WorldWideScience

Sample records for black hills region

  1. 78 FR 73187 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board (Board... all members of the Advisory Board; (2) provide orientation to Board Members on Basic Laws governing...

  2. Microhabitats of Merriam's turkeys in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1996-01-01

    Merriam’s Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) are associated with ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in the western United States, but are not native to the ponderosa pine forest of the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Black Hills population was established by transplanting birds from New Mexico and Colorado between 1948 and...

  3. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  4. 78 FR 76100 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ...: The Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board (Board) will meet in Rapid City, South Dakota. The... Ranger District, 8221 South Highway 16, Rapid City, South Dakota. Written comments may be submitted as... the public. The agenda will include time for people to make oral statements of three minutes or less...

  5. Multi-scale habitat use of male ruffed grouse in the Black Hills National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra L. Mehls; Kent C. Jensen; Mark A. Rumble; Michael C. Wimberly

    2014-01-01

    Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) are native upland game birds and a management indicator species (MIS) for aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the Black Hills National Forest (Black Hills). Our objective was to assess resource selection of male ruffed grouse to identify the most appropriate scale to manage for aspen and ruffed grouse in the Black Hills. During spring 2007...

  6. Roosting habitat of Merriam's turkeys in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble

    1992-01-01

    Lack of roost habitat (trees >40 cm diameter breast height [dbh] and >18 m2/ha basal area) can limit populations of Merriam’s turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami). The Black Hills region has relatively large populations of Merriam’s turkeys, yet trees >40 cm dbh are uncommon. Consequently, I studied...

  7. Conservation assessment for the autumn willow in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Autumn willow, Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern., is an obligate wetland shrub that occurs in fens and bogs in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Disjunct populations of autumn willow occur in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Only two populations occur on Black Hills National Forest lands: a large population at McIntosh Fen and a small...

  8. Habitat preferences of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, David J; Brandenburg, Dylan; Petit, Samantha; Gabel, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are a major component of terrestrial invertebrate communities and have been used as bioindicators of habitat change and disturbance. The Black Hills of South Dakota is a small area with a high biodiversity, but the ground beetles of this region are little studied. The habitat preferences of ground beetles in the Black Hills are unknown, and baseline data must be collected if these beetles are to be used in the future as bioindicators. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from pitfall traps at two sites in each of five kinds of habitats (grassland, bur oak-ironwood forests, ponderosa pine-common juniper forests, aspen-pine forests, and a spruce forest) from which habitat structure characteristics and plant abundance data also were collected. In total, 27 species of ground beetles were identified. Although some species, such as Dicaelus sculptilis Say were found in most habitats, other species showed distinct habitat preferences: Poecilus lucublandus (Say) preferred oak forests, Pasimachus elongatus LeConte preferred grasslands, and Calathus ingratus Dejean preferred high-elevation aspen-pine forests. Pterostichus adstrictus Escholtz was found only in woodlands, and Carabus taedatus Say strictly in higher elevation (over 1,500 m) aspen or coniferous woods, and may represent relict populations of boreal species. Elevation, exposure to sunlight, and cover of woody plants strongly influence the structure of carabid communities in the Black Hills.

  9. 76 FR 48120 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... species on lands of all ownerships in the Black Hills is ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae). Since 1997 the... rated as having high wildfire hazard. Since 1980, due to several factors including drought the Forest...

  10. 77 FR 10717 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    .... The predominant tree species on lands of all ownerships in the Black Hills is ponderosa pine (Pinus... drought the Forest has seen a dramatic increase in acreage burned by wildfires. In that period over 250...

  11. 78 FR 21098 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Hills National Forest Advisory Board (Board) will meet in Rapid City South Dakota. The Board is... staff before the meeting. The agenda will include time for people to make oral statements of three...

  12. Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, P.H.; Davis, A.D.; Webb, C.J.; Nichols, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but he impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area. 26 refs

  13. Multiple-scale roost habitat comparisons of female Merriam's wild turkeys in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Thompson; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake; Chad P. Lehman

    2009-01-01

    Because quantity and quality of roosting habitat can affect Merriam's Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) distribution, we described habitat characteristics of Merriam's turkey roost sites in the southern Black Hills of South Dakota. Varying proportions of Merriam's turkeys in the southern Black Hills depended on supplemental feed from livestock...

  14. Large-scale thinning, ponderosa pine, and mountain pine beetle in the Black Hills, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt K. Allen; Angie Ambourn; Blaine Cook; Kenneth Marchand

    2017-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB), can cause extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, USA. Lower tree densities have been associated with reduced MPB-caused tree mortality, but few studies have reported on large-scale thinning and most data come from small plots that...

  15. Landscape scale attributes of elk centers of activity in the central Black Hills of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia H. Stubblefield; Kerri T. Vierling; Mark A. Rumble

    2006-01-01

    We researched the environmental attributes (n = 28) associated with elk (n = 50) summer range (1 May ­30 Sep) in the central Black Hills of South Dakota, USA, during 1998-­2001. We defined high-use areas or centers of activity as landscapes underlying large concentrations of elk locations resulting from the shared fidelity of...

  16. Trembling aspen response to a mixed-severity wildfire in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara L. Keyser; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2005-01-01

    Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) regeneration dynamics including sprout production, growth, and clone size were measured to determine the effects of fire on small aspen clone persistence following a mixedseverity wildfire in the Black Hills, South Dakota. Four years postfire, 10 small, isolated aspen clones per low and high fire severity...

  17. Ten-year results of a ponderosa pine progeny test in the Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd; Sue E. McElderry

    1986-01-01

    Ten-year survival and growth of seedlings from 77 parent trees from throughout the Black Hills were compared, using a cluster-analysis technique. Five clusters were identified that account for most of the variability in survival and growth of the open-pollinated families. One cluster, containing 6 families, exhibited exceptional survival and growth. Another, containing...

  18. Predicting mortality of ponderosa pine regeneration after prescribed fire in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Battaglia; Frederick W. Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2009-01-01

    Reduction of crown fire hazard in Pinus ponderosa forests in the Black Hills, SD, often focuses on the removal of overstorey trees to reduce crown bulk density. Dense ponderosa pine regeneration establishes several years after treatment and eventually increases crown fire risk if allowed to grow. Using prescribed fire to control this regeneration is...

  19. Mountain pine beetle-killed trees as snags in Black Hills ponderosa pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; W. C. Schaupp

    2009-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle-killed ponderosa pine trees in three stands of different stocking levels near Bear Mountain in the Black Hills National Forest were surveyed over a 5-year period to determine how long they persisted as unbroken snags. Rate of breakage varied during the first 5 years after MPB infestation: only one tree broke during the first 2 years in the three...

  20. Macrohabitat associations of Merriam's turkeys in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1993-01-01

    Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) were introduced into South Dakota in the late 1940's and have since expanded to occupy the entire Black Hills. Because little is known of their habitat requirements and the effects of forest management practices on this important game species, macrohabitat selections patterns of Merriam'...

  1. Feeding ecology of Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1996-01-01

    W e studied the feeding ecology of Merriam’s turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the Black Hills, South Dakota, between 1986 and 1989. Adult birds consumed 78 kinds of food, of which four food categories constituted >79% of winter diets and six food categories constituted >75% of summer diets. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seeds were...

  2. Archaeological Sites Inventory in the Black Hills of the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site, Las Animas County, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, Mark

    2000-01-01

    .... These tree-covered areas located adjacent to open plains, appear black on the horizon. This setting of open steppes and juxtaposed hills is found along the eastern portion of the Pinon Canyon Maneuver Site (PCMS), a U.S...

  3. Spatial analysis of Northern Goshawk Territories in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, Robert W.; Backlund, Douglas; Bartelt, Paul E.; Erickson, Michael G.; Knowles, Craig J.; Knowles, Pamela R.; Wimberly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is the largest of the three North American species ofAccipiter and is more closely associated with older forests than are the other species. Its reliance on older forests has resulted in concerns about its status, extensive research into its habitat relationships, and litigation. Our objective was to model the spatial patterns of goshawk territories in the Black Hills, South Dakota, to make inferences about the underlying processes. We used a modification of Ripley's K function that accounts for inhomogeneous intensity to determine whether territoriality or habitat determined the spacing of goshawks in the Black Hills, finding that habitat conditions rather than territoriality were the determining factor. A spatial model incorporating basal area of trees in a stand of forest, canopy cover, age of trees >23 cm in diameter, number of trees per hectare, and geographic coordinates provided good fit to the spatial patterns of territories. There was no indication of repulsion at close distances that would imply spacing was determined by territoriality. These findings contrast with those for the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, where territoriality is an important limiting factor. Forest stands where the goshawk nested historically are now younger and have trees of smaller diameter, probably having been modified by logging, fire, and insects. These results have important implications for the goshawk's ecology in the Black Hills with respect to mortality, competition, forest fragmentation, and nest-territory protection.

  4. Karst and Caves of the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA; Karst y cuevas de las Black Hills, Dakota del Sur, EE.UU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    The caves of the Black Hills are located in Carboniferous limestone and dolomite of the Madison Formation in western South Dakota. The climate is semi-arid, and surface karst features are few. Entrances to known caves are rather small, and the two largest caves, Wind Cave and Jewel Cave, were discovered only in the late 1880s and in 1900, respectively. Intermittent exploration and mapping have been conducted by local volunteers, National Park Service staff, and the National Speleological Society. Jewel Cave, in Jewel Cave National Monument, contains 290 km of mapped passages; and Wind Cave, in Wind Cave National Park, contains 230 km. They are the third and sixth longest known caves in the world. (Author)

  5. Late Holocene flood probabilities in the Black Hills, South Dakota with emphasis on the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, James E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    A stratigraphic record of 35 large paleofloods and four large historical floods during the last 2000 years for four basins in the Black Hills of South Dakota reveals three long-term flooding episodes, identified using probability distributions, at A.D.: 120–395, 900–1290, and 1410 to present. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~ A.D. 900–1300) the four basins collectively experienced 13 large floods compared to nine large floods in the previous 800 years, including the largest floods of the last 2000 years for two of the four basins. This high concentration of extreme floods is likely caused by one or more of the following: 1) instability of air masses caused by stronger than normal westerlies; 2) larger or more frequent hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean; and/or 3) reduced land covering vegetation or increased forest fires caused by persistent regional drought.

  6. Resource selection for foraging by female Merriam's wild turkeys with poults in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad P. Lehman; Mark A. Rumble; Lester D. Flake; Daniel J. Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of Merriam's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) resource selection in the context of landscape attributes is an important asset for managing resources on multiple-use public lands. We investigated resource selection for foraging by Merriam's wild turkey broods in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. We collected macro- and microhabitat...

  7. Research and Development for Underground Science at Black Hills State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeter, Kara

    2010-10-01

    The development of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in the former Homestake mine in Lead, South Dakota has greatly spurred interest in science research and development along with education and outreach. Early science activities at Black Hills State University associated with the Sanford Underground Laboratory and DUSEL include radon emanation studies of iron oxide sludge and in situ, and radioactive background and magnetic field measurements. Work is also underway for R&D development for depleted argon-based dark matter detectors, neutrinoless double beta decay experiments, and a liquid scintillator immersion tank for whole-body low-background assays. Students from BHSU and across the state of South Dakota have been working alongside scientists on these and other projects. Teachers from high schools throughout South Dakota have also participated in these projects through the newly formed QuarkNet Center at BHSU.

  8. Abundance of Black-backed woodpeckers and other birds in relation to disturbance and forest structure in the Black Hills and Bear Lodge Mountains of South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Matseur

    2017-01-01

    Natural disturbances, such as wildfire and mountain pine beetle (Dentroctonus ponderosae, hereafter MPB) infestations, are two sources of large-scale disturbance that can significantly alter forest structure in the Black Hills. The Black Hills has recently experienced one of the largest MPB outbreaks in the last 100 years, along with varying levels of wildfires...

  9. Stratigraphy and structure of the northern and western flanks of the Black Hills Uplift, Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.S.; Mapel, W.J.; Bergendahl, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the stratigraphy and structure of an area of about 5000 square miles in northeastern Wyoming and adjacent parts of Montana and South Dakota. The area includes the northern end and part of the western side of the Black Hills Uplift and the adjoining part of the Powder River Basin. About 11,000 ft of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Mississippian to Early Tertiary are exposed in the area, not including surficial deposits of Tertiary (.) and Quaternary age. Oil is produced from several fields on the wet side of the Black Hills Uplift in Wyoming. Bentonite is mined at many places. The Fort Union and Wasatch Formations contain large reserves of sub-bituminous coal, and Lakota Formation contains some bituminous coal

  10. The influence of light, stream gradient, and iron on Didymosphenia geminata bloom development in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Mosel, Kyle; Chipps, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic nuisance species Didymosphenia geminata was first documented in Rapid Creek of South Dakota’s Black Hills during 2002. Since then, blooms have occurred primarily in a 39-km section of Rapid Creek while blooms were rarely observed in other Black Hills streams. In this study, we evaluated factors related to the presence and development of visible colonies of D. geminata in four streams of the Black Hills. At the watershed scale, stream gradient was negatively associated with the occurrence of D. geminata whereas stream width was positively related to D. geminata presence. At the stream scale, D. geminata coverage was inversely related to canopy coverage and iron concentration. At the local scale, shading by bridges virtually eliminated growth of D. geminata colonies under bridges. At all three scales, proxy measures of light such as stream width, canopy coverage, and bridge shading revealed that light availability was an important factor influencing the presence and coverage of D. geminata colonies. In general, streams that had relatively wide stream reaches (mean = 9.9 m), shallow gradients (mean = 0.22%), and little canopy cover (mean = 13%) were associated with D. geminata blooms. In addition, iron concentrations in streams with D. geminata colonies were lower than in streams without blooms.

  11. Flood-frequency analyses from paleoflood investigations for Spring, Rapid, Boxelder, and Elk Creeks, Black Hills, western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Stamm, John F.

    2011-01-01

    ) corresponds with a recurrence interval of ~400 years. Recurrence intervals are ~500 years for the 1972 flood magnitudes along the lower Rapid Creek reach and the upstream subreach of Boxelder Creek. For the downstream subreach of Boxelder Creek, the large 1972 flood magnitude (50,500 ft3/s) exceeds the 500-year quantile estimate by about 35 percent. The recurrence interval of ~100 years for 1972 flooding along the Elk Creek study reach is small relative to other study reaches along the eastern margin of the Black Hills. All of the paleofloods plot within the bounds of a national envelope curve, indicating that the national curve represents exceedingly rare floods for the Black Hills area. Elk Creek, lower Rapid Creek, and the downstream subreach of Boxelder Creek all have paleofloods that plot above a regional envelope curve; in the case of Elk Creek, by a factor of nearly two. The Black Hills paleofloods represent some of the largest known floods, relative to drainage area, for the United States. Many of the other largest known United States floods are in areas with physiographic and climatologic conditions broadly similar to the Black Hills-semiarid and rugged landscapes that intercept and focus heavy precipitation from convective storm systems. The 1972 precipitation and runoff patterns, previous analyses of peak-flow records, and the paleoflood investigations of this study support a hypothesis of distinct differences in flood generation within the central Black Hills study area. The eastern Black Hills are susceptible to intense orographic lifting associated with convective storm systems and also have high relief, thin soils, and narrow and steep canyons-factors favoring generation of exceptionally heavy rain-producing thunderstorms and promoting runoff and rapid concentration of flow into stream channels. In contrast, storm potential is smaller in and near the Limestone Plateau area, and storm runoff is further reduced by substantial infiltration into the limestone

  12. A Black Hills-Madison Aquifer origin for Dakota Aquifer groundwater in northeastern Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotler, Randy; Harvey, F Edwin; Gosselin, David C

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of the Dakota Aquifer in South Dakota attributed elevated groundwater sulfate concentrations to Madison Aquifer recharge in the Black Hills with subsequent chemical evolution prior to upward migration into the Dakota Aquifer. This study examines the plausibility of a Madison Aquifer origin for groundwater in northeastern Nebraska. Dakota Aquifer water samples were collected for major ion chemistry and isotopic analysis ((18)O, (2)H, (3)H, (14)C, (13)C, (34)S, (18)O-SO(4), (87)Sr, (37)Cl). Results show that groundwater beneath the eastern, unconfined portion of the study area is distinctly different from groundwater sampled beneath the western, confined portion. In the east, groundwater is calcium-bicarbonate type, with delta(18)O values (-9.6 per thousand to -12.4 per thousand) similar to local, modern precipitation (-7.4 per thousand to -10 per thousand), and tritium values reflecting modern recharge. In the west, groundwater is calcium-sulfate type, having depleted delta(18)O values (-16 per thousand to -18 per thousand) relative to local, modern precipitation, and (14)C ages 32,000 to more than 47,000 years before present. Sulfate, delta(18)O, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O-SO(4) concentrations are similar to those found in Madison Aquifer groundwater in South Dakota. Thus, it is proposed that Madison Aquifer source water is also present within the Dakota Aquifer beneath northeastern Nebraska. A simple Darcy equation estimate of groundwater velocities and travel times using reported physical parameters from the Madison and Dakota Aquifers suggests such a migration is plausible. However, discrepancies between (14)C and Darcy age estimates indicate that (14)C ages may not accurately reflect aquifer residence time, due to mixtures of varying aged water.

  13. Analysis of crystallographic preferred orientations of experimentally deformed Black Hills Quartzite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Rüdiger; Heilbronner, Renée

    2017-10-01

    The crystallographic preferred orientations (textures) of three samples of Black Hills Quartzite (BHQ) deformed experimentally in the dislocation creep regimes 1, 2 and 3 (according to Hirth and Tullis, 1992) have been analyzed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). All samples were deformed to relatively high strain at temperatures of 850 to 915 °C and are almost completely dynamically recrystallized. A texture transition from peripheral [c] axes in regime 1 to a central [c] maximum in regime 3 is observed. Separate pole figures are calculated for different grain sizes, aspect ratios and long-axis trends of grains, and high and low levels of intragranular deformation intensity as measured by the mean grain kernel average misorientation (gKAM). Misorientation relations are analyzed for grains of different texture components (named Y, B, R and σ grains, with reference to previously published prism, basal, rhomb and σ1 grains). Results show that regimes 1 and 3 correspond to clear end-member textures, with regime 2 being transitional. Texture strength and the development of a central [c]-axis maximum from a girdle distribution depend on deformation intensity at the grain scale and on the contribution of dislocation creep, which increases towards regime 3. Adding to this calculations of resolved shear stresses and misorientation analysis, it becomes clear that the peripheral [c]-axis maximum in regime 1 is not due to deformation by basal a slip. Instead, we interpret the texture transition as a result of different texture forming processes, one being more efficient at high stresses (nucleation or growth of grains with peripheral [c] axes), the other depending on strain (dislocation glide involving prism and rhomb a slip systems), and not as a result of temperature-dependent activity of different slip systems.

  14. REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia GAVUIK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topicality. The Black Sea region is situated in a very important geopolitical manner. Consequently, a large-scale regional collaboration becomes possible within the Black Sea zone and countries get appropriate conditions to launch their activity in this context. Aim: The body of the article is going to analyze the BSEC as one of the most successful regional organizations in the Black Sea area. The paper aims to provide an overview of the regional players’ activity in the framework of the BSEC which are involved in sustaining and strengthening of this organization and also in continuing the reform process in it, developing in the same time relations of cooperation with the EU and other regional initiatives. Methods. This article embraces a row of different scientific methods of data analysis, predictive analytics, historical and statistical overview, descriptive method, case study etc. Results. The countries from the Black Sea basin are the most vulnerable to potential risks and shocks due to the instability of the region. This requires the interstate cooperation in the Black Sea area with no tradition in this field several decades ago. In the same time, countries like Turkey, Romania or Russia aspire to play the role of the regional leader, which can cause regional rivalries. With the help of the regional cooperation and the BSEC in particular, regional countries could learn how to work together for the common benefit. The creation of stable markets, interconnected and transparent regional organizations and initiatives would largely contribute to the security and stability of the Black Sea region.

  15. Flood hydrology and dam-breach hydraulic analyses of four reservoirs in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive information about the construction of dams or potential downstream hazards in the event of a dam breach is not available for many small reservoirs within the Black Hills National Forest. In 2009, the U.S. Forest Service identified the need for reconnaissance-level dam-breach assessments for four of these reservoirs within the Black Hills National Forest (Iron Creek, Horsethief, Lakota, and Mitchell Lakes) with the potential to flood downstream structures. Flood hydrology and dam-breach hydraulic analyses for the four selected reservoirs were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Forest service to estimate the areal extent of downstream inundation. Three high-flow breach scenarios were considered for cases when the dam is in place (overtopped) and when a dam break (failure) occurs: the 100-year recurrence 24-hour precipitation, 500-year recurrence peak flow, and the probable maximum precipitation. Inundation maps were developed that show the estimated extent of downstream floodwaters from simulated scenarios. Simulation results were used to determine the hazard classification of a dam break (high, significant, or low), based primarily on the potential for loss of life or property damage resulting from downstream inundation because of the flood surge.The inflow design floods resulting from the two simulated storm events (100-year 24-hour and probable maximum precipitation) were determined using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS). The inflow design flood for the 500-year recurrence peak flow was determined by using regional regression equations developed for streamflow-gaging stations with similar watershed characteristics. The step-backwater hydraulic analysis model, Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS), was used to determine water-surface profiles of in-place and dam-break scenarios for the three inflow design floods that were

  16. Inventory of forest and rangeland resources, including forest stress. [Atlanta, Georgia, Black Hills, and Manitou, Colorado test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. C.; Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Some current beetle-killed ponderosa pine can be detected on S190-B photography imaged over the Bear Lodge mountains in the Black Hills National Forest. Detections were made on SL-3 imagery (September 13, 1973) using a zoom lens microscope to view the photography. At this time correlations have not been made to all of the known infestation spots in the Bear Lodge mountains; rather, known infestations have been located on the SL-3 imagery. It was determined that the beetle-killed trees were current kills by stereo viewing of SL-3 imagery on one side and SL-2 on the other. A successful technique was developed for mapping current beetle-killed pine using MSS imagery from mission 247 flown by the C-130 over the Black Hills test site in September 1973. Color enhancement processing on the NASA/JSC, DAS system using three MSS channels produced an excellent quality detection map for current kill pine. More importantly it provides a way to inventory the dead trees by relating PCM counts to actual numbers of dead trees.

  17. Hydrologic Effects of the 1988 Galena Fire, Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

    2004-01-01

    The Galena Fire burned about 16,788 acres of primarily ponderosa pine forest during July 5-8, 1988, in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. The fire burned primarily within the Grace Coolidge Creek drainage basin and almost entirely within the boundaries of Custer State Park. A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station with streamflow records dating back to 1977 was located along Grace Coolidge Creek within the burned area. About one-half of the gaging station's 26.8-square-mile drainage area was burned. The drainage basin for Bear Gulch, which is tributary to Grace Coolidge Creek, was burned particularly severely, with complete deforestation occurring in nearly the entirety of the area upstream from a gaging station that was installed in 1989. A study to evaluate effects of the Galena Fire on streamflow, geomorphology, and water quality was initiated in 1988. The geomorphologic and water-quality components of the study were completed by 1990 and are summarized in this report. A data-collection network consisting of streamflow- and precipitation-gaging stations was operated through water year 1998 for evaluation of effects on streamflow characteristics, including both annual-yield and peak-flow characteristics, which are the main focus of this report. Moderately burned areas did not experience a substantial increase in the rate of surface erosion; however, severely burned areas underwent surficial erosion nearly twice that of the unburned areas. The sediment production rate of Bear Gulch estimated 8 to 14 months after the fire was 870 ft3/acre (44 tons/acre). Substantial degradation of stream channels within the severely burned headwater areas of Bear Gulch was documented. Farther downstream, channel aggradation resulted from deposition of sediments transported from the headwater areas. The most notable water-quality effect was on concentrations of suspended sediment, which were orders of magnitude higher for Bear Gulch than for the unburned control area. Effects on

  18. Hieracium caespitosum and Hieracium piloselloides (Asteraceae) in the Black Hills National Forest: New state records for South Dakota, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian E. Dickerson; Cheryl Mayer; Justin Ramsey; Zach Mergen; Mark Gabel

    2016-01-01

    Hieracium spp. (Asteraceae) are noted for their taxonomic complexity, frequent incidence of apomixis and polyploidy, and invasive tendencies. Here we report the Eurasian taxa, Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. and Hieracium piloselloides Vill., as recent additions to the flora of South Dakota. Plants were collected at three locations in the Black Hills during 2014 and 2015...

  19. Comparison of HSPF and PRMS model simulated flows using different temporal and spatial scales in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, D. R.; Haj, Adel E.; Fontaine, T.A.

    2018-01-01

    The hydrological simulation program Fortran (HSPF) [Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran version 12.2 (Computer software). USEPA, Washington, DC] and the precipitation runoff modeling system (PRMS) [Precipitation Runoff Modeling System version 4.0 (Computer software). USGS, Reston, VA] models are semidistributed, deterministic hydrological tools for simulating the impacts of precipitation, land use, and climate on basin hydrology and streamflow. Both models have been applied independently to many watersheds across the United States. This paper reports the statistical results assessing various temporal (daily, monthly, and annual) and spatial (small versus large watershed) scale biases in HSPF and PRMS simulations using two watersheds in the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Pearson correlation coefficient (r">rr), and coefficient of determination (R2">R2R2) statistics for the daily, monthly, and annual flows were used to evaluate the models’ performance. Results from the HSPF models showed that the HSPF consistently simulated the annual flows for both large and small basins better than the monthly and daily flows, and the simulated flows for the small watershed better than flows for the large watershed. In comparison, the PRMS model results show that the PRMS simulated the monthly flows for both the large and small watersheds better than the daily and annual flows, and the range of statistical error in the PRMS models was greater than that in the HSPF models. Moreover, it can be concluded that the statistical error in the HSPF and the PRMSdaily, monthly, and annual flow estimates for watersheds in the Black Hills was influenced by both temporal and spatial scale variability.

  20. Sustainable Agriculture Evaluation for Red Soil Hill Region of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qi-Guo; XU Meng-Jie

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural sustainability for economic development is important and a complex issue throughout the world; however,it is difficult to synthetically evaluate its use in the policy making process. The objective of this study was to evaluate sustainable agriculture in the red soil hill region of Southeast China through a newly proposed method combining four separate sub-systems: regional population (P), resource (R), environmental (E), and socio-economic (S). This new index system was proposed to appraise synthetically the agricultural sustainability of the red soil hill region from 1988 to 1996 with a two-step method assessing: a) the agricultural sustainability in each province independently and b) the relative sustainability of each province to the whole region. The first step only provided a development trend for each province based on its original situation, while the second step provided additional information on the comparative status of each province in agricultural development to the region as a whole. Higher index scores were found for the economy and resource categories denoting improvement. However, lower scores in the environment category indicated the improvement was achieved at the cost of deteriorating ecological surroundings due to an increasing population that demanded more from the agro-ecosystem and put heavier pressures on it. Results also showed that water and soil losses in this region were the major obstacles encountered in sustainable agriculture development. The assessment results were verified when compared with results from another method. This suggested that the new assessment system was reliable and credible in evaluating agricultural sustainability on a regional scale.

  1. The stable problem of the black-hole connected region in the Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guihua

    2005-01-01

    The stability of the Schwarzschild black hole is studied. Using the Painlev\\'{e} coordinate, our region can be defined as the black-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole or the white-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole. We study the stable problems of the black-hole-connected region. The conclusions are: (1) in the black-hole-connected region, the initially regular perturbation fields must have real frequency or complex frequen...

  2. Au-Pt-Pd-U mineralization in the Coronation Hill-El Sherana region, NT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyborn, L.

    1992-01-01

    In 1990 BMR's Minerals and Land Use program conducted an geochemical and geophysical survey to provide the best possible basis for estimating the resource potential of the Kakadu Conservation Zone. Combining the old and new data, an integrated model for the deposit types has been developed. Although differing in metal content, all mines and prospects of the Coronation Hill region share similar timing and structural controls, suggesting that they are related to one geochemical system. The presence or absence of U in the Au-Pt-Pd mineralisation appears related to geological differences, primarily in host-rock composition. U-bearing deposits are hosted mainly in carbonaceous shales, although some U is associated with chloritic zones. Deposits lacking U, best developed at Coronation Hill, occur in a broad range of host rocks, including quartz-feldspar porphyry, green tuffaceous shale, diorite, dolomite, and sedimentary breccias. Although seemingly diverse rock types, the common components of these U-poor host units are feldspar and/or carbonate. 1 tab., 3 figs

  3. Recovery of native prairie after pipeline construction in the Sand Hills region of Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.; Kremer, L.; Marshall, W.

    1996-01-01

    Land reclamation measures taken after construction of a large diameter natural gas pipeline in the Great Sand Hills region of southwestern Saskatchewan were detailed. Mitigation measures included modified construction procedures to minimize the size of the disturbance, worker educational programs to sensitize them to the prevailing fragile environment, dormant season construction, efforts to salvage topsoil seedbank, fertilizer application, straw bale wind barriers, brush mulch wind barriers, surface manipulation with the Hodder Gouger, fencing-out cattle, and the application of a seed mixture of agronomic legumes and native grasses. Vegetation and soil erosion were monitored over a period of four years. After four years the canopy cover was 88 per cent native species. On low-lying, protected sites vegetation was stable enough to support cattle grazing. Exposed sites will not reach this level of vegetation stability for some years to come due soil erosion by wind

  4. Prescribed Grassland Burning Smoke Emission Measurements in the Northern Flint Hills Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. L.; Baker, K. R.; Landis, M.; Aurell, J.; Gullett, B.

    2017-12-01

    Historically, frequent wildfires were essential for the maintenance of native prairie fire adapted ecosystems. Today prescribed fires are used to control invasive woody species and potentially improve forage production in these same prairie ecosystems for the beef-cattle industry. The emission of primary particulate matter, secondary aerosol, ozone precursors, and air toxics from prescribed grassland burning operations has been implicated as drivers of downwind air quality problems across a multi-state area. A field study has been planned to quantify prescribed burn smoke emissions using both surface and aerial sampling platforms to better constrain emissions rates for organic and inorganic pollutants. Multiple prescribed burns on tallgrass prairie fields in the northern Flint Hills ecoregion are planned for March 2017 at the Konza Prairie Biological Station in Kansas. An array of measurement systems will be deployed to quantify a suite of continuous and integrated air pollution parameters, combustion conditions, meteorological parameters, and plume dynamics to calculate more accurate and condition-specific emission factors that will be used to better predict primary and secondary pollutants both locally and regionally. These emissions measurements will allow for evaluation and improvement of the U.S. Forest Service's Bluesky modeling framework which includes the Fire Emission Production Simulator (FEPS) and Fuel characterization classification system (FCCS). Elucidating grassland prescribed burning emission factors based on fuel type, loading, and environmental conditions is expected to provide an improved understanding of the impact of this land management practice on air quality in the greater Flint Hills region. It is also expected that measurements will be made to help constrain and develop better routines for fire plume rise, vertical allocation, and smoke optical properties.

  5. Influence of drought conditions on brown trout biomass and size structure in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daniel A.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of drought conditions on the biomass of brown trout Salmo trutta in Spearfish Creek, upper Rapid Creek, and lower Rapid Creek in the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Stream discharge, mean summer water temperature, the biomass of juvenile and adult brown trout, and brown trout size structure were compared between two time periods: early (2000–2002) and late drought (2005–2007). Mean summer water temperatures were similar between the early- and late-drought periods in Spearfish Creek (12.4°C versus 11.5°C), lower Rapid Creek (19.2°C versus 19.3°C), and upper Rapid Creek (9.8°C in both periods). In contrast, mean annual discharge differed significantly between the two time periods in Spearfish Creek (1.95 versus 1.50 m3/s), lower Rapid Creek (2.01 versus 0.94 m3/s), and upper Rapid Creek (1.41 versus 0.84 m3/s). The mean biomass of adult brown trout in all three stream sections was significantly higher in the early-drought than in the late-drought period (238 versus 69 kg/ha in Spearfish Creek, 272 versus 91 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and 159 versus 32 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek). The biomass of juvenile brown trout was similar (43 versus 23 kg/ha) in Spearfish Creek in the two periods, declined from 136 to 45 kg/ha in lower Rapid Creek, and increased from 14 to 73 kg/ha in upper Rapid Creek. Size structure did not differ between the early- and late-drought periods in lower Rapid and Spearfish creeks, but it did in upper Rapid Creek. In addition to drought conditions, factors such as angler harvest, fish movements, and the nuisance algal species Didymosphenia geminata are discussed as possible contributors to the observed changes in brown trout biomass and size structure in Black Hills streams.

  6. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T Rota

    Full Text Available Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  7. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Christopher T; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Rumble, Mark A; Lehman, Chad P; Kesler, Dylan C

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  8. The effect of agricultural policy reforms on income inequality in Swiss agriculture - An analysis for valley, hill and mountain regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    Using FADN data, we analyse the development of income inequality in Swiss agriculture for the valley, hill and mountain regions over the period 1990–2009. While household income inequality remained stable, farm income inequality increased during this period. Estimated Gini elasticities show that

  9. Selected Data for Wells and Test Holes Used in Structure-Contour Maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Janet M

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota...

  10. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with 40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater horizontal cover than feeding and random sites. When feeding and bedding sites were combined

  11. Hydrologic budgets for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1987-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming. Quantification and evaluation of various hydrologic budget components are important for managing and understanding these aquifers. Hydrologic budgets are developed for two scenarios, including an overall budget for the entire study area and more detailed budgets for subareas. Budgets generally are combined for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers because most budget components cannot be quantified individually for the aquifers. An average hydrologic budget for the entire study area is computed for water years 1987-96, for which change in storage is approximately equal to zero. Annual estimates of budget components are included in detailed budgets for nine subareas, which consider periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96). Inflow components include recharge, leakage from adjacent aquifers, and ground-water inflows across the study area boundary. Outflows include springflow (headwater and artesian), well withdrawals, leakage to adjacent aquifers, and ground-water outflow across the study area boundary. Leakage, ground-water inflows, and ground-water outflows are difficult to quantify and cannot be distinguished from one another. Thus, net ground-water flow, which includes these components, is calculated as a residual, using estimates for the other budget components. For the overall budget for water years 1987-96, net ground-water outflow from the study area is computed as 100 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Estimates of average combined budget components for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are: 395 ft3/s for recharge, 78 ft3/s for headwater springflow, 189 ft3/s for artesian springflow, and 28 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Hydrologic budgets also are quantified for nine subareas for periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96), with changes in storage assumed equal but opposite. Common

  12. High-resolution backscatter power observations of 440-MHz E region coherent echoes at Millstone Hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.C.; Tetenbaum, D.

    1991-01-01

    A 40-μs pulse length has been used to provide 10-s temporal and 6-km range resolution observations of E region coherent backscatter from the premidnight eastward electrojet region to the north of Millstone Hill. The observations can be divided into two categories: strong events in which the backscattered amplitude nears saturation and weak events in which spatial structure and large-amplitude variations are common. Calibrated observations find a typical volume scattering coefficient of ∼10 -11 m -1 at 440 MHz during strong events with a maximum level of 9 x 10 -10 m -1 observed for brief intervals. During less intense events the radar backscatter is modulated by ∼30dB in amplitude at Pc 5 frequencies (150-500 s) by waves with spatial wavelength 50-100 km. The observations support the premise that the weak irregularities grow linearly with electric field strength and reach a saturation amplitude beyond which the oscillating electric field of the Pc pulsation has little effect. The observed variation of backscattered power with range is interpreted using a geometrical model which accounts for the detailed antenna beam pattern, a magnetic aspect angle sensitivity of -10 dB per degree, and a thin layer of irregularities centered at 110 km altitude. For strongly driven conditions a comparison of the range variation of backscattered power with the thin layer model suggests that the signal power becomes increasingly dominated by strong scatters confined to a narrower altitude range. The apparent altitude extent of the strongest irregularities decreases by a factor of 2 as the amplitude of the backscattered signal increases by a factor of 10

  13. Records of the Genus Paramerina (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from Eastern Himalaya and Satpura Hill Regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, N; Hazra, N; Mazumdar, A

    2013-10-01

    The pupa and the male imago of Paramerina valida n. sp. and the larva of Paramerina inficia Chaudhuri & Debnath are described and illustrated along with a brief re-description of the adult of P. inficia from the Eastern Himalaya and Satpura hill regions of India. A key to the adult males of the Indian species of the genus Paramerina Fittkau is provided. The notes on ecology of the two species are also provided.

  14. Seed population dynamics on abandoned slopes in the hill and gully Loess Plateau region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weijie; Jiao, Juying

    2017-04-01

    Recovery of natural vegetation is an effective but slow approach to control the soil erosion in the Chinese hill and gully Loess Plateau region. As seed stage is particularly vulnerable to environmental conditions, characteristics of seed population should be needed to study for determining whether the recovery of natural vegetation is limited during this stage on the abandoned slopes in this region. The study was performed on three abandoned slopes in a watershed with an area of 8.27 km2in the Shaanxi province of China. The differences in soil seed banks were investigated in two different points in time, late March2011 and early April 2013. Main factors of seed population dynamics, such as seed yield of dominant species, seed inputs by seed rain as well as seed outputs through seed loss by overland flow and seedling emergence, were monitored from late March 2011 to early April 2013. In this study, seed rain densities of the main later successional species, i.e., Lespedeza davurica, Stipa bungeana and Artemisia gmelinii accounted for 51.5-71.6% of their own seed yields. The soil seed bank density in early April 2013 was larger than that in late March 2011. The density of seed inputs by seed rain was 10186 seeds•m-2, and the total seed bank, including seed rain and seeds present in the soil seed bank in late March 2011, reached a density of 15018 seeds•m-2 during the study period. Seed densities of loss due to overland flow and seedling emergence were 79 seeds•m-2 from 20 species and 938 seedlings•m-2 that belonged to 38 species during a study period, and the seed output through them accounted for 0.5% and 6.3% of the total seed bank, respectively. The study concluded that overland flow could not result in large numbers of seeds loss and seeds were accumulating in the soil seed bank due to seed rain, and vegetation succession might be limited by curbed spatial seed dispersal and seedling establishment.

  15. Assessment of Groundwater Resources in Kirana Hills Region, Rabwah, District Chiniot, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Naseer Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to assess the groundwater quality of the area adjacent to Precambrian Kirana Hills, Pakistan. The majority of the people in the area use groundwater from private wells for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is important to provide an overview of the groundwater quality. This information would be beneficial to local people and the administration for selecting suitable water treatment methods. Samples were collected from different wells of Rabwah town, close to the Kirana Hills. Parameters like EC, pH, alkalinity and total dissolved solids (TDS were determined for 142 samples. While 40 samples were analyzed for hardness, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, NO3, and F. standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO were considered to evaluate the quality of groundwater. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to interpolate analyzed physicochemical parameters. The results showed that EC, TDS, hardness, Cl, SO4, and Ca were very high in the water samples of the area. Fifty-two percent of samples had pH values lower than the permissible limits. Results suggest that the water quality is extremely adverse close to the hills. The poor water quality in the area near the hills may be due to the limited recharge of aquifers because of the hills and shallow basement, which may act as a barrier to subsurface water movement. Some physical and chemical parameters indicated that the quality of water at deeper levels (i.e. >150 ft is relatively better. This may be due to limited exploitation of water from deeper aquifers as compared to shallow aquifers. Hence, proper aquifer management is required to prevent water quality deterioration due to over exploiataion. NO3 was found within the acceptable limits and all water samples were found free of any significant contamination by human activities.

  16. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural geology of the CP Hills, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada; and regional implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, S. John [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-08-01

    Detailed mapping and structural analysis of upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks in the CP Hills of the Nevada Test Site, together with analysis of published maps and cross sections and a reconnaissance of regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust of Barnes and Poole (1968) actually comprises two separate, oppositely verging Mesozoic thrust systems: (1) the west-vergent CP thrust which is well exposed in the CP Hills and at Mine Mountain, and (2) the east-vergent Belted Range thrust located northwest of Yucca Flat. West-vergence of the CP thrust is indicated by large scale west-vergent recumbent folds in both its hangingwall and footwall and by the fact that the CP thrust ramps up section through hangingwall strata toward the northwest. Regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust forms part of a narrow sigmoidal belt of west-vergent folding and thrusting traceable for over 180 km along strike. The Belted Range thrust represents earlier Mesozoic deformation that was probably related to the Last Chance thrust system in southeastern California, as suggested by earlier workers. A pre-Tertiary reconstruction of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt in the region between the NTS and the Las Vegas Range bears a close resemblance to other regions of the Cordillera and has important implications for the development of hinterland-vergent deformation as well as for the probable magnitude of Tertiary extension north of Las Vegas Valley. Subsequent to Mesozoic deformation, the CP Hills were disrupted by at least two episodes of Tertiary extensional deformation: (1) an earlier episode represented by pre-middle Miocene low-angle normal faults, and (2) a later, post-11 Ma episode of high-angle normal faulting. Both episodes of extension were related to regional deformation, the latter of which has resulted in the present basin and range topography of the NTS region.

  17. Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural geology of the CP Hills, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada; and regional implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caskey, S.J.

    1991-08-01

    Detailed mapping and structural analysis of upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks in the CP Hills of the Nevada Test Site, together with analysis of published maps and cross sections and a reconnaissance of regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust of Barnes and Poole (1968) actually comprises two separate, oppositely verging Mesozoic thrust systems: (1) the west-vergent CP thrust which is well exposed in the CP Hills and at Mine Mountain, and (2) the east-vergent Belted Range thrust located northwest of Yucca Flat. West-vergence of the CP thrust is indicated by large scale west-vergent recumbent folds in both its hangingwall and footwall and by the fact that the CP thrust ramps up section through hangingwall strata toward the northwest. Regional structural relations indicate that the CP thrust forms part of a narrow sigmoidal belt of west-vergent folding and thrusting traceable for over 180 km along strike. The Belted Range thrust represents earlier Mesozoic deformation that was probably related to the Last Chance thrust system in southeastern California, as suggested by earlier workers. A pre-Tertiary reconstruction of the Cordilleran fold and thrust belt in the region between the NTS and the Las Vegas Range bears a close resemblance to other regions of the Cordillera and has important implications for the development of hinterland-vergent deformation as well as for the probable magnitude of Tertiary extension north of Las Vegas Valley. Subsequent to Mesozoic deformation, the CP Hills were disrupted by at least two episodes of Tertiary extensional deformation: (1) an earlier episode represented by pre-middle Miocene low-angle normal faults, and (2) a later, post-11 Ma episode of high-angle normal faulting. Both episodes of extension were related to regional deformation, the latter of which has resulted in the present basin and range topography of the NTS region

  18. What's inside the black box: a case study of allocative politics in the Hill-Burton program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshbach, D

    1979-01-01

    This paper explores the political and bureaucratic determinants of grant allocations within the Hospital Survey and Construction Act of 1946 (the Hill-Burton Act), which established the major hospital construction subsidy program in the United States. Resource allocation within the Hill-Burton Program was neither purely a function of external political forces impinging on the state nor purely a result of internal organizational factors. Instead, as shown in the analysis which follows, external political forces shaped program structure, operating routines, and rules and regulations at the time of the Program's formation. Rules and regulations depoliticized the grant allocation process while institutionalizing the interests of hospitals and other producers into the program structure. Consumer interests and influence are excluded from program decision making. Once established, the rules and regulations and a set of bureaucratic behaviors play a critical role in determining resource allocation. Rules and regulations facilitate distributing divisible benefits to producer interests in a politically predi-table way. Yet rules and regulations must also regulate the supply of hospital beds in accordance with local and national market conditions. The mode of operations required for distributing benefits in a politically predictable way limited the Program's ability to regulate hospital bed supply. This was a critical factor which led the Hill-Burton Program to subsidize excess capacity in the U.S. hospital system and is a useful way of explaning many similar dysfunctions within allocative programs such as Hill-Burton.

  19. Thunderstorms and flooding of August 17, 2007, with a context provided by a history of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bunkers, Matthew J.; Carter, Janet M.; Stamm, John F.; Williamson, Joyce E.

    2010-01-01

    The Black Hills area of western South Dakota has a history of damaging flash floods that have resulted primarily from exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. The best known example is the catastrophic storm system of June 9-10, 1972, which caused severe flooding in several major drainages near Rapid City and resulted in 238 deaths. More recently, severe thunderstorms caused flash flooding near Piedmont and Hermosa on August 17, 2007. Obtaining a thorough understanding of peak-flow characteristics for low-probability floods will require a comprehensive long-term approach involving (1) documentation of scientific information for extreme events such as these; (2) long-term collection of systematic peak-flow records; and (3) regional assessments of a wide variety of peak-flow information. To that end, the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the South Dakota Department of Transportation and National Weather Service to produce this report, which provides documentation regarding the August 17, 2007, storm and associated flooding and provides a context through examination of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area. The area affected by the August 17, 2007, storms and associated flooding generally was within the area affected by the larger storm of June 9-10, 1972. The maximum observed 2007 precipitation totals of between 10.00 and 10.50 inches occurred within about 2-3 hours in a small area about 5 miles west of Hermosa. The maximum documented precipitation amount in 1972 was 15.0 inches, and precipitation totals of 10.0 inches or more were documented for 34 locations within an area of about 76 square miles. A peak flow of less than 1 cubic foot per second occurred upstream from the 2007 storm extent for streamflow-gaging station 06404000 (Battle Creek near Keystone); whereas, the 1972 peak flow of 26,200 cubic feet per second was large, relative to the drainage area of only 58.6 square miles. Farther downstream along Battle Creek, a 2007

  20. Susceptibility of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws.), to mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attack in uneven-aged stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt Allen; Blaine Cook; John R. Withrow

    2008-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins can cause extensive tree mortality in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Most studies that have examined stand susceptibility to mountain pine beetle have been conducted in even-aged stands. Land managers...

  1. Analysis of the quality of image data acquired by the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) of the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    The structure, format, and quality of the LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS photographic and digital products for one scene covering the Black Hills area of South Dakota were assessed and the extent to which major resource categories can be detected and identified on various photographic products generated from a subset of TM spectral bands and from all bands of the MSS was determined. The overall spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data was found to be excellent. Agricultural fields of variable shape, size, and orientation were detected with relative ease. The addition of the short-wave infrared band (TM5) has significantly improved the ability to detect and identify crop types on single date imagery.

  2. Market potential and opportunities for commercialization of traditional meat products in North East Hill Region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirvel, G; Banerjee, Bandita B; Meitei, Surajit; Doley, S; Sen, Arnab; Muthukumar, M

    2018-02-01

    The North Eastern (NE) India is renowned for its preference for animal-based food. This region is known for its traditional meat products. However, the popularity of these products remains confined to the specific community/location. The knowledge on the traditional preparation methods is generally passed across generations through practice and word of mouth. The traditional style of preparation and the specific ingredients added to each product makes them unique. In this review, an attempt has been made to identify the initiatives, opportunities, and market potential for commercialization of the traditional meat products. These unique features and properties of the traditional meat products have been highlighted. The commercialization of these products will enhance entrepreneurship development and ensure quality ethnic products to the consumer in the NE hill region of India.

  3. Market potential and opportunities for commercialization of traditional meat products in North East Hill Region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirvel, G.; Banerjee, Bandita B.; Meitei, Surajit; Doley, S.; Sen, Arnab; Muthukumar, M.

    2018-01-01

    The North Eastern (NE) India is renowned for its preference for animal-based food. This region is known for its traditional meat products. However, the popularity of these products remains confined to the specific community/location. The knowledge on the traditional preparation methods is generally passed across generations through practice and word of mouth. The traditional style of preparation and the specific ingredients added to each product makes them unique. In this review, an attempt has been made to identify the initiatives, opportunities, and market potential for commercialization of the traditional meat products. These unique features and properties of the traditional meat products have been highlighted. The commercialization of these products will enhance entrepreneurship development and ensure quality ethnic products to the consumer in the NE hill region of India. PMID:29657390

  4. Space-use and habitat associations of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) occupying recently disturbed forests in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Chadwick P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler

    2014-01-01

    Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are a disturbance-dependent species that occupy recently burned forest and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestations. Forest management practices that reduce the amount of disturbed forest may lead to habitat loss for Black-backed Woodpeckers, which have recently been petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act. We...

  5. The use of LANDSAT-1 imagery in mapping and managing soil and range resources in the Sand Hills region of Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevers, P. M. (Principal Investigator); Drew, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery for the Sand Hills region of Nebraska has shown that the data can be used to effectively measure several parameters of inventory needs. (1) Vegetative biomass can be estimated with a high degree of confidence using computer compatable tape data. (2) Soils can be mapped to the subgroup level with high altitude aircraft color infrared photography and to the association level with multitemporal ERTS-1 imagery. (3) Water quality in Sand Hills lakes can be estimated utilizing computer compatable tape data. (4) Center pivot irrigation can be inventoried from satellite data and can be monitored regarding site selection and relative success of establishment from high altitude aircraft color infrared photography. (5) ERTS-1 data is of exceptional value in wide-area inventory of natural resource data in the Sand Hills region of Nebraska.

  6. THE ECONOMY AND ENERGY OF THE BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Floriana Popescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea region has proved to be an emerging hub for Europe’s security and has experienced several changes and a great development at the beginning of the twenty-first century. This process is currently carried out, and has important implications for European security in a broader definition of the term - to achieve traditional military security, but also tackling other challenges at the address soft security issues, such as organized crime. Located at the crossroads of three regions of paramount importance - Europe, Middle East and Central Asia – the Black Sea region is a major transit area for energy and at the same time, an important source of asymmetric risks and outbreaks of conflicts. Therefore, analysing this region from an economical point of view, but not forgetting the energy security implications for this area, represents the main focus of this article, along with underlining the importance of various actors in the region and their actions’ impact on the future development of the Black Sea territory and surroundings.

  7. REGIONAL BLACK SEA ARCHITECTURE AND CONSEQUENCES FOR THE REGIONAL COOPERATION FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Homorozean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes considered an asset, other times a liability, the Black Sea started recently to be regarded as a region. However, the Black Sea Region lacks a common vision, often due to the complicated and often inefficient nexus of regional cooperation initiatives. Following the logic of finding regional solutions for regional problems, this paper aims to assess existing institutional and regional initiatives, reflecting on the implications for the success of Black Sea regionalism in creating patterns of sustained and sustainable development and a high degree of actors' involvement.This paper concentrates on two complementary research questions: What is the regional order in the BSR and what does it imply for its future? What is the current contribution of the most significant cooperation initiatives and what are the consequences for regional institutionalism? For the purpose of this paper, I draw on best-practices from other two regions: the Northern Dimension and South- East Asia. Through a comparative perspective, I suggest an analysis of the most important initiatives: BSEC, CDC, Black Sea Synergy, Eastern Partnership, Baku Initiative and the BSF. This paper argues that a possible strategic solution for successful policy development lies in the creation of an integrated regional cooperation package, functioning on the principles of multi-speed and multi-dimensional cooperation in several policy fields, in a context in which the BSR seems to be caught between two paradigms: a European and a Russian-oriented one.

  8. Development and application of a spatial IBM to forecast greater prairie-chicken population responses to land use in the Flint Hills region of Kansas - SCB meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanachus cupido) populations have been on the decline for decades. Recent efforts to reverse this trend are focusing on two specific disturbance regimes, cattle grazing and field burning, both prevalent in the Flint Hill region of Kansas -- an area of...

  9. Development and application of a spatial IBM to forecast greater prairie-chicken population responses to land use in the Flint Hills region of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanachus cupido) populations have been on the decline for decades. Recent efforts to reverse this trend are focusing on two specific disturbance regimes, cattle grazing and field burning, both prevalent in the Flint Hill region of Kansas -- an area of...

  10. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher T. Rota; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Mark A. Rumble; Chad P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic...

