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Sample records for black fly simulium

  1. Ecdysteroids and oocyte development in the black fly Simulium vittatum

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    Hagedorn Henry H

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte development was studied in the autogenous black fly, Simulium vittatum (Diptera, Nematocera, a vector of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. Results Oocyte growth was nearly linear between adult eclosion and was complete by 72 hours at 21°C. The oocyte became opaque at 14 hours after eclosion indicating the initiation of protein yolk deposition. The accumulation of vitellogenin was measured using SDS-PAGE. The density of the yolk protein bands at about 200 and 65 kDa increased during the first and second days after eclosion. The amount of protein in the 200 kDa band of vitellogenin, determined using densitometry, rapidly increased between 12 and 25 hours after eclosion. Ecdysteroid levels were measured using a competitive ELISA. Ecdysteroid levels increased rapidly and subsequently declined during the first day after eclosion. Conclusion These data show a correlation between the appearance of vitellogenin in the oocyte, and the rise in ecdysteroids. A possible relationship to molting of the nematode, Onchocerca volvulus, is discussed.

  2. Cryptic Biodiversity and the Origins of Pest Status Revealed in the Macrogenome of Simulium colombaschense (Diptera: Simuliidae), History’s Most Destructive Black Fly

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    Adler, Peter H.; Kúdelová, Tatiana; Kúdela, Matúš; Seitz, Gunther; Ignjatović-Ćupina, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The European black fly Simulium (Simulium) colombaschense (Scopoli), once responsible for as many as 22,000 livestock deaths per year, is chromosomally mapped, permitting its evolutionary relationships and pest drivers to be inferred. The species is 12 fixed inversions removed from the standard sequence of the subgenus Simulium. Three of these fixed inversions, 38 autosomal polymorphisms, and a complex set of 12 X and 6 Y chromosomes in 29 zygotic combinations uniquely characterize S. colomba...

  3. Population genetic structure and demographic history of the black fly vector, Simulium nodosum in Thailand.

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    Chaiyasan, P; Pramual, P

    2016-09-01

    An understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of vector species is crucial for effective control and management. In this study, mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to examine the genetic structure, diversity and demographic history of a black fly vector, Simulium nodosum Puri (Diptera: Simuliidae), in Thailand. A total of 145 sequences were obtained from 10 sampling locations collected across geographical ranges in the country. Low genetic diversity was found in populations of S. nodosum that could be explained by the recent population history of this species. Demographic history analysis revealed a signature of demographic expansion dating back to only 2600-5200 years ago. Recent population expansion in S. nodosum possibly followed an increase in agriculture that enabled its hosts', humans and domestic animals, densities to increase. Alternatively, the Thai populations could be a derivative of an older expansion event in the more northern populations. Mitochondrial DNA genealogy revealed no genetically divergent lineages, which agrees with the previous cytogenetic study. Genetic structure analyses found that only 27% of the pairwise comparisons were significantly different. The most likely explanation for the pattern of genetic structuring is the effect of genetic drift because of recent colonization. PMID:27245148

  4. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 μg/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment

  5. Development of a novel trap for the collection of black flies of the Simulium ochraceum complex.

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    Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human landing collections are currently the standard method for collecting onchocerciasis vectors in Africa and Latin America. As part of the efforts to develop a trap to replace human landing collections for the monitoring and surveillance of onchocerciasis transmission, comprehensive evaluations of several trap types were conducted to assess their ability to collect Simulium ochraceum sensu lato, one of the principal vectors of Onchocerca volvulus in Latin America. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Diverse trap designs with numerous modifications and bait variations were evaluated for their abilities to collect S. Ochraceum s.l. females. These traps targeted mostly host seeking flies. A novel trap dubbed the "Esperanza window trap" showed particular promise over other designs. When baited with CO2 and BG-lure (a synthetic blend of human odor components a pair of Esperanza window traps collected numbers of S. Ochraceum s.l. females similar to those collected by a team of vector collectors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Esperanza window trap, when baited with chemical lures and CO2 can be used to collect epidemiologically significant numbers of Simulium ochraceum s.l., potentially serving as a replacement for human landing collections for evaluation of the transmission of O. volvulus.

  6. Simukunin from the salivary glands of the black fly Simulium vittatum inhibits enzymes that regulate clotting and inflammatory responses.

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    Hitoshi Tsujimoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae feed on blood, and are important vectors of Onchocerca volvulus, the etiolytic agent of River Blindness. Blood feeding depends on pharmacological properties of saliva, including anticoagulation, but the molecules responsible for this activity have not been well characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two Kunitz family proteins, SV-66 and SV-170, were identified in the sialome of the black fly Simulium vittatum. As Kunitz proteins are inhibitors of serine proteases, we hypothesized that SV-66 and/or -170 were involved in the anticoagulant activity of black fly saliva. Our results indicated that recombinant (r SV-66 but not rSV-170 inhibited plasma coagulation. Mutational analysis suggested that SV-66 is a canonical BPTI-like inhibitor. Functional assays indicated that rSV66 reduced the activity of ten serine proteases, including several involved in mammalian coagulation. rSV-66 most strongly inhibited the activity of Factor Xa, elastase, and cathepsin G, exhibited lesser inhibitory activity against Factor IXa, Factor XIa, and plasmin, and exhibited no activity against Factor XIIa and thrombin. Surface plasmon resonance studies indicated that rSV-66 bound with highest affinity to elastase (K(D = 0.4 nM and to the active site of FXa (K(D = 3.07 nM. We propose the name "Simukunin" for this novel protein. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that Simukunin preferentially inhibits Factor Xa. The inhibition of elastase and cathepsin G further suggests this protein may modulate inflammation, which could potentially affect pathogen transmission.

  7. Simulium (Chirostilbia) bifenestratum (Diptera, Simuliidae), a new black-fly species from the Atlantic forest, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Neusa Hamada; Mateus Pepinelli

    2004-01-01

    The larva, pupa, male, and female of Simulium bifenestratum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The pupae of the new species have 10 gill filaments, thick at their base and arranged in a three-dimensional way, surrounding the head and thorax. Its pupal cocoon is peculiar, not found in any of the known Brazilian black-fly species; it is very thick and hard with two openings in the anterior region. S. bifenestratum n. sp. was collected in one stream in the Bocaina mountain chain, Atlantic for...

  8. Simulium (Gomphostilbia) sofiani, a new species of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) from peninsular Malaysia.

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    Takaoka, H; Sofian-Azirun, M; Hashim, R

    2011-08-01

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) sofiani sp. nov. is described on the basis of reared adult female, male, pupal and larval specimens collected from Cameron Highlands, Pahang state, Malaysia. This new species is placed in the ceylonicum species-group within the subgenus Gomphostilbia and is easily distinguished from all the related known species by the combination of the following characteristics: an elongate sensory vesicle and yellow hair tuft on the stem vein of the wing in the female, the greater number of large upper-eye facets (15 or 16 vertical columns and 15 or 16 horizontal rows) and almost entirely darkened hind basitarsus in the male, and the gill bearing a long common basal stalk and 8 filaments arranged as [(1+2)+(1+2)] +2 filaments from dorsal to ventral in the pupa. PMID:22041761

  9. Cryptic Biodiversity and the Origins of Pest Status Revealed in the Macrogenome of Simulium colombaschense (Diptera: Simuliidae), History’s Most Destructive Black Fly

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    Adler, Peter H.; Kúdelová, Tatiana; Kúdela, Matúš; Seitz, Gunther; Ignjatović-Ćupina, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The European black fly Simulium (Simulium) colombaschense (Scopoli), once responsible for as many as 22,000 livestock deaths per year, is chromosomally mapped, permitting its evolutionary relationships and pest drivers to be inferred. The species is 12 fixed inversions removed from the standard sequence of the subgenus Simulium. Three of these fixed inversions, 38 autosomal polymorphisms, and a complex set of 12 X and 6 Y chromosomes in 29 zygotic combinations uniquely characterize S. colombaschense and reveal 5 cytoforms: ‘A’ in the Danube watershed, ‘B’ in Italy’s Adige River, ‘C’ in the Aliakmonas River of Greece, ‘D’ in the Aoös drainage in Greece, and ‘E’ in the Belá River of Slovakia. ‘C’ and ‘D’ are reproductively isolated from one another, and ‘B’ is considered a cytotype of ‘A,’ the probable name bearer of colombaschense. The species status of ‘E’ cannot be determined without additional collections. Three derived polytene sequences, based on outgroup comparisons, place S. colombaschense in a clade of species composed of the S. jenningsi, S. malyschevi, and S. reptans species groups. Only cytoforms ‘A’ and ‘B’ are pests. Within the Simuliidae, pest status is reached through one of two principal pathways, both of which promote the production of large populations of blood-seeking flies: (1) colonization of the world’s largest rivers (habitat specialization) or (2) colonization of multiple habitat types (habitat generalization). Evolutionary acquisition of the ability to colonize large rivers by an ancestor of the S. jenningsi-malyschevi-reptans clade set the scene for the pest status of S. colombaschense and other big-river members of the clade. In an ironic twist, the macrogenome of S. colombaschense reveals that the name associated with history’s worst simuliid pest represents a complex of species, two or more of which are nonpests potentially vulnerable to loss of their limited habitat. PMID:26808274

  10. Simukunin from the Salivary Glands of the Black Fly Simulium vittatum Inhibits Enzymes That Regulate Clotting and Inflammatory Responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsujimoto, H.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Eum, J. H.; Strand, M. R.; Champagne, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2012), e29964. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Simulium vittatum * Kunitz-family protein * elastase * cathepsin G * Factor Xa * coagulation * inflammation * serine proteases * BPTI-like inhibitor * Simukunin Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  11. Simulium (Psilopelmia virescens, a new black-fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae from the southwestern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Neusa Hamada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The last-instar larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium virescens sp. nov. are described and illustrated. This species has a peculiar larva, which has an elongated head capsule and light-green colour. The first thoracic segment has tubercle on its dorsal region and the third thoracic segment has one pair of tubercles; the first to the fourth abdominal segments have one pair of tubercles on each segment. Until now this new species had only been collected at the type locality, which is on the middle stretch of the Correntina River in the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Females were voraciously biting humans during the field work. This new species represents the second species of Simulium(Psilopelmia in Brazil and the first registered outside of the Brazilian Amazon Region.

  12. Parasites of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae in Thailand

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    Sanae Jitklang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of larval black flies are reported for the first time from Thailand, including mermithid nematodes(Mermithidae, microsporidian fungi (Zygomycota, and the fungus Coelomycidium simulii Debaisieux (Blastocladiomycetes.The following nine species of black flies were infected with one or more parasites: Simulium asakoae, S. chamlongi,S. chiangmaiense, S. fenestratum, S. feuerborni, S. nakhonense, S. nodosum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. tani. The prevalenceof patent infections per host species per season was 0.1–7.1% for mermithids, 0.1–6.0% for microsporidia, and 0.1–3.0% forC. simulii.

  13. A cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide with anti-inflammatory activity from the black fly salivary glands

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    WU, Jing; Mu, Lixian; Zhuang, Li; Han, Yi; Liu, Tong; Jun LI; Yang, Yuan; Yang, Hailong; Wei, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) belonging to the cecropin family have been identified from the salivary glands of different black fly species, however, the immunological functions for these molecules were poorly understood. Methods A novel cecropin-like antimicrobial peptide (SibaCec) was purified using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) from the salivary glands of the black fly Simulium bannaense. The amino acid sequence of SibaCec was determined ...

  14. Chromosomal Translocations in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae-Facilitators of Adaptive Radiation?

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    Peter H Adler

    Full Text Available A macrogenomic investigation of a Holarctic clade of black flies-the Simulium cholodkovskii lineage-provided a platform to explore the implications of a unique, synapomorphic whole-arm interchange in the evolution of black flies. Nearly 60 structural rearrangements were discovered in the polytene complement of the lineage, including 15 common to all 138 analyzed individuals, relative to the central sequence for the entire subgenus Simulium. Three species were represented, of which two Palearctic entities (Simulium cholodkovskii and S. decimatum were sympatric; an absence of hybrids confirmed their reproductive isolation. A third (Nearctic entity had nonhomologous sex chromosomes, relative to the other species, and is considered a separate species, for which the name Simulium nigricoxum is revalidated. A cytophylogeny is inferred and indicates that the two Palearctic taxa are sister species and these, in turn, are the sister group of the Nearctic species. The rise of the S. cholodkovskii lineage encompassed complex chromosomal and genomic restructuring phenomena associated with speciation in black flies, viz. expression of one and the same rearrangement as polymorphic, fixed, or sex linked in different species; taxon-specific differentiation of sex chromosomes; and reciprocal translocation of chromosome arms. The translocation is hypothesized to have occurred early in male spermatogonia, with the translocated chromosomal complement being transmitted to the X- and Y-bearing sperm during spermatogenesis, resulting in alternate disjunction of viable F1 translocation heterozygotes and the eventual formation of more viable and selectable F2 translocation homozygous progeny. Of 11 or 12 independently derived whole-arm interchanges known in the family Simuliidae, at least six are associated with subsequent speciation events, suggesting a facilitating role of translocations in adaptive radiations. The findings are discussed in the context of potential

  15. Chromosomal Translocations in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae)—Facilitators of Adaptive Radiation?

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    Adler, Peter H.; Yadamsuren, Oyunchuluun; Procunier, William S.

    2016-01-01

    A macrogenomic investigation of a Holarctic clade of black flies—the Simulium cholodkovskii lineage—provided a platform to explore the implications of a unique, synapomorphic whole-arm interchange in the evolution of black flies. Nearly 60 structural rearrangements were discovered in the polytene complement of the lineage, including 15 common to all 138 analyzed individuals, relative to the central sequence for the entire subgenus Simulium. Three species were represented, of which two Palearctic entities (Simulium cholodkovskii and S. decimatum) were sympatric; an absence of hybrids confirmed their reproductive isolation. A third (Nearctic) entity had nonhomologous sex chromosomes, relative to the other species, and is considered a separate species, for which the name Simulium nigricoxum is revalidated. A cytophylogeny is inferred and indicates that the two Palearctic taxa are sister species and these, in turn, are the sister group of the Nearctic species. The rise of the S. cholodkovskii lineage encompassed complex chromosomal and genomic restructuring phenomena associated with speciation in black flies, viz. expression of one and the same rearrangement as polymorphic, fixed, or sex linked in different species; taxon-specific differentiation of sex chromosomes; and reciprocal translocation of chromosome arms. The translocation is hypothesized to have occurred early in male spermatogonia, with the translocated chromosomal complement being transmitted to the X- and Y-bearing sperm during spermatogenesis, resulting in alternate disjunction of viable F1 translocation heterozygotes and the eventual formation of more viable and selectable F2 translocation homozygous progeny. Of 11 or 12 independently derived whole-arm interchanges known in the family Simuliidae, at least six are associated with subsequent speciation events, suggesting a facilitating role of translocations in adaptive radiations. The findings are discussed in the context of potential structural and

  16. Trichomycete Fungi (Zygomycota Associated with the Digestive Tract of Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello and Simulium ulyssesi (Py-Daniel & Coscarón (Diptera: Simuliidae Larvae, in Central Amazônia, Brazil

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    Claudia Ríos-Velásquez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomycete fungi are associated with digestive tract of black fly larvae. These fungi have not been studied in Brazil, knowing them and their relationship with black flies could be an alternative to control vector populations. The objectives of this study were to survey the Trichomycete fungi associated with larvae of Simulium goeldii and S. ulyssesi, and to determine if there is specificity and/or difference in the infection rates in these species. Black flies were collected in Central Amazônia, Brazil. Three genera of Trichomycetes were found: Harpella, Genistellospora and Smittium. All these fungi were common to both black fly species.

  17. Effects of algae on the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis against larval black flies.

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    Stephens, Marianne S; Overmyer, Jay P; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Ray

    2004-06-01

    Personnel from several black fly control programs have reported that the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelesis (Bti) is reduced during periods when algal concentrations are high in the waterways. Although the reduction in Bti-induced mortality in black fly larvae is presumed to be related to the presence of algae, no scientific data support this theory. In this study, 4 genera of algae (Microcytis, Scenedesmus, Dictrosphaerium, and Chlorella) commonly detected in Pennsylvania rivers where Bti-induced mortality in black fly larvae has been reduced were assessed to determine their respective effects on Bti-induced mortality by using an orbital shaker bioassay with laboratory-reared black fly larvae (Simulium vittatum cytospecies IS-7). A significant reduction in Bti-induced mortality was observed when Scenedesmus was present in the flasks at concentrations > or = 16,000 cells/ml. The Bti-induced mortality of larvae was not significantly reduced when Chlorella, Dictyosphaerium, or Microcytis was present in the flasks, even at concentrations > or = 250,000 cells/ml. These results indicate that the presence of certain types of algae can reduce the mortality of black flies exposed to Bti. Although not clearly defined, the mechanisms involved may be related to algal morphology due to overall size and structures associated with certain types of algae, and possible interference with feeding. PMID:15264627

  18. Chemical Control of Black Flies in Large Rivers as an Impact in Agrochemical Residue-Biota Interactions in Water Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock losses have been an obstacle to economic development of the farming and livestock industry in more northerly areas of Canada until two species of black fly, Simulium arcticum and S. luggeri, outbreaks are controlled effectively. The problem is complicated by its association with an abundance of large rivers and streams. Since effective control of black flies is presently limited to reduction of their breeding sources in flowing water, the managers of Canadian inland waters have been concerned about any major practice of using pesticides as black fly larvicides. Consequently, Canadian inland waters have been subject to continuous monitoring of major drainage systems with special attention to the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides. The latest status of residues was published from a Canadian Survey of 333 sampling locations between 1972 and 1975

  19. Water pollution and distribution of the black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

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    Docile, Tatiana N; Figueiró, Ronaldo; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo H; Nessimian, Jorge L

    2015-09-01

    Black flies have medical importance because some species are vectors of the unenocerciasis and Mansonelosis, nevertheless, their ecology and potential use as bioindicators is still poorly studied in the Neotropical Region. In Brazil, bioindicators use is strongly focused in a multimetrical ecological index approach; this way, we investigated the black fly spatial distribution, in relation to abiotic factors correlated to water quality, to provide baseline information for their utilization as standalone indicators of lotic systems integrity. We have tested the hypothesis that environmental changes related to urbanization, lead to decreased abundance and loss in the number of species of the black fly fauna. The sampling was conducted in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September) of 2012, in the mountainous region of Teres6polis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The streams were characterized for their environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. In each stream, five different rapid points were sampled in a section of 50 meters, 10 meters apart from each other. The black flies were sampled with a kick-net sampler on rocky substrates. The material was separated and the larvae were sorted in morphotypes, and later, the final instar specimens were dissected and identified with the help of taxonomical literature at species level. A total abundance of 488 larvae from nine species were collected, 5 (1.02 %) in extremely impacted streams, 470 (96.31 %) in intermediate streams and 13 (2.66 %) in preserved streams. The visual evaluation (HII) differed in relation to the water physico-chemical evaluation, in which more variation in the characterization of the sampling sites was observed. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis Simulium subpallidum, S. inscrustatum and S. pertinax were significantly associated with intermediate values of most of the variables, and then to intermediate impacted sites. On the other hand

  20. A simple isothermal DNA amplification method to screen black flies for Onchocerca volvulus infection.

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    Alhassan, Andy; Makepeace, Benjamin L; LaCourse, Elwyn James; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2014-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Adult worms live in subcutaneous tissues and produce large numbers of microfilariae that migrate to the skin and eyes. The disease is spread by black flies of the genus Simulium following ingestion of microfilariae that develop into infective stage larvae in the insect. Currently, transmission is monitored by capture and dissection of black flies and microscopic examination of parasites, or using the polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of parasite DNA in pools of black flies. In this study we identified a new DNA biomarker, encoding O. volvulus glutathione S-transferase 1a (OvGST1a), to detect O. volvulus infection in vector black flies. We developed an OvGST1a-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay where amplification of specific target DNA is detectable using turbidity or by a hydroxy naphthol blue color change. The results indicated that the assay is sensitive and rapid, capable of detecting DNA equivalent to less than one microfilaria within 60 minutes. The test is highly specific for the human parasite, as no cross-reaction was detected using DNA from the closely related and sympatric cattle parasite Onchocerca ochengi. The test has the potential to be developed further as a field tool for use in the surveillance of transmission before and after implementation of mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis. PMID:25299656

  1. Investigations into Outbreaks of Black Fly Attacks and Subsequent Avian Haemosporidians in Backyard-Type Poultry and Other Exposed Avian Species.

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    Jones, Kelli; Johnson, Nora; Yang, Sharon; Stokes, John; Smith, Whitney; Wills, Robert; Goddard, Jerome; Varela-Stokes, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    In late spring of 2009 and 2010, there were reports of severe black fly (Simulium spp., shown in Fig. 1) outbreaks in various counties in Mississippi, especially those in and around the Mississippi River Delta. Complaints were of black flies attacking multiple species of backyard poultry and causing high morbidity and mortality in affected flocks. At several affected locations, black flies were readily observed swarming around and feeding on birds. A large number of these parasites were easily trapped on fly strips (Fig. 2). Multifocal to coalescing cutaneous hemorrhagic lesions, consistent with fly bites, were seen on the birds. Upon necropsy examination, a large number of black flies were also observed in the digestive tract (Fig. 3). Although black flies may cause disease directly, such as cardiopulmonary collapse and anaphylactoid reactions, detection of Leucocytozoon in blood smears (Fig. 4) of affected birds prompted further investigations of this protozoan as a cause of disease. Leucocytozoon spp. are known to be transmitted by black flies and may be associated with morbidity and mortality in birds such as poultry. From June 2009 through July 2012, the investigation included a total collection of 1068 individual blood samples, representing 371 individual premises in 89 counties/parishes across Mississippi (59), Alabama (10), Louisiana (4), and Tennessee (16). Of the 371 premises where blood samples were collected, 96 (26%) were either positive or highly suspected to be positive for Leucocytozoon spp. by blood smear analysis, and 5 (1.2%) were positive for Haemoproteus spp. by blood smear analysis. Attempts to diagnose Leucocytozoon spp. by PCR analysis and sequencing were complicated by coinfections with two closely related haemosporidians (Haemoproteus spp. and Plasmodium spp.). A novel technique involving flow cytometry was also explored. This study discusses the black fly field outbreak, the involvement of haemosporidians, molecular methods for detection

  2. Control of bloodsucking black fly (Simuliidae) populations in Lithuania

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    Bartninkaitė, Ilona; Bernotienė, Rasa; Pakalniškis, Saulius; Žygutienė, Milda

    2006-01-01

    The outbreak of bloodsucking black flies began in the 70s of the 20th century in the south-eastern part of Lithuania. By 1990, the biting activity of bloodsucking black flies increased and had become a serious problem. The bloodsucking insects caused losses of cattle and domestic birds and tormented holiday-makers in the Druskininkai health-resort. Biological larvicide based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was used for bloodsucking black fly control in 1999–2005. The larvicide was ...

  3. An insight into the sialome of Simulium guianense (DIPTERA:SIMulIIDAE, the main vector of River Blindness Disease in Brazil

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    Chagas Andrezza C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the composition and function of the saliva in black flies such as Simulium guianense, the main vector of river blindness disease in Brazil. The complex salivary potion of hematophagous arthropods counteracts their host's hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity. Results Transcriptome analysis revealed ubiquitous salivary protein families--such as the Antigen-5, Yellow, Kunitz domain, and serine proteases--in the S. guianense sialotranscriptome. Insect-specific families were also found. About 63.4% of all secreted products revealed protein families found only in Simulium. Additionally, we found a novel peptide similar to kunitoxin with a structure distantly related to serine protease inhibitors. This study revealed a relative increase of transcripts of the SVEP protein family when compared with Simulium vittatum and S. nigrimanum sialotranscriptomes. We were able to extract coding sequences from 164 proteins associated with blood and sugar feeding, the majority of which were confirmed by proteome analysis. Conclusions Our results contribute to understanding the role of Simulium saliva in transmission of Onchocerca volvulus and evolution of salivary proteins in black flies. It also consists of a platform for mining novel anti-hemostatic compounds, vaccine candidates against filariasis, and immuno-epidemiologic markers of vector exposure.

  4. Individual exposure to Simulium bites and intensity of Onchocerca volvulus infection

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    Enyong P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of river blindness, is transmitted through the black fly Simulium damnosum s.l., which breeds in turbulent river waters. To date, the number of flies attacking humans has only been determined by standard fly collectors near the river or the village. In our study, we counted the actual number of attacking and successfully feeding S. damnosum s.l. flies landing on individual villagers during their routine day-time activities in two villages of the Sudan-savannah and rainforest of Cameroon. We compared these numbers to the number of flies caught by a standard vector-collector, one positioned near the particular villager during his/her daily activity and the other sitting at the nearest Simulium breeding site. Results Using these data obtained by the two vector-collectors, we were able to calculate the Actual Index of Exposure (AIE. While the AIE in the savannah was on average 6,3%, it was 34% in the rainforest. The Effective Annual Transmission Potential (EATP for individual villagers was about 20 fold higher in the rainforest compared to the savannah. Conclusions Here we show for the first time that it is possible to determine the EATP. Further studies with more subjects are needed in the future. These data are important for the development of future treatment strategies.

  5. Oligonucleotide based magnetic bead capture of Onchocerca volvulus DNA for PCR pool screening of vector black flies.

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    Hemavathi Gopal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Entomological surveys of Simulium vectors are an important component in the criteria used to determine if Onchocerca volvulus transmission has been interrupted and if focal elimination of the parasite has been achieved. However, because infection in the vector population is quite rare in areas where control has succeeded, large numbers of flies need to be examined to certify transmission interruption. Currently, this is accomplished through PCR pool screening of large numbers of flies. The efficiency of this process is limited by the size of the pools that may be screened, which is in turn determined by the constraints imposed by the biochemistry of the assay. The current method of DNA purification from pools of vector black flies relies upon silica adsorption. This method can be applied to screen pools containing a maximum of 50 individuals (from the Latin American vectors or 100 individuals (from the African vectors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have evaluated an alternative method of DNA purification for pool screening of black flies which relies upon oligonucleotide capture of Onchocerca volvulus genomic DNA from homogenates prepared from pools of Latin American and African vectors. The oligonucleotide capture assay was shown to reliably detect one O. volvulus infective larva in pools containing 200 African or Latin American flies, representing a two-four fold improvement over the conventional assay. The capture assay requires an equivalent amount of technical time to conduct as the conventional assay, resulting in a two-four fold reduction in labor costs per insect assayed and reduces reagent costs to $3.81 per pool of 200 flies, or less than $0.02 per insect assayed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The oligonucleotide capture assay represents a substantial improvement in the procedure used to detect parasite prevalence in the vector population, a major metric employed in the process of certifying the elimination of

  6. House fly oviposition inhibition by larvae ofHermetia illucens, the black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, S W; Sheppard, D C

    1984-06-01

    Wild populations of house flies were inhibited from ovipositing into poultry manure containing larvae of the black soldier fly,Hermetia illucens (L.). A laboratory strain of house fly responded differently, readily ovipositing into manure with lower densities of soldier fly larvae, but avoiding the higher densities tested. The amount of timeH. illucens larvae occupy the manure prior to an oviposition test influences ovipositional responses of house flies. Manure conditioned byH. illucens larvae for 4-5 days did not significantly inhibit house fly oviposition. We suggest that some type of interspecific chemical communication (allomone) is present. PMID:24318779

  7. A new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, H; Sofian-Azirun, M; Ya'cob, Z

    2013-07-01

    ABSTRACT A new black fly species, Simulium (Comphostilbia) langkawiense, is described based on adult female, adult male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Langkawi Island, Malaysia. This new species is similar in the configuration of the pupal gill to Simulium (Comphostilbia) gombakense Takaoka & Davies, 1995, originally described from Peninsular Malaysia, but differs from the latter species by the female genital fork with an anterolaterally angulated plate on each arm, the female tarsal claw tooth shorter than one half of the claw, the small number of male upper-eye large facets, the ventral plate with its ventral margin nearly flat in the middle when viewed posteriorly, and the inflated structure of the pupal gill with a less produced middle portion (width of middle inflated portion: length of inflated structure = 0.24). Taxonomic notes are also given to separate this new species from two other related species from Nepal and India. This represents another example of a unique species of black fly on one of the continental islands of Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:23926767

  8. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Latin American black flies for pool screening PCR using high-throughput automated DNA isolation for transmission surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Gopal, Hemavathi; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; De Luna-Santillana, Erick Jesús; Gurrola-Reyes, J Natividad; Guo, Xianwu

    2013-11-01

    The posttreatment entomological surveillance (ES) of onchocerciasis in Latin America requires quite large numbers of flies to be examined for parasite infection to prove that the control strategies have worked and that the infection is on the path of elimination. Here, we report a high-throughput automated DNA isolation of Onchocerca volvulus for PCR using a major Latin American black fly vector of onchocerciasis. The sensitivity and relative effectiveness of silica-coated paramagnetic beads was evaluated in comparison with phenol chloroform (PC) method which is known as the gold standard of DNA extraction for ES in Latin America. The automated method was optimized in the laboratory and validated in the field to detect parasite DNA in Simulium ochraceum sensu lato flies in comparison with PC. The optimization of the automated method showed that it is sensitive to detect O. volvulus with a pool size of 100 flies as compared with PC which utilizes 50 flies pool size. The validation of the automated method in comparison with PC in an endemic community showed that 5/67 and 3/134 heads pools were positive for the two methods, respectively. There was no statistical variation (P < 0.05) in the estimation of transmission indices generated by automated method when compared with PC method. The fact that the automated method is sensitive to pool size up to 100 confers advantage over PC method and can, therefore, be employed in large-scale ES of onchocerciasis transmission in endemic areas of Latin America. PMID:24030195

  9. Black flies (Diptera : Simuliidae attracted to humans and water buffalos and natural infections with filarial larvae, probably Onchocerca sp., in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaoka H.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Several Simulium species were investigated as to their biting habits and natural infections with filarial larvae at Ban Pan Fan, Chiang Mai Province, in northern Thailand. Female adults flies landing on or flighting around a human and a water buffalo were collected during the daytime from 06.00 to 19.00 hours on 22 June 2001. As a result, 217 S. nodosum, 86 S. asakoae and two S. nigrogilvum were obtained from a human attractant, and 416 S. nodosum, 25 S. nakhonense, 16 S. asakoae, four 5. fenestratum and two S. nigrogilvum, from a water buffalo. The blood-feeding was confirmed only for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum on humans, and for S. nodosum and S. nakhonense on water buffalos. Dissections of these simuliids showed that S. nodosum was naturally infected with developing filarial larvae. Two types of microfilariae were distinguished but only one type of infective larvae. These larvae resembled Onchocerca suzukii, a parasite from a wild Japanese bovid, suggesting that an unknown Onchocerca species from ruminants was transmitted in Thailand. Infection rates with all stages of larvae and third-stage larvae were 2.3 % (14/608 and 1 .0 % (6/608, respectively. This is the first report of natural infections of black flies with Onchocerca larvae in Southeast Asia, and the involved black fly species is shown to be not only anthropophilic but also zoophilic in this region.

  10. Susceptibility of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae and adults to four insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2002-06-01

    Dosage-mortality regressions were determined for black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed cyromazine or pyriproxifen treated media. Cyromazine LC50 for larvae dying before becoming prepupae ranged from 0.25 to 0.28 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 5.79 and 12.04. Cyromazine LC50s for larvae dying before emergence ranged from 0.13 to 0.19 ppm with dosage-mortality regression slopes between 3.94 and 7.69. Pyriproxifen dosage-mortality regressions were not generated for larvae failing to become prepupae since black soldier flies and house flies, Musca domestica L., and for susceptible house flies. Our results indicate that the wild house fly, unlike the black soldier fly, population was highly resistant to each of these pyrethroids. Regression slopes for black soldier flies exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin were twice as steep as those determined for the wild house fly strain. Accordingly, LC50s for the black soldier fly and susceptible house fly were 10- to 30-fold lower than those determined for wild house flies. The differential sensitivity between wild black soldier flies and house flies might be due to behavioral differences. Adult house flies usually remain in animal facilities with the possibility of every adult receiving pesticide exposure, while black soldier fly adults are typically present only during emergence and oviposition thereby limiting their exposure. PMID:12076006

  11. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions. PMID:12144307

  12. Using black soldier fly larvae for processing organic leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Radu; Green, Terrence R

    2012-04-01

    A large number of biodegradable byproducts including alcohols, soluble saccharides, volatile organic acids, and amines accumulate in the liquid fraction (leachate) produced as vegetal and food scrap waste decomposes. Untreated leachate, because it is rich in nutrients and organic byproducts, has a high chemical oxygen demand and is normally cleared of soluble organic byproducts by mineralization before its discharge into waterways. Mineralizing leachates using chemical and microbial biotechnologies is, however, a lengthy and costly process. We report here that the larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), an insect rich in protein and lipids, and having significant commercial value, while feeding and growing off of compost leachate, lowers its chemical oxygen demand relative to that of leachate unexposed to larvae, neutralizes its acidity, and clears it of volatile organic acids, amines, and alcohols. These observations demonstrate that black soldier fly larvae could be used to help offset the cost and clean up of organic solutes in leachate waste streams while recycling carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate into usable and commercially valuable biomass. PMID:22606806

  13. Molecular identification of infective larvae of three species of Onchocerca found in wild-caught females of Simulium bidentatum in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wild female black flies attracted to a man or an idling automobile were collected at Oita, Japan where five cases of zoonotic onchocerciasis had occurred. Among the five Simulium species captured, 2% of Simulium bidentatum, the predominant species, were infected with filarial larvae. There were at least two types of infective larvae, types A and B, based on morphometric observation. Moreover, molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene revealed that types A and B were represented by a single unknown species of Onchocerca and two species, i.e., Onchocerca dewittei japonica from wild boar, the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan, and an undescribed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rRNA gene also showed that type A is likely to be an unknown species of Onchocerca. Natural infection of black flies with infective larvae of O. dewittei japonica and O. sp. was demonstrated for the first time. The present study strongly suggests that S. bidentatum plays a role as a vector in the transmission of zoonotic onchocerciasis due to O. dewittei japonica in Japan.

  14. Infective larvae of five Onchocerca species from experimentally infected Simulium species in an area of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfilariae of five Onchocerca species, O. dewittei japonica (the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Oita, Kyushu, Japan from wild boar (Sus scrofa, O. skrjabini and O. eberhardi from sika deer (Cervus nippon, O. lienalis from cattle, and an as yet unnamed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, were injected intrathoracically into newly-emerged black flies of several species from Oita to search the potential vector(s of these parasites and identify their infective larvae. Development of O. dewittei japonica microfilariae to the infective larvae occurred in Simulium aokii, S. arakawae, S. bidentatum, S. japonicum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. rufibasis while development of infective larvae of O. skrjabini, O. eberhardi, and the unnamed Onchocerca sp. was observed in S. aokii, S. arakawae, and S. bidentatum. Development of O. lienalis microfilaria to infective larvae occurred in S. arakawae. Based on the morphology of infective larvae obtained, we proposed a key of identification of Onchocerca infective larvae found in Oita. We also reconsider the identification of three types of infective larvae previously recovered from Simulium species captured at cattle sheds: the large type I larvae that may be an undescribed species; the small type III identified as O. lienalis may include O. skrjabini too; the intermediary type II that may be O. gutturosa, or O. dewittei japonica, or the unnamed Onchocerca sp. of wild boar.

