on the ground. And so She, Nose Hill, was named. John Laurie Boulevard holds her mound in a circlet of asphalt, defining the map of her "terra incognita." She is a park…

  20. Sources of black carbon aerosols in South Asia and surrounding regions during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, R.; M. C. Barth; Nair, V. S.; G. G. Pfister; S. Suresh Babu; Satheesh, S. K.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Carmichael, G R; Lu, Z.; D. G. Streets

    2015-01-01

    This study examines differences in the surface black carbon (BC) aerosol loading between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identifies dominant sources of BC in South Asia and surrounding regions during March–May 2006 (Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget, ICARB) period. A total of 13 BC tracers are introduced in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry to address these objectives. The model reproduced the te...

  1. Switching on After Nine: Black gay-identified men's perceptions of sexual identities and partnerships in South African towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Joanne E; Tocco, Jack Ume; Osmand, Thomas; Sandfort, Theo; Lane, Tim

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable diversity, fluidity and complexity in the expressions of sexuality and gender among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some non-gay identified MSM are known colloquially by gay-identified men in Mpumalanga, Province, South Africa, as 'After-Nines' because they do not identify as gay and present as straight during the day but also have sex with other men at night. Based on, key informant interviews and focus group discussions in two districts in Mpumalanga, we explored Black gay-identified men's perceptions of and relationships with After-Nine men, focusing on sexual and gender identities and their social consequences. Gay-identified men expressed ambivalence about their After-Nine partners, desiring them for their masculinity, yet often feeling dissatisfied and exploited in their relationships with them. The exchange of sex for commodities, especially alcohol, was common. Gay men's characterisation of After-Nines as men who ignore them during the day but have sex with them at night highlights the diversity of how same-sex practicing men perceive themselves and their sexual partners. Sexual health promotion programmes targeting 'MSM' must understand this diversity to effectively support the community in developing strategies for reaching and engaging different groups of gay and non-gay identified men. PMID:26878380

  2. "Coming to town": the impact of urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and network norms on the smoking attitudes of black women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Chyvette T; Grier, Sonya A; Marks, Amy Seidel

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women's smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, which included data on smoking attitudes, norms, and exposure to cigarette advertising. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with smoking attitudes as the response variable, and urbanicity, cigarette advertising exposure, and network smoking norms as primary explanatory variables. Interactions were tested to determine whether urbanicity modified the effect of advertising exposure and network norms on smoking attitudes. Independent effects of urbanicity, exposure to cigarette advertising, and greater smoking prevalence within women's networks were associated with more favorable smoking attitudes. In addition, urbanicity moderated the relationship between network smoking norms and smoking attitudes, but not cigarette advertising exposure and smoking attitudes. Urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and networks play important roles in women's attitudes toward smoking, and potentially, smoking behavior. Overall, our results suggest that strong and creative anti-smoking efforts are needed to combat the potential for a smoking epidemic among an increasingly urbanized population of black women in South Africa and similar emerging markets. Additional research is warranted. PMID:18563573

  3. The United States and South Africa: History, Civil Rights, and the Legal and Cultural Vulnerability of Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, JoAnne

    1986-01-01

    The cultural histories of Blacks in the United States and in Southern Africa are parallel in the following ways: (1) the roles of Blacks in the labor force and in politics; (2) the careers of leaders like King, Mandela, and Tutu; (3) organized struggle for rights; and (4) the rise of a Black consciousness. (VM)

  4. Facilitating access to English for Xhosa-speaking pupils in black township primary schools around Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel Hibbert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper results from a research project completed by the author in 1994 on the quality of language-learning environments in the Cape Town area . . Xhosa is now constitutionally enshrined as one of the eleven official languages of South Africa, and is the dominant language in Western Cape black townships. This paper questions the fruitfUlness of primary schools in black townships attempting to use English as the sole medium of instruction. The paper shows that in actual classroom situations the Ll (Xhosa is used as an aid to L2 (English medium instruction in the schools of Khayelitsha and Lagunya townships around Cape Town. The paper argues for the recognition and forther extension of such bilingual practices in primary schools to work towards more successfUl use of the L2 as the medium of instruction. It assesses the implications of such bilingual policy for classroom interaction and materials development. Hierdie artikel spruit voort uit 'n navorsingsprojek wat in 1994 deur die skrywer onderneem is in groter Kaapstad oor die kwaliteit van die omgewings waarbinne taal aange/eer word. Xhosa is volgens die konstitusie een van die elf amptelike tale in Suid-Afrika en is die oorheersende taal in die swart woonbuurte van die Wes-Kaap. In hierdie artikel word die waarde bevraagteken van die poging wat in die primere skole in die swart woonbuurte aangewend word om Engels as enigste medium van onderrig te gebruik. In die artikel word ook daarop gewys dat skole in Khayelitsha en Lagunya, twee swart woonbuurte naby Kaapstad, Xhosa (Tl gebruik as hulpmiddel by die onderrig deur medium van Engels (T2. Daar word aangevoer dat hierdie gebruik van tweetalige onderrig in primere skole erkenning behoort te kry en verder uitgebrei behoort te word sodat daar gestrewe kan word na 'n meer suksesvol/e gebruik van die tweede taal as onderrigmedium. 'n Waardebepaling van die implikasies van so 'ntweetalige beleid vir k/askamerinteraksie en die ontwikkeling van

  5. The effect of labour in the history of education for Blacks in South Africa, 1948-1986 / Johannes Tlhage Petlele

    OpenAIRE

    Petlele, Johannes Tlhage

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken as a result of the suspected failure of Apartheid Education between 1948 and 1986 to educate Blacks in job-related skills. Industrialists and other employer-institutions spent huge sums of money to equip black job-seekers who were mostly not ready for employment. The high drop-out rate from black primary and secondary schools became a matter of great concern to both the recipients of education and the international communities, especially with regar...

  6. A comparative study of the accumulation of metals in the barnacle (Tetraclita serrata and the black mussel (Choromytilis meridionalis in False Bay, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan J. Reinecke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of methods to monitor the South African coastal waters offer major challenges. Knowledge and availability of suitable species that may serve as biomonitors will be valuable to obtain information to support good management decisions. It is therefore important to identify local species that show the basic characteristics required for biomonitoring. The aim of this study was to compare, as part of a wider seasonal field study of metals in the intertidal zone of False Bay, South Africa, the body loads of copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd and zinc (Zn in the black mussel (C. meridionalis and the barnacle (T. serrata, and to compare these with environmental concentrations. Also to draw conclusions about the animals’ relative abilities to accumulate priority metals. Specimens of both species were collected over several seasons at different points in False Bay and analysed chemically. The mean body load (soft tissue and shell of metals was higher in the black mussel than in the barnacle during all seasons. A comparison between the body loads and environmental concentrations in water and sediment showed that the priority metals Cd, Ni and Pb are accumulated strongly by both C. meridionalis and T. serrata. The mean Cd body loads varied between 6.43 µg/g and 14.73 µg/g for the various seasons but was not statistically significantly different between seasons. Metal concentrations were in most cases highest during winter. Multiple regression analysis showed a strong correlation between body load of metals in the black mussel and the environmental concentration for most seasons, which indicates that the black mussel can be useful as an active rather than a passive biomonitor. The concept of biomonitoring has merit because it may show long-term tendencies, but it does not offer an absolute measure of immediate, varying pollution levels. It could serve as an additional management tool in a national marine programme for the

  7. Plankton diversity and aquatic ecology of a freshwater lake (L3) at Bharti Island, Larsemann Hills, east Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti, Pawan K.; U.K. Niyogi

    2015-01-01

    The Larsemann Hills range is an ice-free oasis on the Ingrid Christensen Coast of Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, which includes Bharti Island, Fisher Island, McLeod Island, Broknes Peninsula, Stornes Peninsula, and several other islands, promontories, and nunataks. The Larsemann Hills is an ice-free area of approximately 50 km2, located halfway between the Vestfold Hills and the Amery Ice Shelf on the south-eastern coast of Prydz Bay, Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. The i...

  8. Secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted Black South African Boys living in a township in the North West Province

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Herculina Salome; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesley; Monyeki, Makama Andries; Pienaar, Anita Elizabeth; Toriola, Abel; Van Ridder, Johannes Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    It is known that sexual maturation is dependent on genetic and environmental factors and socio-economic status. The purpose of this study was to describe secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted black South African boys from a low socio-economic status living in a township in the North West Province. A total of 129 boys aged 12 to 16 years participated in the study. Height and weight were measured according to the standard protocol suggested by the International Society of ...

  9. Securing Fatherhood through Kin Work: A Comparison of Black Low Income Fathers and Families in South Africa and the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Roy, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how low income black men in South Africa and the US work with their kin to secure fathering and ensure the well-being of children. We use ethnographic and life history data on men who fathered children from 1992-2005 to demonstrate how fathers’ roles as kin workers enable them to meet culturally-defined criteria for responsible fatherhood in two contexts marked by legacies of racism, increasing rates of incarceration and HIV/AIDS, and a web of interlocking inequaliti...

  10. The Hill and the Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕文

    2007-01-01

    Once there was a well-known hill here. There were many lush trees, beautiful flowers and green grasses on it. One day, the hill said to the trees proudly, “Look, how beautiful I am! But you look so ugly on my back. It must be better if I could drive you away.” One of the trees said, “You won't have beautiful and green clothing without us trees? If you leave us, you will die away.” The hill laughed and said again,”I feel very ashamed for I am staying with you together. Sooner or later I will drive you all...

  11. Antibodies against six human herpesviruses in relation to seven cancers in black South Africans: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruff P

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with certain human herpesviruses have been established as risk factors for some cancer types. For example, Epstein-Barr Virus is considered a cause of Burkitt's lymphoma and other immunosuppression related lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal cancer. Several other human herpesviruses have been linked to cancers but the totality of evidence is inconclusive. Methods We conducted a systematic sub-study from within an ongoing case control study of adult black South Africans to investigate the relationship between antibodies to six human herpesviruses and seven cancer groups that may be caused by infectious agents. Subjects had incident cancers of the oral cavity(n = 88, the cervix(n = 53, the prostate(n = 66, Hodgkin lymphoma(n = 83, non-Hodgkin lymphoma(n = 80, multiple myeloma(n = 94 or leukaemia(n = 203. For comparison, patients with other cancers(n = 95 or cardiovascular disease(n = 101 were randomly selected from within the study. Patients were interviewed and their blood was tested for IgG antibodies against HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV-EBNA, CMV and HHV-6 using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Because these viruses are highly prevalent in this population, optical density results from the assays were used as an indirect, quantitative measure of antibody level. Results There was significant variation in the mean log antibody measures for HSV-2, VZV, CMV and HHV-6 between the disease groups. However, none of the specific cancer groups had significantly higher mean log antibody measures for any of the viruses compared to either control group. In a more detailed examination of seven associations between cancers and herpesviruses for which there had been prior reports, two statistically significant associations were found: a decreasing risk of myeloid leukaemia and an increasing risk of oral cancer with increasing tertiles of antibodies against HHV-6 compared to all other patients (p-trend = 0.03 and 0

  12. A preliminary factor analytic investigation into the firstorder factor structure of the Fifteen Factor Plus (15FQ+ on a sample of Black South African managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seretse Moyo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The Fifteen Factor Questionnaire Plus (15FQ+ is a prominent personality questionnaire that organisations frequently use in personnel selection in South Africa.Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to undertake a factor analytic investigation of the first-order factor structure of the 15FQ+.Motivation for the study: The construct validity of the 15FQ+, as a measure of personality, is necessary even though it is insufficient to justify its use in personnel selection.Research design, approach and method: The researchers evaluated the fit of the measurement model, which the structure and scoring key of the 15FQ+ implies, in a quantitative study that used an ex post facto correlation design through structural equation modelling. They conducted a secondary data analysis. They selected a sample of 241 Black South African managers from a large 15FQ+ database.Main findings: The researchers found good measurement model fit. The measurement model parameter estimates were worrying. The magnitude of the estimated model parameters suggests that the items generally do not reflect the latent personality dimensions the designers intended them to with a great degree of precision. The items are reasonably noisy measures of the latent variables they represent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should use the 15FQ+ carefully on Black South African managers until further local research evidence becomes available.Contribution/value-add: The study is a catalyst to trigger the necessary additional research we need to establish convincingly the psychometric credentials of the 15FQ+ as a valuable assessment tool in South Africa.

  13. The black economic empowerment in the animal feed milling industry in South Africa / by Louis Lukas Swanepoel

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Louis Lukas

    2007-01-01

    Broad base black economic empowerment redresses historical and social inequalities in a manner that does not have a negative impact on existing enterprises. Transforming existing agribusinesses create opportunities for black businessmen to contribute to the economy of the country. The Balanced Feed Manufacturers Association was established in 1945 when the need for better structuring in the industry and a mouthpiece for the feed industry to liaise with inter alia the government, was identifie...

  14. Risk factors for visual impairment and blindness amongst black adult diabetis receiving treatment at Government healthcare facilitis in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond G. Mabaso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR, a common cause of visual impairment (VI and blindness. DR may signifiantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness.Aim: To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years.Setting: The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa.Methods: This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profie, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined.Results: Participants (N = 225 included 161 women and 64 men aged 40–90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years; 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8% and DR (7.1% were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity.Conclusion: Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population.

  15. Sighting of Branded Yeoman Algia fasciata fasciata (Felder & Felder, 1860 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae in Jaintia and Cachar Hills, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkamal Goswami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report Branded Yeoman (Algia fasciata fasciata from the Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya and Barail Hills of Assam in India which represents a significant range extension from its known distribution across South and South East Asia including Andaman Islands. We consolidate other record of the species posted on social media website and personal communications to update the current extent and status of the species in India. 

  16. Associations between specific measures of adiposity and high blood pressure in black South African women / Maretha Doubell

    OpenAIRE

    Doubell, Maretha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines overweight and obesity as a condition in which an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation exists to an extent in which health and well-being are impaired. The most recent South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES) reported that the prevalence of overweight and obesity, according to body mass index (BMI) classification, in all South African women was significantly higher than in men (24.8% and 39.2% compare...

  17. The assemblage of fish of the Tyligul River (Black-Sea basin of South-West Ukraine)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutsokon, Y.; Kvach, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2015), s. 223-228. ISSN 1996-4536 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Tyligul River * fish * assemblage * Northern Black Sea * museum collections Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://bioweb.lnu.edu.ua/studia/pdf/201591/2015_9_1_382.pdf

  18. State of conservation of Santa Martha's hills, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urban growth of Santa Marta and the occupation without planning of their surrounding hills, affect their natural conditions. The hills are part of the scenic beauty of the city and its conservation is indispensable to maintain the standard of life in her the vegetal cover corresponds to forests and scrubs of isomegathermic floor with xeromorphic characters, due to the low pluvial precipitation, this landscape characterizes the Colombian Caribbean coast in a narrow strip that extends from the south of the Guajira to the gulf of Morrosquillo. At the present time, only they are left surpluses in natural state, due to the floristic simplification of the vegetation, the introduction of invading species and modification of the landscape. The responsibility of the suitable handling of the urban space is imperative for the official, private sector and citizen institutions. The objective is to make an evaluation of the environmental conditions of hills of the city, in order to obtain basic elements, for the design of appropriate strategies of handling and its conservation. By means of the use of the GIS, with verification and aerial photo interpretation of field a multi-temporary study (1955-1993-2003) of the vegetal cover of the hills was elaborated that allowed to establish the happened changes. The execution of inventors allowed knowing the wealth and the structure floristic the vegetal cover of the area. The work was executed between May of the 2004 and May of the 2005

  19. Gender Nonconformity, Discrimination, and Mental Health Among Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Further Exploration of Unexpected Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo; Bos, Henny; Knox, Justin; Reddy, Vasu

    2016-04-01

    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated, and to explore more in-depth how gender nonconformity relates to health. Cook et al. found that feminine men were not more likely to be depressed despite the observation that they were more likely to be discriminated against and that discrimination increased the likelihood of depression. This is in contrast to what studies among gay and bisexual men in Western countries have consistently shown. In the current study, 196 Black South African MSM (ages between 18 and 40; M age, 26.65 years) were surveyed. Assessments included stressors (identity confusion, internalized homophobia, and sexual orientation-based discrimination) and resilience factors (openness about one's sexual orientation, social support, and identification with the gay community). We observed that gender-nonconforming men were not more likely to be depressed despite having experienced more discrimination, which was associated with depression. The same relationships were observed when considering anxiety as the mental health outcome. We found an indirect negative effect of gender nonconformity on depression through internalized homophobia, suggesting that, in this population, internalized homophobia masks the effect of discrimination on mental distress. Implications for the sexual minority stress model, used to guide our analyses, are discussed. Further research is needed to disentangle the complex relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health among MSM populations. PMID:26067298

  20. A high burden of hypertension in the urban black population of Cape Town: the cardiovascular risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheeta Peer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, associations and management of hypertension in the 25-74-year-old urban black population of Cape Town and examine the change between 1990 and 2008/09 in 25-64-year-olds. METHODS: In 2008/09, a representative cross-sectional sample, stratified for age and sex, was randomly selected from the same townships sampled in 1990. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were determined by administered questionnaires, clinical measurements and fasting biochemical analyses. Logistic regression models evaluated the associations with hypertension. RESULTS: There were 1099 participants, 392 men and 707 women (response rate 86% in 2008/09. Age-standardised hypertension prevalence was 38.9% (95% confidence interval (CI: 35.6-42.3 with similar rates in men and women. Among 25-64-year-olds, hypertension prevalence was significantly higher in 2008/09 (35.6%, 95% CI: 32.3-39.0 than in 1990 (21.6%, 95% CI: 18.6-24.9. In 2008/09, hypertension odds increased with older age, family history of hypertension, higher body mass index, problematic alcohol intake, physical inactivity and urbanisation. Among hypertensive participants, significantly more women than men were detected (69.5% vs. 32.7%, treated (55.7% vs. 21.9% and controlled (32.4% vs. 10.4% in 2008/09. There were minimal changes from 1990 except for improved control in 25-64-year-old women (1990∶14.1% vs. 2008/09∶31.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The high and rising hypertension burden in this population, its association with modifiable risk factors and the sub-optimal care provided highlight the urgent need to prioritise hypertension management. Innovative solutions with efficient and cost-effective healthcare delivery as well as population-based strategies are required.

  1. "Outstanding Individuals Do Not Arise from Ancestrally Poor Stock": Racial Science and the Education of Black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Stephen W.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the construction of racial scientific discourse within the milieu of an extremely racially segregated society. Traces the influence of capitalism, racism, Social Darwinism, eugenics, and "racial science" on the pedagogy of modern apartheid in South Africa. Finds evidence of pervasive effects of "scientific" ideas on public policy and…

  2. Schooling in Black and White: Assimilationist Discourses and Subversive Identity Performances in a Desegregated South African Girls' School

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Research on school desegregation in South Africa has largely documented an assimilationist process. As in educational contexts elsewhere, the assimilationist position presupposes that learners from non-dominant groups are made to change their ways of being on entering schools from which they were previously excluded. Drawing on an ethnographic…

  3. Characterization of mutants of the vitamin-D-binding protein/group specific component: GC aborigine (1A1) from Australian aborigines and South African blacks, and 2A9 from south Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, A; Braun, A; Jenkins, T; Serjeantson, S W; Cleve, H

    1995-01-01

    The structure and organization of the human vitamin-D-binding protein gene (DBP, group-specific component, GC) have recently been determined. Each exon may now be amplified by the PCR method using oligonucleotide primers deduced from the intron sequences near their 5' ends and 3' ends. In this study we examined the anodal GC variants 1A1 and 2A9. Genomic DNA of the variant 1A1 was obtained from Australian Aborigines and from South African Bantu-speaking Blacks. Amplification and sequencing of exon 11 of 1A1 revealed a point mutation in codon 429 at the second position. It is remarkable that this mutation was found in the Australian 1A1 variant and in the African 1A1 variant, and raises the question whether the mutation in these two ethnic groups has a common origin. Genomic DNA of the 2A variant called 2A9 was obtained from South Germany and a point mutation also concerning position 429 in exon 11 was found. The nucleotide exchange in this case, however, was at the first position of the codon. The widely distributed genetic polymorphism of DBP/GC is located in exon 11 and is characterized by substitution at amino acid positions 416 and 420. Variant 1A1 is due to a second site mutation of the allele GC*1F; variant 2A9 is due to a mutation in the GC*2 allele. PMID:7725672

  4. Propagation of Black Plum (Vitex donania Sweet) Using Stem and Root Cuttings in the Ecological Conditions of South-Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Sanoussi, A.; Ahoton, LE.; Odjo, T.

    2012-01-01

    The black plum is a multi-purpose tree well known to the rural and urban populations of tropical Africa. Its uses are well documented, but its regeneration possibilities have not yet been studied, despite the importance of this species. The objective of this study is to ensure that this tree can be propagated from other organs instead of seeds. In order to achieve this, a trial propagation, using stem and root cuttings, was conducted on two types of substrate: topsoil at the planting site (sa...

  5. Perspectives of Black South African Managers Regarding Advancement into Senior Corporate Management Positions: Implications for Human Resource Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mokoele, Johannes Matata

    1997-01-01

    South Africa (SA) is undergoing a transformation of governance from apartheid to a new country of inclusion and involvement of previously disenfranchised groups. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) is as an official document to guide efforts at nation-building. Human resource development (HRD) is a key component. As used in this study, HRD is broadly conceptualized as the deployment of human resources for the purposes of nation- building in SA. Consequently, an integral par...

  6. A comparative study between white and black women entrepreneurs in selected areas in South Africa / Rasego C.

    OpenAIRE

    Rasego, Carol Mantwa

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, entrepreneurship is seen as one of the most important solutions to unemployment, poverty and low economic growth. The creation of new ventures and the growth of existing businesses are vital contributing factors to any economy. Women outnumber male entrepreneurs, which have led to a renewed focus on gender entrepreneurship and the development of appropriate interventions for gender–specific groups across the globe. In South Africa, women make up just less than 50% of the entreprene...

  7. Hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations among South African black Generation Y students / Riané Cherylise Zeeman

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeman, Riané Cherylise

    2013-01-01

    With the South African retail industry being a major and attractive industry, marketers and retailers are pressured to obtain and maintain a competitive advantage by developing marketing strategies that appeal to various consumers. Retailers need to focus on satisfying consumers’ needs, as well as offering a full shopping experience. Shopping entails more than the mere selection of products. Consumers’ motivation or driving force behind the act of shopping is embedded in satisfying internal n...

  8. Propagation of Black Plum (Vitex donania Sweet Using Stem and Root Cuttings in the Ecological Conditions of South-Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanoussi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The black plum is a multi-purpose tree well known to the rural and urban populations of tropical Africa. Its uses are well documented, but its regeneration possibilities have not yet been studied, despite the importance of this species. The objective of this study is to ensure that this tree can be propagated from other organs instead of seeds. In order to achieve this, a trial propagation, using stem and root cuttings, was conducted on two types of substrate: topsoil at the planting site (sand mixed with poultry manure and soil taken from undergrowth at the forest research station in Pobe, which focuses on the oil palm tree. The trial was based on a randomised complete block, two factors and four treatments. The results show that it is possible to propagate black plum trees from stem cuttings (46.62% of developed cuttings but especially from root cuttings (96.25% of developed cuttings. The compared treatments significantly influenced the recovery rate of the cuttings. The first leaf produced by the stem cuttings is multi-lobed (3-5 lobes, while that produced by root cuttings is generally single-lobed. One year after transplanting, the substrate (2/3 sand and 1/3 chicken manure in volume produced the best plant growth from cuttings.

  9. Hydrologic and Geochemical Evaluation of Aquifer Storage Recovery in the Santee Limestone/Black Mingo Aquifer, Charleston, South Carolina, 1998-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Parkhurst, David L.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Campbell, Bruce G.; Mirecki, June E.

    2004-01-01

    The hydrologic and geochemical effects of aquifer storage recovery were evaluated to determine the potential for supplying the city of Charleston, South Carolina, with large quantities of potable water during emergencies, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, or hard freezes. An aquifer storage recovery system, including a production well and three observation wells, was installed at a site located on the Charleston peninsula. The focus of this study was the 23.2-meter thick Tertiary-age carbonate and sand aquifer of the Santee Limestone and the Black Mingo Group, the northernmost equivalent of the Floridan aquifer system. Four cycles of injection, storage, and recovery were conducted between October 1999 and February 2002. Each cycle consisted of injecting between 6.90 and 7.19 million liters of water for storage periods of 1, 3, or 6 months. The volume of recovered water that did not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary standard for chloride (250 milligrams per liter) varied from 1.48 to 2.46 million liters, which is equivalent to 21 and 34 percent of the total volume injected for the individual tests. Aquifer storage recovery testing occurred within two productive zones of the brackish Santee Limestone/Black Mingo aquifer. The individual productive zones were determined to be approximately 2 to 4 meters thick, based on borehole geophysical logs, electromagnetic flow-meter testing, and specific-conductance profiles collected within the observation wells. A transmissivity and storage coefficient of 37 meters squared per day and 3 x 10-5, respectively, were determined for the Santee Limestone/Black Mingo aquifer. Water-quality and sediment samples collected during this investigation documented baseline aquifer and injected water quality, aquifer matrix composition, and changes in injected/aquifer water quality during injection, storage, and recovery. A total of 193 water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for physical properties, major and

  10. Effects of projected climate (2011–50) on karst hydrology and species vulnerability—Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, and Madison aquifer, western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Stamm, John F.; Poteet, Mary F.; Symstad, Amy J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Long, Andrew J.; Norton, Parker A.

    2014-01-01

    Karst aquifers—formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone—are critical groundwater resources in North America, and karst springs, caves, and streams provide habitat for unique flora and fauna. Springflow and groundwater levels in karst terrane can change greatly over short time scales, and therefore are likely to respond rapidly to climate change. How might the biological communities and ecosystems associated with karst respond to climate change and accompanying changes in groundwater levels and springflow? Sites in two central U.S. regions—the Balcones Escarpment of south-central Texas and the Black Hills of western South Dakota (fig. 1)—were selected to study climate change and its potential effects on the local karst hydrology and ecosystem. The ecosystems associated with the Edwards aquifer (Balcones Escarpment region) and Madison aquifer (Black Hills region) support federally listed endangered and threatened species and numerous State-listed species of concern, including amphibians, birds, insects, and plants. Full results are provided in Stamm and others (2014), and are summarized in this fact sheet.

  11. Generalized Hill-Wheeler ansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, J.; Esebbag, C.; Martin, M.T.; Rebollo, L.; Plastino, A.