  11. The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G.

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since Bucharest Convention signed in 1992. The Black Sea Region has became a challenging international arena for political scientific and socio-economic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Black Sea Environmental Programme(BSEP), Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin, Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region Technical Cooperation Programme by the IAEA and establishment of the Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat are some of the major international efforts of the past decade that emphasizes the multi-nationality and large dimension of the Black Sea environmental management issues. The environmental degradation of the Black Sea is briefly reviewed based on the BSEP reports and data available for land based pollution sources. The environmental risk of marine vessel accidents are indicated and environmental safety concern is emphasized under the current conditions of intense energy transportation projects in the Black Sea and Caspian regions. The international policy actions, co-operation issues and scientific programmes of the past decade are overviewed with emphasis on the international achievements. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of continuation of the international commitments and sharing the political, scientific and socio-economic responsibility on the transboundary environmental pollution, rehabilitation and the safety issues of the Black Sea

  12. Conflict Resolution Trends in the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Shelest

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses the main trends of the various conflict resolution processes in the Black Sea region. It emphasizes the transformation of the mediators’ role, including the increase of the EU efforts in the various peace processes. The author states that the absence of military actions, the narrowness of the existing peace formats and competition between the various mediating parties for leadership lead to the militarization of the region, the absence of the conflicts’ ‘ripeness’, new peace initiatives and an ‘all or nothing’ position on the part of the conflicting parties.

  13. Radon monitoring in the dwellings of Foot-Hill region in Uttarakhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimothi, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Natural radioactivity is directly related to the kind of geological layers and of their physico-chemical conditions. The aim of this study is to review the radon monitoring in the prospect of environment safety. 222 Rn and 220 Rn are important radionuclides for the assessment of radiation exposure to the public because of their wide distribution in the environment. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive alpha particle. Its emission is affected by meteorological as well as geophysical and geochemical parameters. The continuous release of radon by the soil also results in an increased outdoor radon concentration, which enters the dwelling via air exchange and under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. Weathering of rocks and mining activities may be the reasons of arising radioactivity in the environment. The case study is carried out in dwellings of Jolly grant Doiwala, Dehradun region by using solid state nuclear detector (SSNTD) LR-115 type-II. The dosimeters are suspended inside the 15 locations over the study region. Yet the exposure period of 3 month is not completed and results are awaited. By considering the regional hydrology and mining activities in the region this study may be required in the prospect of health risk assessment. (author)

  14. 70 Bush Meat Trading in the Oban Hills Region of South-Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    2008-03-01

    Mar 1, 2008 ... diversity of faunal species of the region can be found in ... B. The traditional inclination of rural people to bush ... (types and kinds) or species of animals involved in the .... Apes and/or. Prosimians, Reptiles; Rodents; birds, etc).

  15. Geology of the hills in the region of the City of Santiago de Chile: New isotopic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, M; Lopez-Escobar, I; Palma, J.L; Hickey-Vargas, R

    2001-01-01

    Geological, geochronological and geochemical data demonstrate that the area where the city of Santiago de Chile is established used to be a huge volcanic field. At present, it is possible to distinguish in the area at least three volcanic cycles, which are geographically superimposed and deeply eroded. The first is Oligocene in age, the second Lower to Middle Miocene and the third is Middle to Upper Miocene. The Oligocene cycle is represented by volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks of the Provincia-San Ramon-Abanico and Conchali belts, and welded tuffs of the San Cristobal and Renca hills. The Lower to Middle Miocene cycle consists of subvolcanic rocks, mostly of basaltic to basaltic-andesite composition, characterized by the presence of clino- and orthopyroxene. The Middle to Upper Miocene cycle is composed predominantly of amphibole-bearing subvolcanic rocks of dacitic composition. The latter are found at the Manquehue hill, which limits the northern part of the city, and the hills at the Rinconada de Conchali. In this communication, we present new Sr-, Nd- and Pb- isotope data obtained from two subvolcanic samples of basaltic composition collected from the San Cristobal hill and at the Santa Lucia hill (Lower to Middle Miocene) and one amphibole-bearing subvolcanic sample of dacitic composition from the Manquehue hill (Middle to Upper Miocene) (au)

  16. Polyporus squamosus (Huds. Fr. in the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanem Bulam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyporus squamosus (Huds. Fr., also named as Aladana, Peri Semeri, Pullu Mantar in varying by localities of Turkey, is an edible wild mushroom species widely existed in the mycobiota of the Black Sea Region. It has not been sold in the local markets. The public recognition of this mushroom may change locally in the Black Sea Region. It is widely consumed by the people in some parts of the region. It is usually appeared in the nature during May-September on the logs, dead and living trunks of the deciduous trees. Following the rainy period, it grows so fast and can produce a few kilograms fruit body within a short period. It is delicious and precious as much as meat for the nutritional value, especially during early growth stage. In this review, general knowledge on the morphological and ecological characteristics, nutritional value and medicinal properties of P. squamosus mushroom and some study results on the domestication of this mushroom have been presented in order to improve the public awareness and its consumption.

  17. Horsemanship of ancient armies of Northern Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kolesnykov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deal with the description, analysis and generalization of features of organization and tactics of cavalry of the army ancient states of the Northern Black Sea region: Olbia, Chersonese, Bosporus. Author sure that the foundation of the armed forces of these states was a civil militia – free, economically independent landowners, endowed with the broadest volume of political and social rights men – full citizens. Bosporus kings have attracted a significant number of hired troops that held by the royal treasury income and special direct tax. The cavalry is interacted with heavily armed infantry contingents – hoplites or swordsman­ thyureoforoi. The contingents of lightweight (arrow­toxots and heavy (akontists and spearmen cavalry were presented as part of ancient armies of the Northern Black Sea Region in Classical and Hellenistic periods. In the Roman period on the Bosporus fixed formation units of cathafractarian cavalry. The weapons and tactics of the Sarmatian nomadic nobility (Aspurhianian, Sirak, Aorsy and more were served as a model for Bosporus cataphractarian horsemen.

  18. Integration of Ground-based Magnetics and Vertical Deformation Measurements for the Characterization of the San Andreas Fault at the Durmid Hill Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, K.; Polet, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Durmid Hill region is located near the termination of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) at Bombay Beach. This section of the fault has not experienced any major earthquakes for at least the last three centuries. During a 6 year study, Sylvester et al. (1993) collected vertical deformation measurements at Durmid Hill from monuments they installed along a 2.37 km leveling line normal to the SAF. They concluded that interseismic processes account for most of the growth at Durmid Hill and estimated more than 9 mm of uplift within the leveling line, with uniform tilt at distances greater than 500 m from the fault. Langenheim et al. (2014) created a model based on ground-based magnetic data that they collected in the same area and found a complex magnetic structure with a broad band magnetic anomaly present on the northeast side of SAF and a prominent magnetic high along the main mapped trace of the SAF. A primary objective of our study is to reoccupy the leveling line from Sylvester et al. (1993), across the SAF at Durmid Hill. Additionally, we will utilize subsurface geophysical techniques to enhance our understanding of the fault geometry along the southernmost end of the SAF and its relationship to the aseismic deformation at Durmid Hill. Elevation profiles are measured using Nikon Nivo 5C total stations and magnetic field intensity measurements are made by a GSM-19TGW v7.0 walking magnetometer, with a VLF (Very Low requency) attachment. We will present preliminary results from data sets gathered in March and May of 2017, as well as additional surveys that will be carried out in October and November. The preliminary maps produced from the results of the first magnetic surveys show two significant and distinct magnetic anomalies consistent with earlier studies. Initial monument elevation comparisons could only be made for monuments located at the north-eastern end of the leveling line, at a distance of about 1.5 km behind Bat Cave Buttes. There appear to be sections of

  19. Exploring farmer perceptions of agricultural innovations for maize-legume intensification in the mid-hills region of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alomía Hinojosa, M.V.; Speelman, Erika N.; Thapa, Arun; Wei, Hisiang-En; Mcdonald, Andrew J.; Tittonell, Pablo; Groot, Jeroen C.J.

    2018-01-01

    Maize-legume intercropping is a fundamental component of mixed farming systems in the mid-hills of Nepal. However, its productivity is constrained by several biophysical and social factors, and limited adoption of proven agricultural innovations. In this study, we assessed the productivity impact of

  20. Cities, Towns and Villages, City limit boundaries for all municipalities in Ben Hill, Brooks, Cook, Echols, Lanier, Irwin, Lowndes, Tift and Turner Counties., Published in 2010, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Cities, Towns and Villages dataset current as of 2010. City limit boundaries for all municipalities in Ben Hill, Brooks, Cook, Echols, Lanier, Irwin, Lowndes, Tift...

  1. Parks of Chapel Hill

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Hours, location, and amenity information for Chapel Hill parks as shown on the Town of Chapel Hill's website. Includes a map with points for each park location.

  2. Groundwater in the Broken Hill region, Australia: recognising interaction with bedrock and mineralisation using S, Sr and Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caritat, Patrice de; Kirste, Dirk; Carr, Graham; McCulloch, Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The supergiant Pb-Zn-Ag Broken Hill orebody and numerous other minor mineral deposits occur within the limited outcrop of the Proterozoic Curnamona Province of Australia. The vast majority of this Province is concealed by up to 200 m of transported regolith, hampering conventional exploration strategies. Approximately 300 groundwater samples were collected over the southern Curnamona Province to test whether this medium could be helpful in the search for hidden mineral deposits. Sulphur, Sr and Pb isotope composition of the groundwaters were determined and S excess (S XS ), i.e., the amount of S that can be ascribed neither to evaporation nor to mixing, was calculated. Many samples were recognised to have undergone an addition of 34 S-depleted S, which can be attributed to oxidation of sulfides with a Broken Hill type δ 34 S signature (average ∼0%o V-CDT). Furthermore, Sr isotopes identify the broad types of bedrock that the groundwater has been interacting with, from the less radiogenic Adelaidean rocks (and minerals) in the west (groundwater 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio as low as 0.708) to the highly radiogenic Willyama Supergroup in the east ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio up to 0.737). The groundwaters have 207 Pb/ 204 Pb and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios comparable to, or intermediate between, various mineralisation types recognised in the area (Broken Hill, Rupee, Thackaringa, etc., types). The few samples taken in the vicinity of known mineralisation yield positive indicators (positive S XS , low δ 34 S, 87 Sr/ 86 Sr signature of bedrock type and Pb isotope fingerprinting of mineralisation type). This study also highlights several new locations under sedimentary cover where these indicators suggest interaction with mineralisation

  3. Moessbauer spectroscopy study of a mineral sample from Oshno Hill, District of Chavin de Pariarca, Huanuco Region, Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, A.; Lovera, D.; Quille, R.; Arias, A. V.; Quinones, J.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis by X-ray diffraction of a mining sample collected from Oshno hill, which is located in the District of Chavin de Pariarca, Huamalies Province, Huanuco, Peru, indicates the presence of lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and goethite (α-FeOOH). The room temperature Moessbauer spectrum (MS) doublet with broad lines displays hyperfine parameters corresponding to the presence of particles of iron hydroxides smaller than 100 A in a superparamagnetic regime. The measurement of a MS at 4.2 K allowed confirming the presence of goethite and lepidocrocite (with average magnetic fields of 49.21 T and 44.59 T, respectively).

  4. Introduction: The Black Sea as region and horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphrey, Caroline; Skvirskaja, Vera

    2014-01-01

    The introduction first outlines different perspectives on the Black Sea: in history, as a site of imperial conflicts and a buffer zone; in area studies, as a “region”; and in anthropology, as a sea crisscrossed by migration, cultural influences, alternative visions, and often a mutual turning...... brought about by migration and trade. In the concluding section we discuss how the Black Sea has appeared as a “horizon” and imaginary of the beyond for the peoples living around its shores....

  5. A model technical cooperation project on the marine radioactivity assessment in the Black Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, B. G.; Koeksal, G.; Osvath, I.; Koese, A.; Kuecuekcezzar, R.; Varinlioglu, A.; Guengoer, E.

    2002-01-01

    Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region is a wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project coded as RER/2/003 implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001.This multidisciplinay project was designed in response to the needs of participating Member States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey)- to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer techniques to marine pollution studies. The IAEA assisted laboratories in the region by providing expert services, training, equipment and materials (Goektepe et al., 1998; Osvath et al., 1997-2000)

  6. Teaching anti-corruption in the caucasus and black sea region(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kruessmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is hardly a topic in the current transformations that is as central as corruption. Anti-corruption efforts go back to the nineties when globalisation turned the world into a corporate playing field. Since then, a wealth of tools and instruments has been invented, and any student of anti-corruption can be certain to find abundant materials. From a teacher’s perspective, turning these materials into a coherent academic subject is the first challenge. But anti-corruption is not a subject like any other. If taught properly, it should challenge every student’s moral compass and become a catalyst for the development of professional ethics. Anybody who has ever been forced to pay bribes in a university setting will remember «turning red with shame». Bribing your teacher, as compared to a traffic police or customs officer, seems like the ultimate betrayal of the notion of the intellectual community between scholar/teacher and student, and it throws into doubt the entire system of values and goals that higher education stands for. In its effect, it is as pernicious as doping in sports. And when the shame is overcome, the result will be a graduate who is «street-wise», who is ready to play the game and expect nothing less from his or her colleagues. Against this background, the purpose of this paper is twofold. It serves as a reflection on the state of anti-corruption efforts in the Black Sea and Caucasus region(s and suggests a model how electronic resources could become a catalyst in bringing blended learning/teaching on anti-corruption to the region(s. At the same time, it develops the scholarly argument that the «toolkit box approach» favoured by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC is not sufficient to address the root causes of corruption in the region(s. As an alternative and to the extent that it concerns the Black Sea and Caucasus region(s, it is suggested to place anti-corruption more firmly into the context of

  7. Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region ministerial meeting. Opening statement, Monaco, 5 October 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Opening Statement of the Director General of the IAEA at the Ministerial Meeting on Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region, held in Monaco, on 5 October 1998. The Director General emphasized the contribution of the IAEA, mainly through its Technical Co-operation Programme, in strengthening the international co-operation in marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region

  8. DIVERSITY OF THE TYPE 1 INTRON-ITS REGION OF THE 18S rRNA GENE IN PSEUDOGYMNOASCUS SPECIES FROM THE RED HILLS OF KANSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Crupper, Scott S

    2016-09-01

    Gypsum caves found throughout the Red Hills of Kansas have the state's most diverse and largest population of cave-roosting bats. White-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which threatens all temperate bat species, has not been previously detected in the gypsum caves as this disease moves westward from the eastern United States. Cave soil was obtained from the gypsum caves, and using the polymerase chain reaction, a 624-nucleotide DNA fragment specific to the Type 1 intron-internal transcribed spacer region of the 18S rRNA gene from Pseudogymnoascus species was amplified. Subsequent cloning and DNA sequencing indicated P. destructans DNA was present, along with 26 uncharacterized Pseudogymnoascus DNA variants. However, no evidence of WNS was observed in bat populations residing in these caves.

  9. Proposal to evaluate the use of ERTS-1 imagery in mapping and managing soil and range resources in the Sand Hills region of Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, J. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Increase in radiance values is directly related to decrease in vegetative biomass, though not in a linear manner. Should the relationship hold true over an entire growing season, this would allow an extremely rapid evaluation of range condition. Computer access by remote terminal would allow production of this type of range condition evaluation in near real time, which is essential if grazing practice decisions are to be made based on satellite imagery acquisition. Negating the manipulation of photographic products appears to be the logical way to provide satellite imagery data to the user in near real time. There appears to be a direct linear relationship between radiance values of bands 4 and 5 and increase in total inorganic ions (6 ions) of lakes in the Sand hills region. Consistent ion concentration of lakes during the year could allow their radiance values to serve as a means of equating radiance values from image to image.

  10. The black disk to be observed in the Orear region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dremin, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is argued that the very first signatures of the approach to the black disk asymptotical limit in hadron collisions may be observed in the differential cross section of elastic scattering. The exponentially decreasing with the angle (or √(|t|) ) regime beyond the diffraction peak will become replaced by an oscillatory behavior or by the power-like falloff. Some estimates of energies where this can happen are presented.

  11. Loess Hills of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage outlines the boundary of the Loess Hills in Iowa at 1:100,000 scale. Criteria applied to the delineation of the Loess Hills included drainage density,...

  12. Romanian contribution to the regional study of Black Sea radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, S.

    1993-01-01

    In the Black Sea area, polluting mineral exploitation, abusive fishing, unrestricted shipping activities and dumping of toxic wastes were done. Pollutant load carried by the Danube and other northern rivers, such as: Dnieper, Dniester, Bug, etc to the Black Sea, industrial and municipal discharges of air and water pollutants, pollution from ship traffic (particularly in the Constanta harbour area) contributed to the ecological degradation of the sea. Radioactivity monitoring as well as radioecological research are part of environmental assessments and protection strategies in Romania. The Romanian contribution consisted in participation in research contracts and coordinated research programs with IAEA-Vienna/Marine Environment Laboratory-Monaco between 1987-1992, in the program 'Global Inventory of Radioactivity in the Mediterranean Sea' (GIRMED) launched by IAEA after the XXXIst Congress and General assembly of the International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea by the Committee of Marine Radioactivity in 1988 and in the Co-operative Marine Science Program for the Black Sea (CoMSBlack) trough its Working group on radiochemistry and radioecology. This group includes Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Natural and artificial radionuclide (K-40, Ac-228, Ra-226, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Cs-137 and, starting in 1992, Sr-90) space and time distribution data were used for computation of in situ distribution coefficients and concentration factors (CFs) as well as for external and internal dose assessments in the Romanian sector. CFs of marine sediments, seaweeds and molluscs were measured in laboratory conditions. (author)

  13. Marine environmental assessment in the Black Sea region- a case for the Turkish coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, G G.; Koeksal, G.; Osvath, I.

    2001-01-01

    'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' Technical Cooperation Project, implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is presented. Environmental problems of the Black Sea eco-system and the current international efforts with regard to prevention of pollution are discussed. General aspects of the project are presented. A joint monitoring program initiated according to the work plan of the project among six Black Sea countries is outlined with emphasis on the monitoring program for the Turkish coastal zone. Concluding remarks are on the vital importance of sharing the scientific responsibility on the trans-boundary environmental problems

  14. SPECTRORADIOMETRY IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED REGION ON A STAND OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catize Brandelero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985093Reflectance readings in border and inner tree leaves in a Eucalyptus grandis stand, in São Pedro das Missões, Rio Grande do Sul state, were analyzed in the regions of the visible electromagnetic spectrum and the nearby infrared, by using spectrum radiometry. The area was divided in two parts: border and center stands. In order to collect the material, the crown was divided in three parts (superior, medium and inferior, so that it would be possible to differentiate the positions of leaf collections in each area. Three trees were sampled in each area, adding up to six trees, for each tree, 60 isolated leaves were collected, 20 in each position. The reflectance readings were carried out through FieldSpec®3 spectrum radiometer and the final results were segmented in the visible and nearby infrared spectral bands. The statistical analysis was made on the basis of several tests, among them Tukey HSD test, in order to compare the averages of the visible region, which, according to ANOVA, present significant differences. It is concluded that the collecting indicating class of leaves for the spectrum radiometric analysis in the visible region are preferably the 5 one (tree in the center, reading in the medium part and #3 one (border tree, reading superior part.

  15. [Survey and analysis of epidemic status of principal human parasitosis in ecological region of Huaiyang hills of Henan Province in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-Lan, Zhang; Yan-Kun, Zhu; Wei-Qi, Chen; Yan, Deng; Xi-Meng, Lin; Peng, Li; Hong-Wei, Zhang

    2017-07-24

    To understand the epidemic status of principal human parasitosis in the ecological region of Huaiyang hills of Henan Province. According to the scheme of The 3rd National Survey of Principal Human Parasites made by National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, the survey was performed based on the ecological regions. The stratified cluster sampling was made combined with the economic and geographical conditions. The infections of intestinal helminths and protozoans in permanent residents were respectively detected by Kato-Kats technique and iodine solution. Trichuris trichiura infection was detected by the cellophane swab method in children aged 3 to 6 years. Totally 6 710 residents in 26 survey spots from 9 counties were detected, in which 528 children aged 3 to 6 years were detected for T. trichiura infection. Eleven kinds of parasites were found in this survey, including 5 species of helminthes and 6 species of protozoans. The infection rates of overall parasites, helminthes and protozoans were respectively 1.65%, 1.07% and 0.61%. The infection rate of T. trichiura in the children aged 3 to 6 years was 3.79%. Only 0.10 percent of the infections were co-infection, and all were infected by 2 kinds of parasites. The principal parasites in this district were Ascaris lumbricoides (0.31%), Blastocystis hominis (0.28%) and hookworm (0.27%). The T. trichiura infection rate among children was 3.79% by the cellophane swab method. The infections of protozoans were found in all age groups. In the group aged 9 years and below, the maximum kinds of parasites were found. The infection rates of principal human parasites in Huaiyang hilly ecological region of Henan have decreased sharply, but more efforts still should be paid on the prevention and control of parasitosis in children.

  16. The Origin of the Columbia Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The Columbia Hills form a rugged ridge complex comprised of 7 peaks spanning some 3.5 km in length and reaching a maximum height of 106 m (Husband Hill) above the plains of Spirit's landing site. As of this writing Spirit has been exploring the Columbia Hills for over 440 sols (since sol 156 on June 11, 2004). Thus far the origin of the Columbia Hills has remained elusive despite detailed analysis of numerous rock and soil targets, including outcrops. The chemical differences among the 6 distinct rock classes attest to the lithologic diversity and geologic complexity of the Hills. Origin of the Columbia Hills Several hypothesis have been put forth to explain the origin of the Columbia Hills: Old eroded partially buried impact crater rim(s), central peak, residual intracrater fill material, volcanic construct, wrinkle ridge, delta and or combinations of the above. Observations that support various aspects of these multiple hypotheses will be discussed. Numerous buried craters are observed on the floor of Gusev lending credence to the idea that the Columbia Hills are the remains of an ancient impact crater rim or possibly a central peak. Morphologic evidence of the rim of Thira crater and the Columbia Hills appears to support this hypothesis. The Aeolis region contains numerous craters that contain layered materials in the absence of any major fluvial systems. This could imply that the Columbia Hills are the remnants of a formerly extensive unit(s). Gusev contains many hills scattered across its floor such as Grissom, White, Chaffee and numerous other buttes and mesas that may be remnants of a former extensive intracrater deposit. Another possibility is that the Columbia Hills are composed of volcanic materials (cinder cones and associated ash and lava flows) derived either locally or from Apollinaris Patera located 300 km to the north. Several depressions are located in the Columbia Hills. These features could be calderas but are most likely impact craters. The most

  17. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are transcontinental migration routes of wild birds from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting of many migratory bird species with a very high level of ...

  18. Transport and geographical position of the big and average cities of the Ukrainian Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Shulevskyi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There were features of the transport and geographical position of large and average cities of the Ukrainian Black Sea region described in the article. The situation of cities in relation to the existing network of main types of transport connections like road, rail, water, aviation was analyzed. The location of cities in relation to regional centers, the regional center of Odessa, the capital of the country and the state border were characterized. The situation of cities in relation to international transport corridors and the international E-road network was examined. The cities with the most and least favorable transport and geographical location in the region were highlighted.

  19. Paleoclimatic reconstructions for the south of Valdai Hills (European Russia) as paleo-analogs of possible regional vegetation changes under global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novenko, E; Zuganova, I [Institute of Geography of RAS, Staromonetny Lane 29, Moscow 119017 (Russian Federation); Olchev, A [A N Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Leninsky Prospekt 33, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Desherevskaya, O, E-mail: lenanov@mail.r [Faculty of Geography, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    The possible response of forest ecosystems of south taiga at the south of Valdai Hills on projected future global warming was assessed using analysis of pollen, plant macrofossil and radiocarbon data from four profiles of buried organic sediments of the last interglacial and several cores from modern raised bogs and two small forest mires in the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (CFSNBR; Twer region, Russia). The future pattern of climatic conditions for the period up to 2100 was derived using the data of A2, B1 and A1B emission scenarios calculated by the global climatic model ECHAM5-MPIOM (Roeckner E et al 2003 The Atmospheric General Circulation Model ECHAM 5. PART I: Model Description, Report 349 (Hamburg: Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) p 127). The paleoclimatic reconstructions showed that the optimum of the Holocene (the Late Atlantic period, 4500-4800 {sup 14}C yr BP) and the optimal phases of the last interglacial (Mikulino, Eemian, 130 000-115 000 yr BP) can be considered as possible analogs for projected climatic conditions of the middle and the end of the 21st century, respectively. The climate of the CFSNBR during the Holocene climatic optimum was characterized by higher winter (about 3 deg. C higher than at present) and summer temperatures (about 1 deg. C higher than present values). Precipitation was close to present values (about 600-800 mm yr{sup -1}). Vegetation was represented by mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest. In the warmest phases of the last interglacial the winter temperature was 5-8 deg. C higher than present values. The summer temperatures were also about 2-4 deg. C higher. Broad-leaved and hornbeam trees were the dominant tree species in vegetation cover.

  20. Paleoclimatic reconstructions for the south of Valdai Hills (European Russia) as paleo-analogs of possible regional vegetation changes under global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novenko, E; Zuganova, I; Olchev, A; Desherevskaya, O

    2009-01-01

    The possible response of forest ecosystems of south taiga at the south of Valdai Hills on projected future global warming was assessed using analysis of pollen, plant macrofossil and radiocarbon data from four profiles of buried organic sediments of the last interglacial and several cores from modern raised bogs and two small forest mires in the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (CFSNBR; Twer region, Russia). The future pattern of climatic conditions for the period up to 2100 was derived using the data of A2, B1 and A1B emission scenarios calculated by the global climatic model ECHAM5-MPIOM (Roeckner E et al 2003 The Atmospheric General Circulation Model ECHAM 5. PART I: Model Description, Report 349 (Hamburg: Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) p 127). The paleoclimatic reconstructions showed that the optimum of the Holocene (the Late Atlantic period, 4500-4800 14 C yr BP) and the optimal phases of the last interglacial (Mikulino, Eemian, 130 000-115 000 yr BP) can be considered as possible analogs for projected climatic conditions of the middle and the end of the 21st century, respectively. The climate of the CFSNBR during the Holocene climatic optimum was characterized by higher winter (about 3 deg. C higher than at present) and summer temperatures (about 1 deg. C higher than present values). Precipitation was close to present values (about 600-800 mm yr -1 ). Vegetation was represented by mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest. In the warmest phases of the last interglacial the winter temperature was 5-8 deg. C higher than present values. The summer temperatures were also about 2-4 deg. C higher. Broad-leaved and hornbeam trees were the dominant tree species in vegetation cover.

  1. Gas nad mud volcanism formation as a result of geodynamic development of the Black sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrievsky, A.N.; Karakin, A.V.; Kazmin, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Fluidodynamic model of moving of gas-mud mixture accompanied by eruptions of mud volcanoes and gas bursts is firstly demonstrated by the example of the Black sea basin. The entire spectrum of gas bursts can be divided into gas and mud-fluid volcanoes. Emanation of hydrocarbon gases during the eruptions accompanied by powerful exploison, bursts of gas, water and fragments of rocks as well as by issue of breccia are typical for the first type of volcanoes. It was suggested that the eastern part of the Black sea forms block or subplate moving to the northeast. This conclusion is important for estimation of seismic and connected geological hazard in the studied region. It was established that deformations and seismicity were mainly confined to the edges of the East Black sea subplate while in its inner part the level of seismic activity is considerably lower.

  2. Gravitational instability of the inner static region of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotti, Gustavo; Gleiser, Reinaldo J, E-mail: gdotti@famaf.unc.edu.a [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica (FaMAF), Universidad Nacional de Cordoba and Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2010-09-21

    Reissner-Nordstroem black holes have two static regions: r > r{sub o} and 0 < r < r{sub i}, where r{sub i} and r{sub o} are the inner and outer horizon radii, respectively. The stability of the exterior static region was established a long time ago. In this work we prove that the interior static region is unstable under linear gravitational perturbations, by showing that field perturbations compactly supported within this region will generically excite a mode that grows exponentially in time. This result gives an alternative reason to mass inflation to consider the spacetime extension beyond the Cauchy horizon as physically irrelevant, and thus provides support to the strong cosmic censorship conjecture, which is also backed by recent evidence of a linear gravitational instability in the interior region of Kerr black holes found by the authors. The use of intertwiners to solve the evolution of initial data plays a key role, and adapts without a change to the case of super-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, allowing us to complete the proof of the linear instability of this naked singularity. A particular intertwiner is found such that the intertwined Zerilli field has a geometrical meaning-it is the first-order variation of a particular Riemann tensor invariant. Using this, calculations can be carried out explicitly for every harmonic number.

  3. Evaluation of ERTS-1 data for inventory of forest and rangeland and detection of forest stress. [Atlanta, Georgia, Manitou, Colorado, and Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. C. (Principal Investigator); Aldrich, R. C.; Driscoll, R. S.; Francis, R. E.; Weber, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of photointerpretation indicated that ERTS is a good classifier of forest and nonforest lands (90 to 95 percent accurate). Photointerpreters could make this separation as accurately as signature analysis of the computer compatible tapes. Further breakdowns of cover types at each site could not be accurately classified by interpreters (60 percent) or computer analysts (74 percent). Exceptions were water, wet meadow, and coniferous stands. At no time could the large bark beetle infestations (many over 300 meters in size) be detected on ERTS images. The ERTS wavebands are too broad to distinguish the yellow, yellow-red, and red colors of the dying pine foliage from healthy green-yellow foliage. Forest disturbances could be detected on ERTS color composites about 90 percent of the time when compared with six-year-old photo index mosaics. ERTS enlargements (1:125,000 scale, preferably color prints) would be useful to forest managers of large ownerships over 5,000 hectares (12,500 acres) for broad area planning. Black-and-white enlargements can be used effectively as aerial navigation aids for precision aerial photography where maps are old or not available.

  4. EU Contribution to Strengthening Regional Development and Cooperation in the Black Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicu-Dorobanțu Roxana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EU's agenda had for some time a topic (at least at an idea level about the “strengthening ofcooperation in the Black Sea Region.” It faced an interesting paradox: the lack of (or, in the caseof existence, sub-optimal economic relations between countries in this area, regardless of theirgeographical proximity. The paradoxical situation considered to be mostly due to their differenthistorical and political backgrounds. Therefore, a form of support of regional development in thearea was necessary, as it has been considered in EU's Black Sea Synergy, which encouragescooperation between countries in the Basin while offering a forum for solving common issues andpromoting political and economic reform. Regional cooperation in various areas stems from a highpolitical involvement as the main initiator but requires a strong involvement and participation ofboth civil society and private sector as main drivers of cross-border cooperation. Our paperfocuses, apart from its conceptual research background, on mapping the effective outcomes of theEU initiatives in the area and on providing future perspectives for EU contribution tostrengthening regional development and cooperation in the Black Sea Basin.

  5. Sediment pore-water interactions associated with arsenic and uranium transport from the North Cave Hills mining region, South Dakota, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Lance N.; Kipp, Gregory G.; Mott, Henry V.; Stone, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The extent of historical U mining impacts is well documented for the North Cave Hills region of Harding County, South Dakota, USA. While previous studies reported watershed sediment and surface water As and U concentrations up to 90× established background concentrations, it was unclear whether or how localized changes in sediment redox behavior may influence contaminant remobilization. Five pore-water equilibration samplers (peepers) were spatially and temporally deployed within the study area to evaluate seasonal solid–liquid As and U distributions as a function of sediment depth. Pore-water and solid phase As and U concentrations, Fe speciation, Eh and pH were measured to ascertain specific geochemical conditions responsible for As and U remobilization and transport behavior. At a mine overburden sedimentation pond adjacent to the mine sites, high total aqueous As and U concentrations (4920 and 674 μg/L, respectively) were found within surface water during summer sampling; however pond dredging prior to autumn sampling resulted in significantly lower aqueous As and U concentrations (579 and 108 μg/L, respectively); however, both As and U still exceeded regional background concentrations (20 and 18 μg/L, respectively). At a wetlands-dominated deposition zone approximately 2 km downstream of the sedimentation pond, pore-water geochemical conditions varied seasonally. Summer conditions promoted reducing conditions in pore water, resulting in active release of As(III) to the water column. Autumn conditions promoted oxidizing conditions, decreasing pore-water As (As pw ) 5× and increasing U pw 10×. Peak U pore-water concentrations (781 μg/L) were 3.5× greater than determined for the surface water (226 μg/L), and approximately 40× background concentrations. At the Bowman–Haley reservoir backwaters 45 km downstream from the mine sites, As and U pore-water concentrations increased significantly between the summer and autumn deployments, attributed to

  6. Geographic Place Names, GNIS data for Atkinson, Bacon, Ben Hill, Berrien, Brantley, Brooks, Charlton, Clinch, Coffee, Cook, Echols, Irwin, Lanier, Lowndes, Pierce, Tift, Turner, Ware counties., Published in 1999, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Geographic Place Names dataset current as of 1999. GNIS data for Atkinson, Bacon, Ben Hill, Berrien, Brantley, Brooks, Charlton, Clinch, Coffee, Cook, Echols, Irwin,...

  7. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    ANUFRIIEVA, Elena V.; SHADRIN, Nickolai V.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some o...

  8. Sediment Yields of Basins in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    CAMBAZOĞLU, Mustafa Kemal; GÖĞÜŞ, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Soil loss and sediment yield are estimated for the basins of the Western Black Sea region of Turkey with different prediction models. The universal soil loss equation (USLE) is the first model applied in this study. Due to the lack of reliable measurement data, the results determined by the application of the USLE using weighted average factors are compared with the results from geographical information system supported USLE predictions undertaken in the TEFER studies performed in th...

  9. Regional Responses to Black Carbon Aerosols: The Importance of Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Scott, A. A.; Pradal, M.-A.; Seviour, W. J. M.; Waugh, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of modern black carbon aerosols on climate via their changes in radiative balance is studied using a coupled model where sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are allowed to vary and an atmosphere-only version of the same model where SSTs are held fixed. Allowing the ocean to respond is shown to have a profound impact on the pattern of temperature change. Particularly, large impacts are found in the North Pacific (which cools by up to 1 K in the coupled model) and in north central Asia (which warms in the coupled simulation and cools in the fixed SST simulation). Neither set of experiments shows large changes in surface temperatures in the Southeast Asian region where the atmospheric burden of black carbon is highest. These results are related to the stabilization of the atmosphere and changes in oceanic heat transport. Over the North Pacific, atmospheric stabilization results in an increase in stratiform clouds. The resulting shading reduces evaporation, freshening the surface layer of the ocean and reducing the inflow of warm subtropical waters. Over the land, a delicate balance between greater atmospheric absorption, shading of the surface and changes in latent cooling of the surface helps to determine whether warming or cooling is seen. Our results emphasize the importance of coupling in determining the response of the climate system to black carbon and suggest that black carbon may play an important role in modulating climate change over the North Pacific.

  10. Romania – an International Actor in the Context of the Extensive Region of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Iftode

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the globalized world of the 21st century, the international relations are presented as a mandatory element for maintaining the balance of world power and peace. Although the international actors, such as states or international organizations, are trying to establish as many relationships as possible of various kinds (economic, political, military through diplomacy, all over the world, at macro level, the international actors should first achieve a harmony or a general state of good understanding at the micro level, i.e. in a certain geographic region to which they belong. Romania, as an actor of international relations, has as own purpose, and also imposed upon accession to the European Union, maintaining the diplomatic relations in the region of Central-Eastern Europe, both with its neighbors and with the states in the proximity of the Black Sea region. The article aims at outlining better the role that they have, in the geopolitical context, the countries from the extensive region of the Black Sea, in the consolidation of economic and political cooperation relationships, which would lead to stability in the region.

  11. Mortality of Hiroshima A-bomb survivors exposed at the black rain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Tonda, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed on the black rain as a death risk factor of survivors in Hiroshima Uda's (U) light to heavy black rain regions using the positional parameters at their exposure. Subjects were 27,610 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate and direct dose at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was defined to be their all deaths due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia, cancers, etc. Confounding factors were sex (11,457 males/16,153 females), age at exposure (av. 25 y) and dose (av. 0.045 Gy), with which analysis was done by Cox proportional hazard model. The confounding interaction of the age/U region was found significant: e.g., at the exposed age 25 y, the hazard ratio was calculated to be 1.084, indicating about 8% higher hazard ratio of U region than the area outside of U. When the effect of the sex, exposed age and direct dose were adjusted to be minimized, the risk was found distributed mainly in concentric circle from hypocenter, yet still the effect of indirect exposure was observed though. When the distance instead of the indirect dose was used as an explanatory variable, it resulted in being significant with no significance of the direct exposure dose. Risk map employing the positional information at explosion revealed that the risk distribution was locally different even in U region itself. Thus this study suggested that the black rain was a mortality risk factor in the U raining region of Hiroshima. (T.T.)

  12. Separating contributions from natural and anthropogenic sources in atmospheric methane from the Black Sea region, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, Stela; Pendall, Elise; Miller, John B.; Tans, Pieter P.; Dlugokencky, Ed; White, James W.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Danube Delta-Black Sea region of Romania is an important wetland, and this preliminary study evaluates the significance of this region as a source of atmospheric CH 4 . Measurements of the mixing ratio and δ 13 C in CH 4 are reported from air and water samples collected at eight sites in the Danube Delta. High mixing ratios of CH 4 were found in air (2500-14,000 ppb) and dissolved in water samples (∼1-10 μmol L -1 ), demonstrating that the Danube Delta is an important natural source of CH 4 . The intercepts on Keeling plots of about -62 per mille show that the main source of CH 4 in this region is microbial, probably resulting primarily from acetate fermentation. Atmospheric CH 4 and CO data from the NOAA/ESRL (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory) were used to make a preliminary estimate of biogenic CH 4 at the Black Sea sampling site at Constanta (BSC). These data were used to calculate ratios of CH 4 /CO in air samples, and using an assumed CH 4 /CO anthropogenic emissions ratio of 0.6, fossil fuel emissions at BSC were estimated. Biogenic CH 4 emissions were then estimated by a simple mass balance approach. Keeling plots of well-mixed air from the BSC site suggested a stronger wetland source in summer and a stronger fossil fuel source in winter

  13. Calculations of hydrophysical fields in the coastal regions of the Black Sea with high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, N.

    2017-09-01

    Numerical experiments have been carried out using a hydrodynamical model with nonlinear equations of motion and heat and salt advection to reconstruct the fields of hydrophysical parameters in the coastal regions of the Black Sea taking into account the real atmospheric forcing and river discharges for the winter and summer seasons of 2006. A higher spatial resolution allowed to get a detailed meso- and submesoscale structure of hydrophysical fields in the upper and deep layers of the Southern Coast of Crimea and the north-western shelf and to obtain quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the eddies and jets more accurately in comparison with previous calculations.

  14. Proposal to evaluate the use of ERTS-A imagery in mapping and managing soil range resources in the Sand Hills Region of Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, J. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Color composites generated from bands 4, 5, and 7 of MSS image 1061-16552 show that Aquic Haplustolls and Typic Haplaquolls can be separated from other subgroups present on Sand Hills rangeland. Since Aquic Haplustolls are suitable for establishment of center pivot irrigation systems, this provides one means of locating and assessing sites for the establishment of center pivot irrigation for irrigated pasture or other irrigated crops. This separation also provides for a rapid assessment of subirrigated land, much of which is used for harvest of hay. Subsequent estimates of hay production can then be made as ground truth establishes actual production levels.

  15. Obesity Among U.S.- and Foreign-Born Blacks by Region of Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil K; Elo, Irma T; Ford, Nicole D; Siegel, Karen R

    2015-08-01

    Large, recent migration streams from the non-Hispanic Caribbean islands and Africa have increased the share of U.S. blacks born outside of the U.S. Little is known about health patterns in these foreign-born populations. The purpose of this study is to compare obesity levels among self-identified U.S. blacks across birth regions and examine potential explanations for subgroup differences. Data were from the 2000-2013 National Health Interview Surveys. Three birthplace subgroups were examined: individuals born in the U.S., Caribbean/South America, and Africa, aged 25-59 years. Data were analyzed in 2013-2014. Compared to U.S.-born participants, foreign-born participants had significantly lower obesity (BMI ≥30) odds. The AORs were 0.51 (Caribbean/South American-born, 95% CI=0.44, 0.58) and 0.41 (African-born, 95% CI=0.34, 0.50) with reference to U.S.-born individuals. Education, income, and cigarette smoking did not explain the favorable weight pattern of the foreign born. Among the foreign born, those residing in the U.S. for ≥15 years had 51% (95% CI=10%, 108%) higher obesity odds compared with those residing for <5 years. No statistically significant differences in obesity odds between those born in the Caribbean/South America and Africa were detected. Foreign-born blacks generally had lower obesity levels compared to their U.S.-born counterparts, which was not explained by SES or smoking behaviors. Despite this advantage, obesity prevalence among foreign-born black women was around 30%, suggesting that obesity poses a significant health risk this population. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hill, Prof. Archibald Vivian

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Hill, Prof. Archibald Vivian Nobel Laureate (Medicine) - 1922. Date of birth: 26 September 1886. Date of death: 3 June 1977. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...

  17. Chemical composition of black-watered rivers in the Amazons Region (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Santos, Ana G. da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Most investigations addressing Amazonian water chemistry are focused on the Solimoes, Amazonas and Negro rivers. Knowledge of the chemical composition of their smaller tributaries is restricted to some few, punctual data. The smaller rivers, that only present inputs from their catchments, are very important to understand the overall mechanisms controlling the chemistry of larger rivers of the region. With this objective the chemical composition of the principal Solimoes river black-watered tributaries in the western Brazilian Amazon during the low water period were determined. The data reveal the black water chemical composition to be highly variable and strongly influenced by the local geological environment: the Badajos basin being chemically more diluted; the Coari basin presenting higher SiO 2 contents, as well as smaller lakes having higher pH, conductivity, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Sr, yet not as much as those found in the Solimoes river. The chemical composition of these waters is compatible with the low physical erosion and the region's highly leached tropical environment from which most soluble elements were quickly removed. (author)

  18. Petroleum geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Black and Caspian region. Extended abstracts book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    Full text : The scientists from following countries took part at the international conference : Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, Austria, USA, Great Britain, Czech Republic. The activity was conducted in eight sections. Section 1 was devoted to the exploration operations in the Caspian and Black sea region. Section 2 was devoted to regional geology and tectonics. Section 3 was devoted to hydrocarbon systems of the south Caspian basin. Section 4 was devoted to exploration operations results and their prospects in the south Caspian Sea and contiguous on-shore areas. Section 5 was devoted to neotectonics and its effect on the process of hydrocarbon resources development. Section 6 was devoted to paleogeography of sedimentation basin. Section 7 was devoted to geological aspects of the exploration geophysics data interpretation. Section 8 was devoted to ecology problems in oil and gas exploration and production

  19. Soufriere Hills Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this ASTER image of Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat in the Caribbean, continued eruptive activity is evident by the extensive smoke and ash plume streaming towards the west-southwest. Significant eruptive activity began in 1995, forcing the authorities to evacuate more than 7,000 of the island's original population of 11,000. The primary risk now is to the northern part of the island and to the airport. Small rockfalls and pyroclastic flows (ash, rock and hot gases) are common at this time due to continued growth of the dome at the volcano's summit.This image was acquired on October 29, 2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA

  20. Adaptation and prospects of breeding flies Black lvink (Hermetia illucens in circumpolar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology has recently become pervasive, as a prospective branch of science that study the possibilities of using living organisms, systems or products of their vital activity to solve technological problems. American type of fly - the Black lvink (Hermetia illucens is used as a research object. The species lives in countries with warm climate, but recently the issue of flies breeding in the regions with cold climatic conditions has been actively discussed. Unlike America and countries of Western Europe, in Russia this issue is underexplored. The analysis of literature sources will allow determining the optimal conditions for the growth, development and reproduction of the species in artificially created laboratory conditions. The insect has gained widespread appreciation due to its highly effective bioconversion of various solid organic wastes as well as high nutrition of larvae with the possibility of using them in feeding farm animals and aquaculture. However, this is not the full range of research areas of fly use. The larva of the fly is characterized by the ability to absorb virtually any biowastes. As a result, its body accumulates a complex of substances, the percentage of which depends on the diet. The larva contains about 40% amino acids which produce a favorable effect on the growth and development of farm animals and birds, and confirm the possibility of using dry larvae as a fodder additive. Black lvink causes great scientific and practical interest. Artificial creation of the necessary conditions for the life of the species when studying and adaptation of an insect in cold climate as well as the development of technologies for the development and reproduction of insects in laboratory and industrial conditions will provide fly breeding in circumpolar regions and allow developing a number of biotechnology directions in Arkhangelsk region.

  1. Landslide susceptibility assessment of SE Bartin (West Black Sea region, Turkey by artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ercanoglu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are significant natural hazards in Turkey, second only to earthquakes with respect to economic losses and casualties. The West Black Sea region of Turkey is known as one of the most landslide-prone regions in the country. The work presented in this paper is aimed at evaluating landslide susceptibility in a selected area in the West Black Sea region using Artificial Neural Network (ANN method. A total of 317 landslides were identified and mapped in the area by extensive field work and by use of air photo interpretations to build a landslide inventory map. A landslide database was then derived automatically from the landslide inventory map. To evaluate landslide susceptibility, six input parameters (slope angle, slope aspect, topographical elevation, topographical shape, wetness index, and vegetation index were used. To obtain maps of these parameters, Digital Elevation Model (DEM and ASTER satellite imagery of the study area were used. At the first stage, all data were normalized in [0, 1] interval, and parameter effects on landslide occurrence were expressed using Statistical Index values (Wi. Then, landslide susceptibility analyses were performed using an ANN. Finally, performance of the resulting map and the applied methodology is discussed relative to performance indicators, such as predicted areal extent of landslides and the strength of relation (rij value. Much of the areal extents of the landslides (87.2% were classified as susceptible to landsliding, and rij value of 0.85 showed a high degree of similarity. In addition to these, at the final stage, an independent validation strategy was followed by dividing the landslide data set into two parts and 82.5% of the validation data set was found to be correctly classified as landslide susceptible areas. According to these results, it is concluded that the map produced by the ANN is reliable and methodology applied in the study produced high performance, and satisfactory results.

  2. Airborne black carbon concentrations over an urban region in western India-temporal variability, effects of meteorology, and source regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapna, Mukund; Sunder Raman, Ramya; Ramachandran, S; Rajesh, T A

    2013-03-01

    This study characterizes over 5 years of high time resolution (5 min), airborne black carbon (BC) concentrations (July 2003 to December 2008) measured over Ahmedabad, an urban region in western India. The data were used to obtain different time averages of BC concentrations, and these averages were then used to assess the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variability of BC over the study region. Assessment of diurnal variations revealed a strong association between BC concentrations and vehicular traffic. Peaks in BC concentration were co-incident with the morning (0730 to 0830, LST) and late evening (1930 to 2030, LST) rush hour traffic. Additionally, diurnal variability in BC concentrations during major festivals (Diwali and Dushera during the months of October/November) revealed an increase in BC concentrations due to fireworks displays. Maximum half hourly BC concentrations during the festival days were as high as 79.8 μg m(-3). However, the high concentrations rapidly decayed suggesting that local meteorology during the festive season was favorable for aerosol dispersion. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model with BC as the dependent variable and meteorological parameters as independent variables was fitted. The variability in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction accounted for about 49% of the variability in measured BC concentrations. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was used to identify the geographical location of local source regions contributing to the effective BC measured (at 880 nm) at the receptor site. The east north-east (ENE) direction to the receptor was identified as a major source region. National highway (NH8) and two coal-fired thermal power stations (at Gandhinagar and Sabarmati) were located in the identified direction, suggesting that local traffic and power plant emissions were likely contributors to the measured BC.

  3. Air-sea exchange over Black Sea estimated from high resolution regional climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velea, Liliana; Bojariu, Roxana; Cica, Roxana

    2013-04-01

    Black Sea is an important influencing factor for the climate of bordering countries, showing cyclogenetic activity (Trigo et al, 1999) and influencing Mediterranean cyclones passing over. As for other seas, standard observations of the atmosphere are limited in time and space and available observation-based estimations of air-sea exchange terms present quite large ranges of uncertainty. The reanalysis datasets (e.g. ERA produced by ECMWF) provide promising validation estimates of climatic characteristics against the ones in available climatic data (Schrum et al, 2001), while cannot reproduce some local features due to relatively coarse horizontal resolution. Detailed and realistic information on smaller-scale processes are foreseen to be provided by regional climate models, due to continuous improvements of physical parameterizations and numerical solutions and thus affording simulations at high spatial resolution. The aim of the study is to assess the potential of three regional climate models in reproducing known climatological characteristics of air-sea exchange over Black Sea, as well as to explore the added value of the model compared to the input (reanalysis) data. We employ results of long-term (1961-2000) simulations performed within ENSEMBLE project (http://ensemblesrt3.dmi.dk/) using models ETHZ-CLM, CNRM-ALADIN, METO-HadCM, for which the integration domain covers the whole area of interest. The analysis is performed for the entire basin for several variables entering the heat and water budget terms and available as direct output from the models, at seasonal and annual scale. A comparison with independent data (ERA-INTERIM) and findings from other studies (e.g. Schrum et al, 2001) is also presented. References: Schrum, C., Staneva, J., Stanev, E. and Ozsoy, E., 2001: Air-sea exchange in the Black Sea estimated from atmospheric analysis for the period 1979-1993, J. Marine Systems, 31, 3-19 Trigo, I. F., T. D. Davies, and G. R. Bigg (1999): Objective

  4. Geological and geomechanical properties of the carbonate rocks at the eastern Black Sea Region (NE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Hakan; Yalçinalp, Bülent; Arslan, Mehmet; Babacan, Ali Erden; Çetiner, Gözde

    2016-11-01

    Turkey located in the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain Belt has 35% of the natural stone reserves of the world and has good quality marble, limestone, travertine and onyx reserves especially in the western regions of the country. The eastern Black Sea Region with a 1.4 million meters cubes reserve has a little role on the natural stone production in the country. For this reason, this paper deals with investigation on the potential of carbonate stone in the region and determination of the geological and geo-mechanical properties of these rocks in order to provide economic contribution to the national economy. While the study sites are selected among the all carbonate rock sites, the importance as well as the representative of the sites were carefully considered for the region. After representative samples were analyzed for major oxide and trace element compositions to find out petrochemical variations, the experimental program conducted on rock samples for determination of both physical and strength properties of the carbonate rocks. The results of the tests showed that there are significant variations in the geo-mechanical properties of the studied rock groups. The density values vary from 2.48 to 2.70 gr/cm3, water absorption by weight values range from 0.07 to 1.15% and the apparent porosity of the carbonate rocks are between 0.19 and 3.29%. However, the values of the UCS shows variation from 36 to 80 MPa. Tensile and bending strength values range from 3.2 to 7.5 MPa and 6.0-9.2 MPa respectively. Although the onyx samples have the lowest values of apparent porosity and water absorption by weight, these samples do not have the highest values of UCS values owing to occurrence of the micro-cracks. The UCS values of the rock samples were also found after cycling tests However, the limestone samples have less than 5% deterioration after freezing-thawing and wetting-drying tests, but travertine and onyx samples have more than 15% deterioration. Exception of the apparent

  5. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2015-11-18

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some observed regularities. The variability of linear body parameters and proportions was studied. The impacts of salinity, temperature, and population density on morphological characteristics and their variability can manifest themselves in different ways at the intra- and inter-population levels. A significant effect of salinity, pH and temperature on the body proportions was not found. Their intra-population variability is dependent on temperature and salinity. Sexual dimorphism of A. salinus manifests in different linear parameters, proportions, and their variability. There were no effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the female/male parameter ratio. There were significant differences in the body proportions of males and females in different populations. The influence of temperature, salinity, and population density can be attributed to 80%-90% of intra-population variability of A. salinus. However, these factors can explain less than 40% of inter-population differences. Significant differences in the body proportions of males and females from different populations may suggest that some local populations of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region are in the initial stages of differentiation.