  15. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  16. High Value Organic Waste Treatment via Black Soldier Fly Bioconversion : Onsite Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mutafela, Richard Nasilele

    2015-01-01

    The desire for value addition to the organic waste management chain at Högbytorp using the Black Soldier Fly (BSF) process, as well as the problem of the escalating demand for protein in livestock feed motivated this study. Good quality crop land is devoted to growing feed for animals at the expense of human food, and ironically with a full understanding of the associated environmental footprints. Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL) feed on organic waste voraciously while building their body com...

  17. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue. PMID:26313195

  18. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities. PMID:18348791

  19. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C. PMID:19161696

  20. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin

    2015-10-01

    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. PMID:26210140

  1. Novel spirochetes isolated from mosquitoes and black flies in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikutová, Silvie; Halouzka, Jiří; Mendel, Jan; Knoz, J.; Rudolf, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2010), s. 50-55. ISSN 1081-1710 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1234; GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Spirochetes * mosquitoes * black flies * tabanid flies * Czech Republic Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.256, year: 2010

  2. Nutrient utilisation by black soldier flies fed with chicken, pig, or cow manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the suitability of chicken, pig, and cow manure as feed for larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.); Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Newly hatched larvae were inoculated on moistened manure (33% dry matter). Water and dried manure were added three time

  3. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, hermetia illucens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were dev...

  4. Characteristics of lipid fractions of larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, N A; Brodskii, E S; Kovalenko, A A; Bastrakov, A I; Kozlova, A A; Pavlov, D S

    2016-05-01

    The lipid fraction of larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens was shown to contain lauric acid (38.43 wt %) and its esters, azelaic and sebacic acids, and azelaic acid dibutyl ester. The dominant compound in the group of identified glycerides was lauric acid monoglyceride (0.70 wt %). Glycerides were also represented by triglycerides and diglycerides of lauric acid. Sterols were represented primarily by phytosterols (over 75%), the major of which was alpha-sitosterol (45%). The identified lipid complex composition is apparently determined by the biological characteristics of the fly Hermetia illucens and ensures antibacterial defence of larvae and stability of lipids at changing ambient temperature. PMID:27417723

  5. Bacteria mediate oviposition by the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L; Holmes, Leslie; Singh, Baneshwar; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Benbow, M Eric; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah L; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-01-01

    There can be substantial negative consequences for insects colonizing a resource in the presence of competitors. We hypothesized that bacteria, associated with an oviposition resource and the insect eggs deposited on that resource, serve as a mechanism regulating subsequent insect attraction, colonization, and potentially succession of insect species. We isolated and identified bacterial species associated with insects associated with vertebrate carrion and used these bacteria to measure their influence on the oviposition preference of adult black soldier flies which utilizes animal carcasses and is an important species in waste management and forensics. We also ascertained that utilizing a mixture of bacteria, rather than a single species, differentially influenced behavioral responses of the flies, as did bacterial concentration and the species of fly from which the bacteria originated. These studies provide insight into interkingdom interactions commonly occurring during decomposition, but not commonly studied. PMID:23995019

  6. The use of bacterial larvicides in mosquito and black fly control programmes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Lêda

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus spp. based larvides are increasingly replacing, with numerous advantages, chemical insecticides in programmes for controlling black fly and mosquito populations. Brazil was among the pioneers in adopting Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (B.t.i to control black flies. However, the major current mosquito control programme in Brazil, the Programme for Eradication of Aedes aegypti launched in 1997, only recently decided to replace temephos by B.t.i based larvicides, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. In the last decade, works developed by research groups in Brazilian institutions have generated a significant contribution to this subject through the isolation of B. sphaericus new strains, the development of new products and the implementation of field trials of Bacillus efficacy against mosquito species under different environmental conditions.

  7. High waste-to-biomass conversion and efficient Salmonella spp. reduction using black soldier fly for waste recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Lalander, Cecilia; Fidjeland, Jörgen; Diener, Stefan; Eriksson, Sara; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-01-01

    International audience The recycling of organic waste worldwide is not effective, which leads to water pollution and loss of potential crop fertilizers. Available resources have to be used more efficiently as the world population increases. An innovative solution is to use insects for the management of organic waste. Here, we used black soldier fly to convert organic waste into animal feed protein, as fly larvae, and plant fertilizer, as compost residue. A continuous fly reactor was monito...

  8. Intra-Puparial Development of the Black Soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens

    OpenAIRE

    Barros-Cordeiro, Karine Brenda; Báo, Sônia Nair; Pujol-Luz, José Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The intra-puparial development of the black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was studied based on 125 pupae under controlled conditions in laboratory. The 6th instar larvae were reared until they stopped feeding, and the pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction in larval length and degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. The pupal stage lasted eight days (192 hours). The process of pupation (larva/pupa apolysis) occurred in the first s...

  9. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae), parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Emilie Devic; Pierre-Olivier Maquart

    2015-01-01

    Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758) is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production), egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 19...

  10. Biorational insecticides for control of mosquitoes and black flies in Sinaloa

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriano García Gutiérrez; Rosa Luz Gómez Peraza; Claudia E. López Aguilar; Arturo León Váldez

    2012-01-01

    In Sinaloa Mexico the presence of mosquitoes is a important health problem, and each spring-summer season appear several species which include: Aedes aegypti (Linneus), Anopheles albimanus (Wiedemann), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and black flies of the Simulidae family. The control of larvae and adults of these insects are usually performed with chemical insecticides, so the use of biorational insecticides for control of these insects is novel, due to that have low environment impact. The ob...

  11. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam M A Zarroug

    Full Text Available The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007-2008 and 2009-2010. Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests.Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies than Galabat (8,202 flies. In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month, and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month. In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month, whereas, none appeared in collection from April to

  12. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarroug, Isam M. A.; Hashim, Kamal; Elaagip, Arwa H.; Samy, Abdallah M.; Frah, Ehab A.; ElMubarak, Wigdan A.; Mohamed, Hanan A.; Deran, Tong Chor M.; Aziz, Nabil; Higazi, Tarig B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR) and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007–2008 and 2009–2010). Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests. Results Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies) than Galabat (8,202 flies). In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month), and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month) while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month). In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month) and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month), whereas, none appeared in

  13. DETERMINATION OF BLACK FLY SPECIES IN TEHRAN AREA BY REARING THESE AQUATIC STAGES IN THE LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardalan

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of different species of Simuliidae, also called “black fly”, is based on particular structure of oral and terminal appendages of their larvae add also on the special morphology of adults and pupaes. Because of their considerable flight range, the problem of finding their resting places, and also the difficulties of collecting the adult flies, breeding of this insect, in the laboratory, is particularly important for species identification in each area for this purpose, eggs larvae and pupae were obtained in some rivers and streams around Tehran and were transported to the laboratory. By producing air movement with a pump passing through the glass bottle containing the eggs. Larvae and pupae brought from the rivet and kept in the same river water with its content, we were able to produce large number of adult black flies and so, we determined species of black flies in different streams and rivers the list of which is given in the paper.

  14. Inoculating poultry manure with companion bacteria influences growth and development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guohui; Cheng, Ping; Chen, Yanhong; Li, Yongjian; Yang, Zihong; Chen, Yuanfeng; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-02-01

    The growth and development of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae fed chicken manure inoculated with bacteria isolated from black soldier fly larvae and associated larval feed was evaluated. Four strains of Bacillus subtilis were evaluated. B. subtilis strains S15, S16, S19, were isolated from the gut of black soldier fly larvae. B. natto strain D1 was isolated from the diet fed to black soldier fly larvae. These bacteria were added individually into nonsterile 200 g fresh hen manure at 10(6) cfu/g and homogenized. Treated manure was then inoculated with 4-d old black soldier fly larvae. Prepupal weight ranged from 0.0606 g in the control to 0.0946 g in manure treated with the S15 strain. Larval survivorship to the prepupal stage in all treatments ranged from 98.00 ± 2.65% to 99.33 ± 1.15%. Prepupal survivorship to the pupal stage ranged from 91.92 ± 1.87% to 97.95 ± 1.03%. Adult emergence from the pupal stage did not significantly (P black soldier fly larvae influences the growth and development of conspecific larvae feeding on the manure. PMID:22182608

  15. Radiological significance of coal, slag and fly ash samples from the Eastern Black Sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a study of natural radioactivity levels in coal and its combustion residues (fly ash and slag) used in the houses in Black Sea Region, Turkey. Coal, fly ash and slag samples were provided from different locations of the region and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Also, chemical analyses of these samples were carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The mean 226Ra activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 83, 99 and 38 Bq kg-1, respectively. The mean 232Th activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 108, 113 and 50 Bq kg-1, respectively. The mean 40K activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were found to be 366, 381 and 204 Bq kg-1, respectively. The potential radiological hazards associated to these materials were evaluated by calculating the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the air absorbed gamma dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (AED), the external hazard index (Hex) and internal hazard index (Hin) and compared with the internationally accepted or reference values. The mean Raeq values of the coal, fly ash and slag samples were lower than the recommended maximum values 370 Bq kg-1 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The overall mean outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate in coal, fly ash and slag samples are 119, 129 and 62 nGy h-1 and the corresponding outdoor annual effective doses are 0.60, 0.32 and 0.64 mSv y-1, which is higher than the worldwide average (0.07 mSv y-1), respectively. Moreover, the enrichment factors relative to the input coal are calculated for the radionuclide contents observed. Calculated enrichment factor values for 226Ra and 232Th were found 1.14 and 1.01, respectively. (orig.)

  16. Description of microsporidia in simulids: molecular and morphological characterization of microsporidia in the larvae of Simulium pertinax Kollar (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Vicente Guedes de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Microsporidia constitute the most common black fly pathogens, although the species' diversity, seasonal occurrence and transmission mechanisms remain poorly understood. Infections by this agent are often chronic and non-lethal, but they can cause reduced fecundity and decreased longevity. The objective of this study was to identify microsporidia infecting Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax (Kollar, 1832 larvae from Caraguatatuba, State of São Paulo, Brazil, by molecular and morphological characterization. Methods Larvae were collected at a single point in a stream in a rural area of the city and were kept under artificial aeration until analysis. Polydispyrenia spp. infection was characterized by the presence of at least 32 mononuclear spores measuring 6.9 ± 1.0 × 5.0 ± 0.7µm in persistent sporophorous vesicles. Similarly, Amblyospora spp. were characterized by the presence of eight uninucleate spores measuring 4.5 × 3.5µm in sporophorous vesicles. Results The molecular analysis confirmed the presence of microsporidian DNA in the 8 samples (prevalence of 0.51%. Six samples (Brazilian larvae were related to Polydispyrenia simulii and Caudospora palustris reference sequences but in separate clusters. One sample was clustered with Amblyospora spp. Edhazardia aedis was the positive control taxon. Conclusions Samples identified as Polydispyrenia spp. and Amblyospora spp. were grouped with P. simulii and Amblyospora spp., respectively, corroborating previous results. However, the 16S gene tree showed a considerable distance between the black fly-infecting Amblyospora spp. and the mosquito-infecting spp. This distance suggests that these two groups are not congeneric. Additional genomic region evaluation is necessary to obtain a coherent phylogeny for this group.

  17. The Beffa form of Simulium soubrense of the S. damnosum complex in Togo and Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, R A; Garms, R; Ouedraogo, J; Somé, A; Sowah, S

    1987-01-01

    The Beffa form of Simulium soubrense Vajime & Dunbar, a member of the S. sanctipauli sub-complex of the S. damnosum complex, was found breeding throughout rivers in the Togo-Benin Gap, as far north as 9 degrees 30'N. Its distribution changed with the season. In southern Togo there were seasonal fluctuations in the relative abundancies of the Beffa form and of S. damnosum/S.sirbanum. There was considerable temporal and regional variation in the frequencies of different colour morphs of adult flies. The flies in Benin tended to be darker. Infections with Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) appeared to be independent of the host's colour morph category. Larger flies harboured significantly more first stage Onchocerca larvae but no significant relations with fly size were found for second and third stage larvae. PMID:2979517

  18. Development of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae injected into Simulium species from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, M; Renz, A; Wahl, G; Enyong, P

    1991-07-01

    Microfilariae (mff) of the savanna and forest strains of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) were injected intrathoracically into adult females of Simulium damnosum Theobald sensu stricto, S.sirbanum Vajime & Dunbar, S.squamosum Enderlein and S.mengense Vajime & Dunbar. Nine days post infection (pi) 27-29% of the savanna mff and 31-38% of the forest strain had developed to third-stage larvae (L3), irrespective of the fly species, size or injection dose (5, 10 or 15 mff). Savanna flies supported the development of forest O.volvulus better than forest flies, in contrast to the results after per os infections. Therefore, in these four species of the S.damnosum complex from Cameroon, the peritrophic membrane is considered to be the main factor limiting the success rate of microfilarial development following the ingestion of blood infections, while the fly's haemolymph and intracellular environment play minor roles. PMID:1768922

  19. Efficiency of Simulium sanctipauli as a vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the forest zone of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutin, K; Kruppa, T F; Brenya, R; Garms, R

    2004-06-01

    The role of Simulium sanctipauli Vajime & Dunbar (Diptera: Simuliidae) as a vector of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) in the forest zone of central Ghana was studied in the Upper Denkyira district, where onchocerciasis is hyperendemic. Simulium sanctipauli was found to be a highly efficient vector, with a mean of 377 infective (L3) larvae in the heads of 1000 parous and 122 in the heads of 1000 biting flies. The overall infection rate of 44% of the parous flies with L1, L2 and L3 stages of O. volvulus (identity confirmed by polymerase chain reaction) demonstrates marked anthropophily. Female flies dispersed over a wide area and can transmit onchocerciasis up to at least 10 km away from their breeding sites. Annual community-directed treatments with ivermectin did not have a noticeable effect on the infection rates and parasitic loads of fly populations, which were as high 2 months after as 3 months before the distribution of ivermectin. This failure can be attributed to poor coverage, with treatment taken by only 24.4% of the population of the six study villages. PMID:15189242

  20. An artificial light source influences mating and oviposition of black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jibin; Huang, Ling; He, Jin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Li, Jianhong; Lei, Chaoliang; Sun, Ming; Liu, Ziduo; Yu, Ziniu

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for mass-rearing black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), in the laboratory are dependent on sunlight. Quartz-iodine lamps and rare earth lamps were examined as artificial light sources for stimulating H. illucens to mate and lay eggs. Sunlight was used as the control. Adults in the quartz-iodine lamp treatment had a mating rate of 61% of those in the sunlight control. No mating occurred when the rare earth lamp was used as a substitute. Egg hatch for the quartz-iodine lamp and sunlight treatments occurred in approximately 4 days, and the hatch rate was similar between these two treatments. Larval and pupal development under these treatments required approximately 18 and 15 days at 28°C, respectively. Development of methods for mass rearing of H. illucens using artificial light will enable production of this fly throughout the year without investing in greenhouse space or requiring sunlight. PMID:21268697

  1. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  2. Anti-oxidative and inflammatory responses induced by fly ash particles and carbon black in lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diabate, Silvia; Plaumann, Diana; Uebel, Caroline; Weiss, Carsten [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bergfeldt, Britta [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Technical Chemistry, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Combustion-derived nanoparticles as constituents of ambient particulate matter have been shown to induce adverse health effects due to inhalation. However, the components inducing these effects as well as the biological mechanisms are still not fully understood. The fine fraction of fly ash particles collected from the electrostatic precipitator of a municipal solid waste incinerator was taken as an example for real particles with complex composition released into the atmosphere to study the mechanism of early biological responses of BEAS-2B human lung epithelial cells. The studies include the effects of the water-soluble and -insoluble fractions of the fly ash and the well-studied carbon black nanoparticles were used as a reference. Fly ash induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased the total cellular glutathione (tGSH) content. Carbon black also induced ROS generation; however, in contrast to the fly ash, it decreased the intracellular tGSH. The fly ash-induced oxidative stress was correlated with induction of the anti-oxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 and increase of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. Carbon black was not able to induce HO-1. ROS generation, tGSH increase and HO-1 induction were only induced by the insoluble fraction of the fly ash, not by the water-soluble fraction. ROS generation and HO-1 induction were markedly inhibited by pre-incubation of the cells with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine which confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress. Both effects were also reduced by the metal chelator deferoxamine indicating a contribution of bioavailable transition metals. In summary, both fly ash and carbon black induce ROS but only fly ash induced an increase of intracellular tGSH and HO-1 production. Bioavailable transition metals in the solid water-insoluble matrix of the fly ash mostly contribute to the effects. (orig.)

  3. Morphology and Ecological Notes on the Larvae and Pupae of Simulium (Simulium from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam-Kyu Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of larvae and pupae of twelve species of Simulium (Simulium from Korea are investigated and redescribed. Detailed descriptions of immature stages of each species are provided with photographs. For the Korean members of subgenus Simulium, combinations of the following characteristics can be used to separate them from other Korean subgenera: larval abdomen without a pair of conical-shaped ventral tubercles; postgenal cleft variously shaped, viz., miter shaped, spearhead, bullet shaped or triangular; rectal papillae 3 simple lobe or compound lobes; pupal gill of 6-16 filaments; cocoon shoe, boot or slipper shaped; and head trichomes 3 pairs (1 facial+2 frontal. Habitat information and other ecological aspects of each species are provided. Updated keys to larvae and pupae of the Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are also provided to facilitate species identification. Taxonomic treatment based on external morphologies of larvae and pupae of Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are focused and included in this study. To understand their interspecific relationships, phylogenetic analyses using multiple data from molecule, morphology, and ecology are warranted in future research. Also continued exploration for new character systems is needed to establish more stable boundaries for subgenus and species delimitations.

  4. Impact of diet quality and temperature on the metabolism and weight of Black Soldier Fly Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gligorescu, Anton

    2016-01-01

    This study has investigated the metabolic rate (measured as direct heat production using calorimetric methods) and the weight gain of Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL) reared on 3 different dietary regimes: Protein diet, Carbohydrate diet and Starvation, and at 2 ambient temperatures (20⁰C and 27⁰C). Moreover, a cost benefit analysis (mg/µW) was made based on the obtained results from Metabolic Rate (MR) and Weight Gain investigations. Successful BSFL production was found to be obtained under b...

  5. An Artificial Light Source Influences Mating and Oviposition of Black Soldier Flies, Hermetia illucens

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jibin; Huang, Ling; He, Jin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Li, Jianhong; Lei, Chaoliang; Sun, Ming; Liu, Ziduo; Yu, Ziniu

    2010-01-01

    Current methods for mass-rearing black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), in the laboratory are dependent on sunlight. Quartz-iodine lamps and rare earth lamps were examined as artificial light sources for stimulating H. illucens to mate and lay eggs. Sunlight was used as the control. Adults in the quartz-iodine lamp treatment had a mating rate of 61% of those in the sunlight control. No mating occurred when the rare earth lamp was used as a substitute. Egg hatch ...

  6. A new species of Simulium (Simulium) (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Langkawi Island, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah

    2012-11-01

    Simulium (Simulium) kisapense sp. nov. is described on the basis of reared adult, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Langkawi Island, Peninsular Malaysia, and placed in the multi-striatum species-group in the subgenus Simulium. This new species is characterized by the bare basal section of the female radial vein, the male ventral plate with setae, the eight pupal gill filaments divergent at an angle of >90 degrees, and the shoe-shaped cocoon with small lateral window(s). Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from S. (S.) hirtinervis Edwards and S. (S.) malayense Takaoka and Davies, both from Peninsular Malaysia, and several other known species from Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Thailand. PMID:23270147

  7. Radiological significance of coal, slag and fly ash samples from the Eastern Black Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damla, Nevzat [Batman Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Cevik, Ugur [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Kara, Ayhan [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    This work presents a study of natural radioactivity levels in coal and its combustion residues (fly ash and slag) used in the houses in Black Sea Region, Turkey. Coal, fly ash and slag samples were provided from different locations of the region and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Also, chemical analyses of these samples were carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 83, 99 and 38 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean {sup 232}Th activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 108, 113 and 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean {sup 40}K activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were found to be 366, 381 and 204 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The potential radiological hazards associated to these materials were evaluated by calculating the radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the air absorbed gamma dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (AED), the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) and internal hazard index (H{sub in}) and compared with the internationally accepted or reference values. The mean Ra{sub eq} values of the coal, fly ash and slag samples were lower than the recommended maximum values 370 Bq kg{sup -1} by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The overall mean outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate in coal, fly ash and slag samples are 119, 129 and 62 nGy h{sup -1} and the corresponding outdoor annual effective doses are 0.60, 0.32 and 0.64 mSv y{sup -1}, which is higher than the worldwide average (0.07 mSv y{sup -1}), respectively. Moreover, the enrichment factors relative to the input coal are calculated for the radionuclide contents observed. Calculated enrichment factor values for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found 1.14 and 1.01, respectively. (orig.)

  8. Intraspecific Genetic Diversity of Two Black Fly Species (Diptera: Simuliidae from South India using DNA Barcode Based RFLP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimalanathan Arunprasanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The population genetic diversity of two black fly species (S. (S. gurneyae and S. (S. nilgiricum was investigated along an elevational gradient in two hills of South India by mitochondrial gene sequence of cytochrome coxidase subunit I (COI based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP. By comparing the similarity of the bands produced by three restriction endonuclease enzymes, the genetic distance was calculated among sampling sites. The mean Kimura two parameter divergences of two black fly species between sampling sites was observed less than 13% and the higher genetic differentiation occurred at higher elevational sites (>1000 m. These result suggest that hypothesis of speciation is related with higher elevational site in black flies.

  9. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against eggs of Citrus black fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The citrus black fruit fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) is an important pest of citrus originated in Southeast Asia and its first record in the new world was in Jamaica in 1913. In Brazil, it was detected in 2001 in the state of Para and more recently it was detected in Sao Paulo in 2008. This pest that attacks over 300 species of plants, but its main host are citrus. It is an A2 quarantine pest, because it is not spread throughout the country. The objective of this study was to test doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy of gamma irradiation for disinfection of eggs of the citrus black fruit fly in leaves of citrus plants. Treatment consisted of 5 replicates with 60 eggs each. Evaluations were performed in the following periods: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after irradiation. Under the conditions assayed, it could be concluded that a dose of 200 Gy caused 100% mortality of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby eggs and could be recommended as a successful quarantine processing against infested plants. (author)

  10. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Qiu, Ning; Cai, Hao; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-06-01

    Modern dairies cause the accumulation of considerable quantity of dairy manure which is a potential hazard to the environment. Dairy manure can also act as a principal larval resource for many insects such as the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. The black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are considered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL are a common colonizer of large variety of decomposing organic material in temperate and tropical areas. Adults do not need to be fed, except to take water, and acquired enough nutrition during larval development for reproduction. Dairy manure treated by BSFL is an economical way in animal facilities. Grease could be extracted from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel. The digested dairy manure was hydrolyzed into sugar. In this study, approximately 1248.6g fresh dairy manure was converted into 273.4 g dry residue by 1200 BSFL in 21 days. Approximately 15.8 g of biodiesel was gained from 70.8 g dry BSFL, and 96.2g sugar was obtained from the digested dairy manure. The residual dry BSFL after grease extraction can be used as protein feedstuff. PMID:21367596

  11. Conversion of organic material by black soldier fly larvae: establishing optimal feeding rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Stefan; Zurbrügg, Christian; Tockner, Klement

    2009-09-01

    Larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are voracious feeders of organic material and may thus be used in simple engineered systems to reduce organic waste in low- and middle-income countries. Controlled feeding experiments with standard fodder were conducted to assess the optimum amount of organic waste to be added to a CORS system (Conversion of Organic Refuse by Saprophages). A daily feeding rate of 100 mg chicken feed (60% moisture content) per larva resulted in an optimum trade-off between material reduction efficiency (41.8%, SE 0.61) and biomass production (prepupal dry weight: 48.0 mg, SE 2.0). Applied to market waste and human faeces, this corresponds to a potential daily feeding capacity of 3-5 kg/m(2) and 6.5 kg/m(2), respectively. In addition, H. illucens prepupae quality was assessed to determine their suitability to substitute fishmeal in animal feed production. The chitin-corrected crude protein content ranged from 28.2 to 42.5%, depending on the amount of food provided to the larvae. Based on our study, a waste processing unit could yield a daily prepupal biomass of 145 g (dry mass) per m(2). We conclude that larvae of the black soldier fly are potentially capable of converting large amounts of organic waste into protein-rich biomass to substitute fishmeal, thereby contributing to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:19502252

  12. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against eggs of Citrus black fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Araujo, Michel M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert H.S.F.; Silva, Priscila P.V. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radibiologia e Ambiente], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Faria, Jose Tadeu [Ministerio da Agricultura Pecuaria e Abastecimento (MAPA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: dt-sp@agricultura.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The citrus black fruit fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) is an important pest of citrus originated in Southeast Asia and its first record in the new world was in Jamaica in 1913. In Brazil, it was detected in 2001 in the state of Para and more recently it was detected in Sao Paulo in 2008. This pest that attacks over 300 species of plants, but its main host are citrus. It is an A2 quarantine pest, because it is not spread throughout the country. The objective of this study was to test doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy of gamma irradiation for disinfection of eggs of the citrus black fruit fly in leaves of citrus plants. Treatment consisted of 5 replicates with 60 eggs each. Evaluations were performed in the following periods: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after irradiation. Under the conditions assayed, it could be concluded that a dose of 200 Gy caused 100% mortality of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby eggs and could be recommended as a successful quarantine processing against infested plants. (author)

  13. Araucnephia iberaensis n. sp., a Neotropical Black Fly with a Peculiar Distribution (Diptera-Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Coscarón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Araucnephia Wygodzinsky & Coscarón is a Neotropical black fly genus in which only one species from Central Chile is known. Another species has now been found in Corrientes province on the eastern side of the Iberá tropical swamps of Argentina, on the western border of the mountainous region of southern Brazil. This new species, A. iberaensis, is herein described and illustrated and information on its bionomics is recorded. It is an interesting species because previous to its discovery no black fly genus or subgenus from Central Chile region has been found in tropical areas, because these two regions are separated by the Monte and Pampas realms. Similarly, no Brazilian genus or subgenus has crossed the Andes mountains to Chile. A comparison with other Neotropical, Nearctic, Ethiopian (Afrotropical and Australian Prosimuliini (sensu Crosskey & Howard showed Araucnephia to be a valid taxon most closely related to Araucnephioides (sympatric in Chile. Araucnephia also shows great affinities with Lutzsimulium from Southeast Brazil and Argentina and Paracnephia from South Africa.

  14. Developmental and waste reduction plasticity of three black soldier fly strains (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) raised on different livestock manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fen; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Zheng, Longyu; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Jibin

    2013-11-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are distributed throughout the temperate and tropic regions of the world and are known an established method for sustainably managing animal wastes. Colonies used to conduct research on the black soldier fly within the past 20 yr have predominately been established from eggs or larvae received from a colony originated from Bacon County, GA. Consequently, little is known about the phenotypic plasticity (i.e., development and waste conversion) across strains from different regions. This study compared the development of three strains of the black soldier fly (Texas; Guangzhou, China; and Wuhan, China) and their ability to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in swine, dairy, and chicken manure. The Wuhan strain appeared to be more fit. Larvae from Wuhan needed 17.7-29.9% less time to reach the prepupal stage than those from Guangzhou or Texas, respectively. Larvae from Wuhan weighed 14.4-37.0% more than those from Guanghzhou or Texas, respectively. Larvae from the Wuhan strain reduced dry matter 46.0% (swine), 40.1% (dairy), and 48.4% (chicken) more than the Guangzhou strain and 6.9, 7.2, and 7.9% more than the Texas strain. This study demonstrates that phenotypic plasticity (e.g., development and waste conversion) varies across populations of black soldier flies and should be taken into account when selecting and establishing a population as a waste management agent in a given region of the world. PMID:24843926

  15. Enhanced ammonia content in compost leachate processed by black soldier fly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrence R; Popa, Radu

    2012-03-01

    Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae (Hermetia illucens), feeding on leachate from decaying vegetable and food scrap waste, increase ammonia (NH (4) (+) ) concentration five- to sixfold relative to leachate unprocessed by larvae. NH (4) (+) in larva-processed leachate reached levels as high as ∼100 mM. Most of this NH (4) (+) appears to have come from organic nitrogen within the frass produced by the larvae as they fed on leachate. In nitrate-enriched solutions, BSF larvae also facilitate dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia. The markedly higher concentration of NH (4) (+) recovered in leachates processed with BSF larvae and concomitant diversion of nutrients into insect biomass (itself a valuable feedstock) indicate that the use of BSF larvae in processing leachate of decaying organic waste could be advantageous in offsetting capital and environmental costs incurred in composting. PMID:22238016

  16. Intra-puparial development of the black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Cordeiro, Karine Brenda; Báo, Sônia Nair; Pujol-Luz, José Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The intra-puparial development of the black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was studied based on 125 pupae under controlled conditions in laboratory. The 6(th) instar larvae were reared until they stopped feeding, and the prepupae were separated according to the reduction in larval length and degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. The pupal stage lasted eight days (192 hours). The process of pupation (larva/pupa apolysis) occurred in the first six hours, extroversion of the head and thoracic appendages took place between the ninth and 21(st) hours, and the pharate appeared 21 hours after completing pupation. After pupariation, four morphological phases of intra-puparial development were observed and described. PMID:25368039

  17. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia.

  18. Mitochondrial genome of the black flying fox, Pteropus alecto (Chiroptera: Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report the complete mitochondrial genome of black flying fox, Pteropus alecto, with the sequence length of 16,739 bp for the first time. The mitogenome contained a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region. The base composition was A (33.1%), G (14.5%), C (27.2%) and T (25.2%), indicating that the percentage of A and T (58.3%) was higher than that of G and C. Most of these genes were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome analyzed here will provide new genetic information to study the evolution of bats. PMID:24438271

  19. Intra-Puparial Development of the Black Soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Cordeiro, Karine Brenda; Báo, Sônia Nair; Pujol-Luz, José Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The intra-puparial development of the black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was studied based on 125 pupae under controlled conditions in laboratory. The 6th instar larvae were reared until they stopped feeding, and the pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction in larval length and degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. The pupal stage lasted eight days (192 hours). The process of pupation (larva/pupa apolysis) occurred in the first six hours, extroversion of the head and thoracic appendages took place between the ninth and 21st hours, and the pharate appeared 21 hours after completing pupation. After pupariation, four morphological phases of intra-puparial development were observed and described. PMID:25368039

  20. Biorational insecticides for control of mosquitoes and black flies in Sinaloa

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    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa Mexico the presence of mosquitoes is a important health problem, and each spring-summer season appear several species which include: Aedes aegypti (Linneus, Anopheles albimanus (Wiedemann, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say and black flies of the Simulidae family. The control of larvae and adults of these insects are usually performed with chemical insecticides, so the use of biorational insecticides for control of these insects is novel, due to that have low environment impact. The objective of this work is to give known to the different biorational insecticides and their biological effects (inhibitor, insect repellent, larvicide, adulticide, that can be used to combat to different development stages of these insects. As well as show the progress of a study on the effectiveness of neem extracts, garlic, cinnamon, albahaca and cypermethrin at low doses (0.25,0.5 and 1ml/L, for control of larvae and adults of black flies in the unicipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa. By the mode of action, the biorational that can doing use for the control of theseinsects were: Spinosad, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner var. israeliensis for larvae control, Spinosad and Beauveria bassiana (Vuill. for adults; as well as extracts of neem, garlic, cinnamon and albahaca for both stages. The preliminary results of the study showed that the effectiveness application in tourist sites, through aerial spraying of cypermethrin at low doses and the plants extracts, allow low the index of larvae and infestation of mosquitoes and blackflies, decreasing the discomfort caused by these insects in the place of study.