    1984-09-01

    The Hill-Wheeler ansatz for the total wave function, within the Generator Coordinate Method framework, is generalized by recourse to the theory of distributions. The ensuing approach allows one to obtain a basis that spans the collective subspace, without having to deal explicitly with the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the overlap kernel. Applications to an exactly soluble model and anharmonic vibrations illustrate the present treatment. 37 refs.

  12. In black South Africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelda de Lange

    Full Text Available Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT. We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009 but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%. Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.

  13. Urban–rural and gender differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet and physical activity among young black South Africans between 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasheeta Peer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs have increased in South Africa over the past 15 years. While these usually manifest during mid-to-late adulthood, the development of modifiable risk factors that contribute to NCDs are usually adopted early in life. Objective: To describe the urban–rural and gender patterns of NCD risk factors in black adolescents and young adults (15- to 24-year-olds from two South African Demographic and Health Surveys conducted 5 years apart. Design: An observational study based on interviews and measurements from two cross-sectional national household surveys. Changes in tobacco and alcohol use, dietary intake, physical inactivity, and overweight/obesity among 15- to 24-year-olds as well as urban–rural and gender differences were analysed using logistic regression. The ‘Surveyset’ option in Stata statistical software was used to allow for the sampling weight in the analysis. Results: Data from 3,186 and 2,066 black 15- to 24-year-old participants in 1998 and 2003, respectively, were analysed. In males, the prevalence of smoking (1998: 21.6%, 2003: 19.1% and problem drinking (1998: 17.2%, 2003: 15.2% were high and increased with age, but in females were much lower (smoking – 1998: 1.0%, 2003: 2.1%; problem drinking – 1998: 4.2%, 2003: 5.8%. The predominant risk factors in females were overweight/obesity (1998: 29.9%, 2003: 31.1% and physical inactivity (2003: 46%. Urban youth, compared to their rural counterparts, were more likely to smoke (odds ratio (OR: 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.09–1.75, have high salt intake (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.12–2.78, be overweight/obese (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.14–1.69, or be physically inactive (OR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12–1.89. However, they had lower odds of inadequate micronutrient intake (OR: 0.46, 95% CI 0.34–0.62, and there was no overall significant urban– rural difference in the odds for problem drinking but among females the odds were higher in

  14. Delineation of areas having elevated electrical conductivity, orientation and characterization of bedrock fractures, and occurrence of groundwater discharge to surface water at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2015-01-01

    During October 2012 through March 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4, Superfund Section, conducted borehole geophysical logging, surface geophysical surveys, and water-quality profiling in selected wells and areas to characterize or delineate the extent of elevated subsurface electrical conductivity at the EPA Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina. Elevated electrical conductivity measured at the site may be related to native rock materials, waste rock disposal areas used in past operations, and (or) groundwater having elevated dissolved solids (primarily metals and major ions) related to waste migration. Five shallow screened wells and four open-borehole bedrock wells were logged by using a suite of borehole tools, and downhole water-quality profiles were recorded in two additional wells. Well depths ranged from about 26 to 300 feet below land surface. Surface geophysical surveys based on frequency-domain electromagnetic and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) techniques were used to identify areas of elevated electrical conductivity (Earth materials and groundwater) and potential high dissolved solids in groundwater and surface water on land and in areas along the northern unnamed tributary at the site.

  15. Early colonization of metazoans in the deep-water: Evidences from the lowermost Cambrian black shales of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.-Y.; Yang, A.-H.; Zhang, J.-M.; Li, G.-X.; Yang, X.-L.

    2003-04-01

    Diversity of metazoans is high in the deep-water of the present ocean. But it is unknown that when the metazoans began to colonize in the deep-water and what kinds of metazoans first colonized in the deep-water since origin and radiation of metazoans during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition interval. Up to the present, colonization of the deep-sea began in the Ordovician. Although it is suggested that animals were penetrated into the intermediate water depth during the Precambrian, evidences support such suggestion are based on the problematic Ediacaran-grade fossils. However, almost fossil materials that support the Cambrian Explosion hypothesis were discovered from the lowermost Cambrian shallow-water deposits. The abundant earliest Cambrian mineralized small shelly fossils (SSF) are globally from the shallow-water deposits, and the well-known Chengjiang fauna that may records most complete features of metazoans in the ocean after the Cambrian Explosion, occurs as well in the shallow basin near an old land on the Yangtze Platform. In order to understand ecology of the Cambrian Explosion time interval and how happened of the onshore-offshore trends of metazoans, we focused our attention on collecting fossils in the lowermost Cambrian deposits under the varied facies on the Yangtze Platformm during recent years. Investigations of the shallow-water carbonate facies and the oxygen-depleted deep-water black shale facies revealed additional biological and ecological information that are not recorded in the Chengjiang fauna in the siliclastic shallow-water facies. Here we report our discovery of a particular fossil association from more than 10 sections in the deep-water black shales (Qiongzhusian) in the out shelf and slope area of the Yangtze Platform. The fossil association is composed of pelagic and sessile organisms, including abundant sponges, 3 types of bivalved arthropods, 3 types of tubular animals and few problematic organisms. The fossils have either

  16. A PRIMARY STUDY OF FOSSIL HILL FLORA FROM FILDES PENINSULA OF KING GEORGE ISLAND, ANTARCTICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1990-01-01

    The fossil plants studied in this paper were collected by the Chinese Antarctic Expeditions (1986—1987 and 1987—1988) from the locality Fossil Hill on the Fildes Peninsula southwest of the King George Island of the South Shetland Islands.

  17. A Secure Variant of the Hill Cipher

    CERN Document Server

    Toorani, Mohsen; 10.1109/ISCC.2009.5202241

    2010-01-01

    The Hill cipher is a classical symmetric encryption algorithm that succumbs to the know-plaintext attack. Although its vulnerability to cryptanalysis has rendered it unusable in practice, it still serves an important pedagogical role in cryptology and linear algebra. In this paper, a variant of the Hill cipher is introduced that makes the Hill cipher secure while it retains the efficiency. The proposed scheme includes a ciphering core for which a cryptographic protocol is introduced.

  18. An archaeological field survey of part of the Black Mountain in south-east Dyfed: a contribution to the interpretation of economy and settlement in the region from prehistory to the early modern period

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Anthony H.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of archaeological sites was carried out across 60 km2 of the Black Mountain in south-east Dyfed, an upland common. These are described and placed in a putative chronological sequence against a palaeo-environmental backcloth. Sepulchral cairns are the earliest sites recorded, probably belonging to the early second millennium bc. House circles and homesteads may date to later prehistory and the early proto-historic period, while numerous rectangular foundations are probably the remain...

  19. Cross-sectional study of ethnic differences in physical fitness among children of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Kerry, S R; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Brage, S; Westgate, K L; Ekelund, U; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about levels of physical fitness in children from different ethnic groups in the UK. We therefore studied physical fitness in UK children (aged 9–10 years) of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary schools in the UK. Participants 1625 children (aged 9–10 years) of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin in the UK studied between 2006 and 2007. Outcome measures A step test assessed submaximal physical fitness from which estimated VO2 max was derived. Ethnic differences in estimated VO2 max were estimated using multilevel linear regression allowing for clustering at school level and adjusting for age, sex and month as fixed effects. Results The study response rate was 63%. In adjusted analyses, boys had higher levels of estimated VO2 max than girls (mean difference 3.06 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.47, pmean difference −0.79 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI −1.41 to −0.18, p=0.01); levels of estimated VO2 max in black African–Caribbeans were higher than those in white Europeans (mean difference 0.60 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.17, p=0.04); these patterns were similar in boys and girls. The lower estimated VO2 max in South Asians, compared to white Europeans, was consistent among Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi children and was attenuated by 78% after adjustment for objectively measured physical activity (average daily steps). Conclusions South Asian children have lower levels of physical fitness than white Europeans and black African–Caribbeans in the UK. This ethnic difference in physical fitness is at least partly explained by ethnic differences in physical activity. PMID:27324713

  20. Ethnobiology of the Nilgiri hills, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S; Sethuraman, M; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2002-03-01

    The Nilgiri is a popular massif towering high in the Western Ghats in South India with an altitude of 2623 m. Nature has been magnanimous in bestowing Nilgiri district with rich evergreen temperate to tropical forests. A high degree of biodiversity, marked by varied flora and fauna of good therapeutic potential as well as the varied number of indigenous groups of people in this area, makes it very popular among herbalists. The district has six anthropologically well defined ethnic groups namely Todas, Kotas, Kurumbas, Irulas, Paniyas and Kattunayakas living here possibly since 1200 B.C. The present review highlights the ethnobiological profile of six indigenous populations and their dependence on ambient flora and fauna for traditional health care needs. It has been observed that about 2700 therapeutically potent plant species are available in this hill station of which almost all have come from local medicine. Some have been explored scientifically. However, about 150 plant species are still to be explored for their therapeutic potential. The ethnography, phytochemical and therapeutic uses as well as the anthropological perspectives of the local medicines have been discussed in this review. PMID:11933110

  1. A Modified Hill Cipher using Randomized Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V.N.Krishna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Hill Cipher, the plain text is divided into equal sized blocks. The blocks are encrypted one at a time. Cipher text only Crypto analysis of Hill Cipher is difficult. But it is susceptible to known plain text attack. In this work, Hill Cipher is improvised to make it more secure. The output of hill cipher is randomized to generate multiple cipher texts for one plain text. Any one cipher text is used for transmission of data. This approach thwarts any known plain text attacks and also chosen cipher text attacks.

  2. 'They think that gays have money': gender identity and transactional sex among Black men who have sex with men in four South African townships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masvawure, Tsitsi B; Sandfort, Theo G M; Reddy, Vasu; Collier, Kate L; Lane, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Transactional sex has not been studied much among men who have sex with men in Africa. Consequently, little is understood about attitudes towards the practice, the circumstances that give rise to it or how transactional sex relationships are managed. We conducted in-depth interviews with 81 Black men aged 20-44 from four low-resourced townships in Tshwane, South Africa. We found that transactional sex was a widely used strategy for initiating and sustaining relationships with regular and casual partners, and was motivated by both the need for subsistence and for consumption. Alcohol-based exchanges in particular provided men in the townships with a covert and safe platform to communicate erotic, sexual and romantic attraction to other men, and bars and other drinking places were a popular venue for meeting potential sexual partners. The majority of 'feminine-identifying' men had engaged in transactional sex as the providers of money and material goods compared to men who identified as either 'masculine' or as 'both masculine and feminine'. Surprisingly, however, this did not necessarily give them greater control in these relationships. Our study provides an initial foray into a complex sociosexual phenomenon and suggests that gender identity is an important construct for understanding transactional sex relationships among men in Africa. PMID:25714033

  3. Hill climbing algorithms and trivium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghoff, Julia; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to solve certain classes of systems of multivariate equations over the binary field and its cryptanalytical applications. We show how heuristic optimization methods such as hill climbing algorithms can be relevant to solving systems of multivariate equations. A...... characteristic of equation systems that may be efficiently solvable by the means of such algorithms is provided. As an example, we investigate equation systems induced by the problem of recovering the internal state of the stream cipher Trivium. We propose an improved variant of the simulated annealing method...

  4. Black carbon aerosol characterization in a coastal city in South China using a single particle soot photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Tian-Le; Zeng, Li-Wu; Yu, Guang-He; Luan, Sheng-Ji

    2012-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the dominant light-absorbing aerosol component in the atmosphere and plays an important role in atmospheric pollution and climate change. The light-absorbing properties of BC rely on particle size, shape, composition, as well as the BC mixing state with other aerosol components, thus more thorough exploration of BC aerosol characteristics is critical in understanding its atmospheric sources and effects. In this study, a newly-developed Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) was deployed in Shenzhen, China, for continuous BC measurements to obtain the important information about size distribution and mixing state of BC under severe air pollution conditions of China. The mean BC mass concentrations were found to be 6.0 and 4.1 μg m-3 at an urban site (UT) in the fall and winter, respectively, while it is much lower (2.6 μg m-3) at a rural site (BG) in the fall. The mass size distributions of BC in volume equivalent diameter (VED) at the three sites showed a similar lognormal pattern, with the peak diameter at BG (222 nm) slightly larger than at the UT (210 nm) site. As to mixing state, the average percentage of internally mixed BC at the UT site was detected to be 40% and 46% in the fall and winter, respectively, while that at the BG site in the fall was only a slightly higher (47%), which implies that fresh local fossil fuel combustions were still significant at this rural site. The analysis of extremely high BC concentrations (>20 μg m-3) at UT indicates that they were a complex of comparable contributions from both local fresh emissions and regional transport under unfavorable meteorology. Other characteristics of BC aerosol and their influencing factors in Shenzhen were also discussed.

  5. Remagnetization of lower Silurian black shale and insights into shale gas in the Sichuan Basin, south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dong; Yin, Hongwei; Liu, Mancang; Xie, Wuren; Wei, Guoqi; Li, Yongxiang

    2016-02-01

    The organic-rich lower Silurian shale of the Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin is the most important target for shale-gas exploration in China. Most Paleozoic rocks of the Sichuan Basin have experienced extraordinarily pervasive remagnetizations. To test a hypothesized connection between hydrocarbon generation and remagnetization and contribute to shale-gas exploration in the region, we undertook an integrated magnetic, geochemical, and petrographic study of 160 specimens from the shale. The results suggest that the shale contains a reliable remanent magnetization (Dec = 41.4°, Inc = 40.8°, and α95 = 6.8°). The magnetization predates tilting, and the paleopole plots close to the Late Triassic segment of the south China apparent polar wander path. The rock magnetic data and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations confirm that framboidal magnetites carry the bulk of the magnetization, which suggest a Late Triassic chemical remanent magnetization in the shale. 87Sr/86Sr and magnetic analyses indicate that the amount of magnetite was unaffected by fluid alterations around the veins but is strongly covariant with the amount of total organic matter. Moreover, SEM observations reveal possible evidence of the replacement of pyrite framboids by magnetite, probably in the presence of organic acids. These analyses, therefore, suggest that the remagnetization was caused by organic maturation rather than orogenic fluids and that the maturation occurred in the Late Triassic. This timing of organic maturation has been validated by independent modeling studies and provides important constraints on the complex thermal history of the Longmaxi Shale as well as contributing to shale-gas exploration efforts.

  6. Does Poor Quality Schooling and/or Teacher Quality Hurt Black South African Students Enrolling for a Degree at the University of KwaZulu-Natal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Wealthy schools appoint better qualified teachers, less wealthy schools under qualified teachers. Added to this mix is a powerful teacher’s union whose policies attempt to entrench the job security of teachers in the less wealthy schools irrespective of whether they can teach their subjects or not. Can one isolate these effects from that of other socio-demographic factors that may also be affecting the performance of students when they enrol for a degree at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN)? An outcome variable that subtracts the number of courses that have been failed from the number of courses that have been passed, dividing this by the total number of years that they have spent studying for a particular degree will be used as a response variable for this paper. Objectives The system of secondary education in South Africa is highly polarized. On the one hand, we have a group of mainly Black African students, forming about 80% of the total student population, that come from a vastly under-resourced rural or township based community. On the other hand, we have a group of predominantly White and Indian students who are able to attend a far better resourced set of private schools. Added to this mix, we have 240,000 of South Africa’s total number of 390,000 primary and secondary school teachers who belong to a powerful teacher’s union which enjoys a strong political alliance with the ruling party in South Africa. With most of their union members teaching in the less wealthy schools in South Africa, `school background’ now includes a politically motivated component that focuses on teacher self–interest rather than the education of the child. What sort of effect does school background have on the performance of students when they enter an institution of higher learning? More importantly, can one isolate the effect of school background from that of other possibly confounding factors such as gender, financial aid and the receipt of some form of

  7. Fiberwise Convexity of Hill's lunar problem

    OpenAIRE

    Junyoung, Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I prove the fiberwise convexity of the regularized Hill's lunar problem below the critical energy level. This allows us to see Hill's lunar problem of any energy level below the critical value as the Legendre transformation of geodesic problem on $S^2$ with a family of Finsler metric.

  8. Counseling Uses of the Hill Interaction Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert E.

    While the Hill Interaction Matrix was developed as a research instrument to assess interview process, it is also generally useful in any undertaking requiring the evaluation of verbal interaction and, hence, can be used as an aid in modifying communication in order to increase its therapeutic effect. The Hill Interaction Matrix with accompanying…

  9. Paleoceangraphic significance of redox-sensitive metals of black shales in the basal Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in Guizhou Province,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jinghong; JIANG Shaoyong; LING Hongfei; FENG Hongzhen; CHEN Yongquan; CHEN Jianhua

    2004-01-01

    Black shales of the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation occur widely on the Yangtze Platform. In this study, we analyzed black shales from two sections (Zhongnan and Zhijin) in Guizhou Province. The redox-sensitive metal concentration and distribution of black shales from the two sections provide good evidence for the anoxic conditions of the basal Cambrian ocean on the Yangtze Platform. Our geochemical data suggest that the black shales from the Zhongnan section may have deposited in a more strongly anoxic environment than the black shales in the Zhijin section.

  10. 77 FR 8214 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... increasingly severe and intense wild fires and mountain pine beetle epidemics. The purpose of the Board is to... forest issues such as forest plan revisions or amendments, forest health including fire management and... 86,000 acre Jasper Fire in 2000; 2. A 2004 initial Off-Highway Vehicle Travel Management...

  11. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Minnelusa Formation that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Minnelusa...

  12. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Inyan Kara Group that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Inyan Kara Group.

  13. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Minnekahta Limestone that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Minnekahta...

  14. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Madison Limestone that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Madison Limestone,...

  15. SRTM Anaglyph: Haro and Kas Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001 the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This three-dimensional view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. The anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the curvilinear ridge trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. The dike also appears to extend northeast from the image center as a dark line having very little topography. Its location between the tilted block and a smaller anticline to the north (directly east of the larger anticline) probably indicates that the dike fills the fault that separates these contrasting geologic structures. These features are simple examples of how digital elevation data can stereoscopically enhance satellite imagery to provide a direct input to geologic studies.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over preliminary digital elevation data from the

  16. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance......-styled references to, among other things, the culturally and ideologically effervescent interwar-period have made me curious as to what alternative possibilities – for instance ‘emancipation’ – a comparative analysis might disclose concerning the visual rhetoric of black. Thus, in conclusion, it is briefly...

  17. Abyssal Hill Segmentation: Quantitative analysis of the East Pacific Rise flanks 7°S-9°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John A.; Malinverno, Alberto; Fornari, Daniel J.; Cochran, James R.

    1993-08-01

    The recent R/V Maurice Ewing EW9105 Hydrosweep survey of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) and adjacent flanks between 7°S and 9°S provides an excellent opportunity to explore the causal relationship between the ridge and the abyssal hills which form on its flanks. These data cover 100% of the flanking abyssal hills to 115 km on either side of the axis. We apply the methodology of Goff and Jordan (1988) for estimating statistical characteristics of abyssal hill morphology (rms height, characteristic lengths and widths, plan view aspect ratio, azimuthal orientation, and fractal dimension). Principal observations include the following: (1) the rms height of abyssal hill morphology is negatively correlated with the width of the 5- to 20-km-wide crestal high, consistent with the observations of Goff (1991) for northern EPR abyssal hill morphology; (2) the characteristic abyssal hill width displays no systematic variation with position relative to ridge segmentation within the EW9105 survey area, in contrast with observations of Goff (1991) for northern EPR abyssal hill morphology in which characteristic widths tend to be smallest at segment ends and largest toward the middle of segments; (3) abyssal hill rms heights and characteristic widths are very large just north of a counterclockwise rotating "nannoplate", suggesting that the overlap region is being pushed northward in response to microplate-style tectonics; and (4) within the 7°12'S-8°38'S segment, abyssal hill lineaments are generally parallel to the ridge axis, while south of this area, abyssal hill lineaments rotate with a larger "radius of curvature" than does the EPR axis approaching the EPR-Wilkes ridge-transform intersection.

  18. Sullys Hill herd resembles original plains bison

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This article is on recent findings on Sullys Hill National Game Preserve that show bison brought there nearly a century ago have remained closer to genetically pure...

  19. How to make a Hill Plot

    OpenAIRE

    Drees, H.; De Haan, Laurens; Resnick, S

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAn abundance of high quality data sets requiring heavy tailed models necessitates reliable methods of estimating the shape parameter governing the degree of tail heaviness. The Hill estimator is a popular method for doing this but its practical use is encumbered by several difficulties. We show that an alternative method of plotting Hill estimator values is more revealing than the standard method unless the underlying data comes from a Pareto distribution.

  20. Coaltrans South Africa 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: overview of the South African coal industry; South African economy and coal reserves; black economic empowerment and new mining legislation; and transport logistics. Most of the papers only consist of the viewgraphs/overheads. Three papers which are not overheads have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  1. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  2. The Black Woman Cross-Culturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steady, Filomina Chioma, Ed.

    This is a collection of anthropological and sociological articles on the black woman. Essays cover the experiences of black women in Africa, the Caribbean, South America, and the United States in politics, business, the community, the arts, the family, and social change. Several themes are present throughout this anthology, including black women's…

  3. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India

    OpenAIRE

    Velusamy Balasubramaniam; Maruthakkutti Murugesan; Steven Newmaster G; Ragupathy Subramanyam; Ul-Huda Muneer M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri hol...

  4. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S1 x S2. We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  5. Fossil papio cranium from !Ncumtsa (Koanaka) Hills, western Ngamiland, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Blythe A; Ross, Callum F; Frost, Stephen R; Waddle, Diane M; Gabadirwe, Mohutsiwa; Brook, George A

    2012-09-01

    Three fossils, a cranium of Papio, a cercopithecid frontal bone, and a mandible of juvenile Papio, have been recovered from cave deposits in the !Ncumtsa (Koanaka) Hills of western Ngamiland, Botswana. These specimens are significant because well-preserved crania of Papio are extremely rare in the fossil record outside of South Africa and because this is the first report of fossil primate cranial remains from Botswana. Thermoluminescence dating of surrounding cave matrix indicates an age of ≥317 ± 114 ka, within the Middle Pleistocene, although it may be older. Based on univariate and multivariate analyses, the adult !Ncumtsa specimen falls within the range of variation seen in extant forms of Papio, yet is distinct from any living species/subspecies and represents a new taxon, named here as a new subspecies of Papio hamadryas-Papio hamadryas botswanae. PMID:22639236

  6. Plankton diversity and aquatic ecology of a freshwater lake (L3 at Bharti Island, Larsemann Hills, east Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan K. Bharti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Larsemann Hills range is an ice-free oasis on the Ingrid Christensen Coast of Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, which includes Bharti Island, Fisher Island, McLeod Island, Broknes Peninsula, Stornes Peninsula, and several other islands, promontories, and nunataks. The Larsemann Hills is an ice-free area of approximately 50 km2, located halfway between the Vestfold Hills and the Amery Ice Shelf on the south-eastern coast of Prydz Bay, Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica. The ice-free area consists of two major peninsulas (Stornes and Broknes, four minor peninsulas, and approximately 130 near shore islands. The Larsemann Hills area contains more than 150 lakes at different Islands and peninsulas. Bharti Island of Larsemann Hills in east Antarctica was selected as a sampling site for the present study. Water sample was collected from a freshwater lake during XXXth Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica (ISEA and analyzed for the physico-chemical parameters, major elements, trace metals and major plankton diversity in surface lake water by following standard methodology. The concentrations of metals Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cr were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES. Phytoplankton and zooplankton were also assessed in the aquatic ecosystem of Lake L3 at Bharti Island, Larsemann Hills over east Antarctica. Psychrophillic bacteria were found 71 cfu in lake water, while total bacterial count was found to be 5.4 × 102cfu.

  7. Reflection on plant cover of climate change: Decline Anatolian black pines on district between Afsin-Goksun (Kahramanmaras, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Duran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine decline Anatolian black pines [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe] on Tuluce hill district between Afsin-Goksun region in Kahramanmaras province. As a result of the Ecological (climate, soil, air pollution and Biological (insect, fungus, parasite plant etc. researches; other factors the exception of drought have no priority affection on black pine deaths. As on Turkey, drought conditions have dominated on the region after the year 1994. These changes have been occurred by constantly deaths in community of black pines on the south-facing slope (between the years 2000-2009. Increasing temperature and evaporation, decreasing relative humidity and rainfall-runoff is clearly for the region. In addition, there were not air pollution and infected primer insect-fungus damage. This also strengthens the impact of drought. Identified areas of tree deaths in recent years are generally near the inner regions (the steppe areas. Climate change and drought must be an indication of pushing towards more humid areas of black pine forests which is able to approaching much more onto the steppes of inner Anatolian.

  8. Austin Bradford Hill: simply the best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bucci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Austin Bradford Hill was born on July 8, 1897, third son of Sir Leonard Erskine Hill, a distinguished medical physiologist, Professor of Physiology at The London Hospital. He grew up in an upper class Victorian family.  Sir Leonard, who created an ingenious instrument for blood pressure measuring, had a deep influence on his son. In fact, Bradford decided to follow his father example. He attended Chigwell Grammar School, which was established in 1629, but unfortunately, Bradford’s decision to join the Faculty of Medicine coincided with a really big event: First World War. Bradford entered British naval aviation and...

  9. Black Peril, White Fear. Representations of Violence and Race in South Africa�s English Press, 1976-2002, and Their Influence on Public Opinion

    OpenAIRE

    Ullmann, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The present dissertation is an attempt at uncovering to which extent and in what way the reporting on violence in South Africa�s English language press between 1976 and 2002 has influenced white South Africans� views of their country. South African history has been marked by violence for centuries; however, in the past decades the subject has come to occupy the minds of the white population like no other. The media, too, have grown increasingly interested in the problem. My research on the to...

  10. K-12 Enrollment Forecast 2005 to 2030: rocky Hill Public Schools, Rocky Hill, CT

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando J. Rodriguez; Fred Carstensen

    2008-01-01

    The town of Rocky Hill experienced a spike in population growth from 2000 through 2005. By 2006, population growth in Rocky Hill had slowed to 50 new residents from a high of 240 new residents in 2002. This spike in population coincided with new single-family home construction. The number of new occupancy permits (single-family) peaked at 99, in 2002. In calendar year 2007, through November 30th, Rocky Hill had issued only 12 new occupancy permits. CCEA's Cohort-Component analysis methodology...

  11. Proportion of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Attributable to Overweight and Obesity Among Non-Hispanic Black, Non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic Women in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Cavicchia, Philip P.; Liu, Jihong; Adams, Swann A.; STECK, SUSAN E.; Hussey, James R; Daguisé, Virginie G.; Hebert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective was to estimate race-specific proportions of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) attributable to overweight and obesity in South Carolina. South Carolina birth certificate and hospital discharge data were obtained from 2004 to 2006. Women who did not have type 2 diabetes mellitus before pregnancy were classified with GDM if a diagnosis was reported in at least one data source. Relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using the log-binomial model. The modifie...