  6. Relationship of spontaneous pneumothorax cases seen in Eastern Black Sea region with meteorological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamac, Mustafa Esat; Karapolat, Sami; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Seyis, Kubra Nur; Tekinbas, Celal

    2017-08-01

    The relationship of climate changes or weather conditions with the incidence of pneumothorax has been explored for many years. We aimed at revealing the effects of meteorological changes on the incidence of pneumothorax in the Eastern Black Sea region where spontaneous pneumothorax cases are seen relatively more frequently. The records of 195 subjects (179 males and 16 females) who had been monitored and treated due to spontaneous pneumothorax between January 2006 and December 2012 at our clinic were reviewed retrospectively, and their relationship was investigated with the meteorological data obtained by going through the database archive records of the 11th Regional Meteorology Directorate for the years between 2006 and 2012. Wind velocity was observed to be less in the days of having spontaneous pneumothorax than in the days of having no spontaneous pneumothorax, and the difference was found statistically significant ( P = 0.026). The people of our region whose active lifestyle is reflected in their working life, social life, and even in their folk dances usually take a rest in the days of slower wind speed. We think that this state of resting leads to an increase in the frequency of spontaneous pneumothorax.

  7. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in human skin and regional lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Karin; Santarelli, Francesco; Vasold, Rudolf; Penning, Randolph; Sidoroff, Alexis; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC-DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1-0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1-11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body.

  8. Black tattoos entail substantial uptake of genotoxicpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH in human skin and regional lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lehner

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC-DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1-0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1-11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body.

  9. Black Tattoos Entail Substantial Uptake of Genotoxicpolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Human Skin and Regional Lymph Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Karin; Santarelli, Francesco; Vasold, Rudolf; Penning, Randolph; Sidoroff, Alexis; König, Burkhard; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have tattoos, which predominantly contain black inks consisting of soot products like Carbon Black or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). We recently found up to 200 μg/g of PAH in commercial black inks. After skin tattooing, a substantial part of the ink and PAH should be transported to other anatomical sites like the regional lymph nodes. To allow a first estimation of health risk, we aimed to extract and quantify the amount of PAH in black tattooed skin and the regional lymph nodes of pre-existing tattoos. Firstly, we established an extraction method by using HPLC – DAD technology that enables the quantification of PAH concentrations in human tissue. After that, 16 specimens of human tattooed skin and corresponding regional lymph nodes were included in the study. All skin specimen and lymph nodes appeared deep black. The specimens were digested and tested for 20 different PAH at the same time.PAH were found in twelve of the 16 tattooed skin specimens and in eleven regional lymph nodes. The PAH concentration ranged from 0.1–0.6 μg/cm2 in the tattooed skin and 0.1–11.8 μg/g in the lymph nodes. Two major conclusions can be drawn from the present results. Firstly, PAH in black inks stay partially in skin or can be found in the regional lymph nodes. Secondly, the major part of tattooed PAH had disappeared from skin or might be found in other organs than skin and lymph nodes. Thus, beside inhalation and ingestion, tattooing has proven to be an additional, direct and effective route of PAH uptake into the human body. PMID:24670978

  10. The region interior to the event horizon of the regular Hayward black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Roman, Ivan; Bretón, Nora

    2018-06-01

    The Painlevé-Gullstrand coordinates allow us to explore the interior of the regular Hayward black hole. The behavior of an infalling particle in traversing the Hayward black hole is compared with the one inside the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom singular black holes. When approaching the origin the test particle trajectories present differences depending if the center is regular or singular. The velocities of the infalling test particle into the modified Hayward black hole are analyzed as well. As compared with the normal Hayward, in the modified Hayward black hole the particle moves faster and the surface gravity is smaller.

  11. Characterization of breeding habitats for black and surf scoters in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.; Altmann, S.H.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of wetland habitats used by breeding black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (M. perspicillata) in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada based on satellite telemetry data collected in the spring and summer. During 2002 and 2004, nine black scoters (four males, five females) were tracked to breeding areas in Quebec, Manitoba, and Northwest Territories. In addition, in 2001?04, seven surf scoters (three males, four females) were tracked to breeding areas in Labrador, Quebec, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Based on satellite telemetry data, locations of black and surf scoters in breeding areas were not significantly different in regard to latitude and longitude. Presumed breeding areas were manually plotted on topographic maps and percent cover type and water were estimated. Breeding habitat of black scoters was significantly different than that for surf scoters, with black scoters mainly using open (tundra) areas (44%) and surf scoters using mainly forest areas (66%). Surf scoters presumed breeding areas were at significantly higher elevations than areas used by black scoters. Some breeding areas were associated with islands, but the role of islands for breeding areas is equivocal. These results aid in the identification of potentially critical breeding areas and provide a baseline classification of breeding habitats used by these two species.

  12. High resolution of black carbon and organic carbon emissions in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junyu; He, Min; Shen, Xingling; Yin, Shasha; Yuan, Zibing

    2012-11-01

    A high-resolution regional black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) emission inventory for the year 2009 was developed for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, based on the collected activity data and the latest emission factors. PM(2.5), BC and OC emissions were estimated to be 303 kt, 39 kt and 31 kt, respectively. Industrial processes were major contributing sources to PM(2.5) emissions. BC emissions were mainly from mobile sources, accounting for 65.0%, while 34.1% of OC emissions were from residential combustion. The primary OC/BC ratios for individual cities in the PRD region were dependent on the levels of economic development due to differences in source characteristics, with high ratios in the less developed cities and low ratios in the central and southern developed areas. The preliminary temporal profiles were established, showing the highest OC emissions in winter and relatively constant BC emissions throughout the year. The emissions were spatially allocated into grid cells with a resolution of 3 km × 3 km. Large amounts of BC emissions were distributed over the central-southern PRD city clusters, while OC emissions exhibited a relatively even spatial distribution due to the significant biomass burning emissions from the outlying area of the PRD region. Uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions were usually higher than in other primary pollutants like SO(2), NO(x), and PM(10). One of the key uncertainty sources was the emission factor, due to the absence of direct measurements of BC and OC emission rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CHANDRA IDENTIFICATION OF 26 NEW BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CFA), Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We have previously identified 10 M31 black hole candidates (BHCs) in M31 from their X-ray properties alone. They exhibit ''hard state'' emission spectra that are seen at luminosities {approx}<10% Eddington in X-ray binaries (XBs) containing a neutron star (NS) or black hole, at luminosities that significantly exceed the NS threshold. Nine of these are associated with globular clusters (GCs); hence, these are most likely low mass X-ray binaries; eight are included in this survey. We have recently discovered that analysis of the long term 0.5-4.5 keV variability of XBs via structure functions allows us to separate XBs from active galactic nuclei, even though the emission spectra are often similar; this has enabled us to search for BHCs outside of GCs. We have identified 26 new BHCs (12 strong, 14 plausible) within 20' of the M31 nucleus (M31*), using 152 Chandra observations spaced over {approx}13 yr; some of our classifications were enhanced with XMM-Newton observations. Of these, seven appear within 100'' of M31*; this supports the theory suggesting that this region experiences enhanced XB production via dynamical processes similar to those seen in GCs. We have found a parameter space where our BHCs are separated from Galactic NS binaries: we show that modeling a simulated hard state spectrum with a disk blackbody + blackbody model yields parameters that lie outside the space occupied by NS binaries that are modeled this way. The probability that our BHCs all lie within the NS parameter space is {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -29}.

  14. An Integrative Database System of Agro-Ecology for the Black Soil Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Ge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive database system of the Northeast agro-ecology of black soil (CSDB_BL is user-friendly software designed to store and manage large amounts of data on agriculture. The data was collected in an efficient and systematic way by long-term experiments and observations of black land and statistics information. It is based on the ORACLE database management system and the interface is written in PB language. The database has the following main facilities:(1 runs on Windows platforms; (2 facilitates data entry from *.dbf to ORACLE or creates ORACLE tables directly; (3has a metadata facility that describes the methods used in the laboratory or in the observations; (4 data can be transferred to an expert system for simulation analysis and estimates made by Visual C++ and Visual Basic; (5 can be connected with GIS, so it is easy to analyze changes in land use ; and (6 allows metadata and data entity to be shared on the internet. The following datasets are included in CSDB_BL: long-term experiments and observations of water, soil, climate, biology, special research projects, and a natural resource survey of Hailun County in the 1980s; images from remote sensing, graphs of vectors and grids, and statistics from Northeast of China. CSDB_BL can be used in the research and evaluation of agricultural sustainability nationally, regionally, or locally. Also, it can be used as a tool to assist the government in planning for agricultural development. Expert systems connected with CSDB_BL can give farmers directions for farm planting management.

  15. AN INVESTIGATION OF WAVE ENERGY POTENTIAL IN WESTERN BLACK SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas UYGUR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main energy sources which are natural, clean, environmentally friendly, and renewable are wind power, solar energy, biomass energy, hydro energy, and wave energy. The wave energy has no cost except for the first investment and maintenance. There is also no cost for input energy. Besides these, it has no pollution effect on the environment, it is cheap and there is a huge potential all around the world. Wave energy is a good opportunity to solve the energy problem for Turkey which is surrounded by seas. Concerning all these facts, it has been conducted some studies which included five years of observation in the Western Black Sea Region (Akçakoca. The wave energy potential has also been calculated. From this sutdy results, it can be concluded that the wave energy potential of this region is inefficient. It is believed that by the improvement of the new energy converter devices in future, this low potential can be used more efficiently and as a result this study might be used as a basis for the future researches.

  16. Spatial distribution of earthquake hypocenters in the Crimea—Black Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmin, V. Yu; Shumlianska, L. O.

    2018-03-01

    Some aspects of the seismicity the Crime—Black Sea region are considered on the basis of the catalogued data on earthquakes that have occurred between 1970 and 2012. The complete list of the Crimean earthquakes for this period contains about 2140 events with magnitude ranging from -1.5 to 5.5. Bulletins contain information about compressional and shear waves arrival times regarding nearly 2000 earthquakes. A new approach to the definition of the coordinates of all of the events was applied to re-establish the hypocenters of the catalogued earthquakes. The obtained results indicate that the bulk of the earthquakes' foci in the region are located in the crust. However, some 2.5% of the foci are located at the depths ranging from 50 to 250 km. The new distribution of foci of earthquakes shows the concentration of foci in the form of two inclined branches, the center of which is located under the Yalto-Alushta seismic focal zone. The whole distribution of foci in depth corresponds to the relief of the lithosphere.

  17. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September ...

  18. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  19. Confidence Hills Mineralogy and Chemin Results from Base of Mt. Sharp, Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, P. D.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity recently completed its fourth drill sampling of sediments on Mars. The Confidence Hills (CH) sample was drilled from a rock located in the Pahrump Hills region at the base of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. The CheMin X-ray diffractometer completed five nights of analysis on the sample, more than previously executed for a drill sample, and the data have been analyzed using Rietveld refinement and full-pattern fitting to determine quantitative mineralogy. Confidence Hills mineralogy has several important characteristics: 1) abundant hematite and lesser magnetite; 2) a 10 angstrom phyllosilicate; 3) multiple feldspars including plagioclase and alkali feldspar; 4) mafic silicates including forsterite, orthopyroxene, and two types of clinopyroxene (Ca-rich and Ca-poor), consistent with a basaltic source; and 5) minor contributions from sulfur-bearing species including jarosite.

  20. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  1. Crimea and the quest for energy and military hegemony in the Black Sea region: governance gap in a contested geostrategic zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2015-01-01

    Russia’s annexation of Crimea and its destabilization of Eastern Ukraine have radically altered the European security order, with the Black Sea region becoming an acutely contested geostrategic zone. Russia’s strategic interests in the Black Sea region, especially in terms of energy and military

  2. Natural and artificial radioactivity measurements in Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, N.; Cevik, U.; Celik, A.; Koz, B.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, naturally occurring radionuclides of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in soil samples collected from the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. It was found that the activity concentrations ranged from 12 to 120 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 13 to 121 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and from 204 to 1295 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. Besides naturally occurring radionuclides, 137 Cs activity concentration was measured in soil, lichen and moss samples and it was found that 137 Cs activity concentration ranged from 27 to 775 Bq kg -1 with for soil, from 29 to 879 Bq kg -1 for lichen and from 67 to 1396 Bq kg -1 for moss samples. Annual effective doses due to the naturally occurring radionuclides and 137 Cs were estimated. Ecological half-lives of 137 Cs in lichen and moss species were estimated. The decrease of the activity concentrations in the present measurements (2007) relative to those in 1993 indicated ecological half-lives between 1.36 and 2.96 years for lichen and between 1.35 and 2.85 years for moss species

  3. Military organization and army command of ancient armies of Northern Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Kolesnykov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deal with the description, analysis and generalization of features organization of command structure of the army ancient states of the Northern Black Sea region: Olbia, Chersonese, Bosporus. Author sure that the foundation of the armed forces of these states was a civil militia – free, economically independent landowners, endowed with the broadest volume of political and social rights men – full citizens. Accordingly, the assemblies of citizens were electing strategists, who led militia forces. In case of need the people also claimed commanders’ mercenary troops. Bosporus kings have attracted a significant number of hired troops that held by the royal treasury income and special direct tax. Bosporus military command came from magistrates of polis only at the lower levels. Middle and higher level of «officer corps» of the Bosporus were appointed by the monarch from among the landowners, officialdom and military aristocracy. For example, in the Roman period on the Bosporus fixed formation units of cathafractarian cavalry. The weapons and tactics of the Sarmatian nomadic nobility (Aspurhianian, Sirak, Aorsy and more were served as a model for Bosporus cataphractarian horsemen.

  4. Regional Assessment of Remote Forests and Black Bear Habitat from Forest Resource Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis; John B. Tansey

    1995-01-01

    We developed a spatially explicit modeling approach, using a county-scaled remote forest (i.e., forested area reserved from or having no direct human interference) assessment derived from 1984-1990 forest resource inventory data and a 1984 black bear (Ursus americantus) range map for 12 states in the southern United States.We defined minimum suitable and optimal black...

  5. Black carbon concentration and deposition estimations in Finland by the regional aerosol–climate model REMO-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Hienola

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The prediction skill of the regional aerosol–climate model REMO-HAM was assessed against the black carbon (BC concentration measurements from five locations in Finland, with focus on Hyytiälä station for the year 2005. We examined to what extent the model is able to reproduce the measurements using several statistical tools: median comparison, overlap coefficient (OVL; the common area under two probability distributions curves and Z score (a measure of standard deviation, shape and spread of the distributions. The results of the statistics showed that the model is biased low. The local and regional emissions of BC have a significant contribution, and the model tendency to flatten the observed BC is most likely dominated by the lack of domestic burning of biofuel in the emission inventories. A further examination of the precipitation data from both measurements and model showed that there is no correlation between REMO's excessive precipitation and BC underestimation. This suggests that the excessive wet removal is not the main cause of the low black carbon concentration output. In addition, a comparison of wind directions in relation with high black carbon concentrations shows that REMO-HAM is able to predict the BC source directions relatively well. Cumulative black carbon deposition fluxes over Finland were estimated, including the deposition on snow.

  6. Molecular taxonomy study of representatives of the genus Gobius inhabiting coastal waters of Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriha Tserkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin the Black Sea gobies can be divided to Ponto-Caspian relicts and Mediterranean immigrants. The increase of species diversity in the Black Sea is a consequence of Mediterranean immigrants. The present study investigated the variability in Cytochrome b sequences isolated from two former Mediterranean immigrant species: Gobius niger and Zosterisessor ophiocephalus. The annotated at NCBI Cyt b sequences of the species were also used to extend the reach of the study. The analyses demonstrated that Black Sea inhabited by four haplotypes of G. niger. Four other haplotypes were found in sequences of Mediterranean black gobies. In the Black Sea haplotype, 6 is predominant and 83.5% of all G. niger representatives belong to it. Three other haplotypes (H_1; H_7 and H_8 were found to form isolated populations. The Tajima D-test indicated that in the Black Sea G. niger in a stage of expansion and significant evolutionary pressure according to data from Maximum Composite Likelihood model of Tamura-Nei, which can explain the accumulation of mutation and appearance of new haplotypes. Unlike G. niger, Z. ophiocephalus populations are shrinking according to Tajima D-test and only one haplotype is still surviving in isolated locations in the Black Sea. These data are in agreement with previous reports of other authors which alarmed that the grass goby is a critically endangered species close to extinction.

  7. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  8. MULTILATERAL COOPERATION IN THE BLACK SEA REGION IN THE ENERGY FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vyacheslavovich Ishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the state of international cooperation is analysed in the field of energy in Black Sea besseyne. Problems and prospects of development of power communications, their influence, are examined on the level of international stability.

  9. Antigravity hills are visual illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Paola; Garlaschelli, Luigi; Barracano, Monica

    2003-09-01

    Antigravity hills, also known as spook hills or magnetic hills, are natural places where cars put into neutral are seen to move uphill on a slightly sloping road, apparently defying the law of gravity. We show that these effects, popularly attributed to gravitational anomalies, are in fact visual illusions. We re-created all the known types of antigravity spots in our laboratory using tabletop models; the number of visible stretches of road, their slant, and the height of the visible horizon were systematically varied in four experiments. We conclude that antigravity-hill effects follow from a misperception of the eye level relative to gravity, caused by the presence of either contextual inclines or a false horizon line.

  10. Hill's formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotin, Sergey V [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Treschev, Dmitrii V [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-27

    In his study of periodic orbits of the three-body problem, Hill obtained a formula connecting the characteristic polynomial of the monodromy matrix of a periodic orbit with the infinite determinant of the Hessian of the action functional. A mathematically rigorous definition of the Hill determinant and a proof of Hill's formula were obtained later by Poincare. Here two multidimensional generalizations of Hill's formula are given: for discrete Lagrangian systems (symplectic twist maps) and for continuous Lagrangian systems. Additional aspects appearing in the presence of symmetries or reversibility are discussed. Also studied is the change of the Morse index of a periodic trajectory upon reduction of order in a system with symmetries. Applications are given to the problem of stability of periodic orbits. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  11. Are hills like white elephants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Are Hills Like White Elephants?' is, of course, inspired by Hemingway; the tribute reflects on the abiding relevance of serious art in a changed world and extends the boundaries of his message to other human situations.

  12. Wine Industry Competitiveness: A survey of the Shawnee Hills American Viticultural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Matthew Rendleman

    2016-06-01

    Shawnee Hill׳s AVA winery owner/operators regard increases in regional tourism, growth in the US wine market continuous innovation, unique services and processes, and flow of information from customers to have the most enhancing effects on their businesses, and that confidence/trust in Illinois state political systems, tax systems, and administrative/bureaucratic regulations were the most constraining factors. Furthermore the Shawnee Hills AVA has growing competition, yet consists of innovative winery owners. It may currently lack external financial support, but with a community focus on product differentiation, the Shawnee Hills AVA has a chance, owners believe, to capture a portion of the growing market for regional products.

  13. Distributions of recent gullies on hillslopes with different slopes and aspects in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dichen; Fan, Haoming; Fan, Xiangguo

    2017-09-17

    Gully erosion is an important environmental problem worldwide and the main process by which water and soil losses occur in the Black Soil Region (BSR) of Northeast China. At the end of 2012, 295,663 gullies were present in this region. However, few studies have examined the gullies of the Black Soil Region as a whole. Studying the distribution of recent gullies can reveal the pattern of gully distribution and can help predict their spatial development according to the soil and water conservation regionalization of China. This study examines the recorded gullies in the BSR of Northeast China, which is included in the first census of water resources in China and in six sub-regions of the soil and water conservation regionalization of China. Specifically, digital elevation model (DEM) data are combined with data on gullies occurring on hillslopes with different slopes and aspects to study the distribution of these features. The results illustrate that gully density, developing gully density, and the proportion of cutting land initially increase with increasing slope up to some threshold value, then decrease as the slope increases further. The patterns of stable gullies are divided into unimodal and bimodal types. Three patterns of gully intensity are identified. The areas and lengths of gullies are larger on sunny slopes, but larger numbers of gullies are present on shaded slopes. In addition, more space is available for gully development in the Hulun Buir hilly and plain sub-region and the Changbai Mountain-Wanda Mountain sub-region than in the other sub-regions.

  14. Effects of Revegetation on Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Erosion-Induced Carbon Loss under Extreme Rainstorms in the Hill and Gully Region of the Loess Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Loess Plateau, an ecologically vulnerable region, has long been suffering from serious soil erosion. Revegetation has been implemented to control soil erosion and improve ecosystems in the Loess Plateau region through a series of ecological recovery programs. However, the increasing atmospheric CO2 as a result of human intervention is affecting the climate by global warming, resulting in the greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as storms that may weaken the effectiveness of revegetation and cause severe soil erosion. Most research to date has evaluated the effectiveness of revegetation on soil properties and soil erosion of different land use or vegetation types. Here, we study the effect of revegetation on soil organic carbon (SOC storage and erosion-induced carbon loss related to different plant communities, particularly under extreme rainstorm events. Materials and methods: The erosion-pin method was used to quantify soil erosion, and soil samples were taken at soil depths of 0–5 cm, 5–10 cm and 10–20 cm to determine the SOC content for 13 typical hillside revegetation communities in the year of 2013, which had the highest rainfall with broad range, long duration and high intensity since 1945, in the Yanhe watershed. Results and discussion: The SOC concentrations of all plant communities increased with soil depth when compared with slope cropland, and significant increases (p < 0.05 were observed for most shrub and forest communities, particularly for natural ones. Taking the natural secondary forest community as reference (i.e., soil loss and SOC loss were both 1.0, the relative soil loss and SOC loss of the other 12 plant communities in 2013 ranged from 1.5 to 9.4 and 0.30 to 1.73, respectively. Natural shrub and forest communities showed greater resistance to rainstorm erosion than grassland communities. The natural grassland communities with lower SOC content produced lower SOC loss even

  15. Effects of Revegetation on Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Erosion-Induced Carbon Loss under Extreme Rainstorms in the Hill and Gully Region of the Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujin; Jiao, Juying; Wang, Zhijie; Cao, Binting; Wei, Yanhong; Hu, Shu

    2016-04-29

    The Loess Plateau, an ecologically vulnerable region, has long been suffering from serious soil erosion. Revegetation has been implemented to control soil erosion and improve ecosystems in the Loess Plateau region through a series of ecological recovery programs. However, the increasing atmospheric CO₂ as a result of human intervention is affecting the climate by global warming, resulting in the greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as storms that may weaken the effectiveness of revegetation and cause severe soil erosion. Most research to date has evaluated the effectiveness of revegetation on soil properties and soil erosion of different land use or vegetation types. Here, we study the effect of revegetation on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and erosion-induced carbon loss related to different plant communities, particularly under extreme rainstorm events. The erosion-pin method was used to quantify soil erosion, and soil samples were taken at soil depths of 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm to determine the SOC content for 13 typical hillside revegetation communities in the year of 2013, which had the highest rainfall with broad range, long duration and high intensity since 1945, in the Yanhe watershed. The SOC concentrations of all plant communities increased with soil depth when compared with slope cropland, and significant increases (p soil loss and SOC loss were both 1.0), the relative soil loss and SOC loss of the other 12 plant communities in 2013 ranged from 1.5 to 9.4 and 0.30 to 1.73, respectively. Natural shrub and forest communities showed greater resistance to rainstorm erosion than grassland communities. The natural grassland communities with lower SOC content produced lower SOC loss even with higher soil loss, natural secondary forest communities produced higher SOC loss, primarily because of their higher SOC content, and the artificial R. pseudoacacia community with greater soil loss produced higher SOC loss. These results

  16. Evaluation of a mobile screening service for abdominal aortic aneurysm in Broken Hill, a remote regional centre in far western NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesjak, Margaret S; Flecknoe-Brown, Stephen C; Sidford, Jan R; Payne, Kerryn; Fletcher, John P; Lyle, David M

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a mobile screening service model for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in a remote population centre in Australia. Screening test evaluation. A remote regional centre (population: 20 000) in far western NSW. Men aged 65-74 years, identified from the Australian Electoral roll. A mobile screening service using directed ultrasonography, a basic health check and post-screening consultation. Attendance at the screening program, occurrence of AAA in the target population and effectiveness of screening processes. A total of 516 men without a previous diagnosis of AAA were screened, an estimated response rate of 60%. Of these, 463 (89.7%) had a normal aortic diameter, 28 (5.4%) ectatic and 25 (4.9%) a small, moderate or significant aneurysm. Two men with AAA were recommended for surgery. Feedback from participants indicated that the use of a personalised letter of invitation helped with recruitment, that the screening process was acceptable and the service valued. It is feasible to organise and operate a mobile AAA screening service from moderate sized rural and remote population centres. This model could be scaled up to provide national coverage for rural and remote residents.

  17. Genetic trend for growth and wool performance in a closed flock of Bharat Merino sheep at sub temperate region of Kodai hills, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, P K; Thirumaran, S M K; Pourouchottamane, R; Rajapandi, S; Venkataramanan, R; Nagarajan, G; Murali, G; Rajendiran, A S

    2016-03-01

    The study was conducted at Southern Regional Research Center, ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute (CSWRI), Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu to estimate genetic trends for birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (3WT), 6 months weight (6WT), and greasy fleece weight (GFY) in a Bharat Merino (BM) flock, where selection was practiced for 6WT and GFY. The data for this study represents a total of 1652 BM lambs; progeny of 144 sires spread over 15 years starting from 2000 to 2014, obtained from the BM flock of ICAR-SRRC (CSWRI), Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India. The genetic trends were calculated by regression of average predicted breeding values using software WOMBAT for the traits BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY versus the animal's birth year. The least square means were 3.28±0.02 kg, 19.08±0.23 kg, 25.00±0.35 kg and 2.13±0.07 kg for BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY, respectively. Genetic trends were positive and highly significant (p<0.01) for BWT, while the values for 3WT, 6WT and GFY though positive, were not significant. The estimates of genetic trends in BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY were 5 g, 0.8 g, 7 g and 0.3 g/year gain and the fit of the regression shows 55%, 22%, 42% and 12% coefficient of determination with the regressed value, respectively. In this study, estimated mean predicted breeding value (kg) in BWT and 3WT, 6WT and GFY were 0.067, 0.008, 0.036 and -0.003, respectively. Estimates of genetic trends indicated that there was a positive genetic improvement in all studied traits and selection would be effective for the improvement of body weight traits and GFY of BM sheep.

  18. A success story of regional projects implemented for the management of marine environment. Turkish experience related to the black sea and the mediterranean sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goktepe, B.G.; Gungor, N.; Gungor, E.; Karakelle, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region' is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001. This project was initiated in response to the needs of participating Member States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey) to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer techniques to marine pollution studies The project has various important aspects: Scientifically; one of the major environmental issue radioactivity pollution is addressed. Technically; laboratory capability for transuranic analysis is being developed. Economically; the reversing the ecological deterioration and developing sustainable uses of the Black Sea and its natural resources is one of the major interests. Politically; responsibility of pollution control and rehabilitation plans of six Black Sea countries are addressed through various convention and declarations. Socio-economically, fisheries and tourism sectors are expected to benefit. Highlights from the joint radioactivity-monitoring program of the project among six Black Sea countries are outlined. Examples from the Turkish monitoring work consist of the routine sampling of seawater, algae, mussels, fish samples and beach sand from the selected stations along the Black Sea coast are presented for illustration. The success of the Black Sea regional project has given rise to a new regional project 'Marine Environmental Assessment of the Mediterranean Region' based on the request of the member countries, which will be initiated in 2005 by the IAEA. The initial phase the project, its objectives and the schedule will be summarized. Key words: marine radioactivity, environmental management, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, regional cooperation

  19. Black (pyrogenic carbon: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties with special consideration of boreal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Preston

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon (C cycle in boreal regions is strongly influenced by fire, which converts biomass and detrital C mainly to gaseous forms (CO2 and smaller proportions of CO and CH4, and some 1–3% of mass to pyrogenic C (PyC. PyC is mainly produced as solid charred residues, including visually-defined charcoal, and a black carbon (BC fraction chemically defined by its resistance to laboratory oxidation, plus much lower proportions of volatile soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. All PyC is characterized by fused aromatic rings, but varying in cluster sizes, and presence of other elements (N, O and functional groups. The range of PyC structures is often described as a continuum from partially charred plant materials, to charcoal, soot and ultimately graphite which is formed by the combination of heat and pressure. There are several reasons for current interest in defining more precisely the role of PyC in the C cycle of boreal regions. First, PyC is largely resistant to decomposition, and therefore contributes to very stable C pools in soils and sediments. Second, it influences soil processes, mainly through its sorption properties and cation exchange capacity, and third, soot aerosols absorb solar radiation and may contribute to global warming. However, there are large gaps in the basic information needed to address these topics. While charcoal is commonly defined by visual criteria, analytical methods for BC are mainly based on various measures of oxidation resistance, or on yield of benzenepolycarboxylic acids. These methods are still being developed, and capture different fractions of the PyC structural continuum. There are few quantitative reports of PyC production and stocks in boreal forests (essentially none for boreal peatlands, and results are difficult to compare due to varying experimental goals and methods, as well as inconsistent terminology. There are almost no direct field measurements of BC aerosol production from boreal

  20. Selected Black-Coal Mine Waste Dumps in the Ostrava-Karviná Region: An Analysis of Their Potential Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Dominik; Duraj, Miloš; Cheng, Xianfeng; Marschalko, Marian; Kubáč, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The paper aims to analyse the options for the use of selected black-coal mine waste dump bodies in the Ostrava-Karviná Region. In the Czech Republic there are approximately 70 mine waste dumps, out of which 50 are located in the Ostrava-Karviná Coal District. The issue is highly topical, particularly in the region, because the dump bodies significantly affect the landscape character of the Ostrava-Karviná Region and pose ecological risks. In such cases, their redevelopment and land reclamation are not easy either from the environmental or economic points of view. It is clear that the redevelopment of such geological environment is difficult, and it is vital to make the right decisions as for what purposes the mine waste dumps should be used. Next, it is important to take into account all the economic and environmental aspects of the locality in question.

  1. A regional ocean circulation model for the mid-Cretaceous North Atlantic Basin: implications for black shale formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. M. Topper

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High concentrations of organic matter accumulated in marine sediments during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs in the Cretaceous. Model studies examining these events invariably make use of global ocean circulation models. In this study, a regional model for the North Atlantic Basin during OAE2 at the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary has been developed. A first order check of the results has been performed by comparison with the results of a recent global Cenomanian CCSM3 run, from which boundary and initial conditions were obtained. The regional model is able to maintain tracer patterns and to produce velocity patterns similar to the global model. The sensitivity of the basin tracer and circulation patterns to changes in the geometry of the connections with the global ocean is examined with three experiments with different bathymetries near the sponges. Different geometries turn out to have little effect on tracer distribution, but do affect circulation and upwelling patterns. The regional model is also used to test the hypothesis that ocean circulation may have been behind the deposition of black shales during OAEs. Three scenarios are tested which are thought to represent pre-OAE, OAE and post-OAE situations. Model results confirm that Pacific intermediate inflow together with coastal upwelling could have enhanced primary production during OAE2. A low sea level in the pre-OAE scenario could have inhibited large scale black shale formation, as could have the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic Seaway in the post-OAE scenario.

  2. Radioactivity monitoring of the Turkish Black Sea coast as a part of the IAEA model project 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' and nuclear techniques for the environmental management of water resources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goktepe, B.G.; Koksal, G.; Gungor, N.; Gungor, E.; Kose, A.; Kucukcezzar, R.; Varinlioglu, A.; Erkol, A.Y.; Karakelle, B.; Osvath, I.; Fowler, S.

    2002-01-01

    A wide scope Regional Technical Co-operation Project RER/2/003 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' is implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the period 1995-2001. This project is initiated in response to the needs of participating Member-States - the six Black Sea coastal countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Russian Federation, Georgia and Turkey) to establish capabilities for reliably assessing radionuclides in the Black Sea environment and applying tracer technique to marine pollution studies. The project has various important aspects: Scientifically; one of the major environmental issue radioactivity pollution is addressed. Technically; laboratory capability for transuranic analysis is being developed. Economically; the reversing the ecological deterioration and developing sustainable uses of the Black Sea and its natural resources is one of the major interest. Politically; responsibility of pollution control and rehabilitation plans of six Black Sea countries are addressed thought various conventions and declarations. Socio-economically; fisheries and tourism sectors are expected to benefit. Highlights from the joint radioactivity monitoring program of the project among six Black Sea countries are outlined. Examples from Turkish monitoring work consists of the routine sampling of sea water, algae, mussels, fish samples and beach sand from the selected stations along the Black Sea coast are presented for illustration. Insights gained from the application of nuclear techniques for the 'Pollution Investigation of the Kucukcekmece Lake' and the 'Marine environmental assessment of the Black Sea region' Model Technical Co-operation Project carried out at the Cekmece Nuclear Research Center supporting by the IAEA are presented. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of protection of the water resources within Eurasian countries and the need for strong cooperation among nuclear research centers

  3. Climate and land-use change impacts on potential solar photovoltaic power generation in the Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, I.; Goyette, S.; Gago-Silva, A.; Quiquerez, L.; Lehmann, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The solar resource is sufficient to provide PV power at suitable locations within the Black Sea catchment. • Climate change will not significantly impact the solar resource, although uncertainty exists. • Land-use change will significantly impact potential PV power, although socio-economic factors will have more importance. • It is important to strengthen regional cooperation for the integration of renewable energy resources. - Abstract: Climate change is a naturally occurring phenomenon that has recently been greatly impacted by anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of the main contributing sectors to GHG emissions is the energy sector, due to its high dependency on fossil fuels. Renewable energy systems, notably solar energy, can be an effective climate change mitigation alternative. Photovoltaic (PV) technology provides an interesting method to produce electricity through a virtually infinite renewable resource at the human time scale: solar radiation. This study evaluates the current and future solar energy potential through the use of grid-connected PV power plants at the scale of countries within the Black Sea catchment. Simulated data are used to determine potential change in climate and land-use according to two different development scenarios. Incident solar radiation flux from re-analyses, spatial interpolation, and the application of the Delta change method are used to assess the current and future solar resource potential within this catchment. Potential sites suitable for PV power plants are selected following a Fuzzy logic approach, and thus the total potential solar energy through PV power generation can be determined. Results show that climate change will have little impact on the solar radiation resource, while land-use change induces more variability. However, regardless of the scenario followed, the solar energy potential is sufficient to provide an interesting contribution to the electricity generation mix of

  4. Evidence for Broad-Line Region Outflows and Their Impact on Black Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Assef, R. J.; Horne, K.

    2012-01-01

    could not be fully and accurately interpreted from the 1D velocity-resolved reverberation signal. From the VDM, an outflow component to the emission remains possible but appears to be in addition to an underlying, disk-like BLR structure consistent in size with the measured reverberation lag. The black...... hole (BH) mass derived from this data is therefore secure from any uncertainties possibly derived from gravitationally unbound gas contributing to the emission. Additionally, we demonstrate that BLR emission from the C IV ¿1549 broad emission line can reliably be used as a virial BH mass estimator...

  5. Moderate to severe iodine deficiency in three endemic goitre areas from the Black Sea region and the capital of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, G.; Erdogan, M.F.; Delange, F.; Sav, H.; Guellue, S.; Kamel, N.

    2000-01-01

    Endemic goitre is still an important and underestimated health concern in Turkey. The overall prevalence had been calculated as 30.3% by palpation in a national survey conducted in 1995. However, direct evidence that iodine deficiency (ID) is the major cause of the endemic were lacking until now. We measured sonographic thyroid volumes (STV), urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in 1226 school age children (SAC) (9-11 year old) from Ankara the capital of Turkey located in the central Anatolia, and three highly endemic goitre areas of the Black Sea region. A considerable number of school age children (SAC) were found to have STV exceeding the recommended upper normal limits for their age and gender obtained from iodine-replete European children (i.e. 26.7, 40.3, 44.8 and 51.7% of children from Ankara, Kastamonu, Bayburt and Trabzon respectively). UIC indicated moderate to severe ID in these areas with median concentrations of 25.5, 30.5, 16.0 and 14 μg/L respectively. This study showed severe to moderate ID as the primary etiological factor for the goitre endemic observed in Ankara and the Black Sea region of Turkey

  6. Wetland selection by breeding and foraging black terns in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Valerie A.; Powell, Abby N.

    2012-01-01

    We examined wetland selection by the Black Tern (Chlidonias niger), a species that breeds primarily in the prairie pothole region, has experienced population declines, and is difficult to manage because of low site fidelity. To characterize its selection of wetlands in this region, we surveyed 589 wetlands throughout North and South Dakota. We documented breeding at 5% and foraging at 17% of wetlands. We created predictive habitat models with a machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, to explore the relative role of local wetland characteristics and those of the surrounding landscape and to evaluate which characteristics were important to predicting breeding versus foraging. We also examined area-dependent wetland selection while addressing the passive sampling bias by replacing occurrence of terns in the models with an index of density. Local wetland variables were more important than landscape variables in predictions of occurrence of breeding and foraging. Wetland size was more important to prediction of foraging than of breeding locations, while floating matted vegetation was more important to prediction of breeding than of foraging locations. The amount of seasonal wetland in the landscape was the only landscape variable important to prediction of both foraging and breeding. Models based on a density index indicated that wetland selection by foraging terns may be more area dependent than that by breeding terns. Our study provides some of the first evidence for differential breeding and foraging wetland selection by Black Terns and for a more limited role of landscape effects and area sensitivity than has been previously shown.

  7. Determination of black carbon and nanoparticles along glaciers in the Spitsbergen (Svalbard) region exploiting a mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Barbaro, Elena; Mazzola, Mauro; Viola, Angelo P.; Lisok, Justyna; Obleitner, Friedrich; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Cappelletti, David

    2017-12-01

    An innovative approach to characterize concentration of atmospheric aerosol particles and air mass layering along the elevation profile of glaciers is presented for the first time and validated, exploiting low weight and fast response sensors deployed on a snowmobile. Two micro-Aethalometers for black carbon measurements and a miniature Diffusion Size Classifier (miniDisc) for total aerosol concentration (airborne particles) in the 14-260 nm range were used. Test experiments were conducted in the Arctic (Svalbard) in Spring (2016). Three glaciers in the Spitsbergen region were considered for this exploratory study, the Austre Brøggerbreen, the Edithbreen and the Kongsvegen. The Austre Brøggerbreen and Edithbreen were considered as test sites to setup the experiment, to optimize the sampling strategy and to identify some basic experimental artefacts. Kongsvegen glacier was chosen for the main case study, extending from the Kongsfjorden coast to roughly 700 m above sea level for a total length of ca. 25 km and with a nearly constant elevation gradient. The obtained results were rather consistent for the three glaciers and show an increase of nanoparticles with altitude. Black carbon concentration show stationary to decreasing trends going from the bottom to the top of the glaciers. These observations indicate a very active secondary aerosol formation at the highest elevations, responsible for the increase concentration of ultrafine particles at the glacier top. On the other side, black carbon shows higher levels at the lower altitudes of the glacier. This is indicative that in absence of a long-range transport as demonstrated by calculated back trajectories, black carbon might have accumulated due to the effect of katabatic winds flow along the glacier profile. The results obtained were compared and are largely consistent with the observations from concurrent soundings with a tethered balloon experiment conducted in the nearby site of Ny-Ålesund. The proposed

  8. Spatial consideration of black rainfall region using geographical information system and based on witness of A-bomb survivors and newspaper articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yuya; Satoh, Kenichi; Shimamoto; Kawano, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    The black rainfall area after the A-bomb explosion was investigated using informational materials in the title because orographic precipitate is important for radioactive substances to spread. Witnesses were collected from questionnaires about exposure done by Asahi Newspapers (Apr., 2005) and by Japan Confederation of A- and H-Bomb Sufferers Organizations (Nov., 1985-Mar., 1986); from Newspaper Data Base in Hiroshima University about articles concerning A-bomb, exposure and black rain; and about geography, from National Digital Cartographic Data Base of Geographical Survey Institute. Geographical Information System was used for identifying the valley and ridge to plot the keywords about the above exposure, black rain and so on. It was found that black rain was experienced in Hiroshima City alone whereas witness of seeing the mushroom cloud was obtained at many places nearby around the City, suggesting the biased black rainfall region within the City. Particularly, when the black rain witnesses in the City were summing up for each region, they were found biased in the west to northern west areas of the hypocenter, that were downwind of the first ridge from the explosion site. Thus the black rainfall was found localized western to northern western from the hypocenter, which was thought to be further confirmed by other evidence like soil analysis. (T.T.)

  9. Superluminous Transients at AGN Centers from Interaction between Black Hole Disk Winds and Broad-line Region Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Tanaka, Masaomi; Ohsuga, Ken [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Morokuma, Tomoki, E-mail: takashi.moriya@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2017-07-10

    We propose that superluminous transients that appear at central regions of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) such as CSS100217:102913+404220 (CSS100217) and PS16dtm, which reach near- or super-Eddington luminosities of the central black holes, are powered by the interaction between accretion-disk winds and clouds in broad-line regions (BLRs) surrounding them. If the disk luminosity temporarily increases by, e.g., limit–cycle oscillations, leading to a powerful radiatively driven wind, strong shock waves propagate in the BLR. Because the dense clouds in the AGN BLRs typically have similar densities to those found in SNe IIn, strong radiative shocks emerge and efficiently convert the ejecta kinetic energy to radiation. As a result, transients similar to SNe IIn can be observed at AGN central regions. Since a typical black hole disk-wind velocity is ≃0.1 c , where c is the speed of light, the ejecta kinetic energy is expected to be ≃10{sup 52} erg when ≃1 M {sub ⊙} is ejected. This kinetic energy is transformed to radiation energy in a timescale for the wind to sweep up a similar mass to itself in the BLR, which is a few hundred days. Therefore, both luminosities (∼10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}) and timescales (∼100 days) of the superluminous transients from AGN central regions match those expected in our interaction model. If CSS100217 and PS16dtm are related to the AGN activities triggered by limit–cycle oscillations, they become bright again in coming years or decades.

  10. Key tiger habitats in the Garo Hills of Meghalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot

    2010-01-01

    We describe assumed tiger habitat characteristics and attempt to identify potential tiger habitats in the Garo Hills region of Meghalaya, North East India. Conserving large forest tracts and protected wildlife habitats provides an opportunity for restoring populations of wide-ranging wildlife such as tigers and elephants. Based on limited field observations coupled...

  11. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT: BROAD-LINE REGION RADII AND BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM REVERBERATION MAPPING OF Hβ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Barth, Aaron J.; Baliber, Nairn; Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Greene, Jenny E.; Hidas, Marton G.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Hiner, Kyle D.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Weidong; Serduke, Frank J. D.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Steele, Thea N.; Gates, Elinor L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Minezaki, Takeo; Sakata, Yu

    2009-01-01

    We have recently completed a 64-night spectroscopic monitoring campaign at the Lick Observatory 3-m Shane telescope with the aim of measuring the masses of the black holes in 12 nearby (z 6 -10 7 M sun and also the well-studied nearby active galactic nucleus (AGN) NGC 5548. Nine of the objects in the sample (including NGC 5548) showed optical variability of sufficient strength during the monitoring campaign to allow for a time lag to be measured between the continuum fluctuations and the response to these fluctuations in the broad Hβ emission. We present here the light curves for all the objects in this sample and the subsequent Hβ time lags for the nine objects where these measurements were possible. The Hβ lag time is directly related to the size of the broad-line region (BLR) in AGNs, and by combining the Hβ lag time with the measured width of the Hβ emission line in the variable part of the spectrum, we determine the virial mass of the central supermassive black hole in these nine AGNs. The absolute calibration of the black hole masses is based on the normalization derived by Onken et al., which brings the masses determined by reverberation mapping into agreement with the local M BH -σ * relationship for quiescent galaxies. We also examine the time lag response as a function of velocity across the Hβ line profile for six of the AGNs. The analysis of four leads to rather ambiguous results with relatively flat time lags as a function of velocity. However, SBS 1116+583A exhibits a symmetric time lag response around the line center reminiscent of simple models for circularly orbiting BLR clouds, and Arp 151 shows an asymmetric profile that is most easily explained by a simple gravitational infall model. Further investigation will be necessary to fully understand the constraints placed on the physical models of the BLR by the velocity-resolved response in these objects.

  12. Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Blum, O.B.; Filby, R.H.; Malyuk, I.A.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species

  13. [Short-term effect of black film covering on Oncomelania hupensis snail control in marshland and lake regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng-bang; Zhou, Yi-biao; Li, Lin-han; Wu, Jin-yi; Yao, Bao-dong; Zhu, Shao-ping; Wei, Cheng-jian; Li, Fu-ping; Hu, Ben-jiao; Ren, Guang-hui; Yi, Ping; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the short-term effect of the black film covering combined with niclosamide on Oncomelania hupensis snail control in marshland and lake regions. A ditch with snails in Anxiang County was selected as the experimental sites. The ditch was divided into 3 groups: a film group, a niclosamide group, and a niclosamide and film group. The snails were surveyed before the test and 1, 3, 5, 7 days after the experiment. After the film covering, the highest temperature of the surface of soil was 63.7 degrees C on the first day, and the temperature higher than 40 degrees C lasted 4.34 hours. On the second day, the highest temperature was 52.3 degrees C, and the temperature higher than 40 degrees C lasted 4.96 hours. On the fourth day and fifth day, the temperature was lower than 30 degrees C, while the temperature was lower than 34 degrees C on the sixth day. On the seventh day of the experiment, the snail death rates of the film group, the niclosamide group, and the niclosamide and film group on the soil surface were 16.36%, 58.40% and 53.57%, respectively. On the seventh day, the snail death rates of the film group, and the niclosamide and film group under the soil were 20.00% and 40.00%, respectively, while no snails were found under the soil in the niclosamide group 3 days after the experiment. In mesh bags, the snail death rates of the film group, the niclosamide group, and the niclosamide and film group were 84.00%, 95.33% and 95.33%, respectively. The short-term effect of the black film covering on snail control is not obvious, and the black film covering does no promote the molluscicidal effect of niclosamide.

  14. A study on ovine tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites (Theileria and Babesia) in the East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kursat; Dumanli, Nazir; Aktas, Munir

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the frequency of Theileria and Babesia species was assessed via reverse line blotting and blood smear-based diagnostic methods in small ruminants. A total of 201 apparently healthy animals from 26 randomly selected herds located in 4 locations (Artvin, Giresun, Gumushane, and Tokat) of East Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated for the blood protozoans. In a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified with a set of general primers specific for all Theileria and Babesia species. The PCR products were hybridized against catchall and species-specific (Theileria spp., Theileria lestoquardi, Theileria ovis, Theileria sp. OT1, Theileria sp., OT3, Theileria sp., MK, Theileria luwenshuni, Theileria uilenbergi, Babesia spp., Babesia ovis, Babesia motasi, and Babesia crassa) probes. Theileria piroplasms were identified in nine (4.47%) samples by microscopic examination. Reverse line blotting (RLB) detected the infection in 19.90% of the samples. The infection rate of sheep (28.90%) was higher than goats (4.10%). T. ovis, Theileria sp., MK, and Theileria sp. OT3 were detected by RLB. The most prevalent Theileria species was T. ovis (18.90%) followed by Theileria sp. MK (0.99%). Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in one sample (0.43%). A single animal was infected as mix with T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK. The other Theileria (T. lestoquardi, Theileria sp. OT1, T. luwenshuni, and T. uilenbergi) and Babesia (B. ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa) species were not detected. This study is the first molecular survey on ovine tick-borne protozoans in East Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  15. The Demographic Characteristics of the Tribes of the Black Sea Region in the first half of the XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The social class structure of the Black sea tribes, the resettlement area which was the territory from Anapa to the river Bzyb, has not yet become a subject of research in the historiography. Natukhaitsy and shapsugs of Adygeyan tribe, ubykhs, and also jikis of Abaza tribe lived in the territory during the first half of the XIX century. The data sources on the population in this territory at a specified time are contradictory, thus practically does not reflect the proportion of estates. The authors attracted as sources the statistical materials of 1800-1860-ies, including those published in the modern period on the Abkhazia (Abaza tribe and the Kuban. By the comparison of the different sources there was made an attempt to calculate the proportion of the population on the estates, namely: the proportion of princes, nobles, free inhabitants, dependent inhabitants, slaves separately for coastal and mountain societies. In addition there were attracted the sources of personal origin – diaries and memoirs, the works of Abkhazians who lived among travelers, and, of course, the scientific literature. The authors used the methods of demographic statistics for reconstruction of the population of the tribes of the Black sea region due to the presence of incomplete data on the number of classes. In conclusion the research provides with the accumulated statistical data on total population, population class and gender.

  16. IMPLEMENTASI SANDI HILL UNTUK PENYANDIAN CITRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Siang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hill's code is one of text encoding technique. In this research, Hill's code is extended to image encoding. The image used is BMP 24 bit format. 2x2 and 3x3 matrices is used as a key. The results show that Hill's code is suitable for image whose RGB values vary highly. On the contrary, it is not suitable for less varied RGB images since its original pattern is still persisted in encrypted image. Hill's code for image encoding has also disadvantage in the case that the key matrix is not unique. However, for daily application, with good key matrix, Hill's code can be applied to encode image since it's process only deals with simple matrix operation so it become fast. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sandi Hill merupakan salah satu teknik penyandian teks. Dalam penelitian ini, pemakaian sandi Hill diperluas dari teks ke citra bertipe BMP 24 bit. Matriks yang dipakai berordo 2x2 dan 3x3. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa sandi Hill cocok untuk enkripsi citra dengan variasi nilai RGB antar piksel berdekatan yang tinggi (seperti foto, tapi tidak cocok untuk citra dengan variasi nilai RGB yang rendah (seperti gambar kartun karena pola citra asli masih tampak dalam citra sandi. Sandi Hill juga memiliki kelemahan dalam hal tidak tunggalnya matriks kunci yang dapat dipakai. Akan tetapi untuk pemakaian biasa, dengan pemilihan matriks kunci yang baik, sandi Hill dapat dipakai untuk penyandian karena hanya melibatkan operasi matriks biasa sehingga prosesnya relatif cepat. Kata kunci: Sandi Hill, Citra, Relatif Prima.

  17. Application of the spectrometric and radiochemical techniques in analyzing environmental samples from the Bulgarian Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleva, B.S.; Mungov, G.; Galabov, N.; Kolarova, M.; Guenchev, T.

    1999-01-01

    Development of the appropriate methods and techniques for marine and atmospheric radioactivity measurements in the NIMH-BAS during the last 5 years is presented. Approaches for pre-concentration of the radionuclides from the atmosphere and sea water samples followed with reliable radiochemical methods for radionuclides separation and low level counting are discussed. Dissolved radiocesium concentrations measured in a period of time starting in 1993 show some decrease with years and spatial variations probably due to the hydrophysical features of the sampling sides - the lower measured concentrations during 1995 and 1998 correspond to the lower salinity. Application of the radiochemical separation of Plutonium, Thorium, 90 Sr and Americium on the samples from the Bulgarian Black Sea coastal region is reported. (author)

  18. Radiological Study Investigation of the Black Sand Region of the North-East of the Nile Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moafy, W.A.; El-Tahawy, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Within a comprehensive radiological investigation of the Mediterranean cost of Egypt an environmental radiation survey of the black sand region of the North-East of Nile Delta was carried out. The activity concentration of the natural 226 Ra , 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K for 18 soil samples, 25 shore sediment samples and 6 bottom sediment samples were determined using gamma spectrometers based on HpGe detector and were found to reach 193 Bq/kg for 226 Ra and 267 Bq/kg of 232 Th for some shore sediment samples. Ten sea water samples were analyzed using laser fluorimetry technique after applying a radiochemical separation procedure and the determined total uranium concentration in these samples was found to be in the range (5.2-21.8) mBq/lt.

  19. History of Maternity and Infancy in Zemsky Period (Based on the Central Chernozem (Black Earth Region Files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. Tretyak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a brief historical overview of the evolution of maternal and child health care in Russia. A system of Public Health Service in the Central Black Earth Region governments (territorial subdivisions of Russia, 1708-1929 is taken as an example. A retrospective of the review is limited to the last third of the XIX century. The paper discusses historical aspects of the problem, which are mainly concentrated in the first quarter of the XX century. Organizational aspects of the medical staff training, problems with the obstetric aid organization are also considered. Characteristics of the governments in their activity to fight with infant mortality are stated in the paper.

  20. Luminosity distribution in the central regions of Messier 87: Isothermal core, point source, or black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vaucouleurs, G.; Nieto, J.