  1. Development of the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Adler, Peter H; Myers, Heidi M

    2009-06-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L., was reared on a grain-based diet at 27, 30, and 36 degrees C. Survival of 4- to 6-d-old larvae to adults averaged 74-97% at 27 and 30 degrees C but was only 0.1% at 36 degrees C. Flies required a mean of approximately 4 d (11%) longer to complete larval and pupal development at 27 degrees C than at 30 degrees C. At 27 and 30 degrees C, females weighed an average of 17-19% more than males but required an average of 0.6-0.8 d (3.0-4.3%) longer to complete larval development. At both temperatures, adult females lived an average of approximately 3.5 d less than adult males. The duration of larval development was a significant predictor of adult longevity. Temperature differences of even 3 degrees C produce significant fitness tradeoffs for males and females, influencing life history attributes and having practical applications for forensic entomology. PMID:19508804

  2. Ultrastructure of immature stages of the black dump fly: Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Muscidae: Azeliinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinhas, Lucas Barbosa; Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Barbosa, Rodrigo Rocha; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Ophyra aenescens (black dump fly) originally belonged to the New World, however, now it is spread worldwide. This fly is a mechanical vector of some pathogenic microorganisms and eggs of the human botfly (Dermatobia hominis). The adults are associated with decaying matter and the immature stages colonize animal and human corpses. It is considered an important muscid species for forensic entomology. The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of the eggs, the three larval instars and the puparia of O. aenescens using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The spiracular opening of the first instar has an interruption in the middle of its length. Comparing to the other instar, the ventral tubercles are only developed in the first instar. The anterior spiracles have a variation in the numbers of spiracular ramification. The puparia morphology is similar to the third instar larvae, however the cephalic region is retracted and on the third thoracic segment, a respiratory structure is present. In conclusion, the SEM technique used and the results obtained are helpful to describe and differentiate the immature stages of O. aenescens and consequently support forensic and medical entomology. PMID:26943996

  3. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Longyu; Crippen, Tawni L; Singh, Baneshwar; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Yu, Ziniu; Wood, Thomas K; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2013-05-01

    Sustainable methods for managing waste associated with people and animals have been proposed in the past. Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent one of the more promising methods. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. Prepupae can be used as feedstuff for livestock. However, it is not known if such a method results in the proliferation of potential pathogens. Although some bacterial species have been cultured and identified from black soldier fly, a true appreciation of fly associated bacterial diversity is not known. Such information is needed to understand pathogen colonization on decomposing animal and plant waste in the presence of black soldier fly larvae as well as develop research strategies for maximizing the use of this fly to reduce waste without risking environmental harm. Using 454 sequencing, we surveyed bacterial diversity associated with successive life stages of the black soldier fly reared on plant material. Bacteria diversity classified (99.8%) across all life stages spanned six bacterial phyla with > or = 80% bootstrap support. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most dominant phyla associated with the black soldier fly accounting for two-thirds of the fauna identified. Many of these bacteria would go undetected because of their inability to be cultured. PMID:23802462

  4. Optimization of the Esperanza window trap for the collection of the African onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toé, Laurent D; Koala, Lassane; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Traoré, Bizini M; Sanfo, Moussa; Kambiré, Sié Roger; Cupp, Eddie W; Traoré, Soungalo; Yameogo, Laurent; Boakye, Daniel; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2014-09-01

    A simple inexpensive trap (Esperanza window trap) was shown recently to collect significant numbers of Simulium ochraceum sensu lato, a major vector of Onchocerca volvulus in Mesoamerica. Here, we report studies optimizing this trap for the collection of Simulium damnosum s.l., the major vector of O. volvulus in Africa. A shortened, blue and black striped version of the Esperanza window trap, when baited with a combination of CO2 and worn trousers, rivalled human landing collections in the number of S. damnosum s.l. females collected. Traps baited with a commercially available human skin lure and CO2 resulted in collections that were not significantly different than those obtained from traps baited with worn trousers and CO2. This suggests that the Esperanza window trap may offer a replacement for human landing collections for monitoring onchocerciasis transmission in Africa. PMID:24794201

  5. Proprioceptive encoding of head position in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Stratiomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulk, Angelique; Gilbert, Cole

    2006-10-01

    Because the eyes of insects cannot be moved independently of the head, information about head posture is essential for stabilizing the visual world or providing information about the direction of gaze. We examined the external anatomy and physiological capabilities of a head posture proprioceptor, the prosternal organ (PO), located at the base of the neck in the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Family: Stratiomyidae). The PO is sexually isomorphic and is composed of two fused plates of about 130 mechanosensory hairs set in asymmetrical sockets whose orientation varies across the organ. A multi-joint mechanical coupling between the head, neck membrane, and contact sclerites deflects the hairs more or less to increase or decrease their level of excitation. The PO sensory afferents project to the central nervous system (CNS) via a pair of bilateral prosternal nerves (PN) to the fused thoracic ganglia. Simultaneous recording of spiking activity in the PN and videotaping of wind-induced and voluntary head movements around all three axes of head rotation reveal that a few PN afferents are active at rest, but activity increases tonically in response to head deflections. Activity is significantly modulated by change in head angles around the pitch (+/-40 degrees ), yaw (+/-30 degrees ) and roll (more than +/-90 degrees ) axes, although the dynamic range of spiking activity differs for each axis of rotation. Prosternal nerve afferents are bilaterally excited (inhibited) by pitch down (up); excited (inhibited) by head yaw toward the ipsilateral (contralateral) side; excited by roll down toward the ipsilateral side, but little inhibited by roll toward the opposite side. Although bilateral comparison of activity in PN afferents reliably encodes head posture around a given rotational axis, from the point of view of the CNS, the problem of encoding head posture is ill-posed with three axes of rotation and only two streams of afferent information. Furthermore, when the

  6. The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) as a potential measure of human postmortem interval: observations and case histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, W D; Goff, M L; Adkins, T R; Haskell, N H

    1994-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), has been shown to be a ubiquitous inhabitant of both surface and buried human remains throughout the southern, central and western United States and Hawaii. Unlike most other species of forensically important Diptera, this species frequently dominates bodies in the dry/post decay stage of decomposition. Adults of the black soldier fly appear to initiate oviposition (egg laying) 20 to 30 days postmortem. Even at warm temperatures (27.8 degrees C), subsequent completion of the life cycle can require an additional 55 days. Life history data for H. illucens, when used in combination with data for other cohabiting arthropod species and viewed in the context of local environmental conditions, can provide medicolegal investigators with valuable parameters for estimating the postmortem intervals for badly decomposed remains. PMID:8113702

  7. Faecal sludge management with the larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)--from a hygiene aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalander, Cecilia; Diener, Stefan; Magri, Maria Elisa; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lindström, Anders; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-08-01

    Inadequate and lacking sanitation and wastewater treatment systems can lead to the spreading of diarrhoeal diseases. One contributing factor in the lack of such treatment systems is the lack of economic incentives for stakeholders throughout the service chain. However, the organic fraction of the waste is high in valuable plant nutrients and could be reused in agriculture and as animal feed. For example, grown larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), make an excellent protein source in animal feed, while the feeding activity of the larvae substantially reduces the dry mass of the treated material. This study examined the effect of black soldier fly larvae on the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms in human faeces and found a 6 log10 reduction in Salmonella spp. in human faeces in eight days, compared with a <2 log10 reduction in the control. No increased reduction was observed for Enterococcus spp., bacteriophage ΦX174 or Ascaris suum ova. PMID:23669577

  8. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in novel organic protein feedstuffs for pigs: Black soldier fly larvae meal(Hermetia illucens)

    OpenAIRE

    Kortelainen, Tiina; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Tuori, Mikko; Partanen, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in organically produced black soldier fly larvae (Hermeti illucens) meal in growing piglets. The use of Hermetia meal in pig feeding is not allowed for the time being, but feed legislation in the EU concerning the use of Hermetia meal for pigs is in progress. Two batches of Hermetia meal arrived from Switzerland (FiBL Research Institute of Organic Agriculture). In batch 1, fa...

  9. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

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    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  10. Cytotaxonomy of Simulium cauchense Floch & Abonnenc and Simulium quadrifidum Lutz (Diptera: Simuliidae in Brazilian Amazonia

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    Miriam Adriana Alvan-Aguilar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulium cauchense Floch & Abonnenc and Simulium quadrifidum Lutz are widely distributed in the Amazon region and are morphologically similar at the larval and pupal stages. Chromosomally, these species are readily distinguished by the position of the nucleolar organizer, which is in the short arm of chromosome I in S. cauchense and in the long arm of chromosomes III in S. quadrifidum. They also differ by three fixed inversions. Sex chromosomes are undifferentiated in both species. Chromosomal resolution of the two species allowed us to evaluate four structural features previously used as diagnostic aids at the larval stage. Characters that distinguish larvae of the two species are the number of branches and branching patterns of the dorsal abdominal setae and the dark band on each primary fan. Branching patterns of the gill histoblasts were often diagnostic, with S. quadrifidum exhibiting more proximal branching and S. cauchense more distal branching. Sites where both species occurred sometimes had larvae with one petiole branching proximally and the other distally; in these cases examination of the chromosomes permitted assignment of the specimen to species. Pigmentation patterns of larvae, on the other hand, are highly variable. Color typically is sex linked in both species.

  11. Transmission dynamics of Simulium damnosum in rural communities of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

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    K.N. Opara

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Onchocerciasis is endemic in some parts of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This study describes the entomological parameters of transmission in three rural communities of Akwa Ibom State, prior to ivermectin intervention in 2004. Methods: Blackflies were caught using human bait and 90% of the flies were dissected for parity. All parous flies were further dissected for the presence of filaria larvae. Monthly and annual biting rate, and transmission potential were calculated using standard methods.Results: A total of 4296 adult Simulium damnosum were caught on human bait, 4119 were dissected of which 208 (5.1% were infected with Onchocerca volvulus larvae. Transmission parameters varied significantly (p < 0.05 in the three villages. Annual biting rates, ranged from 9490 to 11,218 bites per person per year. The annual transmission potential ranged from 131 to 189 infective larvae per person per year, monthly biting rate and monthly transmission potential varied significantly (p < 0.05 in the three villages. Transmission was highly seasonal occurring during the peak of rainy season from August to October. There was no transmission during the dry periods — November to March, and the early rainy periods — April to May. The diurnal biting activity of the fly exhibited a bimodal pattern with a morning peak (0900–1000 hrs and a more marked evening peak (1600–1700 hrs. Interpretation & conclusion: The results indicate that there is a temporal and spatial variation in the transmission dynamics of S. damnosum in the study area.

  12. Biting behaviour of Simulium damnosum complex and Onchocerca volvulus infection along the Osun River, Southwest Nigeria

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    Akinwale Olaoluwa P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on biting behaviours and infectivity status of insect vectors are pre-requisites in understanding the epidemiology of the vector- borne diseases and planning effective control measures. A longitudinal study was carried out to investigate the transmission index of Simulium damnosum complex species along Osun River, South Western Nigeria. Adult flies were collected on human attractants from 07:00 to 18:00 hours for two consecutive days from February 2008 to June 2009 at three communities: Osun Eleja, Osun Ogbere and Osun Budepo. The infectivity rate was determined by dissection and Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification (PCR of 0-150 genes of Onchocerca parasite using the pool screening technique. Results The results indicated that the majority of the flies collected at the three sampling points were nulliparous as they accounted for 53.90%, 57.86% and 59.58% of the flies dissected at Osun Budepo, Osun Ogbere and Osun Eleja, respectively. The parous rate was higher during the dry season than the wet season but the difference was not statistically significant (p Onchocerca parasite at the three sampling points however the annual biting rates at the three communities were higher than 1,000 considered as tolerable value for a person living in an onchocerciasis zone by Word Health Organization. Conclusion The study has provided the baseline data for further study on onchocerciasis transmission dynamics and the need to intercept man- simuliid vector contact at the study area.

  13. The black soldier-fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera, Stratiomyidae), used to estimate the postmortem interval in a case in Amapá State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol-Luz, José R; Francez, Pablo Abdon da Costa; Ururahy-Rodrigues, Alexandre; Constantino, Reginaldo

    2008-03-01

    The black soldier-fly (Hermetia illucens) is a generalist detritivore which is commonly present in corpses in later stages of decomposition and may be useful in forensic entomology. This paper describes the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) based on the life cycle of the black soldier-fly in a case in northern Brazil. A male child was abducted from his home and 42 days later his corpse was found in an advanced stage of decay. Two black soldier-fly larvae were found associated with the body. The larvae emerged as adults after 25-26 days. Considering the development cycle of H. illucens, the date of oviposition was estimated as 24-25 days after abduction. Since H. illucens usually (but not always) colonizes corpses in more advanced stages of decay, this estimate is consistent with the hypothesis that the child was killed immediately after abduction. PMID:18366584

  14. Assessing the potential effects of fungicides on nontarget gut fungi (trichomycetes) and their associated larval black fly hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emma R.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Gray, Elmer; Bond, Laura; Steele, Lance; Kandel, Prasanna; Chamberlin, Alison; Gause, Justin; Reynolds, Nicole; Robertson, Ian; Novak, Stephen; Feris, Kevin; White, Merlin M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungicides are moderately hydrophobic and have been detected in water and sediment, particularly in agricultural watersheds, but typically are not included in routine water quality monitoring efforts. This is despite their widespread use and frequent application to combat fungal pathogens. Although the efficacy of these compounds on fungal pathogens is well documented, little is known about their effects on nontarget fungi. This pilot study, a field survey in southwestern Idaho from April to December 2010 on four streams with varying pesticide inputs (two agricultural and two reference sites), was conducted to assess nontarget impact of fungicides on gut fungi, or trichomycetes. Tissues of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), hosts of gut fungi, were analyzed for pesticide accumulation. Fungicides were detected in hosts from streams within agricultural watersheds but were not detected in hosts from reference streams. Gut fungi from agricultural sites exhibited decreased percent infestation, density and sporulation within the gut, and black fly tissues had elevated pesticide concentrations. Differences observed between the sites demonstrate a potential effect on this symbiotic system. Future research is needed to parse out the details of the complex biotic and abiotic relationships; however, these preliminary results indicate that impacts to nontarget organisms could have far-reaching consequences within aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Still Flies in Buttermilk: Black Male Faculty, Critical Race Theory, and Composite Counterstorytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Rachel Alicia; Ward, LaCharles; Phillips, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by critical race theory, this essay employs composite counterstorytelling to narrate the experiences of black male faculty on traditionally white campuses. Situated at the intersections of race and gender, our composite counterstory is richly informed by 11 interviews with black male faculty alongside critical race scholarship that…

  16. Seasonal and diurnal biting activities and zoonotic filarial infections of two Simulium species (Diptera: Simuliidae in northern Thailand

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    Ishii Y.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and daily biting activity patterns, and natural filarial infections of adult black flies attracted to human bait were investigated at Ban Pang Faen, a rural area in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand. Collections were carried out twice a month from 06-00 to 18-00 hours from January 2005 to February 2006. Among ten Simulium species collected, S. nodosum and S. asakoae were predominant occupying 57.3% and 37.2% of the total 16, 553 females, respectively. These two predominant species showed different patterns in seasonal abundance: majority of S. nodosum (86.7% were collected in hot season (from mid February to mid May, while most of S. asakoae (74.5% were collected in rainy season (from mid May to mid October. For the daily biting activity, S. nodosum had two patterns: the main one was unimodal with a peak from 17-00 to 18-00, and the other was bimodal and had the major peak from 16-00 to 18-00 and the minor one from 07-00 to 09-00. The pattern of S. asakoae was mostly unimodal with a peak from 06-00 to 10-00. The filarial larvae found in S. nodosum and S. asakoae were morphologically different from each other. The short and thick infective larvae found in S. asakoae differed from all known filarial larvae; it is suggested that they might be a bird parasite, Splendidofilariinae or Lemdaninae. The infection of the mammophilic S. nodosum with large Onchocerca type infective larvae was confirmed in this area. Natural filarial infections were found in each month (except December in either S. nodosum or S. asakoae or in both. Monthly infection rates with all stages of larvae were 0.6-5.0% for S. nodosum, and 1.0-4.0% for S. asakoae. It is suggested that people in this village are exposed to the risk of infection with zoonotic filariae throughout the year.

  17. The impact of Merowe Dam on Simulium hamedense vector of onchocerciasis in Abu Hamed focus - Northern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Zarroug, Isam MA; Elaagip, Arwa H.; Abuelmaali, Sara A.; Hanan A. Mohamed; Wigdan A ElMubarak; Hashim, Kamal; Deran, Tong Chor M.; Aziz, Nabil; Tarig B Higazi

    2014-01-01

    Background Abu Hamed, the northernmost onchocerciasis focus in the world, is located along the River Nile banks in the Nubian Desert. Hydroelectric dams can alter activity of black flies and may provide breeding sites for black fly. Merowe Dam, the largest hydropower project in Africa, was built west of Abu Hamed focus in 2009. The impact of the Dam on onchocerciasis and its black fly vectors in Abu Hamed focus was measured in this study. Findings Entomological surveys for aquatic stages and ...

  18. Effects of climatic conditions on the biting density and relative abundance of [i]Simulium damnosum[/i] complex in a rural Nigerian farm settlement

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    Joseph Effiong Eyo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. The effect of climatic conditions on the biting density and relative abundance of [i]Simulium damnosum[/i] complex at Adani, Nigeria, from August 2010 – January 2011 was investigated. [b]materials and methods[/b]. The classical method of collecting blackflies for a period of 11 hours using human attractants was employed in the study. Monthly climatic data, such as rainfall, relative humidity and temperature were collected for the period of study. [b]results. [/b]Rainfall, relative humidity, temperature, harmattan (cold, dry wind and deforestation were observed to affect the biting density and relative abundance of blackflies at the site. A total of 548 female adult blackflies were collected. The biting density of the flies ranged from 0.5 Flies/Man/Hour (FMH in December to 5.5 FMH in January. The relative abundance of the flies ranged from 21 in December to 243 in January. Regression analysis showed that temperature and relative humidity had a positive correlation with relative abundance of [i]Simulium damnosum [/i]complex (y = -0.0006x + 5.593, r = 0.0519 and (y = -0.1213x + 78.794, r = 0.505, respectively. [b]conclusions[/b]. The risk of getting infected with Onchocerca volvulus increased during the dry season with its associated weather conditions.

  19. Vector competence of Simulium metallicum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) in two endemic areas of human onchocerciasis in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, M E; Botto, C; Basañez, M G; Barrera, R

    1994-02-01

    Experimental infections of Simulium metallicum s.l. with Onchocerca volvulus were carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, Altamira and Trincheras, in northern Venezuela, to determine vector competence. Wild-caught flies, fed on infected volunteers, were maintained in the laboratory for 13-15 days at 27 degrees C. Parasite development was complete but asynchronous and retarded. No differences in the vector competence of the two populations of S. metallicum s.l. were found. However, a less efficient development of the parasite occurred during the dry season at both localities. The distribution of the parasite within the vector was aggregated and also displayed seasonal variation. The seasonal susceptibility may be a consequence of a density-dependence regulation mechanism of the parasite within the vector. These results indicate a relatively low vector competence for S. metallicum s.l. in northern Venezuela. PMID:8192518

  20. Assessments of the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by Simulium sanctipauli in the Upper Denkyira District, Ghana, and the intermittent disappearance of the vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garms, R; Badu, K; Owusu-Dabo, E; Baffour-Awuah, S; Adjei, O; Debrah, A Y; Nagel, M; Biritwum, N K; Gankpala, L; Post, R J; Kruppa, T F

    2015-03-01

    Following studies on the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) by Simulium sanctipauli Vajime & Dunbar (Diptera, Simuliidae) in Upper Denkyira District in Ghana in 2001 and 2002 (Kutin et al., Med Vet Ent 18:167-173, 2004), further assessments were carried out in 2006 and 2013/2014 to determine whether transmission parameters had changed since community-directed ivermectin treatment (CDTI) began in 1999. There were no marked changes of the transmission intensities in 2006. Only slight, but non-significant, reductions were observed in infection rates of parous flies with larval stages (L1-L3) of O. volvulus from 44.1 % (of 1672 parous flies) in 2001/2002 to 42.1 % (506) in 2006 and from 6.5 to 5.9 % of flies carrying infective larvae in their heads. This suggested that there was an ongoing transmission in the area and the parasite reservoir in the human population was still high. Unexpectedly, further assessments conducted in October 2013 and March and October 2014 revealed that the vector S. sanctipauli had apparently disappeared and transmission had ceased, probably as a result of intensified gold mining activities along the rivers Ofin and Pra. The water of both rivers was extremely turbid, heavily loaded with suspended solids, probably preventing the development of blackfly larvae. Some breeding and biting of Simulium yahense Vajime & Dunbar was observed in a small tributary of the Pra, the Okumayemfuo, which is not affected by gold mining. However, the infection rate of flies was low, only 3.7 % of 163 parous flies were infected with first stage (L1) larvae of O. volvulus. PMID:25592754

  1. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamada Neusa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season.

  2. Integrated taxonomy of a new species of black fly in the subgenus Trichodagmia (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the Páramo Region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Sofia A; Moncada, Ligia I; Murcia, Carlos H; Lotta, Ingrid A; Matta, Nubia E; Adler, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    A new species of simuliid from the Andean Mountains of Colombia is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, larvae, polytene chromosomes, and COI and ITS2 DNA sequences. Simulium (Trichodagmia) chimguazaense new species is structurally, chromosomally, and molecularly distinct from its nearest relatives, S. muiscorum Bueno, Moncada & Muñoz de Hoyos and S. sumapazense Coscarón & Py-Daniel.  PMID:25661961

  3. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies from the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Sim, Sheina B; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-03-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA as major hosts: the native black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and the introduced ornamental English hawthorn, C. monogyna. Apple and downy hawthorn-origin flies in the eastern USA use volatile blends emitted from the surface of their respective ripening fruit to find and discriminate among host trees. To test whether the same is true for western flies, we used coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and developed a 7-component apple fruit blend for western apple-origin flies, an 8-component black hawthorn fruit blend for flies infesting C. douglasii, and a 9-component ornamental hawthorn blend for flies from C. monogyna. Crataegus douglasii and C. monogyna-origin flies showed similar levels of upwind directed flight to their respective natal synthetic fruit blends in flight tunnel assays compared to whole fruit adsorbent extracts, indicating that the blends contain all the behaviorally relevant fruit volatiles to induce maximal response levels. The black and ornamental hawthorn blends shared four compounds in common including 3-methylbutan-1-ol, which appears to be a key volatile for R. pomonella populations in the eastern, southern, and western USA that show a preference for fruit from different Crataegus species. However, the blends also differed from one another and from domesticated apple in several respects that make it possible that western R. pomonella flies behaviorally discriminate among fruit volatiles and form ecologically differentiated host races, as is the case for eastern apple and hawthorn flies. PMID:22399441

  4. Onchocerciasis transmission levels and Simulium damnosum complex biting activity at riverside and rice field sites in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J B; Beech-Garwood, P A; Thomson, M C; McMahon, J E

    1988-10-01

    Biting densities of the Simulium damnosum Theobald complex of blackflies and their levels of parasitism by Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) were compared at two ecologically contrasted sites in the Southern Province of Sierre Leone, West Africa: by the Tabe riverside close to Gbaiima village where onchocerciasis is hyperendemic (63.1% positive skin-snips) and in open rice fields 2 km from the mesoendemic (54.9%) village of Senehun. Using a combination of morphometric and enzyme electrophoresis techniques, the primary vector was found to belong to the S.sanctipauli subcomplex and was most probably S.soubrense 'B' (sensu Post, 1986). In the wet season biting activity took place throughout the day at the village, but had morning and evening peaks in the rice fields. Transmission of O.volvulus was detected at the village in all months except February-April, while in the rice fields it was detected only during September-November and May at one tenth the level of the village. There was a significant difference between the two sites in the proportion of parous flies carrying third stage larvae in the head, but not of other larval stages. PMID:2980195

  5. Indices of onchocerciasis transmission by different members of the Simulium damnosum complex conflict with the paradigm of forest and savanna parasite strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Robert A; Garms, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Onchocerciasis in savanna zones is generally more severe than in the forest and pathologies also differ geographically, differences often ascribed to the existence of two or more strains and incompatibilities between vectors and strains. However, flies in the forest transmit more infective larvae than their savanna counterparts, even in sympatry, contradicting expectations based on the forest and savanna strains paradigm. We analysed data on the numbers of Onchocerca volvulus larvae of different stages found in 10 different taxonomic categories of the Simulium damnosum complex derived from more than 48,800 dissections of flies from Sierra Leone in the west of Africa to Uganda in the east. The samples were collected before widespread ivermectin distribution and thus provide a baseline for evaluating control measures. Savanna species contained fewer larvae per infected or per infective fly than the forest species, even when biting and parous rates were accounted for. The highest transmission indices were found in the forest-dwelling Pra form of Simulium sanctipauli (616 L3/1000 parous flies) and the lowest in the savanna-inhabiting species S. damnosum/S. sirbanum (135) and S. kilibanum (65). Frequency distributions of numbers of L1-2 and L3 larvae found in parous S. damnosum/S. sirbanum, S. kilibanum, S. squamosum, S. yahense, S. sanctipauli, S. leonense and S. soubrense all conformed to the negative binomial distribution, with the mainly savanna-dwelling species (S. damnosum/S. sirbanum) having less overdispersed distributions than the mainly forest-dwelling species. These infection patterns were maintained even when forest and savanna forms were sympatric and biting the same human population. Furthermore, for the first time, levels of blindness were positively correlated with infection intensities of the forest vector S. yahense, consistent with relations previously reported for savanna zones. Another novel result was that conversion rates of L1-2 larvae to L3s

  6. Repellent Activity of Some Essential Oils Against Simulium Species in India

    OpenAIRE

    Hazarika, S.; Dhiman, Sunil; Rabha, Bipul; Bhola, RK; Singh, Lokendera

    2012-01-01

    Use of repellents seems to be most reliable method of personal protection against annoyance and infections associated with haematophagous insects. We have investigated the biting activity of Simulium and tested the repellency of five essential oils extracted from Homalomena aromatica Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), Pogostemon heyneanus Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Vitex negundo L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Ageratum conzoides L. (Asterales:...

  7. A NEW SPECIES OF SIMULIUM (SIMULIUM) FROM JIANFENG MOUNTAIN, HAINAN PROVINCE, CHINA(DIPTERA:SIMULIIDAE)%海南省蚋属一新种(双翅目:蚋科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 陈汉彬

    2001-01-01

    记述采自海南省尖峰岭蚋属蚋亚属Simulium (Simulium)一新种,乐东蚋Simulium (Simulium) ledongense sp. nov.。新种隶属多叉蚋组Simulium multistriatum-group,与秦氏蚋Simulium qini Cao et al., 1993和鞍阳蚋Simulium ephippioidum Chen and Wen, 1999近缘。对其各虫期形态进行描述并与其近缘种比较作分类讨论。模式标本保存于贵阳医学院生物学教研室。%Simulium (Simulium) ledongense sp.nov.   This new species belongs to the multistriatum-group of subgenus Simulium, and is allied to Simulium qini Cao et al., 1993 and Simulum ephippioidum Chen et Wen, 1999. Compared with S.qini, S.ledongense can be distinguished chiefly by: 1) male, antero\\|median area of mesonotum with a round silvery spot, flanked by two L\\|shaped gray brownish spots; the greater part of legs dark brown; basal 3/5 of median sclerite fine, left 2/5 swelled remarkably with a median cleft; parameral hooks with about 15 spines; width of ventral plate nearly 3 times its length; 2) female, end of stem of genital fork swelled; distal 1/3 of each arm of genital fork with a horn\\|like protuberance; anterior gonapophyses cone\\|shaped; 3) larvae, antenna with 4 segments in proportion of 9.6∶8.3∶3.5∶0.4; postgenal cleft heart\\|shaped; the last abdominal segment with accessory sclerite; rectal gill lobes compound with 5 secondary lobules each. Compared S.ledongense with S.ephippioidum, besides throax pattern, color of legs, special shape of median sclerite, proportion of width and length of ventral plate, shape of anterior gonapophyses, shape of postgenal cleft, proportion of segments of larval antenna, larvae with accessory sclerite, and number of secondary lobules of rectal gill lobes, as stated above, S. ledongense can also be distinguished from S.ephippioidum by: 1) male, style about 2 times as long as coxite; 2) larvae, postgenal cleft about 4 times as long as postgenal bridge. Holotype ♂, paratypes 1♂,1♀, 3 pupae and 2

  8. IRF7 in the Australian Black Flying Fox, Pteropus alecto: Evidence for a Unique Expression Pattern and Functional Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Zhou; Chris Cowled; Ashley Mansell; Paul Monaghan; Diane Green; Lijun Wu; Zhengli Shi; Lin-Fa Wang; Baker, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    As the only flying mammal, bats harbor a number of emerging and re-emerging viruses, many of which cause severe diseases in humans and other mammals yet result in no clinical symptoms in bats. As the master regulator of the interferon (IFN)-dependent immune response, IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) plays a central role in innate antiviral immunity. To explore the role of bat IRF7 in the regulation of the IFN response, we performed sequence and functional analysis of IRF7 from the pteropid bat,...

  9. Isozyme variation in four species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidae from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic studies of isozymes were done with four closely related species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidade in the Brazilian Amazon, using last-instar larvae collected in the field. Ten enzymes were studied, which yielded 11 loci. Diagnostic loci were not found between Simulium maroniense cytotype D and Simulium rorotaense. Simulium maroniense and S. rorotaense differed from Simulium trombetense by two diagnostic loci (Me and Xdh, and Simulium perflavum differed from the other three species by four diagnostic loci (Me, Xdh, Mdh, and Got. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.30 to 2.30, the percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 18.2 to 63.6% and the mean heterozygosity values observed ranged from 0.062 to 0.108. Genetic distances among the species ranged from 0.010 to 0.581. The lowest value was obtained between S. maroniense and S. rorotaense, and the highest between S. perflavum and S. trombetense. The genetic relationships among the four S. perflavum group species indicate that they are closely related. The high similarity at the isozyme level, allied to previous studies of morphology and polytene chromosomes, may suggest that the divergence time since the separation of S. maroniense and S. rorotaense is still too recent for diagnostic loci to have evolved.

  10. IRF7 in the Australian black flying fox, Pteropus alecto: evidence for a unique expression pattern and functional conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhou

    Full Text Available As the only flying mammal, bats harbor a number of emerging and re-emerging viruses, many of which cause severe diseases in humans and other mammals yet result in no clinical symptoms in bats. As the master regulator of the interferon (IFN-dependent immune response, IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7 plays a central role in innate antiviral immunity. To explore the role of bat IRF7 in the regulation of the IFN response, we performed sequence and functional analysis of IRF7 from the pteropid bat, Pteropus alecto. Our results demonstrate that bat IRF7 retains the ability to bind to MyD88 and activate the IFN response despite unique changes in the MyD88 binding domain. We also demonstrate that bat IRF7 has a unique expression pattern across both immune and non-immune related tissues and is inducible by double-strand RNA. The broad tissue distribution of IRF7 may provide bats with an enhanced ability to rapidly activate the IFN response in a wider range of tissues compared to other mammals. The importance of IRF7 in antiviral activity against the bat reovirus, Pulau virus was confirmed by siRNA knockdown of IRF7 in bat cells resulting in enhanced viral replication. Our results highlight the importance of IRF7 in innate antiviral immunity in bats.

  11. 黑水虻对畜禽废弃物治理的研究进展%Development of Animal Manure Treatment by Black Soldier Fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘韶娜; 赵智勇

    2016-01-01

    Black soldier fly (Hermtia illm L.) is a kind of wide spread insect. The larve is live on animal waste, animal carcass,decomposed organic matter and so on.It can be used for organic waste management which can reduce environmental pollution . The dry larve is 42%~43% of its whole weight , which contained 42%~44%protein,31%~35% fat,and essitial amino-acid.It can be used as an animal feed which larve can produced antibacterial peptide and biodiesel.%黑水虻(Hermitia illm L.)是一种广泛分布的昆虫,幼虫取食动物尸体粪便、腐烂有机物等,能被用作有机废弃物的无害化处理,减少了环境污染。幼虫虫体干物质达42%~43%,粗蛋白质占干重的42%~44%,粗脂肪占31%~35%,含有丰富的必需氨基酸,是畜禽饲料的优质资源。

  12. Resistência a inseticidas em populações de Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae) Insecticide resistance in Simulium populations (Diptera, Simuliidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Campos; Carlos Fernando S. de Andrade

    2002-01-01

    Populações de Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar, 1832 do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, foram analisadas quanto à susceptibilidade ao Temephos, considerando-se os históricos de controle e possível resistência. Bioensaios in situ foram realizados para populações dos estados do Paraná (Tibaji e Rolândia), Rio de Janeiro (Muriqui) e São Paulo (Barra do Una, Ilhabela, e Morungaba). As populações foram caracterizadas como susceptíveis (S) ou resistentes (R) submetendo-se larvas nos últimos estádio...

  13. Chromosomal comparisons among and within populations of Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax (Diptera, Simuliidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Campos; Carlos Fernando S. de Andrade; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M.

    2001-01-01

    Chromosomal studies were carried on six larval populations of Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax from different locations in Brazil. Larvae were collected in the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Polytene chromosome map comparisons within and among populations showed no differences in banding pattern, except for some limited polymorphism (secondary NOR and four band polymorphisms). There were no chromosomal variations associated with the resistance or susceptibi...

  14. Purification and characterisation of immunoglobulins from the Australian black flying fox (Pteropus alecto using anti-fab affinity chromatography reveals the low abundance of IgA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Wynne

    Full Text Available There is now an overwhelming body of evidence that implicates bats in the dissemination of a long list of emerging and re-emerging viral agents, often causing illnesses or death in both animals and humans. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding the immunological mechanisms by which bats coexist with highly pathogenic viruses. Immunoglobulins are major components of the adaptive immune system. Early studies found bats may have quantitatively lower antibody responses to model antigens compared to conventional laboratory animals. To further understand the antibody response of bats, the present study purified and characterised the major immunoglobulin classes from healthy black flying foxes, Pteropus alecto. We employed a novel strategy, where IgG was initially purified and used to generate anti-Fab specific antibodies. Immobilised anti-Fab specific antibodies were then used to capture other immunoglobulins from IgG depleted serum. While high quantities of IgM were successfully isolated from serum, IgA was not. Only trace quantities of IgA were detected in the serum by mass spectrometry. Immobilised ligands specific to IgA (Jacalin, Peptide M and staphylococcal superantigen-like protein also failed to capture P. alecto IgA from serum. IgM was the second most abundant serum antibody after IgG. A survey of mucosal secretions found IgG was the dominant antibody class rather than IgA. Our study demonstrates healthy P. alecto bats have markedly less serum IgA than expected. Higher quantities of IgG in mucosal secretions may be compensation for this low abundance or lack of IgA. Knowledge and reagents developed within this study can be used in the future to examine class-specific antibody response within this important viral host.

  15. The study of stress resistance for larva and pre-pupa stage of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens%黑水虻幼虫及预蛹抗逆性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈媛; 徐齐云; 安新城

    2012-01-01

    本文初步研究了老熟和预蛹阶段的黑水虻Hermetia illucens对于酒精毒性、氧胁迫和高渗透压条件下的耐受特性,结果显示黑水虻幼虫和预蛹在三种胁迫因子处于20%~60%(浓度)的较低水平时,其平均死亡率低于20%,表现出良好的抗逆性.高浓度的酒精、矿物油和氯化钠溶液对于黑水虻的生存都会产生负面影响,但是幼虫与预蛹由于其生理形态上的变化,致使其在抗逆性方面表现出显著差异,预蛹阶段的黑水虻对矿物油较为敏感,而幼虫则对高盐环境的耐受性表现较弱.%The stress tolerance of black soldier fly, Hermetia illurens, larvae and pre-pupa in solution of alcohol, mineral oil and common salt with gradient concentration was studied. The result indicated that it showed positive performance for black soldier fly larva and pre-pupa when stress factors were lower level, but it with high level obviously were going to hurt insect body and increase mortality. The more attention should been paid on the difference between larvae and pre-pupa on stress resistance in mineral oil and common salt. It implied that pre-pupa of black soldier fly were more susceptive to mineral oil than larvae and larva were less tolerated to common salt instead, which might be the result from physiological and morphological deviation of insect cuticulae.

  16. Resistência a inseticidas em populações de Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae Insecticide resistance in Simulium populations (Diptera, Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Campos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Populações de Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832 do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, foram analisadas quanto à susceptibilidade ao Temephos, considerando-se os históricos de controle e possível resistência. Bioensaios in situ foram realizados para populações dos estados do Paraná (Tibaji e Rolândia, Rio de Janeiro (Muriqui e São Paulo (Barra do Una, Ilhabela, e Morungaba. As populações foram caracterizadas como susceptíveis (S ou resistentes (R submetendo-se larvas nos últimos estádios a uma concentração operacional (0,1ppm i.a./10min de Temephos (Abate 500E como diagnóstica. Os possíveis mecanismos para o desenvolvimento de resistência ao organofosforado são discutidos considerando-se antigas e novas estratégias de controle.Populations of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832 from Southern and Southeastern States of Brazil were analyzed for temephos susceptibility considering control historical information and possible resistance. In situ bioassays were carried out for populations from the states of Paraná (Tibaji and Rolândia, Rio de Janeiro (Muriqui and São Paulo (Barra do Una, Ilhabela and Morungaba. The populations were characterized as susceptible (S or resistant (R by submitting larvae in the last instars to an operational concentration (0.1ppm a.i./10min of temephos (Abate 500E as diagnostic. The possible mechanisms for the organophosphorus resistance development are discussed considering old and new control strategies.