  12. Influence of Adiposity on Insulin Resistance and Glycemia Markers Among U.K. Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean, and White European Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Claire M Nightingale; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G; Jonathan C K Wells; Sattar, Naveed; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes risk between South Asians and white Europeans originate before adult life and are not fully explained by higher adiposity levels in South Asians. Although metabolic sensitivity to adiposity may differ between ethnic groups, this has been little studied in childhood. We have therefore examined the associations among adiposity, insulin resistance, and glycemia markers in children of different ethnic origins. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-secti...

  13. ON THE CHOICE ADDRESS FORMS: INTIMATE ADDRESS FORMS AS IN-GROUP IDENTITY MARKERS OF BLACK SOUTH AFRICANS IN 'INVICTUS' MOVIE

    OpenAIRE

    Prihantoro Prihantoro

    2012-01-01

    Invictus is a movie which is adapted from a true story of how the South African President, Nelson Mandela, tried to unite South Africa by supporting the national rugby team, Springbok, which used to be the symbol of Apartheid. His relation with other characters in this movie is reflected from the address forms and the choice is influenced by many aspects like social distance among the participants, age difference, formality scale etc. This paper focuses on the choice of address forms used amo...

  14. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500. Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z; B: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z; C: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z+weight}. RESULTS: Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A. The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A. Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations

  15. Chronology of polyphase extension in the Windermere Hills, northeast Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, K.J.; Cerveny, P.K.; Perkins, M.E.; Snee, L.W.

    1999-01-01

    Fission-track and 40Ar/39Ar dating and chemical correlation of volcanic strata exposed in the Windermere Hills and northern Pequop Mountains, northeast Nevada, indicate a protracted, polyphase history of Tertiary (late Eocene-late Miocene) extension along the northern margin of a major Cordilleran metamorphic core complex. Early extension is recorded by a west-tilted half graben filled with early Oligocene (34.79 ?? 0.18-39.18 ?? 0.12 Ma) sedimentary rocks in the eastern Windermere Hills above the low-angle Black Mountain detachment fault. The early Oligocene half graben conformably overlies a widespread suite of late Eocene (39.18 ?? 0.12-40.38 ?? 0.06 Ma) calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, reflecting a temporal link between early extension at a high structural level and the end of the ignimbrite flare-up. These strata are cut by east-west-striking normal faults, which are exposed along, and parallel to, the northern margin of the metamorphic complex. Available age data (e.g., between 14.93 ?? 0.08 and 34.79 ?? 0.18 Ma) permit the interpretation that the east-west-striking faults formed at the same time as, or after, large-magnitude unroofing of high-grade rocks. We interpret the east-west-striking faults to accommodate differential uplift of greenschist-grade metamorphic rocks in the upper crust, above a lateral ramp in a west-northwest-directed mylonitic shear zone. Subsequent extension in the Windermere Hills is defined by deep, rapidly filled half grabens of middle Miocene (<7.42 ?? 2.0 to 14.93 ?? 0.08 Ma) age that unconformably overlie older faults and synextensional deposits. These are the youngest half grabens in the region and are inferred to be initiated by extensional stresses imparted to the base of the lithosphere by a laterally spreading mantle plume (e.g., the Yellowstone hotspot) located in southeastern Oregon at this time.

  16. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  17. Tail prepivoting for the Hill estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Margarida; Moreira Freitas, Ana Cristina; Milhazes Freitas, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that prepivoting reduces level error of confidence sets. We adapt this method to the context of the tail index estimation, introducing a procedure that we call tail prepivoting. We apply this procedure to the Hill estimator and establish its consistency.

  18. Tail prepivoting for the Hill estimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that prepivoting reduces level error of confidence sets. We adapt this method to the context of the tail index estimation, introducing a procedure that we call tail prepivoting. We apply this procedure to the Hill estimator and establish its consistency. (paper)

  19. Jesse Stuart: Lessons from the Kentucky Hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Lu

    1986-01-01

    Highlights events in the life of Jesse Stuart, who began his teaching career at the age of 17 in a remote one-room school in the Kentucky hills and went on to become widely recognized as teacher, lecturer, and significant regional writer. Emphasizes Stuart's love of teaching and his personal values. (JHZ)

  20. Traditional Geology Field Camp: A capstone course at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (BHNSFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunlar, N.; Lisenbee, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Black Hills Natural Sciences Field Station (BHNSFS) has provided field training in geology and geological engineering for more than 40 years, and since the 1980's as a consortium serving five schools with South Dakota School of Mines and Technology as the coordinator. The traditional summer geology field camp is a five week long, intense program aimed to prepare students for subsequent professional geologic experiences. It is delivered from two separate facilities, one in the Black Hills (South Dakota) from a beautiful log lodge along Sand Creek, in eastern Wyoming, and a second from the town of Taskesti along the North Anatolian fault approximately 200 km east of Istanbul, Turkey. At both locations, the courses maintain a strong emphasis on basic field applications, including the use of GPS as a mapping tool in most exercises. The preparation of well-written reports, based on field descriptions supplemented by research on the web or through published documents, is strongly emphasized. Projects at the Black Hills field camp includes mapping of Precambrian basement, Paleozoic stratigraphy, and Laramide Tertiary plutons and structural features as welll as post-Laramide,, faulted continental strata. The popular Taskesti field camp utilizes the diverse geology of the Tethyan realm, as well as the culture and history, of central Turkey (Anatolia). The course is based at a Turkish Government Earthquake Research Center facility along the North Anatolian fault. Students examine and map selected locations across the Izmir-Ankara suture including: 1) Deformed Cretaceous and Tertiary carbonate and clastic strata of the Sakarya micro-continent in a fore-arc basin; 2) Marble and skarn surrounding Eocene, subduction-related granite intruded into a passive margin sequence in the Sivrihisar region of central Anatolia; 3) Faulted and folded Neogene strata in the northern flank of the post-Tethyan, Haymana Basin and the contrasting terrains across the North Anatolian fault (J

  1. Modelling Fine Scale Movement Corridors for the Tricarinate Hill Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, I.; Kumar, R. S.; Habib, B.; Talukdar, G.

    2016-06-01

    Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata), focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127-175 mm) and home range (8000-15000 m2), with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  2. Eocene age of the Baranowski Glacier Group at Red Hill, King George Island, West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozer Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric and geochemical studies were carried out at Red Hill in the southern part of King George Island (South Shetland Islands, northern Antarctic Peninsula on the Bransfield Strait coast. The rock succession at Red Hill has been determined to represent the Baranowski Glacier Group that was previously assigned a Late Cretaceous age. Two formations were distinguished within this succession: the lower Llano Point Formation and the upper Zamek Formation. These formations have stratotypes defined further to the north on the western coast of Admiralty Bay. On Red Hill the Llano Point Formation consists of terrestrial lavas and pyroclastic breccia; the Zamek Formation consist predominantly of fine to coarse tuff, pyroclastic breccia, lavas, tuffaceous mud-, silt-, and sandstone, locally conglomeratic. The lower part of the Zamek Formation contains plant detritus (Nothofagus, dicotyledonous, thermophilous ferns and numerous coal seams (vitrinitic composition that confirm the abundance of vegetation on stratovolcanic slopes and surrounding lowlands at that time. Selected basic to intermediate igneous rocks from the succession have been analysed for the whole-rock K-Ar age determination. The obtained results indicate that the Red Hill succession was formed in two stages: (1 from about 51–50 Ma; and (2 46–42 Ma, i.e. during the Early to Middle Eocene. This, in combination with other data obtained from other Baranowski Glacier Group exposures on western coast of Admiralty Bay, confirms the recently defined position of the volcano-clastic succession in the stratigraphic scheme of King George Island. The new stratigraphic position and lithofacies development of the Red Hill succession strongly suggest its correlation with other Eocene formations containing fossil plants and coal seams that commonly occur on King George Island.

  3. The Hill Chart Calculation for Pelton Runner Models using the HydroHillChart - Pelton Module Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Bostan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pelton turbines industrial design is based on the hill chart characteristics obtained by measuring the models. Primary data measurements used to obtain the hill chart can be processed graphically, by hand or by using graphic programs respectively CAD programs; the HydroHillChart - Pelton module software is a specialized tool in achieving the hill chart, using interpolation cubic spline functions. Thereby, based on measurements of several models of Pelton turbines, a computerized library, used to design industrial Pelton turbines can be created. The paper presents the universal characteristics calculated by using the HydroHillChart - Pelton module software for a series of Pelton runners.

  4. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue

    OpenAIRE

    Govindan Balaji; B Maharani; Velappan Ravichandran; Thiyagarajan Parthasarathi

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) also called as lingua villosa nigra, is a self limiting benign condition characterized by hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae of tongue with brown or black discoloration. Smoking, poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, using peroxide containing mouth washes, substance abuse and drugs (steroids, methyldopa, olanzapine, etc) are the predisposing factors. However its occurrence in relation to linezolid ingestion among south Indians has not been reported in PubMed dat...

  5. How to repair the Hill cipher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISMAIL I.A.; AMIN Mohammed; DIAB Hossam

    2006-01-01

    The Hill cipher algorithm is one of the symmetric key algorithms that have several advantages in data encryption.However, a main drawback of this algorithm is that it encrypts identical plaintext blocks to identical ciphertext blocks and cannot encrypt images that contain large areas of a single color. Thus, it does not hide all features of the image which reveals patterns in the plaintext. Moreover, it can be easily broken with a known plaintext attack revealing weak security. This paper presents a variant of the Hill cipher that overcomes these disadvantages. The proposed technique adjusts the encryption key to form a different key for each block encryption. Visually and computationally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed variant yields higher security and significantly superior encryption quality compared to the original one.

  6. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  7. A generalized Hill-Wheeler ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, J.; Esebbag, C.; Martin, M. T.; Rebollo, L.; Plastino, A.

    1984-06-01

    The Hill-Wheeler ansatz for the total wave function, within the Generator Coordinate Method framework, is generalized by recourse to the theory of distributions. The ensuing approach allows one to obtain a basis that spans the collective subspace, without having to deal explicitly with the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the overlap kernel. Applications to an exactly soluble model and anharmonic vibrations illustrate the present treatment.

  8. A generalized Hill-Wheeler ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hill-Wheeler ansatz for the total wave function, within the Generator Coordinate Method framework, is generalized by recourse to the theory of distributions. The ensuing approach allows one to obtain a basis that spans the collective subspace, without having to deal explicitly with the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the overlap kernel. Applications to an exactly soluble model and anharmonic vibrations illustrate the present treatment. (orig.)

  9. The Post-Newtonian Hill Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relativistic approach of the Hill Problem is presented by using an approximate binary system metric obtained from the first post-Newtonian expansion (1PN). We employ Poincaré maps and Lyapunov exponents to study the stability of bounded orbits of the system for different mass arrangements, and compare with the classical problem based on Newtonian dynamics. We find that for larger masses the system become totally stable, a striking behaviour that is not predicted by the Newtonian dynamics

  10. Possible Meteorites in the Martian Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    From its winter outpost at 'Low Ridge' inside Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this spectacular, color mosaic of hilly, sandy terrain and two potential iron meteorites. The two light-colored, smooth rocks about two-thirds of the way up from the bottom of the frame have been labeled 'Zhong Shan' and 'Allan Hills.' The two rocks' informal names are in keeping with the rover science team's campaign to nickname rocks and soils in the area after locations in Antarctica. Zhong Shang is an Antarctic base that the People's Republic of China opened on Feb. 26, 1989, at the Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Allan Hills is a location where researchers have found many Martian meteorites, including the controversial ALH84001, which achieved fame in 1996 when NASA scientists suggested that it might contain evidence for fossilized extraterrestrial life. Zhong Shan was the given name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), known as the 'Father of Modern China.' Born to a peasant family in Guangdong, Sun moved to live with his brother in Honolulu at age 13 and later became a medical doctor. He led a series of uprisings against the Qing dynasty that began in 1894 and eventually succeeded in 1911. Sun served as the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912. The Zhong Shan and Allan Hills rocks, at the left and right, respectively, have unusual morphologies and miniature thermal emission spectrometer signatures that resemble those of a rock known as 'Heat Shield' at the Meridiani site explored by Spirit's twin, Opportunity. Opportunity's analyses revealed Heat Shield to be an iron meteorite. Spirit acquired this approximately true-color image on the rover's 872nd Martian day, or sol (June 16, 2006), using exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 600 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 480 nanometers.

  11. Historical and projected climate (1901–2050) and hydrologic response of karst aquifers, and species vulnerability in south-central Texas and western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; Poteet, Mary F.; Symstad, Amy J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Long, Andrew J.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Norton, Parker A.

    2014-01-01

    Two karst aquifers, the Edwards aquifer in the Balcones Escarpment region of south-central Texas and the Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of western South Dakota, were evaluated for hydrologic response to projected climate change through 2050. Edwards aquifer sites include Barton Springs, the Bexar County Index Well, and Comal Springs. Madison aquifer sites include Spearfish Creek and Rhoads Fork Spring. Climate projections at sites were based on output from the Community Climate System Model of global climate, linked to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model of regional climate. The WRF model output was bias adjusted to match means for 1981–2010 from records at weather stations near Madison and Edwards aquifer sites, including Boerne, Texas, and Custer and Lead, South Dakota. Hydrologic response at spring and well sites was based on the Rainfall-Response Aquifer and Watershed Flow (RRAWFLOW) model. The WRF model climate projections for 2011–50 indicate a significant upward trend in annual air temperature for all three weather stations and a significant downward trend in annual precipitation for the Boerne weather station. Annual springflow simulated by the RRAWFLOW model had a significant downward trend for Edwards aquifer sites and no trend for Madison aquifer sites.

  12. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  13. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretic to increase urine flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other products, black tea is used for weight loss. In foods, ...

  14. Black Disease (Terpios hoshinota): A Probable Cause for the Rapid Coral Mortality at the Northern Reef of Yongxing Island in the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Qi; Liu, Guo Hui; Yan, Hong Qiang; Zhang, Hui Ling

    2012-01-01

    The northern reef of Yongxing Island, the largest reef island of the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea, was in good condition with significant cover of scleractinian corals until 2002. Surveys in 2008 and 2010, however, found that coral coverage had declined rapidly and severely, implying that catastrophic coral mortality occurred during the past 8 years. A blackish mat was observed covering live and dead corals in both 2008 and 2010 that was identified as an encrusting sponge, Terpios hos...

  15. Timing of pregnancy and first birth and its impact on schooling in South Africa: The case of Black women in North West Province / Karabo Ezekiel Mhele

    OpenAIRE

    Mhele, Karabo Ezekiel

    2014-01-01

    Schooling is a powerful tool that imparts knowledge, attitudes, skills and aspirations required for achieving individual potentials. However, most women in South Africa do not achieve their full potential because of low school attainment, which has partly been attributed to learner pregnancy, school dropout and low school re-entry. The objectives of this study were therefore to estimate the magnitude of learner pregnancy, school dropout and school re-entry as key determinants o...

  16. Confidence Hills Mineralogy and Chemin Results from Base of Mt. Sharp, Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, P. D.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Downs, R. T.; Morrison, S. M.; Fendrich, K. V.; Yen, A. S.; Grotzinger, J.; Crisp, J. A.; Bristow, T. F.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Stolper, E. M.; Morookian, J. M.; Wilson, M. A.; Spanovich, N.; Anderson, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity recently completed its fourth drill sampling of sediments on Mars. The Confidence Hills (CH) sample was drilled from a rock located in the Pahrump Hills region at the base of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. The CheMin X-ray diffractometer completed five nights of analysis on the sample, more than previously executed for a drill sample, and the data have been analyzed using Rietveld refinement and full-pattern fitting to determine quantitative mineralogy. Confidence Hills mineralogy has several important characteristics: 1) abundant hematite and lesser magnetite; 2) a 10 angstrom phyllosilicate; 3) multiple feldspars including plagioclase and alkali feldspar; 4) mafic silicates including forsterite, orthopyroxene, and two types of clinopyroxene (Ca-rich and Ca-poor), consistent with a basaltic source; and 5) minor contributions from sulfur-bearing species including jarosite.

  17. SRTM Colored and Shaded Topography: Haro and Kas Hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This shaded topography view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. In this view, the anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the linear feature trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion-resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. These features are simple examples of how shaded topography can provide a direct input to geologic studies.In this image, colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Colors range from green at the lowest elevations, through yellow and red, to purple at the highest elevations. Elevations here range from near sea level to about 300 meters (about 1000 feet). Shading has been added, with illumination from the north (image top).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that

  18. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  19. From Basin Black Shales to Platform Carbonate Rocks: A Study on Sequence Stratigraphy for the Lower Cambrian of the Upper-Yangtze Region in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the Upper-Yangtze region, especially in Guizhou Province and its adjacent areas, the Lower Cambrian is well developed and is marked by a succession from black shales of the basin facies to carbonate rocks of the platform facies. The drowning event of the platform occurring at the turn from Sinian to Cambrian resulted in a set of black shales, i.e. the Niutitang Formation, which makes up the bottom part of the Lower Cambrian. With the shoaling of the sedimentary environment, a set of carbonate rocks, i.e. the Qingxudong Formation, was formed in the top part of the Lower Cambrian. Thus, the Lower Cambrian in the study area makes up one second-order sequence that can be further subdivided into five third-order sequences, and forms a regularly cyclic succession of transgression-regression. There is a regularly vertical stacking pattern for the third-order sequences in the second-order sequence. From bottom to top, the succession of the "CS (condensed section)+HST (high-stand system tract)" of the third-order sequences is changed into the succession of the "TST (transgressive system tract)+CS+HST". Correspondingly, the drowning-type sequence boundary is changed into the exposure-type one. Therefore, both the second-order and the third-order sequences have similar sedimentary-facies architectures. A concomitant with these temporal changes,the Lower Cambrian with a thickness of 1000 m that contains five third-order sequences is changed into a condensed succession that cannot identify third-order sequences toward the southeast with the deepening of the sedimentary environment. According to the elementary features of the third-order sequences, i.e. the regularity o sedimentary-facies successions in space and the synchronism of sedimentary-environment changes in time, the detailed division of the third-order sequences at main logged sections in different paleogeographical background becomes the basis to establish the sequence-stratigraphic framework that can demonstrate

  20. “The Black Man in the White Man’s Court”: Mandela at Wits University, South Africa, 1943-1949

    OpenAIRE

    Ramoupi, Neo Lekgotla Laga

    2016-01-01

    Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was 24 years old when he enrolled for his Bachelor of Law (LLB) degree at the University of Witwatersrand (Wits) in Johannesburg, South Africa at the beginning of 1943. Mandela was the only African in the Law Faculty at Wits and suffered racism from both the white student body and faculty during the years he spent in pursuit of this degree. On July 20, 2015, Professor Bruce Murray of Wits presented a paper entitled “Nelson Mandela and Wits University”3 that the Sunda...

  1. A version of Hill's lemma for Cosserat continuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xikui Li; Qipeng Liu

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of Hill's lemma for classical Cauchy continuum, a version of Hill's lemma for micro-macro homogenization modeling of heterogeneous Cosserat continuum is presented in the frame of average-field theory. The admissible boundary conditions required to prescribe on the representative volume element for the modeling are extracted and discussed to ensure the satisfaction of HillMandel energy condition and the first-order average field theory.

  2. Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM)...

  3. Hill of Banchory Geothermal Energy Project Feasibility Study Report

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, Guy; Wood, George; Younger, Paul; Feliks, Michael; Mccay, Alistair; Gillespie, Martin; Steen, Paul; McBeth, Neil; Townsend, David; Townsend, Phil; Stephenson, Randell; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This feasibility study explored the potential for a deep geothermal heat project at Hill of Banchory, Aberdeenshire. The geology of the Hill of Fare, to the north of Banchory, gives cause to believe it has good geothermal potential, while the Hill of Banchory heat network, situated on the northern side of the town, offers a ready-made heat customer. The partners in the consortium consisted of academics and developers with relevant expertise in deep geothermal energy, heat networks, and fin...

  4. A mineralogical application of micro-PIXE technique: The Ni–Mo–PGE polymetallic layer of black shales in Zunyi region, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ni–Mo–PGE polymetallic layers, from Southern China (Huangjiawan mine, Zunyi region, northern part of the Guizhou Province), were analyzed by micro-PIXE. These samples are known to be enriched with acidic elements and basic elements. Some of them, like Ag, Au, Pt, Pd, Se and Mo, are of large economic value. The distributions of Fe, Mo, Ni, As, Se and Pd in black shales samples are studied. The correlation among those elements has also been investigated. Trace element data from minerals, the noble metals’ mode of occurrence and correlation with other elements are all significant in mineralogy. Such information can help in understanding the genesis of the deposit and also aid the exploration strategy

  5. Validation of the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire in 1st generation Black African-Caribbean and South Asian UK migrants: A sub-study to the Ethnic-Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening (E-ECHOES study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Stanley

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We determined the diagnostic accuracy of the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire (ECQ in 1st generation Black African-Caribbean UK migrants as previous diagnostic questionnaires have been found to be less accurate in this population. We also determined the diagnostic accuracy of translated versions of the ECQ in 1st generation South Asian UK migrants, as this has not been investigated before. Methods Subjects were recruited from the Ethnic-Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening (E-ECHOES study, a community based screening survey for heart failure in minority ethnic groups. Translated versions of the ECQ were prepared following a recognised protocol. All participants attending screening between October 2007 and February 2009 were asked to complete the ECQ in the language of their choice (English, Punjabi, Bengali, Urdu, Hindi or Gujarati. Subjects answering positively to experiencing leg pain or discomfort on walking were asked to return to have Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABPI measured. Results 154 out of 2831 subjects participating in E-ECHOES (5.4% were eligible to participate in this sub-study, for which 74.3% returned for ABPI assessment. Non-responders were younger than participants (59[9] vs. 65[11] years; p = 0.015. Punjabi, English and Bengali questionnaires identified participants with Intermittent Claudication, so these questionnaires were assessed. The sensitivities (SN, specificities (SP, positive (PPV and negative (NPV predictive values were calculated. English: SN: 50%; SP: 68%; PPV: 43%; NPV: 74%. Punjabi: SN: 50%; SP: 87%; PPV: 43%; NPV: 90%. Bengali: SN: 33%; SP: 50%; PPV: 13%; NPV: 73%. There were significant differences in diagnostic accuracy between the 3 versions (Punjabi: 83.8%; Bengali: 45%; English: 62.2%; p Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ECQ is not as sensitive or specific a diagnostic tool in 1st generation Black African-Caribbean and South Asian UK migrants than in the Edinburgh

  6. HydroHillChart – Francis module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Francis Hydraulic Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Dorian Nedelcu; Adelina Bostan; Florin Peris-Bendu

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the Hydro Hill Chart - Francis module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton, Francis and Kaplan hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. After describing the interface and menu, the input data is graphically presented and the universal characteristic for measuring scenarios ao=const. and n11=const is calculated. Finally, the two calculated hill charts are compared through a graphical superimposition of t...

  7. HydroHillChart – Francis module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Francis Hydraulic Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Hydro Hill Chart - Francis module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton, Francis and Kaplan hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. After describing the interface and menu, the input data is graphically presented and the universal characteristic for measuring scenarios ao=const. and n11=const is calculated. Finally, the two calculated hill charts are compared through a graphical superimposition of the isolines.

  8. From blue to black: Anthropogenic forcing of carbon and nitrogen influx to mangrove-lined estuaries in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y

    2016-08-30

    Southeast Asia is the global centre of mangrove development but human activities have dramatically reduced mangrove area in the region. An analysis is made of the shift in carbon and nitrogen influxes into the South China Sea (SCS) resulting from three anthropogenic nutrient sources: domestic sewage discharge, fertilizer use in rice agriculture and environmental loss from mariculture, between 1997 and 2010. Anthropogenic C and N influxes were, respectively, 1.81× and 1.43× those in 1997, with coastal aquaculture contributing most to the increase. In contrast, fringing mangroves provided ~44% of the C but only ~3% of the N from anthropogenic sources in 2010. In 1997, influx from mangroves was 113% and 6% of anthropogenic influx for C and N, respectively. This dominance by relatively labile anthropogenic nutrients over mangrove sources would change nearshore trophodynamics, with negative implications for the resilience of mangroves and nutrient-intolerant systems such as corals. PMID:26781456

  9. Faint high-redshift AGN in the Chandra Deep Field South: the evolution of the AGN luminosity function and black hole demography

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, F; Grazian, A; Menci, N; Shankar, F; Santini, P; Piconcelli, E; Koekemoer, A M; Fontana, A; Boutsia, K; Castellano, M; Lamastra, A; Malacaria, C; Feruglio, C; Mathur, S; Miller, N; Pannella, M

    2011-01-01

    We present detection and analysis of faint X-ray sources in the Chandra deep field south (CDFS) using the 4 Msec Chandra observation and adopting a new detection algorithm, based on a targeted search at the position of known high-z galaxies. This optimized technique results in the identification of 54 z>3 AGNs, 29 of which are new detections. Applying stringent completeness criteria, we derive AGN luminosity functions in the redshift bins 3-4, 4-5 and >5.8 and for 42.753 (18+17-10%). Their optical counterparts are not strongly reddened and we thus conclude that the size of the X-ray absorber is likely smaller than the dust sublimation radius. We finally report the discovery of a highly star-forming galaxy at z=3.47. If confirmed, this would be one of the farthest objects in which stellar sources are detected in X-rays.

  10. New type of hill-top inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ϵ and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R2-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections

  11. New type of hill-top inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barvinsky, A.O. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute,Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Tomsk State University,Lenin Ave. 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pacific Institue for Theoretical Physics,University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kamenshchik, A.Yu. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physcis,Kosygin str. 2, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nesterov, D.V. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute,Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-20

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ϵ and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R{sup 2}-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  12. Hill crossing during preheating after hilltop inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Antusch, Stefan; Orani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In 'hilltop inflation', inflation takes place when the inflaton field slowly rolls from close to a maximum of its potential (i.e. the 'hilltop') towards its minimum. When the inflaton potential is associated with a phase transition, possible topological defects produced during this phase transition, such as domain walls, are efficiently diluted during inflation. It is typically assumed that they also do not reform after inflation, i.e. that the inflaton field stays on its side of the 'hill', finally performing damped oscillations around the minimum of the potential. In this paper we study the linear and the non-linear phases of preheating after hilltop inflation. We find that the fluctuations of the inflaton field during the tachyonic oscillation phase grow strong enough to allow the inflaton field to form regions in position space where it crosses 'over the top of the hill' towards the 'wrong vacuum'. We investigate the formation and behaviour of these overshooting regions using lattice simulations: Rather t...

  13. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  14. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188 Section 9.188 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.188 Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of...