    1979-01-01

    A combination of photographic and photoelectric photometry with the McDonald 2 m reflector is used to derive a precise mean luminosity profile μ/sub B/(r*) of M87 (jet excluded) at approx.0''.6 resolution out to r*=70''. Within 8'' from the center the luminosity is less than predicted by extrapolation of the r/sup 1/4/ law defined by the main body of the galaxy (8'' 0 =30.5) the structural length of the underlying isothermal is α=2''.78=170 pc, the mass of the ''black hole'' M 0 =1.7.10 9 M/sub sun/ and the luminosity of the point source (B 0 =16.95, M 0 =-13.55) equals 4.2% of the integrated luminosity B (6'') =13.52 of the galaxy within r*=6''. These results agree closely with and confirm the work of the Hale team. Comparison of the McDonald and Hale data suggests that the central source may have been slightly brighter (approx.0.5 mag) in 1964 than in 1975--1977

  1. Modeling the impact of climate change on watershed discharge and sediment yield in the black soil region, northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiying; Fang, Haiyan

    2017-09-01

    Climate change is expected to impact discharge and sediment yield in watersheds. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential impacts of climate change on water discharge and sediment yield for the Yi'an watershed of the black soil region, northeastern China, based on the newly released Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) during 2071-2099. For this purpose, the TETIS model was implemented to simulate the hydrological and sedimentological responses to climate change. The model calibration (1971-1977) and validation (1978-1987) performances were rated as satisfactory. The modeling results for the four RCP scenarios relative to the control scenario under the same land use configuration indicated an increase in discharge of 16.3% (RCP 2.6), 14.3% (RCP 4.5), 36.7% (RCP 6.0) and 71.4% (RCP 8.5) and an increase in the sediment yield of 16.5% (RCP 2.6), 32.4% (RCP 4.5), 81.8% (RCP 6.0) and 170% (RCP 8.5). This implies that the negative impact of climate change on sediment yield is generally greater than that on discharge. At the monthly scale, both discharge and sediment yield increased dramatically in April to June and August to September. A more vigorous hydrological cycle and an increase in high values of sediment yield are also expected. These changes in annual discharge and sediment yield were closely linked with changes in precipitation, whereas monthly changes in late spring and autumn were mainly related to temperature. This study highlights the possible adverse impact of climate change on discharge and sediment yield in the black soil region of northeastern China and could provide scientific basis for adaptive management.

  2. Do Regional Aerosols Contribute to the Riverine Export of Dissolved Black Carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. W.; Quine, T. A.; de Rezende, C. E.; Dittmar, T.; Johnson, B.; Manecki, M.; Marques, J. S. J.; de Aragão, L. E. O. C.

    2017-11-01

    The fate of black carbon (BC), a stable form of thermally altered organic carbon produced during biomass and fuel combustion, remains an area of uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. The transfer of photosynthetically derived BC into extremely long-term oceanic storage is of particular significance and rivers are the key linkage between terrestrial sources and oceanic stores. Significant fluvial fluxes of dissolved BC to oceans result from the slow release of BC from degrading charcoal stocks; however, these fluvial fluxes may also include undetermined contributions of aerosol BC, produced by biomass and fossil fuel combustion, which are deposited in river catchments following atmospheric transport. By investigation of the Paraíba do Sul River catchment in Southeast Brazil we show that aerosol deposits can be substantial contributors to fluvial fluxes of BC. We derived spatial distributions of BC stocks within the catchment associated with soil charcoal and with aerosol from both open biomass burning and fuel combustion. We then modeled the fluvial concentrations of dissolved BC (DBC) in scenarios with varying rates of export from each stock. We analyzed the ability of each scenario to reproduce the variability in DBC concentrations measured in four data sets of river water samples collected between 2010 and 2014 and found that the best performing scenarios included a 5-18% (135-486 Mg DBC year-1) aerosol contribution. Our results suggest that aerosol deposits of BC in river catchments have a shorter residence time in catchments than charcoal BC and, therefore, contribute disproportionately (with respect to stock magnitude) toward fluvial fluxes of BC.

  3. The online measured black carbon aerosol and source orientations in the Nam Co region, Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ming, Jing; Li, Zhongqin; Wang, Feiteng; Zhang, Guoshuai

    2017-11-01

    Equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were measured by an aethalometer (AE-31) in the Nam Co, central Tibet from 2010 to 2014. Different from previous filter-sampling studies (Ming et al., J Environ Sci 22(11):1748-1756, 2010; Zhao et al., Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5827-5838, 2013), the first high-resolution online eBC measurement conducted in central Tibet is reported here, allowing to discuss the diurnal variations as well as seasonal variabilities of eBC. Average daily eBC concentration was 74 ± 50 ng/m 3 , reflecting a global background level. Meteorological conditions influenced eBC concentrations largely at seasonal scale, which are higher in February-May but lower in June-January. The highest eBC concentrations (greater than 210 ng/m 3 ) were more associated with the W and WSW winds smaller than 6 m/s. The diurnal variations of eBC showed plateaus from 10:00 to 15:00 with seasonal variations, associated with local anthropogenic activities, such as indigenous Tibetan burning animal waste and tourism traffic. The PBLHs showed a co-variance with eBC concentrations, implicating close sources. The aerosol optical depths derived from the MODIS data over the Nam Co Observatory Station (NCOS)-included sub-area (30° N-40° N, 90° E-100° E) showed significant relationship with eBC concentrations. This suggests that nearby or short-distance sources other than long-distance transported pollutants could be important contributors to eBC concentrations at the NCOS, different from the conclusions suggested by previous studies.

  4. The man and the hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    He was sitting on a large slab of rock. As he looked at the cloud of dust hanging hazily on the horizon, the piece of antler and the block of flint he held in his hand hung as if they were suspended from their previous rapid motion. The man gazed intently across the swaying grass which rose in wave-like billows across the distant hills. What was that dust - a herd of buffalo, a band of hunters, or were coyotes chasing the antelope again? After watching for a while he started again to chip the flint with a rapid twisting motion of the bone in his right hand. The little chips of flint fell in the grass before him. It is the same hill but the scene has changed. Seated on the same rock, holding the reins of a saddle horse, a man dressed in buckskin took the fur cap off his head and wiped his brow. He was looking intently across a brown and desolate landscape at a cloud of dust on the far horizon. Was it the hostile tribe of Indians? It could be buffalo. Nervously he kicked at the ground with the deerhide moccasin, pushing the flint chips out of the way. He wiped the dust from his long rifle. What a terrible place - no water, practically no grass, everything bare and brown. Now at sunset, slanting across the hills green with springtime, a cowman sits on a big rock, pushes his sombrero back on his head, and looks across the valley at a large but quiet herd of stock, moving slowly as each steer walks from one lush patch of grass to another, nibbling. Suddenly he stood up. Far on the horizon some dark objects were moving. Is it the sheepmen? Could it be the stage coach from Baggs to the Sweetwater Crossing?Same hill - a gray truck was grinding slowly toward the summit. It pulled up near a small fenced enclosure where there were some instruments painted a bright silver color. A man stepped out of the truck and turned to his younger companion, "You've never found an arrowhead? Maybe you have never thought about it correctly. If you want to find where an Indian camped long

  5. Social structure, contraceptive availability, and Black fertility decline in Mmabatho / Mafikeng in the Northwest region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoateng, A Y

    1994-10-01

    Data were obtained from a survey of clients of family planning clinics in the city of Mmabatho/Mafikeng, Bophuthatswana, which was undertaken in 1992-93. 500 Black female clients were interviewed at four government and two family planning clinics between June 1992 and February 1993 regarding the practice of family planning and the formation and dissolution of families. There was a clear tendency for women to have small families, especially urban residents. They averaged 1.5 children. In addition, there was a drastic intergenerational fertility decline of 72.85% compared with their mothers. There was a positive association between age and fertility: women aged 34-52 had a mean of 3.85 children ever born, while the mean number of children was 0.50 for women aged 14-23. Education was negatively associated with fertility even when socioeconomic factors were controlled for, as women with more than middle school education had fewer children than their counterparts with education up to middle school. Women earning over R1000/month had an average of 0.75 fewer children than women who earned below R1000/month. Single, never married women had the fewest number of children ever born, followed by those who were cohabiting. Women who were widowed had the highest mean number of children ever born (3.50), followed by women currently in their first marriages (2.83) and those who were remarried (2.75). Women adhering to traditional African religions had the highest number of children ever born (2.20), followed by believers of the Zionist, Apostolic, and other Pentecostal churches. The knowledge of contraception was negatively associated with the number of children ever born. The injection (99.6%), the pill (95.4%), and the condom (90.1%) were the three most commonly known methods, while vaginal methods (20.6%) and the rhythm method (24.4%) were the least known. There is clear evidence that in African societies transformations are taking place in the family.

  6. Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in sheep and goats in the Black Sea Region in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2013-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate presence and distribution of Theileria and Babesia species via microscopic examination and reverse line blotting (RLB) techniques in sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey. For this purpose, 1,128 blood samples (869 sheep and 259 goats) were collected by active surveillance from sheep and goats in different provinces of various cities in the region in the years 2010 and 2011. Smears were prepared from the blood samples, stained with Giemsa, and examined under the light microscope for Theileria and Babesia piroplasms. The genomic DNAs were extracted from blood samples. The length of 360-430-bp fragment in the variable V4 region of 18S SSU rRNA gene of Theileria and Babesia species was amplified using the gDNAs. The polymerase chain reaction products were hybridized to the membrane-connected species-specific probes. A total of 38 animals (3.37%) including 34 sheep (3.91%) and 4 goats (1.54%) were found to be positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in microscopic examination of smears while Babesia spp. piroplasm could not detected. Infection rates were 34.64% in sheep, 10.04% in goats, and totally 28.99% for Theileria ovis while 0.58% in sheep and totally 0.44% for Babesia ovis. However, Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in 2.65% of sheep and 2.04% of all animals; besides Theileria sp., MK had 0.58% prevalence in sheep and 0.77% in goats, with a total 0.62% with RLB. Although T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK were determined in both sheep and goats, B. ovis and Theileria sp. OT3 were observed only in the sheep. These results provide the first detailed molecular data for sheep and goat theileriosis and babesiosis in the region.

  7. Healthcare waste management practice in the West Black Sea Region, Turkey: A comparative analysis with the developed and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciplak, Nesli; Kaskun, Songul

    2015-12-01

    The need for proper healthcare waste management has been a crucial issue in many developing countries as it is in Turkey. The regulation regarding healthcare wastes in Turkey was updated in 2005 in accordance with the European Union (EU) waste directives, but it still falls behind meeting the requirements of current waste treatment technologies. Therefore, this study aims to reveal deficiencies, inconsistencies, and improper applications of healthcare waste management in the western part of the Turkish Black Sea Region. In this study, it was revealed that nearly 1 million people live in the region, resulting in 5 million hospital admissions annually. All the healthcare waste produced (1000 tons yr(-1)) is treated in an autoclave plant. However, treating some categories of healthcare wastes in autoclave units mismatches with the EU waste regulations, as alternative treatment technologies are not technically able to treat all types of healthcare wastes. A proper waste management system, therefore, requires an internal segregation scheme to divert these wastes from the main healthcare waste stream. The existing malpractice in the region could cause serious health problems if no measure is taken urgently. It is expected that healthcare waste management in the region and then all across Turkey will be improved with the significant deficiencies and inconsistencies pointed out in this research. In developed countries, specific rules and regulations have already been implemented along with the recommendations for handling of healthcare waste. However, in Turkey, these wastes are treated in autoclave units, which mismatches with the European Union waste regulations, as alternative treatment technologies are not technically capable to treat all types of healthcare wastes. The existing malpractice could cause serious health problems if no measure is taken urgently. The authors demonstrated the existing status of Turkish waste management and revealed deficiencies

  8. Emission Characteristics of Greenhouse Gas from Maize Field of Black Soil Region Under Long-term Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Hong-jun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Study on greenhouse gases emission and their global warming potential under different fertilizations would be the theoretical basis for establishing measurements to reduce greenhouses gas emissions. Based on a long-term fertilization experiment, greenhouses gas(GHG emissions from black soil of summer maize were measured by using a static chamber-gas chromatograph technique, and global warming potential(GWP effect was also estimated. The results showed the peaks of CO2 and N2O emissions occurred at maize jointing period. The CO2 and N2O emission flux and CH4 uptake flux in the M2NPK treatment(mixed application of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer were significantly higher than those of the chemical fertilizer treatments(P2 and N2O emission flux in the chemical fertilizer treatments were higher than that of the no fertilizer treatment. The CO2 emission flux of the fallow treatment was the highest among all the treatments, but its N2O emission flux was significantly lower than that of the chemical fertilizer treatment. Under equal N rates, the N2O emission flux of the NPK treatment was significantly higher than that of the SNPK treatment(straw returning, but CH4 uptake flux was the opposite result. Compared with no fertilizer treatment(CK, GWP of the N and NPK treatments increased by 142% and 32% respectively, GWP of SNPK treatment decreased by 38%, and GWP in the M2NPK treatment was negative value. Greenhouse gas emission intensity(GHGI of the NPK, SNPK and M2NPK treatments were significantly lower than that of the CK and the N treatments, GHGI of the M2NPK treatment was -222 kg CO2-eq·t-1. Therefore, in order to implement the higher maize yield with lower GHGI synchronously, mixed application of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer would be the optimal fertilization measurement in black soil region of Northeast China.

  9. Northern Black Sea Region in 1400–1442 and the Origin of the Crimean Khanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Gulevych

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The history of the Crimean Khanate’s foundation still remains poorly studied. Also, little is known about the early years of the first Crimean khan Haci I Giray whose ancestors ruled in the Crimea and the Golden Horde. In the 20s of the 15th century the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas actively intervened in the affairs of the Crimea and the Golden Horde trying to establish his sovereignty in the city of Caffa, where he strove to nominate subordinated khans. However, at the end of his reign, he could not exert a serious military pressure because until he died, he was occupied with his coronation. The boundaries of the Crimean tumen extended from the river Dniester in the West to the Volga River in the East, from the mean flow of the Dnieper and Southern Bug River in the North to the coastal cities of the Crimean peninsula in the south. In the first half of 15th century, there were many stationary settlements of Tatars in the Black Sea steppes. Thus, the tumen occupied a large territory. Having a great military power, the Crimean rulers did not separate the Crimean Ulus from the Golden Horde, but used the peninsula as a staging area for the seizure of power in the state capital city of Sarai. The Tatar nobility also sought to enthrone those khans who would be dependent on them. One of their strongest representatives was Tehene-bey who had a residence in Solkhat on the Crimean peninsula. He persuaded Vytautas to give them Ulugh Muhammad as a khan. In response, the khan nominated Tehene-bey as his deputy in the Crimea. A few years later, Ulugh Muhammad quarreled both with Tehene-bey and the Lithuanian ruler Švitrigaila. In 1433, the Grand Duke of Lithuania helped Khan Sayid Ahmad II both to split the Golden Horde and to seize power on the right bank of the Dnieper. According to many historians, Haci Giray seized power in the Crimea and defeated a Genoese military detachment in 1434, but this statement is not confirmed by the written sources and

  10. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 sam...

  11. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...

  12. Hill climbing algorithms and trivium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghoff, Julia; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to solve certain classes of systems of multivariate equations over the binary field and its cryptanalytical applications. We show how heuristic optimization methods such as hill climbing algorithms can be relevant to solving systems of multivariate equations....... A characteristic of equation systems that may be efficiently solvable by the means of such algorithms is provided. As an example, we investigate equation systems induced by the problem of recovering the internal state of the stream cipher Trivium. We propose an improved variant of the simulated annealing method...

  13. study the chemical composition of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa) from different regions of Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandi, I.; Naouili, J.; Ebbadi, N.; Zoubir, B.; Ouichou, A.; Mesfioui, A

    2009-01-01

    The nigella (Nigella sativa), one of Ranunculaceae family, includes about 25 species of the Mediterranean. In Morocco, it is cultivated in fields in the region of Gharb, in the Rif and in the oases of the south. On the pharmacological level, the nigella seed has many therapeutic properties (anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-infective, immune modulator, antihistaminic, antispasmodic, antidiabetic, anti-ulcerogenic, analgesic and diuretic ...). In terms of chemicals, the nigella seeds contain several organic and inorganic substances. This work aims to characterize chemical and physico-chemical varieties of Nigella sativa seed from different regions of Morocco. The nigella oil were extracted by Soxhlet method and analyzed by HPLC. The total and soluble proteins were evaluated by the Bradford method. The mineral composition was determined by atomic emission spectrometer and identification of certain chemical groups present in the seeds by testing phytochemicals. Preliminary results show that the nigella found in Moroccan herbalists, contains: (35% to 43.33%) from fat, 31% protein, water content (6.8% to 8.8%) The ash content (4.05% to 4.55%). These ashes show varying amounts of macromolecules and trace elements: K (9.38 to 13.81%), Ca (5.17% to 8.18%), P (4.115 to 9.10%), Mg (2.61 to 5.15%), Zn (0.13 to 0.25%), Na (0.04 to 0.44%), Cu (0.09 to 0.26%), Fe ( 0.09 to 0.21%), Mn (0.02 to 0.05%). The oil analysis extracts by HPLC showed that the different varieties contain the same compound with an average retention time of 3.03 min, but does not show the same concentration of that compound. The chemical screening of Nigella sativa has highlighted the presence of alkaloids, tannins, and the absence of quinones and saponins. These findings have allowed a better understanding of nigella seeds from different regions of Morocco and a better appreciation of our natural resources. They will be used as the basis for the different possibilities of use of the plant. [fr

  14. The sensitivity of tropical convective precipitation to the direct radiative forcings of black carbon aerosols emitted from major regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous works have suggested that the direct radiative forcing (DRF of black carbon (BC aerosols are able to force a significant change in tropical convective precipitation ranging from the Pacific and Indian Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. In this in-depth analysis, the sensitivity of this modeled effect of BC on tropical convective precipitation to the emissions of BC from 5 major regions of the world has been examined. In a zonal mean base, the effect of BC on tropical convective precipitation is a result of a displacement of ITCZ toward the forcing (warming hemisphere. However, a substantial difference exists in this effect associated with BC over different continents. The BC effect on convective precipitation over the tropical Pacific Ocean is found to be most sensitive to the emissions from Central and North America due to a persistent presence of BC aerosols from these two regions in the lowermost troposphere over the Eastern Pacific. The BC effect over the tropical Indian and Atlantic Ocean is most sensitive to the emissions from South as well as East Asia and Africa, respectively. Interestingly, the summation of these individual effects associated with emissions from various regions mostly exceeds their actual combined effect as shown in the model run driven by the global BC emissions, so that they must offset each other in certain locations and a nonlinearity of this type of effect is thus defined. It is known that anthropogenic aerosols contain many scattering-dominant constituents that might exert an effect opposite to that of absorbing BC. The combined aerosol forcing is thus likely differing from the BC-only one. Nevertheless, this study along with others of its kind that isolates the DRF of BC from other forcings provides an insight of the potentially important climate response to anthropogenic forcings particularly related to the unique particulate solar absorption.

  15. Ash and Steam, Soufriere Hills Volcano, Monserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    International Space Station crew members are regularly alerted to dynamic events on the Earth's surface. On request from scientists on the ground, the ISS crew observed and recorded activity from the summit of Soufriere Hills on March 20, 2002. These two images provide a context view of the island (bottom) and a detailed view of the summit plume (top). When the images were taken, the eastern side of the summit region experienced continued lava growth, and reports posted on the Smithsonian Institution's Weekly Volcanic Activity Report indicate that 'large (50-70 m high), fast-growing, spines developed on the dome's summit. These spines periodically collapsed, producing pyroclastic flows down the volcano's east flank that sometimes reached the Tar River fan. Small ash clouds produced from these events reached roughly 1 km above the volcano and drifted westward over Plymouth and Richmond Hill. Ash predominately fell into the sea. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained high. Theodolite measurements of the dome taken on March 20 yielded a dome height of 1,039 m.' Other photographs by astronauts of Montserrat have been posted on the Earth Observatory: digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309, taken on July 9, 2001; and a recolored and reprojected version of the same image. Digital photograph numbers ISS004-E-8972 and 8973 were taken 20 March, 2002 from Space Station Alpha and were provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  16. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Anenberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, black carbon (BC is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m−3 (1.8 % and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000–194 000 annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %, followed by South Asia (India; 31 %, however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times

  17. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8 %) and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %), followed by South Asia (India; 31 %), however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting

  18. [Effects of heavy machinery operation on the structural characters of cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, En-Heng; Chai, Ya-Fan; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2008-02-01

    With the cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, this paper measured their structural characters such as soil strength, bulk density, and non-capillary porosity/capillary porosity (NCP/CP) ratio before and after heavy and medium-sized machinery operation, aimed to study the effects of machinery operation on the physical properties of test soils. The results showed that after machinery operation, there existed three distinct layers from top to bottom in the soil profiles, i.e., plowed layer, cumulative compacted layer, and non-affected layer, according to the changes of soil strength. Under medium-sized machinery operation, these three layers were shallower, and there was a new plow pan at the depth between 17.5 and 30 cm. Heavy machinery operation had significant positive effects on the improvement of topsoil structure (P heavy machinery, the bulk density of topsoil decreased by 7.2% and 3.5%, respectively, and NCP/CP increased by 556.6% after subsoiling, which would benefit water infiltration, reinforce water storage, and weaken the threat of soil erosion. The main action of heavy machinery operation was soil loosening, while that of medium-sized machinery operation was soil compacting.

  19. THE EFFECT OF BUSINESS FIRMS’ INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES ON THE FIRM PERFORMANCE: A CENTRAL BLACK SEA REGION CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkut ALTINDAG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of business firms carrying on business in Central Black Sea Region of Turkey on the performance of these firms. Especially how it affected SMEs (Small and Medium Sized Enterprises was analyzed. When particularly considering the effects of business that have SME quality on economy of Turkey, such kind of researches are noticed to have a basis in recent years. The research depended upon the data obtained from enterprises through original qualified questionnaire. The questionnaire question forms were scaled benefiting from the studies in the literature based upon international activities and business performance measurement. For all variables, the scales in the literature were taken and included into research questionnaire. The questionnaires were performed to SMEs and large-scale enterprises. In the research factor analysis, correlation and regression analysis were included as analysis methods. According to the obtained results, it was determined that international activities had a positive effect on the performance of enterprises. The results were interpreted, and various suggestions were offered to academicians, and administrators.

  20. A REVISED BROAD-LINE REGION RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS FOR THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 NGC 4051

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, K. D.; Watson, L. C.; Peterson, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    We present the first results from a high sampling rate, multimonth reverberation mapping campaign undertaken primarily at MDM Observatory with supporting observations from telescopes around the world. The primary goal of this campaign was to obtain either new or improved Hβ reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We feature results for NGC 4051 here because, until now, this object has been a significant outlier from AGN scaling relationships, e.g., it was previously a ∼2-3σ outlier on the relationship between the broad-line region (BLR) radius and the optical continuum luminosity-the R BLR -L relationship. Our new measurements of the lag time between variations in the continuum and Hβ emission line made from spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 4051 lead to a measured BLR radius of R BLR = 1.87 +0.54 -0.50 light days and black hole mass of M BH = (1.73 +0.55 -0.52 ) x 10 6 M sun . This radius is consistent with that expected from the R BLR -L relationship, based on the present luminosity of NGC 4051 and the most current calibration of the relation by Bentz et al.. We also present a preliminary look at velocity-resolved Hβ light curves and time delay measurements, although we are unable to reconstruct an unambiguous velocity-resolved reverberation signal.

  1. The transformation of everyday historical memory of the peasants of Central Black Earth region in the post-reform period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Linchenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the metamorphosis of the everyday historical memory of the peasants of the Central Black Earth region. The common approach, linking the historical memory of the peasantry with historical knowledge about the kings, generals, historical figures exclusively is overcome on the basis of the constructive methodology for studying the historical memory. The transformation of daily historical memory of the post-reform peasants is described in the context of changing traditional notions of peasant about labor, life and leisure. The changes of traditional norms, values and objectives of economic, legal and family memory of the Russian peasantry are shown on the materials of different archival sources, the data of the Counties' statistics. It is shown that the traditional experience of the agricultural practices of the peasantry ceases to act as an important reference point of economic activity and forms another shape of economical memory that goes beyond land redistribution and traditional land inheritance. The conclusion is that the transformation of the public authorities of the peasantry in the post-reform period was associated with the overcoming of the traditional office, stereotipic behaviour of the officials. It has been shown that a significant enhancement of critical attitude to the traditions of the past is observed in the sphere of family relations.

  2. Artificial snowmaking possibilities and climate change based on regional climate modeling in the Southern Black Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Philipp; Matzarakis, Andreas [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.; Steiger, Robert [alpS - Centre for Climate Change Adaptation Technologies, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-04-15

    Winter sport, especially ski tourism - is one of those sectors of tourism that will be affected by climate change. Ski resorts across the Alps and in the adjacent low mountain ranges react to warm winter seasons by investing in artificial snowmaking. But snowmaking in warm winter seasons is fraught with risk, because sufficiently low air temperature will become less frequent in the future. The present study deals with the ski resort Feldberg, which has 14 ski lifts and 16 ski slopes which is the biggest ski resort in the German Federal state Baden-Wuerttemberg. The impact of climate change in this region is extraordinary important because winter tourism is the main source of revenue for the whole area around the ski resort. The study area is in altitudinal range of 850 to 1450 meters above sea level. At the moment, it is possible to supply one third of the whole area with artificial snow, but there is plan for artificial snowmaking of the whole Feldberg area by the year 2020. Based on this, more detailed investigations of season length and the needed volume of produced snow are necessary. A ski season simulation model (SkiSim 2.0) was applied in order to assess potential impacts of climate change on the Feldberg ski area for the A1B and B1 emission scenarios based on the ECHAM5 GCM downscaled by the REMO RCM. SkiSim 2.0 calculates daily snow depth (natural and technically produced snow) and the required amount of artificial snow for 100 m altitudinal bands. Analysing the development of the number of potential skiing days, it can be assessed whether ski operation is cost covering or not. Model results of the study show a more pronounced and rapid shortening of the ski season in the lower ranges until the year 2100 in each climate scenario. In both the A1B and B1 scenario runs of REMO, a cost-covering ski season of 100 days cannot be guaranteed in every altitudinal range even if snowmaking is considered. In this context, the obtained high-resolution snow data can

  3. Phylogeography of the Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa : substructuring revealed by mtDNA control region sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höglund, J.; Johansson, T.; Beintema, A.; Schekkerman, H.

    2009-01-01

    Black-tailed (Limosa limosa) and Hudsonian Godwits (L. haemastica) are sometimes described as a superspecies. The Black-tailed Godwit is further split into three subspecies on the basis of morphological differences (L. l. limosa, L. l. islandica and L. l. melanuroides). We studied variation in

  4. The Camp Hill Project: Objectives and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, John B.

    1976-01-01

    Available from: EC 090 474. Outlined are the problems and objectives of Pennsylvania's Camp Hill Project--a program designed to complete psychological needs assessments for juveniles incarcerated at Camp Hill, to develop project policies and guidelines in preparation for meeting with juvenile court judges, and to hire staff. (SBH)

  5. Black Air: African American Contributions to Airpower before Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Bullard Black Expatriate in Jazz -Age Paris, 151. 13 of influential white Americans that no Black man could ever do, and that was to fly. Flight was a... BLACK AIR: AFRICAN AMERICAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO AIRPOWER BEFORE INTEGRATION BY MAJOR DAMONE GARNER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE...contributions to the overall victory. When Black Americans went into combat on the beaches of Normandy, in the hills of Italy, and in the jungles of the

  6. Coyote foods in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. MacCracken; Daniel W. Uresk

    1984-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) are one of the most widely studied animals in North America. The primary reason that much effort has been directed toward understanding the coyote is its feeding patterns. Coyotes prey upon domestic animals (Murie 1951, Gipson 1974, MacCracken 1982) and game animals (Fichter et al. 1955, Beasom 1974, Salwasser 1974, MacCracken...

  7. 78 FR 64471 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... provide an orientation to the Board regarding Forest Funding, including appropriations and trends; (2... following business will be conducted: (1) Orientation to Forest Funding including appropriations and trends... INFORMATION CONTACT. All reasonable accommodation requests are managed on a case by case basis. Dated: October...

  8. 78 FR 59337 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Advisory Board (Board) will meet in Rapid City, South Dakota. The Board is established consistent with the... include time for people to make oral statements of three minutes or less. Individuals wishing to make an...

  9. 77 FR 75120 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... annual Ethics Training; (2) to provide an update on the Sheridan Lake Valve Situation; (3) to provide an..., 1019 North Fifth Street, Custer SD 57730. Please call ahead to Scott Jacobson, Committee Management... conducted: (1) Annual Ethics Training; (2) update on the Sheridan Lake Valve Situation; (3) update on the...

  10. Mink predation on brown trout in a Black Hills stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacob L.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000’s, declines in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) fishery in Rapid Creek, South Dakota, caused concern for anglers and fisheries managers. We conducted a radio telemetry study in 2010 and 2011 to identify predation mortality associated with mink, using hatchery-reared (2010) or wild (2011) brown trout. Estimated predation rates by mink (Mustela vison) on radio-tagged brown trout were 30% for hatchery fish and 32% for wild fish. Size frequency analysis revealed that the size distribution of brown trout lost to predation was similar to that of other, radio-tagged brown trout. In both years, a higher proportion of predation mortality (83–92%) occurred during spring, consistent with seasonal fish consumption by mink. Predation by mink appeared to be a significant source of brown trout mortality in our study.

  11. Biota of uranium mill tailings near the Black Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble

    1982-01-01

    Reclamation" often implies the enhancement of the land as wildlife habitat or for other productive uses. However, there are situations where revegetation to stabilize erosion is the only desired goal. Uranium mining and mill sites may fall into this later category. Data pertaining to plant and animal components on revegetated uranium mill tailings was collected....

  12. Temporal variation and source identification of black carbon at Lin'an and Longfengshan regional background stations in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siyang; Wang, Yaqiang; An, Xingqin

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), associated with climate, weather, air quality, and people's health. However, studies on temporal variation of atmospheric BC concentration at background stations in China and its source area identification are lacking. In this paper, we use 2-yr BC observations from two background stations, Lin'an (LAN) and Longfengshan (LFS), to perform the investigation. The results show that the mean diurnal variation of BC has two significant peaks at LAN while different characteristics are found in the BC variation at LFS, which are probably caused by the difference in emission source contributions. Seasonal variation of monthly BC shows double peaks at LAN but a single peak at LFS. The annual mean concentrations of BC at LAN and LFS decrease by 1.63 and 0.26 μg m-3 from 2009 to 2010, respectively. The annual background concentration of BC at LAN is twice higher than that at LFS. The major source of the LAN BC is industrial emission while the source of the LFS BC is residential emission. Based on transport climatology on a 7-day timescale, LAN and LFS stations are sensitive to surface emissions respectively in belt or approximately circular area, which are dominated by summer monsoon or colder land air flows in Northwest China. In addition, we statistically analyze the BC source regions by using BC observation and FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model (FLEXPART) simulation. In summer, the source regions of BC are distributed in the northwest and south of LAN and the southwest of LFS. Low BC concentration is closely related to air mass from the sea. In winter, the source regions of BC are concentrated in the west and south of LAN and the northeast of the threshold area of s tot at LFS. The cold air mass in the northwest plays an important role in the purification of atmospheric BC. On a yearly scale, sources of BC are approximately from five provinces in the northwest/southeast of LAN and the west of LFS. These

  13. REGIONAL DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDES THAT MAY AFFECT HEALTH BEHAVIOR AND WILLINGNESS TO PARTICIPATE IN RESEARCH AMONG BLACK SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTISTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampkin, Andy; Yancey, Antronette; Wilson, Colwick; Fraser, Gary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the attitudes and perceptions of Black Seventh-day Adventists regarding health research and the healthcare system in two regions of the United States. Design Church members were selected from those who participated in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) and those who chose not to participate. Participants were selected from two regions of the United States. Setting Participants were interviewed in their churches, in their homes, and in the research study office at Loma Linda University. Interviews were done in the Western and Southern regions of the United States. Participants 384 Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged >30 years. Main Outcome Measures Responses to the structured interviews from those in the Western region were compared to those in the Southern region. Results Those in the Southern region included more elderly subjects; they were more likely to own their home despite earning less; and were more likely to be married. Compared to the Western region participants, we found Southern participants to have greater participation in church activities, greater mistrust of the healthcare system and particular concerns about racial inequalities in care. In contrast, they also reported more positive experiences with their personal healthcare provider than Western participants. Southerners felt that they had greater control over their own health, perhaps in part due to a greater identification with the health teachings of the Adventist church. Conclusions A number of clear differences were found between Black Adventist subjects living in either the Western or Southern regions of the United States. These factors should be considered carefully when planning the promotion for a research study. PMID:20073146

  14. Regional differences in attitudes that may affect health behavior and willingness to participate in research among Black Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampkin, Andy; Yancey, Antronette; Wilson, Colwick; Fraser, Gary E

    2009-01-01

    To identify the attitudes and perceptions of Black Seventh-day Adventists regarding health research and the healthcare system in two regions of the United States. Church members were selected from those who participated in the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) and those who chose not to participate. Participants were selected from two regions of the United States. Participants were interviewed in their churches, in their homes, and in the research study office at Loma Linda University. Interviews were done in the Western and Southern regions of the United States. 384 Black Seventh-day Adventists, aged >30 years. Responses to the structured interviews from those in the Western region were compared to those in the Southern region. Those in the Southern region included more elderly subjects; they were more likely to own their home despite earning less; and were more likely to be married. Compared to the Western region participants, we found Southern participants to have greater participation in church activities, greater mistrust of the healthcare system and particular concerns about racial inequalities in care. In contrast, they also reported more positive experiences with their personal healthcare provider than Western participants. Southerners felt that they had greater control over their own health, perhaps in part due to a greater identification with the health teachings of the Adventist church. A number of clear differences were found between Black Adventist subjects living in either the Western or Southern regions of the United States. These factors should be considered carefully when planning the promotion for a research study.

  15. Demographic survey of black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) in the Lachuá Eco-region in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Meda, Marleny; Estrada, Alejandro; López, Jorge E

    2008-03-01

    Guatemala harbors three species of primates (Alouatta palliata, Alouatta pigra and Ateles geoffroyi), but the distribution and state of conservation of populations of these species are poorly documented. In the case of A. pigra, populations have been studied recently and documented in several sites in Mexico and Belize, and only in one site in Guatemala (Tikal National Park). In this study, we report first-time population data for A. pigra existing in the Lachuá Eco-region in northwestern Guatemala. Surveys were conducted between September 2002 and April 2003 in the northern portion (32 km2) of the Lachuá National Park (LLNP; 145 km2) and in a fragmented landscape north of the protected area. In this latter area we surveyed a large forest fragment (17.14 km2), "Nueve Cerros", and 26 small forest fragments that ranged in size from 0.01 to 3.9 km2. Surveys resulted in a total count of 414 howler monkeys of which 403 belonged to 80 mixed-sex groups, four were solitary males, two were solitary females and five were found in two male groups. Standardized sampling effort among sites indicated 16.7 monkeys/100 survey hours at LLNP, 35.8 individuals/100 survey hours at "Nueve Cerros" and 71.0+/-62.2 individuals/100 survey hours in the forest fragments. Mean group size varied from 4.07 individuals at LLNP to 5.19 individuals in the forest fragments. Conservation problems for the black howler population surveyed are discussed, along with possible conservation scenarios.

  16. Proximate and fatty acid composition of some commercially important fish species from the Sinop region of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocatepe, Demet; Turan, Hülya

    2012-06-01

    The proximate and fatty acid compositions of the commercially important fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Alosa alosa, Belone belone, Scorpaena porcus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Mullus barbatus) from the Sinop region of the Black Sea were examined. The fat contents ranged from 1.26% (for scorpion fish) to 18.12% (for shad). The protein contents were min 14.54% (for red mullet) and maximum 20.26% (for belone). The fatty acid compositions of the fish ranged from 27.83 to 35.91% for saturated fatty acids, 19.50-33.80% for monounsaturated fatty acids and 15.25-40.02% for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (16:0) (17.75-22.20%) was the dominant fatty acid for all the fish species. As a second saturated fatty acid, myristic acid (14:0) was observed in four of the fish species and its content ranged from 4.72 to 7.31%. Whereas, for the other two fish species, the second saturated fatty acid was stearic acid (18:0) ranging between 4.54 and 10.64%. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, those occurring in the highest proportions were oleic acid (18:1n-9c) (11.67-22.45%) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) (4.50-9.40%). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (5.41-28.52%), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (4.68-11.06) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (1.38-3.49%) were dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. All the species, in particular the belone, the anchovy and the shad had high levels of the n-3 series.

  17. Comparison of Speed-Up Over Hills Derived from Wind-Tunnel Experiments, Wind-Loading Standards, and Numerical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei Pirooz, Amir A.; Flay, Richard G. J.

    2018-03-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of the speed-up provided in several wind-loading standards by comparison with wind-tunnel measurements and numerical predictions, which are carried out at a nominal scale of 1:500 and full-scale, respectively. Airflow over two- and three-dimensional bell-shaped hills is numerically modelled using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method with a pressure-driven atmospheric boundary layer and three different turbulence models. Investigated in detail are the effects of grid size on the speed-up and flow separation, as well as the resulting uncertainties in the numerical simulations. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical prediction of speed-up, as well as the wake region size and location, with that according to large-eddy simulations and the wind-tunnel results. The numerical results demonstrate the ability to predict the airflow over a hill with good accuracy with considerably less computational time than for large-eddy simulation. Numerical simulations for a three-dimensional hill show that the speed-up and the wake region decrease significantly when compared with the flow over two-dimensional hills due to the secondary flow around three-dimensional hills. Different hill slopes and shapes are simulated numerically to investigate the effect of hill profile on the speed-up. In comparison with more peaked hill crests, flat-topped hills have a lower speed-up at the crest up to heights of about half the hill height, for which none of the standards gives entirely satisfactory values of speed-up. Overall, the latest versions of the National Building Code of Canada and the Australian and New Zealand Standard give the best predictions of wind speed over isolated hills.

  18. Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Mallick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neora Valley National Park (NVNP in the Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, having a wide range of altitudinal variations (183-3,200 m and climatic conditions and forming an ecological trijunction with Sikkim and Bhutan, is the last virgin wilderness in West Bengal. It is a global hotspot for the unique ecosystem, where tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and sub-temperate forests represent a wealth of biodiversity including many threatened and rare mammals. It is the prime habitat of Ailurus fulgens (estimated population 28-32, Neofelis nebulosa (population unassessed, Ursus thibetanus (18, Bos gaurus (81, Hemitragus jemlahicus (32, Naemorhedus goral (73, Capricornis sumatraensis (89, Rusa unicolor (286, Muntiacus vaginalis (590 and Sus scrofa (615. Discovery of Panthera tigris (20 in 1998 prompted the forest department to include NVNP as a sensitive wildlife zone. Many authors recorded the mammalian diversity in Darjeeling District since the mid-nineteenth century, but most of them referred to the Darjeeling Hills. The documentations on Kalimpong Hills are scarce because of the dense canopy, thick undergrowth and inaccessible terrain, particularly in the pristine forests of Neora Valley. Consequently, a comprehensive compendium of the mammals in this region was not prepared. A study was undertaken in 2008-2009 with a view to bridging this knowledge-gap and presenting an updated account of the mammalian species in this new short-listed World Heritage Site and surrounding forests of the Kalimpong Hills based on literature review, questionnaire survey, direct sighting and indirect evidences. During June-October 1916, N.A. Baptista recorded 29 mammalian species (22 genera out of 563 specimens collected, from the region. The present study registered 99 species (68 genera after 94 years.

  19. Experimental investigation of flow over two-dimensional multiple hill models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing'an; Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Yamada, Keisuke

    2017-12-31

    The aim of this study is to investigate the flow field characteristics in ABL (Atmospheric Boundary Layer) flow over multiple hills and valleys in two-dimensional models under neutral conditions. Active turbulence grids and boundary layer generation frame were used to simulate the natural winds in wind tunnel experiments. As a result, the mean wind velocity, the velocity vector diagram and turbulence intensity around the hills were investigated by using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system. From the measurement results, it was known that the average velocity was increased along the upstream slope of upside hill, and then separated at the top of the hills, the acceleration region of U/U ref >1 was generated at the downstream of the hill. Meanwhile, a large clockwise circulation flow was generated between the two hill models. Moreover, the turbulence intensity showed small value in the circulation flow regions. Compared to 1H model, the turbulence intensity in the mainstream direction showed larger value than that in the vertical direction. This paper provided a better understanding of the wind energy distribution on the terrain for proper selection of suitable sites for installing wind farms in the ABL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Coastal flooding impact evaluation using an INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model for Varna region, Western Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Nataliya; Eftimova, Petya; Valchev, Nikolay; Prodanov, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The study presents evaluation and comparative analysis of storm induced flooding impacts on different coastal receptors at a scale of Varna region using INtegrated DisRuption Assessment (INDRA) model. The model was developed within the FP7 RISC-KIT project, as a part of Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) consisting of two phases. CRAF Phase 1 is a screening process that evaluates coastal risk at a regional scale by means of coastal indices approach, which helps to identify potentially vulnerable coastal sectors: hot spots (HS). CRAF Phase 2 has the objective to assess and rank identified hotspots by detailed risk analysis done by jointly performing a hazard assessment and an impact evaluation on different categories (population, businesses, ecosystems, transport and utilities) using INDRA model at a regional level. Basically, the model assess the shock of events by estimating the impact on directly exposed to flooding hazard receptors of different vulnerability, as well as the potential ripple effects during an event in order to assess the "indirect" impacts, which occur outside the hazard area and/or continue after the event for all considered categories. The potential impacts are expressed in terms of uniform "Impact Indicators", which independently score the indirect impacts of these categories assessing disruption and recovery of the receptors. The ultimate hotspot ranking is obtained through the use of a Multi Criteria analysis (MCA) incorporated in the model, considering preferences of stakeholders. The case study area - Varna regional coast - is located on the western Black Sea, Bulgaria. The coastline, with a length of about 70 km, stretches from cape Ekrene to cape St. Atanas and includes Varna Bay. After application of CRAF Phase 1 three hotspots were selected for further analysis: Kabakum beach (HS1), Varna Central beach plus Port wall (HS2) and Artificial Island (HS3). For first two hotspots beaches and associated infrastructure are the assets

  1. Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic activity on the West Indian island of Montserrat has remained high for several years-the current activity started in 1995. However, remote sensing of the island has been difficult because of frequent cloud cover. The International Space Station crew flew north of the island on a clear day in early July (July 9, 2001) and recorded a vigorous steam plume emanating from the summit of Soufriere Hills. The image also reveals the extensive volcanic mud flows (lahars) and new deltas built out from the coast from the large amounts of volcanic debris delivered downstream by the rivers draining the mountain. As a small island (only 13 x 8 km), all of Montserrat has been impacted by the eruptions. Sources of Information: Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program Italy's Volcanoes Montserrat Volcano Observatory Digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309 was taken on 9 July 2001 from Space Station Alpha and was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  2. 27 CFR 9.190 - Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Hill Douglas County... Areas § 9.190 Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Hill Douglas County, Oregon”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Red Hill...

  3. Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to assess the evolution of the blind Puente Hills thrust fault system (PHT) by determining its age of initiation, lateral propagation history, and changes in slip rate over time. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. The PHT is comprised of three fault segments: the Los Angeles (LA), Santa Fe Springs (SFS), and Coyote Hills (CH). The LA and SFS segments are characterized by growth stratigraphy where folds formed by uplift on the fault segments have been continually buried by sediment from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers. The CH segment has developed topography and is characterized by onlapping growth stratigraphy. This depositional setting gives us the unique opportunity to measure uplift on the LA and SFS fault segments, and minimum uplift on the CH fault segment, as the difference in sediment thicknesses across the buried folds. We utilize depth converted oil industry seismic reflection data to image the fold geometries. Identifying time-correlative stratigraphic markers for slip rate determination in the basin has been a problem for researchers in the past, however, as the faunal assemblages observed in wells are time-transgressive by nature. To overcome this, we utilize the sequence stratigraphic model and well picks of Ponti et al. (2007) as a basis for mapping time-correlative sequence boundaries throughout our industry seismic reflection data from the present to the Pleistocene. From the Pleistocene to Miocene we identify additional sequence boundaries in our seismic reflection data from imaged sequence geometries and by correlating industry well formation tops. The sequence and formation top picks are then used to build 3-dimensional surfaces in the modeling program Gocad. From these surfaces we measure the change in thicknesses across the folds to obtain uplift rates between each sequence boundary. Our results show three distinct phases of

  4. ACCOMMODATION INFRASTRUCTURE AND TOURISM FLOWS ON FELEACU HILL (CLUJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA-LIVIA GHEORGHIEȘ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accommodation Infrastructure and Tourism Flows on Feleacu Hill (Cluj County. Feleacu Hill experienced tourism development between 2001 and 2015. The INS data indicates that the number of accommodation units increased from one (2001 to four (2015 and there are a few more which are not registered in the INS database. The accommodation capacity increases, as many guesthouses are expanding their premises to receive more tourists and new accommodation units emerge, such as Hotel Premier in Vâlcele (Feleacu commune. Tourism flows also registered a highly positive trend. The number of arrivals increased from 95 tourists in 2002 to 7791 tourists in 2015. However, there was a downturn between 2009 and 2012, due to the economic crisis and the opening of the Turda – Gilău motorway (A3, which redirected transit routes outside the region and led to the closure of Paradis Hotel in 2012. Since 2012, the number of arrivals and overnight stays increased steadily due to the development of new forms of tourism – rural tourism, agrotourism, extreme tourism and complex tourism, materialized in growing numbers of tourists at the two guesthouses in Ciurila commune (“La Mesteceni” and “Domeniul Regilor”. Tourism brings obvious benefits to the rural communities on Feleacu Hill, even if the average duration of stay is still low.

  5. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  6. Post-middle Miocene Tuffs of Bodie Hills and Mono Basin, California: Paleomagnetic Reference Directions and Vertical Axis Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, J. R.; Pluhar, C. J.; Farner, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The relative motions of the Pacific and North American plates about the Sierra Nevada-North American Euler pole is accommodated by dextral slip along the San Andreas Fault System (~75%) and the Walker Lane-Eastern California Shear Zone system of faults, east of the Sierra Nevada microplate (~25%). The Bodie Hills and Mono Basin regions lie within the Walker Lane and partially accommodate deformation by vertical axis rotation of up to 60o rotation since ~9.4 Ma. This region experienced recurrent eruptive events from mid to late Miocene, including John et al.'s (2012) ~12.05 Ma Tuff of Jack Springs (TJS) and Gilbert's (1968) 11.1 - 11.9 Ma 'latite ignimbrite' east of Mono Lake. Both tuffs can be identified by phenocrysts of sanidine and biotite in hand specimens, with TJS composed of a light-grey matrix and the latite ignimbrite composed of a grey-black matrix. Our paleomagnetic results show these units to both be normal polarity, with the latite ignimbrite exhibiting a shallow inclination. TJS's normal polarity is consistent with emplacement during subchron C5 An. 1n (12.014 - 12.116 Ma). The X-ray fluorescence analyses of fiamme from TJS in Bodie Hills and the latite ignimbrite located east of Mono Lake reveal them both to be rhyolites with the latite ignimbrite sharing elevated K composition seen in the slightly younger Stanislaus Group (9.0 - 10.2 Ma). We establish a paleomagnetic reference direction of D = 352.8o I = 42.7o α95 = 7.7o n = 5 sites (42 samples) for TJS in the Bodie Hills in a region hypothesized by Carlson (2012) to have experienced low rotation. Our reference for Gilbert's latite ignimbrite (at Cowtrack Mountain) is D = 352.9o I = 32.1o α95 = 4.7o. This reference locality is found on basement highland likely to have experienced less deformation then the nearby Mono Basin since ignimbrite emplacement. Paleomagnetic results from this latite ignimbrite suggests ~98.2o × 5.5o of clockwise vertical axis rotation of parts of eastern Mono Basin since

  7. A Revised Broad-line Region Radius and Black Hole Mass for the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 NGC 4051

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Watson, L. C.; Peterson, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    ) radius and the optical continuum luminosity—the R BLR-L relationship. Our new measurements of the lag time between variations in the continuum and Hß emission line made from spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 4051 lead to a measured BLR radius of R BLR = 1.87+0.54 -0.50 light days and black hole mass of M...

  8. Trichinella Surveillance in Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ) from the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, 2002-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Nicholas C; Elkin, Brett T; Forbes, Lorry B; Wagner, Brent; Allaire, Danny G

    2017-04-01

    We used muscle digestion to test black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from the southwestern Northwest Territories, Canada, for Trichinella. Results showed a prevalence of 4.1%. Some bears had infection intensities of more than one larva per gram of muscle tissue; this level in meat is considered to pose a human consumption safety risk.

  9. Jurassic arc volcanism on Crimea (Ukraine): Implications for the paleo-subduction zone configuration of the Black Sea region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, M.J.M.; Vrouwe, B.; van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.; Kuiper, K.F.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Davies, G.R.; Stephenson, R.A.; Kaymakci, N.; Matenco, L.C.; Saintot, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    The early Cretaceous and younger opening of the Black Sea has obliterated much of the older record of Tethyan subduction below southeastern Europe. The earlier Mesozoic evolution was dominated by opening and closure of Tethyan oceans between Gondwana and Laurasia with their consumption, at least in

  10. [Using 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) to trace the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon at a slope farmland in the black soil region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hai-Yan; Sheng, Mei-Ling; Sun, Li-Ying; Cai, Qiang-Guo

    2013-07-01

    Soil cores were collected from a 28.5 hm2 slope farmland in the black soil region of Northeast China. Based on the sampled data of 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC, the potentials of applying 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) for assessing SOC redistribution were evaluated, aimed to approach the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon (SOC) in black soil region. At both planar and vertical directions, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC in the farmland had similar distribution patterns. Although there were large planar variations in the 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) areal activities and the SOC stock as affected by soil erosion and deposition, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC had similar changing trends over the landscape. Two depth distribution profiles were also used to study the relations of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) with SOC. At eroded site, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) and the SOC mass fraction did not show large variations in 0-25 cm soil layer, but decreased sharply below 25 cm. For the deposition sample, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) in 0-100 cm soil increased firstly and then decreased. The SOC mass fraction also had similar depth distribution pattern in this soil layer. The 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) presented positive linear correlations with the SOC, indicating that 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC moved with the same physical mechanism in the farmland, and fallout 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) could be used to study spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of SOC in the black soil region under the condition of soil erosion.

  11. Variability of some morphological traits of one-year old red oak, black walnut, birch and wild pear seedlings in the nurseries of Jastrebac region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five morphological and quantitative characteristics of one-year old seedlings of Red oak (Quercus rubra L, Black walnut (Juglans nigra L, Wild pear (Pyrus pygrowser Borkh and Birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh were studied. The seedlings were produced and cultivated in the controlled conditions of the nursery in the region of Jastrebac, by the classical method. Aboveground seedling height, root collar diameter, root length, number of secondary roots and the leaf assimilation area were analysed. Intraspecific and interspecific variability of morphological features of the above species were assessed by the comparative analysis and statistical methods The comparative analysis shows the great individual variability of seedlings, which can indicate their genetic potential, adaptation to environment conditions, further spontaneous selection and the development in natural conditions. This justifies the need of the quality assessment and the first selection already in the nursery, in order to ensure the quality planting material and to reduce the risk of afforestation failure One-year old birch seedlings have the lowest average height (18.8 cm. Black walnut and Wild pear seedlings are approximately twice as high, and Red oak about 2.5 times higher. At the same time Red oak seedlings have for about one-fourth greater height than Black walnut, and for one-third greater height than Wild pear. Wild pear seedlings attain the averagely twice larger root collar diameter than Birch (2.8 cm, Red oak seedlings about 2.5 times larger diameter, and Black walnut 3.5 times larger diameter. Black walnut has a larger root collar diameter than Red oak for about one third, and almost twice larger than Wild pear. Birch, Red oak and Wild pear have almost twice longer root (1.8-1.9 times, Black walnut about 2.25 times longer. The total assimilation area of a Birch seedling is averagely 89.0 cm2. Compared to birch, wild pear has approximately double assimilation area per tree, Red

  12. Transfer of the 3' non-translated region of grapevine chrome mosaic virus RNA-1 by recombination to tomato black ring virus RNA-2 in pseudorecombinant isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, O; Candresse, T; Dunez, J

    1995-05-01

    In grapevine chrome mosaic and tomato black ring viruses (GCMV and TBRV), as in many other nepoviruses, the 3' non-translated regions (3'NTR) are identical between the two genomic RNAs. We have investigated the structure of the 3'NTR of two recombinant isolates which contain GCMV RNA-1 and TBRV RNA-2. In these isolates, the 3'NTR of RNA-1 was transferred to RNA-2, thus restoring the 3' identity. The transfer occurred within three passages, and probably contributes to the spread of randomly appearing mutations from one genomic RNA to the other. The site of recombination is near the 3' end of the open reading frame.