  17. Resistência a inseticidas em populações de Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Jairo; Andrade Carlos Fernando S.

    2002-01-01

    Populações de Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar, 1832 do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, foram analisadas quanto à susceptibilidade ao Temephos, considerando-se os históricos de controle e possível resistência. Bioensaios in situ foram realizados para populações dos estados do Paraná (Tibaji e Rolândia), Rio de Janeiro (Muriqui) e São Paulo (Barra do Una, Ilhabela, e Morungaba). As populações foram caracterizadas como susceptíveis (S) ou resistentes (R) submetendo-se larvas nos últimos estádio...

  18. Chromosomal comparisons among and within populations of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax (Diptera, Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Campos

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal studies were carried on six larval populations of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax from different locations in Brazil. Larvae were collected in the states of Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Polytene chromosome map comparisons within and among populations showed no differences in banding pattern, except for some limited polymorphism (secondary NOR and four band polymorphisms. There were no chromosomal variations associated with the resistance or susceptibility of the larvae to temephos. The chromosomal homosequentiality found among the six populations suggests that S. pertinax may be a monomorphic species.

  19. Identification of entomopathogenic Bacillus isolated from Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae larvae and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavados CFG

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic bacteria isolated from Simulium larvae and adults from breeding sites in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were identified as 18 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and one of B. sphaericus. Most of these strains were serotyped according to their flagellar antigens. However, nine of the B. thuringiensis samples, could not be serotyped and were designated as "autoagglutinating"; they were also shown to be toxic in preliminary tests against Aedes aegypti larvae. Additionally, B. sphaericus was also shown to be toxic towards Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

  20. Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus and prospects for the elimination of its vector, the blackfly Simulium neavei in the Mpamba-Nkusi focus in Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakwo, T L; Ndyomugyenyi, R; Onapa, A W; Twebaze, C

    2006-03-01

    The transmission of Onchocerca volvulus Leuckart (Spirudida: Onchocercidae) and the prospects of Simulium neavei Roubaud (Diptera: Simuliidae) vector elimination through ground larviciding were investigated in the Mpamba-Nkusi focus, western Uganda. Transmission levels and the initiated vector elimination activities were assessed to supplement the ongoing ivermectin mass distribution programme. Searches for breeding sites, adult fly catches, dissection of flies, river treatment with temephos (Abate) and a review of annual ivermectin treatment data were conducted. High levels of crab infestation with S. neavei sensu stricto immature stages were recorded; 57.9% and 100% for the Mpamba and Nyabugando river systems, respectively. The mean numbers of larvae/pupae per crab were 3.6 +/- 0.5 in the Mpamba and 20.6 +/- 1.8 in the Nyabugando systems. Pre-intervention mean biting densities were 39 and 32 flies/(man day) in 2001 and 2002, respectively, and an annual biting rate in 2001 of > 14 000. The bimodal biting pattern of S. neavei s.s. consisted of two peaks; one in the morning (09.00-10.00 hours) and one in the afternoon (14.00-15.00 hours) with a mid-day lull in biting. The infection/infective rates were 13.3%/2.8% and 16.6%/2.9% in the dissected parous flies from the Mpamba and Nyabugando river systems, respectively. Out of approximately 1000 parous flies, 129 and 109 were found to be harbouring infective larvae of Onchocerca volvulus in their heads from the Mpamba and Nyabugando river systems, respectively. In spite of the > 10 years of ivermectin treatment, at a mean coverage of 71.3%, infection remained relatively high. Ground larviciding with temephos (Abate) initiated in June and October 2002 had a significant impact. In the Mpamba river system there was a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in positive crabs from 57.9% in 2001 to 0.06% in 2003 and a decrease in the mean number of larvae/pupae per crab from 3.6 +/- 0.5 in 2001 to 0.0007 +/- 0.0001 (P < 0.002) in

  1. 海南兴隆地区黑水虻的人工繁育技术研究初报%Artificial Breeding Technology for Black Soldier Fly in Xinglong Region of Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 杨森; 赖剑雄; 龙宇宙; 王干

    2011-01-01

    Since December 2009, experiments were carried on the artificial breeding for the black soldier fly, in Xinglong tropical botanical garden, Hainan. We concluded the method of establishing artificial system for breeding black soldier fly and the breeding techniques. Eggs hatching need 2 to 6 days. Larvae turn into pre pupa need 20-23 days. Then, feather after 8-11days. The adult in the insect cage can mate and spawn. The quantity of the eggs changed slightly with the temperature. Low temperature in winter is the important reason for the eggs quantity decreasing.%2009年12月至2011年5月,在海南省兴隆热带植物园进行黑水虻的人工饲养技术试验,探索热带季风气候条件下,黑水虻的人工繁育系统建立方法及饲养技术要点。结果显示,虫卵孵化需要2~6 d,幼虫经20~23 d进入预蛹期,8~11 d后开始羽化,成虫置于蚊帐中每天都可交配产卵。产卵量的多少随气候条件的变化有较大差异,冬季低温和连续阴天是导致卵量变少的重要原因。

  2. Determination of sample sizes for the estimation of Onchocerca volvulus (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) infection rates in biting populations of Simulium ochraceum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) and its application to ivermectin control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basáñez, M G; Rodríguez-Pérez, M A; Reyes-Villanueva, F; Collins, R C; Rodríguez, M H

    1998-09-01

    Monthly samples of biting Simulium ochraceum s.l. Walker were collected before and after ivermectin treatment in southern Mexico and analyzed for Onchocerca volvulus Leuckart infection rates, infection intensity, and the characteristics of larval distribution among parous flies. The variance over mean ratio (VMR) indicated that in all cases this distribution departed from Poisson and was strongly aggregated (VMR > 1). The negative binomial was found to be an adequate model with a small value of the aggregation parameter k, but the degree of larval overdispersion increased as the mean larval load decreased, invalidating the use of a common kc value. A linear relationship between k and the mean (mu) was established, k(mu) = k1 mu, which permitted exploration of the relationship between the observed proportion of infected flies, p, and the estimated mean larval burden per fly, m (all larval stages in parous flies). This would allow mean numbers of larvae per parous fly to be predicted from presence-absence data (e.g., from infection rates provided by polymerase chain reaction methods applied to pools of flies), assuming that k1 is a known parameter. Given that both p and m are naturally low in S. ochraceum, their relationship was practically linear within the range of observed values. Predictions were tested with the Mexican data from which the clumping parameter was estimated as well as for Guatemalan data for which this information was not available. Results showed a highly satisfactory degree of agreement between predictions and observations. The sample sizes required to estimate mean larval loads from prevalence data for fixed levels of precision (defined as the ratio between SE[m] and m) were calculated for realistic S. ochraceum infection rates (those found in published pre- and postcontrol field surveys as well as in this work). For the special case in which the relationship between k and the mean is linear and goes through the origin, k(mu) = k1 mu, the number

  3. 亮斑扁角水虻转化餐厨剩余物工艺及资源化利用%Conversion Process and Resource Utilization of Restaurant Waste by Black Soldier Fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李武; 郑龙玉; 李庆; 刘学林; 李明顺; 张衍林; 张吉斌; 喻子牛

    2014-01-01

    介绍了餐厨剩余物的特性及其处理方式,探讨了亮斑扁角水虻转化餐厨剩余物的条件和工艺。在适宜的工艺条件下,如碘钨灯部分替代太阳光、环境温度25~28℃、空气湿度60%~80%、接种密度4000~5000头·(kg 干物质)-1、接种虫龄6日龄、餐厨剩余物含水量为60%左右,亮斑扁角水虻可有效转化餐厨剩余物,得到亮斑扁角水虻老熟幼虫,其干物质中粗蛋白和脂肪含量分别约占44.7%和37.2%,可进一步制备成蛋白饲料和生物柴油。展望了亮斑扁角水虻转化处理餐厨剩余物的发展前景。%The characteristics and treatment methods of restaurant waste were introduced.The conditions and process of restaurant waste conversion by black soldier fly were disscussed.Under appropriate conditions, such as iodine tungsten lamp partly replace sunlight,environment temperature of 25~28 ℃,humidity of 60%~80%,the density of inoculation of 4 000~5 000·(kg dry matter)-1 ,6 days old larva,approximately 60% water content of restaurant waste,restaurant waste could be effectively coverted by black soldier fly to obtain the ma-ture larvae.The protein and fat content of the dry weight of the mature larvae was about 44.7% and 37.2%, respectively.The prepupae can be further made into protein and biodiesol.The development of restaurant waste conversion by black soldier fly was prospected.

  4. Conversion Process and Resource Utilization of Restaurant Waste by Black Soldier Fly%亮斑扁角水虻转化餐厨剩余物工艺及资源化利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李武; 郑龙玉; 李庆; 刘学林; 李明顺; 张衍林; 张吉斌; 喻子牛

    2014-01-01

    介绍了餐厨剩余物的特性及其处理方式,探讨了亮斑扁角水虻转化餐厨剩余物的条件和工艺。在适宜的工艺条件下,如碘钨灯部分替代太阳光、环境温度25~28℃、空气湿度60%~80%、接种密度4000~5000头·(kg 干物质)-1、接种虫龄6日龄、餐厨剩余物含水量为60%左右,亮斑扁角水虻可有效转化餐厨剩余物,得到亮斑扁角水虻老熟幼虫,其干物质中粗蛋白和脂肪含量分别约占44.7%和37.2%,可进一步制备成蛋白饲料和生物柴油。展望了亮斑扁角水虻转化处理餐厨剩余物的发展前景。%The characteristics and treatment methods of restaurant waste were introduced.The conditions and process of restaurant waste conversion by black soldier fly were disscussed.Under appropriate conditions, such as iodine tungsten lamp partly replace sunlight,environment temperature of 25~28 ℃,humidity of 60%~80%,the density of inoculation of 4 000~5 000·(kg dry matter)-1 ,6 days old larva,approximately 60% water content of restaurant waste,restaurant waste could be effectively coverted by black soldier fly to obtain the ma-ture larvae.The protein and fat content of the dry weight of the mature larvae was about 44.7% and 37.2%, respectively.The prepupae can be further made into protein and biodiesol.The development of restaurant waste conversion by black soldier fly was prospected.

  5. Aspectos ecológicos de Simulium goeldii (Diptera: Simuliidae): relação entre substrato e densidade de larvas Ecological aspects of Simulium goeldii (Diptera: Simuliidae: relation between substrate and larval density

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Hamada

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of larvae of Simulium goeldii was studies in four streams in upland tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. In each month 32 points were sampled, each with an area of 30 x 50 cm. The areas of all substrates available were measured at each point. The larvae of S. goeldii were collected and later counted for all substrate types where larvae of this species were found. The available substrates were classified into eight types: dry leaves, green leaves, branches, fruits, d...

  6. Time flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Janneke

    The red thread of this dissertation is ageing, or life span, of Drosophila melanogaster. Because D. melanogaster is a model organism of which many basic molecular mechanisms are conserved in humans, studying ageing and its effects on a suite of functions in this organism helps to understand ageing...... result, the LS fly might be able to spend energy more generously on different tasks. Therefor, the capacity of LS and C lines to locate resources in a natural environment was tested. It turns out that LS flies are less likely to find food than C flies in such a setting, yet that as they age, their......, regardless of mating status. Generalising studies on ageing in D. melanogaster can be cumbersome, especially in light of discrepancy between correlated responses between studies. To elucidate which mechanisms might be conserved due to evolutionary constraints, life span of 13 species of Drosophila was...

  7. Flying Scared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Sie, Marco; Josiassen, Alexander

    In light of the burgeoning growth of long-haul LCCs in Southeast Asia, the study constructs a model aimed at comprehending which factors lead passengers to choose full-service rather than no-frills carriers on long-range flights. In particular, the research aims at determining to what extent...... service quality expectations and fear of flying affect travellers' flight choices on long-haul flights. The study was set in Bangkok and primary data were obtained from a large sample of travelers departing from Suvarnabhumi Airport. While service quality emerged as a relevant factor, fear of flying didn...

  8. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge...

  9. 黑水虻肠道细菌抗菌筛选及其活性物质分子鉴定%Screening of antagonistic bacteria from gut of black soldier fly and the molecular identification of antimicrobial active substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周定中; 曹露; 王茂淋; 喻子牛; 张吉斌

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The bacteria from gut of black soldier fly were screened gainst plant pathogenic bacteria, Molecular method was used to identify the active substances from the antagonist bacteria.[Methods] Eleven strains have been isolated with diluted coating method from the gut of black solider fly.The antagonistic strains were screened using the plate confrontation method.The species was identified through the physiological, biochemical experiments and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis.Primers of key genes of known lipopeptide, synthesis were designed and purpose fragements were amplified by PCR and sequenceing.[Results] A gut bacteria, named BSF-CL, was obtained with strong inhibitory effect to Xan-thomonas oryzae PXo99 and Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, and identified as Bacillus subtilis.The result of PCR showed that strain BSF-CL possibly has the key genes which synthesis lipopeptide Iturin and Surfactin.We speculate that strain BSF-CL can synthesize lipopeptide iturin and surfactin.[Conclusion] A strong active Bacillus subtilis strain BSF-CL against bacterial and fungal pathogen was screened from the gut of black soldier fly.We preliminary speculated that the active substance may be lipopeptide iturin and surfactin through the molecular cloning and identification.%[目的]从昆虫黑水虻分离的肠道细菌进行抗植物病原菌的拮抗菌筛选,对获得有拮抗活性的肠道细菌进行活性物质的分子鉴定.[方法]用稀释涂布法从水虻肠道中分离菌株,采用平板对峙法进行抗菌筛选,对有抗菌活性的菌株通过生理生化实验、16SrRNA鉴定和进化树分析确定其种属.参考已知脂肽合成关键基因设计引物,以拮抗菌总DNA为模板进行PCR扩增,对目的片段进行测序.[结果]通过抗菌筛选获得一株对水稻黄单胞菌以及小麦纹枯病病原菌等有很强抑制效果的水虻肠道细菌BSF-CL,经鉴定为枯草芽胞杆菌.脂肽合成关键基因PCR结果显示BSF-CL菌株

  10. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geden, C. J.; Steenberg, T.; Lietze, V.-U.;

    2011-01-01

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2%. None of the stable...... flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), rat-tail maggot flies (Eristalis tenax) or yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) collected from MdSGHV-positive farms displayed characteristic salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). In laboratory transmission tests, SGH symptoms were not observed in stable flies, flesh...... flies (Sarcophaga bullata), black dump flies (Hydrotaea aenescens), or face flies (Musca autumnalis) that were injected with MdSGHV from Danish house flies. However, in two species (stable fly and black dump fly), virus injection resulted in suppression of ovarian development similar to that observed in...

  11. 影响亮斑扁角水虻产卵行为的化学物质研究%Effect of Chemical Substances on Oviposition Behavior of Black Soldier Fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐柳; 郑龙玉; 胡芮绮; 曹志平; 喻子牛; 张吉斌

    2015-01-01

    对乳酸、碳酸氢铵、顺-9-二十三碳烯3种化学物质影响亮斑扁角水虻产卵行为进行了研究。结果表明,乳酸和碳酸氢铵对亮斑扁角水虻产卵有引诱作用;而顺-9-二十三碳烯没有引诱作用,且随着浓度的升高对亮斑扁角水虻产卵有排斥作用。乳酸、碳酸氢铵、顺-9-二十三碳烯引诱实验的虫卵孵化率分别为71.76%、42.04%、72.48%。表明乳酸和碳酸氢铵对昆虫引诱作用没有专一性,而顺-9-二十三碳烯引诱作用相对比较专一。对亮斑扁角水虻最好的引诱因子为乳酸。%The effect of three chemical substances[lactic acid,ammonium bicarbonate and (Z)-9-tricosene] on oviposition behavior of black soldier fly were studied.Results showed that,lactic acid and ammonium bicar-bonate showed positive oviposition response.But (Z)-9-tricosene showed negative oviposition response and the negative activity increased with the increase of concentration.The hatchability rates of eggs induced by lactic acid,ammonium bicarbonate and (Z )-9-tricosene were 71.76%,42.04%,72.48%,respectively.The results showed that lactic acid,ammonium bicarbonate didn′t have specificity on insect oviposition behavior while (Z)-9-tricosene had specificity.The best attractive factor for black soldier fly is lactic acid.

  12. 影响亮斑扁角水虻产卵行为的化学物质研究%Effect of Chemical Substances on Oviposition Behavior of Black Soldier Fly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐柳; 郑龙玉; 胡芮绮; 曹志平; 喻子牛; 张吉斌

    2015-01-01

    The effect of three chemical substances[lactic acid,ammonium bicarbonate and (Z)-9-tricosene] on oviposition behavior of black soldier fly were studied.Results showed that,lactic acid and ammonium bicar-bonate showed positive oviposition response.But (Z)-9-tricosene showed negative oviposition response and the negative activity increased with the increase of concentration.The hatchability rates of eggs induced by lactic acid,ammonium bicarbonate and (Z )-9-tricosene were 71.76%,42.04%,72.48%,respectively.The results showed that lactic acid,ammonium bicarbonate didn′t have specificity on insect oviposition behavior while (Z)-9-tricosene had specificity.The best attractive factor for black soldier fly is lactic acid.%对乳酸、碳酸氢铵、顺-9-二十三碳烯3种化学物质影响亮斑扁角水虻产卵行为进行了研究。结果表明,乳酸和碳酸氢铵对亮斑扁角水虻产卵有引诱作用;而顺-9-二十三碳烯没有引诱作用,且随着浓度的升高对亮斑扁角水虻产卵有排斥作用。乳酸、碳酸氢铵、顺-9-二十三碳烯引诱实验的虫卵孵化率分别为71.76%、42.04%、72.48%。表明乳酸和碳酸氢铵对昆虫引诱作用没有专一性,而顺-9-二十三碳烯引诱作用相对比较专一。对亮斑扁角水虻最好的引诱因子为乳酸。

  13. Simulium metallicum cytospecies E larval habitat characterization in the Altamira focus of onchocerciasis, northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, M E; Barrera, R; Conn, J

    1995-04-01

    Simulium metallicum sibling species E was identified cytotaxonomically from an onchocerciasis focus at Altamira in northern Venezuela. S. metallicum E larvae were sampled monthly from two small mountain streams over a 15-month period (July 1990 to September 1991) and eleven habitat variables were measured at two altitudes. One stream consistently harboured much higher densities of S. metallicum E larvae than the other, with three annual peaks of abundance: during the dry season and at the beginning and end of the rainy season. These peak densities were correlated with high rainfall 4 months previously. Larvae were most abundant on submerged rocks and fallen leaves, in small shallow areas characterized by slow water current, high conductivity and sparse terrestrial vegetation cover. Stream variables which best explained the temporal changes in abundance were water discharge and conductivity. The population dynamics of S. metallicum E appeared to be influenced primarily by interactions between stream discharge and substrate stability. Relevance of these results to vector control with larvicides is discussed. PMID:7787229

  14. The status of Simulium oyapockense and S. limbatum as vectors of human onchocerciasis in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, A J; Dias, A P; Moraes, M A; Procunier, W S

    1987-07-01

    In an attempt to explain the current distribution of onchocerciasis in the forests of northern Brazil (Moraes et al., 1979, 1986), and its potential for dispersal to other areas, this study compares the vector status of Simulium oyapockense Floch and Abonnenc, 1946 in both a hypoendemic and an onchocerciasis free area with that of S. limbatum Knab, 1915 in the latter area. Both species allowed the full development of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) to the infective L3 stage after experimental infection with microfilariae. Their vector competence was significantly lower than for other efficient vector species in South America and Africa because of the lethal effect of the cibarial armature on ingested microfilariae. The low vector capacity of S. oyapockense, together with the low prevalence and intensity of infection of O. volvulus, probably explains why onchocerciasis has not significantly increased in intensity over the last 10 years in the hypoendemic part of the Amazonian focus. Omnipresence of both vector species in the adjacent savanna region, however, could facilitate the spread of onchocerciasis if human population movements continue from the hyperendemic part of the onchocerciasis focus. PMID:2979535

  15. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chicken manure by larvae of the black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Islam, Mahbub; Sheppard, Craig; Liao, Jean; Doyle, Michael P

    2004-04-01

    Green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were inoculated at 10(7) CFU/g into cow, hog, or chicken manure. Ten- or 11-day-old soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) (7 to 10 g) were added to the manure and held at 23, 27, or 32 degrees C for 3 to 6 days. Soldier fly larvae accelerated inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in chicken manure but had no effect in cow manure and enhanced survival in hog manure. The initial pH values of the hog and chicken manure were 6.0 to 6.2 and 7.4 to 8.2, respectively, and it is surmised that these conditions affected the stability of the larval antimicrobial system. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken manure by larvae were affected by storage temperature, with greater reductions in samples held for 3 days at 27 or 32 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Pathogen inactivation in chicken manure by larvae was not affected by the indigenous microflora of chicken manure, because Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae-treated samples were approximately 2.5 log lower than control samples without larvae when either autoclaved or nonautoclaved chicken manure was used as the contaminated medium during 3 days of storage. Extending the storage time to 6 days, larvae again accelerated the reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in chicken manure during the first 4 days of storage; however, larvae became contaminated with the pathogen. After 2 days of feeding on contaminated manure, Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae averaged 3.3 log CFU/g. Populations decreased to 1.9 log CFU/g after 6 days of exposure to contaminated chicken manure; however, the absence of feeding activity by the maggots in later stages of storage may be responsible for the continued presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in larvae. Transfer of contaminated larvae to fresh chicken manure restored feeding activity but led to cross-contamination of the fresh manure. PMID:15083719

  16. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa) tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae) in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada Neusa

    2000-01-01

    The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the south...

  17. 'Flying barnacles'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P; Chan, Benny K K; Koskinen, Hannu;

    2010-01-01

    The presence of adult barnacles of Fistulobalanus pallidus (Darwin) and Fistulobalanus albicostatus (Pilsbry) attached to field-readable plastic leg rings on the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus in Northern Europe is reported. L. fuscus is a long-distance palaearctic migrant, breeding in...

  18. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal...... performance. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  19. Diurnal biting activity and transmission of Onchocerca volvulus (Filariata: Onchocercidae) by Simulium yahense (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J R; Wasserman, S S; Trpis, M

    1994-03-01

    To determine the influence of meterological factors on the diurnal biting cycle of Simulium yahense Vajime & Dunbar (a member of the Simulium damnosum Theoblad complex), we captured host-seeking females as they landed on the exposed lower legs of humans in the Harbel area of Liberia. Biting activity was greatest during the morning hours and was characterized by a unimodal harmonic curve. Although meteorological conditions had no decisive influence on the unimodal pattern of diurnal biting activity, hourly variation in the number of S. yahense captured at human bait was affected by meterological factors (i.e., the diurnal pattern of S. yahense biting activity is regulated by an internal clock, but the number of bits during any given hour is in response to meterological conditions). The transmission of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) was highest during the morning hours when high transmission potentials were in phase with peak human activity and served to maintain the hyperendemicity of onchocerciasis in the Harbel area. PMID:8189413

  20. Occurrence of filamentous fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello (diptera: simuliidae) larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil Ocorrência de fungos filamentosos associados a larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello da Amazônia Central, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Quézia Ribeiro Fonseca; Maria Inez de Moura Sarquis; Neusa Hamada; Yamile Benaion Alencar

    2008-01-01

    The family Simuliidae is the host of simbiontes fungi that inhabit the digestive tracts of arthropods. This paper reports the presence of fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello larvae in Amazonia. We observed that the larvae are a good component of aquatic systems to isolate filamentous fungi.A família Simuliidae é hospedeira de fungos simbiontes que habitam o trato digestivo de artrópodos. Este estudo reporta a presença de fungos em larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes ...

  1. Zn2+胁迫对黑水虻生长发育的影响%Effects of Zinc on the growth and development of black soldier fly Hermetia illucens L.(Dipetra: Stratiomyidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏嫱; 但家立; 朱伟; 廖业; 喻国辉; 陈远凤

    2013-01-01

    Innocent treatment of manure utilizing the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens L.larvae is one of the new ways to solve China's increasingly serious animal manure pollution.However,essential trace elements accumulated in manure resulting from the excessive addition in livestock artificial might influence the growth and development of black soldier fly.In the present study,effects of zinc on growth and development of H.illucens were evaluated by feeding H.illucens larvae with artificial diets amended with different concentrations of zinc for 2 generations.Results showed that weight of the 5th instar larvae,prepupa and pupa was significantly reduced under high concentrations of Zn2 + stress,however,there was no significant difference between the 1st and 2nd generation.Survival rate,pupation rate and emergence rate of the two generations' H.illucens were not significantly affected by Zn2 + stress.Developmental duration of larvae and pupae were shortened under low levels of Zn2+ stress,but significantly extended under high levels of Zn2+ stress.Furthermore,developmental duration of larvae and pupae from the 2nd generation were significantly extended comparing to that from the 1st generation.Adult longevity was shortened by high levels of Zn2 + treatment but hatching rate of eggs was not affected in the 2nd generation.Therefore,developmental duration of larvae and pupae,adult longevity could be affected by artificial diets with excessive Zn2 +,which could further affect manure innocent treatment ability of H.illucens larvae.%利用黑水虻幼虫进行粪便无害化处理是解决我国日益严重禽畜粪便污染问题的新途径之一,但饲料中过量添加禽畜生长所必需微量元素,使粪便中微量元素含量严重超标,对黑水虻的生长发育可能会产生影响.本文通过在人工饲料中添加不同浓度Zn2+,研究了连续两代Zn2胁迫对黑水虻生长发育的影响.结果表明,高浓度Zn2+胁迫可降低黑水虻5龄幼虫、预

  2. Reliability Analysis about Technology for Using Black Soldier Fly on Bioconversion from Food Waste to Entomic Protein%黑水虻生物处置餐厨废弃物的技术可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安新城

    2016-01-01

    黑水虻Hermetia illucens是为数不多的几种能够取食餐厨垃圾的动物之一,近几年日益受到国际国内研究者的关注,并在城市固体有机废弃物处置领域中被寄予厚望,本文从技术原理、市场需求、养殖模式、盈利能力、市场前景等角度对黑水虻处置餐厨垃圾的技术应用进行了全方位分析。研究认为黑水虻的生物转化技术可能是解决我国餐厨垃圾末端处置困境的最终方案,并可带动中国昆虫产业的快速发展。%Black soldier fly ( BSF) , Hermetia illucens, was regarded as one of few insect species who can digest food waste without much difficulty, which were particularly helpful on disposal of organic garbage for municipal administration, and thus BSF have been obtained more and more attention from academic, social even enterprise in the past 10 years�The analysis was done on technological reliability, market demand, profit ability and expansion model and so on, and results indicated that BSF possibly supply an important opportunity for progress of insectival protein industry, meanwhile also being last and best chance for Chinese food waste disposal on environmental protection side.

  3. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to R. pomonella flies from the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonel...

  4. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  5. Langton's flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton's ant is an automaton defined over a two-dimensional grid. Its movement is governed by the environment in a very simple way: it turns to the left over white vertices and to the right over black vertices. This definition only applies on a two-dimensional space. We look for generalizations of this automaton to n-dimensional lattices. Remembering the different ways through which the ant was originally defined, we consider two approaches: the first comes from physics (lattice gas) and the second from artificial life (virtual ants). Two generalizations are proposed defining two families of dynamical systems. From the physics point of view, the ant is seen as a particle and hence it has no internal state other than its velocity. From the artificial life point of view, the ant is viewed as an insect, and it has an orientation in space which we represent by an orthogonal basis. This constitutes the ant's internal state. This formulation allows us to define the ant's behaviour without drawing upon any information relative to the global system of external coordinates. Each model yields different sets of rules with distinctive behaviours. We characterize all the possible rules satisfying some basic restrictions. We found that many rules produce trajectories which are restricted to a diagonal plane and are equivalent to a version of Langton's ant over a two-dimensional grid, squared or hexagonal. In the particle model, only two of them use the whole space, and it is shown that such rules do not admit periodical trajectories. This result reinforces a previous one reported by Leonid Bunimovich, who states that 'the skeleton of any bounded trajectory cannot contain any three-dimensional polyhedron'

  6. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  7. "White cranes fly over black cranes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thi Thao; Agergaard, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    The changing nature of rural–urban migration, in the context of transition economies of East and Southeast Asia, is usually interpreted as an outcome of structural transformation, while the longue durée of these migration flows tends to be neglected. Adopting a historical perspective, supported by...... the ’migration as resistance’ approach, this paper examines the changes in rural–urban migration dynamics in Vietnam from the 1950s to 2010 in relation to the country’s political and economic reforms (пi M¿i). Drawing on a case study of female migration between Phu Khe and Hanoi, it analyses how...... migrants resist and undermine state control over population mobility in order to pursue their movement and migration, and how they develop their migration networks over time. By doing so, the paper highlights a gradual process of the changing nature of rural–urban migration in which migrants themselves...

  8. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  9. Determinants of propensity to fly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugo Gordijn

    2015-01-01

    Flying has become a common form of travel. The main reasons not to fly are fear of flying and the cost of flying. Youngsters fly more often than older people. Only above 75 years diminishes the propensity to considerably. Women fly as often as men except for business reasons. The group with the hig

  10. Controle integrado de espécies de Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae por Bacillus thuringiensis e manejos mecânicos no riacho e nos vertedouros de tanques de piscicultura, Almirante Tamandaré, Paraná, Brasil Integrated pest control of Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae with Bacillus thuringiensis and mechanical handling in creek and pisciculture spillway, Almirante Tamandaré, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Petry

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available No Riacho dos Padres na Chácara Evíssima, numa microempresa de agronegócio com criação de peixes e animais domésticos, área de lazer e salão de eventos, localizada na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, os simulídeos em grande proliferação causaram sério impacto com as picadas a tal ponto que dificultaram o convívio habitual. De janeiro a agosto de 2002, coletou-se 24.021 pupas por meio das quais foram identificadas as espécies: Simulium inaequale, Simulium perflavum, Simulium pertinax com 85,98% e Simulium orbitale, Simulium subnigrum, Simulium distinctum e Simulium incrustatum com somente 14,02% de freqüência. O combate a estas populações iniciado em 28 de fevereiro terminou em 08 de agosto de 2002. O controle integrado consistiu na aplicação de biopesticida Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti e em manejos mecânicos não só removendo os imaturos (ovos, larvas e pupas por meio de escovação de vertedouros, mas também pela retirada de substratos naturais e antrópicos do leito. A densidade larvária média inicial, antes da aplicação de Bti no leito do riacho (75 m e no último vertedouro, verificada em substratos antrópicos fitilhos (área 13.500 cm², foi de 6,7 e 11,5 larvas/cm², respectivamente. Nestes habitats, o controle integrado com Bti de 1,77 a 2,09 mg/litro do ingrediente ativo, suplementado com manejos mecânicos, monitorado em substratos fitilhos (área 20.250 cm², resultou em redução larvar de 72,61% a 99,97% e de 74,91% a 99,45%, respectivamente, nas vazões de 0,39 a 0,45 e de 0,38 a 0,43 m³/min. No primeiro vertedouro (área 5.110 cm², porém, só com manejos mecânicos, atingiu-se a redução larvária de 53,81% a 99,59%. O controle efetuado reduziu as picadas hematófagas ao nível esperado, surtindo o efeito positivo almejado.At Riacho dos Padres, Chácara Evíssima, a small agribusiness venture featuring fish, poultry and cattle farming; a recreation outdoor facility and Event Hall

  11. New molecular identifiers for Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. and the detection of genetic substructure with potential implications for onchocerciasis epidemiology in the Amazonia focus of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Priscila A; Crainey, James L; Almeida, Tatiana P; Shelley, Anthony J; Luz, Sergio L B

    2013-08-01

    The Amazonia onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil is the larger of the two remaining Latin American onchocerciasis foci where disease transmission still occurs and is often regarded as the most challenging of all the Latin American foci to eliminate onchocerciasis. The site is home to a population of over 20,000 semi-nomadic, hunter-gatherer Yanomami people and is made-up of a mosaic of rainforest and savannah ecologies, which are influenced by the area's undulating terrain and rich geological diversity. At least six blackfly vectors have been implicated in onchocerciasis transmission in this focus; however, because of the difficulty in their routine identification the relative importance of each has been obscured. Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. have both been recorded as vectors in the Amazonia focus, but they are difficult to discriminate morphologically and thus the ecological range of these species, and indeed the presence of S. limbatum in the Amazonia focus at all, have remained controversial. In the work described here, we report 15 S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences and 27 S. limbatum sequences obtained from field-caught adult female blackflies collected from forest and savannah localities, inside and just outside the Amazonia focus. Phylogenetic analysis with the sequences generated in this study, showed that both the S. limbatum and the S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences obtained (even from specimens living in sympatry) all fell into discrete species-specific bootstrap-supported monophyletic groups and thus confirmed the utility of the CO1 gene for identifying both these species inside the Amazonia focus. As the S. limbatum-exclusive cluster included CO1 sequences obtained from forest-caught and morphologically identified specimens these results provide the clearest evidence yet of the presence of S. limbatum inside the Amazonia focus. The question, however, of whether S. limbatum is actually a vector in the focus

  12. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibility...... to break through a common way of depicting the world, trying to find different surfaces and using strange apparatus to insist in the interstice of visibility. The Fly Printer is a printing apparatus in a form of a closed environment that contains a flock of fruit flies. The flies eat special food...... that is prepared for them that is mixed with laser jet printer inks. The flies digest the food and gradually print different color dots onto the paper that is placed under the fly habitat. In the Fly Printer biological organisms are used for replacing a standard part of our common printer technology...