  15. Hill-Burton Free and Reduced Cost Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill-Burton free or reduced-cost care. Send complaints to: Director, Division of Poison Control and Healthcare Facilities 5600 Fishers Lane Room 8W Rockville, MD 20857 Email: DFCRCOMM@hrsa.gov Our brochure entitled “Free Hospital Care” provides additional information about the Hill-Burton ...

  16. The logic of Black Economic Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Southall, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The policies relating to Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) in South Africa constitute a logical unfolding of a strategy which has been largely dictated by the history of the ruling African National Congress (ANC), the nature of the democratic settlement of 1994, and the structure of the South African economy. From this perspective, the logic of BEE can be pursued through ten propositions which argue that the ANC has sought control of the state to ‘internally decolonise’ South Africa. This incl...

  17. An expanded analysis of pharmacogenetics determinants of efavirenz response that includes 3'-UTR single nucleotide polymorphisms among Black South African HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelize eSwart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Efavirenz (EFV is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor prescribed as part of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa. Despite administration of fixed doses of EFV, inter-individual variability in EFV plasma concentrations has been reported. Poor treatment outcomes such as the development of adverse drug reactions or treatment failure have been linked to EFV concentrations outside the therapeutic range (1 - 4 µg/mL. The drug metabolising enzyme (DME, CYP2B6, is primarily responsible for EFV metabolism with minor contributions by CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, UGT2B7 and CYP1A2. Genes coding for DMEs have been shown to be regulated by microRNAs through targeting the 3'-untranslated region. Genetic variation in the 3'-UTR, in addition to genetic variation in the coding regions, could potentially be used to explain a larger proportion of the inter-individual variability observed in drug response. Methods: SNPs in CYP1A2, CYP2B6, UGT2B7 and NR1I2 (PXR were selected for genotyping among 222 Bantu-speaking South African HIV-infected patients receiving EFV-containing HAART. This study is a continuation of earlier pharmacogenetics studies emphasizing specifically the role of genetic variation in the 3'-UTR of genes which products are either pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic targets of EFV.Results: In addition to CYP2B6 c.516G>T and c.983T>C SNPs, the CYP2B6 c.1355A>G SNP was identified as pharmacogenetics determinant of EFV concentration among CYP2B6 intermediate and extensive metabolisers (carriers of either c.516G/G+c.983T/T or c.516G/G+c.983T/C or c.516G/T+c.983T/T genotypes. NR1I2 c.522C>T and NR1I3 c.239-1089T>C SNPs were predictors of EFV concentration among CYP2B6 poor metabolisers (carriers of either c.516T/T or c.983C/C or both c.516G/T and c.983T/C genotypes.Conclusion: Genotyping results provide support for comprehensive studies of genetic variation in the 3'-UTR of genes coding for DMEs and their

  18. Are black holes totally black?

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A

    2014-01-01

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  19. Metagenomic 16s rRNA investigation of microbial communities in the Black Sea estuaries in South-West of Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrova, Oleksandra; Kristoffersen, Jon Bent; Oulas, Anastasis; Ivanytsia, Volodymyr

    2016-01-01

    The Black Sea estuaries represent interfaces of the sea and river environments. Microorganisms that inhabit estuarine water play an integral role in all biochemical processes that occur there and form unique ecosystems. There are many estuaries located in the Southern-Western part of Ukraine and some of them are already separated from the sea. The aim of this research was to determine the composition of microbial communities in the Khadzhibey, Dniester and Sukhyi estuaries by metagenomic 16S rDNA analysis. This study is the first complex analysis of estuarine microbiota based on isolation of total DNA from a biome that was further subjected to sequencing. DNA was extracted from water samples and sequenced on the Illumina Miseq platform using primers to the V4 variable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Computer analysis of the obtained raw sequences was done with QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) software. As the outcome, 57970 nucleotide sequences were retrieved. Bioinformatic analysis of bacterial community in the studied samples demonstrated a high taxonomic diversity of Prokaryotes at above genus level. It was shown that majority of 16S rDNA bacterial sequences detected in the estuarine samples belonged to phyla Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes. The Khadhzibey estuary was dominated by the Proteobacteria phylum, while Dniester and Sukhyi estuaries were characterized by dominance of Cyanobacteria. The differences in bacterial populations between the Khadzhibey, Dniester and Sukhyi estuaries were demonstrated through the Beta-diversity analysis. It showed that the Khadzhibey estuary's microbial community significantly varies from the Sukhyi and Dniester estuaries. The majority of identified bacterial species is known as typical inhabitants of marine environments, however, for 2.5% of microbial population members in the studied estuaries no relatives were determined. PMID:26929931

  20. Airborne remote sensing of spatiotemporal change (1955-2004) in indigenous and exotic forest cover in the Taita Hills, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellikka, Petri K. E.; Lötjönen, Milla; Siljander, Mika; Lens, Luc

    2009-08-01

    We studied changes in area and species composition of six indigenous forest fragments in the Taita Hills, Kenya using 1955 and 1995 aerial photography with 2004 airborne digital camera mosaics. The study area is part of Eastern Arc Mountains, a global biodiversity hot spot that boasts an outstanding diversity of flora and fauna and a high level of endemism. While a total of 260 ha (50%) of indigenous tropical cloud forest was lost to agriculture and bushland between 1955 and 2004, large-scale planting of exotic pines, eucalyptus, grevillea, black wattle and cypress on barren land during the same period resulted in a balanced total forest area. In the Taita Hills, like in other Afrotropical forests, indigenous forest loss may adversely affect ecosystem services.

  1. Decay of isolated hills and saddles on Si(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Pierre; Brendel, Lothar; Roos, Kelly R.; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael; Heringdorf, Frank-J. Meyer zu

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the high temperature decay of isolated hills and saddle points on Si(001). Using in situ dark-field imaging in low energy electron microscopy, we track the movement of individual steps during high temperature annealing. We find different temperature dependent decay rates for the top of the hill compared to a saddle point with low step density that is present in the vicinity of the hill. The decay rate of the hill is always higher than the decay rate at the saddle. The two rates converge with increasing temperature and become equal at temperatures above 1060 °C. We also report an alternating fast and low decay rate for the layer-by-layer decay of the hills. This surprising finding is independent of temperature and is explained by macroscopic strain in the sample.

  2. SRTM Stereo Pair: Haro and Kas Hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001 the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This stereoscopic view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. The anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the curvilinear ridge trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. The dike also appears to extend northeast from the image center as a dark line having very little topography. Its location between the tilted block and a smaller anticline to the north (directly east of the larger anticline) probably indicates that the dike fills the fault that separates these contrasting geologic structures. These features are simple examples of how digital elevation data can stereoscopically enhance satellite imagery to provide a direct input to geologic studies.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over a preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model

  3. A new species of Homonota (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae) endemic to the hills of Paraje Tres Cerros, Corrientes Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajade, Rodrigo; Etchepare, Eduardo Gabriel; Falcione, Camila; Barrasso, Diego Andrés; Alvarez, Blanca Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The genus Homonota comprises nine South American species of terrestrial and nocturnal lizards. Homonota lizards lack the femoral pores typical of other South American Phyllodactylidae, and their infradigital lamellas are not expanded. We here describe a new species, Homonota taragui sp. nov., exclusively found on a small group of three hills up to 179 meters above sea level in central eastern Corrientes Province, Argentina. The new species differs from other Homonota species by a combination of characters, including: a well-marked dorsal, reticulate, dark pattern contrasting with a lighter colored background; small, star-shaped chromatophores on the abdomen; the post-orbital region of the head covered by granular scales; the dorsal and anterior regions of the thighs covered by keeled scales interspersed with cycloid scales; and the internasal scale in contact with rostral scales. The conservation status of Homonota taragui sp. nov. may be vulnerable, due to its localized endemism with populations on three small hills surrounded by intense agricultural and livestock activity. Two endemic plant species are known from these hills, and this new lizard represents the first endemic animal species. PMID:26240903

  4. Black market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way for states and subnational groups to acquire material, knowledge and equipment necessary to build a nuclear weapon or device are illegal transactions. These were singular in the past and did not cause the development of a nuclear black market. But all necessary components of a functioning black market exist. Therefore the further spread and extension of the use of nuclear power would enhance the threat of a nuclear black market, if the trade and use of specific nuclear material is not abandoned worldwide. (orig.)

  5. After Runaway: The Trans-Hill Stage of Planetesimal Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. Here we show that runaway is followed by a `trans-hill stage' that commences once the bodies become trans-hill, i.e. once the Hill velocity of the bodies that dominate viscous stirring matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the bodies remain in the trans-hill state. Trans-hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. We work out the properties of trans-hill growth analytically and confirm these numerically. Trans-hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, collisional cooling is irrelevant, in which case the efficiency of forming big bodies remains very low (0.1% in the Ku...

  6. South Africa : Reducing Financial Constraints to Emerging Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Thyra A.

    1995-01-01

    South Africa's black enterprise sector is a residual employer with an important role to play in improving welfare and alleviating poverty. It is also a source of dynamic and potentially dynamic firms that create wealth and generate employment. The challenge facing South Africa is to design an institutional framework that accords black enterprises much broader access to financial services, ...

  7. Funny hills in pion spectra from heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of some of the systematic features of the pion spectra in heavy-ions reactions is given. A discussion of the hills and valleys in heavy ion pion spectra that show up at the lower pion energies is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) three kinds of funny hills; (2) π-/+ ratios near center of mass; (3) new Monte Carlo studies of charged pion spectra; and (4) pion orbiting about fireballs and Bose-Einstein behavior as explanation for the mid-rapidity P/sub perpendicular to/ approx. = 0.4 to 0.5 m/sub π/c hill

  8. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  9. Temporal changes in nitrogen acquisition of Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) associated with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. L. Lopez C.; C. Mizota; ; Y. Nobori; T. Sasaki; T. Yamanaka

    2014-01-01

    The alien woody legume, black locust (Robinia pseudoaca-cia), has invaded Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii) forests located in Japan’s coastal plain and hill regions where gaps are formed in pine forests after nematode infestation. Nitrogen fixation by legumes acceler-ates N cycling in forest ecosystems. We studied temporal change in the annual tree-ring resolution N stable isotope composition (δ15N, a per mil deviation of δ15N/14N ratio, relative to atmospheric N2δ15N=0‰) at two natural locations of Japanese black pine forest with black locust that differed in the time since black locust establishment (Shohnai in north-east and Kita-Kyushu in southwest Japan). Analyzed tree-rings covered the period from 1990/1992 to 2009. N acquisition by Japanese black pine from black locust N input to the soil was evidenced by temporal shifting of N stable isotope composition on the annual pine tree rings. With pro-gressive development of the forest stand,δ15N values of earlier tree-ringsδ15N of -5‰) from black pine associated with black locust shifted to-wards values similar to those of black locustδ15N values nearly to-1‰), which suggests acquisition of N by N2 fixation (Shohnai site). In con-trast, in a forest where black locust had settled for two or three genera-tions, in a black pine stand (Kita-Kyushu site), longer periods of N en-richment in the soil were reflected in the elevated tree-ringδ15N values of newly established black pine trees. Based on tree-ringδ15N data from the Shohnai site, we determined that about 10 years after black locust establishment, soil N had already been enriched by black locust N, this, in turn, contributed to N fertilization of surrounding trees in mixed stands.

  10. Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to assess the evolution of the blind Puente Hills thrust fault system (PHT) by determining its age of initiation, lateral propagation history, and changes in slip rate over time. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. The PHT is comprised of three fault segments: the Los Angeles (LA), Santa Fe Springs (SFS), and Coyote Hills (CH). The LA and SFS segments are characterized by growth stratigraphy where folds formed by uplift on the fault segments have been continually buried by sediment from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers. The CH segment has developed topography and is characterized by onlapping growth stratigraphy. This depositional setting gives us the unique opportunity to measure uplift on the LA and SFS fault segments, and minimum uplift on the CH fault segment, as the difference in sediment thicknesses across the buried folds. We utilize depth converted oil industry seismic reflection data to image the fold geometries. Identifying time-correlative stratigraphic markers for slip rate determination in the basin has been a problem for researchers in the past, however, as the faunal assemblages observed in wells are time-transgressive by nature. To overcome this, we utilize the sequence stratigraphic model and well picks of Ponti et al. (2007) as a basis for mapping time-correlative sequence boundaries throughout our industry seismic reflection data from the present to the Pleistocene. From the Pleistocene to Miocene we identify additional sequence boundaries in our seismic reflection data from imaged sequence geometries and by correlating industry well formation tops. The sequence and formation top picks are then used to build 3-dimensional surfaces in the modeling program Gocad. From these surfaces we measure the change in thicknesses across the folds to obtain uplift rates between each sequence boundary. Our results show three distinct phases of

  11. Sullys Hill National Game Preservce Narrative Report : January - April 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the...

  12. Quarterly Narrative Report for the Sullys Hill Wildlife Refuge : 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains quarterly narrative reports for Sullys Hill Game Preserve for 1939 Reports summarizes activities and accomplishments, including hunting,...

  13. Background Contaminants Evaluation of Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge - 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was conducted to assess chlordane levels in sediments and fish of Flint Hills NWR. Chlordane is very persistent and highly toxic to aquatic organisms and...

  14. On the Spectral Singularities and Spectrality of the Hill Operator

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Veliev

    2014-01-01

    First we study the spectral singularity at infinity and investigate the connections of the spectral singularities and the spectrality of the Hill operator. Then we consider the spectral expansion when there is not the spectral singularity at infinity.

  15. Miscellaneous Reports for the Sullys Hill Wildlife Refuge : 1917 - 1932

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains data and yearly summaries for Sullys Hill Game Preserve since the time of its establishment in 1917 through 1932. Data reports covers deer,...

  16. Sullys Hill National Game Preserve Narrative Report : September - December 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December 1950. The report begins by summarizing...

  17. "Beverly Hills 90210" : kes mida teeb / Tiina Lepiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepiste, Tiina

    2003-01-01

    Aaron Spellingu produtseeritud ja 2000. aastal lõpetatud menuseriaalis "Beverly Hills 90210" osalenud näitlejate edaspidisest elust seoses plaaniga teha täispikk mängufilm "10 Year High School Reunion"

  18. Bone Hill National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Bone Hill National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  19. EAARL Topography-Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of the Sagamore Hill National Historic Site were produced from remotely-sensed,...

  20. Refuge review report : Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review on Flint Hills NWR and summarizes refuge activities concerning staffing and employee development, budget, administration, planning,...

  1. Pesticide evaluation for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge in Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge is an overlay on the Corps of Engineers John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. The Refuge is managed to provide spring...

  2. [Sullys Hill National Game Preserve bison herd raw data, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Raw data from Texas AM University on the Sullys Hill National Game Preserve federal bison herd. Data includes nuclear introgression markers and nuclear polymorphic...

  3. USGS Hill Shade Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Hill Shade (or Shaded Relief) is a tile cache base map created from the National Elevation Dataset (NED), a seamless dataset of best available raster elevation...

  4. Preserving genes: Sullys Hill bison gain national prominence

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on transferring bison from Sullys Hill National Game Preserve to Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge to help maintain as genetically pure...

  5. After runaway: The trans-Hill stage of planetesimal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the 'trans-Hill stage'—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ('big bodies') become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ∼10α << 1, where α ∼ 0.005(a/AU)–1 is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α–1 × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies

  6. Exposure-wide epidemiology: revisiting Bradford Hill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-05-20

    Fifty years after Bradford Hill published his extremely influential criteria to offer some guides for separating causation from association, we have accumulated millions of papers and extensive data on observational research that depends on epidemiologic methods and principles. This allows us to re-examine the accumulated empirical evidence for the nine criteria, and to re-approach epidemiology through the lens of exposure-wide approaches. The lecture discusses the evolution of these exposure-wide approaches and tries to use the evidence from meta-epidemiologic assessments to reassess each of the nine criteria and whether they work well as guides for causation. I argue that of the nine criteria, experiment remains important and consistency (replication) is also very essential. Temporality also makes sense, but it is often difficult to document. Of the other six criteria, strength mostly does not work and may even have to be inversed: small and even tiny effects are more plausible than large effects; when large effects are seen, they are mostly transient and almost always represent biases and errors. There is little evidence for specificity in causation in nature. Biological gradient is often unclear how it should it modeled and thus difficult to prove. Coherence remains usually unclear how to operationalize. Finally, plausibility as well as analogy do not work well in most fields of investigation, and their invocation has been mostly detrimental, although exceptions may exist. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26646432

  7. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  8. A COLORFUL TOUR TO SOUTH KOREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ LOCATION The South Korean peninsula extends southward from the eastern end of the Asian continent. The peninsula is roughly 1,030 km(612 miles) long and 175 km (105 miles)wide at its narrowest point.Mountains cover70% of South Korea's land mass, making it one of the most mountainous regions in the world.The lifting and folding of South Korea's granite and limestone base has created breathtaking landscapes of scenic hills and valleys. The mountain range that stretches the length of the east coast plunges steeply into the East Sea, while along the southern and western coasts, the mountains descend gradually to the coastal plains that produce the bulk of South Korea's agricultural crops, especially rice. Administratively,the Republic of South Korea consists of nine provinces; the capital Seoul; and the six metropolitan cities of Busan, Daegu, Incheon,Gwangju, Daejeon and Ulsan. In total, there are 77 cities and 88 counties.

  9. Hill Cipher pada Skema Shamir's Three Pass Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hasdiana

    2015-01-01

    In this study the authors use the scheme of Shamir's Three Pass Protocol for Hill Cipher operation. Scheme of Shamir's Three Pass Protocol is an attractive scheme that allows senders and receivers to communicate without the key exchange. Hill Cipher is chosen because of the key-shaped matrix, which is expected to complicate the various techniques of cryptanalyst. The results of this study indicate that the weakness of the scheme of Shamir's Three Pass Protocol for XOR operation...

  10. The Nascent Development of Ecotourism in Lagong Hill

    OpenAIRE

    Ah-Choy Er

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The nascent development of ecotourism in Lagong Hill faces an interesting challenge. The aim of this research note is to evaluate the nascent development of ecotourism in Lagong Hill, Malaysia based on the common core precepts of ecotourism. Approach: The research methods comprise of secondary data collection and field survey via an in-depth interview with selected key informants. This is aided by on-field observation to verify and complement the re...

  11. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Steven, Newmaster G; Maruthakkutti, Murugesan; Velusamy, Balasubramaniam; Ul-Huda, Muneer M

    2008-01-01

    There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as

  12. Impressions from South-West Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, J.

    1987-01-01

    Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk product...

  13. Empowering black managers in a multicultural society

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Moerdyk; D. Coldwell

    1990-01-01

    Recently, Erwee (1988) discussed the issue of black advancement in South Africa. This paper extends and clarifies her views. Three reasons for lack of progress are proposed. The first two, namely prejudice and lock of ability are rejected in favour of a mismatch argument, which argues that management is ethnocentric, seeking out and rewarding behaviours that are arbitrary and inappropriate. The effects of "culture" on the behaviour of black employees and white management are discussed and the...

  14. Mapping of buried river terraces on the Kopite Hill, Gerecse Mts., Northern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Dániel; Szőts, Gergely K.; Ruszák, Zsófia; Bereczki, László; Molnár, Gábor; Timár, Gábor; Fodor, László; Csillag, Gábor; Lantos, Zoltán

    2015-04-01

    The Gerecse Mountains is a part of the Transdanubian Mountain Range. The Kopite Hill located on the northern part of the Gerecse Mountains, on the southern side of the Danube and the Hungarian-Slovakian border. At the southern side of the Danube (100 m a.s.l.) a 290 m high hill of Pannonian (Miocene) marine clay, silt and sand can be found. These Pannonian strata are covered with Pliocene-Pleistocene alluvial sediments, loess and travertine. On the Kopite Hill some small outcrops of gravel can be found, which thought to be one of the highest river terrace levels, but it is not proved. To the northwest there is 270-300 m high plateau of the 'Roman-quarry' with a formerly mined travertine-body. According to a recent discovery a Mammoth-tooth and other fossils of mammals were found there, which were dated and correlated. Because the travertine body is at lower height than the assumed terrace level, a maximum rate of uplift can be given. The aim of our fieldwork was to determine the geometry of gravel strata and the connections between the distinct outcrops and the travertine body. We used multielectrode measurements with supplementary VES measurements. We found that on the north side of Kopite Hill and to south from the Roman-quarry there is an almost horizontal 300*100 m large, 8-13 m thick pebble stratum. Direct connection to the travertine body is not possible, because there is a few tens of meters gap between the two bodies, filled with loess. We assume the gravel stratum with its 258-252 m height (gently dips to the south) is a river terrace. On the southest point of this river terrace the thickness of the gravel suddenly increases to 22 meters. To the south there are also some gravel outcrops, and also a drill which suggest that the bottom of these gravels are higher on higher level, about at 265 m a.s.l.. We interpret this phenomenon as a higher terrace level. With the use of geoelectrical methods we could determine the geometry of gravel stratum on the Kopite

  15. Stargazing at 'Husband Hill Observatory' on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit continues to take advantage of extra solar energy by occasionally turning its cameras upward for night sky observations. Most recently, Spirit made a series of observations of bright star fields from the summit of 'Husband Hill' in Gusev Crater on Mars. Scientists use the images to assess the cameras' sensitivity and to search for evidence of nighttime clouds or haze. The image on the left is a computer simulation of the stars in the constellation Orion. The next three images are actual views of Orion captured with Spirit's panoramic camera during exposures of 10, 30, and 60 seconds. Because Spirit is in the southern hemisphere of Mars, Orion appears upside down compared to how it would appear to viewers in the Northern Hemisphere of Earth. 'Star trails' in the longer exposures are a result of the planet's rotation. The faintest stars visible in the 60-second exposure are about as bright as the faintest stars visible with the naked eye from Earth (about magnitude 6 in astronomical terms). The Orion Nebula, famous as a nursery of newly forming stars, is also visible in these images. Bright streaks in some parts of the images aren't stars or meteors or unidentified flying objects, but are caused by solar and galactic cosmic rays striking the camera's detector. Spirit acquired these images with the panoramic camera on Martian day, or sol, 632 (Oct. 13, 2005) at around 45 minutes past midnight local time, using the camera's broadband filter (wavelengths of 739 nanometers plus or minus 338 nanometers).

  16. Georgia Black Bear Project Report and Status Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A 2009 synopsis of black bear populations throughout Georgia (including the south Georgia population) for the purposes of determining distribution and population...

  17. Moral Education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Pieter C.

    1980-01-01

    This overview notes that moral education permeates all school curriculum, especially social studies and religion, since South African law mandates that education for Whites have a Christian character. The code of conduct for White teachers is quoted. Different provisions for Blacks are described and segregated schooling discussed in this context.…

  18. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  19. Immense vent complex marks flood-basalt eruption in a wet, failed rift: Coombs Hills, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. D. L.; McClintock, M. K.

    2001-10-01

    Large lava effusions can have impressive explosive antecedents. Although our picture of flood basalt is overwhelmingly effusive, phreatomagmatic eruptions have preceded quiet effusion of some flood basalts and reflect the same influence of vent architecture and hydrology on eruptive style as seen for small-volume eruptions. The scale of phreatomagmatic deposits associated with flood basalts can be huge. At Coombs Hills a vast, but otherwise typical, phreatomagmatic vent complex is exposed over more than 25 km2, and its features are interpreted to reflect processes of tephra-jet eruptions with diatreme development. Similar vent complexes are probably the source of laharic deposits reported elsewhere in the Transantarctic Mountains and in the Karoo province of South Africa.

  20. Iron Hill (Powderhorn) carbonatite complex, Gunnison County, CO - A potential source of several uncommon mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, B. S.; Lowers, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Iron Hill (Powderhorn) carbonatite complex is a 31-kM2 (12-sq mile) alkalic intrusion located about 35 km (22 miles) south-southwest of Gunnison, CO. The intrusion has been well studied and described because of its classic petrology and architecture ofa carbonatite-alkalic complex. The complex is also noteworthy because it contains enrichments of titanium, rare earth elements, thorium, niobium (columbium), vanadium and deposits of vermiculite and nepheline syenite. In particular, the complex is thought to host the largest titanium and niobium resources in the United States, although neither has been developed. It may be economic to extract multiple resources from this complex with a well-coordinated mine and mill plan.