  13. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  14. Utilizing remote sensing data for modeling water and heat regimes of the Black Earth Region territory of the European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Uspensky, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    At present physical-mathematical modeling processes of water and heat exchange between vegetation covered land surfaces and atmosphere is the most appropriate method to describe peculiarities of water and heat regime formation for large territories. The developed model of such processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) is intended for calculation evaporation, transpiration by vegetation, soil water content and other water and heat regime characteristics, as well as distributions of the soil temperature and humidity in depth utilizing remote sensing data from satellites on land surface and meteorological conditions. The model parameters and input variables are the soil and vegetation characteristics and the meteorological characteristics, correspondingly. Their values have been determined from ground-based observations or satellite-based measurements by radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/Meteosat-9, -10. The case study has been carried out for the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth region with coordinates 49.5 deg. - 54 deg. N, 31 deg. - 43 deg. E and a total area of 227,300 km2 located in the steppe-forest zone of the European Russia for years 2009-2012 vegetation seasons. From AVHRR data there have been derived the estimates of three types of land surface temperature (LST): land surface skin temperature Tsg, air-foliage temperature Ta and efficient radiation temperature Ts.eff, emissivity E, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, leaf area index LAI, cloudiness and precipitation. From MODIS data the estimates of LST Tls, E, NDVI and LAI have been obtained. The SEVIRI data have been used to build the estimates of Tls, Ta, E, LAI and precipitation. Previously developed method and technology of above AVHRR-derived estimates have been improved and adapted to the study area. To check the reliability of the Ts.eff and Ta estimations for named seasons the error statistics of their definitions has been analyzed through

  15. Newtonian and pseudo-Newtonian Hill problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steklain, A.F.; Letelier, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    A pseudo-Newtonian Hill problem based on the Paczynski-Wiita pseudo-Newtonian potential that reproduces general relativistic effects is presented and compared with the usual Newtonian Hill problem. Poincare maps, Lyapunov exponents and fractal escape techniques are employed to study bounded and unbounded orbits. In particular we consider the systems composed by Sun, Earth and Moon and composed by the Milky Way, the M2 cluster and a star. We find that some pseudo-Newtonian systems-including the M2 system-are more stable than their Newtonian equivalent

  16. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.

    The status of R&D programs connected with photovoltaic (PV) systems 10 years after the Cherry Hill workshop on 'Photovoltaic Conversion of Solar Energy for Terrestrial Applications' is assessed. The five categories of research recommended by the Cherry Hill Workshop are listed in a table together with their recommended research budget allocations. The workshop categories include: single-crystal Si cells; poly-Si cells; systems and diagnostics. Categories for thin film CdS/Cu2S and CuInSe2 cells are also included. The roles of government and private utility companies in providing adequate financial support for PV research programs is emphasized.

  17. Characterizing and sourcing ambient PM2.5 over key emission regions in China III: Carbon isotope based source apportionment of black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuangyou; Xing, Zhenyu; Huang, Xiaofeng; Deng, Junjun; Andersson, August; Fang, Wenzheng; Gustafsson, Örjan; Zhou, Jiabin; Du, Ke

    2018-03-01

    Regional haze over China has severe implications for air quality and regional climate. To effectively combat these effects the high uncertainties regarding the emissions from different sources needs to be reduced. In this paper, which is the third in a series on the sources of PM2.5 in pollution hotspot regions of China, we focus on the sources of black carbon aerosols (BC), using carbon isotope signatures. Four-season samples were collected at two key locations: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH, part of Northern China plain), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD). We find that that fossil fuel combustion was the predominant source of BC in both BTH and PRD regions, accounting for 75 ± 5%. However, the contributions of what fossil fuel components were dominating differed significantly between BTH and PRD, and varied dramatically with seasons. Coal combustion is overall the all-important BC source in BTH, accounting for 46 ± 12% of the BC in BTH, with the maximum value (62%) found in winter. In contrast for the PRD region, liquid fossil fuel combustion (e.g., oil, diesel, and gasoline) is the dominant source of BC, with an annual mean value of 41 ± 15% and the maximum value of 55% found in winter. Region- and season-specific source apportionments are recommended to both accurately assess the climate impact of carbonaceous aerosol emissions and to effectively mitigate deteriorating air quality caused by carbonaceous aerosols.

  18. Determination of Seasonal Vitamin and Mineral Contents of Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) Cultured in Net Cages in Central Black Sea Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Dilara Kaya; Baki, Birol; Karayücel, İsmihan; Öztürk, Recep; Gören, Gülşen Uzun; Karayücel, Sedat

    2018-05-12

    This study aimed to determine the seasonal vitamin and mineral contents of sea bream (Sparus aurata) cultured in net cages in Central Black Sea region. The average seasonal A, D 3 , and E vitamins values in fish meat were between 0.27 ± 0.02-0.60 ± 0.00, 0.98 ± 0.01-1.70 ± 0.00, and 3.10 ± 0.14-6.00 ± 0.21 mg/kg, respectively (p meat were between 276.90 ± 0.99-1788.50 ± 51.27 (p  0.05), 4244.50 ± 8.84-4761.50 ± 1.06 (p  0.05), respectively. As a result, it can be concluded that sea bream cultured in the Central Black Sea region is a rich source of nutrients in terms of vitamins and mineral matters, and fish size, feed quality, and the environmental factors are influential on the contents of vitamin and mineral substances in the fish tissue.

  19. Characteristics of organic soil in black spruce forests: Implications for the application of land surface and ecosystem models in cold regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S.; Manies, K.; Harden, J.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic layers (OL) play an important role in landatmosphere exchanges of water, energy and carbon in cold environments. The proper implementation of OL in land surface and ecosystem models is important for predicting dynamic responses to climate warming. Based on the analysis of OL samples of black spruce (Picea mariana), we recommend that implementation of OL for cold regions modeling: (1) use three general organic horizon types (live, fibrous, and amorphous) to represent vertical soil heterogeneity; (2) implement dynamics of OL over the course of disturbance, as there are significant differences of OL thickness between young and mature stands; and (3) use two broad drainage classes to characterize spatial heterogeneity, as there are significant differences in OL thickness between dry and wet sites. Implementation of these suggestions into models has the potential to substantially improve how OL dynamics influence variability in surface temperature and soil moisture in cold regions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophys.ical Union.

  20. Hills and valleys: Understanding the under-eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind N Naik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue deflation and descent have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of facial aging. In the periorbital area, the upper orbital region is thought to change by descent of the eyebrow, as well as deflation of brow fat. While the understanding of the aging changes in the upper eyelid region are relatively simple, the lower eyelid poses a myriad of aging changes, each demanding a specific management plan. These can be best described in terms of elevations, or 'Hills' and hollows, or 'Valleys'. This article simplifies the understanding of the lower eyelid in the light of anatomical knowledge, and available literature. It forms a basis of easy diagnosis and treatment of the soft tissue changes in the lower eyelid and malar region.

  1. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  2. The Kapsiki of the Mandara Hills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van W.E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Kapsiki of Cameroon and the Higi of Nigeria are two tribes from the Mandara hills area of central and western Africa. Though they form one coherent group of villages, they are usually considered as two separate ethnic units. The author normally uses the term Kapsiki for both. Based on fieldwork

  3. Accounting for imperfect detection in Hill numbers for biodiversity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broms, Kristin M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Hill numbers unify biodiversity metrics by combining several into one expression. For example, species richness, Shannon's diversity index and the Gini–Simpson index are a few of the most used diversity measures, and they can be expressed as Hill numbers. Traditionally, Hill numbers have been calculated from relative abundance data, but the expression has been modified to use incidence data as well. We demonstrate an approach for estimating Hill numbers using an occupancy modelling framework that accounts for imperfect detection.

  4. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Smith, Diane; Rula, Oleksandr; Muzyka, Nataliia; Stegniy, Borys

    2016-05-01

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and eight orders for virus isolation. From these samples, 69 AIVs belonging to 15 of the 16 known hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and seven of nine known neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were isolated. No H14, N5, or N9 subtypes were identified. In total, nine H6, eight H1, nine H5, seven H7, six H11, six H4, five H3, five H10, four H8, three H2, three H9, one H12, one H13, one H15, and one H16 HA subtypes were isolated. As for the NA subtypes, twelve N2, nine N6, eight N8, seven N7, six N3, four N4, and one undetermined were isolated. There were 27 HA and NA antigen combinations. All isolates were low pathogenic AIV except for eight highly pathogenic (HP) AIVs that were isolated during the H5N1 HPAI outbreaks of 2006-08. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes revealed epidemiological connections between the Azov-Black Sea regions and Europe, Russia, Mongolia, and Southeast Asia. H1, H2, H3, H7, H8, H6, H9, and H13 AIV subtypes were closely related to European, Russian, Mongolian, and Georgian AIV isolates. H10, H11, and H12 AIV subtypes were epidemiologically linked to viruses from Europe and Southeast Asia. Serology conducted on serum and egg yolk samples also demonstrated previous exposure of many wild bird species to different AIVs. Our results demonstrate the great genetic diversity of AIVs in wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region as well as the importance of this region for monitoring and studying the ecology of influenza viruses. This information furthers our understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild bird species.

  5. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  6. Environmental Assessment (EA): Proposed Construction of a Munitions Flight Maintenance Facility, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    031 /·-c.,.. ?i Ogden C.ty Ma1 tenance Area (Redes~gnated 2001) er ~~.., Sa Laice Oty Ma1 enance Alea (RedeSIQreled 1999) Pr<MYOrem...Vegetation Hill AFB is located in a geographic region that would typically support a mountain -brush type native plant community. Dominant vegetation

  7. Tree species diversity and distribution patterns in tropical forests of Garo Hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Kumar; B.G. Marcot; A. Saxena

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed phytosociological characteristics and diversity patterns of tree species of tropical forests of Garo Hills, western Meghalaya, northeast India. The main vegetation of the region included primary forests, secondary forests, and sal (Shorea robusta) plantations, with 162, 132, and 87 tree species, respectively. The Shannon-Wiener...

  8. Environmental evolution and builders of small hills - India Muerta zone. A restatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, R.; Del Puerto, L.; Inda, H.; Capdepont, I.; Panario, D.; Garcia Rodriguez, F.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about the study carried out in India Muerta zone - Rocha town. The Paleoclimatology, the Geoarchaeology and Carbon14 dating information enable to conclude that the first inhabitants of the region has constructed the small hills for a transitional climatic period. This period belongs to the Holocene and is characterized by a humidity contraction process

  9. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  10. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  11. Costs, benefits, and international financing related to the water sector in the Danube and Black Sea region in the perspective of WFD implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paleari, S.

    2006-01-01

    Further to constitute a challenge far many EU15 countries, the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is going to represent the main reference for the process of approximation of water legislation of accession countries, as well as water policy and legislation of many third countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In this work we focus on expected investment costs, estimated benefits, and external financing programmes for water policies and WFD implementation in an extensive geographical area, the Black Sea region, which includes the Danube Basin (that is the second largest European water basin after the Volga Basin) and covers industrial and agricultural areas of 22 countries. As we are primarily interested in the economic aspects of water policies and the WFD implementation in the above geographical area, we will develop a joint analysis of: (a) the available estimates on the size of investments in the water sector required to approximate the provisions and/or (depending on single countries) the principles of WFD; (b) the available estimates on the expected benefits from implementing EU water legislation and the WFD; (c) the flows of international assistance and financial resources available during the next few years for investing in water-sector infrastructures and management in the countries of the Black Sea region. The approximation of EU water legislation and the implementation of the WFD will entail huge investment costs by accession countries during the next decades and water is expected be the most significant area of investment within the environmental sector in the majority of these countries. The attempts to estimate economic and environmental benefits indicate that the same process of compliance with EU legislation and the WFD will produce significant benefits for the economy and the environment of these countries. During the last part of the I990s, however, the trends of actual expenses in environmental and water infrastructures in the countries of

  12. Prevalence of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, F; Karakas, T; Cakir, M; Aksoy, A; Baki, A; Gedik, Y

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of adverse reactions to food in childhood in Turkey is not known. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of IgE-mediated food allergies (FAs) in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study recruited 3500 of the randomly selected 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren from the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey during 2006. Following a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents and the child, consenting children were invited for skin prick tests (SPTs) and oral food challenges. Children with suspected IgE-mediated FA were skin prick tested with a predefined panel of food allergens (milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat, peanut, fish, and hazelnut), aeroallergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat, dog, Alternaria, grass pollen mix, weed pollen mix, and tree pollen mix), and food allergens reported in the questionnaire. All children with a positive SPT to any food were invited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). The prevalence of IgE-mediated FA was established using DBPCFCs. The response rate to the questionnaire was 78.2% (2739/3500). The estimated prevalence of parental-reported IgE-mediated FA was 5.7% (156/2739) [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.83-6.57%]. The rate of sensitization to the food allergens was 33.1% (48/145) in the parental-reported group. The confirmed prevalence of IgE-mediated FA by means of DBPCFC in 6-9-year-old urban schoolchildren living in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey was 0.80% (22/2739) (95% CI, 0.47-1.13%). The most common allergenic foods were beef (31.8%), cow's milk (18.1%), cocoa (18.1%), hen's egg (13.6%), and kiwi (13.6%). The rate of reported IgE-mediated FA was significantly higher than clinically confirmed FA by means of DBPCFC (odds ratio, 7.46; 95% CI, 4.67-12.01; Pfoods was different and somewhat unique to the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey when compared with western countries.

  13. Prevalence of Trichinella spp. in black bears, grizzly bears, and wolves in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, including the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Nicholas C; Forbes, Lorry B; Elkin, Brett T; Allaire, Danny G

    2011-07-01

    Samples of muscle from 120 black bears (Ursus americanus), 11 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 27 wolves (Canis lupus) collected in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories from 2001 to 2010 were examined for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae using a pepsin-HCl digestion assay. Trichinella spp. larvae were found in eight of 11 (73%) grizzly bears, 14 of 27 (52%) wolves, and seven of 120 (5.8%) black bears. The average age of positive grizzly bears, black bears, and wolves was 13.5, 9.9, and approximately 4 yr, respectively. Larvae from 11 wolves, six black bears, and seven grizzly bears were genotyped. Six wolves were infected with T. nativa and five with Trichinella T6, four black bears were infected with T. nativa and two with Trichinella T6, and all seven grizzly bears were infected with Trichinella T6 and one of them had a coinfection with T. nativa. This is the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada. Bears have been linked to trichinellosis outbreaks in humans in Canada, and black bears are a subsistence food source for residents of the Dehcho region. In order to assess food safety risk it is important to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in both species of bear and their cohabiting mammalian food sources.

  14. Rainwater harvesting potential sites at margalla hills national park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, B.; Mushtaq, N.; Sial, M.

    2013-01-01

    Life without water is not possible. Adoption of modern lifestyle and increase in population is leading to a water scarce world. The demand of world population cannot be met , which is resulting in increased groundwater abstraction. The world is facing water crisis and Pakistan is no exception. Urban areas of Pakistan are affected badly where extraction is higher while the construction of pavements has disturbed groundwater infiltration. The Federal Capital of Pakistan, Islamabad, is located in Pothohar region of the country and faces severe water shortages, particularly during summers. Extensive drilling by public and private users lowers groundwater table. Satellite imagery of LANDSAT 7 ETM+ and ASTER DEM 30m resolution were used to construct the site suitability map for groundwater recharge of Margalla Hills National Park. Factors considered included land cover, drainage density, elevation and slope. Suitable weight ages were assigned to these factors according to their influence on infiltration in the study area. Groundwater recharge at Margalla Hills National Park will be effective in dealing with water crisis in Islamabad as it will raise groundwater table of the adjacent areas. (author)

  15. Regional intensity-duration-frequency analysis in the Eastern Black Sea Basin, Turkey, by using L-moments and regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiaei, Farhad; Kankal, Murat; Anilan, Tugce; Yuksek, Omer

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of rainfall frequency is an important step in hydrology and water resources engineering. However, a lack of measuring stations, short duration of statistical periods, and unreliable outliers are among the most important problems when designing hydrology projects. In this study, regional rainfall analysis based on L-moments was used to overcome these problems in the Eastern Black Sea Basin (EBSB) of Turkey. The L-moments technique was applied at all stages of the regional analysis, including determining homogeneous regions, in addition to fitting and estimating parameters from appropriate distribution functions in each homogeneous region. We studied annual maximum rainfall height values of various durations (5 min to 24 h) from seven rain gauge stations located in the EBSB in Turkey, which have gauging periods of 39 to 70 years. Homogeneity of the region was evaluated by using L-moments. The goodness-of-fit criterion for each distribution was defined as the ZDIST statistics, depending on various distributions, including generalized logistic (GLO), generalized extreme value (GEV), generalized normal (GNO), Pearson type 3 (PE3), and generalized Pareto (GPA). GLO and GEV determined the best distributions for short (5 to 30 min) and long (1 to 24 h) period data, respectively. Based on the distribution functions, the governing equations were extracted for calculation of intensities of 2, 5, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 years return periods (T). Subsequently, the T values for different rainfall intensities were estimated using data quantifying maximum amount of rainfall at different times. Using these T values, duration, altitude, latitude, and longitude values were used as independent variables in a regression model of the data. The determination coefficient ( R 2) value indicated that the model yields suitable results for the regional relationship of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF), which is necessary for the design of hydraulic structures in small and

  16. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from vehicles in the United States-Mexico border region: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kerry; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn; Quintero Núñez, Margarito; Vazquez, F Adrian; Collins, Kimberly; Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    2006-03-01

    The investigators developed a system to measure black carbon (BC) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission factors during roadside sampling in four cities along the United States-Mexico border, Calexico/Mexicali and El Paso/Juarez. The measurement system included a photoacoustic analyzer for BC, a photoelectric aerosol sensor for particle-bound PAHs, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer. When a vehicle with measurable emissions passed the system probe, corresponding BC, PAH, and CO2 peaks were evident, and a fuel-based emission factor was estimated. A picture of each vehicle was also recorded with a digital camera. The advantage of this system, compared with other roadside methods, is the direct measurement of particulate matter components and limited interference from roadside dust. The study revealed some interesting trends: Mexican buses and all medium-duty trucks were more frequently identified as high emitters of BC and PAH than heavy-duty trucks or passenger vehicles. In addition, because of the high daily mileage of buses, they are good candidates for additional study. Mexican trucks and buses had higher average emission factors compared with U.S. trucks and buses, but the differences were not statistically significant. Few passenger vehicles had measurable BC and PAH emissions, although the highest emission factor came from an older model passenger vehicle licensed in Baja California.

  17. Council of Europe Black Sea Area Project: International Cooperation for the Development of Activities Related to Donation and Transplantation of Organs in the Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, E; López-Fraga, M; Chatzixiros, E; Senemaud, B; Brezovsky, P; Carella, C; Ballesté, C; Aydin Mehmet, A; Tomadze, G; Codreanu, I; Sarkissian, A A; Simeonova, M; Nikonenko, A; Zota, V; Gómez, M P; Manyalich, M; Bolotinha, C; Franca, A; Costa, A N; Ott, M-O; Buchheit, K-H

    2018-03-01

    In 2011, the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare of the Council of Europe launched a 3-year collaborative project to address the organ shortage and improve access to transplant health services in Council of Europe member states in the Black Sea area (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Moldova, Romania, Turkey, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation) through the development of safe and ethical donation and transplantation programs. Support the development of donation and transplantation programs through close interstate cooperation between national health organizations and relevant stakeholders. Several work packages (WP) were established: WP1, project coordination (European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Healthcare); WP2, development and implementation of an effective legislative and financial framework (Czech Republic and France); WP3, establishment of National Transplant Authorities (Italy and Portugal); and WP4, clinical practices (DTI Foundation). Data collection, surveys, and expert visits allowed for the collection of first-hand information from each participant country at national, regional, and hospital levels. Data analysis showed the positive impact of the project represented by a tendency to increase the total donation rates (per million people) in the participant countries (2011 vs 2013): Azerbaijan, +7.3; Armenia, -0.7; Georgia, +3.3; Bulgaria, +0.9; Moldova, +2.5; Ukraine:, +0.8; Romania, +2.3; and Turkey, +2.7. Increases in total donation rates are the result of a number of initiatives in the Black Sea area, including the stepwise implementation of legislative, organizational and institutional country-specific recommendations tailored by the CoE, efforts of the respective Ministries of Health in each country and synergism with other European projects in the region. These countries should invest further in implementing the recommendations that emerged from this project to improve their organ donation

  18. Gravitational instability of polytropic spheres containing region of trapped null geodesics: a possible explanation of central supermassive black holes in galactic halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan; Toshmatov, Bobir; Hladík, Jan; Novotný, Jan, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: jan.schee@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: bobir.toshmatov@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: jan.hladik@fpf.slu.cz, E-mail: jan.novotny@fpf.slu.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-01

    We study behaviour of gravitational waves in the recently introduced general relativistic polytropic spheres containing a region of trapped null geodesics extended around radius of the stable null circular geodesic that can exist for the polytropic index N > 2.138 and the relativistic parameter, giving ratio of the central pressure p {sub c} to the central energy density ρ{sub c}, higher than σ = 0.677. In the trapping zones of such polytropes, the effective potential of the axial gravitational wave perturbations resembles those related to the ultracompact uniform density objects, giving thus similar long-lived axial gravitational modes. These long-lived linear perturbations are related to the stable circular null geodesic and due to additional non-linear phenomena could lead to conversion of the trapping zone to a black hole. We give in the eikonal limit examples of the long-lived gravitational modes, their oscillatory frequencies and slow damping rates, for the trapping zones of the polytropes with N element of (2.138,4). However, in the trapping polytropes the long-lived damped modes exist only for very large values of the multipole number ℓ > 50, while for smaller values of ℓ the numerical calculations indicate existence of fast growing unstable axial gravitational modes. We demonstrate that for polytropes with N ≥ 3.78, the trapping region is by many orders smaller than extension of the polytrope, and the mass contained in the trapping zone is about 10{sup −3} of the total mass of the polytrope. Therefore, the gravitational instability of such trapping zones could serve as a model explaining creation of central supermassive black holes in galactic halos or galaxy clusters.

  19. The Hill Chart Calculation for Pelton Runner Models using the HydroHillChart - Pelton Module Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Bostan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pelton turbines industrial design is based on the hill chart characteristics obtained by measuring the models. Primary data measurements used to obtain the hill chart can be processed graphically, by hand or by using graphic programs respectively CAD programs; the HydroHillChart - Pelton module software is a specialized tool in achieving the hill chart, using interpolation cubic spline functions. Thereby, based on measurements of several models of Pelton turbines, a computerized library, used to design industrial Pelton turbines can be created. The paper presents the universal characteristics calculated by using the HydroHillChart - Pelton module software for a series of Pelton runners.

  20. Evidence to the Marley Hill Public Inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.K. (Council for the Protection of Rural England (UK). Durham and Teesdale Branch)

    1989-11-01

    George Kenneth Wilson, a retired power station enginer, and holder of such offices as Vice-Chairman of the CPRE Durham and Teesdale Branch, Secretary of the Derwent Valley Protection Society and an officer of the Opencast Mining Intelligence Group, presents reasons for dismissing the appeal for opencast mining at the Marley Hill site in the NE of England saying that the Mineral Planning Guidance Note, MPG3 seemed to be repeating mistakes inherent in the previous 'Plan for coal'. He considers that the application cannot be justified on the grounds of demand or forecast market trends. The type of coal is unsuitable for local power station boilers. The working of the site would destroy a large area of pleasant countryside. The standard of restoration of the 32 sites surrounding Marley Hill is in his opinion very poor.

  1. Black gold to green gold: regional energy policy and the rehabilitation of coal in response to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, F. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Geology

    2009-03-15

    Energy production has come under increasing scrutiny as concerns about energy security and climate change have risen. In the UK changes in government structure and privatisation of the electricity industry have led to the emergence of multi-level governance. This means that decisions on how to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the electricity-generating sector should no longer be solely a national policy decision. Previous studies have sought to explore how renewable energy may develop under multi-level governance, but this paper pays attention to a traditional fossil fuel source, coal, which is still an important means of electricity generation. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel and advocates argue that carbon capture and storage techniques could make coal 'clean', paving the way for a long-term, secure and low emission way to produce energy. This study focuses on the Yorkshire and Humber Region, which has had a long association with coal mining and looks at the implications of this as the region seeks to develop a climate change action plan and an energy strategy within the new regional governance structures. The paper argues that the regional networks developed to address climate change are influenced by existing social power structures and alliances. The region as a territorial structure becomes a useful device in promoting national priorities.

  2. Kitybė Susan Hill novelėje ,,The Woman in Black“

    OpenAIRE

    Kučinskaitė, Martyna

    2016-01-01

    Otherness in the Novella by Susan Hill “The Woman in Black” The present BA paper considers the representation of otherness in Susan Hill’s horror novella The Woman in Black (1983). The novella’s story is set in the Victorian England where the main concerns are the ghost of Jennet Humfrye who haunts the village, Crythin Gifford, and the haunted Eel Marsh House. Whenever she is seen by someone in the village, or in the house she haunts, a child dies under mysterious circumstances. The present p...

  3. Hydrocarbons in the suspended matter and the bottom sediments in different regions of the Black Sea Russian sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Nemirovskaya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Content and composition of hydrocarbons (mainly the aliphatic ones in the suspended matter and the bottom sediments in the Gelendzhik Bay, the Big Sochi water area, the Feodosiya Bay and the Black Sea central part are defined and compared with the total organic carbon and chlorophyll a contents. It is shown that the aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations exceeding the background ones are found only in the coastal zone. Advancing to the pelagic zone is accompanied by sharp decrease of their concentrations. Petroleum and pyrogenic hydrocarbons are mainly manifested in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons composition. Influence of construction of the Olympic facilities upon distribution of hydrocarbons in the Big Sochi water area was of short duration, and already by 2015 the aliphatic hydrocarbons concentration decreased, on the average, up to 24 µg/l in the surface waters, and up to 18 µg/g – in the bottom sediments. Accumulation of hydrocarbons took place in bottom sediments, where their concentrations exceeded the background ones in terms of dry weight. In the Gelendzhik Bay, their content reached 252 μg/g, and in the composition of organic carbon (Corg > 1 %, which may indicate the contamination of sediments with oil products. In the Feodosiya Bay their part in the composition of Corg did not exceed 0.73 % and was 0.35 % on average. Natural alkanes dominated in the composition of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The bottom sediments are characterized by the predominance of odd high-molecular terrigenous alkanes. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the studied sediments was rather low: up to 31 ng/g in the Gelendzhik Bay, up to 348 ng/g in the Feodosiya Bay. These concentrations according to the EPA classification are considered background, or minor petroleum hydrocarbons increase the level of aliphatic hydrocarbons in water and sediments, thus creating a modern hydrocarbon background.

  4. A report of the threatened plant Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae from the mid elevation forests of Pachamalai Hills of the Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anburaja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pachamalai Hills are a part of the Eastern Ghats and are situated in the central region of Tamil Nadu. The vegetated area is distributed into 35 reserved forests of Pachamalai Hills. The plant Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. is one of the threatened plant found in the study area. This indicates that the Pachamalai Hills can harbour good vegetation which are the vestiges of a luxuriant vegetation cover of the past era, hence, need to be protected. The hills are most significant socio-culturally because of the diversified forest patches found there. These hills have been studied earlier mainly for floristic analysis. Before this, D. hamiltonii has not been collected from Pachamalai.

  5. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental alertness as well as learning, memory, and information processing skills. It is also used for treating headache; ... of carbamazepine. Since black tea contains caffeine, in theory taking black tea with carbamazepine might decrease the ...

  6. Genetic health and population monitoring of two small black bear (Ursus americanus populations in Alabama, with a regional perspective of genetic diversity and exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Draper

    Full Text Available One of the major concerns in conservation today is the loss of genetic diversity which is a frequent consequence of population isolation and small population sizes. Fragmentation of populations and persecution of carnivores has posed a substantial threat to the persistence of free ranging carnivores in North America since the arrival of European settlers. Black bears have seen significant reductions in range size from their historic extent, which is most pronounced in the southeastern United States and even more starkly in Alabama where until recently bears were reduced to a single geographically isolated population in the Mobile River Basin. Recently a second population has naturally re-established itself in northeastern Alabama. We sought to determine size, genetic diversity and genetic connectivity for these two populations in relation to other regional populations. Both populations of black bears in Alabama had small population sizes and had moderate to low genetic diversity, but showed different levels of connectivity to surrounding populations of bears. The Mobile River Basin population had a small population size at only 86 individuals (76-124, 95% C.I., the lowest genetic diversity of compared populations (richness = 2.33, Ho and He = 0.33, and showed near complete genetic isolation from surrounding populations across multiple tests. The newly recolonizing population in northeastern Alabama had a small but growing population doubling in 3 years (34 individuals 26-43, 95% C.I., relatively moderate genetic diversity compared to surrounding populations (richness = 3.32, Ho = 0.53, He = 0.65, and showed a high level of genetic connectivity with surrounding populations.

  7. Genetic health and population monitoring of two small black bear (Ursus americanus) populations in Alabama, with a regional perspective of genetic diversity and exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John P; Waits, Lisette P; Adams, Jennifer R; Seals, Christopher L; Steury, Todd D

    2017-01-01

    One of the major concerns in conservation today is the loss of genetic diversity which is a frequent consequence of population isolation and small population sizes. Fragmentation of populations and persecution of carnivores has posed a substantial threat to the persistence of free ranging carnivores in North America since the arrival of European settlers. Black bears have seen significant reductions in range size from their historic extent, which is most pronounced in the southeastern United States and even more starkly in Alabama where until recently bears were reduced to a single geographically isolated population in the Mobile River Basin. Recently a second population has naturally re-established itself in northeastern Alabama. We sought to determine size, genetic diversity and genetic connectivity for these two populations in relation to other regional populations. Both populations of black bears in Alabama had small population sizes and had moderate to low genetic diversity, but showed different levels of connectivity to surrounding populations of bears. The Mobile River Basin population had a small population size at only 86 individuals (76-124, 95% C.I.), the lowest genetic diversity of compared populations (richness = 2.33, Ho and He = 0.33), and showed near complete genetic isolation from surrounding populations across multiple tests. The newly recolonizing population in northeastern Alabama had a small but growing population doubling in 3 years (34 individuals 26-43, 95% C.I.), relatively moderate genetic diversity compared to surrounding populations (richness = 3.32, Ho = 0.53, He = 0.65), and showed a high level of genetic connectivity with surrounding populations.

  8. Analysis of ancient pottery from the palatine hill in Rome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sena, E.; Landsberger, S.; Wisseman, S.

    1995-01-01

    A program of compositional analysis using neutron activation has been performed on samples of Roman fine ware from the Palatine East excavations in Rome at the University of Illinois' TRIGA reactor. These experiments are ultimately intended to assist the authors in advancing the understanding of the organization of pottery production and distribution in central Italy during the late Roman imperial period (4th-5th c. AD). The objectives of this paper are to present an archaeological background of two regionally-produced fine wares, to discuss the methods of sampling, irradiation and data analyses, and to demonstrate the preliminary results of our investigation, which included the analyses of Plio-Pleistocene clays from the Janiculum Hill in Rome. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Topography of multi-locus deletions induced by gamma-rays and neutrons in the black, cinnabar and vestigial regions of drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, I.V.; Lapidus, I.L.; Alexandrova, M.V.

    1997-01-01

    The extend and breakpoint location of 85 chromosomal-scale deletions induced by gamma-rays or fission neutrons in the black, cinnabar and vestigial regions of Drosophila genome have been examined by conventional cytogenetic analysis of the polytene chromosomes. It was found that the topographies of deletions are similar for both type of radiation and for all regions under study: the largest deletions have 3.5 Mb length, i.e. more than 2 divisions of the polytene chromosome; the breakpoints of deletions are located within the inter-bands and mapped more often in the centro-metric directions; the sizes of deletions are multiple to one, two or more visible chromomeres of polytene chromosome. These findings seem to be very well explained within the framework of the rosette-loopy model of higher (super-chromosome) level of the chromatin organization and of the notions about the illegitimate recombination promoted by the clustered damages of the core DNA resulting from the one-hit events of energy deposition at this target supported by the linear relationship observed between the delation yield and the dose of radiations studied. (authors)

  10. Relationship between soil and edaphoclimatic properties and the Black Sigatoka incidence (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet in the Banana Region of Magdalena - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Esperanza Aguirre Forero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet disease is the greatest limiting factor affecting banana crop production across the world. The pathogen´s severity has reached epidemic levels and is exacerbated by the cultivation of monocultures and genetically uniform clones. In Colombia, losses occur in the exporting regions of Uraba and Magdalena, where its management depends on the use of agrochemicals, without achieving eradication. In the search for methods to reduce the pathogen’s effect within the banana zone of the departamento del Magdalena, Colombia, the relationship between climate, soil properties, and the presence of the disease was determined. Were utilized data from geographic informational systems, digitalized the data from the soil variables reported in the soil study conducted by IGAC (2009, records from weather stations in the region, and data showing the incidence rate of the pathogen. As a result of the study were established three areas (high, medium and low incidence rate and discovered a positive correlation between the incidence rate of the disease with precipitation (r = 0.56, interchangeable magnesium, Mg+2 (r = 0.45, microporosity (r = 0.40, clay content (r = 0.54, and evaporation (r = 0.51. Were observed that there are soil conditions that influence the presence of the disease, variables that should be kept in mind in the management of banana cultivation.

  11. Flood disaster and protection measures in Turkey Case Study: May 1998 flood disaster at North Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurer, Ibrahim; Ozguier, Hamza

    2004-01-01

    Due to geographical location, geology, and topography, Turkey undergoes three main types of natural disasters related to gravity flows; floods, landslides, and snow avalanches. Flooding is second important natural hazard after earthquakes with 18 floods and 23 deaths per year, on average. During 20-21 May 1998, the rainfall which was equal to about four times of long-term mean annual rainfall total of north western Black Sea geographical region of Turkey affected 35.000 m 2 , damaged 1300 km highway, 600 km roads to the villages, and 60 km railway. After the recession of the flood waters, the field survey done proved that 12 highway bridges, 91 small bridges on village roads and 6900 highway culverts, 13.800 m retaining wall and about 500 houses were severely damaged. During the last five years, with the loans and credits provided by World Bank, a series of flood protection structures were designed and built for the rehabilitation of the region. Mostly concentrating on non-structural flood protection studies, a work programme has been drafted in this framework to develop flood management and to reduce or eliminate long-term risk and damage to people and their property from natural hazards and their effects. In this case study, the factors causing the flood disaster are given, and the flood event is analyzed from hydrologic and morphologic points of view. Also the different types of the flood protection measures are exemplified and the experience gained in controlling the flood damages is presented.(Author)

  12. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  13. Sustainability Organic Agriculture and Livestock Production with Respect to European Union in Eastern Anatolia and East Black Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecihi Aksakal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of farm households in Turkey and especially the Eastern Anatolia are still based on low-input semi subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Despite a slow decline in recent years, agriculture and livestock production remains a major employer in Turkey and it is a significant contributor to the country’s gross domestic product, GDP. Whist Turkey is one of the EU candidate countries, is self sufficient in food production and Turkish agriculture is poorly structured inefficient, with farming in the Eastern Anatolia being mainly subsistence farming. Yet, these traditional rural structures combined with poor access to low level of education and low level of off-farm unemployment problem makes the situation more complicated and unsustainable. The best way to promote sustainability, better and higher production of Eastern Anatolian and rural Turkey is to invest in the local people, villages through improved, continuing and effective agricultural and livestock programs in particular. Investment in human capital especially in the rural areas leads to more employment opportunities through entrepreneurship and innovation in organic agriculture and livestock production. A holistic approach to developing and improving supply chains could unlock the potential for sophisticated, state-of-the-art organic agriculture and livestock producers and businesses in the region to become EU and global players. Eastern Anatolian livestock producers and the farmers have the ambitions to take part in future progress because the region is naturally organic not by design but default. It is for sure that present potential of the region has not been fully determined and utilized. EU has greatly benefited from previous enlargements economically, politically and socially. When European Union (EU and Turkish Government relations considered and accession of Turkey to EU would be the logical consequence of the previous accessions. The screening on chapter 11

  14. HST images of dark giants as dark matter: Part.I The black cocoon stars of Carina Nebula region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celis, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    In an evolutionary scenario, the existence of isolated dark giant objects known as Post M latest spectral type stars (1) (or black cocoon stars) are in the last stage of their life and, as extremely advanced old age objects, they cease to be stars. The photographic images of Carina nebula taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have been used to detect the post M-Iatest stars as dark silhouettes. The luminosity attenuation equation of M late stars (1), A = αS 3 , points out the baryonic dark matter envelopes the oldest red giants that produce earlier dark giants. This equation says that when the red giant star finishes to produce baryonic dark matter, the central star is extinguishing and transforms into dark giants and dusty globules that disperse cool gaseous matter into the interstellar space. These old dark objects have a size from 400 to 600 astronomical units (AU). The advanced dark giants, the dusty dark giants, might not contain a star within the molecular cloud that envelops it. In this case, the dark giants might produce the smaller and less massive dark globules of the Thackeray's globules type (less than 4 solar masses) where, Reupurth et al. (2) found that these globules are now in an advanced stage of disintegration and they found no evidence of star formation in any of these objects. The high-resolution of the Hubble images allows: The observation of isolated dark giants, dusty globules with central dark giants, the observation of partial eclipses or transiting of giant stars and the estimation of linear and angular diameters (ionised cocoons) of giant stellar objects. The dark giants of the image are identified them as objects with observed angular diameter. The large quantity of dark giants in a small sector of the sky suggests that they are densely populated (population stars III) and ubiquitous in the galactic disc. They can be located in isolated form or associated in dense Conglomerations of dark giants. At the same time, conglomerates of

  15. The hill forts and castle mounds in Lithuania: interaction between geodiversity and human-shaped landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante; Satkunas, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Lithuania is famous for its abundant, picturesque hill forts and castle mounds of natural origin. In Lithuania as well as in whole Europe the fortified hills were used as the society dwelling place since the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. Their importance increased when Livonian and Teutonic Orders directed a series of military campaigns against Lithuania with the aim of expansion of Christianity in the region at the end of 1st millennium AD, and they were intensively used till the beginning of the 15th c. when most of them were burned down during fights with the Orders or just abandoned due to the changing political and economical situation. What types of the geodiversity were used for fortified dwellings? The choice in a particular area depended on a variety of geomorphology left behind the retreating ice sheets. High spots dominating their surroundings were of prime interest. In E and SE Lithuania, the Baltic Upland hills marking the eastern margin of the last Weichselian glacier hosted numerous fortified settlements from the end of 2nd millennium BC to the Medieval Ages (Narkunai, Velikuskes etc). In W Lithuania, plateau-like hills of the insular Samogitian Upland had been repeatedly fortified from the beginning of 1st millennium AD to the 14th century (Satrija, Medvegalis etc). Chains of hill forts and castle mounds feature the slopes of glaciofluvial valleys of Nemunas, Neris and other rivers where the slopes were dissected by affluent rivulets and ravines and transformed into isolated, well protected hills (Kernave, Punia, Veliuona etc). Peninsulas and headlands formed by the erosion of fluvial and lacustrine deposits were used in the lowlands, e.g. in central and N Lithuania (Paberze, Mezotne etc). How much the landscape was modified for defense purposes? Long-term erosion and overgrowing vegetation damaged the former fortified sites, however some remains and the archeological excavations allowed their reconstruction. The fortified Bronze Age settlements

  16. Byzantine Glazed Ceramics in the Cities of the Northern Black Sea Region in the Golden Horde Period (Second Half of the 13th to the Late 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocharov Sergei G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glazed ceramics of Byzantine origin, which came has been found on town sites of the Northern Black Sea region referring to the Golden Horde period (second half of the 13th – late 14th cc., is characterized in the article. Materials from the urban centers of the Crimea (Solkhat, Sudak, Kaffa, Chersonese, Cembalo, the Azov Sea region (Azaq, and the lower reaches of the Don and Kuban rivers are discussed. The applied principles of ceramics classification have been formulated. On their basis, six major groups of Byzantine ceramic imports have been identified. For each group, a description of morphological and technological features, ornamentation methods and motifs has been provided; chronological framework of their arrival in the region has been specified. Conclusions have been offered as to the extent of distribution and the role played by diverse groups of Byzantine glazed ceramics in the cities of the Northern Black Sea region.

  17. Radiometric evidence of Middle Devonian inversion of the Hill End Trough, northeast Lachlan Fold Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakham, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    The publication of a new geological time-scale by the Australian Geological Survey Organisation and radiometric dates from the Hill End goldfield have prompted the re-examination of the timing of deformation of the Hill End Trough to determine whether it occurred in Middle Devonian or Early Carboniferous time. Palaeontological evidence from the western trough margin and the Capertee High dates the end of deposition in the trough as late Emsian or early Eifelian (385-382 Ma). After a mid-Devonian hiatus of at least 15 million years, paralic sedimentation commenced on the Molong and Capertee Highs in late Frasnian or early Famennian time (367-363 Ma). No Upper Devonian sedimentary formations occur in the Hill End Trough. Structural relationships indicate that the oldest mineral veins at Hill End preceded cleavage formation in the deformed trough sedimentary rocks. Early vein muscovites have Middle Devonian 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates of 380-370 Ma. Regional metamorphic biotites from Hill End have well constrained 40 Ar/ 39 Ar closing ages of 360-358 Ma (mid-Famennian). The metamorphic (thermal) maximum which outlasted penetrative deformation. is estimated here by modelling to have been about 370 Ma (latest Givetian). This clearly places the earlier main deformation in the Middle Devonian. Deformation probably began by terminating trough deposition in latest Emsian to early Eifelian time and ended in early Givetian time at about 375 Ma ago. Published pressure and temperature data from the Hill End goldfield suggest that deformation thickened the 6 km sediment column to around 11 km. The thermal model suggests there was post-deformation erosion of about 4km and little if any further erosion occurred during Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous time. The shortening accompanying the inversion of the northern Hill End Trough may have been taken up in the region to the south, both east and west of the Copperhannia Thrust, and east of the southern termination of the Capertee High

  18. HydroHillChart – Francis module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Francis Hydraulic Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Hydro Hill Chart - Francis module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton, Francis and Kaplan hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. After describing the interface and menu, the input data is graphically presented and the universal characteristic for measuring scenarios ao=const. and n11=const is calculated. Finally, the two calculated hill charts are compared through a graphical superimposition of the isolines.

  19. The Goodwin model: behind the Hill function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Gonze

    Full Text Available The Goodwin model is a 3-variable model demonstrating the emergence of oscillations in a delayed negative feedback-based system at the molecular level. This prototypical model and its variants have been commonly used to model circadian and other genetic oscillators in biology. The only source of non-linearity in this model is a Hill function, characterizing the repression process. It was mathematically shown that to obtain limit-cycle oscillations, the Hill coefficient must be larger than 8, a value often considered unrealistic. It is indeed difficult to explain such a high coefficient with simple cooperative dynamics. We present here molecular models of the standard Goodwin model, based on single or multisite phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes of a transcription factor, which have been previously shown to generate switch-like responses. We show that when the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes are fast enough, the limit-cycle obtained with a multisite phosphorylation-based mechanism is in very good quantitative agreement with the oscillations observed in the Goodwin model. Conditions in which the detailed mechanism is well approximated by the Goodwin model are given. A variant of the Goodwin model which displays sharp thresholds and relaxation oscillations is also explained by a double phosphorylation/dephosphorylation-based mechanism through a bistable behavior. These results not only provide rational support for the Goodwin model but also highlight the crucial role of the speed of post-translational processes, whose response curve are usually established at a steady state, in biochemical oscillators.

  20. New type of hill-top inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barvinsky, A.O.; Nesterov, D.V. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kamenshchik, A.Yu., E-mail: barvin@td.lpi.ru, E-mail: Alexander.Kamenshchik@bo.infn.it, E-mail: nesterov@td.lpi.ru [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ε and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R{sup 2}-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  1. New type of hill-top inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barvinsky, A.O. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute,Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Tomsk State University,Lenin Ave. 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pacific Institue for Theoretical Physics,University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kamenshchik, A.Yu. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physcis,Kosygin str. 2, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nesterov, D.V. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute,Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-20

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ϵ and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R{sup 2}-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  2. Measurement and mapping of the GSM-based electromagnetic pollution in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuysuz, Burak; Mahmutoglu, Yigit

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic pollution caused by mobile communication devices, a new form of environmental pollution, has been one of the most concerning problems to date. Consequences of long-term exposure to the electromagnetic radiation caused by cell phone towers are still unknown and can potentially be a new health hazard. It is important to measure, analyze and map the electromagnetic radiation levels periodically because of the potential risks. The electromagnetic pollution maps can be used for the detection of diseases caused by the radiation. With the help of the radiation maps of different regions, comparative analysis can be provided and distribution of the diseases can be investigated. In this article, Global System for Mobile communication (GSM)-based electromagnetic pollution map of the Rize Providence, which has high cancer rates because of the Chernobyl nuclear explosion, is generated. First, locations of the GSM base stations are identified and according to the antenna types of the base stations, safety distances are determined. Subsequently, 155 measurements are taken during November 2014 from the nearest living quarters of the Rize city center in Turkey. The measurements are then assessed statistically. Thenceforth, for visual judgment of the determined statistics, collected measurements are presented on the map. It is observed that national limits are not exceeded, but it is also discovered that the safety distance is waived at some of the measurement points and above the average radiation levels are noted. Even if the national limits are not exceeded, the long-term effects of the exposition to the electromagnetic radiation can cause serious health problems.

  3. Impact of deforestation on soil carbon stock and its spatial distribution in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuker, Mehmet Ali; Guney, Mert; Oral, H Volkan; Copty, Nadim K; Onay, Turgut T

    2015-01-01

    Land use management is one of the most critical factors influencing soil carbon storage and the global carbon cycle. This study evaluates the impact of land use change on the soil carbon stock in the Karasu region of Turkey which in the last two decades has undergone substantial deforestation to expand hazelnut plantations. Analysis of seasonal soil data indicated that the carbon content decreased rapidly with depth for both land uses. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between the surface carbon stock (defined over 0-5 cm depth) in agricultural and forested areas is statistically significant (Agricultural = 1.74 kg/m(2), Forested = 2.09 kg/m(2), p = 0.014). On the other hand, the average carbon stocks estimated over the 0-1 m depth were 12.36 and 12.12 kg/m(2) in forested and agricultural soils, respectively. The carbon stock (defined over 1 m depth) in the two land uses were not significantly different which is attributed in part to the negative correlation between carbon stock and bulk density (-0.353, p < 0.01). The soil carbon stock over the entire study area was mapped using a conditional kriging approach which jointly uses the collected soil carbon data and satellite-based land use images. Based on the kriging map, the spatially soil carbon stock (0-1 m dept) ranged about 2 kg/m(2) in highly developed areas to more than 23 kg/m(2) in intensively cultivated areas as well as the averaged soil carbon stock (0-1 m depth) was estimated as 10.4 kg/m(2). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE STRUCTURE OF THE SEED YIELD OF BROAD BEANS IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL ZONE OF THE SOUTH OF THE CENTRAL BLACK EARTH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Kurkina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rich in high quality protein, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids and trace elements seeds, green fruits and young leaves broad beans (Vicia faba L. var. major Harz has long been used in the food, and the culture of beans are promising in biological agriculture and horticulture. The aim of this work was to study the structure of seed production of different varieties of broad beans in the South Central zone of the region. At the Botanical garden BelSU (Belgorod to study the structure of seed production of different varieties of broad beans (Belarusiskie, Velena, Russkie chernie, Aquadul and determined the biochemical composition of seeds. Optimal height of attachment of the first fruit for mechanical harvesting (20-25 cm characteristic of plants of all studied varieties. Weight of the fetus, according to the coefficient of variability, equal to 45%, distinguished by a strong variability on grades with a maximum grade of Velena. The length of fruit ranged from 9 to 13 cm and were characterized by moderate variability (V=20%. Seeds production is determinened not only by size of fruits of beans, but and its important components such as 1000 seed weight. Protein content in the seeds at 30% different varieties of broad beans domestic breeding. Contents of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and iron is higher in the cotyledons than in the skin. Dark purple color of the seed varieties of Russian black is due to the biosynthesis useful for human organism anthocyanins in seed peel.

  5. A uranium-bearing coalificated wood remain from the Upper Carboniferous uranium ore deposit in the Baden-Baden region of the Black Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheimer, F.

    1981-01-01

    From the 1973 discovered Upper Carboniferous uranium ore sandstone deposit in the Baden-Baden region (Black Forest) a uranium-bearing coalificated wood remain derived, probably the relic of a Cordaites-trunk. The chemical determinated whole uranium content of this amounts about to 40 wght.-%. Pitchblende of the collomorphic type is embedded in the vitrinite of the fossil and imitates the nearly destroyed former wood-structure. The aggregates of this mineral, surrounded by zones of contact, consist of at least two modifications of different reflectance and hardness. Radiometric analyses reveale a different disturbed radioactive equilibrium, which indicated partly loss and re-enrichment of the uranium-content in recent time. A part of the fossil is completely mineralized by pitchblende of high reflectance and associated galena. For this paragenesis the radiometric investigations proved an approached equilibrium of radioactive substances. Therefore it is to be estimated, that the pitchblende is not alterated substantially, in contrast to the embeddings in the vitrinite, rich in little reflecting and soft nasturanium. The inhomogenic mineralization of the highly coalificated fossil, also to recognise microscopically, is set in relation to the controverse genetic interpretation of the deposit. Final remarks are concerned to other uranium-enriched fossils, especially remains of bones of different origin and age. (orig.) [de

  6. Petrology, composition, and age of intrusive rocks associated with the Quartz Hill molybdenite deposit, southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, T.; Smith, James G.; Elliott, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A large porphyry molybdenum deposit (Quartz Hill deposit) was recently discovered in the heart of the Coast Range batholithic complex about 70 km E of Ketchikan, SE Alaska. Intrusive rocks associated with the mineral deposit form two composite epizonal to hypabyssal stocks and many dikes in country rocks. All observed metallization and alteration is within the Quartz Hill stock. Molybdenite forms fracture coatings and occurs in veins with quartz. Alteration is widespread and includes development of secondary quartz, pyrite, K-feldspar, biotite, white mica, chlorite, and zeolite. Field relations indicate that the stocks were emplaced after regional uplift and erosion of the Coast Range batholithic complex, and K-Ar data show that intrusion and alteration took place in late Oligocene time, about 27 to 30 Ma ago. Data from the Ketchikan quadrangle indicate that porphyry molybdenum metallization in the Coast Range batholithic complex is associated with regionally extensive but spotty, middle Tertiary or younger, felsic magmatism. -from Authors

  7. Comparison of different interpolation methods for spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and some soil properties in the Black Sea backward region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göl, Ceyhun; Bulut, Sinan; Bolat, Ferhat

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to compare the spatial variability of soil organic carbon (SOC) in four adjacent land uses including the cultivated area, the grassland area, the plantation area and the natural forest area in the semi - arid region of Black Sea backward region of Turkey. Some of the soil properties, including total nitrogen, SOC, soil organic matter, and bulk density were measured on a grid with a 50 m sampling distance on the top soil (0-15 cm depth). Accordingly, a total of 120 samples were taken from the four adjacent land uses. Data was analyzed using geostatistical methods. The methods used were: Block kriging (BK), co - kriging (CK) with organic matter, total nitrogen and bulk density as auxiliary variables and inverse distance weighting (IDW) methods with the power of 1, 2 and 4. The methods were compared using a performance criteria that included root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and the coefficient of correlation (r). The one - way ANOVA test showed that differences between the natural (0.6653 ± 0.2901) - plantation forest (0.7109 ± 0.2729) areas and the grassland (1.3964 ± 0.6828) - cultivated areas (1.5851 ± 0.5541) were statistically significant at 0.05 level (F = 28.462). The best model for describing spatially variation of SOC was CK with the lowest error criteria (RMSE = 0.3342, MAE = 0.2292) and the highest coefficient of correlation (r = 0.84). The spatial structure of SOC could be well described by the spherical model. The nugget effect indicated that SOC was moderately dependent on the study area. The error distributions of the model showed that the improved model was unbiased in predicting the spatial distribution of SOC. This study's results revealed that an explanatory variable linked SOC increased success of spatial interpolation methods. In subsequent studies, this case should be taken into account for reaching more accurate outputs.