  13. Black soldier fly antimicrobial peptides induced conditions optimization and research of crude extracts activity%黑水虻抗菌肽诱导条件优化及粗提物活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏嫱; 赵启凤; 廖业; 朱伟; 喻国辉; 陈远凤; 宋明英

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides were induced from black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L ) larvae by different induction methods, doses and durations, We got crude antimicrobial peptides by grinding extraction method, we compared activity of those crude antimicrobial peptides, optimized induction conditions and provided reliable experimental conditions for separating and purifing the antimicrobial peptides. Our results demonstrated that the antimicrobial peptides extracted from different instar larvae had different antimicrobial activity, antimicrobial peptides extracted from 5th instar larvae had strongest antimicrobial activity. Diffenent inducing methods created different antimicrobial activity. When the larvae were induced by Escherichia coli liquid acupuncture for 60 s, their antimicrobial peptides had strongest antimicrobial activity, following was induced by 100W ultrasonic for 20 minutes, but their activity showed no significant difference. We also obtained the antimicrobial peptides Induced by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus liquid injection, Staphylococcus aureus liquid acupuncture and 40W ultrasonic, but those antimicrobial peptides had obviously weaker antimicrobial activity compared with the best method.%采用不同诱导方法、不同诱导剂量及不同诱导时间诱导黑水虻Hermetia illucens L.幼虫产生抗菌肽,通过研磨提取法提取幼虫抗菌肽粗提物,并对所提取粗提物进行抑菌活性的比较研究,以优化黑水虻幼虫抗菌肽的诱导条件,为黑水虻抗菌肽的分离纯化提供最佳的实验方法.结果表明,不同龄期黑水虻幼虫产生抗菌肽的抑菌活性不同,最佳诱导龄期为5龄;不同诱导方法产生抗菌肽对大肠杆菌抑菌活性不同,大肠杆菌菌液针刺浸泡60 s,诱导后饲养24 h提取抗菌肽抑菌活性最好,其次为超声波100W诱导20 min产生抗菌肽抑菌活性,但二者活性相比差异不显著;大肠杆菌菌液、金黄色葡萄球菌菌液注

  14. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  15. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  16. Aspectos ecológicos de Simulium goeldii (Diptera: Simuliidae: relação entre substrato e densidade de larvas Ecological aspects of Simulium goeldii (Diptera: Simuliidae: relation between substrate and larval density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Hamada

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of larvae of Simulium goeldii was studies in four streams in upland tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. In each month 32 points were sampled, each with an area of 30 x 50 cm. The areas of all substrates available were measured at each point. The larvae of S. goeldii were collected and later counted for all substrate types where larvae of this species were found. The available substrates were classified into eight types: dry leaves, green leaves, branches, fruits, detritus, rocks and sand; anly the first four types had larvae present. The Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance indicated that the larvae occupy these substrates differently; the Newman-Keuls identified the following differences in intensity of occupation of the susbstrates: branchs differ from roots, dry leaves and green leaves, and green leaves differ from roots and dry leaves. The highest density of larvae was observed on green leaves. However, because the most abundant substrates in the study area were roots and dry leaves, I suggest that the latter two substrates are the most important ones for the esteblishment of this population of S. goeldii.

  17. [Evaluation of the efficacity of coconut (Cocos nucifera), palm nut (Eleais guineensis) and gobi (Carapa procera) lotions and creams in indivirual protection against Simulium damnosum s.l. bites in Côte d'Ivoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, M; Konan, L; Doannio, J M; Traoré, S

    2003-05-01

    With the interruption of larva treatments done by OCP as part of onchocerciasis control in West Africa, Simulium came back in abundance in forest regions and savannah fertile valleys. In addition to the severe discomfort, nuisance by Simulium is in certain cases incompatible with land use. Since ground treatment of larval breading sites using insecticides is not always possible or efficient, it is therefore a necessity to develop other methods among which individual protection against Simulium bites. The general objective of our study was to evaluate different vegetable oil compound repellent formulas against Simulium bites. Activities were carried out in savannah zone (Niakaramandougou) and in forest zone (Soubré) in Côte d'Ivoire. The methodology consisted in catching blackflies on volunteers whose legs were rubbed with a repellent. Gobi raw oil and coconut, palm nut and gobi formulas (lotions and creams) were tested. During each session, which lasted from 07:00 am to 12:00 and from 03:00 pm to 06:00 pm, one person did not apply any repellent and was used as the control person. The results of our experimentations show that for a given zone (savannah, forest), a repellent (coconut, palm nut, gobi) and a compound (shea butter, vaseline), there is no significant difference between protection rates obtained with lotions (maximum: 21 bites/person/day) and those obtained with creams (maximum: 30 bites/person/day). In other respects, the lotion of a given repellent seems to be efficient in savannah as in the forest, in protecting against Simulium bites. It is the same situation with creams. So, repellents can be an efficient solution against Simulium nuisance. However, experimentations should continue to confirm the high repellency of tested formulas, proceed to the identification of principles and evaluate the toxicity and irritant effect of repellents to be applied on the skin. PMID:12836527

  18. Occurrence of filamentous fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello (diptera: simuliidae larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil Ocorrência de fungos filamentosos associados a larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello da Amazônia Central, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quézia Ribeiro Fonseca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Simuliidae is the host of simbiontes fungi that inhabit the digestive tracts of arthropods. This paper reports the presence of fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello larvae in Amazonia. We observed that the larvae are a good component of aquatic systems to isolate filamentous fungi.A família Simuliidae é hospedeira de fungos simbiontes que habitam o trato digestivo de artrópodos. Este estudo reporta a presença de fungos em larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello da Amazônia. Foi observado que as larvas são bons componentes do sistema aquático para isolar fungos filamentosos.

  19. Spinosad toxicity to Simulium spp. larvae and associated aquatic biota in a coffee-growing region of Veracruz State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante-Rodríguez, Dennis A; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Mercado, Gabriel; Williams, Trevor

    2011-05-01

    Spinosad is a naturally derived insecticide that has shown potential as a mosquito larvicide. To determine the activity of spinosad against blackflies, late-instar larvae from a community comprising Simulium triittatum (63.6%) and seven other species, including three known vectors of onchocerciasis in Mexico (S. metallicum, S. ochraceum, and S. callidum), were subjected to concentration-mortality laboratory bioassays following World Health Organization guidelines. Cephalic capsule measurements confirmed the relatively homogeneous distribution of experimental larvae. The 50% lethal concentration of spinosad was estimated at 1.48 ppm spinosad (95% confidence interval: 1.07-2.33) for a 10-min exposure period, whereas larvae treated with 0.05 ppm of the organophosphate temephos experienced 61% mortality. Immature aquatic insects were identified to genus and tested for their susceptibility to spinosad in the laboratory. After exposure to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min, ephemeropterans, odonates, trichopterans, and hemipterans did not experience significantly increased mortality over that of untreated controls, whereas a significant increase in mortality was observed in spinosad-treated Plecoptera (P Tilapia and trout fry exposed to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min did not experience increased mortality at 24-h postexposure over that of the controls. We conclude that spinosad is less toxic than temephos to these blackfly species, but is likely to have a low impact on nontarget members of the aquatic community. PMID:21661318

  20. Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by Simulium neavei in Mount Elgon focus of Eastern Uganda has been interrupted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katabarwa, Moses; Lakwo, Tom; Habomugisha, Peace; Agunyo, Stella; Byamukama, Edson; Oguttu, David; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Ochieng, Galex Orukan; Abwaimo, Francis; Onapa, Ambrose; Lwamafa, Dennis W K; Walsh, Frank; Unnasch, Thomas R; Richards, Frank O

    2014-06-01

    The study determined that Simulium neavei-transmitted onchocerciasis in Mount Elgon onchocerciasis focus had been interrupted. Annual mass treatment with ivermectin changed to two times per year along with vector elimination in 2007. Then, baseline microfilaria (mf) prevalence data of 1994 in five sentinel communities were compared with follow-up data in 2005 and 2011. Blood spots from 3,051 children obtained in 2009 were analyzed for Onchocerca volvulus immunoglobulin G4 antibodies. Fresh water crab host captures and blackflies collected indicated their infestation with larval stages of S. neavei and presence or absence of the vector, respectively. Mf rates dropped from 62.2% to 0.5%, and 1 (0.03%) of 3,051 children was positive for O. volvulus antibodies. Crab infestation dropped from 41.9% in 2007 to 0%, and S. neavei biting reduced to zero. Both remained zero for the next 3 years, confirming interruption of onchocerciasis transmission, and interventions were halted. PMID:24686740

  1. Cytological and isoenzyme analysis of the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes of the onchocerciasis vector Simulium exiguum (Diptera: Simuliidae in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Charalambous

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Four cytotypes of Simulium exiguum occur in Ecuador, where this morphospecies is the primary vector of onchocerciasis. In this paper, we give the first full description of the banding pattern of the larval polytene chromosomes of the Quevedo cytotypes differ from the chromosomal standard sequence (of the Cayapa cytotype by the fixed inversions IIL-5 and IIL-6. The Quevedo cytotype additionally differs from the standard and Bucay cytotypes by processing a differentiated X chromosome, wich is indicated by the inversion IIS-A. As the degree of reproductive isolation between the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes has not yet been estabilished, they must be regarded as intraspecific variants of the same species. In fact, isoenzyme characterizations showed that the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes are differentiated only to the extent expected of incipient species or geographical populations. Moreover, the sibiling species status previously given to the Bucay cytotype needs be reassessed, there being inadequate analysis from areas in Ecuador where Bucay occurs in sympatry with the standard Cayapa cytotype. No isoenzyme electromorphs were discovered that identified all or mostadult females of any one (cytotype-pure collection.

  2. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance......-styled references to, among other things, the culturally and ideologically effervescent interwar-period have made me curious as to what alternative possibilities – for instance ‘emancipation’ – a comparative analysis might disclose concerning the visual rhetoric of black. Thus, in conclusion, it is briefly...

  3. The onion fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the origin, practical application, problems in application and prospects of control of the onion fly, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in the Netherlands by the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The larva of the onion fly is a severe pest in onions in temperate regions. Development of resistance of the onion fly against insecticides caused research on the SIT to be started by the Dutch Government in 1965. This research was on mass-rearing, long-term storage of pupae, sterilization, and release and ratio assessment techniques. By 1979 sufficient information had been turned over to any interested private company. In the case of the onion fly the SIT can be applied like a control treatment instead of chemical control to individual onion fields. This is due to the limited dispersal activity of the flies and the scattered distribution of onion fields in the Netherlands, with 5-10% of the onion growing areas planted with onions

  4. Comparative Larvicidal Property of Leaf Extract of Chromolaena odorata L (Composidae) and Chlopyrifos (Organophosphorus Compound) on Simulium Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the phytochemical properties of Chromoleana odorata in the control of blackflies to help check the problem of environmental pollution from the use of chemical insecticides. Methods Dried pulverized leaves of Chromolaena odorata (100 g) were soaked in distilled water for 24 hours and the extract was filtered, marc pressed and evaporated over water bath. Stock solution of the dried mass (1 g) was concentrated by dissolving in 100 mL of water. Serial dilutions (100 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, 0.01 mg/L, and 0.001 mg/mL) of both the extract and Chlopyrifos (organo phosphorus) were prepared and toxicity was tested on the larvae of Simulium species. Results The chemical compound recorded 100% larval mortality at all concentrations while the plant extract recorded 100% larval mortality in three (100, 10, and 1 mg/mL) of its diluent concentration. The percentage of larval mortality by chemical compound and plant extract was statistically insignificant (t = 0.2456, P>0.05), but the mortality rate was significant within 30 min interval of exposure time (t= 3.756, P<0.05). The LC50 of the plant extract was determined at about 0.001 mg/mL concentration. This showed that the plant extract had an appreciable larvicidal property close to that of the chemical compound. Conclusion This result indicates the usefulness of plant materials in the control of obnoxious insect vectors of mn. It also opens additional approach to the management of environment from toxic chemicals that are non-biodegradable and cause environmental imbalance in the ecosystem.

  5. Flying insects and robots

    CERN Document Server

    Ellington, Charlie

    2009-01-01

    Understanding flight mechanics of insects can aid engineers in developing intelligent flying robots. In this seminal book, biologists and engineers detail the mechanics, technology, and intelligence of insects then discuss potential benefits of their research.

  6. Bio-ag reutilization of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by-product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (FM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black ...

  7. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  8. Control carrot fly

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The larva of the carrot fly, Psila rosae, may in some umbelliferous plants cause significant damage. The insect is mainly in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, but also in some subtropical areas. Everywhere in the Netherlands where carrots are grown, is degradation. In the Netherlands organic growers seem well with the carrot fly problem to go, the number of reports of harm and disapproval is not too bad. With smart cultivation measures, the problems are manageable and, underst...

  9. O fly, where art thou?

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, Dhruv; Tower, John; Tavaré, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the design of a real-time image acquisition system for tracking the movement of Drosophila in three-dimensional space is presented. The system uses three calibrated and synchronized cameras to detect multiple flies and integrates the detected fly silhouettes to construct the three-dimensional visual hull models of each fly. We used an extended Kalman filter to estimate the state of each fly, given past positions from the reconstructed fly visual hulls. The results show that our...

  10. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S1 x S2. We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  11. Susceptibilidade de populações de Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Culicomorpha, Simuliidae) ao temephos e a um formulado à base de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Susceptibility of population of Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Culicomorpha, Simuliidae) to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Fernando S. de Andrade; Armando Castello Branco Jr.

    1991-01-01

    O uso de pequenas calhas de madeira no leito de riachos, manualmente colonizadas com borrachudos, é proposto para avaliações da eficiência de larvicidas 3 ou 4 horas após as aplicações. A susceptibilidade larval também foi avaliada pelo critério de TL50. Em três ensaios no litoral do Estado de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro, populações de Simulium (C.) pertinax Kollar, 1832 mostraram-se resistentes ao temephos, mesmo em altas concentrações. Vectobac 12 AS, à base de Bacillus thuringiensis var. is...

  12. Development of a Fruit Fly Strain for Sterile Fly Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A white-striped oriental fruit fly strain, derived from hot-water treated eggs, was developed for sterile fly detection. It was applied to evaluate the effectiveness of fruit fly population control by releasing the radiation induced sterile flies. The objectives of this reported set of experiments were to study the effects of mass rearing on the quality of white-striped oriental fruit flies, the effectiveness of controlling the wild fly population and the accuracy of detection of the released white-striped flies. It was found that mass rearing decreased the pupal yield but increased the pupal quality of white-striped flies comparing with normal flies. Controlling the wild fruit fly population by releasing sterile white-striped flies integrated with other control methods at Tambon Trok Nong, Amphoe Khlung, Chanthaburi Province, could suppress the wild fruit fly population by 96.02 %. The use of white-striped oriental fruit flies yielded a higher detection accuracy upon releasing and reduced the operating time and costs when compared with the use of fluorescent dye marking approach

  13. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  14. Complexity and Fly Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Grant; Murray, Joelle

    Complexity is the study of phenomena that emerge from a collection of interacting objects and arises in many systems throughout physics, biology, finance, economics and more. Certain kinds of complex systems can be described by self-organized criticality (SOC). An SOC system is one that is internally driven towards some critical state. Recent experimental work suggests scaling behavior of fly swarms-one of the hallmarks of an SOC system. Our goal is to look for SOC behavior in computational models of fly swarms.

  15. Larval biometry of Simulium rubrithorax (Diptera: Simuliidae and size comparison between populations in the states of Minas Gerais and Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvan-Aguilar Miriam Adriana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of larval instars of Simulium (Hemicnetha rubrithorax Lutz (Diptera: Nematocera was determined using the lateral length of the head capsule. In this study 1,035 larvae, of different sizes, were measured (639 from the state of Roraima and 396 from the state of Minas Gerais. A frequency distribution analysis was carried out on the measurements of the lateral length of the head capsule to determine the number of larval instars. The limits of each instar were defined by the lower frequency of the measurements falling in a range of values, by the presence of the "egg burster" that characterizes the first larval instar, and by the developmental stage of the gill histoblast. The determination of the instar number was tested using a Student's t-test (p 0.05 were observed between them.

  16. [Small-scale evaluation of the efficacy of growth-regulating insecticides on larvae of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doannio, J M; Dossou-Yovo, J; Duval, J; Hougard, J M

    1992-09-01

    The efficacy of insect growth regulators was assessed in small scale tests on larvae of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Ivory Coast. Three compounds [OMS 2015 (triflumuron), OMS 3009 (teflubenzuron), OMS 3013 (chlorfluazuron)] belong to the group of benzoylphenyl-urea substitutes; these IGR's are supposed to inhibit chitin synthesis. Two other compounds are Juvenile Hormone Analogs (JHA's) (OMS 3007 and OMS 3019). The last compound (OMS 3010) is a phenoxycarbamate. The first three compounds had a low efficacy on blackfly larvae, which is consistent with the literature data for another compound of this group: diflubenzuron. The other three compounds (OMS 3007, OMS 3010 and OMS 3019) were much more efficient, OMS 3010 and OMS 3019 showing high activity at low concentrations. These results would justify further studies on the effect of larval age and exposure parameters, and eventually full scale river tests. PMID:1476468

  17. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  18. Investigation on the fly ash thermal treatment on the performance of Lithium Ferriphosphate (LiFePO4) battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addition of the fly ash can be used to improve the capacity of LiFePO4 battery. Fly ash was added in Acethylene Black (AB) as 2% of the total weight of Acetylene Black (AB). The effects of temperature variation and fly ash characteristics were analyzed. Fly ash was prepared by heating at 50, 100, 150, and 250°C in muffle furnace for 5 hours and passed in 200 mesh screen prior to mixing it with other compounds. Lithium Ferriphospat (LiFePO4), fly ash, Acethylene Black (AB), Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to be slurry. The slurry were coated, dried and hot pressed to make a cathode film. The performance of battery lithium was examined by eight channel battery analyzer. The composition of the fly ash was examined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Fourier Tansform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The excellent performance was shown in the fly ash addition which were treated by heating at 150°C. The capacity of fly ash added LiFePO4 battery is 94.373 mAh/g, which is higher than that of without fly ash addition, i.e. 67.998 mAh/g

  19. Investigation on the fly ash thermal treatment on the performance of Lithium Ferriphosphate (LiFePO4) battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febiolita, Bella; Khoirunnissak, Dewi; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-01

    Addition of the fly ash can be used to improve the capacity of LiFePO4 battery. Fly ash was added in Acethylene Black (AB) as 2% of the total weight of Acetylene Black (AB). The effects of temperature variation and fly ash characteristics were analyzed. Fly ash was prepared by heating at 50, 100, 150, and 250°C in muffle furnace for 5 hours and passed in 200 mesh screen prior to mixing it with other compounds. Lithium Ferriphospat (LiFePO4), fly ash, Acethylene Black (AB), Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to be slurry. The slurry were coated, dried and hot pressed to make a cathode film. The performance of battery lithium was examined by eight channel battery analyzer. The composition of the fly ash was examined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Fourier Tansform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The excellent performance was shown in the fly ash addition which were treated by heating at 150°C. The capacity of fly ash added LiFePO4 battery is 94.373 mAh/g, which is higher than that of without fly ash addition, i.e. 67.998 mAh/g.

  20. Investigation on the fly ash thermal treatment on the performance of Lithium Ferriphosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febiolita, Bella; Khoirunnissak, Dewi; Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: aguspurw@gmail.com [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    Addition of the fly ash can be used to improve the capacity of LiFePO{sub 4} battery. Fly ash was added in Acethylene Black (AB) as 2% of the total weight of Acetylene Black (AB). The effects of temperature variation and fly ash characteristics were analyzed. Fly ash was prepared by heating at 50, 100, 150, and 250°C in muffle furnace for 5 hours and passed in 200 mesh screen prior to mixing it with other compounds. Lithium Ferriphospat (LiFePO{sub 4}), fly ash, Acethylene Black (AB), Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to be slurry. The slurry were coated, dried and hot pressed to make a cathode film. The performance of battery lithium was examined by eight channel battery analyzer. The composition of the fly ash was examined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and Fourier Tansform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The excellent performance was shown in the fly ash addition which were treated by heating at 150°C. The capacity of fly ash added LiFePO{sub 4} battery is 94.373 mAh/g, which is higher than that of without fly ash addition, i.e. 67.998 mAh/g.

  1. Fly on the Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  2. Maxi-black holes - real navigation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the physics that would be found outside black holes, if such objects really do exist in the Universe, is described. The subject is considered in relation to teaching and matters considered include the Schwarzsch radius, density problems, and the effect of the local acceleration of gravity due to black hole chasms. The impossibility of flying through the event horizon and coming out in another Universe, as postulated by some authors, is demonstrated. (U.K.)

  3. Evaluation of the impact of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Temephos, used for the control of Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Diptera, Simuliidae) on the associated entomofauna, Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo-Coutinho Carlos José Pereira da Cunha de; Cunha Andrea de Barros Pinto Viviani; Serra-Freire Nicolau Maués; Mello Rubens Pinto de

    2003-01-01

    The study was set up to evaluate the impact of two commercial larvicide formulations, Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis base (Bti) at 15 ppm/1 min and temephos at 0.03 ppm of active ingredient, used to control Simulium pertinax populations, on associated non-target entomofauna occupying the same breeding sites. The experiments were carried out on the Pedra Branca and Muricana rivers, on the slopes of Serra do Mar massif, municipality of Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bti wa...

  4. Test What You Fly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Don

    2002-01-01

    It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

  5. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  6. Flying spot scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved flying spot x-ray scanning equipment is described which includes a grid controlled x-ray tube and associated collimators for producing a pencil beam of x-rays. It is possible to control the position of the scan field relative to the patient, to control the width of the scan field and also to independently achieve an arbitary variation in the longitudinal dimension of the scan field. (U.K.)

  7. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  8. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretic to increase urine flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other products, black tea is used for weight loss. In foods, ...

  9. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  10. Impact of sugar industry fly ash emissions on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was conducted in 1992 to find out the effects and causes of environmental problems due to sugar mills of Sindh. Most of the complaints were received from Nawabshah, Tando Mohammed Khan residential areas where following mills are located, emitting large amounts of fly ash from their chimneys into the atmosphere: (i) Habib Sugar Mills, Nawabshah, (II) Fauji Sugar Mills, Tando Mohammed Khan. Environmental survey of above localities was carried out which reveals that eye-allergy and asthma are the major health effects of fly ash besides the aesthetic problems. Sieve analysis of two fly ash samples viz Fauji Sugar Mills (Old Plant) and Sanghar Sugar Mills (New Plant) showed that the particle size of over 50% of fly ash was above 300 mu m. These large size black particles were unburned carbon particles, which on burning in air gave a weight loss of over 87% at 1000 centi grade. The fly ash analytical results showed that combustion of bagasse in sugar mills was not complete at all and this was not only polluting the atmosphere but also causing energy losses. (author)

  11. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  12. A Collision Resilient Flying Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Briod, Adrien; Kornatowski, Przemyslaw Mariusz; Zufferey, Jean-Christophe; Floreano, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Flying robots that can locomote efficiently in GPS-denied cluttered environments have many applications, such as in search and rescue scenarios. However, dealing with the high amount of obstacles inherent to such environments is a major challenge for flying vehicles. Conventional flying platforms cannot afford to collide with obstacles, as the disturbance from the impact may provoke a crash to the ground, especially when friction forces generate torques affecting the attitude of the platform....

  13. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  14. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Raghavendra; R L Raibagkar; A B Kulkarni

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range is because of orientation polarization and tight binding force between the ions or atoms in the fly ash. The sample of fly ash is of great scientific and technological interest because of its high value of dielectric constant (104).

  15. Just Let Me Fly

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Jim

    2011-01-01

    ‘Just Let Me Fly’ is a three act play by Jim McGovern. The underlying genre is tragedy with some dry humour and incidental music. The main theme is academic rivalry and the feeling of being repressed or bullied. The context is a department of aeronautical engineering at a university. An audio play variant is also available: ‘Fly Faster.’ The main character, Leonard Twiglet, is a middle-aged Reader in Aeronautical Engineering at the University of Selfridge. Between the spring of 200...

  16. Flying over decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  17. Susceptibilidade de populações de Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Culicomorpha, Simuliidae ao temephos e a um formulado à base de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Susceptibility of population of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Culicomorpha, Simuliidae to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando S. de Andrade

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso de pequenas calhas de madeira no leito de riachos, manualmente colonizadas com borrachudos, é proposto para avaliações da eficiência de larvicidas 3 ou 4 horas após as aplicações. A susceptibilidade larval também foi avaliada pelo critério de TL50. Em três ensaios no litoral do Estado de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro, populações de Simulium (C. pertinax Kollar, 1832 mostraram-se resistentes ao temephos, mesmo em altas concentrações. Vectobac 12 AS, à base de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis mostrou-se mais potente contra larvas dos últimos estádios e eficiente para controle em concentrações a partir de 7.200 UIP/1 (10 min.. O TL50para 3.744 UIP/1 (10 min. foi de 70,9 minutos.The use of wooden troughs on stream beds, artificially colonized by blackfly larvae, is proposed for larvicide evaluations. Mortality was recorded 3 or 4 hours after treatment. Larval susceptibility was also evaluated utilizing the LT50 criterion. In there field assays Simulium (C. pertinax populations from the litoral of S. Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States were shown to be resistant to temephos, even when subjected to high concentrations. Vectobac 12 AS, a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis product, was shown to be more potent against late instar larvae and efficient in concentrations higher than 7,200 ITU/1 (10 min. The LT50 to 3,744 ITU/1 (10 min was calculated as 70.9 min.

  18. Black Hole Based Tests of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2016-01-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some impor...

  19. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  20. Retarded Onchocerca volvulus L1 to L3 larval development in the Simulium damnosum vector after anti-wolbachial treatment of the human host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albers Anna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human parasite Onchocerca volvulus harbours Wolbachia endosymbionts essential for worm embryogenesis, larval development and adult survival. In this study, the development of Wolbachia-depleted microfilariae (first stage larvae to infective third stage larvae (L3 in the insect vector Simulium damnosum was analysed. Methods Infected volunteers in Cameroon were randomly and blindly allocated into doxycycline (200 mg/day for 6 weeks or placebo treatment groups. After treatment, blackflies were allowed to take a blood meal on the volunteers, captured and dissected for larval counting and DNA extraction for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results PCR results showed a clear reduction in Wolbachia DNA after doxycycline treatment in microfilariae from human skin biopsies with > 50% reduction at one month post-treatment, eventually reaching a reduction of > 80%. Larval stages recovered from the insect vector had similar levels of reduction of endosymbiotic bacteria. Larval recoveries were analysed longitudinally after treatment to follow the kinetics of larval development. Beginning at three months post-treatment, significantly fewer L3 were seen in the blackflies that had fed on doxycycline treated volunteers. Concomitant with this, the proportion of second stage larvae (L2 was significantly increased in this group. Conclusions Doxycycline treatment and the resulting decline of Wolbachia endobacteria from the microfilaria resulted in retarded development of larvae in the insect vector. Thus, anti-wolbachial treatment could have an additive effect for interrupting transmission by reducing the number of L3 that can be transmitted by blackflies.

  1. The disappearance of onchocerciasis from the Itwara focus, western Uganda after elimination of the vector Simulium neavei and 19 years of annual ivermectin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakwo, T L; Garms, R; Rubaale, T; Katabarwa, M; Walsh, F; Habomugisha, P; Oguttu, D; Unnasch, T; Namanya, H; Tukesiga, E; Katamanywa, J; Bamuhiiga, J; Byamukama, E; Agunyo, S; Richards, F

    2013-06-01

    The Itwara onchocerciasis focus is located around the Itwara forest reserve in western Uganda. In 1991, annual treatments with ivermectin started in the focus. They were supplemented in 1995 by the control of the vector Simulium neavei, which was subsequently eliminated from the focus. The impact of the two interventions on the disease was assessed in 2010 by nodule palpations, examinations of skin snips by microscopy and PCR, and Ov16 recombinant ELISA. There was no evidence of any microfilaria in 688 skin snips and only 2 (0.06%) of 3316 children examined for IgG4 were slightly above the arbitrary cut off of 40. A follow up of the same children 21 months later in 2012 confirmed that both were negative for diagnostic antigen Ov-16, skin snip microscopy and PCR. Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) elimination criteria of 2001 and the Uganda onchocerciasis certification guidelines, it was concluded that the disease has disappeared from the Itwara focus after 19 years of ivermectin treatments and the elimination of the vector around 2001. Ivermectin treatments were recommended to be halted. PMID:23458325

  2. An 18S ribosomal DNA barcode for the study of Isomermis lairdi, a parasite of the blackfly Simulium damnosum s.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, J L; Wilson, M D; Post, R J

    2009-09-01

    The mermithid parasite, Isomermis lairdi Mondet, Poinar & Bernadou (Nematoda: Mermithidae), is known to have a major impact on populations of Simulium damnosum s.l. Theobald (Diptera: Simuliidae) and on their efficiency as vectors of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) (Nematoda: Filarioidea). However, the value of I. lairdi and other mermithid parasites as potential means of integrated vector control has not been fully realized. This is partly because traditional taxonomic approaches have been insufficient for describing and analysing important aspects of their biology and host range. In total, rDNA barcode sequences have been obtained from over 70 I. lairdi mermithids found parasitizing S. damnosum s.l. larvae in three different rivers. No two sequences were found to vary by more than 0.5%, and cytospecies identification of mermithid hosts revealed that I. lairdi with identical rDNA barcodes can parasitize multiple cytoforms of the S. damnosum complex, including S. squamosum (Enderlein). Phylogenetic analysis using a partial sequence from the 18S ribosomal DNA barcode, grouped I. lairdi in a monophyletic group with Gastromermis viridis Welch (Nematoda: Mermithidae) and Isomermis wisconsinensis Welch (Nematoda: Mermithidae). PMID:19712154

  3. Using fly ash for construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Each year electrical utilities generate 80 million tons of fly ash, primarily from coal combustion. Typically, utilities dispose of fly ash by hauling it to landfills, but that is changing because of the increasing cost of landfilling, as well as environmental regulations. Now, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in Palo Alto, Calif., its member utilities, and manufacturers of building materials are finding ways of turning this energy byproduct into the building blocks of roads and structures by converting fly ash into construction materials. Some of these materials include concrete and autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC, also known as aerated concrete), flowable fill, and light-weight aggregate. EPRI is also exploring uses for fly ash other than in construction materials. One of the more high-end uses for the material is in metal matrix composites. In this application, fly ash is mixed with softer metals, such as aluminum and magnesium, to strengthen them, while retaining their lighter weight.

  4. Analysis of Fly Fishing Rod Casting Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Wang; Norman Wereley

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of fly fishing rod casting dynamics was developed comprising of a nonlinear finite element representation of the composite fly rod and a lumped parameter model for the fly line. A nonlinear finite element model was used to analyze the transient response of the fly rod, in which fly rod responses were simulated for a forward casting stroke. The lumped parameter method was used to discretize the fly line system. Fly line motions were simulated during a cast based on fly rod tip resp...

  5. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  6. Bending to fly

    CERN Document Server

    Thiria, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Wing flexibility governs the flying performance of flapping wing flyers. Here we use a self-propelled flapping-wing model mounted on a "merry-go-round" to investigate the effect of wing compliance on the propulsive efficiency of the system. Our measurements show that the elastic nature of the wings can lead not only to a substantial reduction of the consumed power, but also to an increment of the propulsive force. A scaling analysis using a flexible plate model for the wings points out that, for flapping flyers in air, the time-dependent shape of the elastic bending wing is governed by the wing inertia. Based on this prediction, we define the ratio of the inertial forces deforming the wing to the elastic restoring force that limits the deformation as the 'elasto-inertial number'. Our measurements with the self-propelled model confirm that it is the appropriate structural parameter to describe flapping flyers with flexible-wings.

  7. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae). which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Mate flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania. Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies

  8. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S; Midgley, J

    1997-04-01

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae), which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Male flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania, Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies. PMID:21708596

  9. Are black holes totally black?

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A

    2014-01-01

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  10. Monitoring guidelines improve control of walnut husk fly in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The walnut husk fly (WHF), Rhagoletis completa Cresson, is a key pest of walnuts (Juglans spp.) in California, where over 95% of the US and approximately two-thirds of the world's commercial walnuts are produced. The primary hosts of this monophagous fruit fly are J. regia L. (commercially grown English walnut), J. californica S. Wats. var. hindsii (northern California black walnut), J. californica var. californica (southern California black walnut) and J. nigra Thunb. (eastern black walnut). Some cultivars of the English walnut are more susceptible than others; the most heavily infested varieties of English walnut include Eureka, Franquette, Hartley, Mayette and Payne. Neither English walnuts nor the walnut husk fly are native to California. So-called 'English' walnuts are sometimes more appropriately called 'Persian' walnuts, in reference to Persia, the origin of J. regia. English walnuts were first planted in southern California in the 1860s. In contrast, the native range of WHF is the mid- and south-central United States where it attacks J. nigra (Boyce 1934). The fly was likely to have been introduced into southern California in the mid-1920s by tourists travelling from Kansas, New Mexico, Texas or Oklahoma. WHF was first documented in California in 1926 in the San Bernardino County when maggots were found in the husks of English walnuts (Boyce 1929). The fly gradually spread throughout walnut growing regions of California. In 1928, only three or four orchards in the San Bernardino County were known to be infested. By 1932, the fly was also found in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties (Boyce 1933), and by 1954, it was found in Ventura, Riverside, and the San Diego Counties, in addition to the northern California county of Sonoma (Anonymous 1966). The spread of the fly in northern California was rapid. By 1958, WHF was found in San Joaquin County; in 1963, the fly was in Amador, Lake, Solano, Tulare and Yolo Counties; in 1964, it was found in Fresno, Mendocino

  11. Characteristic fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion found in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fly-ash particles accumulate in sediments and can be used to assess spatial distribution and temporal trends of atmospheric deposition of pollutants derived from high temperature combustion of fossil fuels. Previous work has concerned fly-ash derived from oil and coal. Oil-shale is the main fossil fuel used in Estonia and a major source of atmospheric pollution in the Baltic states. To assess if oil-shale power plants produce specific fly-ash particles scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to compare fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion with particles from oil and coal combustion. Two types were analysed, large black (10-30μm) and small glassy (< 5 μm) spheroidal particles. Although article morphology to some extent is indicative of the fuel burnt, morphological characters are not sufficient to differentiate between particles of different origin. However, the results indicate that with EDX analysis the fly-ash from oil-shale can be distinguished form oil and coal derived particles in environmental samples. Concentrations of large black and small glassy spheroidal fly-ash particles in a sediment core from an Estonian lake showed similar trends to oil-shale combustion statistics from Estonian power plants. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Africa and the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  13. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    CERN Document Server

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The response latency is $\\sim5\\mathrm{ms}$, making the roll correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom.

  14. Comparison of heterogeneous photolytic reduction of Hg(II) in the coal fly ashes and synthetic aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yindong; Eichhorst, Terry; Olson, Michael R.; Rutter, Andrew P.; Shafer, Martin M.; Wang, Xuejun; Schauer, James J.

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we examined the heterogeneous reduction of Hg(II) on the coal fly ash samples and synthetic aerosols under different light conditions in a controlled laboratory reactor. Three types of coal fly ashes were studied: a high carbon fly ash from a stoker boiler, a low carbon/low sulfate fly ash from a pulverized coal combustor burning low sulfur coal, and a high sulfate fly ash from a pulverized coal combustor burning high sulfur coal. The rate of Hg(II) reduction on the three diverse fly ash samples was found to be relatively fast with an average half-life of 1.6 h under clear sky atmospheric conditions (under the irradiance of 1000 W/m2). The reduction rate in the low sulfate/low carbon fly ash was approximately 1.5 times faster than with the other coal fly ash samples. Synthetic aerosols made of carbon black and levoglucosan produced Hg(II) reduction rates similar to coal fly ashes. However, aerosols composed of adipic acid resulted in reduction rates that were 3-5 times faster. The sensitivity of adipic acid reduction to light source wavelength was found to be greater than for the coal fly ash and other synthetic aerosols. Aerosols made from the water extracts of coal fly ash samples produced reduction rates equal to or slightly higher than with the native fly ash suggesting that the soluble components of fly ash play a significant role in the reduction mechanism. The measured reduction rates are likely important in the chemical processing of mercury in power plant plumes and potentially in the atmosphere and should be considered for incorporation in atmospheric transport models that are used to understand the fate of atmospheric mercury.