  1. FORMING OF NITROGEN STOCK IN BASIC SUBTYPES OF BLACK SOILS IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA Формирование азотного фонда основных подтипов черноземов Юга России

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikov A. A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Description of nitrogen stock for black soils of southern and eastern European facies is given in the article. It is ascertained, that the black soil subtypes in the South of Russia have low content of mineral nitrogen (0,4-4,2% and easily hydrolysable one (6,0-8,3, two times more than that of hard-to- hydrolyze nitrogen (13,4-16,4%, while the main part of nitrogen stock (74,4-78,9% is found in unhydrolyzable fraction which practically does not participate in farm crop nutrition

  2. Factors Affecting High Child Poverty in the Rural South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carolyn C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, 27 percent of rural children in the South were poor, compared to 17 percent elsewhere; the rural South also had more severe child poverty. Nationally, poor children were more likely to live in mother-only families; be Black; and have younger, less-educated, or unemployed parents. These factors were more prevalent in the rural South than…

  3. Chemical changes associated with zeolitization of the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemistry of the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills was examined in samples collected over a 1002 km area south of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex to determine regional geochemical patterns during zeolitization. Samples of 58 vitric and zeolitic tuffs were analyzed for 48 elements by a combination of x-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and neutron activation analysis. Major and trace element concentrations for zeolitic tuffs vary significantly from those for vitric tuffs. Complex, geographically-controlled patterns of elemental enrichment and depletion in the zeolitic tuffs are found for Na, K, Ca, Mg, U, Rb, Sr, Ba and Cs. Vitric and zeolitic tuffs generally have the same SiO2 contents on an anhydrous basis, but minor net silica gain or loss has occurred in some samples. Zeolitic tuffs from the northern part of the study area, adjacent to the caldera complex, are notably K-rich and Na- and U-poor compared to zeolitic tuffs to the south. The compositions of the K-rich zeolitic tuffs are similar to those found in other areas of the western US where volcanic rocks are affected by potassium metasomatism. Alteration of vitric tuffs took place in an open chemical system and geographic control of major element compositions probably reflects regional variations in groundwater chemistry during alteration. The K-rich zeolitic tuffs in the northern part of the study area were probably altered by hydrothermal fluids whereas tuffs further south were altered by lower-temperature groundwaters

  4. Integrated Prevention and Control System for Soil Erosion in Typical Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-ying; CAI Qiang-guo; CHEN Sheng-yong; HE Ji-jun

    2012-01-01

    The black soil region of Northeast China is one of the most important food production bases and commodity grain bases in China. However, the continual loss and degradation of precious black soil resources has led to direct threats to national food security and regional sustainable development. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize integrated prevention and control experience of small watersheds in black soil region of Northeast China. Tongshuang small watershed, a typical watershed in rolling hills of typical black soil areas in Northeast China, is selected as the study area. Based on nearly 50 years’ experience in prevention and control of soil and water loss, the structures and overall benefits of an integrated prevention and control system for soil and water loss are investigated. Then, the ’three defense lines’ tri-dimensional protection system with reasonable allocation of different types of soil and water control measures from the hill top to gully is systematically analyzed. The first line on the top hill can weaken and block uphill runoff and sediment, hold water resources and improve soil property. The second line on the hill can truncate slope length, slow down the runoff velocity and reduce erosion energy. The third line in the gully is mainly composed of waterfall engineering, which can inhibit soil erosion and restore land resources. The ’three defense lines’ system is feasible for soil and water loss control of small watersheds in the typical black soil region of Northeast China. Through the application of the in Tongshuang small watershed, There are effective improvements in ecological conditions in Tongshuang small watershed after the application of ’three defense lines’ soil and water control system. Moreover, the integrated treatment paradigm for soil and water loss in typical black soil region is compared with that in loess region. The results of this study could offer references and experiences for other small watersheds in

  5. Quantum theory of rotational isomerism and Hill equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugulava, A.; Toklikishvili, Z.; Chkhaidze, S.; Abramishvili, R. [I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, 3, I. Chavchavadze Avenue, 0179 Tbilisi (Georgia); Chotorlishvili, L. [Institut fuer Physik, Martin-Luther Universitat Halle-Wittenberg, Heinrich-Damerow-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The process of rotational isomerism of linear triatomic molecules is described by the potential with two different-depth minima and one barrier between them. The corresponding quantum-mechanical equation is represented in the form that is a special case of the Hill equation. It is shown that the Hill-Schroedinger equation has a Klein's quadratic group symmetry which, in its turn, contains three invariant subgroups. The presence of these subgroups makes it possible to create a picture of energy spectrum which depends on a parameter and has many merging and branch points. The parameter-dependent energy spectrum of the Hill-Schroedinger equation, like Mathieu-characteristics, contains branch points from the left and from the right of the demarcation line. However, compared to the Mathieu-characteristics, in the Hill-Schroedinger equation spectrum the 'right' points are moved away even further for some distance that is the bigger, the bigger is the less deep well. The asymptotic wave functions of the Hill-Schroedinger equation for the energy values near the potential minimum contain two isolated sharp peaks indicating a possibility of the presence of two stable isomers. At high energy values near the potential maximum, the height of two peaks decreases, and between them there appear chaotic oscillations. This form of the wave functions corresponds to the process of isomerization.

  6. Cumbrian hill-farmers' views of scientific advice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This evidence examines one aspect of the communications between scientific experts and Cumbrian hill farmers affected by the Chernobyl fallout restrictions. Based on interviews with hill sheep farmers it analyses their responses to scientific advice, explanation and prognosis about the fallout and its effects on hill farming. Several factors were identified which influenced the credibility of expert advice: the degree of uncertainty and variability in the scientific knowledge; the recognition of relevant local knowledge needed to be integrated with scientific knowledge; the extent of past secrecy and lack of transparency of official institutional processes of decision making; the lack of apparent scientific learning from the radioactive fallout from the 1957 Windscale fire; and the opportunity for more informal personal interaction between farmers and scientists. The scientific advice was perceived as unrealistic and unrelated to hill farming realities. The effectiveness of communication of scientific advice influences the broader credibility of decision making bodies, and is therefore important. It is concluded that achievement of these ends requires not only changes in the public expression of scientific information, but also changes in the organisation of expertise to improve the practical relationships between scientific experts and relevant public groups such as the hill sheep farmers. (author)

  7. Magma hybridisation at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Madeleine; Edmonds, Marie; Christopher, Thomas; Hards, Vicky

    2010-05-01

    Arc volcanoes commonly show evidence of mingling between mafic and silicic magma. For example, the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat typically erupts andesitic magma containing basaltic to basaltic-andesite inclusions. However, the andesite also contains a wide variety of phenocryst textures as well as strongly zoned microlites, suggesting that more intimate physical mixing also occurs. Analysis of minor elements in both phenocrysts and microlites allows the discrimination of different crystal populations, and provides insight into their origins. Microlites of plagioclase and orthopyroxene are chemically distinct from the phenocrysts, being enriched in Fe and Mg, and Al and Ca respectively. However, they are indistinguishable from the compositions of these phases in the mafic inclusions. Microlite compositions also give anomalously high temperatures using standard geothermometry techniques, similar to those of the mafic inclusions. Compositions of clinopyroxene from overgrowth rims on quartz and orthopyroxene and coarse-grained breakdown rims on hornblende, are identical to those from the mafic inclusions, indicating that these rims form during interaction with mafic magma. We infer that the inclusions disaggregated under conditions of high shear stress during ascent in the conduit, transferring mafic material into the andesite groundmass. This implies that the mafic component of the system is greater than previously determined from the volume proportion of mafic enclaves. The presence of mafic-derived microlites in the andesite groundmass also means that care must be taken when using this as a starting material for phase equilibrium experiments. Melt inclusions and matrix glasses in the erupted include an anomalously K2O-rich population which overlaps with residual (high-K2O, high-TiO2) mafic inclusion glass. These glasses represent the effects of physical mixing with mafic magma, both during ascent and by diffusive exchange during the formation of mafic

  8. The Church: Black Catholic Women Religious in Antebellum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the formation of the Oblate Sisters of Providence and the Congregation of the Holy Family, two orders of Black nuns founded in the American South prior to the Civil War for the purposes of educating Black children and caring for orphans and elderly, abandoned slaves. (GC)

  9. Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill, 1987 and 1988. [Fenton Hill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Maes, M.N.; Williams, M.C.

    1991-03-01

    Water-quality data have been collected since 1974 from established surface- and ground-water stations at, and in the vicinity of, Fenton Hill (site of the Laboratory's Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project). The site is located on the southwest edge of the Valles Caldera in the Jemez Mountains. To determine the chemical quality of water, data were collected in 1987 and 1988 from 13 surface-water stations and 19 ground-water stations. The classification of the water quality is made on the basis of predominated ions and total dissolved solids. There are four classifications of surface water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, calcium and sulfate, and sodium and bicarbonate) and three classifications of ground water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, and sodium and bicarbonate). Variations in the chemical quality of the surface and ground water in 1987 and 1988 are apparent when data are compared with each other and with previous analyses. These variations are not considered significant, as they are in the range of normal seasonal changes. Cumulative production since 1976 from the supply well at Fenton Hill has been about 63 {times} 10{sup 6} gal, with a decline in the water level of the well of about 14 ft, or about 1.4 ft/yr. The aquifer penetrated by the well is still capable of reliable supply to the site for a number of years, based on past production. The quality of water from the well has deteriorated slightly; however, the water quality is in compliance with drinking water standards. The effects of discharge from the storage ponds into an adjacent canyon have been monitored by trace metal analyses of vegetation and soil. The study indicates minimal effects, which will be undetectable in a few years if there are no further releases of effluents into the canyon. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Control of bloodsucking black fly (Simuliidae) populations in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Bartninkaitė, Ilona; Bernotienė, Rasa; Pakalniškis, Saulius; Žygutienė, Milda

    2006-01-01

    The outbreak of bloodsucking black flies began in the 70s of the 20th century in the south-eastern part of Lithuania. By 1990, the biting activity of bloodsucking black flies increased and had become a serious problem. The bloodsucking insects caused losses of cattle and domestic birds and tormented holiday-makers in the Druskininkai health-resort. Biological larvicide based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was used for bloodsucking black fly control in 1999–2005. The larvicide was ...

  11. Midwest nukes tumble, rock industry: Byron, Marble Hill, Zimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry is suffering from a lack of investor confidence because of cancelled projects and the unprecedented rejection of an operating license for Commonwealth Edison's Byron plant on grounds that the utility failed to meet quality assurance responsibilities. When plans to complete the Zimmer and Marble Hill nuclear plants were abandoned, Bechtel came forward with a financing plan that, while rejected for Zimmer and Marble Hill, could lead to future bailouts. Both Zimmer and Marble Hill plants could be partially converted to coal. The loss of investor confidence in nuclear plants is largely due to political pressures brought on by a combination of citizen intervenors, whistle blowers on construction sites and disagreements between participating utilities. A rise in stock prices followed the cancellation announcements and the lowered investment security ratings

  12. Plastic media blasting activities at Hill Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. D.

    1993-03-01

    Hill Air Force Base in Utah developed plastic media blasting (PMB) paint removal process for removing paint from Air Force aircraft. The development of the process involved extensive testing of various abrasives and subsequent parameters to end up with an approved production process. Hill AFB has been using PMB in a production mode since 1985, and completely discontinued chemical stripping of airframes in 1989. We have recently installed and began operating a fully automated PMB facility that utilizes two nine-axis robots to strip an aircraft. This system has enabled us to further reduce the manhours required to strip an aircraft, and also allowed us to remove the employee from the blasting atmosphere into a control room. We have, and will continue to realize, significant environmental and economic savings by using PMB. Hill is also actively involved with the development of future paint stripping technologies.

  13. Surface water and groundwater interaction on a hill island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Rasmus Rumph; Rasmussen, Keld Rømer; Christensen, Steen

    hill islands – is relatively unknown. This study aims at providing new information about the rainfall-runoff processes in hill island landscapes where surface water and groundwater interaction is expected to have a dominant role and hill-slope processes not. Through stream flow measurements, field...... observed from old topographical maps as well as in the field. The geological data indicate shallow low permeable sediments primarily on the western side of Abild stream, and the geophysical data indicate shallow low resistivity layers on the western side of the stream. All these findings indicate a......A number of recent studies have indicated that the hydrological system in stream valleys is often complex and exchange of water takes place through semi-permeable contacts and flow paths may be quite diverse. Yet, surface water and groundwater interaction in one of the major Danish landscapes – the...

  14. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, Anna C. Snider [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven Ronald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Park, Byoung Yoon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eldredge, Lisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wynn, Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Checkai, Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perry, James Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  15. Variable-length Hill Cipher with MDS Key Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Magamba, Kondwani; Kadaleka, Solomon; Kasambara, Ansley

    2012-01-01

    The Hill Cipher is a classical symmetric cipher which breaks plaintext into blocks of size m and then multiplies each block by an m by m key matrix to yield ciphertext. However, it is well known that the Hill cipher succumbs to cryptanalysis relatively easily. As a result, there have been efforts to strengthen the cipher through the use of various techniques e.g. permuting rows and columns of the key matrix to encrypt each plaintext vector with a new key matrix. In this paper, we strengthen t...

  16. Comment: Comments on "How to repair the Hill cipher"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A modification of the Hill cipher algorithm was recently proposed by Ismail et al.(2006), who claimed that their new scheme could offer more security than the original one due to an extra non-linearity layer introduced via an elaborated key generation mechanism. That mechanism produces one different encryption key for each one of the plaintext blocks. Nevertheless, we show in this paper that their method still has severe security flaws whose weaknesses are essentially the same as that already found in the original Hill cipher scheme.

  17. Economic Development Benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Wind Powering America Rural Economic Development, Case Study (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.

  18. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1964, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Hills Creek Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 2694 acres of old-growth forest and 207 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Hills Creek Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Hills Creek Project, losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  19. The Resonance Overlap and Hill Stability Criteria Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, X S; Beaugé, C

    2015-01-01

    We review the orbital stability of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, in the case of massless particles initially located between both massive bodies. We present new estimates of the resonance overlap criterion and the Hill stability limit, and compare their predictions with detailed dynamical maps constructed with N-body simulations. We show that the boundary between (Hill) stable and unstable orbits is not smooth but characterized by a rich structure generated by the superposition of different mean-motion resonances which does not allow for a simple global expression for stability. We propose that, for a given perturbing mass $m_1$ and initial eccentricity $e$, there are actually two critical values of the semimajor axis. All values $a a_{\\rm unstable}$ are unstable in the Hill sense. The first limit is given by the Hill-stability criterion and is a function of the eccentricity. The second limit is virtually insensitive to the initial eccentricity, and closely resembles a new resonance over...

  20. 77 FR 24543 - Beverly Hills Bancorp Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... that conducted its banking and lending operations through its wholly-owned subsidiary First Bank of Beverly Hills, a California banking corporation (the ``Bank''). From its incorporation in 1996 until...

  1. 78 FR 26410 - Beverly Hills Bancorp Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... banking and lending ] operations through its wholly-owned subsidiary First Bank of Beverly Hills, a California banking corporation (the ``Bank''). From its incorporation in 1996 until April 24, 2009, the...

  2. Correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics: connection with Hill nanothermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equivalence between Tsallis thermodynamics and Hill's nanothermodynamics is established. The correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics are pointed out. Through this connection we also find a general expression for the entropic index q which we illustrate with two physical examples, allowing in both cases to relate q to the underlying dynamics of the Hamiltonian systems

  3. Mineralogy of the Pahrump Hills Region, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Cavanagh, P. D.; Achilles, C. N.; Bristow, T. F.; Morrison, S. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Downs, R. T.; Farmer, J. D.; Crisp, J. A.; Fendrich, K.; Morookian, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Pahrump Hills region of Gale crater is a approximately 12 millimeter thick section of sedimentary rocks in the Murray formation, interpreted as the basal geological unit of Mount Sharp. The Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity, arrived at the Pahrump Hills in September, 2014, and performed a detailed six-month investigation of the sedimentary structures, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the area. During the campaign, Curiosity drilled and delivered three rock samples to its internal instruments, including the CheMin XRD/XRF. The three targets, Confidence Hills, Mojave 2, and Telegraph Peak, contain variable amounts of plagioclase, pyroxene, iron oxides, jarosite, phyllosilicates, and X-ray amorphous material. Hematite was predicted at the base of Mount Sharp from orbital visible/near-IR spectroscopy, and CheMin confirmed this detection. The presence of jarosite throughout Pahrump Hills suggests the sediments experienced acid-sulfate alteration, either in-situ or within the source region of the sediments. This acidic leaching environment is in stark contrast to the environment preserved within the Sheepbed mudstone on the plains of Gale crater. The minerals within Sheepbed, including Fe-saponite, indicate these sediments were deposited in a shallow lake with circumneutral pH that may have been habitable.

  4. Evaluation of a Variable Rate Irrigating Hill-Seeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variable rate irrigating hill-seeder is a drought-alleviating and water-saving agricultural machine that can adjust water application automatically according to the soil moisture content and realize the synchronization between water and seeds through photoelectric-detecting technology. The objecti...

  5. EDIBLE FRUIT YIELDING PLANTS OF SHEVAROY HILLS IN TAMIL NADU

    OpenAIRE

    Alagesaboopathi, C.; S. Balu; Dwarakan, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the common edible fruit yielding plants, During the course of medicinal plant survey of shevaroy hills of Eastern ghats. Salem district, Tamil Nadu. Thirty species belonging to 23 genera and 21 families yield edible fruits. They are listed in alphabetical order followed by family, common name and Tamil names.

  6. Factor Content of the Hill Interaction Matrix--Form B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Robert J.; McIntire, Walter G.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the construct validity of the Hill Interaction Matrix--Form B, a 64-item instrument designed to assess preferred modes of interaction in group settings. A factor analysis was performed by using 134 subjects. Results indicate that the items and the conceptual format are appropriate. (Author)

  7. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    spectrum of characteristics in our synthetic database, although no large surge has been recorded historically as only one moderate storm passed by the area. Tampa black swans are identified as those that move northward parallel to the west Florida coast with high intensities and resonant with the Florida-shelf edge waves to generate extreme surges up to 10 m in Tampa Bay. The Arabian Sea area has sea surface temperatures warm enough to support the development of severe TCs, but TC development has been limited by low humidity and high wind shear, and only one recorded TC (super cyclonic storm Gonu in 2007) moved close to the Persian Gulf, making landfall in Oman and Iran. Our analysis shows that black swan TCs can originate within the Persian Gulf and make landfall with high intensities in populous places; extreme surges over 9 m for Abu Dubai and Doha and over 7 m for Dubai are possible. Darwin experienced immense devastation from Cyclone Tracy of 1974, but the damage was mainly due to the strong winds (the surge was only about 1.6 m). Our analysis includes extremely intense black swan TCs that make landfall just south of Darwin, generating surges above 10 m; these results may prompt the city to reconsider its TC risk. We are currently analyzing the join probability of the extreme wind and surge of these black swan TCs to more clearly assess their full damage potentials.

  8. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill... and Rhode Island from Race Point to Watch Hill. (b) A line drawn from Nobska Point Light to...

  9. Quantifying rockfall risk on roads in the Port Hills, Christchurch, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrader, Stefan; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    The Canterbury earthquake sequence starting on 22 September 2010 triggered widespread mass movements in the Port Hills area of Christchurch, the largest agglomeration of New Zealand's South Island. The MW 6.2 Christchurch earthquake of 22 February 2011 in particular generated the largest ground motions ever recorded in New Zealand and as a result initiated several thousands of rockfalls. Over 6,000 boulders were released and mapped shortly after the event. The risk from rockfall to residents in the Port Hills was quantitatively assessed by the regulatory authorities in order to develop an adjusted land zoning policy. Apart from damaging residential buildings many of these boulders also hit several road sections across the Port Hills. Due to the inherent differences between identifying hazard and risk to people in static structures and in moving objects, a recently carried out risk assessment of rockfall was limited to exposed properties. However, given the importance of local road infrastructure for commuter traffic, local risk management strategies would clearly benefit from quantifying the threat of boulders endangering traffic lines. For this study, existing datasets describing the hazard including recently estimated frequency-magnitude bands for earthquakes and non-seismic triggering events, boulder production rates, boulder size distribution and associated run-out distances, were used. These data were provided by the Christchurch City Council's (CCC) GIS web service. A digital layer of the local road network as well as a detailed dataset of traffic counts was used for GIS analysis, and the probability of individuals being hit by boulders was calculated for each road segment that intersects one or more rockfall hazard zones. Finally, risk was computed. The method applied follows a state-of-the-art approach in risk assessment which is generally based on the risk equation defining risk as the probability of occurrence of an event times the expected loss. More

  10. Assessment of the susceptibility degree to landslides within Ciulucurilor Hills by Method of Frequency Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii BEJAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Landslide susceptibility map for Ciulucurilor Hills was carried out using frequency ratio method. Its calculation is performed by the ratio of the percentage of landslide areas for each factor taken into account (lithology, elevation, drainage depth, slope, exposition, land use, distance from river and drainage network density and the percentage of the total area corresponding to each factor. Very low susceptibility land occupies 10.1% of the region surface and is the most common in the south-west and the Big Ciuluc and the Middle Ciuluc river valleys. There is 25.8% of the built surface on this area. Low susceptibility land occupies 40.3% of the territory, being the largest class of susceptibility. It holds 56.2% of the arable land and 47.6% of the built surface. The average susceptibility is recorded on 22.9% of the territory and has a more compact distribution in Soloneţ basin. This land holds 38.8% of the pasture surface and 28.5% of the perennial plantations. The land with high and very high susceptibility occupies 26.7% of the territory, with a high frequency in the south-west of the region, on interfluve between the Big Ciuluc and the Middle Ciuluc rivers. These classes have 81.9% of forest surface and only 12.6% of the arable land. The length of the roads located on the land with high and very high susceptibility is 164.5 km

  11. Preliminary Results from the AIDP-2 and AIDP-3 Drill Cores Hint at Systematic Mo Enrichments in the ~2.65 Ga Roy Hill Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M.; Ostrander, C. M.; Lyons, T. W.; Olson, S. L.; Buick, R.; Anbar, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In order to better understand the timing of the earliest oxygenation of Earth's surface environment, we are pursuing a multi-proxy investigation of paleoredox conditions in diamond drill cores through sedimentary rocks of the Archean Fortescue & Hamersley Groups. These cores were recovered in 2012 by the Agouron Institute from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The AIDP-2 core samples a stratigraphic succession of carbonate and sulfidic, organic-rich shale in the Carawine Dolomite and Jeerinah Formation representing a shallow near-shore depositional setting. Core AIDP-3 samples a transition from BIF in the Marra Mamba Formation to organic-rich shales in the underlying Jeerinah Formation representing a deeper offshore depositional setting. We have analyzed 322 black shale samples from the Roy Hill Member of the Jeerinah Formation deposited just before the transition from the Fortescue to Hamersley Group. Roy Hill black shale units are mostly pyritic in AIDP-3, but are less so in AIDP-2. The Roy Hill Member of AIDP-3 extends from 2.629 Ga to2.676 Ga and contains the 2.632Ga Jeerinah impact layer, whereas the Roy Hill member of AIDP-2 is slightly older, lying beneath the Jeerinah impact layer, and has been dated to 2.636 Ga to >2.643 Ga [1]. Our initial findings reveal that Mo concentrations range between 0.7 and 7 ppm in the Roy Hill black shale member of AIDP-2 and AIDP-3. Corresponding Mo/Al ratios range between 1-9×10-5 ppm/ppm, indicating slight Mo enrichment relative to average continental crust. These results are consistent with a previous study by Scott et al. [2], which suggested little or no Mo enrichment. However, the higher resolution sampling in this study allows us to clearly resolve the Mo/Al depth profiles in these late Archean cores. These data suggest that the variations we see are not due to analytical scatter or sample variability, but instead represent real variations in Mo scavenged into these sediments. Ongoing work is focused on

  12. Environmental tracers as indicators of karst conduits in groundwater in South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A.J.; Sawyer, J.F.; Putnam, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental tracers sampled from the carbonate Madison aquifer on the eastern flank of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA indicated the approximate locations of four major karst conduits. Contamination issues are a major concern because these conduits are characterized by direct connections to sinking streams, high groundwater velocities, and proximity to public water supplies. Objectives of the study were to estimate approximate conduit locations and assess possible anthropogenic influences associated with conduits. Anomalies of young groundwater based on chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium, and electrical conductivity (EC) indicated fast moving, focused flow and thus the likely presence of conduits. ??18O was useful for determining sources of recharge for each conduit, and nitrate was a useful tracer for assessing flow paths for anthropogenic influences. Two of the four conduits terminate at or near a large spring complex. CFC apparent ages ranged from 15 years near conduits to >50 years in other areas. Nitrate-N concentrations >0.4 mg/L in groundwater were associated with each of the four conduits compared with concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 0.4 mg/L in other areas. These higher nitrate-N concentrations probably do not result from sinking streams but rather from other areas of infiltration. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  13. Inventory of forest and rangeland resources, including forest stress. [Black Hills, Manitou, Colorado, and Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Road systems being developed within the Manitou, Colorado area for human habitation are readily discernible on the S192 normal-color photographs. These are dirt roads, some of which are about 20 feet wide. These data should provide the District Ranger of the Pike National Forest required information on the size and extent of these developing areas, information which he does not now have but is required for total management of the District.

  14. 75 FR 78209 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... resource management plan. The Board will consider such topics as integrated vegetation management (wild and prescribed fire, fuels reduction, controlling insect epidemics, invasive species), travel management...

  15. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  16. The evaluation of service delivery in the fast growing black diamond market / R. Venter

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Raymano

    2010-01-01

    The black middle–class market segment also known as the black diamond market segment has shown immense growth in SA. It currently consists of approximately 3 million black middle–class South Africans with a buying power of approximately R200 billion. Despite the immense size and spending power of black diamonds, combined with its rapid growth over the past 15 years and expected future growth, little research has been conducted on this market segment. The rapid market growth ...

  17. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindan Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Black hairy tongue (BHT also called as lingua villosa nigra, is a self limiting benign condition characterized by hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae of tongue with brown or black discoloration. Smoking, poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, using peroxide containing mouth washes, substance abuse and drugs (steroids, methyldopa, olanzapine, etc are the predisposing factors. However its occurrence in relation to linezolid ingestion among south Indians has not been reported in PubMed database. Here we report a case, where significant association of linezolid intake with BHT was found in a 10-year-old boy, who was treated with tablet linezolid for post surgical infection of left side radial neck fracture. This case is reported for the rarity of occurrence with linezolid therapy. According to Naranjo adverse drug reaction (ADR causality scale, the association of BHT due to linezolid in our case was probable.

  18. Oxygen and strontium isotope studies of K-rich volcanic rocks from the Alban Hills, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18O/16O and 87Sr/86Sr ratios and major and trace element contents were measured for 33 leucite-bearing lavas from the Alban Hills, located just south of Rome. Petrologically, this volcanic center is the least complex of all the Pleistocene to Holocene volcanoes in the Roman Comagmatic Province, and the 87Sr/86Sr uniformity reflects this (0.71024-0.71091). Whole-rock delta18O=+5.6 to +9.8, but many samples were enriched in 18O by post-eruption hydration, evidenced by the good correlation between H2O content (up to 5 wt.%) and delta18O. Correcting for these effects, we obtain a delta18O range of +5.6 to +7.8 for the original magmas. No other volcanic center in the Roman Province displays such uniform strontium and oxygen isotopic compositions; thus, this volcano provides special insight into the origin of the High-K series magma end-member in Central Italy. Three groups of lavas are recognized on 87Sr/86Sr-1/Sr, delta18O-87Sr/86Sr, and K2O-SiO2 graphs; all of these groups, as well as the major caldera-forming eruption (Villa Senni Tuff), are derived from a very uniform, LIL-enriched, metasomatized source in the upper mantle. This source had delta18O=+6.5 +- 1.0 and 87Sr/86Sr=0.71030+-0.00010. The delta18O values correlate positively with 87Sr/86Sr, indicating minor interaction with the continental crust. Essentially all chemical and isotopic variations in the primitive (low-SiO2, high-Ca, high-Sr) potassic lavas in Italy can be explained by mixing in the upper mantle between this Alban Hills end-member and a Low-K series Roccamonfina-type end-member. (orig.)