  8. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacisalihoglu, G.; Eliyakut, F.; Anwari, M.A.; Ataman, O.Y.; Balkas, T.I.; Tuncel, G.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m 3 , which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  9. Yield Interactions of Wheat Genotypes to Dates of Seeding in Eastern Mid Hills of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Rudra Bhattarai; Bedanand Chaudhary; Dhruba Bahadur Thapa; Ramesh Raj Puri; Ram Nath Chaudhary; Ram Nath Chaudhary; Bibek Sapkota; Kiran Baral; Shukra Raj Shrestha; Surya Prasad Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the major cereal crops and staple food sources in Nepal. Wheat varieties being popular in mid hill regions are still in the early stages of adoption. Identification of appropriate date of seeding plays important role in enhancing the adoption rate ensuring the sustainable production. Therefore, three dates viz 15th November, 1st and 15th December for seeding and twenty eight wheat genotypes were evaluated in a split plot design with two replications for ...

  10. Weak Properties and Robustness of t-Hill Estimators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jordanova, P.; Fabián, Zdeněk; Hermann, P.; Střelec, L.; Rivera, A.; Girard, S.; Torres, S.; Stehlík, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2016), s. 591-626 ISSN 1386-1999 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : asymptotic properties of estimators * point estimation * t-Hill estimator * t-lgHill estimator Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.679, year: 2016

  11. Plants profile of Malakand Pass Hills, District Malakand, Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... famous Malakand fort guards the road on both sides of the pass. Malakand is a ... Underneath Malakand Hills, the waters of the River Swat ... southern sloping faces of the hills. They speak ...... Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Antidote ...

  12. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sta. Rita Hills. 9.162.... Rita Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sta. Rita Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Sta. Rita Hills” is a term of viticultural significance. (b...

  13. Spectral parameter power series representation for Hill's discriminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khmelnytskaya, K.V.; Rosu, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    We establish a series representation of the Hill discriminant based on the spectral parameter power series (SPPS) recently introduced by Kravchenko. We also show the invariance of the Hill discriminant under a Darboux transformation and employing the Mathieu case the feasibility of this type of series for numerical calculations of the eigenspectrum.

  14. The montane forest associated amphibian species of the Taita Hills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The montane forest associated amphibian species of the Taita Hills, Kenya. ... They are surrounded by the dry Tsavo plains. ... The biodiversity importance of the Taita Hills lies with the number of endemics per unit of area of remaining forest, ...

  15. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  16. HydroHillChart – Pelton module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Pelton Hydraulic Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Dorian Nedelcu; Adelina Bostan; Florin Peris-Bendu

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the HydroHillChart - Pelton module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. In addition, the tools offered by the application such as: interface, menu, input data, numerical and graphical results, etc. are described.

  17. HydroHillChart – Pelton module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Pelton Hydraulic Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the HydroHillChart - Pelton module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. In addition, the tools offered by the application such as: interface, menu, input data, numerical and graphical results, etc. are described.

  18. Flotation process control optimisation at Prominent Hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, Josephine; Muhamad, Nur; Weidenbach, M.

    2012-01-01

    OZ Minerals' Prominent Hill copper- gold concentrator is located 130 km south east of the town of Coober Pedy in the Gawler Craton of South Australia. The concentrator was built in 2008 and commenced commercial production in early 2009. The Prominent Hill concentrator is comprised of a conventional grinding and flotation processing plant with a 9.6 Mtpa ore throughput capacity. The flotation circuit includes six rougher cells, an IseMill for regrinding the rougher concentrate and a Jameson cell heading up the three stage conventional cell cleaner circuit. In total there are four level controllers in the rougher train and ten level controllers in the cleaning circuit for 18 cells. Generic proportional — integral and derivative (PID) control used on the level controllers alone propagated any disturbances downstream in the circuit that were generated from the grinding circuit, hoppers, between cells and interconnected banks of cells, having a negative impact on plant performance. To better control such disturbances, FloatStar level stabiliser was selected for installation on the flotation circuit to account for the interaction between the cells. Multivariable control was also installed on the five concentrate hoppers to maintain consistent feed to the cells and to the IsaMill. An additional area identified for optimisation in the flotation circuit was the mass pull rate from the rougher cells. FloatStar flow optimiser was selected to be installed subsequent to the FloatStar level stabiliser. This allowed for a unified, consistent and optimal approach to running the rougher circuit. This paper describes the improvement in the stabilisation of the circuit achieved by the FloatStar level stabiliser by using the interaction matrix between cell level controllers and the results and benefits of implementing the FloatStar flow optimiser on the rougher train.

  19. Long-term trends of black carbon and sulphate aerosol in the Arctic: changes in atmospheric transport and source region emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hirdman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IPY project POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols and Transport and building on previous work (Hirdman et al., 2010, this paper studies the long-term trends of both atmospheric transport as well as equivalent black carbon (EBC and sulphate for the three Arctic stations Alert, Barrow and Zeppelin. We find a general downward trend in the measured EBC concentrations at all three stations, with a decrease of −2.1±0.4 ng m−3 yr−1 (for the years 1989–2008 and −1.4±0.8 ng m−3 yr−1 (2002–2009 at Alert and Zeppelin respectively. The decrease at Barrow is, however, not statistically significant. The measured sulphate concentrations show a decreasing trend at Alert and Zeppelin of −15±3 ng m−3 yr−1 (1985–2006 and −1.3±1.2 ng m−3 yr−1 (1990–2008 respectively, while there is no trend detectable at Barrow.

    To reveal the contribution of different source regions on these trends, we used a cluster analysis of the output of the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART run backward in time from the measurement stations. We have investigated to what extent variations in the atmospheric circulation, expressed as variations in the frequencies of the transport from four source regions with different emission rates, can explain the long-term trends in EBC and sulphate measured at these stations. We find that the long-term trend in the atmospheric circulation can only explain a minor fraction of the overall downward trend seen in the measurements of EBC (0.3–7.2% and sulphate (0.3–5.3% at the Arctic stations. The changes in emissions are dominant in explaining the trends. We find that the highest EBC and sulphate concentrations are associated with transport from Northern Eurasia and decreasing emissions in this region drive the

  20. lllicit Radiological and Nuclear Trafficking, Smuggling and Security Incidents in the Black Sea Region since the Fall of the Iron Curtain – an Open Source Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex P. Schmid

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear and radiological smuggling and trafficking incidents, events, and threats from the wider Black Sea area, 1990 – 2011  An Open Source Compilation prepared by Alex P. Schmid & Charlotte Spencer-Smith

  1. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Sediment Sources Change for the Past 42 Years in a Small Watershed Located in the Black Soil Region of Northeastern China Based on Fingerprinting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, P.; Huang, D.; Ning, D.

    2017-12-01

    The temporal change of sediment source in watershed is very helpful for evaluating the adopted soil conservation measures and the implemented land management practices. For this purpose, a sediment profile from Hebei watershed outlet and 59 samples from the three potential sediment sources were collected. The rediounuclide Pb-210 was then measured to obtain sedimentation rate for the past 42 years. Generally, the sedimentation rate was gradually decreased from 10.83 cm yr-1 in the 1970's to 1.50 cm yr-1in the 2010's. Taken the radiounulide Cs-137 as a fingerprinting identifying tracer, the mean contribution of sediment from cultivated lands, woodlands, and channel banks were 50.60%, 22.26%, and 26.74%, while the ranges varying from 20.16% to 84.02%, from 2.22% to 36.85%, and from 11.61% to 53.28%, respectively. The percentage of sediment sources from cultivated lands was decreased, whereas the percentages from woodlands and channel banks were both increased in the past 42 years. The results indicate that soil conservation measures adopted in the cultivated lands have been played a very important role in reducing erosion, however, more attention on land management practices implementation should be paid to maintain current woodland and to control serious gully erosion in the black soil region. (This paper is a contribution to the project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41501299), and the non-profit project of Ministry of Water Resources of China (No. 201501045).)

  3. A STUDY ON THE HENDIADYOINS IN THE EASTERN BLACK-SEA REGION DIALECTS / ORTA VE DOĞU KARADENIZ AĞIZLARINDA GÖRÜLEN IKILEMELER ÜZERINE BIR DEĞERLENDIRME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ercan ALKAYA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hendiadyoins of the dialects of the Central andEastern Black-Sea Region such as Ordu, Giresun, Rize and Trabzon whichcan be observed as non-literary usages are dealt with. The hendiadyoins takenfrom the dialect studies on the afore-mentioned dialects and from theDerleme Sözlüğü are assessed in respect with their origins, structures andmeanings.

  4. Black holes and the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse

  5. Black holes and the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  6. Diagenetic Features Analyzed by ChemCam/Curiosity at Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Anderson, R. B.; Blank, J. G.; Calef, F.; Clegg, S.; Fabre, C.; Fisk, M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, the ChemCam instrument consists of : (1) a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) for elemental analysis of targets and (2) a Remote Micro Imager (RMI), which provides imaging context for the LIBS. The LIBS/ChemCam performs analysis typically of spot sizes 350-550 micrometers in diameter, up to 7 meters from the rover. Within Gale crater, Curiosity traveled from Bradbury Landing toward the base of Mount Sharp, reaching Pahrump Hills outcrop circa sol 750. This region, as seen from orbit, represents the first exposures of lower Mount Sharp. In this abstract we focus on two types of features present within the Pahrump Hills outcrop: concretion features and light-toned veins.

  7. [Soil organic carbon mineralization of Black Locust forest in the deep soil layer of the hilly region of the Loess Plateau, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin-Xin; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Yang, Kai

    2012-11-01

    The deep soil layer (below 100 cm) stores considerable soil organic carbon (SOC). We can reveal its stability and provide the basis for certification of the deep soil carbon sinks by studying the SOC mineralization in the deep soil layer. With the shallow soil layer (0-100 cm) as control, the SOC mineralization under the condition (temperature 15 degrees C, the soil water content 8%) of Black Locust forest in the deep soil layer (100-400 cm) of the hilly region of the Loess Plateau was studied. The results showed that: (1) There was a downward trend in the total SOC mineralization with the increase of soil depth. The total SOC mineralization in the sub-deep soil (100-200 cm) and deep soil (200-400 cm) were equivalent to approximately 88.1% and 67.8% of that in the shallow layer (0-100 cm). (2) Throughout the carbon mineralization process, the same as the shallow soil, the sub-deep and deep soil can be divided into 3 stages. In the rapid decomposition phase, the ratio of the mineralization or organic carbon to the total mineralization in the sub-deep and deep layer (0-10 d) was approximately 50% of that in the shallow layer (0-17 d). In the slow decomposition phase, the ratio of organic carbon mineralization to total mineralization in the sub-deep, deep layer (11-45 d) was 150% of that in the shallow layer (18-45 d). There was no significant difference in this ratio among these three layers (46-62 d) in the relatively stable stage. (3) There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the mineralization rate of SOC among the shallow, sub-deep, deep layers. The stability of SOC in the deep soil layer (100-400 cm) was similar to that in the shallow soil layer and the SOC in the deep soil layer was also involved in the global carbon cycle. The change of SOC in the deep soil layer should be taken into account when estimating the effects of soil carbon sequestration in the Hilly Region of the Loess Plateau, China.

  8. Analysis of high-resolution simulations for the Black Forest region from a point of view of tourism climatology - a comparison between two regional climate models (REMO and CLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, Christina; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    An analysis of climate simulations from a point of view of tourism climatology based on two regional climate models, namely REMO and CLM, was performed for a regional domain in the southwest of Germany, the Black Forest region, for two time frames, 1971-2000 that represents the twentieth century climate and 2021-2050 that represents the future climate. In that context, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios A1B and B1 are used. The analysis focuses on human-biometeorological and applied climatologic issues, especially for tourism purposes - that means parameters belonging to thermal (physiologically equivalent temperature, PET), physical (precipitation, snow, wind), and aesthetic (fog, cloud cover) facets of climate in tourism. In general, both models reveal similar trends, but differ in their extent. The trend of thermal comfort is contradicting: it tends to decrease in REMO, while it shows a slight increase in CLM. Moreover, REMO reveals a wider range of future climate trends than CLM, especially for sunshine, dry days, and heat stress. Both models are driven by the same global coupled atmosphere-ocean model ECHAM5/MPI-OM. Because both models are not able to resolve meso- and micro-scale processes such as cloud microphysics, differences between model results and discrepancies in the development of even those parameters (e.g., cloud formation and cover) are due to different model parameterization and formulation. Climatic changes expected by 2050 are small compared to 2100, but may have major impacts on tourism as for example, snow cover and its duration are highly vulnerable to a warmer climate directly affecting tourism in winter. Beyond indirect impacts are of high relevance as they influence tourism as well. Thus, changes in climate, natural environment, demography, tourists' demands, among other things affect economy in general. The analysis of the CLM results and its comparison with the REMO results complete the analysis performed

  9. Funny hills in pion spectra from heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.O.

    1982-03-01

    A discussion of some of the systematic features of the pion spectra in heavy-ions reactions is given. A discussion of the hills and valleys in heavy ion pion spectra that show up at the lower pion energies is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) three kinds of funny hills; (2) π - / + ratios near center of mass; (3) new Monte Carlo studies of charged pion spectra; and (4) pion orbiting about fireballs and Bose-Einstein behavior as explanation for the mid-rapidity P/sub perpendicular to/ approx. = 0.4 to 0.5 m/sub π/c hill

  10. Influence of ecological and botanical factors on the culture of black pine (Pinus nigra and proposed future management in Šumadija region (Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šikanja Severin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available All ecological aspects have been analysed and studied: botanical factors at black pine cultures in the area of Šumadija. Cultures of black pine of age 33 and 55−60 years within five experimental fields can be found in (1 good habitats, (2 medium habitats and (3 bad habitats were analysed in order to see how the same aged cultures act in different habitats. We analysed all the plants that appear as terrestrial flora, all the plants that occur as a shrub vegetation and, finally, floor trees. We analysed all the biotic and abiotic factors. The measures for most appropriate care for the cultures of black pine. Black pine in Serbia reaches its highest elevation amplitude in Europe and covers most diverse habitats and soil, mainly because of its visibly pronounced ecological modesty. For this reason, the black pine is one of the most usable kinds of artificial afforestation in the Republic of Serbia at all devastated, treeless terrain in the oak belt, where there is a danger that through the action of erosion, soil degradation occurs. That in the management unit, Gružansko Lepeničke, Jaseničke forests, to answer all the questions, the pine, when it comes to artificially established black lines on the same or on different sites and the same and the various soils, as when it comes to tending these crops. It should be noted that of the 125,000 ha conifer cultures in the Republic of Serbia, 86 000 ha of trees were all pines, roughly 70% of all conifer cultures. Of the 86 000 ha pine, 65,200 ha was occupied by black pine, which is about 70%. In the above,Management Unit separate the five sample plots of 25 acres in size.

  11. New regular black hole solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we consider general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. Under the assumption of spherical symmetry, there is a particular class of solutions that correspond to regular charged black holes whose interior region is de Sitter, the exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem and there is a charged thin-layer in-between the two. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular black holes are analyzed.

  12. Effect of fire on the herpetofauna of the Koanaka Hills, Ngamiland, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Alicia; Marais, Johan; Bauer, Aaron; Lewis, Patrick; Thies, Monte

    2012-01-01

    Ngamiland is one of the most remote regions in Botswana, and its herpetofauna is largely under-surveyed. This study documents the herpetofauna of the Koanaka Hills (KH) in Ngamiland in 2009 following extensive fire destruction and compares it to the pre-fire herpetofauna collected in 2008. We also provide new records for the region for three amphibian and six reptile species, and document vouchers for two taxa that were sighted but not collected in 2008. During 2009, 14 reptile and three amph...

  13. Public Computer Usage in Chapel Hill Public Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Data collected November 2014 - May 2016. As of June 2016, this data is no longer collected on a continual basis.This dataset includes frequency and length of use of...

  14. USGS Hill Shade Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Hill Shade (or Shaded Relief) is a tile cache base map created from the National Elevation Dataset (NED), a seamless dataset of best available raster elevation...

  15. "Beverly Hills 90210" : kes mida teeb / Tiina Lepiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepiste, Tiina

    2003-01-01

    Aaron Spellingu produtseeritud ja 2000. aastal lõpetatud menuseriaalis "Beverly Hills 90210" osalenud näitlejate edaspidisest elust seoses plaaniga teha täispikk mängufilm "10 Year High School Reunion"

  16. Stormwater Management Plan for the Arden Hills Army Training Site, Arden Hills, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Adrianne E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wuthrich, Kelsey K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ziech, Angela M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bowen, Esther E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quinn, John [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This stormwater management plan focuses on the cantonment and training areas of the Arden Hills Army Training Site (AHATS). The plan relates the site stormwater to the regulatory framework, and it summarizes best management practices to aide site managers in promoting clean site runoff. It includes documentation for a newly developed, detailed model of stormwater flow retention for the entire AHATS property and adjacent upgradient areas. The model relies on established modeling codes integrated in a U.S. Department of Defense-sponsored software tool, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS), and it can be updated with data on changes in land use or with monitoring data.

  17. After runaway: The trans-Hill stage of planetesimal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the 'trans-Hill stage'—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ('big bodies') become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ∼10α << 1, where α ∼ 0.005(a/AU) –1 is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α –1 × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies

  18. Geologic map of the northern White Hills, Mohave County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; Priest, Susan S.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Block, Debra L.

    2017-07-10

    IntroductionThe northern White Hills map area lies within the Kingman Uplift, a regional structural high in which Tertiary rocks lie directly on Proterozoic rocks as a result of Cretaceous orogenic uplift and erosional stripping of Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. The Miocene Salt Spring Fault forms the major structural boundary in the map area. This low-angle normal fault separates a footwall (lower plate) of Proterozoic gneisses on the east and south from a hanging wall (upper plate) of faulted middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks and their Proterozoic substrate. The fault is part of the South Virgin–White Hills Detachment Fault, which records significant tectonic extension that decreases from north to south. Along most of its trace, the Salt Spring Fault dips gently westward, but it also has north-dipping segments along salients. A dissected, domelike landscape on the eroded footwall, which contains antiformal salients and synformal reentrants, extends through the map area from Salt Spring Bay southward to the Golden Rule Peak area. The “Lost Basin Range” represents an upthrown block of the footwall, raised on the steeper Lost Basin Range Fault.The Salt Spring Fault, as well as the normal faults that segment its hanging wall, deform rocks that are about 16 to 10 Ma, and younger deposits overlie the faults. Rhyodacitic welded tuff about 15 Ma underlies a succession of geochemically intermediate to progressively more mafic lavas (including alkali basalt) that range from about 14.7 to 8 Ma, interfingered with sedimentary rocks and breccias in the western part of the map area. Upper Miocene strata record further filling of the extension-formed continental basins. Basins that are still present in the modern landscape reflect the youngest stages of extensional-basin formation, expressed as the downfaulted Detrital Valley and Hualapai Wash basins in the western and eastern parts of the map area, respectively, as well as the north-centrally located

  19. Efficient utilization of rain water in hill agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.R.; Singh, S.S.; Khan, A.R.

    2002-05-01

    Hill areas generally receive rainfall of around or more than 1150 mm. More than 2500 mm rainfall is received in about 30.2 million ha hilly area of the country. Besides many other factors high rainfall and heavy runoff are mainly responsible for low productivity. Because of sloppy characters and shallow soil depth, major fraction of rainwater is lost as runoff. Invariably evaporation exceeds the moisture stored and thereby depletes soils of their moisture reserve when crops are to be sown. Too much water at one time and too little in another during the same year causes wide instability in the production and productivity (Gupta et al., 2000). In high rainfall/hilly areas small and scattered land holdings exclusively rain dependent subsistence type of agriculture, low irrigated area of eastern Himalaya (northeastern region of India) further aggravate the problem. Harvesting of runoff at micro level for storage and recycling, control of erosion and moisture conservation are necessary and possible measures for better crop production. (author)

  20. Biogeography of the Shimba Hills ecosystem herpetofauna in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonza, Patrick K; Mulwa, David M; Nyamache, Joash O; Jones, Georgina

    2018-03-18

    The Shimba Hills ecosystem along the south coast of Kenya is a key East African biodiversity hotspot. Historically, it is biogeographically assignable to the East African coastal biome. We examined the current Shimba Hills herpetofauna and their zoogeographical affinities to the coastal forests and nearby Eastern Arc Mountains biodiversity hotspots. The key studied sites included the Shimba Hills National Reserve, forest reserves, Kaya forests, and adjacent private land. Data on herpetofaunal richness were obtained from recent field surveys, literature, and specimens held at the National Museums of Kenya, Herpetology Section Collection, Nairobi. The Makadara, Mwele, and Longo-Mwagandi forests within the Shimba Hills National Reserve hosted the highest number of unique and rare species. Generally, the forest reserves and Kaya forests were important refuges for forest-associated species. On private land, Mukurumudzi Dam riparian areas were the best amphibian habitat and were host to three IUCN (Red List) Endangered-EN amphibian species, namely, Boulengerula changamwensis, Hyperolius rubrovermiculatus, and Afrixalus sylvaticus, as well as one snake species Elapsoidea nigra. Using herpetofauna as zoogeographic indicators, the Shimba Hills were determined to be at a crossroads between the coastal forests (13 endemic species) and the Eastern Arc Mountains (seven endemic species). Most of the Eastern Arc Mountains endemic species were from recent records, and thus more are likely to be found in the future. This 'hybrid' species richness pattern is attributable to the hilly topography of the Shimba Hills and their proximity to the Indian Ocean. This has contributed to the Shimba Hills being the richest herpetofauna area in Kenya, with a total of 89 and 36 reptile and amphibian species, respectively. Because of its unique zoogeography, the Shimba Hills ecosystem is undoubtedly a key biodiversity area for conservation investment.

  1. Archeological Investigations at Big Hill Lake, Southeastern Kansas, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    settled primarily along the Neosho river and Labette, Big Hill, and Pumpkin creeks. One of the first settlers in Osage township, in which Big Hill...slabs is not known at present. About 10 years later, in 1876, materials were reported- ly collected from an aboriginal site along Pumpkin creek...and length- ening its lifetime of use. As would therefore be expected, cracks are present between each of the paired holes on both of the two restored

  2. The Bradford Hill considerations on causality: a counterfactual perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höfler Michael

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bradford Hill's considerations published in 1965 had an enormous influence on attempts to separate causal from non-causal explanations of observed associations. These considerations were often applied as a checklist of criteria, although they were by no means intended to be used in this way by Hill himself. Hill, however, avoided defining explicitly what he meant by "causal effect". This paper provides a fresh point of view on Hill's considerations from the perspective of counterfactual causality. I argue that counterfactual arguments strongly contribute to the question of when to apply the Hill considerations. Some of the considerations, however, involve many counterfactuals in a broader causal system, and their heuristic value decreases as the complexity of a system increases; the danger of misapplying them can be high. The impacts of these insights for study design and data analysis are discussed. The key analysis tool to assess the applicability of Hill's considerations is multiple bias modelling (Bayesian methods and Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis; these methods should be used much more frequently.

  3. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery was scanned from historic hard copy images and georeferenced to current imagery. This data is available via map service., Published in 2010, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2010. Historic 1958 black and white aerial photography for Wicomico County, Maryland. Imagery...

  4. Age and paragenesis of mineralisation at Coronation Hill uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Karin; Meffre, Sebastien; Davidson, Garry

    2014-06-01

    Coronation Hill is a U + Au + platinum group elements deposit in the South Alligator Valley (SAV) field in northern Australia, south of the better known unconformity-style U East Alligator Rivers (EAR) field. The SAV field differs from the EAR by having a more complex basin-basement architecture. A volcanically active fault trough (Jawoyn Sub-basin) developed on older basement and then was disrupted by renewed faulting, before being buried beneath regional McArthur Basin sandstones that are also the main hanging wall to the EAR deposits. Primary mineralisation at Coronation Hill formed at 1607 ± 26 Ma (rather than 600-900 Ma as previously thought), and so it is likely that the SAV was part of a single west McArthur Basin dilational event. Most ore is hosted in sub-vertical faults and breccias in the competent volcanic cover sequence. This favoured fluid mixing, acid buffering (forming illite) and oxidation of Fe2+ and reduced C-rich assemblages as important uranium depositional mechanisms. However, reduction of U in fractured older pyrite (Pb model age of 1833 ± 67 Ma) is an important trap in diorite. Some primary ore was remobilised at 675 ± 21 Ma to form coarse uraninite + Ni-Co pyrite networks containing radiogenic Pb. Coronation Hill is polymetallic, and in this respect resembles the `egress'-style U deposits in the Athabascan Basin (Canada). However, these are all cover-hosted. A hypothesis for further testing is that Coronation Hill is also egress-style, with ores formed by fluids rising through basement-hosted fault networks (U reduction by diorite pyrite and carbonaceous shale), and into veins and breccias in the overlying Jawoyn Sub-basin volcano-sedimentary succession.

  5. Assessment of the relationship between geologic origin of soil, rhizobacterial community composition and soil receptivity to tobacco black root rot in Savoie region (France)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Almario, J.; Kyselková, Martina; Kopecký, J.; Ságová-Marečková, M.; Muller, D.; Grundmann, G.L.; Moënne-Loccoz, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 371, 1/2 (2013), s. 397-408 ISSN 0032-079X Grant - others:MŚMT(CZ) ME09077 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : suppressive soils * Thielaviopsis basicola * black root rot Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.235, year: 2013

  6. Gut Microbial Metabolism of Polyphenols from Black Tea and Red Wine/Grape Juice Is Source-Specific and Colon-Region Dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsten, van F.A.; Peters, S.; Gross, G.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Klinkenberg, M.; Vos, de Ric; Vaughan, E.E.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Possemiers, S.; Wiele, van der T.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The colonic microbial degradation of a polyphenol-rich black tea extract (BTE) and red wine/grape juice extract (RWGE) was compared in a five-stage in vitro gastrointestinal model (TWINSHIME). Microbial metabolism of BTE and RWGE polyphenols in the TWINSHIME was studied subsequently in single- and

  7. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  8. Nonsingular black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon); I.H.E.S., Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mukhanov, Viatcheslav [Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We consider the Schwarzschild black hole and show how, in a theory with limiting curvature, the physical singularity ''inside it'' is removed. The resulting spacetime is geodesically complete. The internal structure of this nonsingular black hole is analogous to Russian nesting dolls. Namely, after falling into the black hole of radius r{sub g}, an observer, instead of being destroyed at the singularity, gets for a short time into the region with limiting curvature. After that he re-emerges in the near horizon region of a spacetime described by the Schwarzschild metric of a gravitational radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/3}. In the next cycle, after passing the limiting curvature, the observer finds himself within a black hole of even smaller radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/9}, and so on. Finally after a few cycles he will end up in the spacetime where he remains forever at limiting curvature. (orig.)

  9. Visual Spatial Disorientation: Re-Visiting the Black Hole Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-24

    National Transportation Safety Board. Controlled Flight into Terrain, Korean Air Flight 801 , Nimitz Hill, Guam; 1997. 50. National Transportation Safety...According to a Boeing study of worldwide commercial airline accidents, the approach and landing phase of flying, although only accounting for 4% of the...VISUAL SPATIAL DISORIENTATION Kraft (31) described four night visual, landing airline accidents. Black Hole Illusion 5 1. In 1965, a United Airlines

  10. Tracing Hopes of Racist-Free and Multicultural-Friendly Campuses: A Phenomenological Exploration on the Lived Experiences of Blacks in the National Capital Region Universities (Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaldy Collado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Philippine campuses nowadays, the presence of foreign students is a common sight, making our academic communities one of the most culturally diverse universities in the world. This requires us to provide necessary local environment appropriate and ready to attend to multicultural sensitivities. Thus the research aimed to look at how well-prepared Philippine universities are in terms of having multi-cultural friendly campuses. Through in-depth interviews and phenomenological method, the researcher explored the lived experiences of Black African students in their respective campuses. The results showed that (a the participants’ decision to study in the Philippines was based on factors such as the hassle-less application process, cheaper yet of quality education and the image of Filipinos as being friendly and kind (b the common, though very light, concern was not racism nor discrimination, but speaking in the local language in their presence made them feel sometimes isolated or insulted and (c that racism and discrimination against blacks were not an institutional reality, though unfriendly encounters with Filipinos were also recorded, those were not seen as serious cases of racist behavior. The study suggested that since blacks’ experiences are generally devoid of racism and discrimination, school administrations do not tend to formulate explicit policies and enough activities to ensure racistfree campuses and inter-cultural inclusiveness among Filipinos and the blacks. In any case, the black students were determined to obtain their degrees here no matter what and such a goal was made easier because of the kind of tertiary academic communities their respective schools offer

  11. EFFECT OF POLYETHYLENE BLACK PLASTIC MULCH ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF TWO SUMMER VEGETABLE CROPS UNDER RAIN-FED CONDITIONS UNDER SEMI-ARID REGION CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Atif Y. Mahadeen

    2014-01-01

    Water use efficiency in agriculture can be enhanced by several strategies mainly by reducing evaporation from the soil surface. The mulching techniques were being used widely in irrigated crop production worldwide. The mulching techniques can be also implemented in summer vegetables production under rain-fed conditions. The current study aimed at evaluating the effect of polyethylene black plastic mulch on growth and yield of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus and summer squash, ...

  12. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Vestfold Hills and Rauer Group, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Jared R.; Selway, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The Vestfold Hills and Rauer Group in East Antarctica have contrasting Archean to Neoproterozoic geological histories and are believed to be juxtaposed along a suture zone that now lies beneath the Sørsdal Glacier. Exact location and age of this suture zone are unknown, as is its relationship to regional deformation associated with the amalgamation of East Gondwana. To image the suture zone, magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica, mainly along a profile crossing the Sørsdal Glacier and regions inland of the Vestfold Hills and Rauer Group islands. Time-frequency analysis of the MT time series yielded three important observations: (1) Wind speeds in excess of ∼8 m/s reduce coherence between electric and magnetic fields due to charged wind-blown particles of ice and snow. (2) Estimation of the MT transfer function is best between 1000 and 1400 UT when ionospheric Hall currents enhance the magnetic source field. (3) Nonplanar source field effects were minimal but detectable and removed from estimation of the MT transfer function. Inversions of MT data in 2-D and 3-D produce similar resistivity models, where structures in the preferred 3-D resistivity model correlate strongly with regional magnetic data. The electrically conductive Rauer Group is separated from the less conductive Vestfold Hills by a resistive zone under the Sørsdal Glacier, which is interpreted to be caused by oxidation during suturing. Though a suture zone has been imaged, no time constrains on suturing can be made from the MT data.

  13. Fertility in Hill Korwas -- a primitive tribe of Madhya Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G D; Tiwary, R S

    1996-12-01

    This study examines fertility behavior among 604 eligible couples in Hill Korwa tribes in Madhya Pradesh state, India. Low fertility patterns are compared to those of neighboring Gonds and nontribals from rural Jabalpur. The Hill Korwa are a subtribe of the Korwa, who remained in the hills and dense forests. Over 60% live in three tehsils of Surguja district, including Ambikapur tehsil where the study was conducted. Data were obtained in March 1991. Eligible couples were those where both partners live together and the noncontracepting wife is under age 50 and nonmenopausal. Only 3% were literate. Female marriage age was about 15 years. The median age was 23.8 years. 92% lived below the poverty line. The average number of children ever born (CEB) per couple was 1.9, compared to 2.5 for the Gond and 2.9 for nontribal couples. The CEB in a reproductive lifetime was 2.9, compared to 5.3 for Gond women and 5.9 for nontribal women. Fecundity among Hill Korwa women was 66% lower at younger ages (16-17 years and 17-18 years), and the differences increased with an increase in age at marriage. Hill Korwas had a low female age at marriage, low literacy, low percentages engaged in agriculture, and higher percentages living above the poverty line.

  14. Black holes and Higgs stability

    CERN Document Server

    Tetradis, Nikolaos

    2016-09-20

    We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.

  15. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  16. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  17. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  18. Lichens of the Holy Hill orthodox sanctuary in Grabarka (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matwiejuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Hill Grabarka is one of the most important orthodox sanctuaries in Poland. The sanctuary is situated in Podlasie region between Bug and Narew rivers. It grew in the shade of well developing (in the first centuries of the second millennium towns Mielnik and Drohiczyn. The most striking thing is that the church is surrounded by a forest of thousands of crosses brought by pilgrims. The study present 64 species of epiphytic, epixylic, epilythic and epigeic lichens. Among 64 lichen species 11 are considered to be threatened in Poland.

  19. Smectites on Cape York, Matijevic Hill, Mars, Observed and Characterized by Crism and Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Bennett, K.; Catalano, J.; Fraeman, A.; Gellert, R.; Guinness, E.; Morris, R.; Murchie, S.; Smith, M.; Squyres, S.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Opportunity has conducted an extensive "walk-about" and set of in-situ measurements on strata exposed on the inboard side of Cape York, a segment of the dissected rim of the Noachian-age approx.22 km wide Endeavour crater [1] (Fig. 1). The specific region for the observations (Matijevic Hill) was chosen based on along track oversampled (ATO) CRISM hyperspectral observations (processed to 5 m/pixel) that showed the presence of exposures of Fe/Mg smectite phyllosilicates. We describe the first ground-based observations of phyllosilicates on Mars and discuss implications based on the combined CRISM and Opportunity measurements.

  20. Black holes from extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.D.H.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that models of extended inflation, in which modified Einstein gravity allows a graceful exit from the false vacuum, lead to copious production of black holes. The critical temperature of the inflationary phase transition must be >10 8 GeV in order to avoid severe cosmological problems in a universe dominated by black holes. We speculate on the possibility that the interiors of false vacuum regions evolve into baby universes. (orig.)

  1. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  2. Midwest nukes tumble, rock industry: Byron, Marble Hill, Zimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogee, A.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear industry is suffering from a lack of investor confidence because of cancelled projects and the unprecedented rejection of an operating license for Commonwealth Edison's Byron plant on grounds that the utility failed to meet quality assurance responsibilities. When plans to complete the Zimmer and Marble Hill nuclear plants were abandoned, Bechtel came forward with a financing plan that, while rejected for Zimmer and Marble Hill, could lead to future bailouts. Both Zimmer and Marble Hill plants could be partially converted to coal. The loss of investor confidence in nuclear plants is largely due to political pressures brought on by a combination of citizen intervenors, whistle blowers on construction sites and disagreements between participating utilities. A rise in stock prices followed the cancellation announcements and the lowered investment security ratings

  3. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa; Wynn, Karen; Checkai, Dean; Perry, James Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  4. The length-weight and length-length relationships of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766) from Samsun, middle Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Özpiçak, Melek; Saygın, Semra; Polat, Nazmi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR) and length-length relationship (LLR) of bluefish,Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, themiddle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected fromcommercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125) weremeasured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W)was recorded to the nearest 0.01 ...

  5. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  6. Collision of two rotating Hayward black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwak, Bogeun [Sejong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    We investigate the spin interaction and the gravitational radiation thermally allowed in a head-on collision of two rotating Hayward black holes. The Hayward black hole is a regular black hole in a modified Einstein equation, and hence it can be an appropriate model to describe the extent to which the regularity effect in the near-horizon region affects the interaction and the radiation. If one black hole is assumed to be considerably smaller than the other, the potential of the spin interaction can be analytically obtained and is dependent on the alignment of angular momenta of the black holes. For the collision of massive black holes, the gravitational radiation is numerically obtained as the upper bound by using the laws of thermodynamics. The effect of the Hayward black hole tends to increase the radiation energy, but we can limit the effect by comparing the radiation energy with the gravitational waves GW150914 and GW151226. (orig.)

  7. Black Sea challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this month's European column, Jean-Francois Drevet examines the issues that arise for Europe from the Black Sea region. The Black Sea is increasingly becoming a crucial place of transit for hydrocarbon imports from the Caspian and Russia into the European Union. The considerable increase in this traffic raises both environmental problems (the risk of oil slicks) and issues of security of supply, on account of the economic and political fragility of some of the bordering or neighbouring states (Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia/Chechnya etc.). This is why, as Jean-Francois Drevet stresses, the European Union has been trying since the mid-1990's to claim a role in the management of the affairs of the region. With two bordering states (Rumania and Bulgaria) joining the EU in 2007, cooperation in the Black Sea has become a priority within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, and this column delineates a number of the obstacles that still have to be surmounted. (author)

  8. Soil Health Management under Hill Agroecosystem of North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of soil quality/health is the combined result of soil fertility, biological degradation (decline of organic matter, biomass C, decrease in activity and diversity of soil fauna, increase in erodibility, acidity, and salinity, and exposure of compact subsoil of poor physicochemical properties. Northeast India is characterized by high soil acidity/Al+3 toxicity, heavy soil, and carbon loss, severe water scarcity during most parts of year though it is known as high rainfall area. The extent of soil and nutrient transfer, causing environmental degradation in North eastern India, has been estimated to be about 601 million tones of soil, and 685.8, 99.8, 511.1, 22.6, 14.0, 57.1, and 43.0 thousand tones of N, P, K, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Mg, respectively. Excessive deforestation coupled with shifting cultivation practices have resulted in tremendous soil loss (200 t/ha/yr, poor soil physical health in this region. Studies on soil erodibility characteristics under various land use systems in Northeastern Hill (NEH Region depicted that shifting cultivation had the highest erosion ratio (12.46 and soil loss (30.2–170.2 t/ha/yr, followed by conventional agriculture system (10.42 and 5.10–68.20 t/ha/yr, resp.. The challenge before us is to maintain equilibrium between resources and their use to have a stable ecosystem. Agroforestry systems like agri-horti-silvi-pastoral system performed better over shifting cultivation in terms of improvement in soil organic carbon; SOC (44.8%, mean weight diameter; MWD (29.4%, dispersion ratio (52.9%, soil loss (99.3%, soil erosion ratio (45.9%, and in-situ soil moisture conservation (20.6% under the high rainfall, moderate to steep slopes, and shallow soil depth conditions. Multipurpose trees (MPTs also played an important role on soil rejuvenation. Michelia oblonga is reported to be a better choice as bioameliorant for these soils as continuous leaf litter and root exudates improved soil physical

  9. Eagle Hill, Kenya: changes over 60 years | Thomsett | Scopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eagle Hill, the study site of the late Leslie Brown, was first surveyed over 60 years ago in 1948. The demise of its eagle population was near-complete less than 50 years later, but significantly, the majority of these losses occurred in the space of a few years in the late 1970s. Unfortunately, human densities and land use ...

  10. Correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics: connection with Hill nanothermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir; Cervera, Javier; Pellicer, Julio

    2005-01-01

    The equivalence between Tsallis thermodynamics and Hill's nanothermodynamics is established. The correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics are pointed out. Through this connection we also find a general expression for the entropic index q which we illustrate with two physical examples, allowing in both cases to relate q to the underlying dynamics of the Hamiltonian systems

  11. Some noteworthy distributional records from the Gwassi Hills area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary inventory of birds occurring in the Gwassi Hills area was compiled by Bradley et .... Woodpecker by some), on the basis of a paler grey head and underparts, and the absence of .... Bay, 50 km to the northeast (Lewis & Pomeroy 1989, D. Turner pers. ... These birds appeared slightly darker with more slaty tones.

  12. State of conservation of Santa Martha's hills, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Salgado, Hector Jaime; Carbono Delahoz, Eduino

    2006-01-01

    The urban growth of Santa Marta and the occupation without planning of their surrounding hills, affect their natural conditions. The hills are part of the scenic beauty of the city and its conservation is indispensable to maintain the standard of life in her the vegetal cover corresponds to forests and scrubs of isomegathermic floor with xeromorphic characters, due to the low pluvial precipitation, this landscape characterizes the Colombian Caribbean coast in a narrow strip that extends from the south of the Guajira to the gulf of Morrosquillo. At the present time, only they are left surpluses in natural state, due to the floristic simplification of the vegetation, the introduction of invading species and modification of the landscape. The responsibility of the suitable handling of the urban space is imperative for the official, private sector and citizen institutions. The objective is to make an evaluation of the environmental conditions of hills of the city, in order to obtain basic elements, for the design of appropriate strategies of handling and its conservation. By means of the use of the GIS, with verification and aerial photo interpretation of field a multi-temporary study (1955-1993-2003) of the vegetal cover of the hills was elaborated that allowed to establish the happened changes. The execution of inventors allowed knowing the wealth and the structure floristic the vegetal cover of the area. The work was executed between May of the 2004 and May of the 2005

  13. Dental disease control in Pine Hill, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Frank J; Cloud, Bill; Finster, Carolyn

    2004-02-01

    One-year results of a community-operated dental disease control project in Pine Hill, New Mexico. The program uses fluoride, chiefly rinse, and has not only reduced the amount of decay in permanent teeth, but has markedly reduced the need for restorative care of primary teeth.

  14. Amphibian diversity in Shimba Hills National Reserve, Kenya: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present the first annotated amphibian checklist of Shimba Hills National Reserve (SHNR). The list comprises of 30 currently known amphibians (28 anurans and two caecilians), which includes 11 families and 15 genera. In addition, individual records per species, distribution in the reserve and brief remarks about the ...

  15. Nazareth House, Church Hill, Sligo Town, Sligo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jean M

    2015-01-01

    Large for gestational age infants have an increased risk of obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic complications during life. Knowledge of the key predictive factors of neonatal adiposity is required to devise targeted antenatal interventions. Our objective was to determine the fetal metabolic factors that influence regional neonatal adiposity in a cohort of women with previous large for gestational age offspring.

  16. Black holes by analytic continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele

    1997-01-01

    In the context of a two-dimensional exactly solvable model, the dynamics of quantum black holes is obtained by analytically continuing the description of the regime where no black hole is formed. The resulting spectrum of outgoing radiation departs from the one predicted by the Hawking model in the region where the outgoing modes arise from the horizon with Planck-order frequencies. This occurs early in the evaporation process, and the resulting physical picture is unconventional. The theory predicts that black holes will only radiate out an energy of Planck mass order, stabilizing after a transitory period. The continuation from a regime without black hole formation --accessible in the 1+1 gravity theory considered-- is implicit in an S matrix approach and provides in this way a possible solution to the problem of information loss.

  17. Influence functionals and black body radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Anglin, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    The Feynman-Vernon formalism is used to obtain a microscopic, quantum mechanical derivation of black body radiation, for a massless scalar field in 1+1 dimensions, weakly coupled to an environment of finite size. The model exhibits the absorption, thermal equilibrium, and emission properties of a canonical black body, but shows that the thermal radiation propagates outwards from the body, with the Planckian spectrum applying inside a wavefront region of finite thickness. The black body enviro...

  18. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae from the region of Cape Emine (central Bulgarian Black sea coast. Part II. Ecological parameters and community structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Teofilova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For the first time an ecological study of the carabid fauna of the area of Cape Emine (Bulgarian Black sea coast was conducted. Over the period 2010 – 2011 adult carabid beetles were collected. The investigation was carried out at 7 sampling sites and pitfall traps were used. During the study altogether 6245 specimens were captured. The greatest number of both species and specimens was found in the steppe-like habitat, least – in the pine (Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold plantation. Indices for α- and β-diversity were calculated. The dominant structure of the whole carabid complex showed the presence of two eudominant, three dominant, two subdominant, eleven recedent and 85 subrecedent species. The analysis of the sex structure showed the total prevalence of males over females. Cluster analysis indicated a low percentage of taxonomic similarity between the communities, which reflected the diversity of the landscape.

  19. Measurements of the near-surface flow over a hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosper, S. B.; Mobbs, S. D.; Gardiner, B. A.

    2002-10-01

    The near-surface flow over a hill with moderate slope and height comparable with the boundary-layer depth is investigated through field measurements of the mean flow (at 2 m), surface pressure, and turbulent momentum flux divergence between 8 and 15 m. The measurements were made along an east-west transect across the hill Tighvein (height 458 m, approximate width 8 km) on the Isle of Arran, south-west Scotland, during two separate periods, each of around three-weeks duration. Radiosonde ascents are used to determine the variation of a Froude number, FL = U/NL, where U is the wind speed at the middle-layer height, hm, N is the mean Brunt-Väisälä frequency below this height and L is a hill length-scale. Measurements show that for moderately stratified flows (for which FL 0.25) a minimum in the hill-induced surface-pressure perturbation occurs across the summit and this is accompanied by a maximum in the near-surface wind speed. In the more strongly stratified case (FL 0.25) the pressure field is more asymmetric and the lee-slope flow is generally stronger than on the windward slope. Such a flow pattern is qualitatively consistent with that predicted by stratified linear boundary-layer and gravity-wave theories. The near-surface momentum budget is analysed by evaluating the dominant terms in a Bernoulli equation suitable for turbulent flow. Measurements during periods of westerly flow are used to evaluate the dominant terms, and the equation is shown to hold to a reasonable approximation on the upwind slope of the hill and also on the downwind slope, away from the summit. Immediately downwind of the summit, however, the Bernoulli equation does not hold. Possible reasons for this, such as non-separated sheltering and flow separation, are discussed.

  20. Phosphorus forms in soils of Oban Hills, Akamkpa, Cross River State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oban Hills is located at Akamkpa in the Southern Senatorial District of Cross River, State, Nigeria. Phosphorus (P)-rich soil from the Hills is expected to have an effect on retention and distribution in the highly acidic soils surrounding the area inundated for several years. Phosphorus forms in the soils of the Hills varied with ...

  1. When Supermassive Black Holes Wander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-05-01

    wanderers within 10 kpc of the halo center (roughly the size of the Milky Ways disk).These wandering supermassive black holes were kicked onto wide orbits during the merger of their host galaxy with the main halo; Tremmel and collaborators find that their orbits are often tilted, lying outside of the galactic disk. Because these black holes travel through relatively deserted regions, they accumulate little mass and are rarely perturbed in their journeys, wandering for billions of years.Finding MonstersCumulative fraction of simulated Milky-Way-mass halos as a function of the number of supermassive black holes they host. All of the halos host at least one SMBH within 10 kpc from halo center, but the majority host more than that. [Tremmel et al. 2018]Tremmel and collaborators simulations suggest that, regardless of its merger history, a Milky-Way-mass halo will end up with an average of 5 supermassive black holes within 10 kpc of the galaxy center, and an average of 12 within its larger virial radius! This means there could be a number of supermassive black holes just like the enormous Sgr A* at our galaxys core wandering the Milky Way unseen.So how can we find these invisible monsters? We already have some observational evidence in the form of offset and dual active galactic nuclei of non-central supermassive black holes in distant galaxies. As for nearby, our best bet is to look for tidal disruption events, the burps of emission that occur when an otherwise invisible black hole encounters a star or a cloud of gas.CitationMichael Tremmel et al 2018 ApJL 857 L22. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aabc0a

  2. [Archaeal diversity in permafrost deposits of Bunger Hills Oasis and King George Island (Antarctica) according to the 16S rRNA gene sequencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaevskaia, E S; Demchenko, L S; Demidov, N É; Rivkina, E M; Bulat, S A; Gilichinskiĭ, D A

    2014-01-01

    Archaeal communities of permafrost deposits of King George Island and Bunger Hills Oasis (Antarctica) differing in the content of biogenic methane were analyzed using clone libraries of two 16S rRNA gene regions. Phylotypes belonging to methanogenic archaea were identified in all horizons.

  3. Ethnomedicinal survey of various communities residing in Garo Hills of Durgapur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Arif; Islam, Md Khirul; Siraj, Md Afjalus; Saha, Sanjib; Barman, Apurba Kumar; Awang, Khalijah; Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Shilpi, Jamil A; Jahan, Rownak; Islam, Erena; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2015-05-30

    Garo Hills represents one of earliest human habitation in Bangladesh preserving its ancient cultures due to the geographic location. It is situated in the most northern part of Durgapur sub-district having border with Meghalaya of India. Durgapur is rich in ethnic diversity with Garo and Hajong as the major ethnic groups along with Bangalee settlers from the mainstream population. Thus the ethnomedicinal practice in Garo Hills is considered rich as it encompasses three different groups. Present survey was undertaken to compile the medicinal plant usage among the various communities of the Garo Hills. The ethnomedicinal data was collected through open and focussed group discussions, and personal interviews using semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 185 people were interviewed, including the three community people and their traditional health practitioners (THPs). The usage of the plants were further analysed and are presented as use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL). A total of 71 plants from 46 families and 64 genera were documented during our survey. Gastrointestinal disorders represented the major ailment category with the use of 36 plant species followed by dermatological problems (25 species). The ICF ranged from 0.90 to 0.99, with an average value of 0.96. Leaves (41) were the principle source of medication followed by fruits (27). Trees (33) were the major plant type used in the ethnobotanical practice. A total of 25 plants showed high FL (70.91 to 100 %) with 12 plants showing maximum FL (100 %). A number of the plants appear to have unique ethnomedicinal uses. Present investigation revealed a rich traditional practice in the studied region, which provides primary health care to the local community. This compilation of the ethnobotanical knowledge can help researchers to identify the uses of various medicinal plants that have a long history of use.

  4. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  5. 76 FR 22670 - Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... on a proposal to use multiple vegetation treatments focused on reducing the threat to ecosystem components including forest resources from an existing insect epidemic (mountain pine beetle), creating a landscape condition that reduces the potential for high severity wildfire adjacent to the at-risk community...

  6. Selected Hydrologic Data, Through Water Year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driscoll, Daniel G; Bradford, Wendell L; Moran, Michael J

    2000-01-01

    .... This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District...

  7. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Teresa J; Jenks, Jonathan A; Leslie, David M; Neiger, Regg D

    2008-04-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n = 42) and mule deer (n = 41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (Tl), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P

  8. Wood and understory production under a range of ponderosa pine stocking levels, Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Carleton B. Edminster; Kieth E. Severson

    2000-01-01

    Stemwood and understory production (kg ha-1) were estimated during 3 nonconsecutive years on 5 growing stock levels of ponderosa pine including clearcuts and unthinned stands. Stemwood production was consistently greater at mid- and higher pine stocking levels, and understory production was greater in stands with less pine; however, there were no...

  9. 76 FR 65681 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Calumet Project Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). SUMMARY: The Forest Service will prepare an environmental impact statement... near at-risk communities and in the wildland-urban interface. The proposal is being planned for the 31... acres of pine stands using a variety of methods to treat MPB infested stands, reduce the overall density...

  10. Inventory of forest and rangeland resources, including forest stress. [Black Hills, Manitou, Colorado, and Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Road systems being developed within the Manitou, Colorado area for human habitation are readily discernible on the S192 normal-color photographs. These are dirt roads, some of which are about 20 feet wide. These data should provide the District Ranger of the Pike National Forest required information on the size and extent of these developing areas, information which he does not now have but is required for total management of the District.