  15. Black market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way for states and subnational groups to acquire material, knowledge and equipment necessary to build a nuclear weapon or device are illegal transactions. These were singular in the past and did not cause the development of a nuclear black market. But all necessary components of a functioning black market exist. Therefore the further spread and extension of the use of nuclear power would enhance the threat of a nuclear black market, if the trade and use of specific nuclear material is not abandoned worldwide. (orig.)

  16. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  17. Tailoring fly ash activated with bentonite as adsorbent for complex wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visa, Maria, E-mail: maria.visa@unitbv.ro [Transilvania University of Brasov, Department Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Eroilor 29, 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spent adsorbent annealed at 500 Degree-Sign C can be a suggestion for padding in stone blocks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cations can be adsorbent by the silanol group (Si-OH) of the layers from bentonite Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper has a higher affinity for the active sites on adsorbent FAw + B than cadmium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This substrate can be recommended for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and MB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAw + B is recommended for wastewater treatment resulted in the dyes finishing industry. - Abstract: Used as adsorbent, alkali fly ash represents a low cost solution for advanced wastewater treatment. The alkali treatment raises sustainability issues therefore, in this research we aim to replace alkali fly ash with washed fly ash (FAw). For improving the adsorption capacity of washed fly ash, bentonite powder (B) was added, as a natural adsorbent with a composition almost identical to the fly ash. The new adsorbent was characterized by AFM, XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDS and the surface energy was evaluated by contact angle measurements. For understanding the complex adsorption process on this mixed substrate, preliminary tests were developed on synthetic wastewaters containing a single pollutant system (heavy metal), binary (two-heavy metals) and ternary (dye and two heavy metals) systems. Experiments were done on synthetic wastewaters containing methylene blue, cadmium and copper, using FAw, B and their powder mixtures. The pseudo-second order kinetics could well model all the processes, indicating a good adsorbent material which can be used for the pollutants removal from wastewater. After adsorption the substrates loaded with pollutants, annealed at 500 Degree-Sign C can be reused for padding in stone blocks.

  18. Flying in Two Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Manu

    2011-01-01

    Diversity and specialization of behavior in insects is unmatched. Insects hop, walk, run, jump, row, swim, glide and fly to propel themselves in a variety of environments. We have uncovered an unusual mode of propulsion of aerodynamic flight in two dimensions in Waterlilly Beetles \\emph{(Galerucella)}. The adult beetles, often found in water lilly ponds, propel themselves strictly in a two-dimensional plane on the surface of water via flapping wing flight. Here we analyze the aerodynamics of this peculiar flight mode with respect to forces exerted on the organism during flight. The complexity of 2-D flight is captured by accounting for additional forces beyond gravitational, thrust, lift and drag, exerted on the insect body in 3D flight. Understanding this constrained propulsion mode requires accounting for viscous drag, surface tension, buoyancy force, and capillary-wave drag. Moreover, dramatic differences exist in the magnitude of the resultant forces in 2D vs. 3D flight. Here, in this fluid dynamics video...

  19. Trypanosoma avium: experimental transmission from black flies to canaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Svobodová, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 2 (2004), s. 147-151. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1094 Grant ostatní: GA UK(CZ) 147/2002/B-BIO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Trypanosoma * birds * transmission Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2004

  20. Morphometric comparison of Simulium perflavum larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae in relation to season and gender in Central Amazônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamile B Alencar

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Number of larval instars, age structure and environmental effects on these parameters represent basic information in the study of insect population biology. When species have economic importance, this information is essential in order to choose the best period to apply different control methods and to determine the stages of the life cycle of the insect that are most susceptible to each treatment. The family Simuliidae has many species of medical/veterinary importance in the world, and some studies in the temperate region have suggested that the number of larval instars and the larval size can vary according to the season, gender and some environmental factors, such as temperature and diet. This study, with the zoophilic species Simulium perflavum Roubaud, is the first in the Neotropics observing some of these factors and will serve as a template for other species of medical importance in the region. S. perflavum larvae were collected in five streams in Central Amazônia (Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo counties, State of Amazonas, in Sept./Oct. 1996 (dry season and Feb./Mar. 1997 (rainy season. These larvae were measured (lateral length of head capsule and width of cephalic apodema to determine the number of larval instars (n=3985, to compare the larval size between seasons and genders (last and penultimate larval instars, n=200. Seven larval instars were determined for this species using frequency distributions, t-tests and Crosby´s growth rule. Significant differences were not detected (t-test, p>0.05 in larval size between seasons and genders. Our results differ from some found in temperate regions suggesting that in the Neotropical region the larval size in different seasons and different genders remains constant, although some environmental parameters, such as diet, change depending on the season.

  1. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  2. REMOVAL OF REACTIVE DYE WITH FLY ASH ADSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep EREN

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The efectiveness of fly ash in adsorbing Chemactive D Black N from aqueous solutions has been studied as a function adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentration. The Langmuir adsorption ishoterm were found more suitable than Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption capacity Q o was 6.75 mg/g at natural initial pH (pH = 5.40. The removal ratio of dye respectively founded % 100, % 98, % 98, % 82.5, % 66.31 at 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L initial dye concentration.

  3. REMOVAL OF REACTIVE DYE WITH FLY ASH ADSORPTION

    OpenAIRE

    EREN, Zeynep; Filiz Nuran ACAR

    2004-01-01

    The efectiveness of fly ash in adsorbing Chemactive D Black N from aqueous solutions has been studied as a function adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentration. The Langmuir adsorption ishoterm were found more suitable than Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption capacity Q o was 6.75 mg/g at natural initial pH (pH = 5.40). The removal ratio of dye respectively founded % 100, % 98, % 98, % 82.5, % 66.31 at 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L initial dye concentration.

  4. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars

  5. Interruption of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Northern Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Convit, Jacinto; Schuler, Harland; Borges, Rafael; Olivero, Vimerca; Domínguez-Vázquez, Alfredo; Frontado, Hortencia; Grillet, María E

    2013-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is caused by Onchocerca volvulus and transmitted by Simulium species (black flies). In the Americas, the infection has been previously described in 13 discrete regional foci distributed among six countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela) where more than 370,000 people are currently considered at risk. Since 2001, disease control in Venezuela has relied on the mass drug administration to the at-risk communities. This report provides empiri...

  6. Fly-in/Fly-out: Implications for Community Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Storey

    2010-01-01

    “Fly-in/fly-out†is a form of work organization that has become the standard model for new mining, petroleum and other types of resource development in remote areas. In many places this “no town†model has replaced that of the “new town.†The work system has both beneficial and adverse implications for the sustainability of both existing communities near new resource developments and for the more distant communities from which workers are drawn. This paper explores these outcomes dra...

  7. Characterisation of Turkish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayat, O. [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Mining Engineering Dept.

    1998-07-01

    The mineralogical, morphological, physical and chemical properties of 7 fly ashes from coal fields in Turkey are compared. The mineral matter in the fly ashes, determined by X-ray diffraction, is dominated by anhydride, lime, quartz and hematite + ferrite spinel. The three low-calcium ashes have the typical, relatively simple, crystalline phase Q, M, H and FS. The high-calcium fly ashes have the most complex assemblage of crystalline phases. The much higher calcium concentrations in these samples result in the formation of lime (CaO), melilite ((Ca, Na){sub 2}(Mg,Al,Fe)(Si,Al){sub 2}O{sub 7}) and merwinite. The presence of anhydride in all samples indicates that the high activity of calcium not only promotes the formation of sulfates from calcite but also the dehydration of gypsum during and after combustion, which occurs at temperatures above 400-500{degree}C. It is important to understand the interaction of high-calcium fly ashes with water occurring in Portland cement (C{sub 3}A,C{sub 2}S), Ah, which hydrates to give gypsum and lime, with the latter hydrating to give the Ca(OH){sub 2} solutions that promote pozzolonic reactions. Some of the particles comprised irregularly formed, vesicular particles with some well-formed individual spheres in Catalagzi and Tuncbilek fly ashes. About 55-80 wt% was less than 45 {mu}m in size for Yatagan, Soma, Yenikoy and Afsin-Elbistan fly ashes. The fly ashes were mainly composed of CaO, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. They have a potential use in wastewater treatment since they can be easily obtained in large quantities at low price or even free. The chemical and mineralogical compositions of the high-calcium Turkish fly ashes investigated make them a good binding agent and a possible substitute for slags, pozzolana and gypsum in the amelioration of clinker. 53 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. First record of fruit fly, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of Dacus (Callantra) longicornis Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) was detected for the first time in Bangladesh. An adult male fly was collected on 27th July, 2008 from small kitchen garden of Ganakbari, Savar area, containing various cucurbit crops viz., Cucurbita maxima (D.), Trichosanthus cucumerina (L.), Luffa acutungula (L.) etc. using a Mcphail trap baited with cue-lure. The fruit fly specimen were distinguished by the presence of a red-brown scutum, anatergite fuscous, face with a pair of black spots, abdomen petiolate with elongated abdominal tergite-1, cells bc and c fuscous, costal band overlapping R4+5, and absence of fore femoral spines. (author)

  9. Accumulation and distribution of heavy metal Zn2+ in two successive generations black soldier fly Hermetia illucens L.(Dipetra: Stratiomyidae)%Zn2+在不同世代黑水虻体内累积及分布规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏嫱; 廖业; 朱伟; 喻国辉; 陈远凤

    2013-01-01

    通过在人工饲料中添加不同浓度Zn2+(75,150,300,600,1 200 mg/kg),研究了饲料中不同浓度Zn2+在连续2代不同发育阶段黑水虻体内的积累及幼虫不同组织的分布规律.结果表明,过量的Zn2+可在6龄幼虫、蛹和成虫体内积累,且Zn2+含量为6龄幼虫>成虫>蛹,然而,同一世代不同发育阶段虫体内的Zn2+含量不存在显著差异;但第2代受高剂量Zn2+胁迫虫体内Zn2+含量均显著高于第1代.Zn2+可在黑水虻5龄末幼虫表皮、脂肪体及中肠中累积,连续2代分布规律均为中肠>脂肪体>表皮,第2代各组织中Zn2+含量均高于第1代;在300 mg/kg Zn2+浓度下,第2代5龄末幼虫表皮和脂肪体中的Zn2+浓度与第1代存在显著差异,在高剂量(600和1 200 mg/kg)Zn2+处理浓度下,中肠中Zn2+含量显著高于第1代.%Artificial diets added with different concentrations of Zn2+ (75,150,300,600,1 200 mg/kg)were fed on black soldier fly Hermetia illucens L.larvae for 2 generations,and contents of Zn2+ accumulation in different developmental stages of H.illucens and distribution in different tissues of the 5th instar larvae were detected.Results showed that excessive Zn2+ accumulate in the 6th instar larvae,pupae and adults,and the order of Zn2+ contents in different stages is 6 instar larvae > adults > pupae.However,no significant difference is occurred in the different developmental stages' H.illucens from the same generation.At the same time,Zn2+contents from ones stressed with high-levels of Zn2 + in the 2nd generation are significantly higher than those in the 1st generation.Zn2+ accumulate in epidermis,fat body and midgut of the 5th instar larvae.In the 2 successive generations,Zn2+ content in different tissues is in the order of midgut > fat body > epidermis,and the Zn2+ contents in 2nd generation are all significantly higher than those in the 1st generation.Furthermore,Zn2+ contents in epidermis and fat body of the 2nd generation are

  10. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  11. Development of iron oxide and titania treated fly ash based ceramic and its bioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultana, Parveen [Physics Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032 (India); Das, Sukhen, E-mail: das_sukhen@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032 (India); Bhattacharya, Alakananda [Physics Department, West Bengal State University, Barasat (India); Basu, Ruma [Physics Department, Jogamaya Devi College, Kolkata-700026 (India); Nandy, Papiya [Centre for Interdisciplinary Research and Education, Kolkata-700 068 (India)

    2012-08-01

    The increasing accumulation of fly ash from thermal power plants poses a major problem to the environment. The present work reflects the novel utilization of this profusely available industrial waste in the form of an antibacterial hard ceramic material by treating fly ash with ferric oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and titania (TiO{sub 2}) during sintering process at 1600 Degree-Sign C. The developed material shows more than 90% bacterial reduction against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The mechanism of their antibacterial action was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image analysis of the bacterial cross-section. The developed ceramic material acquires hardness due to the enhancement of the natural mullite content in the matrix. The mullite content and the crystallinity of mullite have shown their increasing trend with increasing concentration of the metal oxide during sintering process. A maximum of {approx} 37% increase in mullite was obtained for 7% w/w Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}. Metal oxide lowered the activation energy of the reaction and enhanced the reaction rate of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})-silica (SiO{sub 2}) to form mullite which increases the hardness. The study highlights novel utilization of fly ash as a hard ceramic antibacterial product (bioceramics) for both structural and hygiene applications in an eco-friendly way. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel antibacterial hard ceramic material by treating fly ash with metal oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material shows excellent antibacterial activity (> 90%) against pathogenic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of antibacterial action by TEM analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement of the concentration of 'natural mullite content' in the material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness induced by enhanced mullite content is an added advantage for prolonged product life.

  12. Flying in Nightmares - A Neglected Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Schönhammer, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    It is widely supposed in the scientific and popular literature on dreams that flying in dreams is of mostly delightful character. Domhoff (1996) recently emphasised the highly positive feelings experienced in flying dreams although he mentions a turn to apprehension later in the dream ("crashing", "coming down"). In my research (an interview-sample of flying dreams) I met flying experiences in contexts of nightmares which are seldom mentioned and never thoroughly discussed in interdiscipli...

  13. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  14. FlyBase 101 – the basics of navigating FlyBase

    OpenAIRE

    McQuilton, Peter; St. Pierre, Susan E.; Thurmond, Jim; ,

    2011-01-01

    FlyBase (http://flybase.org) is the leading database and web portal for genetic and genomic information on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and related fly species. Whether you use the fruit fly as an experimental system or want to apply Drosophila biological knowledge to another field of study, FlyBase can help you successfully navigate the wealth of available Drosophila data. Here, we review the FlyBase web site with novice and less-experienced users of FlyBase in mind and point out re...

  15. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong;

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  16. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong; Pedersen, Karl; Dybdahl, Jens; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Madsen, Mogens

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  17. DURABILITY OF HARDENED FLY ASH PASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties and durability ( mainly frost-resistance and carbonation resistance ) of fly ash-CaO-CaSO4 .2H2O hardened paste are studied. The relationship among durability of harden ed fly ash paste, the quantity and distribution of hydrates and the initial p aste texture of hardened fly ash paste is presented.

  18. Molecular diagnostics & phylogenetics of filth fly parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of synanthropic muscoid flies, often referred to as filth flies, breed in animal wastes and are serious pests of humans and livestock. Pteromalid wasps are among the most promising biological control agents for these filth flies. Because of their small size and relative lack of morph...

  19. Choreographing the fly's danse macabre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Peter C; Pletcher, Scott D

    2007-08-01

    In several species, immune signaling networks are emerging as critical modulators of disease resistance, energy metabolism, and aging. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Ren et al. (2007) lay the groundwork for dissecting the mechanisms of this coordination by characterizing the interplay between microbial pathogens and aging in the fly. PMID:17681142

  20. Physics between a Fly's Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A novel method of localizing the direction of a source of sound has evolved in the auditory system of certain small parasitic flies. A mechanical model of this design has been shown to describe the system well. Here, a simplified version of this mechanical model is presented which demonstrates the key feature: direction estimates of high accuracy…

  1. The Spider and the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  2. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability of...

  3. Tsetse fly saliva: Could it be useful in fly infection when feeding in chronically aparasitemic mammalian hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Awuoche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness and nagana are two important diseases cuased by African trypanosomes in humans and animals respectively, in tropical african countries. A number of trypanosome species are implicated in these diseases, but it is the Trypanosoma brucei group that is responsible for the chronic form of sleeping sickness. During the course of this chronic infection the parasite shows a clear tropism for organs and tissues and only sporadically appears in the blood stream. Notwithstanding this feature, tsetse flies normally get infected from chronically infected apparasitemic hosts. For some pathogens like the microfilaria, it has already shown that the saliva of the vector, black fly saliva contribute to orient the pathogen to the site of the vector bite. Chemotaxis of tsetse saliva may perhaps stimulate movement of Trypanosoma brucei parasites from tissues to the bloodstream and via the vascular to the tsetse feeding site, and could explain the relatively high infection rate of tsetse flies feeding on chronically infected animals. This review paper looks into the possible role of trypanosome-vector saliva in ensuring parasite acquisition and its application in the tsetse – trypanosome interaction at the host skin interphase.

  4. The occurrence of hazardous volatile elements and nanoparticles in Bulgarian coal fly ashes and the effect on human health exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: lfsoliveira@univates.br [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); DaBoit, Katia [Department of Environmental Medicine, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre - RS (Brazil); Jasper, Andre [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Andrade, Maria L. [Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Kostova, Irena J. [Sofia University ' St. Kliment Ohridski' , Department of Geology, Paleontology and Fossil Fuels, 15, Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); and others

    2012-02-01

    Low-rank, high-mineral matter Bulgarian coals were studied using a variety of chemical, optical, and electron beam methods. The larger fly ash carbon phases include charred carbons in contrast to coked carbons present in the fly ashes of bituminous-coal-derived fly ashes. Nanoscale carbons include multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating Hg, Se, and As, among other elements. In addition to the glass which dominates the fly ash, relatively coarse 'rock fragments', consisting of an unmelted to partially melted core surrounded by a glassy rim, are present in the fly ash. Nano-scale minerals can contain hazardous elements and, along with metal-bearing multiwalled nanotubes, can be a path for the entry of hazardous particles into the lungs and other organs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model Bulgarian power plants which have regulated minerals nanoparticles can contain hazardous elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study changes in the level of information about nanominerals importance and the effect on human health exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing information will increase quality if power plants procedures are similar.

  5. Aerodynamics of the Smallest Flying Insects

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura A; Hedrick, Ty; Robinson, Alice; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Lowe, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the flight of some of the smallest insects including the jewel wasp, \\textit{Ampulex compressa}, and thrips, \\textit{Thysanoptera} spp. The fruit fly, \\textit{Drosophila melanogaster}, is large in comparison to these insects. While the fruit fly flies at $Re \\approx 120$, the jewel wasp flies at $Re \\approx 60$, and thrips flies at $Re \\approx 10$. Differences in the general structures of the wakes generated by each species are observed. The differences in the wakes correspond to changes in the ratio of lift forces (vertical component) to drag forces (horizontal component) generated.

  6. Evaluation à échelle réduite de l'efficacité d'insecticides régulateurs de croissance sur les larves du complexe Simulium damnosum (Diptera : Simuliidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Doannio, J.M.C.; Dossou-Yovo, J.; Duval, Jacques; Hougard, Jean-Marc

    1992-01-01

    L'efficacité de formulations de régulateurs de croissance des insectes a été testée à échelle réduite sur des larves du complexe #Simulium damnosum$ en Côte d'Ivoire. Trois des composés testés appartiennent au groupe des benzoyphényl-urée substitués, inhibiteurs de synthèse de la chitine (OMS 2015 (triflumuron), OMS 3009 (téflubenzuron), OMS 3013 (chlorfluazuron)). Deux autres appartiennent au groupe des analogues synthétiques de l'hormone juvénile (OMS 3007 et OMS 3019). Le dernier est un ph...

  7. Binocular interactions underlying the classic optomotor responses of flying flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Frye

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to imposed course deviations, the fast optomotor reactions of animals reduce motion blur and facilitate the maintenance of stable body posture. In flies, the monocular front-to-back (progressive and back-to-front (regressive visual motion components generated by horizontal rotation are selectively encoded, respectively, by homo and heterolateral motion sensitive circuits in the third optic ganglion, the lobula plate. To investigate the strength of such inter-ocular interactions and their role in compensatory sensory-motor transformations, we utilize a virtual reality flight simulator to record optomotor reactions by tethered flying flies in response to imposed binocular and monocular visual rotation. With stimulus parameters generating large contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation, we find that responses to monocular progressive motion are larger than those to panoramic rotation but contrast sensitive. Conversely, responses to monocular regressive motion are slower than those to rotation and peak at the lowest tested contrast. Together our results suggest that contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation result from the dynamic interplay of contralateral inhibitory as well as excitatory circuit interactions and serve to maintain a stable optomotor equilibrium across a range of visual contrasts.

  8. Identification and sequences of the Treponema pallidum fliM', fliY, fliP, fliQ, fliR and flhB' genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardham, J M; Frye, J G; Stamm, L V

    1995-12-01

    Information regarding the biology and virulence attributes of Treponema pallidum (Tp) is limited due to the lack of genetic exchange mechanisms and the inability to continuously cultivate this spirochete. We have utilized TnphoA mutagenesis of a Tp genomic DNA library in Escherichia coli (Ec) to identify genes encoding exported proteins, a subset of which are likely to be important in treponemal pathogenesis. We report here the identification and nucleotide (nt) sequence of a 5-kb treponemal DNA insert that contains seven open reading frames (ORFs). The proteins encoded by six of these ORFs have homology with members of a newly described protein family involved in the biogenesis/assembly of flagella and the control of flagellar rotation in Ec, Salmonella typhimurium (St) and Bacillus subtilis (Bs). Certain members of this family are also involved in the export of virulence factors in Yersinia (Yr) spp., St and Shigella flexneri (Sf). We have named these six ORFs fliM', fliY, fliP, fliQ, fliR and flhB'. The operon containing these ORFs has been designated as the fla operon. We hypothesize that the protein products of these genes are involved in the biogenesis/assembly of flagella and the control of flagellar rotation in Tp. PMID:8529894

  9. "Fly me to the moon"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's first lunar probe Chang'e-I, named after a mythical Chinese goddess who, according to legend, made her home on the moon, blasted off on 24 October from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in the southwestern province of Sichuan. In addition to making the dream cherished by Chinese people to fly to the moon come true, it is the first step into China's ambitious threestage moon mission, marking a new milestone in the country's space exploration history.

  10. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability of...... the treated products for reuse in construction or farming sectors should be explored further, as should the possibility of recycling of valuable, extracted elements in the metallurgical industry....

  11. Spatial distribution, seasonality and trap preference of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), adults on a 12-hectare zoological park

    OpenAIRE

    Ose, Gregory A; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2014-01-01

    Although this study was originally designed to compare the efficacy of two different stable fly traps within 10 sites at a 12-ha zoological park, seasonal and spatial population distribution data were simultaneously collected. The two traps included an Alsynite fiberglass cylindrical trap (AFT) and a blue-black cloth target modified into a cylindrical trap (BCT). Both traps were covered with sticky sleeves to retain the attracted flies. Paired trap types were placed at sites that were 20–100 ...

  12. Efectos de la dispersión sobre la reconstrucción por árboles reconciliados y el patrón de distribución de los subgéneros neotropicales de Simulium (Diptera:Simuliidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Esquivel Daniel Rafael

    2001-01-01

    The analysis ofthe distribution pattern ofNeotropical Simulium (Diptera:Simuliidae) subgenera suggests that dispersal between Mesoamerica and the Pacifíc region, and SE of Brazil and Cerrado could interfere with the evaluation of the general pattern. To agree with the premise ofno dispersion when reconciliated trees is used and to tackle the dispersal problem, the most frequent events of dispersal to each subgenus were eliminated. The dispersal evaluation was carried out using the dispersal-v...

  13. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughenbaugh, Katherine; Stutzman, Paul; Juenger, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS), calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS), a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  14. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  15. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  16. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  17. Effect of fly ash on autogenous shrinkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipat Termkhajornkit; Toyoharu Nawa; Masashi Nakai; Toshiki Saito [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan). Division of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering

    2005-03-01

    The correlation between autogenous shrinkage and degree of hydration of fly ash was determined with the selective dissolution method. Then, the relationship between the degree of hydration of fly ash and autogenous shrinkage was examined. The results showed that the degree of hydration of fly ash increased as its Blaine surface area increased. The degree of hydration of fly ash increased with time, and autogenous shrinkage increased corresponding to the increase in the degree of hydration of fly ash. Moreover, it was found that the total quantity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in cement-fly ash samples affected autogenous shrinkage at early ages, but the long-term influence was very small.

  18. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  19. Preliminary study on temporal variations in biting activity of Simulium damnosum s.l. in Abeokuta North LGA, Ogun State Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adeofun Clement O; Mafiana Chiedu F; Ekpo Uwem F; Oluwole Akinola S; Idowu Olufunmilayo A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Simulum damnosum Theobald sensu lato (s.l.) is the vector of the parasitic filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus Leuckart which causes onchocerciasis. In order to understand the vector population dynamics, a preliminary 12 months entomological evaluation was carried out at Abeokuta, the Southwest Zone of Nigeria, an onchocerciasis endemic area, where vector control has not been previously initiated. S.damnosum s.l. flies were caught on human attractants between 700 to1800 hour...

  20. The eradication of the Mexico killing fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mexico an industrial facility produces millions of sterile flies. These flies are then released in the wild to eliminate the 'Cochliomyia hominivorax' flu species whose larvae generate large sanitary and economical damage. The flies are made sterile through gamma irradiation at the cocoon stage. Containers filled with 40.000 cocoons are exposed to Cs137 gamma radiation doses of 55 Gy, the irradiation session lasts 2 minutes and a half. After the cocoons undergo strict quality control they are deposited in natural places. The irradiation generates cell damages in semen and ovaries while preserving the capacity of copulating and the lifetime of the flies. (A.C.)

  1. Flying qualities and flight control system design for a fly-by-wire transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Gautrey, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Fly-by-wire flight control systems are becoming more common in both civil and military aircraft. These systems give many benefits, but also present a new set of problems due to their increased complexity compared to conventional systems and the larger choice of options that they provide. The work presented here considers the application of fly-by-wire to a generic regional transport aircraft. The flying qualities criteria used for typical flying qualities evaluations are described...

  2. FlyBase: a Drosophila database. The FlyBase consortium.

    OpenAIRE

    Gelbart, W. M.; Crosby, M.; Matthews, B; Rindone, W P; Chillemi, J; Russo Twombly, S; Emmert, D.; Ashburner, M; Drysdale, R A; Whitfield, E; Millburn, G H; Grey, A; Kaufman, T; Matthews, K.; Gilbert, D

    1997-01-01

    FlyBase is a database of genetic and molecular data concerning Drosophila. FlyBase is maintained as a relational database (in Sybase) and is made available as html documents and flat files. The scope of FlyBase includes: genes, alleles (and phenotypes), aberrations, transposons, pointers to sequence data, clones, stock lists, Drosophila workers and bibliographic references. The Encyclopedia of Drosophila is a joint effort between FlyBase and the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project which integr...

  3. A comparison of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with Gasoline and Ramses

    CERN Document Server

    Gabor, J M; Volonteri, Marta; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bellovary, Jillian; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Supermassive black hole dynamics during galaxy mergers is crucial in determining the rate of black hole mergers and cosmic black hole growth. As simulations achieve higher resolution, it becomes important to assess whether the black hole dynamics is influenced by the treatment of the interstellar medium in different simulation codes. We here compare simulations of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with two codes: the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code Gasoline, and the Adaptive Mesh Refinement code Ramses. We seek to identify predictions of these models that are robust despite differences in hydrodynamic methods and implementations of sub-grid physics. We find that the general behavior is consistent between codes. Black hole accretion is minimal while the galaxies are well-separated (and even as they "fly-by" within 10 kpc at first pericenter). At late stages, when the galaxies pass within a few kpc, tidal torques drive nuclear gas inflow that triggers bursts of black hole accretion accompanied by star fo...

  4. Characteristics of spanish fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the characterization of fly ashes produced by Spanish thermoelectric power plants, according to sampling taken in 1981 and 1982. The study takes in the following characteristics: physical characteristics (size distribution of particles, ...; chemical ones (chemical analysis...; and mineralogical ones (application of instrumental techniques of X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectroscopy. From a general point of view, it can be said that the samples of Spanish fly ashes are similar to those produced in other countries. The results obtained are a contribution to the knowledge of Spanish fly ashes and form part of the antecedents of investigations carried out in subsequent years.

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto la caracterización de las cenizas volantes producidas en las Centrales Termoeléctricas españolas, según un muestreo realizado entre 1981 y 1982. El estudio comprende las siguientes características: físicas (distribución del tamaño de partículas,...; químicas (análisis químico, …; y mineralógicas (aplicación de las técnicas instrumentales de difracción de rayos X y espectroscopía de absorción infrarroja. Desde un punto de vista general, se puede afirmar que las muestras de ceniza volante estudiadas son semejantes a las producidas en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos son una aportación al conocimiento de las cenizas volantes españolas y forman parte de los antecedentes de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en años posteriores.

  5. Fly-by-Wireless Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studor, George

    2010-01-01

    The presentation reviews what is meant by the term 'fly-by-wireless', common problems and motivation, provides recent examples, and examines NASA's future and basis for collaboration. The vision is to minimize cables and connectors and increase functionality across the aerospace industry by providing reliable, lower cost, modular, and higher performance alternatives to wired data connectivity to benefit the entire vehicle/program life-cycle. Focus areas are system engineering and integration methods to reduce cables and connectors, vehicle provisions for modularity and accessibility, and a 'tool box' of alternatives to wired connectivity.

  6. Behavioral evidence for fruit odor discrimination and sympatric host races of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Charles E; Yee, Wee L; Sim, Sheina B; Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-11-01

    The recent shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from its native host downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern United States is a model for sympatric host race formation. However, the fly is also present in the western United States, where it may have been introduced via infested apples within the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two hawthorns in the West, one the native black hawthorn, C. douglasii, and the other the introduced English ornamental hawthorn, C. monogyna. Here, we test for behavioral evidence of host races in the western United States. through flight tunnel assays of western R. pomonella flies to host fruit volatile blends. We report that western apple, black hawthorn, and ornamental hawthorn flies showed significantly increased levels of upwind-directed flight to their respective natal compared to nonnatal fruit volatile blends, consistent with host race status. We discuss the implications of the behavioral results for the origin(s) of western R. pomonella, including the possibility that western apple flies were not introduced, but may represent a recent shift from local hawthorn fly populations. PMID:23106724

  7. 尼日利亚西南部奥孙河沿线黑蝇Simulium damnosum Theobald complex的形态分类研究(双翅目:蚋科)%Morphotaxonomic studies on Simulium damnosum Theobald complex(Diptera:Simuliidae)along Osun River,Southwestern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monsuru Adebayo ADELEKE; Chiedu Felix MAFIANA; Sammy Olufemi SAM-WOBO; Ganiyu Olatunji OLATUNDE; Olaoluwa Pheabian AKINWALE

    2010-01-01

    黑蝇Simulium damnosum sensu lato是由多个姊妹种组成的复合体,这些种在生态学和盘尾丝虫病的传播方面各不相同.本文对奥孙河沿线的尼日利亚西南部森林区域的黑蝇S.damnosum s.l.复合体的组成以及成虫的形态学特征进行了研究.本研究所用的黑蝇S.damnosum s.l.成虫标本来源于奥孙河沿线的3个区,分别是Osun Eleja,Osun Ogbere和Osun Budepo.标本采集通过人体诱捕的方式,采集时间从2008年2月至2009年6月上午7:00到下午6:00,每两周采集1次.通过观察成虫的翅毛簇(wing tufts)和其他形态特征,对其进行分类研究.结果表明:存在同域分布的森林种和稀树草原种.在奥孙河沿线3个区内,森林种为优势种,占总捕获量的99.18%,而稀树草原种仅占0.82%;森林种和稀树草原种在多度上存在显著差异(P<0.05).所捕获的所有稀树草原种的翅毛簇均为灰白色,而捕获的森林种的翅毛簇颜色存在显著差异(P<0.05).为了更清楚地揭示该地区黑蝇S.damnosum s.l.的物种组成,建议进行更深入的研究.

  8. Black hole based tests of general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C.

    2016-03-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar-tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory.

  9. Preliminary study on temporal variations in biting activity of Simulium damnosum s.l. in Abeokuta North LGA, Ogun State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeofun Clement O

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulum damnosum Theobald sensu lato (s.l. is the vector of the parasitic filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus Leuckart which causes onchocerciasis. In order to understand the vector population dynamics, a preliminary 12 months entomological evaluation was carried out at Abeokuta, the Southwest Zone of Nigeria, an onchocerciasis endemic area, where vector control has not been previously initiated. S.damnosum s.l. flies were caught on human attractants between 700 to1800 hours each day, for 4 days each month, from August 2007 to July 2008. The flies caught were classified as either forest-dwelling or savanna-dwelling groups based on the colour of certain morphological characters. Climatic data such as rainfall, humidity and temperature were also collected monthly during the period of survey. Results A total of 1,139 flies were caught, 596 (52.33% were forest-dwelling group while 543 (47.67% were savanna-dwelling group of S. damnosum s.l. The highest percentage of forest-dwelling group was caught in the month of August 2007 (78.06% and the least percentage of forest-dwelling groups was caught in November 2007 (8.14%. The highest percentage of savannah-dwelling group was caught in the month of November 2007 (91.86% and the least percentage of savannah-dwelling group was caught in August 2007 (21.94%. There was no significant difference between the population of forest and savannah-dwelling groups of the fly when the means of the fly population were compared (P = 0.830. Spearman correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between monthly fly population with monthly average rainfall (r = 0.550, n = 12, P = 0.033, but no significant relationship with monthly average temperature (r = 0.291, n = 12, P = 0.179. There was also a significant relationship between monthly fly population and monthly average relative humidity (r = 0.783, n = 12 P = 0.001. There was no significant correlation between the population of forest

  10. Resolving flows around black holes: numerical technique and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are believed to be one of the key ingredients of galaxy formation models, but it has been notoriously challenging to simulate them due to the very complex physics and large dynamical range of spatial scales involved. Here we address significant shortcomings of a Bondi-Hoyle-like prescription commonly invoked to estimate black hole accretion in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation. We describe and implement a novel super-Lagrangian refinement scheme to increase, adaptively and 'on the fly', the mass and spatial resolution in targeted regions around the accreting black holes at limited computational cost. While our refinement scheme is generically applicable and flexible, for the purpose of this paper we select the smallest resolvable scales to match black holes' instantaneous Bondi radii, thus effectively resolving Bondi-Hoyle-like accretion in full galaxy formation simulations. This permits us to not only estimate gas properties close to the Bondi radius much more accurately, ...