  19. A language for image processing HILLS and its supporting system SDIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a language HILLS and its supporting system SDIP for image processing. HILLS is a key-word type language for describing image processing procedures by using subroutine packages SLIP and SPIDER. SDIP, written in FORTRAN to keep portability, supports programming by HILLS in interactive mode including functions such as editing, translating HILLS into FORTRAN, error detection, and providing manual information. Results of preliminary experiments suggest that HILLS and SDIP are very useful tools for beginners and researchers in application fields of image processing to develop desired image analysis procedures

  20. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velusamy Balasubramaniam

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and

  1. Negotiating Indigenous Language Narratives from Canada and South Africa: A Comparative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseke, Judy M.; Ndimande, Bekisizwe S.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous cultural and language negotiations ongoing in the contexts of South Africa and Canada are documented in two studies, one sharing narratives from Black parents in South Africa and the other sharing narratives of Métis Elders in Canada. Black parents' perspectives on Indigenous language and cultures and the role of education in…

  2. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  3. Numerical study of density-stratified flow past two 3D hills : aligned in tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a parametric study using an immersed boundary method has been carried out to investigate the effects of stable density stratification on the wakes past two identical three-dimensional hills aligned in tandem. The Reynolds number based on the uniform inlet velocity and twice the hill height was fixed at Re=300 while the Froude number based on the inlet velocity and the hill height was retained at Fr=0.2. Neutral flow without density stratification was also computed for comparison. Under a strong stratification, vertical motion of fluid particles over the three-dimensional hills is suppressed and the wake structures behind the hills become planar. Depending on the distance between the two hills, the flow pattern of each wake is significantly affected by the stratification. There is a critical hill distance at which flow characteristics drastically change. Qualitative and quantitative features of the wake interaction are reported

  4. The South African Woman and the Immigrant Lover: Myths and Dynamics of Cross-Border Love Relationships in a Post-Apartheid South African Community

    OpenAIRE

    Tafira, Chimusoro Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Love relationships between black South African women and immigrant men have not been given adequate attention by researchers of migration, refugee studies, and those concerned with anti-immigrant attitudes and violence. In this paper, based on ethnographicr esearch conducted in the Alexandra township of Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2009, I argue that cross-border love relationships provoke sexual and racial jealousies between the two sets of manhood: South African and black African immigran...

  5. South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Korea aspires to become a major nuclear supplier in the world nuclear market. There is no doubt that South Korea has great potential to fulfill these aspirations. South Korea is well positioned in terms of competitiveness, market relationships, institutional capability, ability to deliver, and commitment to nonproliferation values. As a mercantilist state, South Korea hopes to capitalize on its close relationships with transnational nuclear corporations in this endeavor. It hopes to participate in two- or three-way joint ventures---especially with the American firms that have traditionally predominated in the South Korean domestic nuclear business---to market their nuclear wares abroad. This paper is divided into four parts. The first section describes South Korea's intent to become a nuclear supplier in the 1990s. It delineates the networks of prior transactions and relationships that South Korea may use to penetrate export markets. The second section reviews South Korea's nuclear export potential, particularly its technological acquisitions from the domestic nuclear program. These capabilities will determine the rate at which South Korea can enter specific nuclear markets. The third section describes the institutional framework in South Korea for the review and approval of nuclear exports

  6. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies in the...

  7. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  8. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  9. A Study of the Leadership Practices of South Carolina Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Carlotta D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a report of a mixed method study that examines the leadership practices of black and white public school superintendents in the state of South Carolina. The researcher explored any self-perceived leadership practice differences, if existent, between black and white superintendents and, if so, were the race of the…

  10. Meteorological observations in support of a hill cap cloud experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-06-01

    Humid air flows form a hill cap cloud over the Agana mountain ridge in the north-east of Tenerife. The HILLCLOUD project utilised this cloud formation to investigate the chemical and physical properties of cloud aerosols by land based observations. The project was part of the second Aerosol characterisation Experiment (ACE-2) of the International Global Atmospheric chemistry project (IGAC). The present report describes meteorological observations in support of the hill cap cloud experiment. Time-series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and humidity were collected at ground-based meteorological stations during a period starting one year in advance of the main campaign. A series of radiosonde detecting the upstream stability and wind profile were launched during the main campaign. (au) 5 tabs., 32 ills., 6 refs.

  11. Polyphase-coded incoherent scatter measurements at Millstone Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Ilkka I.; Lind, Frank D.; Roininen, Lassi; Erickson, Philip J.; Rideout, William C.; Orispää, Mikko; Vierinen, Juha; Lehtinen, Markku S.

    2013-09-01

    We report first results of polyphase-coded incoherent scatter measurements at Millstone Hill. To our knowledge, these are the first incoherent scatter measurements with polyphase alternating codes of Markkanen et al. (2008) and optimal quadriphase sequences of Damtie et al. (2008). The results demonstrate that an arbitrary waveform generator recently installed at the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar, part of the National Science Foundation Geospace Facility operated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory, is capable of reproducing the polyphase waveforms with an accuracy sufficient for incoherent scatter measurements. Polyphase codes will allow incoherent scatter radar experiments to be better optimized, because they provide a larger variety of code and code cycle lengths than the traditional binary codes.

  12. Carbon-14 ages of Allan Hills meteorites and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, E. L.; Norris, T.

    1982-01-01

    Allan Hills is a blue ice region of approximately 100 sq km area in Antarctica where many meteorites have been found exposed on the ice. The terrestrial ages of the Allan Hills meteorites, which are obtained from their cosmogenic nuclide abundances are important time markers which can reflect the history of ice movement to the site. The principal purpose in studying the terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites is to locate samples of ancient ice and analyze their trapped gas contents. Attention is given to the C-14 and Ar-39 terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites, and C-14 ages and trapped gas compositions in ice samples. On the basis of the obtained C-14 terrestrial ages, and Cl-36 and Al-26 results reported by others, it is concluded that most ALHA meteorites fell between 20,000 and 200,000 years ago.

  13. Do Welsh hill farmers dream of radioactive sheep?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-power portable device is being used successfully in North Wales to provide precise position-logging of sheep grazing on upland hill pastures following irradiation by fallout from the Chernobyl reactor. This follows the discovery that radiation levels appear to vary significantly among sheep from the same flock, suggesting hot-spots of radiation. The design and execution of the system is described. (UK)

  14. A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India

    OpenAIRE

    Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. These plants species have med...

  15. ANALYSIS OF A MODEL OF TEAMWORK BY HILL

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Petkovski; Fanche Joshevska

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary management of the intellectual capital of an organization, as a major determinant for efficient and effective operation of the organization has access to the teamwork. Teamwork means quality leadership which is necessary for a successful team management. In the theory and the practice are given a number of models for teamwork and team leadership, however, in this case the subject of this paperwork will be the analyzing of the model of team leadership according to Hill. Accord...

  16. Prof. Nanopoulos visits Hill Primary School in Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    This video is an extract of a reportage broadcasted by SKAI TV in Greece about the visit of Prof. Dimitri Nanopoulos to Hill Primary School, the oldest operating school in Greece. The video describes a breakthrough education programme aimed at introducing big ideas in physics, particle physics and cosmology to K-6 students through a pedagogical approach that promotes inquiry, creativity and hands-on experimentation with the use everyday materials.

  17. Gold mineralisation in the central Ochil Hills, Perthshire, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, R.J.; Shaw, M.H.; Leake, R.C.; Jackson, B.

    2005-01-01

    Alluvial gold is wide-spread and locally abundant in the central Ochil Hills, but the bedrock sources have not been identified. The microchemical signature of 1246 alluvial gold grains collected from 24 different localities has been established by combining quantitative analyses of the alloy composition of the component grains with qualitative data defining the opaque mineral inclusion assemblage. Variations in the microchemical signature of gold from different localities and consideration of...

  18. Parameter Calibration of Mini-LEO Hill Slope Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, H.

    2015-12-01

    The mini-LEO hill slope, located at Biosphere 2, is a small-scale catchment model that is used to study the ways landscapes change in response to biological, chemical, and hydrological processes. Previous experiments have shown that soil heterogeneity can develop as a result of groundwater flow; changing the characteristics of the landscape. To determine whether or not flow has caused heterogeneity within the mini-LEO hill slope, numerical models were used to simulate the observed seepage flow, water table height, and storativity. To begin a numerical model of the hill slope was created using CATchment Hydrology (CATHY). The model was then brought to an initial steady state by applying a rainfall event of 5mm/day for 180 days. Then a specific rainfall experiment of alternating intensities was applied to the model. Next, a parameter calibration was conducted, to fit the model to the observed data, by changing soil parameters individually. The parameters of the best fitting calibration were taken to be the most representative of those present within the mini-LEO hill slope. Our model concluded that heterogeneities had indeed arisen as a result of the rainfall event, resulting in a lower hydraulic conductivity downslope. The lower hydraulic conductivity downslope in turn caused in an increased storage of water and a decrease in seepage flow compared to homogeneous models. This shows that the hydraulic processes acting within a landscape can change the very characteristics of the landscape itself, namely the permeability and conductivity of the soil. In the future results from the excavation of soil in mini-LEO can be compared to the models results to improve the model and validate its findings.

  19. Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Mallick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neora Valley National Park (NVNP in the Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, having a wide range of altitudinal variations (183-3,200 m and climatic conditions and forming an ecological trijunction with Sikkim and Bhutan, is the last virgin wilderness in West Bengal. It is a global hotspot for the unique ecosystem, where tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and sub-temperate forests represent a wealth of biodiversity including many threatened and rare mammals. It is the prime habitat of Ailurus fulgens (estimated population 28-32, Neofelis nebulosa (population unassessed, Ursus thibetanus (18, Bos gaurus (81, Hemitragus jemlahicus (32, Naemorhedus goral (73, Capricornis sumatraensis (89, Rusa unicolor (286, Muntiacus vaginalis (590 and Sus scrofa (615. Discovery of Panthera tigris (20 in 1998 prompted the forest department to include NVNP as a sensitive wildlife zone. Many authors recorded the mammalian diversity in Darjeeling District since the mid-nineteenth century, but most of them referred to the Darjeeling Hills. The documentations on Kalimpong Hills are scarce because of the dense canopy, thick undergrowth and inaccessible terrain, particularly in the pristine forests of Neora Valley. Consequently, a comprehensive compendium of the mammals in this region was not prepared. A study was undertaken in 2008-2009 with a view to bridging this knowledge-gap and presenting an updated account of the mammalian species in this new short-listed World Heritage Site and surrounding forests of the Kalimpong Hills based on literature review, questionnaire survey, direct sighting and indirect evidences. During June-October 1916, N.A. Baptista recorded 29 mammalian species (22 genera out of 563 specimens collected, from the region. The present study registered 99 species (68 genera after 94 years.

  20. Great Western Savings Center - Beverly Hills, California (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Pereira Asociados, Arquitectos

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available This building which has an original elliptic plan form and is enclosed by curtain walls is situated on a strategic ground-site in Beverly Hills and is the savings center for the densely populated area of Los Angeles. The building consists of: four basements for parking; ground floor with entrances, halls and savings-bank; mezzanine floor and first floor with coffee-shop, four dining halls and auditorium, seven storeys with offices; the tenth floor is reserved for the financial department and the management section. The top part is occupied by the machine rooms of the six elevators. Tre structure consists of high tensile steel reinforced concrete and bronzed coloured glass enclosures. This is the highet building in Beverly Hills.Este edificio, de original planta elíptica y cerramiento a base de muros cortina, ocupa un solar estratégico en Beverly Hills y sirve como central de ahorro a toda la zona densamente poblada de Los Angeles. Consta de: cuatro sótanos para estacionamiento de vehículos, y planta baja con accesos, vestíbulos y caja de ahorros; entreplanta y planta primera con cafetería, cuatro comedores y auditorio; siete plantas de oficinas y planta décima destinada a albergar los despachos de dirección y departamento financiero, además del cuerpo superior, ocupado por los cuartos de máquinas de los seis aparatos elevadores. La estructura es de hormigón armado con acero de alta resistencia y cerramientos de vidrio color bronce. Es el edificio más alto de Beverly Hills.

  1. Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was prepared for the 8.2 km2 catchment. A GIS based deterministic model was then applied to predict the spatial landslide occurrence within catchment. Model input parameters include bulk density, friction angle, cohesion and hydraulic conductivity were gathered through in situ and lab analysis as well as from previous soil analysis records. Landslides locations were recorded using GPS as well as previous air photos and satellite imagery to establish landslide source areas inventory. The landslide susceptibility map was produced under different precipitation event’s simulation to see the effects of precipitation to stability of the hill slopes of the catchment. The results were categorized into naturally unstable (Defended, Upper Threshold, Lower Threshold, marginal instability (Quasi Stable and stable area (Moderately Stable and Stable. Results of the simulation indicated notable change in precipitation effect on Defended area is between 10mm to 40mm range in a single storm event. However, when storm event is exceeded 120mm, the result on Defended area produced by the model tends to be constant further on. For area categorized as naturally unstable (Factor of Safety, SF<1, with 110 mm of precipitation in a single storm event and soil depth at 2 meters and 4 meters could affect 69.51% and 69.88% respectively of the catchment area fall under that class. In addition, the model was able to detect 4% more of the landslide inventory under shallower soil depth of

  2. South African coal statistics 2006. Marketing manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The report shows that South African thermal exports increased 5% from 66.6Mt to 69.9Mt in 2005 and that the country was the world's third largest seaborne exporter of thermal coal last year. Covering local coal consumption, South African coal imports, exports, prices and qualities, the report offers a complete statistical review of 2005. The report also includes details on labour, individual collieries, export and rail infrastructure and Black Empowerment (BEE) companies.

  3. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges

  4. The Nascent Development of Ecotourism in Lagong Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah-Choy Er

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The nascent development of ecotourism in Lagong Hill faces an interesting challenge. The aim of this research note is to evaluate the nascent development of ecotourism in Lagong Hill, Malaysia based on the common core precepts of ecotourism. Approach: The research methods comprise of secondary data collection and field survey via an in-depth interview with selected key informants. This is aided by on-field observation to verify and complement the research findings. Results and Discussion: The ecotourism park management has exhibited environmentally responsible behavior. Nature conservation, tourism management, solid waste management and water utilization adopt the core precepts of ecosystem protection, minimal environmental impact and environmental education. However, there is a lack of outreach towards the indigenous people who are residing within this forest reserve. The Orang Asli, the indigenous people of this area, have profound and in-depth knowledge of the forest and its terrains. This local knowledge and cultural heritage has yet to be tapped as part of community-based ecotourism. In addition, there is a lack of scientific research on the impact of quarrying and timber production on ecotourism. Conclusion: The ecotourism venture in Lagong Hill fulfills the core precepts of ecotourism with the exception of the participation of indigenous people. There is a need to inculcate community-based ecotourism rather than primarily focusing on environmental or economic impacts. More scientific research is required to determine carrying capacity, and the impact of quarrying and timber production on ecotourism.

  5. Evolution of optimal Hill coefficients in nonlinear public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2016-10-01

    In evolutionary game theory, the effect of public goods like diffusible molecules has been modelled using linear, concave, sigmoid and step functions. The observation that biological systems are often sigmoid input-output functions, as described by the Hill equation, suggests that a sigmoid function is more realistic. The Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme kinetics, however, predicts a concave function, and while mechanistic explanations of sigmoid kinetics exist, we lack an adaptive explanation: what is the evolutionary advantage of a sigmoid benefit function? We analyse public goods games in which the shape of the benefit function can evolve, in order to determine the optimal and evolutionarily stable Hill coefficients. We find that, while the dynamics depends on whether output is controlled at the level of the individual or the population, intermediate or high Hill coefficients often evolve, leading to sigmoid input-output functions that for some parameters are so steep to resemble a step function (an on-off switch). Our results suggest that, even when the shape of the benefit function is unknown, biological public goods should be modelled using a sigmoid or step function rather than a linear or concave function. PMID:27343626

  6. Three dimensional simulation for Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven Ronald (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Moo Yul (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-07-01

    3-D finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of caverns located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Big Hill site. State-of-art analyses simulated the current site configuration and considered additional caverns. The addition of 5 caverns to account for a full site and a full dome containing 31 caverns were modeled. Operations including both normal and cavern workover pressures and cavern enlargement due to leaching were modeled to account for as many as 5 future oil drawdowns. Under the modeled conditions, caverns were placed very close to the edge of the salt dome. The web of salt separating the caverns and the web of salt between the caverns and edge of the salt dome were reduced due to leaching. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence and infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified. The analyses included recently derived damage criterion obtained from testing of Big Hill salt cores. The results show that from a structural view point, many additional caverns can be safely added to Big Hill.

  7. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children. PMID:11158199

  8. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  9. Structure and floristic composition of old-growth wet evergreen forests of Nelliampathy Hills, Southern Western Ghats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.S.Ramachandran; K.Swarupanandan

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the structure and composition of old-growth wet evergreen forest of Nelliampathy hills,the chain of hills lying immediately south of Palghat Gap,in the southern Western Ghats of India.We sampled 30 plots of 0.1 ha each (50 m × 20 m) at six locations enumerating all plants ≥ 10 cm girth at breast height.We pooled the data and computed various structural parameters.There were 152 species of 120genera and 51 families of the study area.Of these,118 (77%) were trees,24 were climbers (16%) and 10 were shrubs (7%).Species richness varied from 58-99 per 0.5 ha sample and Shannon indices of diversity ranged from 4.4 to 5.2.Fifty-nine per cent (89 species) of the species were Indian Sub-continent elements and 34% (51 species) are endemic to the Western Ghats.Fifteen species are listed in various threat categories.Aglaia and Litsea were the most species-rich genera.Numbers of families ranged from 27-43 per 0.5 ha sample.Euphorbiaceae and Lauraceae were the most species-rich families.Stand density varied from 1714 to 2244 stems·ha-1 and basal area from 53.6 to 102.1 m2·ha-1.The vegetation was dominated by 3-6 species and six dominance patterns characterized the species composition within the hill complex.The old-growth evergreen forests of Nelliampathy exist as small fragments rich in biodiversity and can be used as benchmarks for comparison with disturbed forests.

  10. The Palaeogene Haldon Formation of South Devon

    OpenAIRE

    Hamblin, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The Haldon Formation comprises a sequence of Palaeogene gravels and clays occurring on the summit of the Haldon Hills in South Devon. The Tower Wood Gravel Member is a residual gravel derived from the solution of the Chalk Group in place, comprising large flints, frost-shattered but not fluvially abraded, in a matrix of sandy clay. This member is dominated by well-ordered kaolinite and this must have been introduced by a river or rivers flowing from the Dartmoor area. The formation of the mem...

  11. Lead pollution and its sources along the Turkish coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. UNSAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution and its sources have been investigated in the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea. Surficial sediments and mussels were collected in different seasons of the year from the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea and analysed for their lead contents.In the south-eastern Black Sea sediments from the easternmost and from the central stations contained the highest lead concentrations. Sediments contained 8 to 10 times the lead concentrations of sediments from the south-west. Samples taken from rivers, streams and effluents had especially high lead concentrations. The highest lead concentrations were found in sediments collected in October and December.Lead concentrations in mussels from the south-eastern coast were comparatively lower compared to those from the south-western coast. The highest average values occurred in December and in October.In the south-western Black Sea, the highest lead concentrations in sediments were obtained in those from Inebolu, followed by those from around Zonguldak. The concentrations increased from the middle to the west of the southern Black Sea coast, possibly due to the effect of the Danube River. Sediments taken in September had the highest lead concentrations, followed by samples taken in December.Very high lead concentrations (> 10 μ g g-1 were observed in mussels from those stations where the sediments also contained high concentrations. Mussels had their highest lead concentrations in January and April.

  12. NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    time, the ones in between have been counted properly. Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated "We need to have an accurate head count over time of all growing black holes if we ever hope to understand their habits, so to speak," co-author Richard Mushotzky of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. Supermassive black holes themselves are invisible, but heated gas around them -- some of which will eventually fall into the black hole - produces copious amounts of radiation in the centers of galaxies as the black holes grow. Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated Growth of Smaller Black Holes Illustrated This study relied on the deepest X-ray images ever obtained, the Chandra Deep Fields North and South, plus a key wider-area survey of an area called the "Lockman Hole". The distances to the X-ray sources were determined by optical spectroscopic follow-up at the Keck 10-meter telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, and show the black holes range from less than a billion to 12 billion light years away. Since X-rays can penetrate the gas and dust that block optical and ultraviolet emission, the very long-exposure X-ray images are crucial to find black holes that otherwise would go unnoticed. Black Hole Animation Black Hole Animation Chandra found that many of the black holes smaller than about 100 million Suns are buried under large amounts of dust and gas, which prevents detection of the optical light from the heated material near the black hole. The X-rays are more energetic and are able to burrow through this dust and gas. However, the largest of the black holes show little sign of obscuration by dust or gas. In a form of weight self-control, powerful winds generated by the black hole's feeding frenzy may have cleared out the remaining dust and gas. Other aspects of black hole growth were uncovered. For example, the typical size of the galaxies undergoing supermassive black hole formation reduces with

  13. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits...

  14. Field-based description of rhyolite lava flows of the Calico Hills Formation, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Bova, Shiera C.

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. The potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas at Pahute Mesa and into the accessible environment is greatest by groundwater transport through fractured volcanic rocks. The 12.9 Ma (mega-annums, million years) Calico Hills Formation, which consists of a mixture of rhyolite lava flows and intercalated nonwelded and bedded tuff and pyroclastic flow deposits, occurs in two areas of the Nevada National Security Site. One area is north of the Rainier Mesa caldera, buried beneath Pahute Mesa, and serves as a heterogeneous volcanic-rock aquifer but is only available to study through drilling and is not described in this report. A second accumulation of the formation is south of the Rainier Mesa caldera and is exposed in outcrop along the western boundary of the Nevada National Security Site at the Calico Hills near Yucca Mountain. These outcrops expose in three dimensions an interlayered sequence of tuff and lava flows similar to those intercepted in the subsurface beneath Pahute Mesa. Field description and geologic mapping of these exposures described lithostratigraphic variations within lava flows and assisted in, or at least corroborated, conceptualization of the rhyolite lava-bearing parts of the formation.

  15. 75 FR 12507 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico; South Atlantic Fishery Management Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ...The South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (SAFMC) will hold a meeting of its Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) to make fishing level recommendations for black and red grouper, discuss Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) Control Rules, and recommend ABC values for South Atlantic managed species. The meeting will be held in North Charleston,...

  16. Vector ecology of human schistosomiasis in south India and description of a new species of the genus Ferrissia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Planorbidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Anbalagan Sankarappan; Balachandran Chellapandian; Arun Prasanna Vimalanathan; Kannan Mani; Dinakaran Sundaram; Krishnan Muthukalingan

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Vector ecology and taxonomy of snails is a prerequisite for controlling schistosomiasis in the tropics. The ecology of the freshwater limpet genus Ferrissia was investigated for detection of cercariae larvae in them, and taxonomic description of a new species of the genus Ferrissia. Methods: This study was conducted in 15 perennial streams from five different hills of south India. To study the seasonal patterns, a stream from each hill was selected and sampled in t...

  17. Gender and Empowerment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide analysis and insight which addresses the over-determined discrimination of so-called coloured and black South African women, not just on the basis of gender but racial hierarchies still prevalent as well in the rainbow nation. Design/methodology/approach: The observations grapple with reconciling the…

  18. Multivariate Statistical Approach Applied to Sediment Source Tracking Through Quantification and Mineral Identification, Cheyenne River, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, J.; Kenner, S.; Long, A.

    2008-12-01

    Portions of the Cheyenne River are characterized as impaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency because of water-quality exceedences. The Cheyenne River watershed includes the Black Hills National Forest and part of the Badlands National Park. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Badlands National Park is a major contributor to the exceedances of the water-quality constituents for total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Water-quality data have been collected continuously since 2007, and in the second year of collection (2008), monthly grab and passive sediment samplers are being used to collect total suspended sediment and total dissolved solids in both base-flow and runoff-event conditions. In addition, sediment samples from the river channel, including bed, bank, and floodplain, have been collected. These samples are being analyzed at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology's X-Ray Diffraction Lab to quantify the mineralogy of the sediments. A multivariate statistical approach (including principal components, least squares, and maximum likelihood techniques) is applied to the mineral percentages that were characterized for each site to identify the contributing source areas that are causing exceedances of sediment transport in the Cheyenne River watershed. Results of the multivariate analysis demonstrate the likely sources of solids found in the Cheyenne River samples. A further refinement of the methods is in progress that utilizes a conceptual model which, when applied with the multivariate statistical approach, provides a better estimate for sediment sources.

  19. Uranium and thorium in the middle Precambrian Estes Conglomerate, Nemo District, Lawrence County, South Dakota: a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, F. Allan

    1977-01-01

    The Estes Conglomerate, which is exposed in the Nemo District on the northeastern flank of the Black Hills, South Dakota, is inferred to be of early middle Precambrian age (early Precambrian X or Paleoaphebian) and to be resting on late early Precambrian (late Precambrian W) granitic continental crust. The Estes contains beds of quartzite and quartz-pebble conglomerate (oligomictic conglomerate) with matrices of micaceous quartzite that locally contain 5 to 25 percent dispersed pyrite. Highly oxidized outcrop samples of the oligomictic conglomerate have anomalously high contents of both uranium (10 to 40 ppm) and thorium (20 to 800 ppm). High thorium values in the oligomictic conglomerate favor a placer mechanism for the concentration of radioactive minerals and appear to eliminate the possibility of epigenetic processes, such as reduction of uranium by pyrite. The presence of abundant old prospect pits and of several abandoned mines suggests that these conglomerates may also contain some gold. Early prospectors may have been attracted by the gossan produced by oxidation of pyrite. Uranium in the Estes Conglomerate may be of similar origin to the economically very important uranium deposits in the Matinenda Formation of the Elliot Lake District, Ontario. Because uranium is rapidly dissolved in acidic, oxygenated ground water, such as is present where pyrite is weathering, most of the uranium originally present in the analyzed samples has probably been leached out. Conglomerate located below the zone of weathering and oxidation has good potential for economic uranium deposits.

  20. A Contingent Valuation Estimation of Hill Recreational and Services Values in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pek, Chuen-Khee; Tee, Chee-Hoong; Ng, Phuay-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the economic values of household preference for preservation and conservation of hill recreational and services values in Malaysia. The Contingent Valuation technique is employed on 100 randomly selected households in the vicinities of Taman Melawati Hill. The study finds that hill preservation is important and the public is willing to pay for initiatives to mitigate further degradation to this ecosystem. More specifically, the study ascertains that households on average ...

  1. Distance-Based Functional Diversity Measures and Their Decomposition: A Framework Based on Hill Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Huo Chiu; Anne Chao

    2014-01-01

    Hill numbers (or the "effective number of species") are increasingly used to characterize species diversity of an assemblage. This work extends Hill numbers to incorporate species pairwise functional distances calculated from species traits. We derive a parametric class of functional Hill numbers, which quantify "the effective number of equally abundant and (functionally) equally distinct species" in an assemblage. We also propose a class of mean functional diversity (per species), which quan...

  2. The effect of a sport development programme on sprinting and long jump ablilities among 10-15 year old black girls from farm schools in the North West Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pienaar, Anita Elizabeth; Kruger, Ankebé

    2011-01-01

    Development of previously disadvantaged communities was identified in South Afria (SA) as a national priority and sport was indicated to be part of such a strategy. Farm schools are among the poorest with regards to financial resources and physical structures in SA and consequently learners are confronted with many constraints regarding sport participation. The aim of this study was to develop a sport development programme for sprinting and long jump that is time effective and requires inexpe...