  11. 78 FR 77644 - Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota; Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming; Teckla...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...: Approximately 135 miles of transmission line Require a 125 foot right-of-way Construction of wood or steel H... lands, and state lands in Wyoming. The line would be constructed on wood or steel H-frame structures for...

  12. 75 FR 47755 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Pactola Project Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... fuels, and to increase the quantity and quality of forage for big game and other wildlife resources... the subject. Electronic comments must be readable in Word, Rich Text or PDF formats. FOR FURTHER...,755 acres); MA 5.3A; MA 5.4--Big Game Winter Range Emphasis (~12,201 acres); and MA 8.2 Developed...

  13. 76 FR 35396 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone Mining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... 60 acres will be disturbed at any one time. Reclamation will result in a depression on the existing... statutory exemption for the extraction of cement precursors. Pennington County Construction (Mining) Permit...

  14. The Magnitostroi of Health : Sochi and the Transformation of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast as a Model for Regional Development in the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noack, C.

    2017-01-01

    In the run-up to the Sochi Winter Olympics in 2014, the Russian leadership repeatedly declared the games to be exemplary for future regional development projects within the country. Treating Sochi as a model case for regional development has a long pre-history, going back to the period of “high

  15. New SHRIMP zircon results from Broken Hill: towards robust stratigraphic and event timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.W.; Stevens, B.P.J.

    1999-01-01

    ∼1700-1715 Ma felsic volcaniclastic and intrusive rocks in the Olary region. Potosi Gneiss lithotypes in the Parnell Formation (middle Broken Hill Group) and Hores Gneiss (upper Broken Hill Group) were interpreted as felsic volcaniclastic rocks with depositional ages of 1693±5 and 1689±5 Ma (Page and Laing, 1992). We have now substantiated the Hores Gneiss age (1686±3 Ma) which, together with a new depositional age of 1690-1695 Ma for tuffaceous metasediments in the lower Broken Hill Group, support the conclusion that the Broken Hill Group (excluding some amphibolite intrusions) is a coherent depositional package. Suggestions by Nutman and Ehlers (1998b) that the mapped Hores Gneiss comprises later intrusions (from 1690 Ma to 1640-1660 Ma old) and underwent high-grade metamorphism at 1640-1660 Ma are at variance with our data and the conclusions we draw here. Our age for the Rasp Ridge Gneiss (1682±3 Ma) indicates that this felsic magmatism postdates middle Broken Hill Group, and was possibly coeval with Hores Gneiss. Work is in progress on Sundown Group rocks to determine maximum depositional ages and provenance using immature psammopelitic lithologies. Some sediments contain a small component of detrital zircons as young as ca. 1690-1700 Ma, but major sediment input is from terrains ca. 1790 Ma and 1820-1860 Ma old, as well as older Palaeoproterozoic and late Archaean sources. Tuffaceous siltstones in the middle Paragon Group, both in northern Broken Hill Block and Euriowie Inlier, record similar detrital zircon ages to the Sundown Group, but in addition they include pristine, unabraded zircons which date deposition at no older than 1656±5 Ma. Similar lithologies in the Dalnit Bore Metasediments (upper Paragon Group) provide a maximum depositional age of 1642±5 Ma. Progress towards dating deformational events has been focussed on obtaining zircon ages for granitoid intrusions which bracket the deformations. This enables us to possibly constrain the D 2

  16. Black hole complementarity: The inside view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Lowe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of black hole complementarity, a proposal is made for an approximate interior effective field theory description. For generic correlators of local operators on generic black hole states, it agrees with the exact exterior description in a region of overlapping validity, up to corrections that are too small to be measured by typical infalling observers.

  17. Evaluating the Duration and Continuity of Potential Climate Records From the Allan Hills Blue Ice Area, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrl, Laura; Conway, Howard; Holschuh, Nicholas; Campbell, Seth; Kurbatov, Andrei V.; Spaulding, Nicole E.

    2018-05-01

    The current ice core record extends back 800,000 years. Geologic and glaciological evidence suggests that the Allan Hills Blue Ice Area, East Antarctica, may preserve a continuous record that extends further back in time. In this study, we use ice-penetrating radar and existing age constraints to map the internal stratigraphy and age structure of the Allan Hills Main Ice Field. The dated isochrones provide constraints for an ice flow model to estimate the age of ice near the bed. Previous drilling in the region recovered stratigraphically disturbed sections of ice up to 2.7 million years old. Our study identifies a site 5 km upstream, which likely preserves a continuous record through Marine Isotope Stage 11 with the possibility that the record extends back 1 million years. Such records would provide new insight into the past climate and glacial history of the Ross Sea Sector.

  18. Landslide susceptibility estimations in the Gerecse hills (Hungary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzsenyi, Dávid; Gáspár, Albert

    2017-04-01

    Surface movement processes are constantly posing threat to property in populated and agricultural areas in the Gerecse hills (Hungary). The affected geological formations are mainly unconsolidated sediments. Pleistocene loess and alluvial terrace sediments are overwhelmingly present, but fluvio-lacustrine sediments of the latest Miocene, and consolidated Eocene and Mesozoic limestones and marls can also be found in the area. Landslides and other surface movement processes are being studied for a long time in the area, but a comprehensive GIS-based geostatistical analysis have not yet been made for the whole area. This was the reason for choosing the Gerecse as the focus area of the study. However, the base data of our study are freely accessible from online servers, so the used method can be applied to other regions in Hungary. Qualitative data was acquired from the landslide-inventory map of the Hungarian Surface Movement Survey and from the Geological Map of Hungary (1 : 100 000). Morphometric parameters derived from the SRMT-1 DEM were used as quantitative variables. Using these parameters the distribution of elevation, slope gradient, aspect and categorized geological features were computed, both for areas affected and not affected by slope movements. Then likelihood values were computed for each parameters by comparing their distribution in the two areas. With combining the likelihood values of the four parameters relative hazard values were computed for each cell. This method is known as the "empirical probability estimation" originally published by Chung (2005). The map created this way shows each cell's place in their ranking based on the relative hazard values as a percentage for the whole study area (787 km2). These values provide information about how similar is a certain area to the areas already affected by landslides based on the four predictor variables. This map can also serve as a base for more complex landslide vulnerability studies involving

  19. Black widow spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider (Latrodectus) has a shiny black body with a ...

  20. Hydrogeology of Two Areas of the Tug Hill Glacial-Drift Aquifer, Oswego County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Bugliosi, Edward F.; Hetcher-Aguila, Kari K.; Eckhardt, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Two water-production systems, one for the Village of Pulaski and the other for the Villages of Sandy Creek and Lacona in Oswego County, New York, withdraw water from the Tug Hill glacial-drift aquifer, a regional sand and gravel aquifer along the western flank of the Tug Hill Plateau, and provide the sole source of water for these villages. As a result of concerns about contamination of the aquifer, two studies were conducted during 2001 to 2004, one for each water-production system, to refine the understanding of ground-water flow surrounding these water-production systems. Also, these studies were conducted to determine the cause of the discrepancy between ground-water ages estimated from previously constructed numerical ground-water-flow models for the Pulaski and Sandy Creek/Lacona well fields and the apparent ground-water ages determined using concentrations of tritium and chlorofluorocarbons. The Village of Pulaski withdrew 650,000 gallons per day in 2000 from four shallow, large-diameter, dug wells finished in glaciolacustrine deposits consisting of sand with some gravelly lenses 3 miles east of the village. Four 2-inch diameter test wells were installed upgradient from each production well, hydraulic heads were measured, and water samples collected and analyzed for physical properties, inorganic constituents, nutrients, bacteria, tritium, dissolved gases, and chlorofluorocarbons. Recharge to the Tug Hill glacial-drift aquifer is from precipitation directly over the aquifer and from upland sources in the eastern part of the recharge area, including (1) unchannelized runoff from till and bedrock hills east of the aquifer, (2) seepage to the aquifer from streams that drain the Tug Hill Plateau, (3) ground-water inflow from the till and bedrock on the adjoining Tug Hill Plateau. Water-quality data collected from four piezometers near the production wells in November 2003 indicated that the water is a calcium-bicarbonate type with iron concentrations that

  1. The black hole quantum atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ramit; Liberati, Stefano; Pranzetti, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan-Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4 MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.

  2. The black hole quantum atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramit Dey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan–Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.

  3. Compositional variation through time and space in Quaternary magmas of the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, E.; Kuentz, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province, located in southern Kenya >100 km east of the Kenya Rift Valley, has produced mafic, monogenetic eruptions throughout the Quaternary. The volcanic field is considered to be an off-rift manifestation of the East African Rift System, and is known for the significant compositional variability of its eruptive products, which range from nephelinites to basanites, alkali basalts, hawaiites, and orthopyroxene-normative subalkaline basalts [1]. Notably, erupted compositions vary systematically in time and space: Pleistocene volcanism, occurring in the northern Chyulu Hills, was characterized by highly silica-undersaturated magmas, whereas Holocene volcanism, restricted to the southern Chyulu Hills, is less silica-understaturated, consistent with a progressive decrease in depth and increase in degree of melting with time, from north to south [1]. Pronounced negative K anomalies, and enriched trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope signatures have been attributed to a metasomatized, amphibole-bearing, sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) source [2]. Seismic evidence for a partially molten zone in the SCLM beneath this region [3] may be consistent with such an interpretation. We have analyzed Chyulu Hills samples for Os, Hf and high precision Pb isotopes to further evaluate the magma sources and petrogenetic processes leading to systematic compositional variation in time and space. Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics and strong negative correlations of 206Pb/204Pb and highly incompatible trace element ratios with SiO2 are consistent with the progression from a deeper, HIMU-type source to a shallower, EM-type source. Os isotope systematics, however, suggest a more complex relationship; although all samples are more radiogenic than primitive mantle, the least radiogenic values (similar to primitive OIB) are found in magmas with intermediate SiO2, and those with lower or higher SiO2 are more radiogenic. This may be explained by interaction

  4. A language for image processing HILLS and its supporting system SDIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Toriwaki, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a language HILLS and its supporting system SDIP for image processing. HILLS is a key-word type language for describing image processing procedures by using subroutine packages SLIP and SPIDER. SDIP, written in FORTRAN to keep portability, supports programming by HILLS in interactive mode including functions such as editing, translating HILLS into FORTRAN, error detection, and providing manual information. Results of preliminary experiments suggest that HILLS and SDIP are very useful tools for beginners and researchers in application fields of image processing to develop desired image analysis procedures

  5. The length-weight and length-length relationships of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766 from Samsun, middle Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Özpiçak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR and length-length relationship (LLR of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, the middle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected from commercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125 were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W was recorded to the nearest 0.01 g. According to results of analyses, there were no statistically significant differences between sexes in term of length and weight (P˃0.05. The minimum and maximum total, fork and standard lengths of bluefish ranged between 13.5-23.6 cm, 12.50-21.80 cm and 10.60-20.10 cm, respectively. The equation of length-weight relationship were calculated as W=0.008TL3.12 (r2>0.962. Positive allometric growth was observed for bluefish (b>3. Length-length relationship was also highly significant (P<0.001 with coefficient of determination (r2 ranging from 0.916 to 0.988.

  6. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    monophylla or P. edulis), junipers (Juniperus), cottonwoods (e.g., Populus fremontii), willows (Salix), or hardwoods (e.g., Quercus , Platanus...pine in association with incense cedar and California black oak ( Quercus kelloggii) on the western slopes and Jeffrey pine on the eastern slopes...corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica ), limber pine (Pinus flexilis), and bristlecone pine (P. aristata) (Bailey 1995). Black Hills (MLRA

  7. Stationary black holes as holographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, Istvan [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01 (Japan); MTA KFKI, Reszecske- es Magfizikai Kutatointezet, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)

    2007-11-21

    Smooth spacetimes possessing a (global) one-parameter group of isometries and an associated Killing horizon in Einstein's theory of gravity are investigated. No assumption concerning the asymptotic structure is made; thereby, the selected spacetimes may be considered as generic distorted stationary black holes. First, spacetimes of arbitrary dimension, n {>=} 3, with matter satisfying the dominant energy condition and allowing a non-zero cosmological constant are investigated. In this part, complete characterization of the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is given. It is shown that the topology of the event horizon of 'distorted' black holes is allowed to possess a much larger variety than that of the isolated black hole configurations. In the second part, four-dimensional (non-degenerate) electrovac distorted black hole spacetimes are considered. It is shown that the spacetime geometry and the electromagnetic field are uniquely determined in the black hole region once the geometry of the bifurcation surface and one of the electromagnetic potentials are specified there. Conditions guaranteeing the same type of determinacy, in a neighbourhood of the event horizon, on the domain of outer communication side are also investigated. In particular, they are shown to be satisfied in the analytic case.

  8. Drifting black aurorae?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoute-Vanneck, H.; Scourfield, M.W.J.; Nielsen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of eastward drifting forms, previously described in the literature as black aurorae, have been identified in low-light level TV camera data. The TV field of view was within the field of view of STARE and that of an all-sky camera. On the basis of these observations the authors propose that these auroral forms are a manifestation of folds or waves on the borders of auroral bands propagating along the dark regions between neighboring auroral bands. Conditions under which the folds or waves occur are compatible with their formation by the Kelvin-Helmholtz electrostatic instability

  9. EMG activities and plantar pressures during ski jumping take-off on three different sized hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, M; Perttunen, J; Komi, P V

    2001-04-01

    Different profiles of ski jumping hills have been assumed to make the initiation of take-off difficult especially when moving from one hill to another. Neuromuscular adaptation of ski jumpers to the different jumping hills was examined by measuring muscle activation and plantar pressure of the primary take-off muscles on three different sized hills. Two young ski jumpers volunteered as subjects and they performed several trials from each hill (K-35 m, K-65 m and K-90 m) with the same electromyographic (EMG) electrode and insole pressure transducer set-up. The results showed that the differences in plantar pressure and EMGs between the jumping hills were smaller than expected for both jumpers. The small changes in EMG amplitudes between the hills support the assumption that the take-off was performed with the same intensity on different jumping hills and the timing of the gluteus EMG demonstrates well the similarity of the muscle activation on different hills. On the basis of the results obtained it seems that ski jumping training on small hills does not disturb the movement patterns for bigger hills and can also be helpful for special take-off training with low speed.

  10. Environmental studies conducted at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock geothermal development site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miera, F.R. Jr.; Langhorst, G.; McEllin, S.; Montoya, C.

    1984-05-01

    An environmental investigation of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal development was conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, during 1976-1979. Activities at the Fenton Hill Site included an evaluation of baseline data for biotic and abiotic ecosystem components. Identification of contaminants produced by HDR processes that had the potential for reaching the surrounding environment is also discussed. Three dominant vegetative communities were identified in the vicinity of the site. These included grass-forb, aspen, and mixed conifer communities. The grass-forb area was identified as having the highest number of species encountered, with Phleum pratense and Dactylis glomerata being the dominant grass species. Frequency of occurrence and mean coverage values are also given for other species in the three main vegetative complexes. Live trapping of small mammals was conducted to determine species composition, densities, population, and diversity estimates for this component of the ecosystem. The data indicate that Peromyscus maniculatus was the dominant species across all trapping sites during the study. Comparisons of relative density of small mammals among the various trapping sites show the grass-forb vegetative community to have had the highest overall density. Comparisons of small mammal diversity for the three main vegetative complexes indicate that the aspen habitat had the highest diversity and the grass-forb habitat had the lowest. Analyses of waste waters from the closed circulation loop indicate that several trace contaminants (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, fluoride, boron, and lithium) were present at concentrations greater than those reported for surface waters of the region.

  11. Cosmogenic evidence for limited local LGM glacial expansion, Denton Hills, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Kurt; Fink, David; Storey, Bryan; De Pascale, Gregory P.; Quigley, Mark; Fujioka, Toshiyuki

    2017-12-01

    The geomorphology of the Denton Hills provides insight into the timing and magnitude of glacial retreats in a region of Antarctica isolated from the influence of the East Antarctic ice sheet. We present 26 Beryllium-10 surface exposure ages from a variety of glacial and lacustrine features in the Garwood and Miers valleys to document the glacial history of the area from 10 to 286 ka. Our data show that the cold-based Miers, Joyce and Garwood glaciers retreated little since their maximum positions at 37.2 ± 6.9 (1σ n = 4), 35.1 ± 1.5 (1σ, n = 3) and 35.6 ± 10.1 (1σ, n = 6) ka respectively. The similar timing of advance of all three glaciers and the lack of a significant glacial expansion during the global LGM suggests a local LGM for the Denton Hills between ca. 26 and 51 ka, with a mean age of 36.0 ± 7.5 (1σ, n = 13) ka. A second cohort of exposure ages provides constraints to the behaviour of Glacial Lake Trowbridge that formerly occupied Miers Valley in the late Pleistocene. These data show active modification of the landscape from ∼20 ka until the withdrawal of ice from the valley mouths, and deposition of Ross Sea Drift, at 10-14 ka.

  12. The late Middle Devonian fauna of Red Hill I, Nevada, and its paleobiogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Schultze

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of the Middle Devonian Red Hill I locality, Nevada, is unusual in the co-occurrence of a rich fish assemblage with a rich invertebrate one. Sponges are second in abundance of specimens and number of species only to the fishes and occur together with other invertebrates (conodonts, conulariids, dacryoconarid tentaculites, gastropods, bivalves, brachiopods, arthropods, and unidentifiable ammonoids and echinoderms. The invertebrates indicate a marine depositional paleoenvironment. The conodonts indicate a placement within the lower disparalis Zone, late Givetian. The fish assemblage is dominated by the antiarch Asterolepis. All the other fishes, acanthodians, actinopterygians and sarcopterygians, are less common. The closest biogeographic relationship of the fish fauna is with the Middle/Late Devonian fish fauna of the Baltic Region, followed by that of eastern Canada (Miguasha, Scotland and Iran. This distribution corresponds to the Devonian Euramerica faunal province with connection to eastern Gondwana (Iran and Australia. Localities with the same genera as Red Hill I are interpreted as marine with the exception of the Scottish localities. Asterolepis is the most widely distributed vertebrate genus, mostly marine, but it may be able to enter freshwater like Eusthenopteron if one accepts a freshwater depositional paleoenvironment for the Scottish localities. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000001

  13. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation by Soufriere Hills Volcanic Ash Immersed in Water Droplets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T P Mangan

    Full Text Available Fine particles of ash emitted during volcanic eruptions may sporadically influence cloud properties on a regional or global scale as well as influencing the dynamics of volcanic clouds and the subsequent dispersion of volcanic aerosol and gases. It has been shown that volcanic ash can trigger ice nucleation, but ash from relatively few volcanoes has been studied for its ice nucleating ability. In this study we quantify the efficiency with which ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat nucleates ice when immersed in supercooled water droplets. Using an ash sample from the 11th February 2010 eruption, we report ice nucleating efficiencies from 246 to 265 K. This wide range of temperatures was achieved using two separate droplet freezing instruments, one employing nanolitre droplets, the other using microlitre droplets. Soufriere Hills volcanic ash was significantly more efficient than all other ash samples that have been previously examined. At present the reasons for these differences are not understood, but may be related to mineralogy, amorphous content and surface chemistry.

  14. Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation by Soufriere Hills Volcanic Ash Immersed in Water Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, T P; Atkinson, J D; Neuberg, J W; O'Sullivan, D; Wilson, T W; Whale, T F; Neve, L; Umo, N S; Malkin, T L; Murray, B J

    2017-01-01

    Fine particles of ash emitted during volcanic eruptions may sporadically influence cloud properties on a regional or global scale as well as influencing the dynamics of volcanic clouds and the subsequent dispersion of volcanic aerosol and gases. It has been shown that volcanic ash can trigger ice nucleation, but ash from relatively few volcanoes has been studied for its ice nucleating ability. In this study we quantify the efficiency with which ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat nucleates ice when immersed in supercooled water droplets. Using an ash sample from the 11th February 2010 eruption, we report ice nucleating efficiencies from 246 to 265 K. This wide range of temperatures was achieved using two separate droplet freezing instruments, one employing nanolitre droplets, the other using microlitre droplets. Soufriere Hills volcanic ash was significantly more efficient than all other ash samples that have been previously examined. At present the reasons for these differences are not understood, but may be related to mineralogy, amorphous content and surface chemistry.

  15. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  16. Groundwater quality, age, and susceptibility and vulnerability to nitrate contamination with linkages to land use and groundwater flow, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, Colorado, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tristan P.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2016-03-03

    The Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin is located about 25 kilometers east of Colorado Springs, Colorado. The primary aquifer is a productive section of unconsolidated deposits that overlies bedrock units of the Denver Basin and is a critical resource for local water needs, including irrigation, domestic, and commercial use. The primary aquifer also serves an important regional role by the export of water to nearby communities in the Colorado Springs area. Changes in land use and development over the last decade, which includes substantial growth of subdivisions in the Upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin, have led to uncertainty regarding the potential effects to water quality throughout the basin. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Cherokee Metropolitan District, El Paso County, Meridian Service Metropolitan District, Mountain View Electric Association, Upper Black Squirrel Creek Groundwater Management District, Woodmen Hills Metropolitan District, Colorado State Land Board, and Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the stakeholders represented in the Groundwater Quality Study Committee of El Paso County conducted an assessment of groundwater quality and groundwater age with an emphasis on characterizing nitrate in the groundwater.

  17. The formation of the religious infrastructure of cities of Kuban and Black Sea region in the context of the development of cross-cultural dialogue (the middle of XIX – beginning of XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey L. Dudarev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the problems of development of inter-confessional dialogue in the context of the multiethnic composition of the population of cities of Kuban and black sea region of the late XIX – early XX century are. Studied organization and the specifics of the religious life of Russians, Armenians, Germans, Poles, Tatars, Jews and representatives of other ethnic communities of the cities of the region. Shows the process of development in the urbanized environment of intense cross-cultural interfaith communication, which are developed on the basis of mutual respect and close cooperation. Analyzed constructive models of interaction and cooperation of representatives of different faiths. Studied confessional structure of the population the most important urban centers of the region and shows the construction of the temples. The authors conclude that the efforts of state and local authorities, despite the declared supremacy of Orthodoxy, actually was maintained and defended religious pluralism, allow the development of the variety of national cultures.

  18. Stratigraphy, age, and depositional setting of the Miocene Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill, central Mojave Desert, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Shannon R.; Miller, David M.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2010-01-01

    New detailed geologic mapping and geochronology of the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill, 30 km east of Barstow, CA, help to constrain Miocene paleogeography and tectonics of the central Mojave Desert. A northern strand of the Quaternary ENE-striking, sinistral Manix fault divides the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill into two distinct lithologic assemblages. Strata north of the fault consist of: a green rhyolitic tuff, informally named the Shamrock tuff; lacustrine sandstone; partially silicified thin-bedded to massive limestone; and alluvial sandstone to pebble conglomerate. Strata south of the fault consist of: lacustrine siltstone and sandstone; a rhyolitic tuff dated at 19.1 Ma (U-Pb); rock-avalanche breccia deposits; partially silicified well-bedded to massive limestone; and alluvial sandstone and conglomerate. Our U-Pb zircon dating of the Shamrock tuff by SHRIMP-RG yields a peak probability age of 18.7 ± 0.1 Ma. Distinctive outcrop characteristics, mineralogy, remanent magnetization, and zircon geochemistry (Th/U) suggest that the Shamrock tuff represents a lacustrine facies of the regionally extensive Peach Spring Tuff (PST). Here we compare zircon age and geochemical analyses from the Shamrock tuff with those of the PST at Stoddard Wash and provide new insight into the age of zircon crystallization in the PST rhyolite. Results of our field studies show that Miocene strata at Harvard Hill mostly accumulated in a lacustrine environment, although depositional environments varied from a relatively deep lake to a very shallow lake or even onshore setting. Rock-avalanche breccias and alluvial deposits near the base of the exposed section indicate proximity to a steep basin margin and detrital studies suggest a southern source for coarse-grained deposits; therefore, we may infer a southern basin-margin setting at Harvard Hill during the early Miocene. Our geochronology demonstrates that deposition of the Barstow Formation at Harvard Hill extended from before

  19. Profiles in medical courage: causation and Austin Bradford Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Austin Bradford Hill was a British epidemiologist and statistician who is best remembered for two landmark pulmonary studies. He was the statistician on the Medical Research Council Streptomycin in Tuberculosis Trial. This is regarded as the first randomized clinical trial. The second was the demonstration of the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. However, Hill’s most lasting contribution may be his establishment of a group of conditions necessary to provide adequate evidence of a causal relationship between an incidence and a consequence, widely known as the Bradford Hill Criteria of Causation. In this profile of medical courage we examine his remarkable background that led to the epidemiological equivalent of Koch’s postulates.

  20. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance at the Elk Hills field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappelle, H.H.; Donahoe, R.L.; Kato, T.T.; Ordway, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental protection has played an integral role in the development and operation of the Elk Hills field since production at the maximum efficient rate was authorized in 1976. The field is located in a non-attainment area for California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards for two criteria pollutants and their associated precursors, is home to four endangered species, and operates within the California regulatory framework. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance is a multi-faceted program carried out through a substantial commitment of resources and workforce involvement. This paper describes the actions taken and resources employed to protect the environment, specific technologies and projects implemented, and the ongoing nature of these efforts at Elk Hills

  1. Meteorological observations in support of a hill cap cloud experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-06-01

    Humid air flows form a hill cap cloud over the Agana mountain ridge in the north-east of Tenerife. The HILLCLOUD project utilised this cloud formation to investigate the chemical and physical properties of cloud aerosols by land based observations. The project was part of the second Aerosol characterisation Experiment (ACE-2) of the International Global Atmospheric chemistry project (IGAC). The present report describes meteorological observations in support of the hill cap cloud experiment. Time-series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and humidity were collected at ground-based meteorological stations during a period starting one year in advance of the main campaign. A series of radiosonde detecting the upstream stability and wind profile were launched during the main campaign. (au) 5 tabs., 32 ills., 6 refs.

  2. Topographical Hill Shading Map Production Based Tianditu (map World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Zha, Z.; Tang, D.; Yang, J.

    2018-04-01

    TIANDITU (Map World) is the public version of National Platform for Common Geospatial Information Service, and the terrain service is an important channel for users on the platform. With the development of TIANDITU, topographical hill shading map production for providing and updating global terrain map on line becomes necessary for the characters of strong intuition, three-dimensional sense and aesthetic effect. As such, the terrain service of TIANDITU focuses on displaying the different scales of topographical data globally. And this paper mainly aims to research the method of topographical hill shading map production globally using DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data between the displaying scales about 1 : 140,000,000 to 1 : 4,000,000, corresponded the display level from 2 to 7 on TIANDITU website.

  3. Generation of terrestrial radiation database in the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Rupali; Dhabekar, Bhushan; Jose, Jis Romal; Chinnaesakki, S.; Bakshi, A.K.; Datta, D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2018-01-01

    Natural background radiation in the environment includes terrestrial radiation, cosmic radiation from space and air activity due to radon/thoron. It is known that cosmic contribution increases near the poles. The terrestrial component is largely due to 232 Th and 238 U series and 40 K. BARC under the cosmic ray dosimetry project with National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) has taken up measurement of natural background radiation at Larsemann Hills, Antarctica. The project includes generation of baseline data on terrestrial radioactivity in water, soil and rock and estimation of cosmic ray doses. Extensive radiation surveys were carried out by the BARC team in the 35 th and 36 th expedition in and around Larsemann hills in East Antarctica where the third Indian station 'Bharati' is situated. This paper presents mapping of terrestrial radiation levels in Antarctica which will help in strengthening the background radiation database and develop a Radiation Informatics System (RIS)

  4. Diversity and biogeography of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the limestone hills of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Limestone hills are now gaining global conservation attention as hotspots for short-range endemic species. Levels of land snail endemism can be high at limestone hills, especially at hill clusters that are geographically isolated. In the State of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, limestone hills have been opportunistically surveyed for land snails in the past, but the majority have yet to be surveyed. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically surveyed the terrestrial malacofauna of 12 limestone hills that, based on our opinion, are a representation of the limestone land snail assemblages within the State. Our inventory yielded high sampling completeness (>85%). We found 122 species of land snails, of which 34 species were unique to one of the surveyed hills. We identified 30 species that are potentially new to science. The number of land snail species recorded at each hill ranged between 39 and 63 species. Four of the sampled limestone hills namely, Prk 01 G. Tempurung, Prk 55 G. Pondok, Prk 47 Kanthan, and Prk 64 Bt Kepala Gajah, have high levels of species richness and unique species, representing 91% of the total species recorded in this study. We identified two clusters of limestone hills in central Perak with distinct differences in land snail species composition – a northern hill cluster on elevated granite bedrock and southern hill cluster in a low-lying valley surrounded by alluvial soils. As limestone hills continue to be quarried to meet the cement demand, the four identified limestone hills, along with other hills from the two clusters, warrant urgent conservation attention in order to maintain high species diversity within Perak’s terrestrial malacofauna. PMID:28769723

  5. Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was prepared for the 8.2 km2 catchment. A GIS based deterministic model was then applied to predict the spatial landslide occurrence within catchment. Model input parameters include bulk density, friction angle, cohesion and hydraulic conductivity were gathered through in situ and lab analysis as well as from previous soil analysis records. Landslides locations were recorded using GPS as well as previous air photos and satellite imagery to establish landslide source areas inventory. The landslide susceptibility map was produced under different precipitation event’s simulation to see the effects of precipitation to stability of the hill slopes of the catchment. The results were categorized into naturally unstable (Defended, Upper Threshold, Lower Threshold, marginal instability (Quasi Stable and stable area (Moderately Stable and Stable. Results of the simulation indicated notable change in precipitation effect on Defended area is between 10mm to 40mm range in a single storm event. However, when storm event is exceeded 120mm, the result on Defended area produced by the model tends to be constant further on. For area categorized as naturally unstable (Factor of Safety, SF<1, with 110 mm of precipitation in a single storm event and soil depth at 2 meters and 4 meters could affect 69.51% and 69.88% respectively of the catchment area fall under that class. In addition, the model was able to detect 4% more of the landslide inventory under shallower soil depth of

  6. Do Welsh hill farmers dream of radioactive sheep?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Gwyn; Williams, Aled; Last, D.

    1993-01-01

    A low-power portable device is being used successfully in North Wales to provide precise position-logging of sheep grazing on upland hill pastures following irradiation by fallout from the Chernobyl reactor. This follows the discovery that radiation levels appear to vary significantly among sheep from the same flock, suggesting hot-spots of radiation. The design and execution of the system is described. (UK)

  7. The Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K A

    1994-09-01

    On August 3, 1968, the Joint Resolution of the Congress established the program and construction of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications. The facility dedicated in 1980 contains the latest in computer and communications technologies. The history, program requirements, construction management, and general planning are discussed including technical issues regarding cabling, systems functions, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVAC), fire suppression, research and development laboratories, among others.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Davilla elliptica St. Hill (Dilleniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Michelin

    Full Text Available Davilla elliptica St. Hill ("lixinha", family Dilleniaceae, is commonly used in the Brazilian folk medicine as purgative and stimulant. This work evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the methanol and chloroform extracts of the leaves and barks of D. elliptica using the disc-diffusion method. The results obtained showed that the methanolic extracts of the leaves and barks presented antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms.

  9. DOE to accept bids for Elk Hills crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy will accept bids in a reoffering sale covering 53,400 b/d of Elk Hills field oil but later may exercise an option to cut sales volumes and ship 20,000 b/d to Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites in Texas. DOE rejected all 19 bids submitted in an earlier semiannual sale of crude oil from the California naval petroleum reserve, saying they were too low. DOE the, The unique combination of federal and state government policies affecting the movement of oil into and out of the California market has contributed to a situation in which it apparently is very difficult for the government to receive a price for Elk Hills oil that satisfies the minimum price tests that govern the sale of Elk Hills oil. The 12 winning bids in the reoffering sale averaged $13.58/bbl, with bids for the higher quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.92/bbl, about 67 cents/bbl higher than bids rejected last month. DOE the 20,000 b/d is all local pipelines can ship to the interstate All-American pipeline for transfer to Texas beginning in June

  10. Geologic map of the Bodie Hills, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Box, Stephen E.; Vikre, Peter G.; Rytuba, James J.; Fleck, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bodie Hills covers about 1,200 km2 straddling the California-Nevada state boundary just north of Mono Lake in the western part of the Basin and Range Province, about 20 km east of the central Sierra Nevada. The area is mostly underlain by the partly overlapping, middle to late Miocene Bodie Hills volcanic field and Pliocene to late Pleistocene Aurora volcanic field (John and others, 2012). Upper Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary deposits, mostly basin-filling sediments, gravel deposits, and fanglomerates, lap onto the west, north, and east sides of the Bodie Hills, where they cover older Miocene volcanic rocks. Quaternary surficial deposits, including extensive colluvial, fluvial, glacial, and lacustrine deposits, locally cover all older rocks. Miocene and younger rocks are tilted ≤30° in variable directions. These rocks are cut by several sets of high-angle faults that exhibit a temporal change from conjugate northeast-striking left-lateral and north-striking right-lateral oblique-slip faults in rocks older than about 9 Ma to north- and northwest-striking dip-slip faults in late Miocene rocks. The youngest faults are north-striking normal and northeast-striking left-lateral oblique-slip faults that cut Pliocene-Pleistocene rocks. Numerous hydrothermal systems were active during Miocene magmatism and formed extensive zones of hydrothermally altered rocks and several large mineral deposits, including gold- and silver-rich veins in the Bodie and Aurora mining districts (Vikre and others, in press).

  11. Development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for an aging oil field : Devon Canada Swan Hills Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, M.; North, C.; Leighton-Boyce, G. [WorleyParsons Komex, Calgary, AB (Canada); Moore, D. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for the aging Devon Canada Swan Hills oil field was examined along with the key components of the closure strategy. These included source removal to the extent practical, long term monitoring, and achievable risk-based remedial objectives that were appropriate to the remote boreal forest setting of the Swan Hills field. A two stage approach was presented. The first stage involved a field wide background framework which included defining areas of common physical and ecological setting and developing appropriate exposure scenarios. The second stage involved site-specific risk assessments which included adjusting for site-specific conditions and an early demonstration project to prove the concept. A GIS approach was used to identify areas of common physical and ecological setting including: physiography; surface water; land use; vegetation ecozones; surficial and bedrock geology; and water well use. Species lists were compiled for vegetation, terrestrial wildlife (mammals, birds, amphibians), and aquatic species (fish and invertebrates). Major contaminant sources, problem formulation, vegetation bioassays, invertebrate bioassays, black spruce emergence, and guideline development were other topics covered during the presentation. Last, a summary of progress was presented. A field-wide review and development of risk zones and site-specific risk assessment has been completed. A regulatory review is underway. tabs., figs.

  12. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region of Ukraine (2006-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in a region of Ukraine known as being intercontinental (North-South and East-West) flyways. A total of 6,281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and 11 orders. From these samples, 69 ...

  13. Distribution of larval and pupal stages of Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) flies in the Nilgiris hills of Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Arul Prakash, M

    2017-09-01

    Endemicity of onchocerciasis (river blindness) in humans is linked to the location of Simulium spp. (black fly). The distribution of immature stages of Simulium in Sholur, Pykara, Gudalur, Coonoor and Kotagiri streams of the Nilgiris hills of Tamil Nadu was investigated during the months of May and July 2012. Out of these five streams, only Sholur was infested with larval and pupal stages of Simulium spp. Out of six plants collected from various water bodies, larval and pupal stages were found on the leaves and stems of an aquatic plant Nasturtium officinale and on the roots and leaves of Pennisetum glandulosum. The stages of Simulium were observed only during the summer month of May.

  14. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  15. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  16. Geospatial Modeling To Assess Geomorphological Risk For Relentless Shifting Cultivation In Garo Hills Of Meghalaya, North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Yadav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to shifting cultivation, the overall structure and composition of ecological condition is affected, hence landscape study becomes important for maintaining ecological diversity and appropriate scientific planning of any area. Garo hills region of northeast India is suffering from Geomorphological risk like sheet erosion, landslide etc. due to the age old tradition of shifting cultivation in the fragile hill slopes aided by other anthropogenic activities. The present study was conducted to examine the role of shifting cultivation for deforestation and degradation with variant of slope and elevation to relate vegetation cover with slope and elevation in the Garo Hills landscape of Meghalaya using temporal remote sensing data of 1991, 2001 and 2010. It revealed that there is decrease in dense forest and open forest during the 1st decade while areas under dense forest and non-forest increased in 2nd decade. This increased forest area is confined in the high slopes, which are inaccessible. The study shows increase in shifting cultivation near-about double fold in high slope and more than a double fold in the high altitudinal area in last decade, which is negative sign in terms of Geomorphological protection. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 91-104 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9212

  17. Biomass burning plumes and the aging of black carbon aerosols in the tropopause region observed with the CARIBIC single particle soot photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditas, J.; Ma, N.; Zhang, Y.; Assmann, D. N.; Neumaier, M.; Wang, S.; Wang, J.; Zahn, A.; Hermann, M.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Poeschl, U.; Su, H.; Cheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) events can release large amounts of refractory black carbon (rBC) into the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS) (Dahlkötter et al., 2014). To explore this effect, a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) was added to the scientific payload of the instrumented CARIBIC container that is installed monthly in the cargo bay of a passenger aircraft (the IAGOS-CARIBIC atmospheric observatory, www.iagos.org). Regular measurement flights with different destinations are performed, covering an area of about 120°W to 120°E and 75°N to 30°S. A wide range of in situ measurements (CO, O3, greenhouse gases, aerosol particles and volatile organic compounds) is combined with a collection of air and aerosol samples for laboratory analyses. Since August 2014, the SP2 measures BC number and mass concentration at altitudes between 8 and 12 km. More than 600 BC measurement hours show a strong impact of BB emissions on the lowermost stratosphere. The BB plumes are identified with the help of concurrent carbon monoxide and acetonitrile measurements showing substantially increased concentrations compared to their background level. Transported into the lowermost stratosphere, BB smoke can be transported over long distances and the BC particles can stay in the atmosphere up to one year. The monthly missions of four consecutive CARIBIC flights sometimes enable to revisit a certain air mass, as was the case during a measurement flight to San Francisco in August 2014, with a stopover time of 2h. The revisited biomass burning plume located over the Altlantic ocean near Greenland was traced back by backward and forward trajectories to open fires in Canada (upper Fig.). The transit time of the smoke plume was estimated to 16 - 19h which perfectly matches our flight time difference ( 18h). Based on the LEO-fit method (Leading Edge Only fit) from Gao et al. (2007), the mixing state of the BC particles within the BB plume was calculated. Our unique data set

  18. Simulium (Psilopelmia virescens, a new black-fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae from the southwestern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Hamada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The last-instar larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium virescens sp. nov. are described and illustrated. This species has a peculiar larva, which has an elongated head capsule and light-green colour. The first thoracic segment has tubercle on its dorsal region and the third thoracic segment has one pair of tubercles; the first to the fourth abdominal segments have one pair of tubercles on each segment. Until now this new species had only been collected at the type locality, which is on the middle stretch of the Correntina River in the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Females were voraciously biting humans during the field work. This new species represents the second species of Simulium(Psilopelmia in Brazil and the first registered outside of the Brazilian Amazon Region.

  19. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Orbit classification in an equal-mass non-spinning binary black hole pseudo-Newtonian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.; Dubeibe, F. L.; González, Guillermo A.

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of a test particle in a non-spinning binary black hole system of equal masses is numerically investigated. The binary system is modeled in the context of the pseudo-Newtonian circular restricted three-body problem, such that the primaries are separated by a fixed distance and move in a circular orbit around each other. In particular, the Paczyński-Wiita potential is used for describing the gravitational field of the two non-Newtonian primaries. The orbital properties of the test particle are determined through the classification of the initial conditions of the orbits, using several values of the Jacobi constant, in the Hill's regions of possible motion. The initial conditions are classified into three main categories: (i) bounded, (ii) escaping and (iii) displaying close encounters. Using the smaller alignment index (SALI) chaos indicator, we further classify bounded orbits into regular, sticky or chaotic. To gain a complete view of the dynamics of the system, we define grids of initial conditions on different types of two-dimensional planes. The orbital structure of the configuration plane, along with the corresponding distributions of the escape and collision/close encounter times, allow us to observe the transition from the classical Newtonian to the pseudo-Newtonian regime. Our numerical results reveal a strong dependence of the properties of the considered basins with the Jacobi constant as well as with the Schwarzschild radius of the black holes.

  1. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. Lateglacial geomorphology in the Tweedsmuir Hills, Scotland - Implications for retreat patterns, glacier reconstruction and chronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, D.; Rea, B.; McDougall, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Tweedsmuir Hills, Southern Uplands, Scotland, contain excellent assemblages of glacial landforms, including hummocky moraine, classically associated with a Lateglacial deglaciation (c. 14.7 - 11.7 cal. ka BP) in the UK. Although initially documented in 1855, a detailed systematic geomorphological investigation has never been undertaken in the region, meaning reconstructions are patchy, outdated and lacking chronological control. This has resulted in conflicting styles of glaciation being inferred, with both plateau icefield and valley glaciers reconstructed in the Tweedsmuir Hills. Importantly, comprehensive numerical modelling experiments for the period, c. 38 -10.4 ka BP, predict a significant body of ice for the Tweedsmuir Hills at the onset and throughout the Younger Dryas (c. 12.9 - 11.7 cal. ka. BP). Field data, which at present, are missing means that the numerical modelling remains untested. Given the emerging evidence that ice-masses survived, during or throughout the Lateglacial in a number of regions in Scotland, the glacial geomorphology and reconstructions for this area will provide a key input of palaeo-glacier data for subsequent investigation of wider patterns of Lateglacial ice-mass distribution and climate gradients across the UK and NW Europe. Geomorphological mapping followed a morphostratigraphic approach using a combination of aerial photos, NEXTMapTM and mapping in the field using a ruggedized tablet PC, with built in GPS and ArcGIS 9.3. The glacial landforms indicate two separate landsystems. The first is characterised by elongate subglacial bedforms overriding the topography, trending SW to NE, suggested to be attributable to the Devensian glaciation. The second landsystem is characterised by closely spaced sharp crested moraines, oblique to the valley axis and confined by the topography, meltwater channels and single terrace systems, which are likely to have formed in a subsequent period of renewed glaciation i.e. Lateglacial. The

  3. Ecology and conservation of threatened plants in Tapkeshwari Hill ranges in the Kachchh Island, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Joshi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The survey was conducted in Tapkeshwari Hill Range (THR areas, wherever threatened plant species were said to exist, based on secondary information in literature. Thirteen plant species categorized as ‘Threatened’ by the World Conservation Monitoring centre (WCMC 1994 and also listed under various threat categories in the Red Data Book of Indian Plants (Nayar & Sastry 1988 were surveyed in the THR. All the RET plants reported from the study area occupied eight major habitat types. Thorn mixed forests harbored the highest number of individuals (560 of all RET plants, followed by open scrubs (345 individuals, Acacia senegal forests (328 and thorn mixed scrubs (293. Field observations showed that except Helichrysum cutchicum, all the other RET plant species were reported with very low seedlings and regeneration ratio. This paper discusses the status, distribution and threats faced and the conservation implications at border regions of some of the threatened plants of the arid Kachchh district.

  4. The statistical clustering of primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that Meszaros theory of galaxy formation, in which galaxies form from the density perturbations associated with the statistical fluctuation in the number density of primordial black holes, must be modified if the black holes are initially surrounded by regions of lower radiation density than average (as is most likely). However, even in this situation, the sort of effect Meszaros envisages does occur and could in principle cause galactic mass-scales to bind at the conventional time. In fact, the requirement that galaxies should not form prematurely implies that black holes could not have a critical density in the mass range above 10 5 M(sun). If the mass spectrum of primordial black holes falls off more slowly than m -3 (as expected), then the biggest black holes have the largest clustering effect. In this case the black hole clustering theory of galaxy formation reduces to the black hole seed theory of galaxy formation, in which each galaxy becomes bound under the gravitational influence of a single black hole nucleus. The seed theory could be viable only if the early Universe had a soft equation of state until a time exceeding 10 -4 s or if something prevented black hole formation before 1 s. (orig.) [de

  5. Statistical clustering of primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, B J [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy

    1977-04-01

    It is shown that Meszaros theory of galaxy formation, in which galaxies form from the density perturbations associated with the statistical fluctuation in the number density of primordial black holes, must be modified if the black holes are initially surrounded by regions of lower radiation density than average (as is most likely). However, even in this situation, the sort of effect Meszaros envisages does occur and could in principle cause galactic mass-scales to bind at the conventional time. In fact, the requirement that galaxies should not form prematurely implies that black holes could not have a critical density in the mass range above 10/sup 5/ M(sun). If the mass spectrum of primordial black holes falls off more slowly than m/sup -3/ (as expected), then the biggest black holes have the largest clustering effect. In this case the black hole clustering theory of galaxy formation reduces to the black hole seed theory of galaxy formation, in which each galaxy becomes bound under the gravitational influence of a single black hole nucleus. The seed theory could be viable only if the early Universe had a soft equation of state until a time exceeding 10/sup -4/ s or if something prevented black hole formation before 1 s.

  6. Simulation by a mathematical model of the groundwater flow between the Alps and the Black Forest; Part A: regional model; Part B: local model (Northern Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmeier, F.; Perrochet, P.; Kiraly, L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the development of two hydrogeologic models of the groundwater flow regime in the crystalline of northern Switzerland. These models are constructed at two scales. The regional model (23000 km 2 ) accounts for all recharge to and discharge from the crystalline within the model boundaries. The local model (900 km 2 ) allows for greater structural, stratigraphic and topographic complexity in a more restricted area including some of the areas of interest to CEDRA. The regional model provides the hydrologic boundary conditions for the local model. All steps followed in constructing and testing the models are presented. This includes defining the areal and vertical geometry of the principal aquifers and aquitards. In addition, the hydrogeologic properties of these layers are defined; including their permeability, homogeneity, anisotropy and continuity. Discontinuities (e.g. faults) are modeled as discrete features. Hydrologic boundary conditions are specified based on observed or inferred potentiometric or flow (infiltration/exfiltration) data. The developed conceptual models are tested with program FEM 301. The results of this application consist of heads at every noidal point and recharge/discharge rates at every constant head node. These results are utilized to define the general groundwater flow regimes in the crystalline. In addition, the results are compared to observed heads and discharges in an attempt to validate the conceptual models. Representative hydraulic gradients at potential areas of interest to CEDRA are presented. Sensitivity analyses have been conducted to define the groundwater flow systems response to uncertain parameters and boundary conditions

  7. Crustal structure, evolution, and volcanic unrest of the Alban Hills, Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabba, C.; Amato, A.; Delaney, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    The Alban Hills, a Quaternary volcanic center lying west of the central Apennines, 15-25 km southeast of Rome, last erupted 19ka and has produced approximately 290 km3 of eruptive deposits since the inception of volcanism at 580 ka. Earthquakes of moderate intensity have been generated there at least since the Roman age. Modern observations show that intermittent periods of swarm activity originate primarily beneath the youngest features, the phreatomagmatic craters on the west side of the volcano. Results from seismic tomography allow identification of a low-velocity region, perhaps still hot or partially molten, more than 6 km beneath the youngest craters and a high-velocity region, probably a solidified magma body, beneath the older central volcanic construct. Thirty centimeters of uplift measured by releveling supports the contention that high levels of seismicity during the 1980s and 1990s resulted from accumulation of magma beneath these craters. The volume of magma accumulation and the amount of maximum uplift was probably at least 40 ?? 106 m3 and 40 cm, respectively. Comparison of newer levelings with those completed in 1891 and 1927 suggests earlier episodes of uplift. The magma chamber beneath the western Alban Hills is probably responsible for much of the past 200 ka of eruptive activity, is still receiving intermittent batches of magma, and is, therefore, continuing to generate modest levels of volcanic unrest. Bending of overburden is the most likely cause of the persistent earthquakes, which generally have hypocenters above the 6-km-deep top of the magma reservoir. In this view, the most recent uplift and seismicity are probably characteristic and not precursors of more intense activity.

  8. Black supernovae and black holes in non-local gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University,200433 Shanghai (China); Theoretical Astrophysics, Eberhard-Karls Universität Tübingen,72076 Tübingen (Germany); Malafarina, Daniele [Department of Physics, Nazarbayev University,010000 Astana (Kazakhstan); Modesto, Leonardo [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University,200433 Shanghai (China)

    2016-04-22

    In a previous paper, we studied the interior solution of a collapsing body in a non-local theory of gravity super-renormalizable at the quantum level. We found that the classical singularity is replaced by a bounce, after which the body starts expanding. A black hole, strictly speaking, never forms. The gravitational collapse does not create an event horizon but only an apparent one for a finite time. In this paper, we solve the equations of motion assuming that the exterior solution is static. With such an assumption, we are able to reconstruct the solution in the whole spacetime, namely in both the exterior and interior regions. Now the gravitational collapse creates an event horizon in a finite comoving time, but the central singularity is approached in an infinite time. We argue that these black holes should be unstable, providing a link between the scenarios with and without black holes. Indeed, we find a non catastrophic ghost-instability of the metric in the exterior region. Interestingly, under certain conditions, the lifetime of our black holes exactly scales as the Hawking evaporation time.

  9. Substance Abuse Among Blacks Across the Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M; Govia, Ishtar O; Matusko, Niki; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S

    2016-07-28

    Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse. We utilized three different data sources based upon probability samples collected in three different countries. The samples included 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 US Caribbean Black adults from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). An additional 1,142 Guyanese Blacks and 1,176 Jamaican Blacks living in the Caribbean region were included from the 2005 NSAL replication extension study, Family Connections Across Generations and Nations (FCGN). Mental disorders were based upon DSM-IV criteria. For the analysis, we used descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression analytic procedures. Prevalence of substance abuse varied by national context, with higher rates among Blacks within the United States compared to the Caribbean region. Rates of substance abuse were lower overall for women, but differ across cohorts by nativity and length of time in the United States, and in association with major depressive episode. The study highlights the need for further examination of how substance abuse disparities between US-based and Caribbean-based populations may become manifested.

  10. A Dancing Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  11. The proterozoic Georgetown Province - a Broken Hill analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    Collaborative work between CSIRO and AGSO has resulted in the development of a Pb isotope model that attempts to place relatively precise (∼5 Ma) age constraints on Proterozoic mineralisation in the Mount Isa and McArthur River terrains (Sun et al., 1994). Although this model was developed for sediment hosted mineralisation in low grade metamorphic terrains, the CSIRO-AGSO model ages for other mineralisation in high-grade terrains such as Broken Hill appear to be consistent with the U-Pb zircon ages obtained for the high-grade host sequences. Without independent evidence that the model is applicable to such terrains, the observations cannot be used to indicate the age of the mineralisation. Lead isotope data obtained on potassium feldspar separates from five felsic intrusive samples in the Georgetown terrain show a wide range of Pb isotope ratios. The lowest 206 Pb/ 204 Pb analyses are considered to approximate to the Proterozoic initial ratio and indicate a model age of ∼1510 Ma based on the CSIRO-AGSO model. This age is 45 Ma younger than the crystallisation age of the granite, but must be considered a minimum as the initial 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratio may well prove to be lower after more comprehensive analysis. Sulfide mineralisation within the Einasleigh Metamorphics has a wide range of 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios that lie between this granite value and the relatively homogeneous population from Railway Flat. The Railway Flat data are very similar to values for Broken Hill and also the Broken Hill-type Pegmont mineralisation in the Mount Isa Eastern Succession. These data all have significantly lower 207 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios than the CSIRO-AGSO model, suggesting a significantly different source rock environment for this style of mineralisation from that for the sediment hosted deposits

  12. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  13. Water quality in vicinity of Fenton Hill Site, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Adams, W.H.; Owens, J.W.