  11. Hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for dioxin decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yuyan, E-mail: yuyan1993@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Dezhen; Zhou, Bin; Li, Jianyi [Thermal and Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Li, Xian-wei [Baosteel R and D Institute, Shanghai, 201900 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first study to apply Fe-sulfate in hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for dioxin decomposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first study to comprehensively evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment on dioxin decomposition and heavy metal stabilization in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gaussian software chemical computational simulation was performed to investigate the mechanism of dioxin decomposition based on quantum chemistry calculation, and to support the experimental data by the calculation results. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatment of MSWI fly ash was performed in this paper with a purpose to reduce its dioxin content. First a hydrothermal reactor was set up with a mixture of ferric sulphate and ferrous sulphate serviced as the reactant, then the effects caused by reaction conditions such as reaction temperature, pre-treatment by water-washing and reactant dosage were checked; the results showed that as a promising technology, hydrothermal treatment exhibited considerable high efficiencies in decomposition of PCDDs/PCDFs and good stabilization of heavy metals as well. Experimental results also showed that for dioxin destruction, higher reaction temperature is the most important influencing factor followed by Fe addition, and pre-treatment of raw fly ash by water-washing increased the destruction efficiencies of dioxins only very slightly. Finally with help of Gaussian software chemical computational simulation was performed to investigate the mechanism of dioxin decomposition based on quantum chemistry calculation. The calculation results were supported by the experimental data. The leaching toxicities of hydrothermal products were higher than upper limits defined in the latest Chinese standard GB 16889-2008 for sanitary landfill disposal, thus an auxiliary process is suggested after the hydrothermal treatment for heavy metal

  12. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies in the...

  13. An Advanced Fly-By-Wire Flight Control System for the RASCAL Research Rotorcraft: Concept to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rediess, Nicholas A.; Dones, Fernando; McManus, Bruce L.; Ulmer, Lon; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Design features of a new fly-by-wire flight control system for the Rotorcraft-Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) are described. Using a UH-60A Black Hawk helicopter as a baseline vehicle, the RASCAL will be a flying laboratory capable of supporting the research requirements of major NASA and Army guidance, control, and display research programs. The paper describes the research facility requirements of these pro-rams and the design implementation of the research flight control system (RFCS), with emphasis on safety-of-flight, adaptability to multiple requirements and performance considerations.

  14. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  15. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  16. MODAL CONTROL OF PILOTLESS FLYING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Antanevich; Y. F. Ikwas; А. A. Lobaty

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers a problem on synthesis of lateral movement control algorithms in a pilotless flying machine which is made on the basis of a modal control method providing a required root arrangement of a characteristic closed control system polynom. Results of the modeling at stabilization of a lateral pilotless flying machine co-ordinate are presented in the paper.

  17. Horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans L., overwintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putative diapause in the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), has frequently been assumed as the pest's mode for overwinter survival from the tropics to temperate regions of northern and southern hemispheres. Examination of the scientific literature indicates that putative horn fly diapause ...

  18. Catch Composition of Tsetse Flies (Glossina: Glossinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Okoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study to determine the composition of tsetse flies species was conducted between January and December, 2007 in Kamuku National Park, Nigeria, using Biconical and Nitse traps. Tsetse flies were trapped along gallery forest in five streams for two trapping days and were collected daily. Approach: All tsetse flies caught were identified to species level, sexed, separated into teneral and non-teneral, hunger staged and Mean Hunger Stage computed. Fly density were calculated, the age structure examined using wing fray techniques for males and ovarian technique for females; the reproductive status of female flies were assessed. Two species of tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis palpalis robineau-desvoidy and Glossina tachinoides Westwood were caught in total of five hundred and two (502 flies. Out of these, 309(61.6% Glossina tachinoides and 193(38.4% G. palpalis were caught. Male catches (309, 61.6% were significantly (P Results: The estimated mean age for males was 11 days and females were 8 days. The insemination rate of 93.8% generally was high, G. tachinoides recorded 95.5% more than G. palpalis of 91.6%. Whereas parity rate (25.8% was low; G. palpalis was 37.4% while G. tachinoides parity rate is 17.2%. Conclusion: The study shows that two species of tsetse flies abound in the park although at low densities their presence may bear semblance to Trypanosomiasis and its impact to ecotourism.

  19. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  20. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  1. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  2. FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF ACTIVATED FLY ASH CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNILAA GEORGE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement concrete is the most widely used construction material in many infrastructure projects. The development and use of mineral admixture for cement replacement is growing in construction industry mainly due to the consideration of cost saving, energy saving, environmental production and conservation of resources. Present study is aimed at replacing cement in concrete with activated fly ash. The paper highlights the chemical activation of low calcium fly ash using CaO and Na2SiO3 in the ratio 1:8 for improving the pozzolanic properties of fly ash .The investigation deals with the flexural behavior of beams using chemically activated fly ash at various cement replacement levels of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% with water cement ratio 0.45.The results are compared with OPC and Activated Fly ash at the same replacement levels.

  3. Surface Modification of Fly Ash for Active Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deepti Jain; Renu Hada; Ashu Rani

    2013-01-01

    Fly ash based effective solid base catalyst (KF/Al2O3/fly ash473, KF/Al2O3/fly ash673, and KF/Al2O3/fly ash873) was synthesized by loading KF over chemically and thermally activated fly ash. The chemical activation was done by treating fly ash with aluminum nitrate via precipitation method followed by thermal activation at 650°C to increase the alumina content in fly ash. The increased alumina content was confirmed by SEM-EDX analysis. The alumina enriched fly ash was then loaded with KF (10...

  4. New tools and insights to assist with the molecular identification of Simulium guianense s.l., main Onchocerca volvulus vector within the highland areas of the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Mattos-Glória, Aline; Hamada, Neusa; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2014-03-01

    Following the success of the Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme for the Americas (OEPA), there is now just one Latin American onchocerciasis focus where onchocerciasis transmission is described as 'on-going:' the Amazonia Onchocerciasis focus. In the hyperendemic highland areas of the Amazonia focus, Simulium guianense s.l. Wise are the most important vectors of the disease. Populations of S. guianense s.l. are, however, known to vary in their cytogenetics and in a range of behaviours, including in their biting habits. In the hypoendemic lowland areas of the Amazonia focus, for example, S. guianense s.l. are generally regarded as zoophilic and consequently unimportant to disease transmission. Robust tools, to discriminate among various populations of S. guianense s.l. have, however, not yet been developed. In the work reported here, we have assessed the utility of a ribosomal DNA sequence fragment spanning the nuclear ribosomal ITS-1, ITS-2 and 5.8S sequence regions and a ∼850 nucleotide portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (CO1) for species-level identification and for resolving the within species substructuring. We report here how we have generated 78 CO1 sequences from a rich set of both zoophilic and anthropophilic populations of S. guianense s.l. that were collected from eight sites that are broadly distributed across Brazil. Consistent with previous findings, our analysis supports the genetic isolation of Simulium litobranchium from S. guianense s.l. In contrast with previous findings, however, our results did not provide support for the divergence of the two species prior to the radiation of S. guianense s.l. In our analysis of the S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA sequence trace files we generated, we provide clear evidence of multiple within-specimen single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels suggesting that S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA is not a good target for conventional DNA barcoding. This is the first report of S. guianense s

  5. Avrocar: a real flying saucer

    CERN Document Server

    Fedrigo, Desire Francine G; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    One of the most unusual military aircraft programs V / STOL was the Avro VZ-9 "Avrocar". Designed to be a real flying saucer, the Avrocar was one of the few V / STOL to be developed in complete secrecy. Despite significant changes in the design, during flight tests, the Avrocar was unable to achieve its objectives, and the program was eventually canceled after an expenditure of 10 million US dollars between 1954 and 1961. But the concept of a lift fan, driven by a turbojet engine is not dead, and lives today as a key component of Lockheed X-35 Joint Strike Fighter contender. Was held in a data research and information related to Avrocar project carried out during the Second World War, which was directly linked to advances in aircraft that were built after it, and correlate them with the turbo fan engines used today.

  6. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A.; Hardie, Roger C.; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli. PMID:27336733

  7. Insects as unidentified flying objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, P S; Mankin, R W

    1978-11-01

    Five species of insects were subjected to a large electric field. Each of the insects stimulated in this manner emitted visible glows of various colors and blacklight (uv). It is postulated that the Uintah Basin, Utah, nocturnal UFO display (1965-1968) was partially due to mass swarms of spruce budworms, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), stimulated to emit this type of St. Elmo's fire by flying into high electric fields caused by thunderheads and high density particulate matter in the air. There was excellent time and spatial correlation between the 1965-1968 UFO nocturnal sightings and spruce budworm infestation. It is suggested that a correlation of nocturnal UFO sightings throughout the U.S. and Canada with spruce budworm infestations might give some insight into nocturnal insect flight patterns. PMID:20203984

  8. [Psychoses and unidentified flying objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrakis, D; Bocquet, J P

    1983-04-01

    Some individuals claim to have come into contact and communicated with occupants of flying objects of extraterrestrial origin who often would have entrusted them with "missions" regarding the safeguard of humanity. The authors, who have observed six such subjects, conclude that five of them suffered from a paranoid delusional state often akin to paraphrenia; whereas other analogous cases previously reported have been diagnosed as suffering from paranoid schizophrenia. Their beliefs, inaccessible to criticism and to reasoning, presumably help them to remain outside psychiatric reach. The present article does not take an interest in the physical existence of this phenomenon and does not wish to be reductionistic. It does not claim to express a judgment on the witnesses of such phenomena whose mental health must be evaluated through a rigorous and impartial examination, and not be evaluated in terms of the examiner's preconceptions toward the witnesses' assertions. PMID:6850502

  9. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  10. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  11. Kohonen's feature maps for fly ash categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraja, M C; Jayaram, M A; Ravikumar, C N

    2006-12-01

    Fly ash is a common admixture used in concrete and may constitute up to 50% by weight of the total binder material. Incorporation of fly ash in Portland-cement concrete is highly desirable due to technological, economic, and environmental benefits. This article demonstrates the use of artificial intelligence neural networks for the classification of fly ashes in to different groups. Kohonen's Self Organizing Feature Maps is used for the purpose. As chemical composition of fly ash is crucial in the performance of concrete, eight chemical attributes of fly ashes have been considered. The application of simple Kohonen's one-dimensional feature maps permitted to differentiate three main groups of fly ashes. Three one-dimensional feature maps of topology 8-16, 8-24 and 8-32 were explored. The overall classification result of 8-16 topology was found to be significant and encouraging. The data pertaining to 80 fly ash samples were collected from standard published works. The categorization was found to be excellent and compares well with Canadian Standard Association's [CSA A 3000] classification scheme. PMID:17285691

  12. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2 g/kg for...... zinc, 2,4 g/kg for lead, 1,7 g/kg for iron, and 7,9 g/kg for magnesium. Copper, manganese, chromium and cadmium are also present with 546, 338, 104 and 91 mg/kg of fly ash, respectively. These results are extremely important in subsequent studies on the treatment of fly ash....

  13. Caractéristiques du développement larvaire de Simulium buissoni Roubaud, 1906 et de S. sechani Craig et Fossati, 1995 (Diptera : Simuliidae dans l'archipel des Marquises (Polynésie Française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séchan Y.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Deux espèces de Simulies anthropophiles sévissent dans l'archipel des Marquises en Polynésie Française : Simulium buissoni Roubaud, 1906 et S . sechani Craig & Fossati, 1995. la nécessité de leur contrôle implique une meilleure connaissance de leur développement larvaire, les larves constituent en effet actuellement la seule phase du cycle susceptible d'être détruite. Une étude biométrique réalisée à partir de mesures des capsules céphaliques des larves des deux espèces montre qu'elles présentent toutes deux sept stades de développement. Les variations de taille suivant les espèces et les lieux de récoltes sont examinées, ainsi que les variations suivant le sexe pour les larves les plus âgées. Une expérience de recolonisation après traitement d'une section de rivière permet de déterminer que la durée de développement larvaire de S . buissoni est d'environ 12 jours. Ces données permettent de déterminer la fréquence optimale de traitement.

  14. Evaluation of the impact of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Temephos, used for the control of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Diptera, Simuliidae on the associated entomofauna, Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo-Coutinho Carlos José Pereira da Cunha de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was set up to evaluate the impact of two commercial larvicide formulations, Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis base (Bti at 15 ppm/1 min and temephos at 0.03 ppm of active ingredient, used to control Simulium pertinax populations, on associated non-target entomofauna occupying the same breeding sites. The experiments were carried out on the Pedra Branca and Muricana rivers, on the slopes of Serra do Mar massif, municipality of Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bti was applied to the river Pedra Branca and temephosto theriver Muricana. On both rivers, treatment and control sections were labeled as such, each one with two observation posts: slow moving water and fast water regions respectively. Artificial substrata was used to evaluate the abundance of associated entomofauna. Attached immature stages of arthropods were removed from both of its surfaces fortnightly. Were collected, from the two rivers, 28 477 specimens of the entomofauna associated with S. pertinax. The families Hydropsychidae, Chironomidae, Bactidae, Simuliidae, Blephariceridae and Megapodagrionidae were represented. These was an impact of temephos on the entomofauna associated with S. pertinax only in Simuliidae and Chironomidae, and to Bti only in Simuliidae. However, the reduction in their numbers was not statistically significant.

  15. Improving lithium-ion battery performances by adding fly ash from coal combustion on cathode film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lithium battery is composed of anode, cathode and a separator. The performance of lithium battery is also influenced by the conductive material of cathode film. In this research, the use of fly ash from coal combustion as conductive enhancer for increasing the performances of lithium battery was investigated. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) was used as the active material of cathode. The dry fly ash passed through 200 mesh screen, LiFePO4 and acethylene black (AB), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to form slurry. The slurry was then coated, dried and hot pressed to obtain the cathode film. The ratio of fly ash and AB were varied at the values of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% while the other components were at constant. The anode film was casted with certain thickness and composition. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer, the composition of the cathode film was examined by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), and the structure and morphology of the anode film was analyzed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). The composition, structure and morphology of cathode film was only different when fly ash added was 4% of AB or more. The addition of 2% of AB on cathode film gave the best performance of 81.712 mAh/g on charging and 79.412 mAh/g on discharging

  16. Improving lithium-ion battery performances by adding fly ash from coal combustion on cathode film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyartanti, Endah Retno; Jumari, Arif, E-mail: arifjumari@yahoo.com; Nur, Adrian; Purwanto, Agus [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    A lithium battery is composed of anode, cathode and a separator. The performance of lithium battery is also influenced by the conductive material of cathode film. In this research, the use of fly ash from coal combustion as conductive enhancer for increasing the performances of lithium battery was investigated. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) was used as the active material of cathode. The dry fly ash passed through 200 mesh screen, LiFePO{sub 4} and acethylene black (AB), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to form slurry. The slurry was then coated, dried and hot pressed to obtain the cathode film. The ratio of fly ash and AB were varied at the values of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% while the other components were at constant. The anode film was casted with certain thickness and composition. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer, the composition of the cathode film was examined by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), and the structure and morphology of the anode film was analyzed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). The composition, structure and morphology of cathode film was only different when fly ash added was 4% of AB or more. The addition of 2% of AB on cathode film gave the best performance of 81.712 mAh/g on charging and 79.412 mAh/g on discharging.

  17. Improving lithium-ion battery performances by adding fly ash from coal combustion on cathode film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyartanti, Endah Retno; Jumari, Arif; Nur, Adrian; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-01

    A lithium battery is composed of anode, cathode and a separator. The performance of lithium battery is also influenced by the conductive material of cathode film. In this research, the use of fly ash from coal combustion as conductive enhancer for increasing the performances of lithium battery was investigated. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) was used as the active material of cathode. The dry fly ash passed through 200 mesh screen, LiFePO4 and acethylene black (AB), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to form slurry. The slurry was then coated, dried and hot pressed to obtain the cathode film. The ratio of fly ash and AB were varied at the values of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% while the other components were at constant. The anode film was casted with certain thickness and composition. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer, the composition of the cathode film was examined by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), and the structure and morphology of the anode film was analyzed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). The composition, structure and morphology of cathode film was only different when fly ash added was 4% of AB or more. The addition of 2% of AB on cathode film gave the best performance of 81.712 mAh/g on charging and 79.412 mAh/g on discharging.

  18. FlyBase: the Drosophila database. The Flybase Consortium.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    FlyBase is a database of genetic and molecular data concerning Drosophila. FlyBase is maintained as a relational database (in Sybase). The scope of FlyBase includes: genes, alleles (and phenotypes), aberrations, pointers to sequence data, clones, stock lists, Drosophila workers and bibliographic references. FlyBase is also available on CD-ROM for Macintosh systems (Encyclopaedia of Drosophila).

  19. Prospective medical evaluation of 7 dogs presented with fly biting

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Diane; Bélanger, Marie C.; Bécuwe-Bonnet, Véronique; Parent, Joane

    2012-01-01

    Fly biting describes a syndrome in which dogs appear to be watching something and then snapping at it. Medical work-up of fly biting in dogs has never been reported. The aims of this case series were to characterize fly biting and perform a complete medical evaluation of dogs displaying fly biting.

  20. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  1. MAXI J1659-152: the shortest orbital period black-hole binary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; van der Horst, A. J.;

    Following the detection of a bright new X-ray source, MAXI J1659-152, a series of observations was triggered with almost all currently flying high-energy missions. We report here on XMM-Newton, INTEGRAL and RXTE observations during the early phase of the X-ray outburst of this transient black-hol...

  2. Effect of Fly Ash on the Electrical Conductivity of Concretes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The fly ash occasionally has high content of iron oxide and carbon that are good electrical conducting components. This paper investigates the effect of the fly ash used as mineral admixtures on the electrical conductivity of concretes. The electrical properties of concretes using 3 kinds of fly ash with different iron oxide contents have been studied. Experimental results show that at the same fly ash dosage the resistivity of concrete using fly ash with high content of iron oxide is slightly lower than that with low content of iron oxide. However, the concrete resistivity after 14d increases as fly ash dosage increases regardless of iron oxide content in fly ash.

  3. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  4. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2 g/kg for......Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system is...

  5. Radiation hygienic aspects of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from measuring values of radioactivity, toxicity, as well as from models of food chains, radionuclide migration and deposition, irradiation doses are calculated in case of release of fly ash to the environment (e.g. from building materials). (orig.)

  6. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  7. Biologic effects of oil fly ash.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghio, Andrew J.; Silbajoris, Robert; Carson, Johnny L.; Samet, James M.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle burden. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is remarkable in the capacity to provoke injury in experimental systems. The unique composition of this emission source particle makes it particularly useful as a surrogate for ambient...

  8. Ocular injuries from flying bottle caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseka, C

    1993-12-01

    Three cases of serious eye injury are described from flying metal caps of carbonated drink bottles. The injuries occurred while attempting to open the bottle in an unconventional and dangerous way. Though injuries from flying bottle caps have been described before, they have occurred when the bottle exploded. This is the first report of eye injuries caused by bottle caps while opening and are similar to the injuries caused by champagne corks. PMID:8143337

  9. Composites based on fly ash and clay

    OpenAIRE

    Fidancevska, Emilija; Jovanov, Vojo; Angusheva, Biljana; Srebrenkoska, Vineta

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation (1). Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry (2), also in ceramics industry (3) as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of g...

  10. Magnetic susceptibility measurements to detect coal fly ash from the Kingston Tennessee spill in Watts Bar Reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An estimated 229 000 m3 of coal fly ash remains in the river system after dredging to clean-up the 2008 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) spill in Kingston, Tennessee. The ash is heterogeneous with clear, orange and black spheres and non-spherical amorphous particles. Combustion produces iron oxides that allow low field magnetic susceptibility (χLF) and percent frequency dependent susceptibility (χFD%) to be used to discriminate between coal fly ash and sediments native to the watershed. Riverbed samples with χLF greater than 3.0 × 10−6 m3/kg, have greater than 15% ash measured by optical point counting. χLF is positively correlated with total ash, allowing ash detection in riverbed sediments and at depth in cores. The ratio of ash sphere composition is altered by river transport introducing variability in χLF. Measurement of χLF is inexpensive, non-destructive, and a reliable analytical tool for monitoring the fate of coal ash in this fluvial environment. -- Highlights: ► Coal fly ash is composed of spheres (clear, orange, black) and amorphous particles. ► Black spheres dominate the magnetic susceptibility signal (χLF). ► The river sorts ash but maintains a ratio of clear: orange: black ash. ► χLF measurements can predict % ash spheres from simple linear regression. ► χLF can be used to track coal ash in the riverbed and in sediment cores. -- An application of magnetic susceptibility for tracking the distribution of coal fly ash within a river system after the 2008 TVA spill at Kingston, Tennessee

  11. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  12. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  13. Black Hole Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Strominger, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ``infinite statist...

  14. Phantom Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, C. J.; Zhang, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    The exact solutions of electrically charged phantom black holes with the cosmological constant are constructed. They are labelled by the mass, the electrical charge, the cosmological constant and the coupling constant between the phantom and the Maxwell field. It is found that the phantom has important consequences on the properties of black holes. In particular, the extremal charged phantom black holes can never be achieved and so the third law of thermodynamics for black holes still holds. ...

  15. Understanding fly-ear inspired directional microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Xuming; Yu, Miao

    2009-03-01

    In this article, the equivalent two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) model for the hypersensitive ear of fly Ormia ocharacea is revisited. It is found that in addition to the mechanical coupling between the ears, the key to the remarkable directional hearing ability of the fly is the proper contributions of the rocking mode and bending mode of the ear structure. This can serve as the basis for the development of fly-ear inspired directional microphones. New insights are also provided to establish the connection between the mechanics of the fly ear and the prior biological experiments, which reveals that the fly ear is a nature-designed optimal structure that might have evolved to best perform its localization task at 5 kHz. Based on this understanding, a new design of the fly-ear inspired directional microphone is presented and a corresponding normalized continuum mechanics model is derived. Parametric studies are carried out to study the influence of the identified non-dimensional parameters on the microphone performance. Directional microphones are developed to verify the understanding and concept. This study provides a theoretical guidance to develop miniature bio-inspired directional microphones, and can impact many fronts that require miniature directional microphones.

  16. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  17. Characterization of sintered coal fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Erol; S. Kucukbayrak; A. Ersoy-Mericboyu [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    2008-06-15

    Can, Catalagzi, Seyitomer and Afsin-Elbistan thermal power plant fly ashes were used to investigate the sintering behavior of fly ashes. For this purpose, coal fly ash samples were sintered to form ceramic materials without the addition of any inorganic additives or organic binders. In sample preparation, 1.5 g of fly ash was mixed in a mortar with water. Fly ash samples were uniaxially pressed at 40 MPa to achieve a reasonable strength. The powder compacts were sintered in air. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that quartz (SiO{sub 2}), mullite (Al{sub 6}Si{sub 2}O{sub 13}), anorthite (CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}), gehlenite (Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}) and wollastonite (CaSiO{sub 3}) phases occurred in the sintered samples. Scanning electron microscopy investigations were conducted on the sintered coal fly ash samples to investigate the microstructural evolution of the samples. Different crystalline structures were observed in the sintered samples. The sintered samples were obtained having high density, low water adsorption and porosity values. Higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + SiO{sub 2} contents caused to better properties in the sintered materials. 19 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Spatiotemporal Aspects of Hendra Virus Infection in Pteropid Bats (Flying-Foxes in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hume Field

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV causes highly lethal disease in horses and humans in the eastern Australian states of Queensland (QLD and New South Wales (NSW, with multiple equine cases now reported on an annual basis. Infection and excretion dynamics in pteropid bats (flying-foxes, the recognised natural reservoir, are incompletely understood. We sought to identify key spatial and temporal factors associated with excretion in flying-foxes over a 2300 km latitudinal gradient from northern QLD to southern NSW which encompassed all known equine case locations. The aim was to strengthen knowledge of Hendra virus ecology in flying-foxes to improve spillover risk prediction and exposure risk mitigation strategies, and thus better protect horses and humans. Monthly pooled urine samples were collected from under roosting flying-foxes over a three-year period and screened for HeV RNA by quantitative RT-PCR. A generalised linear model was employed to investigate spatiotemporal associations with HeV detection in 13,968 samples from 27 roosts. There was a non-linear relationship between mean HeV excretion prevalence and five latitudinal regions, with excretion moderate in northern and central QLD, highest in southern QLD/northern NSW, moderate in central NSW, and negligible in southern NSW. Highest HeV positivity occurred where black or spectacled flying-foxes were present; nil or very low positivity rates occurred in exclusive grey-headed flying-fox roosts. Similarly, little red flying-foxes are evidently not a significant source of virus, as their periodic extreme increase in numbers at some roosts was not associated with any concurrent increase in HeV detection. There was a consistent, strong winter seasonality to excretion in the southern QLD/northern NSW and central NSW regions. This new information allows risk management strategies to be refined and targeted, mindful of the potential for spatial risk profiles to shift over time with changes in flying-fox species

  19. Black Nuns as Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Theresa A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the contributions of Black Roman Catholic nuns to Black education in the United States since the early 1800s. Also shows that, despite declining membership, the three existing religious orders continue to be active in Black education and social change. (GC)

  20. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions (Black Strings and Black Rings)

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    The last three years have again seen new exciting developments in the area of higher dimensional black objects. For black objects with noncompact higher dimensions, the solution space was exlored further within the blackfold approach and with numerical schemes, yielding a large variety of new families of solutions, while limiting procedures created so-called super-entropic black holes. Concerning compact extra dimensions, the sequences of static nonuniform black strings in five and six dimensions were extended to impressively large values of the nonuniformity parameter with extreme numerical precision, showing that an oscillating pattern arises for the mass, the area or the temperature, while approaching the conjectured double-cone merger solution. Besides the presentation of interesting new types of higherdimensional solutions, also their physical properties were addressed in this session. While the main focus was on Einstein gravity, a significant number of talks also covered Lovelock theories.

  1. Galactic Center Fly-in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A.; Fu, C.-W.; Li, Y.; Frisch, P. C.

    2006-06-01

    Beginning with the familiar constellations of the night sky, we present a multispectral zoom into the core of the Milky Way Galaxy. After traveling over seven orders of magnitude in spatial scale, we discover the violent phenomena occurring within one light year of the Black Hole at the Galactic Core. This animated zoom includes data with wavelengths from radio to X-ray, and is based entirely on data or models that have been aligned at all spatial scales in order to provide a single continuous visual trip into the Center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The visualization challenge has been to align and choreograph data acquired over a wide range of wavelength and spatial scales, and obtain a new scientific as well as educational perspective of the dense core of our Galaxy.

  2. Leachability of trace metal elements from fly ashes, and from concrete incorporating fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, M.H. [National University of Singapore (Singapore); Blanchette, M.C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Malhotra, V.M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Manufacturing portland cement is not environmentally desirable because for every tonne of cement produced, about one tonne of carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere. This problem can be solved by replacing a portion of portland cement with fly ash, a mineral by-product of burning coal at power generation facilities. A study was conducted to examine the leachability of trace metal elements from a variety of fly ashes from various sources in Canada and the United States along with the concrete incorporating the fly ash. Gold, arsenic, boron, barium cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, lead and selenium are the regulated elements in leachates. In this study, each of these elements were tested from 9 fly ashes within the limits of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Canadian regulations for the Transportation of Dangerous Goods. It was shown that in general, but with some exceptions, the leaching of arsenic, boron, nickel and selenium increased with an increase in their content in the fly ash. Arsenic concentration from fly ash obtained from bituminous coal was found to be much higher than that from lignite or from sub-bituminous coal. However, the study also showed that none of the trace metals in the leachates from the fly ash concrete samples exceeded the regulated concentration limits, regardless of the type and percentage of fly ash used. It was concluded that concrete which incorporates fly ash is environmentally stable. It was also concluded that waste product utilization, in terms of using fly ash from power generating facilities, can significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions when manufacturing portland cement. Typical replacement levels of fly ash in portland cement concrete is about 20 per cent by mass of the total cementitious materials. 10 refs., 14 tabs., 4 figs.

  3. Standardising visual control devices for tsetse flies: Central and West African species Glossina palpalis palpalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Kaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8-51%. There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m(2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m(2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Blue-black 0.25 m(2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for

  4. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In mid-December last year, a mysterious black water overtook the normally bluish green waters of Florida Bay. Over the course of the winter, the extent of the water grew to encompass an area as big as Lake Okeechobee, Florida, before subsiding over the last few weeks. These images taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite, show the progression of the black water over the last three months. The affected water sits along the southeastern coast of Florida about fifty miles north of the Florida Keys. As of now, scientists do not know why the water appears black in satellite and aerial images or whether the water is harming the wildlife. They speculate that it could be due to an exotic algae bloom, an underwater fountain pushing up sediments from the ocean floor, or possibly chemical and sediment run-off from the nearby Shark River. Researchers at the Florida Marine Research Institute in St. Petersburg and the Mote Marine Research Institute in Sarasota are running tests to determine the chemical make-up of the water. No big fish kills have been reported in the area. But fishermen say the catch has been low this winter. In addition, the black water sits just north of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, which is home to one of the largest coral reef habitats in the United States. Toxic run-off from the Florida coastline and motor boats in the area have already destroyed many of Florida's reefs. Scientists are concerned that if the extent of the black water grows again, it could endanger these reefs. Information provided by the Naples Daily News. For up-to-date images of the area, view these SeaWiFS Images of Florida Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  5. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)

  6. Black Hole Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  7. Filthy Flies? Experiments to Test Flies as Vectors of Bacterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Julie J.; Warner, Kasey Jo; Hoback, W. Wyatt

    2007-01-01

    For more than 75 years, flies and other insects have been known to serve as mechanical vectors of infectious disease (Hegner, 1926). Flies have been shown to harbor over 100 different species of potentially pathogenic microorganisms and are known to transmit more than 65 infectious diseases (Greenberg, 1965). This laboratory exercise is a simple…

  8. Ecohormones for the management of fruit fly pests: Understanding plant-fruit-fly-predator interrelationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strong attractancy of fruit flies to certain lures can now be explained by demonstrating: (1) an anti-predation mechanism in several species of fruit fly through the endogenous production and secretion of allomone(s); and (2) chemical(s) responsible for male aggregation in a lek formation, after pharmacophagy. Compulsive feeding of methyl eugenol (ME) by male flies produced a feeding deterrent effect on the house lizard, Hemidactylus frenatus. Lizards did not attempt to feed on fruit flies after initial exposure to flies that had fed on ME. On the other hand, sequestration of raspberry ketone may not play an anti-predation role in the melon fly, but functions as a male aggregation pheromone. The anti-predation mechanism in the melon fly is the result of the endogenous synthesis of ethyl-hydroxybenzoate and 1,3-nonandiol in the male rectal gland at sexual maturity. Most mature male flies undergo reflex ejaculation of rectal gland content when they are under stress, e.g. when they are being anaesthetized with carbon dioxide or when they are being held by a feather forceps. 24 refs

  9. Black Flowers in Flatland

    CERN Document Server

    Alkac, Gokhan; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Asymptotically flat black holes in $2+1$ dimensions are a rarity. We study the recently found black flower solutions (asymptotically flat black holes with deformed horizons), static black holes, rotating black holes and the dynamical black flowers (black holes with radiative gravitons ) of the purely quadratic version of new massive gravity. We show how they appear in this theory and we also show that they are also solutions to the infinite order extended version of the new massive gravity, that is the Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity with an amputated Einsteinian piece. The same metrics also solve the topologically extended versions of these theories, with modified conserved charges and the thermodynamical quantities, such as the Wald entropy. Besides these we find new conformally flat radiating type solutions to these extended gravity models. We also show that these metrics do not arise in Einstein's gravity coupled to physical perfect fluids.

  10. An overview of quarantine for fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    What is meant by 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The Collins dictionary describes 'quarantine' as a period of isolation or detention, especially of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease. In providing an overview of quarantine for fruit flies, a broader definition needs to be applied, that is, the combination of activities required to maintain the fruit fly status of a particular geographical area - perhaps better referred to as a 'quarantine system'. Familiarity with New Zealand's quarantine system for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provides a useful basis for subsequent comparison with other countries' systems where some fruit fly species may be present. But, why have 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The multivoltine life history of many species. combined with a relatively long-lived adult stage and highly fecund females, results in a high potential for rapid population increase (Bateman 1979, Fletcher 1987). These factors and the close association of fruit flies with harvested fruit or vegetables explain the high quarantine profile of these insects. However, there is no international requirement for a country to have a quarantine system and unless there are natural quarantine barriers (e.g., mountain range, oceans, deserts) that can be utilised, effective quarantine by an individual country may be an impossible task. The implementation of a successful quarantine system is very expensive and therefore, it would be expected that any benefits attained outweigh the costs (Ivess 1998). Ivess (1998) listed the following benefits from the implementation of an effective quarantine system: minimising production costs (including post harvest treatments), maintaining competitive advantages for market access due to the ongoing freedom from particular pests of quarantine significance, an environment free from many pests harmful to plant health, the maintenance of ecosystems

  11. Characteristics of MSWI fly ash during vitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shu-lei; WANG Qi; WANG Qun-hui; MA Hong-zhi

    2009-01-01

    The vitrification characteristics of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated. Effects of temperature on the binding efficiency of heavy metals, the change of chemical compositions and the weight loss of fly ash in the range of 800 - 1350 ℃ were studied. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the United States was used to analyze the leaching characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash and molten slag. Results indicate that chemical compositions, the weight loss of fly ash and the binding efficiency of heavy metals in fly ash have a tremendous change in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. The percentage of CaO, SiO2and AI203 increases with the increasing temperature, whereas it is contrary for SO3 , K2O, Na20 and CI; especially when the temperature is 1260 ℃, the percentage of these four elements decreases sharply from 43.72%to 0. 71%. The weight loss occurs obviously in the range of 1150 - 1260 ℃. Heavy metals of Pb and Cd are almost vaporized above 1000 ℃. Cr is not volatile and its binding efficiency can reach 100% below 1000 ℃. Resuits of TCLP indicate that the heavy metal content of molten slag is beyond stipulated limit values.