  3. Considerations on seismic microzonation in areas with two-dimensional hills

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohsen Kamalian; Abdollah Sohrabi-Bidar; Arash Razmkhah; Amirata Taghavi; Iraj Rahmani

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive numerical parametric study on seismic behavior of 2D homogenous hills subjected to vertically propagating incident SV waves. It is shown that the amplification potential of these hills is strongly influenced by the wavelength, by the shape ratio, by the shape of the hill and in a less order of importance, by the Poisson ratio of the media. The 2D topography effect could be ignored, only if the hill has a shape ratio of less than 0.1 or if it is subjected to incident waves with predominant dimensionless periods of greater than 13 times the shape ratio. In incidence of waves with wavelengths longer than the width of the hill, the amplification curve usually finds its maximum at the crest and decreases towards the base of the hill. Else, some de-amplification zones would occur along the hill. Among hills with similar shape ratios, those with intermediate cross section areas show intermediate seismic behavior, too. Estimated seismic site coefficients for the crest of a 2D rocky hill depend on its shape ratio and could reach even 1.7, which encourages one to classify it according to standard site categorization procedures as soil profile types SC or SD instead of the conventional SB type.

  4. Wine Industry Competitiveness: A survey of the Shawnee Hills American Viticultural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Matthew Rendleman

    2016-06-01

    Shawnee Hill׳s AVA winery owner/operators regard increases in regional tourism, growth in the US wine market continuous innovation, unique services and processes, and flow of information from customers to have the most enhancing effects on their businesses, and that confidence/trust in Illinois state political systems, tax systems, and administrative/bureaucratic regulations were the most constraining factors. Furthermore the Shawnee Hills AVA has growing competition, yet consists of innovative winery owners. It may currently lack external financial support, but with a community focus on product differentiation, the Shawnee Hills AVA has a chance, owners believe, to capture a portion of the growing market for regional products.

  5. The PIXE analysis of the jade unearthed from the Fuquan hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results of the analysis of the jade unearthed from the Fuquan hill by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are reported. By using PIXE technology, an appraisal of the jades unearthed from Fuquan hill can be made. The experimental results show that the Fuquan hill's jades can be distinguished into two classes: Xiu jade and soft jade, and they are different to Xiaomeiling' s jade but similar to the soft jade from Hetian, Xinjiang province. Furthermore, by analyzing proportion of iron and magnesium, some information of mineral structure and the color exuding of the jade from Fuquan hill can be obtained without any interference from impurity element

  6. Accuracy Assessment Points for Friendship Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation classification and mapping of Friendship Hill National Historic Site.

  7. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  8. The Hill-determinant perturbation theory with triangular propagators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new version of the Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation prescription is proposed. Its main formal feature lies in an unusual choice of the model space and unperturbed H0 and in a resulting lower-triangular matrix structure of its propagators. Within the framework of the so-called Hill-determinant method, an admissibility of any incompletely solvable zero-order Hamiltonian is achieved in this way. As a consequence, the range of practical applicability of our new perturbative formalism may be expected to incorporate many new phenomenological interactions with a strongly anharmonic character. 18 refs

  9. Rosemary Hill Observatory lunar occultation summary for 1983-1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Glenn; Anderson, Chris

    1993-04-01

    The results from photometric observations of 21 previously unreported occultation disappearances obtained during the period from March 24, 1983 through March 12, 1984, with the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory 76-cm reflecting telescope are presented. Statistically significant determinations of stellar diameters are indicated for two stars: 32 Librae (12.2 mas) and BD + 22 deg 1032 (5.45 mas). Diameter measurements of marginal statistical significance are noted for two other stars (9 Cancri and 37 Capricorni). New duplicity determinations are reported for five stellar systems in this sample.

  10. Possible Meteorites in the Martian Hills (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    From its winter outpost at 'Low Ridge' inside Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this spectacular, color mosaic of hilly, sandy terrain and two potential iron meteorites. The two light-colored, smooth rocks about two-thirds of the way up from the bottom of the frame have been labeled 'Zhong Shan' and 'Allan Hills.' The two rocks' informal names are in keeping with the rover science team's campaign to nickname rocks and soils in the area after locations in Antarctica. Zhong Shang is an Antarctic base that the People's Republic of China opened on Feb. 26, 1989, at the Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Allan Hills is a location where researchers have found many Martian meteorites, including the controversial ALH84001, which achieved fame in 1996 when NASA scientists suggested that it might contain evidence for fossilized extraterrestrial life. Zhong Shan was the given name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), known as the 'Father of Modern China.' Born to a peasant family in Guangdong, Sun moved to live with his brother in Honolulu at age 13 and later became a medical doctor. He led a series of uprisings against the Qing dynasty that began in 1894 and eventually succeeded in 1911. Sun served as the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912. The Zhong Shan and Allan Hills rocks, at the left and right, respectively, have unusual morphologies and miniature thermal emission spectrometer signatures that resemble those of a rock known as 'Heat Shield' at the Meridiani site explored by Spirit's twin, Opportunity. Opportunity's analyses revealed Heat Shield to be an iron meteorite. Spirit acquired this false-color image on the rover's 872nd Martian day, or sol (June 16, 2006), using exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 430 nanometers. The image is presented in false color to emphasize differences among materials in the

  11. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  12. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  13. Black Hole Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Strominger, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ``infinite statist...

  14. Phantom Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, C. J.; Zhang, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    The exact solutions of electrically charged phantom black holes with the cosmological constant are constructed. They are labelled by the mass, the electrical charge, the cosmological constant and the coupling constant between the phantom and the Maxwell field. It is found that the phantom has important consequences on the properties of black holes. In particular, the extremal charged phantom black holes can never be achieved and so the third law of thermodynamics for black holes still holds. ...

  15. Geological evolution of the Coombs Allan Hills area, Ferrar large igneous province, Antarctica: Debris avalanches, mafic pyroclastic density currents, phreatocauldrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L.; McClintock, Murray

    2008-05-01

    The Jurassic Ferrar large igneous province of Antarctica comprises igneous intrusions, flood lavas, and mafic volcaniclastic deposits (now lithified). The latter rocks are particularly diverse and well-exposed in the Coombs-Allan Hills area of South Victoria Land, where they are assigned to the Mawson Formation. In this paper we use these rocks in conjunction with the pre-Ferrar sedimentary rocks (Beacon Supergroup) and the lavas themselves (Kirkpatrick Basalt) to reconstruct the geomorphological and geological evolution of the landscape. In the Early Jurassic, the surface of the region was an alluvial plain, with perhaps 1 km of mostly continental siliciclastic sediments underlying it. After the fall of silicic ash from an unknown but probably distal source, mafic magmatism of the Ferrar province began. The oldest record of this event at Allan Hills is a ≤ 180 m-thick debris-avalanche deposit (member m1 of the Mawson Formation) which contains globular domains of mafic igneous rock. These domains are inferred to represent dismembered Ferrar intrusions emplaced in the source area of the debris avalanche; shallow emplacement of Ferrar magmas caused a slope failure that mobilized the uppermost Beacon Supergroup, and the silicic ash deposits, into a pre-existing valley or basin. The period which followed ('Mawson time') was the main stage for explosive eruptions in the Ferrar province, and several cubic kilometres of both new magma and sedimentary rock were fragmented over many years. Phreatomagmatic explosions were the dominant fragmentation mechanism, with magma-water interaction taking place in both sedimentary aquifers and existing vents filled by volcaniclastic debris. At Coombs Hills, a vent complex or 'phreatocauldron' was formed by coalescence of diatreme-like structures; at Allan Hills, member m2 of the Mawson Formation consists mostly of thick, coarse-grained, poorly sorted layers inferred to represent the lithified deposits of pyroclastic density currents

  16. Black Nuns as Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Theresa A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the contributions of Black Roman Catholic nuns to Black education in the United States since the early 1800s. Also shows that, despite declining membership, the three existing religious orders continue to be active in Black education and social change. (GC)

  17. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  18. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions (Black Strings and Black Rings)

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    The last three years have again seen new exciting developments in the area of higher dimensional black objects. For black objects with noncompact higher dimensions, the solution space was exlored further within the blackfold approach and with numerical schemes, yielding a large variety of new families of solutions, while limiting procedures created so-called super-entropic black holes. Concerning compact extra dimensions, the sequences of static nonuniform black strings in five and six dimensions were extended to impressively large values of the nonuniformity parameter with extreme numerical precision, showing that an oscillating pattern arises for the mass, the area or the temperature, while approaching the conjectured double-cone merger solution. Besides the presentation of interesting new types of higherdimensional solutions, also their physical properties were addressed in this session. While the main focus was on Einstein gravity, a significant number of talks also covered Lovelock theories.

  19. Soils of wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases (Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelov, N. S.

    2014-09-01

    The properties and spatial distribution of soils and soil-like bodies in valleys of the coastal Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases—poorly investigated in terms of the soil areas of East Antarctica—are discussed. In contrast to Dry Valleys—large continental oases of Western Antarctica—the studied territory is characterized by the presence of temporarily waterlogged sites in the valleys. It is argued that the deficit of water rather than the low temperature is the major limiting factor for the development of living organisms and the pedogenesis on loose substrates. The moisture gradients in the surface soil horizons explain the spatial distribution of the different soils and biotic complexes within the studied valleys. Despite the permanent water-logging of the deep suprapermafrost horizons of most of the soils in the valleys, no gley features have been identified in them. The soils of the wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills oasis do not contain carbonates. They have a slightly acid or neutral reaction. The organic carbon and nitrogen contents are mainly controlled by the amount of living and dead biomass rather than by the humic substances proper. The larger part of the biomass is concentrated inside the mineral soil matrix rather than on the soil surface. The stresses caused by surface drying, strong winds, and ultraviolet radiation prevent the development of organisms on the surface of the soil and necessitate the search for shelter within the soil fine earth material (endoedaphic niche) or under the gravelly pavement (hypolithic niche). In the absence of higher plants, humified products of their decomposition, and rainwater that can wash the soil profile and upon the low content of silt and clay particles in the soil material, "classical" soil horizons are not developed. The most distinct (and, often, the only diagnosed) products of pedogenesis in these soils are represented by organomineral films on the surface of mineral particles.

  20. Relationship between self–esteem and facebook usage amongst black Generation Y students

    OpenAIRE

    A L Bevan-Dye

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the link between number of Facebook friends, time spent on Facebook, the perceived benefits of Facebook-facilitated friendship and self-esteem amongst black Generation Y students in South Africa. In South Africa, the black Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) represents an important but under researched market segment in that it makes up 33 percent of the country's population. As one of the major new recreational activities to...

  1. Black Generation Y gender differences in Premier Soccer League spectator motives : sport marketing

    OpenAIRE

    T.E. Mofokeng; A L Bevan-Dye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender differences concerning Premier Soccer League (PSL) spectator motives amongst black Generation Y students in South Africa. In South Africa, the black Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) represents an important but under-researched market segment in that, in 2013, they made up 32 percent of the country's population. From a PSL marketing perspective, understanding the motives that drive game spectatorshi...

  2. Establishing the store attributes that black consumers consider when buying casual wear / Belinda Cooper

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    South Africa has a diverse population with almost 80% being black. It is therefore necessary that retailers understand this population group as the black population is responsible for the majority of consumer purchasing power in South Africa. To understand this population group and how they make purchasing decisions, it is necessary for retailers to gain a better understanding of the consumer decision-making process and retailing as well as the store attributes they consider important when ma...

  3. Simulation of depth-integrated flow over a hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramenko, Anna; Agafonova, Oxana; Sorvari, Joonas; Haario, Heikki

    2016-06-01

    This paper details work conducted using the commercial CFD software package ANSYS Fluent to investigate the depth-integrated flow over a hill. The calculation of wake development is really important for the design of the layout and the operation of a wind farm. Simulating a wind farm with more than one fully detailed wind turbines and possibly complex terrain geometry requires significant computational power and time. For this reason the depth-integrated flow equations derived by integrating the original 3D flow equations over the depth are presented. The complex 3D geometry need not be modelled or discretized in the pre-processing state: instead, the geometry of the terrain is only described with source terms in the depth-integrated equations, which are then solved in a very simple and fixed 2D domain. This approach reduces the equations from 3D to 2D and decreases the elapsed time of CFD simulations from hours to minutes. Thus, it is very practicable modelling method in real time optimization work. 2D CFD simulations of flow over a hill with depth-integrated governing equations are compared with full 3D models. The depth-integrated model will be used in future to find the optimal position of wind turbines in the wind park.

  4. Alkaline volcanic rocks from the Columbia Hills, Gusev crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Ruff, S.W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F., III; Herkenhoff, K.; Gellert, Ralf; Stockstill, K.R.; Tornabene, L.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Crisp, J.A.; Christensen, P.R.; McCoy, T.J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schmidt, M.

    2006-01-01

    Irvine, Backstay, and Wishstone are the type specimens for three classes of fine-grained or fragmental, relatively unaltered rocks with distinctive thermal emission spectra, found as float on the flanks of the Columbia Hills. Chemical analyses indicate that these rocks are mildly alkaline basalt, trachybasalt, and tephrite, respectively. Their mineralogy consists of Na- and K-rich feldspar(s), low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, ferroan olivine, Fe-Ti (and possibly Cr) oxides, phosphate, and possibly glass. The texture of Wishstone is consistent with a pyroclastic origin, whereas Irvine and Backstay are lavas or possibly dike rocks. Chemical compositions of these rocks plot on or near liquid lines of descent for most elements calculated for Adirondack class rocks (olivine-rich basalts from the Gusev plains) at various pressures from 0.1 to 1.0 GPa. We infer that Wishstone-, Backstay-, and Irvine-class magmas may have formed by fractionation of primitive, oxidized basaltic magma similar to Adirondack-class rocks. The compositions of all these rocks reveal that the Gusev magmatic province is alkaline, distinct from the subalkaline volcanic rocks thought to dominate most of the planet's surface. The fact that differentiated volcanic rocks were not encountered on the plains prior to ascending Husband Hill may suggest a local magma source for volcanism beneath Gusev crater. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Compilation of U-Pb zircon data from the Willyama Supergroup, Broken Hill region, Australia: evidence for three tectonostratigraphic successions and four magmatic events?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Willyama Supergroup of the Broken Hill region in southern Australia consists of supracrustal sedimentary and magmatic rocks, formed between 1810 and 1600 Ma. A statistical analysis of nearly 2000 SHRIMP U-Pb zircon spot ages, compiled from published and unpublished sources, provides evidence for three distinct tectonostratigraphic successions and four magmatic events during this interval. Succession 1 includes Redan Geophysical Zone gneisses and the lower part of the Thackaringa Group (Cues Formation). These rocks were deposited after 1810 Ma and host granite sills of the first magmatic event (1710-1700 Ma). Succession 2 includes the upper Thackaringa Group (Himalaya Formation), the Broken Hill Group and the Sundown Group and was deposited between 1710 and 1660 Ma. These rocks all contain detrital zircons from the first magmatic event (1710-1700 Ma) and in some cases from the second magmatic event (1690-1680 Ma). The second magmatic event (1690-1680 Ma) was bimodal, resulted from crustal extension, and was coeval with deposition of the Broken Hill Group and deepening of the basin. With this event a mafic sill swarm focused in the Broken Hill Domain. Mafic sills lack any trace of inheritance, unlike the granitoids that commonly contain inherited zircons typical of the supracrustal sediments. Succession 3, the Paragon Group and equivalents were deposited after 1660 Ma, but before a regional metamorphic event at 1600 Ma. Metamorphism was closely followed by inversion of the succession into a fold-and-thrust belt, accompanied by a fourth late to post-orogenic magmatic event (ca 1580 Ma) characterised by granite intrusion and regional acid volcanism (the local equivalents of the Gawler Range Volcanics in South Australia). Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  6. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)

  7. Black Hole Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  8. Initiated by the south. South - South Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, J S

    1993-12-01

    The UNFPA Deputy Chief of the Asia and Pacific Division explains how relations between representatives of developing countries to the South have often been less than congenial and how efforts have been made to smooth the way for greater cooperation between neighbors in the region. President Soeharto of Indonesia at a G-15 submeeting of Non-Aligned Countries in Malaysia in 1990 made the first overtures to his peers. He offered to work more closely with other interested countries economically and in terms of technical assistance. Prime Minister Von Van Kiet of Vietnam took him up on his offer and visited the President in Indonesia in January 1992 to discuss family planning issues. The subsequent assistance rendered by Indonesia to Vietnam in developing its family planning program was unique in bilateral relations in the region in that it was initiated by the nonaligned countries without outside interference. The author thinks that the UNFPA should play a facilitating role financially and organizationally in what may be the beginning of a trend toward greater South-South cooperation. Any help which developing countries could render to other developing nations will certainly be appreciated in this period of waning resources from developed countries for international population programs. The author also argues that service quality in donor countries is likely to improve. PMID:12345389

  9. Dynamic behaviour of quartzo-feldspathic loess slopes in the Canterbury Port Hills, Christchurch, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Jonathan; McSaveney, Mauri; Massey, Chris; Petley, David

    2014-05-01

    Evidence from New Zealand and elsewhere indicates that thick loess materials are highly susceptible to failure in earthquakes. After the 2010-11 Canterbury Earthquake sequence, 36 large landslides were mapped of which the majority were in fine grained loess deposits in the Canterbury Port Hills. Similar thick loess soil covers 10% of the land surface of the South Island of New Zealand and is also present within the southern part of the North Island. The wind-blown depositional characteristics result in sediments that can mantle steep rock slopes, and can stand in vertical faces. Understanding the mechanisms and triggering conditions under which the loess failures develop, and the relative susceptibility of different loessial soils to failure, is essential in assessing future earthquake-induced landslide risk. In general, investigation of the susceptibility of fine-grained soils to failure in earthquakes has hitherto concentrated on modelling approaches. In most cases, failure potential is determined as a critical ground acceleration threshold above which movement occurs through sliding of a soil block on the slope. Whilst such approaches are widely used, limited empirical data sets are available to assess their suitability. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets on the behaviour of loess soils during seismic events through a series of specialist dynamic back pressured shear-box tests on intact field samples collected from marginally-stable loess slopes in the Canterbury Port Hills. The tests were designed to replicate field conditions under different horizontal shaking characteristics. During each test, the strength reduction and excess pore pressures generated were measured as the sample underwent failure. The dynamic test results were analysed in relation to field mapping and site-monitoring data collected during the latter parts of the earthquake sequence. The study provides new knowledge regarding the mechanisms of shear-surface development in

  10. Black Flowers in Flatland

    CERN Document Server

    Alkac, Gokhan; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Asymptotically flat black holes in $2+1$ dimensions are a rarity. We study the recently found black flower solutions (asymptotically flat black holes with deformed horizons), static black holes, rotating black holes and the dynamical black flowers (black holes with radiative gravitons ) of the purely quadratic version of new massive gravity. We show how they appear in this theory and we also show that they are also solutions to the infinite order extended version of the new massive gravity, that is the Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity with an amputated Einsteinian piece. The same metrics also solve the topologically extended versions of these theories, with modified conserved charges and the thermodynamical quantities, such as the Wald entropy. Besides these we find new conformally flat radiating type solutions to these extended gravity models. We also show that these metrics do not arise in Einstein's gravity coupled to physical perfect fluids.

  11. Migration of Retirement-Age Blacks to Nonmetropolitan Areas in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Calvin L.; Fuguitt, Glenn V.

    2011-01-01

    Older blacks migrated to nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) communities in the 1990s to a degree not true of the past. Some of the nonmetro counties that attracted them are well-known retirement areas also favored by other retirees, mostly whites. Two-thirds of black retirement counties, however, are areas in the Old South that are not attracting other…

  12. Azanian: Zandi Zwane Talks about Being Black, Lesbian, and Activist in Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Sabina

    2006-01-01

    Zandi Zwane is a media activist and educator living and working in Cape Town, South Africa. She identifies herself as Black, Nguni, lesbian, female--and "Azanian: a term that was created in pre-colonial times by the members of the Black Consciousness Movement in resistance to colonialism." In this interview, Zwane explores the intersectionality of…

  13. Occurrence and comparison of Jerdon’s Gecko Hemidactylus subtriedrus Jerdon 1853 with Termite Hill Gecko Hemidactylus triedrus (Daudin 1802 from Ananthagiri Hills, northern Eastern Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.M. Javed

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent herpetological surveys in northern Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh yielded sightings of Jerdon’s Gecko Hemidactylus subtriedrus Jerdon 1853. Little is known about its distribution and taxonomic status. This species closely resembles the Termite Hill Gecko Hemidactylus triedrus (Daudin 1802 and it has often been taxonomically confused with it. Therefore, through this communication we provide information on the occurrence of Jerdon’s Gecko along with details showing the level of resemblance and differences from Termite Hill Gecko.

  14. Babesia bicornis sp. nov. and Theileria bicornis sp. nov.: Tick-Borne Parasites Associated with Mortality in the Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

    OpenAIRE

    Nijhof, Ard M; Banie L. Penzhorn; Lynen, Godelieve; Mollel, Johnson O.; Morkel, Pete; Bekker, Cornelis P.J.; Jongejan, Frans

    2003-01-01

    A novel Babesia species, designated Babesia bicornis sp. nov., was identified in three black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) that died in wildlife areas in Tanzania and South Africa. Screening of black rhinoceroses in South Africa revealed, in addition to B. bicornis, a second parasite, designated Theileria bicornis sp. nov.

  15. 78 FR 35314 - Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 3655). The Environmental Protection Agency Notice of Availability was published on January... Bureau of Reclamation Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin... capacity in the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin and the Chino Basin. We issued a Notice of Intent on...

  16. Surface water and groundwater interaction on a hill island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumph Frederiksen, Rasmus; Rømer Rasmussen, Keld; Christensen, Steen

    2014-05-01

    A number of recent studies have indicated that the hydrological system in stream valleys is often complex and exchange of water takes place through semi-permeable contacts and flow paths may be quite diverse. Yet, surface water and groundwater interaction in one of the major Danish landscapes - the hill islands - is relatively unknown. This study aims at providing new information about the rainfall-runoff processes in hill island landscapes where surface water and groundwater interaction is expected to have a dominant role and hill-slope processes not. Through stream flow measurements, field observations, and existing geological and geophysical data, we have investigated the surface water and groundwater interaction in the Abild Stream catchment (flow indicating that shallow control by low permeable sediments is important. Nevertheless irrigation is intensive which indicates that the soil and shallow sediments are permeable. Since July 2014 we have measured stream flow during quarterly campaigns at 11 stations along the stream representing different spatial scales and using Acoustic Doppler techniques (ADCP) as well as current-meters. Furthermore we have mapped topography, soil types, geomorphology, ditches, drains and land use through field observations and digital maps. The shallow subsurface geology has been mapped using abundant well described geological data (boreholes) and geophysical data (airborne TEM). Our stream flow measurements show that the tributaries from west and north dry out during the summer period. Significant drained areas in the NW- and SW-part of the catchment have been observed from old topographical maps as well as in the field. The geological data indicate shallow low permeable sediments primarily on the western side of Abild stream, and the geophysical data indicate shallow low resistivity layers on the western side of the stream. All these findings indicate a catchment with at least two different hydrogeological settings. To further

  17. The presence of species of Pseudochironomus Malloch 1915 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in watercourses of Chaco Serrano Ecoregion (Argentina, South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Analía C; Rodriguez Garay, Gretel N

    2015-01-01

    Male imagos of Pseudochironomus viridis (Kieffer) are redescribed, the immature stages are described and figured for the first time. During this study, larva and pupal exuviae associated to P. richardsoni (Malloch) were recorded for the first time for South America. The specimens were collected from a stream and a river in the Pampasic Hills System in the Chaco Serrano ecoregion of Argentina. PMID:26249080

  18. Post-middle Miocene Tuffs of Bodie Hills and Mono Basin, California: Paleomagnetic Reference Directions and Vertical Axis Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, J. R.; Pluhar, C. J.; Farner, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The relative motions of the Pacific and North American plates about the Sierra Nevada-North American Euler pole is accommodated by dextral slip along the San Andreas Fault System (~75%) and the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone system of faults, east of the Sierra Nevada microplate (~25%). The Bodie Hills and Mono Basin regions lie within the Walker Lane and partially accommodate deformation by vertical axis rotation of up to 60o rotation since ~9.4 Ma. This region experienced recurrent eruptive events from mid to late Miocene, including John et al.'s (2012) ~12.05 Ma Tuff of Jack Springs (TJS) and Gilbert's (1968) 11.1 - 11.9 Ma 'latite ignimbrite' east of Mono Lake. Both tuffs can be identified by phenocrysts of sanidine and biotite in hand specimens, with TJS composed of a light-grey matrix and the latite ignimbrite composed of a grey-black matrix. Our paleomagnetic results show these units to both be normal polarity, with the latite ignimbrite exhibiting a shallow inclination. TJS's normal polarity is consistent with emplacement during subchron C5 An. 1n (12.014 - 12.116 Ma). The X-ray fluorescence analyses of fiamme from TJS in Bodie Hills and the latite ignimbrite located east of Mono Lake reveal them both to be rhyolites with the latite ignimbrite sharing elevated K composition seen in the slightly younger Stanislaus Group (9.0 - 10.2 Ma). We establish a paleomagnetic reference direction of D = 352.8o I = 42.7o α95 = 7.7o n = 5 sites (42 samples) for TJS in the Bodie Hills in a region hypothesized by Carlson (2012) to have experienced low rotation. Our reference for Gilbert's latite ignimbrite (at Cowtrack Mountain) is D = 352.9o I = 32.1o α95 = 4.7o. This reference locality is found on basement highland likely to have experienced less deformation then the nearby Mono Basin since ignimbrite emplacement. Paleomagnetic results from this latite ignimbrite suggests ~98.2o × 5.5o of clockwise vertical axis rotation of parts of eastern Mono Basin since

  19. A Pragmatic Analysis of Hemingway's "Hills Like White Elephant"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贺

    2008-01-01

    Hemingway's short story Hills Like White Elephant serves as a best illustration of the TiP of an Iceberg Theory.His deliberate omission of information concerning the background of the protagonists and purposeful avoidance of maklog authorial comments makes it possble to understand the text in totally differeot ways and leaves readers to struggle for the undersatnding of the potential meaning of the text all by themselves.By applying the Cooperative Principie and the Pragmatic Theory of Politeness to the conversation in the text,the essay here tries to recover the information hidden bonesth the surface of the text and to recoilstruct the text as a whole.The cooclusion is that proper application of relevant pragmatic theory can help readers have a relatively rationsl and reasonable understanding of the text.