    1975-09-01

    The water quality at nine surface water stations, eight ground water stations, and the drilling operations at the Fenton Hill Site have been studied as a measure of the environmental impact of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory geothermal experimental studies in the Jemez Mountains. Surface water quality in the Jemez River drainage area is affected by the quality of the inflow from thermal and mineral springs. Ground water discharges from the Cenozoic Volcanics are similar in chemical quality. Water in the main zone of saturation penetrated by test hole GT-2 is highly mineralized, whereas water in the lower section of the hole, which is in granite, contains a higher concentration of uranium

  14. La Ecuación de Hill con Potencial Irregular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cambronero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se considera la ecuación de Hill cuyo potencial es la derivada formal de una función Hölder - continua de parámetro \\theta \\in (0,1 y se muestra que las soluciones de la versión discreta correspondiente convergen adecuadamente a las soluciones de la ecuación original. Este hecho se usa para establecer teoremas de existencia de soluciones para este caso singular y para deducir algunas propiedades de las soluciones y el discriminante de la ecuación estudiada.

  15. The Hill-determinant perturbation theory with triangular propagators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Znojil, M.

    1996-01-01

    A new version of the Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation prescription is proposed. Its main formal feature lies in an unusual choice of the model space and unperturbed H 0 and in a resulting lower-triangular matrix structure of its propagators. Within the framework of the so-called Hill-determinant method, an admissibility of any incompletely solvable zero-order Hamiltonian is achieved in this way. As a consequence, the range of practical applicability of our new perturbative formalism may be expected to incorporate many new phenomenological interactions with a strongly anharmonic character. 18 refs

  16. Iowa Hill Pumped Storage Project Investigations - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, David [Sacramento Municipal Unitlity District, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This Final Technical Report is a summary of the activities and outcome of the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistance Agreement DE-EE0005414 with the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The Assistance Agreement was created in 2012 to support investigations into the Iowa Hill Pumped-storage Project (Project), a new development that would add an additional 400 MW of capacity to SMUD’s existing 688MW Upper American River Hydroelectric Project (UARP) in the Sierra Nevada mountains east of Sacramento, California.

  17. Pervasive remagnetization of detrital zircon host rocks in the Jack Hills, Western Australia and implications for records of the early geodynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin P.; Maloof, Adam C.; Tailby, Nicholas; Ramezani, Jahandar; Fu, Roger R.; Hanus, Veronica; Trail, Dustin; Bruce Watson, E.; Harrison, T. Mark; Bowring, Samuel A.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Coe, Robert S.

    2015-11-01

    It currently is unknown when Earth's dynamo magnetic field originated. Paleomagnetic studies indicate that a field with an intensity similar to that of the present day existed 3.5 billion years ago (Ga). Detrital zircon crystals found in the Jack Hills of Western Australia are some of the very few samples known to substantially predate this time. With crystallization ages ranging from 3.0-4.38 Ga, these zircons might preserve a record of the missing first billion years of Earth's magnetic field history. However, a key unknown is the age and origin of magnetization in the Jack Hills zircons. The identification of >3.9 Ga (i.e., Hadean) field records requires first establishing that the zircons have avoided remagnetization since being deposited in quartz-rich conglomerates at 2.65-3.05 Ga. To address this issue, we have conducted paleomagnetic conglomerate, baked contact, and fold tests in combination with U-Pb geochronology to establish the timing of the metamorphic and alteration events and the peak temperatures experienced by the zircon host rocks. These tests include the first conglomerate test directly on the Hadean-zircon bearing conglomerate at Erawandoo Hill. Although we observed little evidence for remagnetization by recent lightning strikes, we found that the Hadean zircon-bearing rocks and surrounding region have been pervasively remagnetized, with the final major overprinting likely due to thermal and/or aqueous effects from the emplacement of the Warakurna large igneous province at ∼1070 million years ago (Ma). Although localized regions of the Jack Hills might have escaped complete remagnetization, there currently is no robust evidence for pre-depositional (>3.0 Ga) magnetization in the Jack Hills detrital zircons.

  18. Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) study to investigate the genesis of Mujil hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmania, Suryanto, Wiwit

    2017-07-01

    Gunung Mujil is an isolated hill located near Pondoworejo village, Kalibawang sub-district, Kulon Progo district, and Special Province of Yogyakarta. The hill is part of the eastern Kulon Progo mountain range extended relatively in the North-South direction. The lithology of the hill consists of andesite breccia and it's similar with the Old Andesite Formation that built the Kulon Progo Mountains. There are at least two hypothesis about the genesis and the formation mechanism of this hill, (1) it was formed by debris mass from Kulon Progo Mountains, and (2) ) it was formed by an intrusion. Our study intended to determine the subsurface resistivity below the hill and to relating those results to with the scenario of the genesis of the Mujil hill. We conducted Audio-magnetotellurics (AMT) measurements along two lines survey crossing the Mujil hill consisting of 20 measurements. Since the measurements are located near the villages, most of the data has a fair to bad quality and only one station yielded an excellent data. A 1D Forward modeling was then applied to find best-fit model of the AMT data. The results shows that the Mujil hill was built by debris mass of the Old Andesite Formation from Kulon Progo mountain which is represented by a lower resistivity value under the Mujil hill.

  19. NASA's Chandra Finds Black Holes Are "Green"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Black holes are the most fuel efficient engines in the Universe, according to a new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By making the first direct estimate of how efficient or "green" black holes are, this work gives insight into how black holes generate energy and affect their environment. The new Chandra finding shows that most of the energy released by matter falling toward a supermassive black hole is in the form of high-energy jets traveling at near the speed of light away from the black hole. This is an important step in understanding how such jets can be launched from magnetized disks of gas near the event horizon of a black hole. Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine "Just as with cars, it's critical to know the fuel efficiency of black holes," said lead author Steve Allen of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. "Without this information, we cannot figure out what is going on under the hood, so to speak, or what the engine can do." Allen and his team used Chandra to study nine supermassive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies. These black holes are relatively old and generate much less radiation than quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes seen in the early Universe. The surprise came when the Chandra results showed that these "quiet" black holes are all producing much more energy in jets of high-energy particles than in visible light or X-rays. These jets create huge bubbles, or cavities, in the hot gas in the galaxies. Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy The efficiency of the black hole energy-production was calculated in two steps: first Chandra images of the inner regions of the galaxies were used to estimate how much fuel is available for the black hole; then Chandra images were used to estimate the power required to produce

  20. Shaping Globular Clusters with Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    How many black holes lurk within the dense environments of globular clusters, and how do these powerful objects shape the properties of the cluster around them? One such cluster, NGC 3201, is now helping us to answer these questions.Hunting Stellar-Mass Black HolesSince the detection of merging black-hole binaries by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the dense environments of globular clusters have received increasing attention as potential birthplaces of these compact binary systems.The central region of the globular star cluster NGC 3201, as viewed by Hubble. The black hole is in orbit with the star marked by the blue circle. [NASA/ESA]In addition, more and more stellar-mass black-hole candidates have been observed within globular clusters, lurking in binary pairs with luminous, non-compact companions. The most recent of these detections, found in the globular cluster NGC 3201, stands alone as the first stellar-mass black hole candidate discovered via radial velocity observations: the black holes main-sequence companion gave away its presence via a telltale wobble.Now a team of scientists led by Kyle Kremer (CIERA and Northwestern University) is using models of this system to better understand the impact that black holes might have on their host clusters.A Model ClusterThe relationship between black holes and their host clusters is complicated. Though the cluster environment can determine the dynamical evolution of the black holes, the retention rate of black holes in a globular cluster (i.e., how many remain in the cluster when they are born as supernovae, rather than being kicked out during the explosion) influences how the host cluster evolves.Kremer and collaborators track this complex relationship by modeling the evolution of a cluster similar to NGC 3201 with a Monte Carlo code. The code incorporates physics relevant to the evolution of black holes and black-hole binaries in globular clusters, such as two-body relaxation

  1. Quantum tunneling radiation from self-dual black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.A.S.; Brito, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Black holes are considered as objects that can reveal quantum aspects of spacetime. Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) is a theory that propose a way to model the quantum spacetime behavior revealed by a black hole. One recent prediction of this theory is the existence of sub-Planckian black holes, which have the interesting property of self-duality. This property removes the black hole singularity and replaces it with another asymptotically flat region. In this work, we obtain the thermodynamical properties of this kind of black holes, called self-dual black holes, using the Hamilton–Jacobi version of the tunneling formalism. Moreover, using the tools of the tunneling approach, we investigate the emission spectrum of self-dual black holes, and investigate if some information about the black hole initial state can be recovered during the evaporation process. Back-reaction effects are included

  2. Plasma horizons of a charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The most promising way of detecting black holes seems to be through electromagnetic radiation emitted by nearby charged particles. The nature of this radiation depends strongly on the local electromagnetic field, which varies with the charge of the black hole. It has often been purported that a black hole with significant charge will not be observed, because, the dominance of the Coulomb interaction forces its neutralization through selective accretion. This paper shows that it is possible to balance the electric attraction of particles whose charge is opposite that of the black hole with magnetic forces and (assuming an axisymmetric, stationary solution) covariantly define the regions in which this is possible. A Kerr-Newman hole in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field and a current ring centered about a Reissner-Nordstroem hole are used as examples, because of their relevance to processes through which black holes may be observed. (Auth.)

  3. Soils of wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases (Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelov, N. S.

    2014-09-01

    The properties and spatial distribution of soils and soil-like bodies in valleys of the coastal Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases—poorly investigated in terms of the soil areas of East Antarctica—are discussed. In contrast to Dry Valleys—large continental oases of Western Antarctica—the studied territory is characterized by the presence of temporarily waterlogged sites in the valleys. It is argued that the deficit of water rather than the low temperature is the major limiting factor for the development of living organisms and the pedogenesis on loose substrates. The moisture gradients in the surface soil horizons explain the spatial distribution of the different soils and biotic complexes within the studied valleys. Despite the permanent water-logging of the deep suprapermafrost horizons of most of the soils in the valleys, no gley features have been identified in them. The soils of the wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills oasis do not contain carbonates. They have a slightly acid or neutral reaction. The organic carbon and nitrogen contents are mainly controlled by the amount of living and dead biomass rather than by the humic substances proper. The larger part of the biomass is concentrated inside the mineral soil matrix rather than on the soil surface. The stresses caused by surface drying, strong winds, and ultraviolet radiation prevent the development of organisms on the surface of the soil and necessitate the search for shelter within the soil fine earth material (endoedaphic niche) or under the gravelly pavement (hypolithic niche). In the absence of higher plants, humified products of their decomposition, and rainwater that can wash the soil profile and upon the low content of silt and clay particles in the soil material, "classical" soil horizons are not developed. The most distinct (and, often, the only diagnosed) products of pedogenesis in these soils are represented by organomineral films on the surface of mineral particles.

  4. Miocene magmatism in the Bodie Hills volcanic field, California and Nevada: A long-lived eruptive center in the southern segment of the ancestral Cascades arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Blakely, Richard J.; Fleck, Robert J.; Vikre, Peter; Box, Stephen E.; Moring, Barry C.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle to Late Miocene Bodie Hills volcanic field is a >700 km2, long-lived (∼9 Ma) but episodic eruptive center in the southern segment of the ancestral Cascades arc north of Mono Lake (California, U.S.). It consists of ∼20 major eruptive units, including 4 trachyandesite stratovolcanoes emplaced along the margins of the field, and numerous, more centrally located silicic trachyandesite to rhyolite flow dome complexes. Bodie Hills volcanism was episodic with two peak periods of eruptive activity: an early period ca. 14.7–12.9 Ma that mostly formed trachyandesite stratovolcanoes and a later period between ca. 9.2 and 8.0 Ma dominated by large trachyandesite-dacite dome fields. A final period of small silicic dome emplacement occurred ca. 6 Ma. Aeromagnetic and gravity data suggest that many of the Miocene volcanoes have shallow plutonic roots that extend to depths ≥1–2 km below the surface, and much of the Bodie Hills may be underlain by low-density plutons presumably related to Miocene volcanism.Compositions of Bodie Hills volcanic rocks vary from ∼50 to 78 wt% SiO2, although rocks with Bodie Hills rocks are porphyritic, commonly containing 15–35 vol% phenocrysts of plagioclase, pyroxene, and hornblende ± biotite. The oldest eruptive units have the most mafic compositions, but volcanic rocks oscillated between mafic and intermediate to felsic compositions through time. Following a 2 Ma hiatus in volcanism, postsubduction rocks of the ca. 3.6–0.1 Ma, bimodal, high-K Aurora volcanic field erupted unconformably onto rocks of the Miocene Bodie Hills volcanic field.At the latitude of the Bodie Hills, subduction of the Farallon plate is inferred to have ended ca. 10 Ma, evolving to a transform plate margin. However, volcanism in the region continued until 8 Ma without an apparent change in rock composition or style of eruption. Equidimensional, polygenetic volcanoes and the absence of dike swarms suggest a low differential horizontal stress regime

  5. Analogy in causal inference: rethinking Austin Bradford Hill's neglected consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this article was to rethink and resurrect Austin Bradford Hill's "criterion" of analogy as an important consideration in causal inference. In epidemiology today, analogy is either completely ignored (e.g., in many textbooks), or equated with biologic plausibility or coherence, or aligned with the scientist's imagination. None of these examples, however, captures Hill's description of analogy. His words suggest that there may be something gained by contrasting two bodies of evidence, one from an established causal relationship, the other not. Coupled with developments in the methods of systematic assessments of evidence-including but not limited to meta-analysis-analogy can be restructured as a key component in causal inference. This new approach will require that a collection-a library-of known cases of causal inference (i.e., bodies of evidence involving established causal relationships) be developed. This library would likely include causal assessments by organizations such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the National Toxicology Program, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, a process for describing key features of a causal relationship would need to be developed along with what will be considered paradigm cases of causation. Finally, it will be important to develop ways to objectively compare a "new" body of evidence with the relevant paradigm case of causation. Analogy, along with all other existing methods and causal considerations, may improve our ability to identify causal relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Woods and Russell, Hill, and the emergence of medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2010-06-30

    In 1937, Austin Bradford Hill wrote Principles of Medical Statistics (Lancet: London, 1937) that became renowned throughout the world and is widely associated with the birth of modern medical statistics. Some 6 years earlier Hilda Mary Woods and William Thomas Russell, colleagues of Hill at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, wrote a similar book An Introduction to Medical Statistics (PS King and Son: London, 1931) that is little known today. We trace the origins of these two books from the foundations of early demography and vital statistics, and make a detailed examination of some of their chapters. It is clear that these texts mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics that demarcates the vital statistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern discipline. Moreover, we consider that the book by Woods and Russell is of some importance in the development of medical statistics and we describe and acknowledge their place in the history of this discipline. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large values of Ф, black holes do form and for small values the scalar field ... on the near side of the ridge ultimately evolve to form black holes while those configu- ... The inset shows a bird's eye view looking down on the saddle point.

  8. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  9. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  10. Ship-based Observations of Atmospheric Black Carbon Particles over the Arctic Ocean, Bering Sea, and North Western Pacific Ocean on 2016: Comparisons with Regional Chemical Transport Model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, F.; Miyakawa, T.; Takigawa, M.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kanaya, Y.; Komazaki, Y.; Takashima, H.; Mordovskoi, P.; Tohjima, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass, is a major component of light-absorbing particulate matter in the atmosphere, causing positive radiative forcing. Also, BC deposition on the surface reduces the Earth's albedo and accelerates snow/ice melting by absorbing the sunlight. Therefore, the impact of BC on the Arctic climate needs to be assessed; however, observational information has been still insufficient. Over the Arctic Ocean, we have been conducting ship-based BC observations using a single particle soot photometer (SP2) on R/V Mirai every summer since 2014. To estimate the transport pathways of BC, we have also conducted model simulations during the period of cruise using a regional transport model (WRF-Chem 3.8.1). Here we focus on observations conducted on-board the R/V Mirai from 22 August to 5 October 2016 in a round trip to the Arctic Ocean through the Bering Strait from a port of Hachinohe (40.52N, 141.51E), Japan. We captured relatively high BC mass concentration events in this observation. The observed average BC mass concentration during 2016 was 0.8 ± 1.4 ng/m3 in >70N, similar to the levels ( 1.0ng/m3) recorded during our previous observations in the Arctic during 2014 and 2015. The variations in the observed concentrations in 2016 were qualitatively well reproduced by the regional chemical transport model. Quantitatively, however, the model tended to overestimate the BC levels, suggesting the possibilities that the emission rates were overestimated and/or the removal rates were underestimated. We will present further analysis on the size distribution, coating, and possible sources.

  11. Super-horizon primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Carr, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a new class of solutions to the Einstein equations which describe a primordial black hole (PBH) in a flat Friedmann background. Such solutions arise if a Schwarzschild black hole is patched onto a Friedmann background via a transition region. They are possible providing the black hole event horizon is larger than the cosmological apparent horizon. Such solutions have a number of strange features. In particular, one has to define the black hole and cosmological horizons carefully and one then finds that the mass contained within the black hole event horizon decreases when the black hole is larger than the Friedmann cosmological apparent horizon, although its area always increases. These solutions involve two distinct future null infinities and are interpreted as the conversion of a white hole into a black hole. Although such solutions may not form from gravitational collapse in the same way as standard PBHs, there is nothing unphysical about them, since all energy and causality conditions are satisfied. Their conformal diagram is a natural amalgamation of the Kruskal diagram for the extended Schwarzschild solution and the conformal diagram for a black hole in a flat Friedmann background. In this paper, such solutions are obtained numerically for a spherically symmetric universe containing a massless scalar field, but it is likely that they exist for more general matter fields and less symmetric systems

  12. Charged black rings at large D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Peng-Cheng; Wang, Zi-zhi [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University,5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-04-28

    We study the charged slowly rotating black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell theory in the large dimensions (D). By using the 1/D expansion in the near regions of the black holes we obtain the effective equations for the charged slowly rotating black holes. The effective equations capture the dynamics of various stationary solutions, including the charged black ring, the charged slowly rotating Myers-Perry black hole and the charged slowly boosted black string. Via different embeddings we construct these stationary solutions explicitly. For the charged black ring at large D, we find that the charge lowers the angular momentum due to the regularity condition on the solution. By performing the perturbation analysis of the effective equations, we obtain the quasinormal modes of the charge perturbation and the gravitational perturbation analytically. Like the neutral case the charged thin black ring suffers from the Gregory-Laflamme-like instability under the non-axisymmetric perturbations, but the charge weakens the instability. Besides, we find that the large D analysis always respects the cosmic censorship.

  13. Dealing with time-varying recruitment and length in Hill-type muscle models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ahmed; Kenney, Laurence; Howard, David

    2016-10-03

    Hill-type muscle models are often used in muscle simulation studies and also in the design and virtual prototyping of functional electrical stimulation systems. These models have to behave in a sufficiently realistic manner when recruitment level and contractile element (CE) length change continuously. For this reason, most previous models have used instantaneous CE length in the muscle׳s force vs. length (F-L) relationship, but thereby neglect the instability problem on the descending limb (i.e. region of negative slope) of the F-L relationship. Ideally CE length at initial recruitment should be used but this requires a multiple-motor-unit muscle model to properly account for different motor-units having different initial lengths when recruited. None of the multiple-motor-unit models reported in the literature have used initial CE length in the muscle׳s F-L relationship, thereby also neglecting the descending limb instability problem. To address the problem of muscle modelling for continuously varying recruitment and length, and hence different values of initial CE length for different motor-units, a new multiple-motor-unit muscle model is presented which considers the muscle to comprise 1000 individual Hill-type virtual motor-units, which determine the total isometric force. Other parts of the model (F-V relationship and passive elements) are not dependent on the initial CE length and, therefore, they are implemented for the muscle as a whole rather than for the individual motor-units. The results demonstrate the potential errors introduced by using a single-motor-unit model and also the instantaneous CE length in the F-L relationship, both of which are common in FES control studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Avian use of forest habitats in the Pembina Hills of northeastern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faanes, Craig A.; Andrew, Jonathan M.

    1983-01-01

    North Dakota has the least extensive total area of forested habitats of any of the 50 United States. Although occurring in limited area, forest communities add considerably to the total ecological diversity of the State. The forests of the Pembina Hills region in northeastern North Dakota are one of only three areas large enough to be considered of commercial value. During 1981 we studied the avifauna of the upper valley of the Pembina River in the Pembina Hills. Field work extended from 20 April to 23 July; breeding bird censuses were conducted 7 June to 2 July. Of the 120 bird species recorded during the study period, 79 species were recorded during the breeding season. The total breeding population was estimated at nearly 76,000 breeding pairs. The wood warblers (Parulidae) were the most numerous family, accounting for about 28,000 breeding pairs. The yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia) was the most abundant breeding species, making up 19.4% of the population. American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) was second in abundance, accounting for 10.5% of the breeding population. Largest breeding densities occurred in the willow (Salix sp.) shrub community. Although supporting the lowest mean breeding density, quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) forests supported the highest species diversity. First State breeding records were recorded for alder flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) and golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera). Records were obtained for 12 species considered rare or unusual in North Dakota during the breeding season. The status of all species known to have occurred in the study area is described in an annotated species list.

  15. Relativistic hydrodynamic evolutions with black hole excision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duez, Matthew D.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Yo, H.-J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a numerical code designed to study astrophysical phenomena involving dynamical spacetimes containing black holes in the presence of relativistic hydrodynamic matter. We present evolutions of the collapse of a fluid star from the onset of collapse to the settling of the resulting black hole to a final stationary state. In order to evolve stably after the black hole forms, we excise a region inside the hole before a singularity is encountered. This excision region is introduced after the appearance of an apparent horizon, but while a significant amount of matter remains outside the hole. We test our code by evolving accurately a vacuum Schwarzschild black hole, a relativistic Bondi accretion flow onto a black hole, Oppenheimer-Snyder dust collapse, and the collapse of nonrotating and rotating stars. These systems are tracked reliably for hundreds of M following excision, where M is the mass of the black hole. We perform these tests both in axisymmetry and in full 3+1 dimensions. We then apply our code to study the effect of the stellar spin parameter J/M 2 on the final outcome of gravitational collapse of rapidly rotating n=1 polytropes. We find that a black hole forms only if J/M 2 2 >1, the collapsing star forms a torus which fragments into nonaxisymmetric clumps, capable of generating appreciable 'splash' gravitational radiation

  16. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  17. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  18. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  19. Fast plunges into Kerr black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadar, Shahar [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Porfyriadis, Achilleas P.; Strominger, Andrew [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Most extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals of small compact objects into supermassive black holes end with a fast plunge from an eccentric last stable orbit. For rapidly rotating black holes such fast plunges may be studied in the context of the Kerr/CFT correspondence because they occur in the near-horizon region where dynamics are governed by the infinite dimensional conformal symmetry. In this paper we use conformal transformations to analytically solve for the radiation emitted from fast plunges into near-extreme Kerr black holes. We find perfect agreement between the gravity and CFT computations.

  20. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  1. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  2. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  3. Black hole vacua and rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Chethan

    2011-01-01

    Recent developments suggest that the near-region of rotating black holes behaves like a CFT. To understand this better, I propose to study quantum fields in this region. An instructive approach for this might be to put a large black hole in AdS and to think of the entire geometry as a toy model for the 'near-region'. Quantum field theory on rotating black holes in AdS can be well-defined (unlike in flat space), if fields are quantized in the co-rotating-with-the-horizon frame. First, some generalities of constructing Hartle-Hawking Green functions in this approach are discussed. Then as a specific example where the details are easy to handle, I turn to 2+1 dimensions (BTZ), write down the Green functions explicitly starting with the co-rotating frame, and observe some structural similarities they have with the Kerr-CFT scattering amplitudes. Finally, in BTZ, there is also an alternate construction for the Green functions: we can start from the covering AdS 3 space and use the method of images. Using a 19th century integral formula, I show the equality between the boundary correlators arising via the two constructions.

  4. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  5. Quantifying human vulnerability in rural areas: case study of Tutova Hills (Eastern Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stângă, I. C.; Grozavu, A.

    2012-06-01

    This paper aims to assess the vulnerability at regional level, the model and the proposed indicators being explicitly intended for an essentially rural region, in this case-Tutova Hills (Eastern Romania). Five categories of variables were taken into account to define the vulnerability components: rural habitat, demographic features, agriculture, environmental quality and emergency situations. For each one, five variables were analyzed and ranked based on the level of determination or subordination. In order to ensure the flexibility of the model and to avoid the criteria duplication in assessing vulnerability, only a single indicator of each category was retained and included in analysis: total number of inhabitants, dependency ratio, weight of arable land on slope categories, weight of land under forestry and road accessibility of villages. The selected indicators were mathematically processed in order to maximize their relevance and to unitary express the results in the spread 0-1. Also, values of each indicator were grouped into four classes, corresponding to the level of vulnerability: low, medium, high and very high. A general index was obtained through the integration of vulnerability factors in an equation based on the geometric mean. Spatial analysis was based on features of the MicroImages TNTmips 7.3. software, which allow the vulnerability mapping. This approach argues and states that vulnerability assessment through indicator-based methods can be made only according to the level and scale of analysis and related to natural or human conditions of a region.

  6. Chronology and geochemistry of late Holocene eolian deposits in the Brandon Sand Hills, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, S.A.; Muhs, D.R.; David, P.P.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry and conventional radiocarbon age determinations of organic matter from paleosols indicate that the Brandon Sand Hills area of southern Manitoba has been subjected to recurrent intervals of eolian activity in the past 5000 years. Although precise regional correlations are precluded by dating uncertainties, periods of most notable paleosol development occurred around 2300 to 2000, 1400 to 1000, and 600 to 500 cal yr BP with eolian activity occurring before and after each of these periods. Episodes of eolian activity may correspond to periods of regional drought, whereas paleosols mark periods of increased moisture availability and stabilization by vegetation. The geochemistry of the eolian sands, paleosols and source sediments indicates that partial leaching of carbonates occurs from pedogenesis during humid climatic phases, and that this is probably the primary mechanism of carbonate depletion of eolian sands in this area. Recent trends in sand dune activity from historic aerial photography and early explorers' accounts indicate that the few active dunes that presently exist have stabilized at a rate of 10-20% per decade, despite several severe droughts in the 20th century. This may be attributed to pre-settlement droughts that were more severe than those in historic times although regional dune stabilization may also be related, in part, to the spread of forest cover in the past few hundred years. Crown copyright (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 33560 - Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company-Acquisition Exemption-Laurel Hill Development Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Pennsylvania Railroad Company--Acquisition Exemption-- Laurel Hill Development Corporation Southwest... 49 CFR 1150.41 to acquire a 0.66-mile line of railroad owned by Laurel Hill Development Corporation... rail line. Most recently, in Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company--Acquisition Exemption--Laurel...

  8. 77 FR 2128 - Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company-Acquisition Exemption-Laurel Hill Development Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35584] Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company--Acquisition Exemption-- Laurel Hill Development Corporation Southwest... 49 CFR 1150.41 to acquire a number of rail lines now owned by Laurel Hill Development Corporation...

  9. Hume, Mill, Hill, and the sui generis epidemiologic approach to causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2013-11-15

    The epidemiologic approach to causal inference (i.e., Hill's viewpoints) consists of evaluating potential causes from the following 2, noncumulative angles: 1) established results from comparative, observational, or experimental epidemiologic studies; and 2) reviews of nonepidemiologic evidence. It does not involve statements of statistical significance. The philosophical roots of Hill's viewpoints are unknown. Superficially, they seem to descend from the ideas of Hume and Mill. Hill's viewpoints, however, use a different kind of evidence and have different purposes than do Hume's rules or Mill's system of logic. In a nutshell, Hume ignores comparative evidence central to Hill's viewpoints. Mill's logic disqualifies as invalid nonexperimental evidence, which forms the bulk of epidemiologic findings reviewed from Hill's viewpoints. The approaches by Hume and Mill cannot corroborate successful implementations of Hill's viewpoints. Besides Hume and Mill, the epidemiologic literature is clueless about a plausible, pre-1965 philosophical origin of Hill's viewpoints. Thus, Hill's viewpoints may be philosophically novel, sui generis, still waiting to be validated and justified.

  10. Sharing the Gift of Jazz: An Interview with Willie L. Hill Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Brad

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Willie L. Hill Jr., founder and director of the Society for Jazz Education. Currently a professor of music education at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst and the director of the UMass Fine Arts Center, Hill has served as director of education for the Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz. He is a past…

  11. Rare Plants and Animals of the Texas Hill Country: Educator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    Texas Hill Country is a land of fresh water springs, stony hills, and steep canyons and home to many rare plants and animals. Six activities for grades 3-5 and six activities for grades 6-12 are contained in this guide. Elementary activity highlights include using "The Lorax" by Dr. Seuss to stimulate critical thinking about…

  12. The Hill's three-body problem: a new deduction of motion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente Marcos, C. de la.

    1995-01-01

    Although the Hill's problem has been considered traditionally as a particular case of the restricted problem, it is not but rather a different problem with the same degree of generality. In this paper it is presented a new derivation of the motion equations obtained originally by Hill in 1878 as well as a brief discussion about its possible applications. (Author) 13 refs

  13. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  14. Penyelesaian Masalah 8-Puzzle dengan Algoritma Steepest-Ascent Hill Climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abraham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available 8 puzzle merupakan salah satu implementasi dari Artificial Intelegence. Dalam proses penyelesaiannya banyak terdapat algoritma-algoritma pencarian yang dapat diterapkan. Solusi 8 puzzle akan lebih cepat diperoleh jika digunakan prinsip array dengan variasi algoritma Steepest-Ascent Hill Climbing (Hill Climbing dengan memilih kemiringan yang paling tajam / curam dengan parameter heuristik posisi yang benar dan heuristik jarak serta dikombinasikan dengan LogList sebagai penyimpanan state state yang pernah dilalui untuk menanggulangi permasalah pada algoritma hill climbing itu sendiri dan terhindar dari looping state yang pernah dilalui. Metode-metode yang termasuk ke dalam teknik pencarian yang berdasarkan pada fungsi heuristik salah satu diantaranya adalah Hill Climbing, Best First Search, A* (A Bintang. Loglist merupakan tempat penyimpanan setiap kunjungan dari state-state puzzle yang telah dilakukan untuk menghindari looping atau pengulangan terhadap state yang pernah dilalui. Untuk menanggulangi permasalahan pada SteepestAscent Hill Climbing.

  15. Late Devonian spermatophyte diversity and paleoecology at Red Hill, north-central Pennsylvania, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cressler, Walter L. III. [Francis Harvey Green Library, 29 West Rosedale Avenue, West Chester University, West Chester, PA, 19383 (United States); Prestianni, Cyrille [Universite de Liege, Boulevard du Rectorat B18, Liege 4000 (Belgium); LePage, Ben A. [The Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, PA, 19103 and PECO Energy Company, 2301 Market Avenue, S9-1, Philadelphia, PA 19103 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Early spermatophytes have been discovered at Red Hill, a Late Devonian (Famennian) fossil locality in north-central Pennsylvania, USA. The Red Hill locality contains an Archaeopteris-dominated flora within an outcrop of the Duncannon Member of the Catskill Formation. Palynological analyses of the plant fossil-bearing horizons within the Red Hill outcrop indicate deposition within the VCo palynozone. This is the earliest time horizon known to contain evidence for spermatophytes, and is contemporaneous with well-known spermatophyte-bearing deposits in West Virginia and Belgium. Some of the spermatophyte material from Red Hill compares well with Aglosperma sp., previously known as isolated ovules from the latest Devonian of South Wales and England, thus extending its geographic and stratigraphic range. Red Hill specimens of Aglosperma sp. occur both as isolated ovules and attached to dichotomously forking axes. Additional spermatophyte cupules discovered at Red Hill are morphologically similar to those of the previously described Late Devonian spermatophytes Elkinsia Rothwell, Scheckler, et Gillespie, Moresnetia Stockmans, and Xenotheca Arber et Goode. Some of the Red Hill cupule complexes are distinct from the aforementioned taxa in consisting of slender dichotomously forking axes terminating in paired cupules with highly fused and symmetric cupule quadrant lobes. The distinctive nature of these Red Hill specimens warrants the creation of Duodimidia pfefferkornii Cressler, Prestianni, et LePage gen. et sp. nov. Plant fossil remains with sphenopteroid foliage are also present at Red Hill, possibly attributable to the spermatophytes. Previous systematic sampling of the rich plant-fossil bearing layer at Red Hill and analysis of its floristic diversity and abundance as well as the presence and absence of charcoal suggests a pattern of floral turnover from a local-scale Rhacophyton-dominated community to spermatophyte colonization following disturbance by wildfires

  16. NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    cosmic time. Such "cosmic downsizing" was previously observed for galaxies undergoing star formation. These results connect well with the observations of nearby galaxies, which find that the mass of a supermassive black hole is proportional to the mass of the central region of its host galaxy. The other co-authors on the paper in the February 2005 issue of The Astronomical Journal were Len Cowie, Wei-Hao Wang, and Peter Capak (Institute for Astronomy, Univ. of Hawaii), Yuxuan Yang (GSFC and the Univ. of Maryland, College Park), and Aaron Steffen (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Space Mission Directorate, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., formerly TRW, Inc., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  17. DOE turns down all bids for Elk Hills crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy has rejected all bids submitted in the Mar. 5 semiannual sale of crude oil from Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve (NPR-1) in California. DOE the all 19 bids for the 53,740 b/d of crude were too low. The bids ranged from $11.71 to $14.06/bbl, with the top bids for the highest quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.25/bbl. California oil companies the they bid what the market would bear, explaining a surplus of Alaskan crude on the West Coast has driven down the price of local crudes, notably heavy crudes. DOE will extend the current oil purchase contracts through April while it issues a new request for bids. It planned to issue the solicitation Mar. 23 and receive bids Apr. 15

  18. Column Experiments to Interpret Weathering in Columbia Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Morris, R.V.; Ming, D.W.; Golden, D.C.; Galindo, C.; Sutter, B.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate mobility has been postulated as an indicator of early aqueous activity on Mars. In addition, rock surfaces analyzed by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit are consistent with the loss of a phosphate- containing mineral To interpret phosphate alteration behavior on Mars, we performed column dissolution experiments leaching the primary phases Durango fluorapatite, San Carlos olivine, and basalt glass (Stapafjell Volcano, courtesy of S. Gislason, University of Iceland) [3,4]) with acidic solutions. These phases were chosen to represent quickly dissolving phases likely present in Columbia Hills. Column dissolution experiments are closer to natural dissolution conditions than batch experiments, although they can be difficult to interpret. Acidic solutions were used because the leached layers on the surfaces of these rocks have been interpreted as resulting from acid solutions [5].

  19. A new Lower Triassic ichthyopterygian assemblage from Fossil Hill, Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil P. Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a new ichthyopterygian assemblage from Lower Triassic horizons of the Prida Formation at Fossil Hill in central Nevada. Although fragmentary, the specimens collected so far document a diverse fauna. One partial jaw exhibits isodont dentition with blunt tipped, mesiodistally compressed crowns and striated enamel. These features are shared with the Early Triassic genus Utatsusaurus known from coeval deposits in Japan and British Columbia. An additional specimen exhibits a different dentition characterized by relatively small, rounded posterior teeth resembling other Early Triassic ichthyopterygians, particularly Grippia. This Nevada assemblage marks a southward latitudinal extension for Early Triassic ichthyopterygians along the eastern margin of Panthalassa and indicates repeated trans-hemispheric dispersal events in Early Triassic ichthyopterygians.

  20. Black hole as a wormhole factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Won Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been lots of debates about the final fate of an evaporating black hole and the singularity hidden by an event horizon in quantum gravity. However, on general grounds, one may argue that a black hole stops radiation at the Planck mass (ħc/G1/2∼10−5 g, where the radiated energy is comparable to the black hole's mass. And also, it has been argued that there would be a wormhole-like structure, known as “spacetime foam”, due to large fluctuations below the Planck length (ħG/c31/2∼10−33 cm. In this paper, as an explicit example, we consider an exact classical solution which represents nicely those two properties in a recently proposed quantum gravity model based on different scaling dimensions between space and time coordinates. The solution, called “Black Wormhole”, consists of two different states, depending on its mass parameter M and an IR parameter ω: For the black hole state (with ωM2>1/2, a non-traversable wormhole occupies the interior region of the black hole around the singularity at the origin, whereas for the wormhole state (with ωM2<1/2, the interior wormhole is exposed to an outside observer as the black hole horizon is disappearing from evaporation. The black hole state becomes thermodynamically stable as it approaches the merging point where the interior wormhole throat and the black hole horizon merges, and the Hawking temperature vanishes at the exact merge point (with ωM2=1/2. This solution suggests the “Generalized Cosmic Censorship” by the existence of a wormhole-like structure which protects the naked singularity even after the black hole evaporation. One could understand the would-be wormhole inside the black hole horizon as the result of microscopic wormholes created by “negative” energy quanta which have entered the black hole horizon in Hawking radiation process; the quantum black hole could be a wormhole factory! It is found that this speculative picture may be consistent with the

  1. Draft tube flow phenomena across the bulb turbine hill chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duquesne, P; Fraser, R; Maciel, Y; Aeschlimann, V; Deschênes, C

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the BulbT project launched by the Consortium on Hydraulic Machines and the LAMH (Hydraulic Machine Laboratory of Laval University) in 2011, an intensive campaign to identify flow phenomena in the draft tube of a model bulb turbine has been done. A special focus was put on the draft tube component since it has a particular importance for recuperation in low head turbines. Particular operating points were chosen to analyse flow phenomena in this component. For each of these operating points, power, efficiency and pressure were measured following the IEC 60193 standard. Visualizations, unsteady wall pressure and efficiency measurements were performed in this component. The unsteady wall pressure was monitored at seven locations in the draft tube. The frequency content of each pressure signal was analyzed in order to characterize the flow phenomena across the efficiency hill chart. Visualizations were recorded with a high speed camera using tufts and cavitation bubbles as markers. The predominant detected phenomena were mapped and categorized in relation to the efficiency hill charts obtained for three runner blade openings. At partial load, the vortex rope was detected and characterized. An inflection in the partial load efficiency curves was found to be related to complex vortex rope instabilities. For overload conditions, the efficiency curves present a sharp drop after the best efficiency point, corresponding to an inflection on the power curves. This break off is more severe towards the highest blade openings. It is correlated to a flow separation at the wall of the draft tube. Also, due to the separation occurring in these conditions, a hysteresis effect was observed on the efficiency curves

  2. Surface and Flow Field Measurements on the FAITH Hill Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James H.; Heineck, James T.; Zilliac, Gregory; Mehta, Rabindra D.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2012-01-01

    A series of experimental tests, using both qualitative and quantitative techniques, were conducted to characterize both surface and off-surface flow characteristics of an axisymmetric, modified-cosine-shaped, wall-mounted hill named "FAITH" (Fundamental Aero Investigates The Hill). Two separate models were employed: a 6" high, 18" base diameter machined aluminum model that was used for wind tunnel tests and a smaller scale (2" high, 6" base diameter) sintered nylon version that was used in the water channel facility. Wind tunnel and water channel tests were conducted at mean test section speeds of 165 fps (Reynolds Number based on height = 500,000) and 0.1 fps (Reynolds Number of 1000), respectively. The ratio of model height to boundary later height was approximately 3 for both tests. Qualitative techniques that were employed to characterize the complex flow included surface oil flow visualization for the wind tunnel tests, and dye injection for the water channel tests. Quantitative techniques that were employed to characterize the flow included Cobra Probe to determine point-wise steady and unsteady 3D velocities, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to determine 3D velocities and turbulence statistics along specified planes, Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) to determine mean surface pressures, and Fringe Imaging Skin Friction (FISF) to determine surface skin friction (magnitude and direction). This initial report summarizes the experimental set-up, techniques used, data acquired and describes some details of the dataset that is being constructed for use by other researchers, especially the CFD community. Subsequent reports will discuss the data and their interpretation in more detail

  3. Dirac Particles Emission from An Elliptical Black Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuant Tiandho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the general theory of relativiy, a black hole is defined as a region of spacetime with super-strong gravitational effects and there is nothing can escape from it. So in the classical theory of relativity, it is safe to say that black hole is a "dead" thermodynamical object. However, by using quantum mechanics theory, Hawking has shown that a black hole may emit particles. In this paper, calculation of temperature of an elliptical black hole when emitting the Dirac particles was presented. By using the complexpath method, radiation can be described as emission process in the tunneling pictures. According to relationship between probability of outgoing particle with the spectrum of black body radiation for fermion particles, temperature of the elliptical black hole can be obtained and it depend on the azimuthal angle. This result also showed that condition on the surface of elliptical black hole is not in thermal equilibrium.

  4. Novedades sobre el género Pilosella Hill.: (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España, II

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Sanz, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Se comunica la presencia de diversas especies nuevas del género Pilosella Hill. (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España. Novelties on the genus Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) in Spain, II. Several species of Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) found in Spain.

  5. Theory of synergistic effects: Hill-type response surfaces as 'null-interaction' models for mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Michael

    2017-08-02

    The classification of effects caused by mixtures of agents as synergistic, antagonistic or additive depends critically on the reference model of 'null interaction'. Two main approaches are currently in use, the Additive Dose (ADM) or concentration addition (CA) and the Multiplicative Survival (MSM) or independent action (IA) models. We compare several response surface models to a newly developed Hill response surface, obtained by solving a logistic partial differential equation (PDE). Assuming that a mixture of chemicals with individual Hill-type dose-response curves can be described by an n-dimensional logistic function, Hill's differential equation for pure agents is replaced by a PDE for mixtures whose solution provides Hill surfaces as 'null-interaction' models and relies neither on Bliss independence or Loewe additivity nor uses Chou's unified general theory. An n-dimensional logistic PDE decribing the Hill-type response of n-component mixtures is solved. Appropriate boundary conditions ensure the correct asymptotic behaviour. Mathematica 11 (Wolfram, Mathematica Version 11.0, 2016) is used for the mathematics and graphics presented in this article. The Hill response surface ansatz can be applied to mixtures of compounds with arbitrary Hill parameters. Restrictions which are required when deriving analytical expressions for response surfaces from other principles, are unnecessary. Many approaches based on Loewe additivity turn out be special cases of the Hill approach whose increased flexibility permits a better description of 'null-effect' responses. Missing sham-compliance of Bliss IA, known as Colby's model in agrochemistry, leads to incompatibility with the Hill surface ansatz. Examples of binary and ternary mixtures illustrate the differences between the approaches. For Hill-slopes close to one and doses below the half-maximum effect doses MSM (Colby, Bliss, Finney, Abbott) predicts synergistic effects where the Hill model indicates 'null

  6. Three new butterfly records for peninsular India: Dusky Yellow-breasted Flat Gerosis phisara (Moore (Hesperiidae, Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni Moore (Lycaenidae and Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus (Doubleday (Nymphalidae from Similipal Hills, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Nair

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Three species of butterflies hitherto known only from the Himalayan region and northeastern India, viz. Dusky Yellow-breasted Flat Gerosis phisara (Moore, Common Gem Poritia hewitsoni Moore and Great Nawab Polyura eudamippus (Doubleday were recorded from Similipal Hills, Odisha, thus constituting significant new locality records and range extensions for peninsular India. This also re-inforces the unique bio-geographic role of Similipal as a hill range harbouring representatives of north-eastern and autochthonous peninsular Indian species and supports its putative function as a possible pathway along the Eastern Ghats for species exchange between bio-geographical zones.

  7. Bounded excursion stable gravastars and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, P [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Avenida Litoranea, s/n, Boa Viagem 24210-340, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Miguelote, A Y; Chan, R [Coordenacao de Astronomia e Astrofisica, Observatorio Nacional, Rua General Jose Cristino, 77, Sao Cristovao 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Da Silva, M F; Wang, Anzhong [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Santos, N O, E-mail: pedrosennarocha@gmail.com, E-mail: yasuda@on.br, E-mail: chan@on.br, E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com, E-mail: N.O.Santos@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu [LERMA/CNRS-FRE 2460, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, ERGA, Boite 142, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-06-15

    Dynamical models of prototype gravastars were constructed in order to study their stability. The models are the Visser-Wiltshire three-layer gravastars, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of stiff fluid divides the whole spacetime into two regions, where the internal region is de Sitter, and the external one is Schwarzschild. It is found that in some cases the models represent the 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes occurs. In the phase space, the region for the 'bounded excursion' gravastars is very small in comparison to that of black holes, but not empty. Therefore, although the possibility of the existence of gravastars cannot be excluded from such dynamical models, our results indicate that, even if gravastars do indeed exist, that does not exclude the possibility of the existence of black holes.

  8. Primary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.; Polnarev, A.

    1981-01-01

    Proves are searched for of the formation of the so-called primary black holes at the very origin of the universe. The black holes would weigh less than 10 13 kg. The formation of a primary black hole is conditional on strong fluctuations of the gravitational field corresponding roughly to a half of the fluctuation maximally permissible by the general relativity theory. Only big fluctuations of the gravitational field can overcome the forces of the hot gas pressure and compress the originally expanding matter into a black hole. Low-mass black holes have a temperature exceeding that of the black holes formed from stars. A quantum process of particle formation, the so-called evaporation takes place in the strong gravitational field of a black hole. The lower the mass of the black hole, the shorter the evaporation time. The analyses of processes taking place during the evaporation of low-mass primary black holes show that only a very small proportion of the total mass of the matter in the universe could turn into primary black holes. (M.D.)

  9. Chemical changes associated with zeolitization of the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The chemistry of the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills was examined in samples collected over a 100 2 km area south of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex to determine regional geochemical patterns during zeolitization. Samples of 58 vitric and zeolitic tuffs were analyzed for 48 elements by a combination of x-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and neutron activation analysis. Major and trace element concentrations for zeolitic tuffs vary significantly from those for vitric tuffs. Complex, geographically-controlled patterns of elemental enrichment and depletion in the zeolitic tuffs are found for Na, K, Ca, Mg, U, Rb, Sr, Ba and Cs. Vitric and zeolitic tuffs generally have the same SiO 2 contents on an anhydrous basis, but minor net silica gain or loss has occurred in some samples. Zeolitic tuffs from the northern part of the study area, adjacent to the caldera complex, are notably K-rich and Na- and U-poor compared to zeolitic tuffs to the south. The compositions of the K-rich zeolitic tuffs are similar to those found in other areas of the western US where volcanic rocks are affected by potassium metasomatism. Alteration of vitric tuffs took place in an open chemical system and geographic control of major element compositions probably reflects regional variations in groundwater chemistry during alteration. The K-rich zeolitic tuffs in the northern part of the study area were probably altered by hydrothermal fluids whereas tuffs further south were altered by lower-temperature groundwaters

  10. Conditioning exercises in ski jumping: biomechanical relationship of squat jumps, imitation jumps, and hill jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Silvio; Ammann, Fabian; Windmüller, Sabrina; Häberle, Ramona; Müller, Sören; Gross, Micah; Plüss, Michael; Plüss, Stefan; Schödler, Berni; Hübner, Klaus

    2017-11-22

    As hill jumps are very time-consuming, ski jumping athletes often perform various imitation jumps during training. The performed jumps should be similar to hill jumps, but a direct comparison of the kinetic and kinematic parameters has not been performed yet. Therefore, this study aimed to correlate 11 common parameters during hill jumps (Oberstdorf Germany), squat jumps (wearing indoor shoes), and various imitation jumps (rolling 4°, rolling flat, static; jumping equipment or indoor shoes) on a custom-built instrumented vehicle with a catch by the coach. During the performed jumps, force and video data of the take-off of 10 athletes were measured. The imitation and squat jumps were then ranked. The main difference between the hill jumps and the imitation and squat jumps is the higher maximal force loading rate during the hill jumps. Imitation jumps performed on a rolling platform, on flat ground were the most similar to hill jumps in terms of the force-time, and leg joint kinematic properties. Thus, non-hill jumps with a technical focus should be performed from a rolling platform with a flat inrun with normal indoor shoes or jumping equipment, and high normal force loading rates should be the main focus of imitation training.

  11. Stability of black holes in de Sitter space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, F.; Moss, I.

    1990-01-01

    The theory of black-hole perturbations is extended to charged black holes in de Sitter space. These spacetimes have wormholes connecting different asymptotic regions. It appears that, at least in some cases, these holes are stable even at the Cauchy horizon. It follows that they violate cosmic censorship and an observer could in principle travel through the black hole to another universe. The stability of these spacetimes also implies the existence of a cosmological ''no hair'' theorem

  12. Using UAVSAR to Estimate Creep Along the Superstition Hills Fault, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    UAVSAR data were first acquired over the Salton Trough region, just north of the Mexican border in October 2009. Second passes of data were acquired on 12 and 13 April 2010, about one week following the 5 April 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake. The earthquake resulted in creep on several faults north of the main rupture, including the Yuha, Imperial, and Superstition Hills faults. The UAVSAR platform acquires data about every six meters in swaths about 15 km wide. Tropospheric effects and residual aircraft motion contribute to error in the estimation of surface deformation in the Repeat Pass Interferometry products. The Superstition Hills fault shows clearly in the associated radar interferogram; however, error in the data product makes it difficult to infer deformation from long profiles that cross the fault. Using the QuakeSim InSAR Profile tool we extracted line of site profiles on either side of the fault delineated in the interferogram. We were able to remove much of the correlated error by differencing profiles 250 m on either side of the fault. The result shows right-lateral creep of 1.5±.4 mm along the northern 7 km of the fault in the interferogram. The amount of creep abruptly changes to 8.4±.4 mm of right lateral creep along at least 9 km of the fault covered in the image to the south. The transition occurs within less than 100 m along the fault. We also extracted 2 km long line of site profiles perpendicular to this section of the fault. Averaging these profiles shows a step across the fault of 14.9±.3 mm with greater creep on the order of 20 mm on the northern two profiles and lower creep of about 10 mm on the southern two profiles. Nearby GPS stations P503 and P493 are consistent with this result. They also confirm that the creep event occurred at the time of the El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake. By removing regional deformation resulting from the main rupture we were able to invert for the depth of creep from the surface. Results indicate

  13. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  14. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  15. Accreting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these ...

  16. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Effects of mineralogy on sorption of strontium and cesium onto Calico Hills Tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Land, J.F.

    1990-04-01

    The sorption properties of tuff formations at the proposed site for the high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been extensively studied. Sorption and desorption measurements were made of strontium and cesium onto clinoptilolite and Calico Hills Tuff. The object was to see whether there was a correlation between sorption of strontium and cesium onto Calico Hills Tuff and the sorption of strontium and cesium onto clinoptilolite based on the content of clinoptilolite in the Calico Hills Tuff. 13 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Geodynamic modelling of the Broken Hill mineralising system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.; Walshe, J.; Ord, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The origin of the Broken Hill ore body is the topic of considerable controversy and there are at least seven ore genesis models in vogue (Parr and Plimer, 1993). Unfortunately none of the data are definitive with respect to one model or another and progress in the area is hindered by protagonists adhering to their pet model by inventing processes that enable a problematic data set to fit their particular model. We attempt here to overcome some of these difficulties by adopting a very simplistic approach and assume that each data set is to be interpreted at face value with no attempt to distort the data so that it fits some predetermined philosophy. The data sets to be taken at face value are: (i) The carbon isotopic data which are ambiguous and can be taken to indicate either a source of carbon from organic sources and/or from deep crustal/mantle sources. (ii) The sulphur isotopic data which indicate a plutonic/hydrothermal source for the sulphur. (iii) The lead isotopic data which indicate a crustal source for the lead but perhaps with some mixing with a mantle source. (iv) The lead model age which indicates an age for the mineralisation ( 1675 Ma), 15 million years younger than the SHRIMP U-Pb ages for the host sediments (1690 Ma). However the errors are such that an origin synchronous with sedimentation is still possible. In the form of model constraints, we also assume that Broken Hill Type mineralisation is a true type, namely, Pb/Zn mineralisation that occurs in what are now amphibolite to granulite grades of metamorphism. This observation implies that the mineralisation is spatially and temporally associated with high grade metamorphism or that the site of mineralisation is associated with diagenesis or low grade metamorphism but is such that late in the geotectonic history that site is predestined to undergo high grade metamorphism. Since the only experimental data available on Pb/Zn solubilities involves oxidised fluids we are forced to develop

  20. The Black Family as Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joan

    The black family is the primary socializing agent of the black child and, thus, the primary educator. The culture of blacks in America, in which the child is steeped, is unique, complex and rich-the result of a convergence and fusion of African, American, and European influences. In its education of the black child, the black family must deal,…