  20. Nannobacterial alteration of pyroxenes in martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Robert L.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2002-08-01

    In martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001, this scanning electron microscope study was focused on the ferromagnesian minerals, which are extensively covered with nanometer-size bodies mainly 30-100 nm in diameter. These bodies range from spheres to ovoids to caterpillar shapes and resemble, both in size and shape, nannobacteria that attack weathered rocks on Earth and that can be cultured. Dense colonies alternate with clean, smooth cleavage surfaces, possibly formed later. Statistical study shows that the distribution of presumed nannobacteria is very clustered. In addition to the small bodies, there are a few occurrences of ellipsoidal 200-400 nm objects, that are within the lower size range of "normal" earthly bacteria. We conclude that the nanobodies so abundant in ALH 84001 are indeed nannobacteria, confirming the initial assertion of McKay et al. (1996). However, whether these bodies originated on Mars or are Antarctic contamination remains a valid question.

  1. Hills and valleys: Understanding the under-eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind N Naik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue deflation and descent have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of facial aging. In the periorbital area, the upper orbital region is thought to change by descent of the eyebrow, as well as deflation of brow fat. While the understanding of the aging changes in the upper eyelid region are relatively simple, the lower eyelid poses a myriad of aging changes, each demanding a specific management plan. These can be best described in terms of elevations, or 'Hills' and hollows, or 'Valleys'. This article simplifies the understanding of the lower eyelid in the light of anatomical knowledge, and available literature. It forms a basis of easy diagnosis and treatment of the soft tissue changes in the lower eyelid and malar region.

  2. Educational and socio-cultural experiences of immigrant students in South African schools

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2010-01-01

    The advent of democracy and the easing of both legal and unauthorised entry to South Africa have made the country a new destination for Black asylum-seekers, long-distance traders, entrepreneurs, students and professionals. As this population continues to grow, its children have begun to experience South African schools in an array of uniquely challenging ways. In addition to opening their doors to all South African children irrespective of race, colour or creed, most public schools in South ...

  3. Draft tube flow phenomena across the bulb turbine hill chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the BulbT project launched by the Consortium on Hydraulic Machines and the LAMH (Hydraulic Machine Laboratory of Laval University) in 2011, an intensive campaign to identify flow phenomena in the draft tube of a model bulb turbine has been done. A special focus was put on the draft tube component since it has a particular importance for recuperation in low head turbines. Particular operating points were chosen to analyse flow phenomena in this component. For each of these operating points, power, efficiency and pressure were measured following the IEC 60193 standard. Visualizations, unsteady wall pressure and efficiency measurements were performed in this component. The unsteady wall pressure was monitored at seven locations in the draft tube. The frequency content of each pressure signal was analyzed in order to characterize the flow phenomena across the efficiency hill chart. Visualizations were recorded with a high speed camera using tufts and cavitation bubbles as markers. The predominant detected phenomena were mapped and categorized in relation to the efficiency hill charts obtained for three runner blade openings. At partial load, the vortex rope was detected and characterized. An inflection in the partial load efficiency curves was found to be related to complex vortex rope instabilities. For overload conditions, the efficiency curves present a sharp drop after the best efficiency point, corresponding to an inflection on the power curves. This break off is more severe towards the highest blade openings. It is correlated to a flow separation at the wall of the draft tube. Also, due to the separation occurring in these conditions, a hysteresis effect was observed on the efficiency curves

  4. The History of Allan Hills 84001 Revised: Multiple Shock Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1998-01-01

    The geologic history of Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is more complex than previously recognized, with evidence for four or five crater-forming impacts onto Mars. This history of repeated deformation and shock metamorphism appears to weaken some arguments that have been offered for and against the hypothesis of ancient Martian life in ALH 84001. Allan Hills 84001 formed originally from basaltic magma. Its first impact event (I1) is inferred from the deformation (D1) that produced the granular-textured bands ("crush zones") that transect the original igneous fabric. Deformation D1 is characterized by intense shear and may represent excavation or rebound flow of rock beneath a large impact crater. An intense thermal metamorphism followed D1 and may be related to it. The next impact (I2) produced fractures, (Fr2) in which carbonate "pancakes" were deposited and produced feldspathic glass from some of the igneous feldspars and silica. After I2, carbonate pancakes and globules were deposited in Fr2 fractures and replaced feldspathic glass and possibly crystalline silicates. Next, feldspars, feldspathic glass, and possibly some carbonates were mobilized and melted in the third impact (I3). Microfaulting, intense fracturing, and shear are also associated with 13. In the fourth impact (I4), the rock was fractured and deformed without significant heating, which permitted remnant magnetization directions to vary across fracture surfaces. Finally, ALH 84001 was ejected from Mars in event I5, which could be identical to I4. This history of multiple impacts is consistent with the photogeology of the Martian highlands and may help resolve some apparent contradictions among recent results on ALH 84001. For example, the submicron rounded magnetite grains in the carbonate globules could be contemporaneous with carbonate deposition, whereas the elongate magnetite grains, epitaxial on carbonates, could be ascribed to vapor-phase deposition during I3.

  5. A boosted Kerr black hole solution and the structure of a general astrophysical black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Ivano Damião

    2016-01-01

    A solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations that describes a boosted Kerr black hole relative to an asymptotic Lorentz frame at the future null infinity is derived. The solution has three parameters (mass, rotation and boost) and corresponds to the most general configuration that an astrophysical black hole must have; it reduces to the Kerr solution when the boost parameter is zero. In this solution the ergosphere is north-south asymmetric, with dominant lobes in the direction opposite to the boost. However the event horizon, the Cauchy horizon and the ring singularity {\\bf --} which are the core of the black hole structure {\\bf --} do not alter, being independent of the boost parameter. Possible consequences for astrophysical processes connected with Penrose processes in the asymmetric ergosphere are discussed.

  6. Use of archive aerial photography for monitoring black mangrove populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted on the south Texas Gulf Coast to evaluate archive aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography combined with supervised image analysis techniques to quantify changes in black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations over a 26-year period. Archive CIR film from two study si...

  7. Black Koreans in Korean children’s literature : A study of Won You Soon’s book “Please find Chartlon Sunja Kim”

    OpenAIRE

    Harrysson Kimaryo, Gina Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to depict and examine the perception of black Koreans in South Korean children’s literature. This study examines my research questions through four theoretical frameworks: “culture and identity”, “post-colonialism, nationalism and racism”, “blackness and black Koreans’ portrayal in Korean media” and “multiculturalism in Korea”. My study raises the question how multicultural literature can help or not promote a new perception of otherness in South Korea. The method...

  8. Saturated South

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Heavy rain produced the worst floods in a century in some areas of China causing deaths and forcing whole communities to evacuate Millions have been forced to flee their homes in south China amid floods caused by heavy rainfall since the end of May.

  9. Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Spaans, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.

  10. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  11. THE DECLINE (AND REVIVAL?) OF BLACK FARMERS AND RURAL LANDOWNERS: A REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Jess; Sharp, Gwen; Felin, M. Sindy

    2001-01-01

    African-Americans as a group went from owning almost no land in the United States after the Civil War to peaking at 15 million acres by 1920. In that year, 14% of all US farmers were black. Of these 926,000 black farmers, all but 10,000 were in the South. By 1997, fewer than 20,000, or 1% of all farmers, were black, and they owned only about two million acres. The loss of landownership and farming operations has contributed to the poverty of many rural communities in the South. This paper con...

  12. Cosmic Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Eun-Joo; Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Production of high-energy gravitational objects is a common feature of gravitational theories. The primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities. Cosmic black holes can be used to probe physical properties of the very early universe which would usually require the knowledge of the theory of quantum gravity. They may be the only tool to explore thermalisation of the early universe. Whereas the creation of cosmic black ...

  13. The New Black

    OpenAIRE

    Lettman-Hicks, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The New Black is a documentary that tells the story of how the African American community is grappling with the gay rights issue in light of the recent gay marriage movement and the fight over Civil Rights. The film documents activities, families and clergy on both sides of the campaign to legalize gay marriage and examines homophobia in the Black community's institutional pillar, the Black church, and reveals the Christian right wing's strategy of exploiting this phenomenon in order to pursu...

  14. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  15. Kerr black string flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We give a general illumination of a rotating black string falling into a rotating horizon in dimension D=5. It is a configuration of one smooth intersection between these two objects when the spacetime is axisymmetric and in the limit that the thickness of the black hole is much larger than the thickness of the black string. Following this configuration, we further extend them to the rotating and charged flows.

  16. Re-Os isotope systematics of the Radio Hill Ni-Cu-PGE complex, West Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ), that contamination of a komatiite (Re = 0.48 ppb, Os 1.3 ppb, gOs = 0) with 15% 3.5 Ga crust of granodioritic composition (Re 0.1 ppb, Os = 0.005 ppb, gOs = +890) can yield a SHMB magma (Re = 0.16 ppb, Os 0.20 ppb, gOs +18.5) which could be parental to the Radio Hill Complex ore system. Os concentrations in the silicate samples are much lower, from 0.039 to 1.1 ppb Os, with relatively higher Re/Os ratios, up to 18. These samples have experienced post-intrusion disturbance of the Re-Os isotope systematics and yield a poorly constrained isochron of ca 2.0 Ga age which coincides with the development of the Capricorn Orogen to the south. The massive ores were apparently not disturbed by this event, potentially due to the very high concentration of Os in the ores relative to metamorphic fluids. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  17. Ten shades of black

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    The holographic principle has taught us that, as far as their entropy content is concerned, black holes in $(3+1)$-dimensional curved spacetimes behave as ordinary thermodynamic systems in flat $(2+1)$-dimensional spacetimes. In this essay we point out that the opposite behavior can also be observed in black-hole physics. To show this we study the quantum Hawking evaporation of near-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. We first point out that the black-hole radiation spectrum departs from the familiar radiation spectrum of genuine $(3+1)$-dimensional perfect black-body emitters. In particular, the would be black-body thermal spectrum is distorted by the curvature potential which surrounds the black hole and effectively blocks the emission of low-energy quanta. Taking into account the energy-dependent gray-body factors which quantify the imprint of passage of the emitted radiation quanta through the black-hole curvature potential, we reveal that the $(3+1)$-dimensional black holes effectively behave as p...

  18. Evidence for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2003-06-20

    Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138

  19. Black hole statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather, they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ''infinite statistics'' which resembles that of distinguishable particles and is realized by a q deformation of the quantum commutation relations

  20. Antigravity and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, D

    2006-01-01

    We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.

  1. Deforming regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have deformed regular black holes which possess a general mass term described by a function which generalizes the Bardeen and Hayward mass terms. Using linear constraints in the energy-momentum tensor, the solutions are either regular or singular. That is, with this approach, it is possible to generate singular black holes from regular black holes and vice versa. Moreover, contrary to the Bardeen and Hayward regular solutions, the regular deformed metrics may violate the weak energy condition despite the presence of the spherical symmetry. Some comments on accretion of deformed black holes in cosmological scenarios are made.

  2. Black stain - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarise the fundamentals about black stain, its diagnosis and possible differential diagnoses as well as its microbiology and therapy. In addition, various studies investigating the relationship between black stain and dental caries are examined. Many studies report lower caries prevalence in children with black stain, but this finding could not be confirmed by all authors. Also, a negative relation between degree of staining and caries severity has been described. Reasons for these results are not yet clear but it was speculated that they are related to the specific oral microflora described in black stain-affected individuals. PMID:21594205

  3. "Black Capitalism": Toward Controlled Development of Black America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert E.

    1969-01-01

    Argues in favor of the connotation of the term "Black capitalism as the accumulation of capital resources by the Black people in a collective fashion for the benefit of the masses of Black people. (RJ)

  4. The Hill Chart Calculation for Francis Runner Models using the HydroHillChart - Francis Module Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Bostan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In practice, for the design of hydraulic turbines, laboratory tests performed on reduced scale models of turbines are recommended. The optimisation of a turbine model requires extensive experimental research on several variants of geometry, the improvement of efficiency at an industrial scale which will lead to substantial economic benefits because of the extended life of the turbine. Warranty conditions arisen from model tests will be verified by additional tests performed on industrial prototypes at specific points agreed between the supplier and the customer. The purpose of these tests is the experimental determination of the relationships between the basic parameters of the operating turbine for different operating conditions. The graphic expression of these relationships represent the hill chart of the turbine which is valid for the whole turbine family similar to the tested model.

  5. Study on the atmospheric dispersion of pollutant in the presence and absence of a hill for BARC, Trombay site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocking effects generated by topographical features leads to complex flow patterns that might generate mean concentration distributions significantly different from those that might be expected from the mean flow in the absence of the complex terrain features for atmospheric releases of pollutants. The present paper deals with one such study of the effect of a hill on the atmospheric dispersion of pollutant for BARC, Trombay site. The study of wind flow as well as the atmospheric dispersion of pollutant in the presence of 130 m hill behind PP is found to be important to gauge the radiological consequences on population residing beyond this hill. The results of study of the effect of this hill on the wind flow and the concentration distribution of pollutants on the upwind and downwind side of the hill are presented in the paper. It is seen that the wind flow gets modified leading to deceleration in the upwind side of the hill due to terrain blocking, speed up at the top of the hill and deceleration behind the hill. In the absence of hill, flow remains uniform in the downwind direction. It is also found that in the presence of the hill, the released pollutant disperses more as compared to the absence of the hill. Because of the additional dispersion provided by the hill and also because of the elevated topography, the peak concentration value in the presence of hill is obtained at shorter distance when compared with the other case. The peak ground level concentration value found in the presence of hill is relatively higher; however, for the population residing at farther distances, the additional dilution provided by the hill reduces the ground level concentration. (author)

  6. Investigation of Hill's optical turbulence model by means of direct numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschinski, Andreas; de Bruyn Kops, Stephen M

    2015-12-01

    For almost four decades, Hill's "Model 4" [J. Fluid Mech. 88, 541 (1978) has played a central role in research and technology of optical turbulence. Based on Batchelor's generalized Obukhov-Corrsin theory of scalar turbulence, Hill's model predicts the dimensionless function h(κl(0), Pr) that appears in Tatarskii's well-known equation for the 3D refractive-index spectrum in the case of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, Φn(κ)=0.033C2(n)κ(-11/3) h(κl(0), Pr). Here we investigate Hill's model by comparing numerical solutions of Hill's differential equation with scalar spectra estimated from direct numerical simulation (DNS) output data. Our DNS solves the Navier-Stokes equation for the 3D velocity field and the transport equation for the scalar field on a numerical grid containing 4096(3) grid points. Two independent DNS runs are analyzed: one with the Prandtl number Pr=0.7 and a second run with Pr=1.0 . We find very good agreement between h(κl(0), Pr) estimated from the DNS output data and h(κl(0), Pr) predicted by the Hill model. We find that the height of the Hill bump is 1.79 Pr(1/3), implying that there is no bump if PrDNS and the Hill model predict that the viscous-diffusive "tail" of h(κl(0), Pr) is exponential, not Gaussian. PMID:26831396

  7. Black holes and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for instance, the UK

  8. Changes in Language, Communication and Thought: A Study on Linguistic Discrimination against the Indigenous People of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ala Uddin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The Chittagong Hill Tracts that situated in the southeastern part of Bangladesh bordering Burma and India has been known as a conflict zone in South Asia. The conflicting situation between the indigenous peoples and Bengalis was worsened due to immigration of Bengalis, displacement of the indigenous peoples, and military intervention in the Hill Tracts. Putting an end of the two- and half-decade-long bloody conflict, an agreement (“peace agreement” was signed in December 02, 1997; nonetheless, still the region is neither a peaceful nor a secured region to its inhabitants. However, in the conflicting situation that began in the 1970s, the indigenous minorities are to adopt with the mainstream society and culture. This paper attempts to explore the ‘cope mechanism’ in which the indigenous peoples are communicating with the mainstream Bengalis, focusing on (the situations of the indigenous languages among other resources of culture. Here ‘cope mechanism’ is not only to manage their fear, and conflict in Chittagong Hill Tracts, but also to negotiate the cultural dimension, in which the Hill culture is schematized both in the Bengalis views toward Hill culture and the indigenous peoples views on their own culture.

    Key words
  9. Rotating Brane World Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Modgil, Moninder Singh; Panda, Sukanta; Sengupta, Gautam

    2001-01-01

    A five dimensional rotating black string in a Randall-Sundrum brane world is considered. The black string intercepts the three brane in a four dimensional rotating black hole. The geodesic equations and the asymptotics in this background are discussed.

  10. Spatial distribution of gamma radiation levels in Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India by gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of natural radionuclides in surface soil samples around Yelagiri Hills were determined by gamma ray spectrometry using NaI(Tl) detector. The spatial distribution of uranium and thorium was investigated in soils from the cultivated and undisturbed areas in Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India. The average absorbed dose rate in the study area was estimated to be 88.62 nGyh-1. To establish the level of radioactivity at different areas isodose map is drawn between the different sampling locations of Yelagiri hills and the absorbed gamma dose rate. (author)

  11. The Bolund Experiment, Part I: Flow Over a Steep, Three-Dimensional Hill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Mann, Jakob; Bechmann, Andreas;

    2011-01-01

    over the Bolund hill. Depending on the wind direction, we find a maximum speed-up of 30% at the hill top accompanied by a maximum 300% enhancement of turbulence intensity. A closer inspection reveals transient behaviour with recirculation zones. From the wind energy context, this implies that the best...... site for erecting a turbine based on resource constraints unfortunately also imposes a penalty of high dynamic loads. On the lee side of Bolund, recirculation occurs with the turbulence intensity remaining significantly enhanced even at one hill length downstream. Its transient behaviour and many...

  12. Activation of Fault Structures South of the La Habra Earthquake Rupture As Evidenced By UAVSAR Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Hauksson, E.

    2014-12-01

    The 28 March, 2014 M 5.2 La Habra earthquake occurred on a northeast striking, northwest dipping left-lateral oblique thrust fault at the northeastern margin of the LA Basin, where regional right-lateral shear is accommodated by major northwest trending faults of the Peninsular Ranges, and north-south shortening is accommodated by north-dipping thrust faults and east-west trending folds of the Transverse Ranges. The La Habra mainshock location and focal mechanism is northwest of but sub-parallel to the Puente Hills thrust fault. Relocated seismicity highlights a northeast-trending rupture plane consistent with the magnitude and focal mechanism of the event. NASA's UAVSAR L-Band radar instrument was flown for north and south looking lines before the earthquake on 22 January 2014. The north looking line was reflown three days after the earthquake on 31 March, 2014, and the south looking line was reflown a week later on 4 April 2014. The UAVSAR Repeat Pass Interferogram (RPI) products show deformation consistent with the location of the mainshock beneath the town of La Habra. The results also show considerable aseismic northward horizontal deformation with minor uplift in the West Coyote Hills, south of the relocated seismicity. Inversion of the combined interferograms is consistent with south dipping low-angle (7°) shallow slip that corresponds to bedding plane attitudes and a mapped unconformity. The entire West Coyote Hills show 37 mm of modeled northward slip with an additional 34 mm of modeled slip concentrated near the Coyote Hills Park northeast of the intersection of Rosecrans Avenue and North Gilbert Street. A narrow band of shortening was also observed with UAVSAR, and confirmed with on-the-ground field observations, at the Trojan Way Kink Band, nearly one fault dimension southwest of the main rupture.

  13. Evolution of massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Volonteri, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I'll discuss black hole formation processes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and how massive black hole evolve in a hierarchical Universe...

  14. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N.; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface ...

  15. Carbon black recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process and apparatus for recovering carbon black from hot smoke which comprises passing the smoke through a cyclone separation zone following cooling, then through aggregate filter beds and regeneration of filter beds with clean off-gas which is recycled to the carbon black reaction zone as quench

  16. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t - r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  17. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Mehdipour, S.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t — r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  18. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  19. Black holes in inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.

    1997-08-01

    We summarise recent work on the quantum production of black holes in the inflationary era. We describe, in simple terms, the Euclidean approach used, and the results obtained both for the pair creation rate and for the evolution of the black holes.

  20. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  1. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  2. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  3. Religious coping strategies and perceived causes of sickness and health in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Peet J. van Dyk; Alta C. van Dyk

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to explore religious coping strategies and to what extent black South Africans directly attributed their health and/or diseases to supernatural forces such as the ancestors and magic. A total of 3000 structured questionnaires were distributed to South Africans of all ethnicities, of which 575 were received back, but only those received from black participants (411) were considered for this study. The SPSS 21 statistical program was used to analyse the data. The ...

  4. Fluctuating Black Hole Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.

  5. NORTH HILL CREEK 3-D SEISMIC EXPLORATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc T. Eckels; David H. Suek; Denise H. Harrison; Paul J. Harrison

    2004-05-06

    Wind River Resources Corporation (WRRC) received a DOE grant in support of its proposal to acquire, process and interpret fifteen square miles of high-quality 3-D seismic data on non-allotted trust lands of the Uintah and Ouray (Ute) Indian Reservation, northeastern Utah, in 2000. Subsequent to receiving notice that its proposal would be funded, WRRC was able to add ten square miles of adjacent state and federal mineral acreage underlying tribal surface lands by arrangement with the operator of the Flat Rock Field. The twenty-five square mile 3-D seismic survey was conducted during the fall of 2000. The data were processed through the winter of 2000-2001, and initial interpretation took place during the spring of 2001. The initial interpretation identified multiple attractive drilling prospects, two of which were staked and permitted during the summer of 2001. The two initial wells were drilled in September and October of 2001. A deeper test was drilled in June of 2002. Subsequently a ten-well deep drilling evaluation program was conducted from October of 2002 through March 2004. The present report discusses the background of the project; design and execution of the 3-D seismic survey; processing and interpretation of the data; and drilling, completion and production results of a sample of the wells drilled on the basis of the interpreted survey. Fifteen wells have been drilled to test targets identified on the North Hill Creek 3-D Seismic Survey. None of these wildcat exploratory wells has been a dry hole, and several are among the best gas producers in Utah. The quality of the data produced by this first significant exploratory 3-D survey in the Uinta Basin has encouraged other operators to employ this technology. At least two additional 3-D seismic surveys have been completed in the vicinity of the North Hill Creek Survey, and five additional surveys are being planned for the 2004 field season. This project was successful in finding commercial oil, natural gas

  6. Vertical deformation along the Indio Hills, San Andreas Fault, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharer, K. M.; Blisniuk, K.; Sharp, W. D.; Williams, P. L.; Johnson, K.

    2014-12-01

    Halfway between the Salton Sea and San Gorgonio Pass, the southernmost San Andreas Fault (SAF) bifurcates into the Mission Creek and Banning strands. These strands bound the Indio Hills (IH), and mark the first of a series of left-stepping branches that define the transpressional, southern Big Bend of the SAF. Between the fault strands, the Quaternary Ocotillo Formation is deformed with fold axis orientations consistent with dextral shear; structurally the IH are synclinal in the east, transitioning to a complex antiform with increased uplift suggested by exhumation of Tertiary units in the west. We report new long- and short-term erosion rates across the IH and uplift rates on the Banning strand, and we evaluate these measurements in terms of slip rates across the fault system and structural deformation within the IH. Two methods of catchment-averaged erosion rates provide minimum rates yield similar results, (0.08 to 0.34 mm/yr) across 6 catchments. The long-term rates are calculated from eroded volumes estimated from a 10-m DEM surface enveloping the Indio Hills and assume that all folding and uplift initiated ca. 500ka (the 750 ka Bishop ash is uplifted and warped within the IH). The short-term rates, determined from 10Be dating of alluvial sediments, increase gradually to the northwest. Similarity of the rates suggests steady state uplift over the history of the fold; ongoing structural analysis and dating needed to constrain the maximum rates will test this possibility. The new uplift rate for the Banning strand at the east end of the IH is determined from a 60 pts/m^2 DEM produced by structure from motion photogrammetry and U-series ages and cosmogenic dates that provide an age range of 20-76ka for a fan vertically offset by ~2.5 m. The resulting uplift rate on the fault (0.03-0.125 mm/yr) overlaps with the short-term catchment-averaged erosion rate for this location (0.08 mm/yr). Consequently, we interpret that vertical strain is partitioned onto both the

  7. Late Glacial and Holocene Paleoenvironmental Change Recorded in Lake Sediments, Brock Plateau (Melville Hills), Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, K.; St. Jacques, J.; Beierle, B. D.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Dyke, A. S.; Smol, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    Sediments from South Lake, Brock Plateau (Melville Hills), Northwest Territories, provide one of the longest postglacial records from the mainland western Canadian Arctic, outside of eastern Beringia. Sedimentation commenced at least 13,900 cal yr B.P., possibly as early as 15,000 cal yr B.P. in response to early deglaciation of the site. Pollen is present throughout the entire record, with an initial Artemisia-Salix assemblage indicative of very cold conditions, consistent with a locally severe Younger Dryas Stade (~12,700-11,500 cal yr B.P.). At ~11,000 cal yr B.P., abiotic proxies signal a transition to warmer conditions, which is confirmed by a pollen shift to an assemblage dominated by Betula and Cyperaceae. Although South Lake was biologically productive during the early Holocene (~11,000-7,000 cal yr B.P.), diatoms and other siliceous organisms are notably absent from the record, suggesting severe silica limitation. Rises in Alnus crispa and Picea mariana pollen at ~7500 cal yr B.P. suggest cooling and/or an increase in effective moisture. Following this vegetation change, wetter conditions likely led to the establishment of a pioneering diatom community at ~6500 cal yr B.P. as a result of increased hydrological inputs and thus, the silica supply. Decreased organic sedimentation after 2000 cal yr B.P. suggests cooler conditions. Additionally, changing niveo-eolian deposition of sand on lake ice varied with a ~3000-year periodicity through the entire record. The long South Lake pollen record lends support to the hypothesis that the Brock Plateau was one of the earliest deglaciated regions, if not an actual nunatak during the late Wisconsinan.

  8. An overview of South African psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa. PMID:22432681

  9. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by...

  10. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by...

  11. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by...

  12. Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment: Sullys Hill National Game Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP was written to guide management on Sullys Hill National Game Preserve for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  13. Final Amendment to the Comprehensive Conservation Plan & Environmental Assessment: Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an amendment, accompanied by an Environmental Assessment EA, to the current 2000 Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP for Flint Hills NWR. The purpose of...

  14. Sullys Hill National Game Preservce Narrative Report for May - August 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August 1959. The report begins by summarizing the...

  15. Sullys Hill National Game Preserve Narrative Report for September - December 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  16. Integrated Pest Management Plan for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge 2004 through 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Flint Hills NWR. The...

  17. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  18. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  19. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  20. Unioned layer of coal resource calculation in the Danforth Hills coal field, Colorado (dan*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Final unioned polygon coverages and shapefiles used to calculate coal resources of the A through G coal zones, Danforth Hills coal field, northwestern Colorado....