  12. Bionomics of the face fly, Musca autumnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafsur, E S; Moon, R D

    1997-01-01

    The face fly was introduced from the Palearctic region and spread across North America in 20 years after World War II. Adults feed on cattle and horses, and larvae develop in fresh cattle dung. Little genetic differentiation appears between European and North American populations and among regions within North America. After an autumnally initiated diapause, overwintered flies emerge in spring and reproduce through late spring and summer. Generations after the first overlap, and age structure develops toward a stable age distribution. After three to ten generations, depending on weather, facultative diapause interrupts host feeding and oogenesis, and flies with hypertrophied fat body enter overwintering hibernaculae. Life table statistics and factors affecting population growth and diapause are reviewed. Early views on the fly's effects on animal productivity may have been exaggerated. On-farm control by conventional means has not been effective because of the fly's population dynamics and mobility. We suggest that the alternatives of classical biological control and area-wide control with the sterile insect technique should be considered. PMID:9017900

  13. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  14. Preliminary Study of Fly Ash Ceramic Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary study of ceramic production process from two components ofwhich are fly ash and feldspar has been done. Aluminosilicate substancecontained in the fly ash is a basic material a former ceramic body, if itfired at the temperature of 1000 oC forms mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2). Mulliteis a refractory material which is very stable at the temperature changing.This experiment studies the ceramic production process of two componentsnamely fly ash with particle size of oC.Steps of processes are making paste of fly ash and feldspar, making of greenpellets, and firing of pellets, physical analysis of ceramic including volumedecrease, lost ignition, porosity, density, water sorption, compressivestrength. The experiment result at firing temperature of 1000 oC were shownthat best composition at the weight ratio of fly ash to feldspar are 60/40and 50/50. It physical characteristic respectively are decrease of volume0.54 and 0.69 %, lost ignition = 11.98 and 11.78 %, porosity = 0.159 and0.155, density = 2.05 and 2.06 g/cm3, water sorption = 18.96 and 18.36 %,compressive strength = 24.82 and 24.79 kN/mm2. (author)

  15. Studies of the behaviour of New World screwworm flies in the field in Libya in support of the development of an adult suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrocuting grids were used to study the attractiveness of targets to sterile released adults of C. hominivorax in Libya. Three different sizes of black targets were tested using ''swormlure-4'' (S4) odour baits. No differences in catch between the targets was detected. In a choice comparison between a red and a black target, twice as many flies were caught by the black target as by the red. Unbaited targets caught less than 1% of the C. hominivorax caught by targets baited with S4, indicating that the odour baits are essential for the operation of targets. Dimethyl disulphide (DMDS) had a greater effect on target catches of males than females and can probably be omitted from attractants for population suppression using targets. The effect on trap catches was greater, so DMDS should be retained for trapping purposes. The length of time that a screw-worm fly spends in contact with a target was studied both by direct observation and by employing an intermittently active electrocuting grid. From direct observations, the mean time per contact (backtransformed log sec) was 6.5 s. From the electric net study, the mean cumulative time per fly was 15 s, implying multiple contacts by each fly with the target. 3 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Nielsen, Boy Overgaard; Humber, R A

    2001-01-01

    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the...... Entomophthora muscae species complex (E. muscae sensu lato) caused high infection levels in several species of flies. However, only a few specimens of cattle flies were infected by E. muscae sensu stricto despite the fact that cattle flies were observed to perch on spear thistles, which acted as transmission...

  17. A modified 'easy trap' could be a good 'bait station' against fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recently, a new 'easy trap' was launched onto the fruit fly market. The easy trap showed a good performance when it was tested against PMT and Tephri traps baited with Nulure or synthetic attractants. The use of 'bait stations' to control fruit flies is being introduced recently. An important parameter to consider will be the amount of flies that it can kill versus the number of beneficial insects killed. The 'Easy trap' can be transformed into a 'bait station' by discarding the clear half and replacing it with a yellow one. The effect is a yellow rectangular box with two holes and a hanger. The position and size of the holes in the trap have acted as a good mechanism for dispersion when baited with synthetic attractants (AA; TMA) or Nulure. This aspect can be useful when coating the whole surface of the trap with a sugar based syrup plus methomyl. The flies will be attracted by the synthetic attractants inside the trap. They land on the syrup - coated surface, they eat it and die. The first tests with this 'easy bait station' were run accordingly to the Standard Research Protocol of the FAO/IAEA CRP 'Development of Improved Attractants Systems for Trapping and Sterility Assesment' from 11 Sep to 26 Oct 2004 in a mango orchard located in Malaga in southern Spain. The results were more than acceptable: During 45 days the 'easy bait station' killed an amount (mean) of 283 medflies (6.3 F/T/D, 70% females) while PMT baited with Nulure and Borax (used as control) captured 265 flies (5.8 F/T/D, 59% females) and the 'easy trap' baited with AA+TMA using Deltametrin as killer agent, captured 238 flies (5.3 F/T/D, 68% females). No other insects, especially their natural enemies, have been caught in high numbers (some Chrysopids and black flies) in the 'easy bait station'. It will be necessary to study the performance of the bait stations in other fruit orchards and sites with diverse climates and entomofauna. (author)

  18. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics. PMID:18274277

  19. Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Spaans, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.

  20. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  1. Changeing of fly ash leachability after grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, J.; Szabo, R.; Racz, A.; Banhidi, O.; Mucsi, G.

    2016-04-01

    Effect of grinding on the reactivity of fly ash used for geopolymer production was tested. Extraction technique using different alkaline and acidic solutions were used for detect the change of the solubility of elements due to the physical and mechano-chemical transformation of minerals in function of grinding time. Both the extraction with alkaline and acidic solution have detected improvement in solubility in function of grinding time. The enhancement in alkaline solution was approx. 100% in case of Si and Al. The acidic medium able to dissolve the fly ash higher manner than the alkaline, therefore the effect of grinding was found less pronounced.

  2. Cosmic Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Eun-Joo; Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Production of high-energy gravitational objects is a common feature of gravitational theories. The primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities. Cosmic black holes can be used to probe physical properties of the very early universe which would usually require the knowledge of the theory of quantum gravity. They may be the only tool to explore thermalisation of the early universe. Whereas the creation of cosmic black ...

  3. The New Black

    OpenAIRE

    Lettman-Hicks, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The New Black is a documentary that tells the story of how the African American community is grappling with the gay rights issue in light of the recent gay marriage movement and the fight over Civil Rights. The film documents activities, families and clergy on both sides of the campaign to legalize gay marriage and examines homophobia in the Black community's institutional pillar, the Black church, and reveals the Christian right wing's strategy of exploiting this phenomenon in order to pursu...

  4. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  5. Kerr black string flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We give a general illumination of a rotating black string falling into a rotating horizon in dimension D=5. It is a configuration of one smooth intersection between these two objects when the spacetime is axisymmetric and in the limit that the thickness of the black hole is much larger than the thickness of the black string. Following this configuration, we further extend them to the rotating and charged flows.

  6. Ten shades of black

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    The holographic principle has taught us that, as far as their entropy content is concerned, black holes in $(3+1)$-dimensional curved spacetimes behave as ordinary thermodynamic systems in flat $(2+1)$-dimensional spacetimes. In this essay we point out that the opposite behavior can also be observed in black-hole physics. To show this we study the quantum Hawking evaporation of near-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. We first point out that the black-hole radiation spectrum departs from the familiar radiation spectrum of genuine $(3+1)$-dimensional perfect black-body emitters. In particular, the would be black-body thermal spectrum is distorted by the curvature potential which surrounds the black hole and effectively blocks the emission of low-energy quanta. Taking into account the energy-dependent gray-body factors which quantify the imprint of passage of the emitted radiation quanta through the black-hole curvature potential, we reveal that the $(3+1)$-dimensional black holes effectively behave as p...

  7. Evidence for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2003-06-20

    Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138

  8. Black hole statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather, they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ''infinite statistics'' which resembles that of distinguishable particles and is realized by a q deformation of the quantum commutation relations

  9. Antigravity and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, D

    2006-01-01

    We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.

  10. Deforming regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have deformed regular black holes which possess a general mass term described by a function which generalizes the Bardeen and Hayward mass terms. Using linear constraints in the energy-momentum tensor, the solutions are either regular or singular. That is, with this approach, it is possible to generate singular black holes from regular black holes and vice versa. Moreover, contrary to the Bardeen and Hayward regular solutions, the regular deformed metrics may violate the weak energy condition despite the presence of the spherical symmetry. Some comments on accretion of deformed black holes in cosmological scenarios are made.

  11. Black stain - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarise the fundamentals about black stain, its diagnosis and possible differential diagnoses as well as its microbiology and therapy. In addition, various studies investigating the relationship between black stain and dental caries are examined. Many studies report lower caries prevalence in children with black stain, but this finding could not be confirmed by all authors. Also, a negative relation between degree of staining and caries severity has been described. Reasons for these results are not yet clear but it was speculated that they are related to the specific oral microflora described in black stain-affected individuals. PMID:21594205

  12. "Black Capitalism": Toward Controlled Development of Black America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert E.

    1969-01-01

    Argues in favor of the connotation of the term "Black capitalism as the accumulation of capital resources by the Black people in a collective fashion for the benefit of the masses of Black people. (RJ)

  13. House-fly distribution in certain general hospital in Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, M; Merdan, A I; Labib, I

    1991-12-01

    Fly sampling was evaluated under laboratory conditions before starting the field surveys. Three different fly traps were tested, of which the Spiralettes (a commercial one) proved to be the most efficient. Sampling conditions were also considered in this laboratory evaluation, light, air current, swinging, height and temperature were tested, all of them have affected fly trapping except height. Fly density and distribution in two general hospitals and two specialized ones, were estimated in order to evaluate them epidemiologically in relation to hospital bacterial contamination. Results of these surveys revealed the followings: (1) The location of the hospital has no impact on the fly density. (2) Flies are attracted more to swinging hanged ribbon traps than to fixed ones. (3) Fly densities were relatively high in the main kitchens and the main garbages followed by toilets (common ones), patient wards, outpatients investigating rooms, surgical theaters and plasterrooms of the hospitals. (4) Fly density is higher during warm seasons than in cold ones. PMID:1765698

  14. The sterile insect technique in integrated pest management programmes for the control of stable flies and horn flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two large integrated pest management programmes involving the control of horn flies, Haematobia irritans L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L., have been carried out by U.S. Department of Agriculture scientists. The horn fly project was conducted on the island of Molokai, Hawaii. Its aims were to control the fly population by the insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene (isopropyl (E,E)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4-dodecadienoate), which was metered into the drinking water of the cattle, and the release of sterile insects. The flies were released daily after exposing the young adults to 2.5 kR. There was excellent survival of the released flies. The release of sterile flies was discontinued after week 21 and no flies were observed on the cattle after week 23. No horn fly larvae could be found in any manure pats in the field after week 16. Horn-fly-infested cattle were moved into the area on week 30 and the fly population increased so the methoprene treatment was terminated on week 39. By week 44 the fly population had returned to normal. The stable fly population was suppressed on the island of St. Croix using sterile insect releases plus conventional control techniques. These included toxic traps, larviciding breeding sites and the release of parasites. The sterile insects, about 1X105/day, were released at 2km intervals over the 218km2 island for an 18-month period. For the last six months of the study more than 99.9% of the wild flies were eliminated from the island. However, a few fertile flies were found throughout the study. These fertile flies either came from small isolated breeding sites in the urban areas were no sterile flies were released, or were carried in by boats or planes with domestic livestock from the other islands in the area. (author)

  15. Glass buildings on river banks as ``polarized light traps'' for mass-swarming polarotactic caddis flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriska, György; Malik, Péter; Szivák, Ildikó; Horváth, Gábor

    2008-05-01

    The caddis flies Hydropsyche pellucidula emerge at dusk from the river Danube and swarm around trees and bushes on the river bank. We document here that these aquatic insects can also be attracted en masse to the vertical glass surfaces of buildings on the river bank. The individuals lured to dark, vertical glass panes land, copulate, and remain on the glass for hours. Many of them are trapped by the partly open, tiltable windows. In laboratory choice experiments, we showed that ovipositing H. pellucidula are attracted to highly and horizontally polarized light stimulating their ventral eye region and, thus, have positive polarotaxis. In the field, we documented that highly polarizing vertical black glass surfaces are significantly more attractive to both female and male H. pellucidula than weakly polarizing white ones. Using video polarimetry, we measured the reflection-polarization characteristics of vertical glass surfaces of buildings where caddis flies swarmed. We propose that after its emergence from the river, H. pellucidula is attracted to buildings by their dark silhouettes and the glass-reflected, horizontally polarized light. After sunset, this attraction may be strengthened by positive phototaxis elicited by the buildings’ lights. The novelty of this visual ecological phenomenon is that the attraction of caddis flies to vertical glass surfaces has not been expected because vertical glass panes do not resemble the horizontal surface of waters from which these insects emerge and to which they must return to oviposit.

  16. Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete Kim H. Pedersen Abstract Industrial utilization of fly ash from pulverized coal combustion plays an important role in environmentally clean and cost effective power generation. Today, the primary market for fly ash utilization is as pozzolanic additive in the production of concrete. However, the residual carbon in fly ash can adsorb the air entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete in order to increa...

  17. Bio-inspired vision-based flying robots

    OpenAIRE

    Zufferey, Jean-Christophe; Floreano, Dario

    2007-01-01

    There are not yet autonomous flying robots capable of manoeuvring in small cluttered environments as insects do. Encouraged by this observation, this thesis presents the development of ultra-light flying robots and control systems going one step toward fully autonomous indoor aerial navigation. The substantial weight and energy constraints imposed by this indoor flying robots preclude the use of powerful processors and active distance sensors. Moreover, flying systems require fast sensory-mot...

  18. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Kim Y.; Michailides, Themis J.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C.

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields...

  19. Bio-inspired vision-based flying robots

    OpenAIRE

    Zufferey, Jean-Christophe

    2005-01-01

    There are not yet autonomous flying robots capable of manoeuvring in small cluttered environments as insects do. Encouraged by this observation, this thesis presents the development of ultra-light flying robots and control systems going one step toward fully autonomous indoor aerial navigation. The substantial weight and energy constraints imposed by this indoor flying robots preclude the use of powerful processors and active distance sensors. Moreover, flying systems require fast sensory-mot...

  20. Multipole Analysis of Kicks in Collision of Binary Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Sarah H

    2008-01-01

    Thorne and Kidder give expressions which allow for analytical estimates of the "kick", it i.e. the recoil, produced from asymmetrical gravitational radiation during the interaction of black holes, or in fact any gravitating compact bodies. (The Thorne-Kidder formula uses momentum flux calculations based on the linearized General Relativity of gravitational radiation.) We specifically treat kicks arising in the binary interaction of equal mass black holes, when at least one of the black holes has significant spin, a. Such configurations can produce very large kicks in computational simulations. We consider both fly-by and quasicircular orbits. For fly-by orbits we find substantial kicks from those Thorne-Kidder terms which are linear in a. For the quasi-circular case, we consider in addition the nonlinear contribution (O(a^2)) to the kicks, and provide a dynamical explanation for such terms. However, in the cases of maximal kick velocities, the dependence on spin is largely linear (reproduced in numerical resu...

  1. Black holes and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for instance, the UK

  2. Efficacy of Different Sampling Methods of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in Endemic Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kashan District, Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Hesam-Mohammadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency and practicality of seven trapping methods for adult phlebotominae sand flies. The results of this investigation provide information to determine the species composition and nocturnal activity pattern of different sand fly species.The study was carried out in both plain region (about 5km far from northeast and mountainous region (about 40km far from southwest of Kashan City. Seven traps were selected as sampling methods and sand flies were collected during 5 interval times starting July to September 2011 and from 8:00PM to 6:00AM in outdoors habitats. The traps include: sticky traps (4 papers for 2 hours, Disney trap, Malaise, CDC and CO2 light traps, Shannon traps (black and white nets and animal-baited trap.A total of 1445 sand flies belonging to 15 species of Phlebotomus spp. and five of Sergentomyia spp. were collected. Females and males comprised 44.91% and 55.09% of catches, respectively. Of the collected specimens, Se. sintoni was found to be the most prevalent (37.86% species, while Ph. papatasi, accounted for 31.76% of the sand flies.Disney trap and sticky traps exhibited the most productivity than other traps. In addition, in terms of the efficiency of sampling method, these two trapping methods appeared to be the most productive for both estimating the number of sand flies and the species composition in the study area.

  3. Rotating Brane World Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Modgil, Moninder Singh; Panda, Sukanta; Sengupta, Gautam

    2001-01-01

    A five dimensional rotating black string in a Randall-Sundrum brane world is considered. The black string intercepts the three brane in a four dimensional rotating black hole. The geodesic equations and the asymptotics in this background are discussed.

  4. AUTOMATION OF THE RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENT FOR FLY ASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article describes the automation of the resistivity measurement for fly ash. Fly ash resistivity is an important consideration in the operation of particulate control devices based on electrostatic principles (the higher the resistivity of the fly ash, the more difficult it i...

  5. Substantial achievements and prospect in fly ash utilization of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Heng; Zhou Bao-wei [China Fly Ash Tech Development Centre (China)

    1996-08-01

    In 1994, 91.14 million tons of fly ash (including boiler bottom ash) was produced in Chinese coal-fired power plants; but only 37 million tons were used. The utilization of fly ash in embankments, in concretes, as structural fill for civil engineering, in building materials, in agriculture, and fly ash resource recycling is discussed. 11 refs., 7 tabs.

  6. Development by injection in Simulium damnosum s.l. of two Onchocerca species from the wart hog to infective larvae resembling type D larvae (Duke, 1967).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, G; Bain, O

    1995-03-01

    Four wart hogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) examined in the Sudan savanna of North-Cameroon were all found infected with two types of skin microfilariae. One was O. ramachandrini Bain, Wahl and Renz, 1993, the adult worms of which live in the subcutaneous tissues of the feet. The other, smaller type belongs to a new Onchocerca species, the adult worms of which were not yet found. O. ramachandrini-microfilariae were evenly distributed across the whole body surface, those of Onchocerca sp. were concentrated on the back. The two species of microfilariae were isolated from an infected hide separated under the dissecting microscope and injected into the thorax of pupae-hatched S. squamosum and S. damnosum s.slr. females. Both filariae developed in both flies at high rates (33-47% of injected microfilariae) and without pathological forms to infective larvae L3). Both L3-species had a caudal tip, were long, slender and very motile and had a conspicuous glandular oesophagus. L3 from O. ramachandrini-microfilariae had a long glandular oesophagus (55% of total L3 length), a round head and measured an average of 955 microns long and 19.2 microns wide. L3 from the other microfilaria-species were shorter (845 microns, P < 0.001) and thinner (16.7 microns, P < 0.001) and had a shorter glandular oesophagus (36%, P < 0.001), a shorter tail (P < 0.01) and a conical head. Both L3-species, by their caudal tip, their long and slender silhouette, their great motility and their conspicuous glandular oesophagus resemble non-O. volvulus filarial L3 known, since many years, to occur in "wild" S. damnosum s.l. in Cameroon (Type D larvae, Duke, 1967) and in Liberia (Agamofilaria Type VI, Voelker and Garms, 1972). During our study, L3 such larvae were found in 12 wild S. damnosum s.l. from two geographically different areas of North Cameroon and all identified as O. ramachandrini. The excellent development of the two Onchocerca species from the wart hog in S. damnosum s.l. after artificial

  7. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Panduka S.; Marston, Denise A.; Ellis, Richard J.; Wise, Emma L.; Karawita, Anjana C.; Breed, Andrew C.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C.

    2016-01-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus. PMID:27434858

  8. Genetic fingerprinting applied to tsetse fly species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bacteriophage M13 was used as a probe to detect DNA fingerprinting (DNAfp) profiles in adults from laboratory colonies of the three subgenera of tsetse flies (Austenina, Nemorhina and Glossina). In all three subgenera, the probe revealed profiles of multiple components similar to those found in other organisms. The general complexity of the profiles varied between subgenera and between species and subspecies. A common overall DNAfp pattern was observed within a subspecies but variations occurred at the intrapopulation level. Evidence is presented that DNAfp provides a means for population biology studies, such as comparisons between field collected flies and those from established laboratory colonies. Pedigree analysis was performed in the context of further development of a genetic linkage map using DNAfp markers and studies related to the molecular basis of hybrid sterility in tsetse flies. A pedigree established by mating a male and a female from different lines ('RUCA' x 'Cent') of G. m. centralis showed, in addition to a Mendlian inheritance of DNAfp fragments, an amplification of the intensity of certain bands in the offspring. It is suggested that DNAfp offers a tool for analysing the molecular genetic aspects of mating flies from different geographical areas. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  9. Formation flying; an interview with Tobias Gutleb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, T.; Perenboom, T.

    2011-01-01

    One of last year's Desig Synthesis Exercise (DSE) groups dived into the concept of fuel saving by letting aircraft flying in formation. They took their project even a step further and applied for the National Aviation Prize, a contest which encourages innovation in aerospace applications. The prize

  10. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  11. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  12. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  13. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  14. Liquid Larval Diet for Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly liquid larvae diet has been developed for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in small and large scales and is ready for technology transfer into factory scale. The most appropriate rearing conditions using liquid diet up-to-date have been identified as follows: (1) basic diet fo...

  15. Measurement on Camber Deformation of Wings of Free-flying Dragonflies and Beating-flying Dragonflies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deqiang Song; Lijiang Zeng

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of wing orientation and deformation during flapping flight is necessary for a complete aerodynamic analysis, but to date those kinematic features have not been simultaneously quantified for free-flying insects. A projected comb-fringe (PCF) method has been developed for measuring spanwise camber changes on free-flying dragonflies and on beating-flying dragonflies through the course of a wingbeat, which bases on projecting a fringe pattern over the whole measurement area and then measuring the wing deformation from the distorted fringe pattern. Experimental results demonstrate substantial camber changes both along the wingspan and through the course of a wingbeat. The ratio of camber deformation to chord length for hind wing is up to 0.11 at 75% spanwise with a flapping angle of -0.66 degree for a free-flying dragonfly.

  16. Evolution of massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Volonteri, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I'll discuss black hole formation processes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and how massive black hole evolve in a hierarchical Universe...

  17. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N.; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface ...

  18. Pollen recovered from the exoskeleton of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) in Gainesville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies are pestiferous blood feeding flies that attack animals and humans. Besides consuming blood, these flies will also visit flowers to take nectar meals. When feeding on nectar, flies become coated with pollen which can be used to identify flowers used by the flies. Recently, flies cove...

  19. Flying (human) bodies in the fine arts - dreams and daydreams of flying

    OpenAIRE

    Schönhammer, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    In a lecture given in the year 1882 the Vienna Physiologist Sigmund Exner considered "The physiology of flying and floating in the fine arts" (Exner, 1882). In this still fascinating paper Exner reflects in a phenomenological approach on the experiental foundation of the depiction of flying human (respectively superhuman) bodys in classic artworks (e.g. Giorgione, Giotto, Masaccio, Michelangelo, Rubens and Titoretto). Referring to Fechner Exner basically assumes that pictorial sug...

  20. Flying the Needles: Flight Deck Automation Erodes Fine-Motor Flying Skills Among Airline Pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Hörmann, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of practice and training on fine-motor flying skills during a manual instrument landing system (ILS) approach. Background: There is an ongoing debate that manual flying skills of long-haul crews suffer from a lack of flight practice due to conducting only a few flights per month and the intensive use of automation. However, objective evidence is rare. Method: One hundred twenty-six randomly selected a...

  1. Carbon black recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process and apparatus for recovering carbon black from hot smoke which comprises passing the smoke through a cyclone separation zone following cooling, then through aggregate filter beds and regeneration of filter beds with clean off-gas which is recycled to the carbon black reaction zone as quench

  2. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t - r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  3. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Mehdipour, S.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t — r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  4. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  5. Black holes in inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.

    1997-08-01

    We summarise recent work on the quantum production of black holes in the inflationary era. We describe, in simple terms, the Euclidean approach used, and the results obtained both for the pair creation rate and for the evolution of the black holes.

  6. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  7. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  8. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  9. Fluctuating Black Hole Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.

  10. Releases of Psyttalia fletcheri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and sterile flies to suppress melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Long, Jay; Miller, Neil W; Delate, Kathleen; Jackson, Charles G; Uchida, Grant K; Bautista, Renato C; Harris, Ernie J

    2004-10-01

    Ivy gourd, Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, patches throughout Kailua-Kona, Hawaii Island, HI, were identified as persistent sources of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). These patches had a low incidence of Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri), its major braconid parasitoid natural enemy in Hawaii, and were used to evaluate augmentative releases of P. fletcheri against melon fly. In field cage studies of releases, numbers of melon flies emerging from ivy gourd fruit placed inside treatment cages were reduced up to 21-fold, and numbers of parasitoids were increased 11-fold. In open field releases of P. fletcheri into ivy gourd patches, parasitization rates were increased 4.7 times in release plots compared with those in control plots. However, there was no significant reduction in emergence of melon flies from fruit. In subsequent cage tests with sterile melon flies and P. fletcheri, combinations of sterile flies and P. fletcheri produced the greatest reduction (9-fold) in melon fly emergence from zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. Reductions obtained with sterile flies alone or in combination with parasitoids were significantly greater than those in the control, whereas those for parasitoids alone were not. Although these results suggest that the effects of sterile flies were greater than those for parasitoids, from a multitactic melon fly management strategy, sterile flies would complement the effects of P. fletcheri. Cost and sustainability of these nonchemical approaches will be examined further in an ongoing areawide pest management program for melon fly in Hawaii. PMID:15568340

  11. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of Black Hole and Wormhole Attack using AODV Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefi Mehta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc is used to describe solutions that are developedon-the-fly for a specific purpose or Ad hoc is used to indicatesomething that is done at the time without planning ahead oftime. In this paper, we have analyzed the performance of MobileAd-hoc Networks (MANET under Black hole and wormholeattack. As for any network the delay, throughput are mainparameter so here we are analyzing the throughput of thenetwork. The NS2 network simulator has been used and graphshave been produced using xgraph.

  13. Black Youth Unemployment and the Black Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Linus A.

    This paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted to ascertain the attitudes of 400 employers, youth, and academic/community professionals in Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D.C., toward an approach to Black youth unemployment centered on the creation of jobs and training among minority businesses in selected metropolitan areas. Minority…

  14. Experimental study on fly ash capture mercury in flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes; DíAZ-SOMOANO; Patricia; ABAD-VALLE; M.Rosa; MARTíNEZ-TARAZONA

    2010-01-01

    Systematic experiments were conducted on a fixed-bed reactor to investigate the interaction between fly ash and mercury,the results implied that fly ash can capture mercury effectively.Among different fly ashes,the unburned carbon in the FA2 and FA3 fly ashes has the highest mercury capture capacity,up to 10.3 and 9.36 μg/g,respectively,which is close to that of commercial activated carbon.There is no obvious relationship between mercury content and carbon content or BET surface area of fly ash.Petrography classification standard was applied to distinguish fly ash carbon particles.Carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture on fly ash,there are likely significant differences in the mercury capture capacities of the various carbon forms.Mercury capture capacity mainly depends on the content of anisotropy carbon particles with porous network structure.

  15. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. PMID:26060198

  16. Analysis list: FLI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FLI1 Blood,Bone,Muscle + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.1.tsv http://dba...rchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedb...c.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Blood.tsv,http://dba...rchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Bone.tsv,http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml,http://dba

  17. The Black Family in American Economy: Black Capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeocha, Peter A.

    Black capitalism that is well planned and run is a source of enumerable benefits to the American society in general and to blacks in particular. It generates opportunities for blacks to perform in occupations which for many years were closed to them. For hundreds of years blacks have been despised and often looked down upon on account of the fact…

  18. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  19. Norm in coal, fly ash and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is technologically important materials being used for power generation and its cinder (fly ash) is used in manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. 222Rn (radon) and its daughters are the most important radioactive and potentially hazardous elements, which are released in the environment from the naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) present in coal, fly ash and cement. Thus it is very important to carry out radioactivity measurements in coal, fly ash and cement from the health and hygiene point of view. Samples of coal and fly ash from different thermal power stations in northern India and various fly ash using establishments and commercially available cement samples (O.P.C. and P.P.C.) were collected and analyzed for radon concentration and exhalation rates. For the measurements, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. The radon concentration varied from 147 Bq/m3 to 443 Bq/m3, the radium concentration varied from 1.5 to 4.5 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 11.8 mBq.kg-1.h-1 to 35.7 mBq.kg-1.h-1 for mass exhalation rate and from 104.5 mBq.m-2.h-1 to 314.8 mBq.m-2.h-1 for surface exhalation rate in coal samples. The radon concentration varied from 214 Bq/m3 to 590 Bq/m3, the radium concentration varied from 1.0 to 2.7 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 7.8 mBq.kg-1.h-1 to 21.6 mBq.kg-1.h-1 for mass exhalation rate and from 138 mBq m-2h-1 to 380.6 mBq.m-2.h-1 for surface exhalation rate in fly ash samples. The radon concentration varied from 157.62 Bq/m3 to 1810.48 Bq/m3, the radium concentration varied from 0.76 Bq/kg to 8.73 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 6.07 mBq.kg-1.hr-1 to 69.81 mBq.kg-1.hr-1 for mass exhalation rate and from 107.10 mBq.m-2.hr-1 to 1230.21 mBq.m-2.hr-1 for surface exhalation rate in different cement samples. The values were found higher in P.P.C. samples than in O.P.C. samples. (authors)

  20. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  1. Noncommutative Solitonic Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Chang-Young, Ee; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2012-01-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field using the Moyal product expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in the two noncommutative spatial directions. By numerical simulation we look for black hole solutions by increasing the non- commutativity parameter value starting from regular solutions with vanishing noncommutativity. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.

  2. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  3. Reflection from black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchiev, M Yu

    2003-01-01

    Black holes are presumed to have an ideal ability to absorb and keep matter. Whatever comes close to the event horizon, a boundary separating the inside region of a black hole from the outside world, inevitably goes in and remains inside forever. This work shows, however, that quantum corrections make possible a surprising process, reflection: a particle can bounce back from the event horizon. For low energy particles this process is efficient, black holes behave not as holes, but as mirrors, which changes our perception of their physical nature. Possible ways for observations of the reflection and its relation to the Hawking radiation process are outlined.

  4. Scalarized hairy black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn

  5. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  6. Scalarized Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  7. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  8. Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Kim, Jungbae; Russell, Colleen K.; Palumbo, A. V.; Daniels, William L.

    2003-09-15

    We tested the effects of four alkaline fly ashes {Class C (sub-bituminous), Class F (bituminous), Class F [bituminous with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) products], and Class F (lignitic)} on a reaction that simulates the enzyme-mediated formation of humic materials in soils. The presence of FGD products completely halted the reaction, and the bituminous ash showed no benefit over an ash-free control. The sub-bituminous and lignitic fly ashes, however, increased the amount of polymer formed by several-fold. The strong synergetic effect of these ashes when enzyme is present apparently arises from the combined effects of metal oxide co-oxidation (Fe and Mn oxides), alkaline pH, and physical stabilization of the enzyme (porous silica cenospheres).

  9. On Noncommutative Black Holes Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Faizal, Mir; Ulhoa, S C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze noncommutative deformation of the Schwarzschild black holes and Kerr black holes. We will perform our analysis by relating the commutative and the noncommutative metrics using an Moyal product. We will also analyze the thermodynamics of these noncommutative black hole solutions. We will explicitly derive expression for the corrected entropy and temperature of these black hole solutions.

  10. The Thermodynamics of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wald Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.

  11. The Price of "Black Dominance."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…

  12. The Thermodynamics of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Wald Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.

  13. Black Writers' Views of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Joyce

    1979-01-01

    Black literature of the 1960s reflected protest and an affirmation of Black power and Black consciousness. The 1970s have produced a counterwave in which Blacks, in order to achieve literary and financial recognition, have begun to focus less on race and social criticism and more on conservative and narcissistic themes. (Author/EB)

  14. Hendra virus survival does not explain spillover patterns and implicates relatively direct transmission routes from flying foxes to horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gerardo; Plowright, Raina; Chen, Carla; Kault, David; Selleck, Paul; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-06-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is lethal to humans and horses, and little is known about its epidemiology. Biosecurity restrictions impede advances, particularly on understanding pathways of transmission. Quantifying the environmental survival of HeV can be used for making decisions and to infer transmission pathways. We estimated HeV survival with a Weibull distribution and calculated parameters from data generated in laboratory experiments. HeV survival rates based on air temperatures 24 h after excretion ranged from 2 to 10 % in summer and from 12 to 33 % in winter. Simulated survival across the distribution of the black flying fox (Pteropus alecto), a key reservoir host, did not predict spillover events. Based on our analyses we concluded that the most likely pathways of transmission did not require long periods of virus survival and were likely to involve relatively direct contact with flying fox excreta shortly after excretion. PMID:25667321

  15. Durability of high volume fly ash concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Camões, Aires

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the concrete industry has to contribute to the sustainability of construction. For this intent it is necessary to reduce the cement content without compromising the durability requirements of the concrete constructions. Therefore, large scale cement replacement in concrete by by products such as fly ash will be extremely beneficial from the overall ecological and environmental point of view. In this context, an experimental research work was carried out focused on the...

  16. Evil in Lord of the Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓

    2008-01-01

    Lord of the Flies deals with the problem of the nature of human personality and the reflection of personality on society.Devils hidesomewhere dee in side of all people.Without morals,law and order it will eventually surface and come out.Evil it;the natural product of their con-sciousness.Simon understands,and this is the wisdom Golding treats with awe.that evil is"only us".

  17. Orbital myiasis caused by green bottle fly

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Neeta; Gogri, Pratik; Misra, Somen; Singh, Anil; Ingale, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    An 80-year-old farmer, presented with large, maggot infested ulceration involving the medial part of the right upper lid. The left eye was phthisical. There was history of untreated traumatic laceration of the right upper lid. Mechanical removal of maggots was done under turpentine coverage with regular antibiotic dressing. Microbiological examination of maggots revealed the larvae to be of Lucilia sericata (green bottle fly). The ulceration completely healed in two weeks following manual rem...

  18. Do tsetse flies only feed on blood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Solano, Philippe; Salou, E.; Rayaisse, J. B.; Ravel, Sophie; Gimonneau, Geoffroy; Traore, I.; Bouyer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are the vectors of trypanosomes causing sleeping sickness in humans, and nagana (animal trypanosomosis) in domestic animals, in Subsaharan Africa. They have been described as being strictly hematophagous, and transmission of trypanosomes occurs when they feed on a human or an animal. There have been indications however in old papers that tsetse may have the ability to digest sugar. Here we show that hungry tsetse (Glossina palpalis gambiensis) in the lab...

  19. Measuring flying object velocity with CCD sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricny, Vaclav; Mikulec, Jiri

    1994-06-01

    An autonomous optoelectronic method of measuring the flying objects track velocity vector (TVV) using digital signal two-line CCD sensors has been developed and simulated at the Department of Radioelectronics at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic. The principle of the method, the computer simulation of measuring device operations, the application of statistic estimates for the precision of values measured, and the presentation of the results achieved are described.

  20. Topics in black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two major aspects of particle creation by gravitational fields of black holes are studied: the neutrino emission from rotating black holes; and interactions between scalar particles emitted by a black hole. Neutrino emission is investigated under three topics: The asymmetry of the angular dependence of neutrino emission from rotating black holes; the production of a local matter excess by rotating black holes in a baryon symmetric universe; and cosmological magnetic field generation by neutrinos from evaporating black holes. Finally the author studies the effects of interactions on the black hole evaporation process

  1. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In four space-time dimensions black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory satisfy a number of theorems. In more than four space-time dimensions, however, some of the properties of black holes can change. In particular, uniqueness of black holes no longer holds. In five and more dimensions black rings arise. Thus in a certain region of the phase diagram there are three black objects with the same global charges present. Here we discuss properties of higher-dimensional vacuum and charged black holes, which possess a spherical horizon topology, and of vacuum and charged black rings, which have a ringlike horizon topology

  2. Accurate Segmentation for Infrared Flying Bird Tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hong; HUANG Ying; LING Haibin; ZOU Qi; YANG Hao

    2016-01-01

    Bird strikes present a huge risk for air ve-hicles, especially since traditional airport bird surveillance is mainly dependent on inefficient human observation. For improving the effectiveness and efficiency of bird monitor-ing, computer vision techniques have been proposed to detect birds, determine bird flying trajectories, and pre-dict aircraft takeoff delays. Flying bird with a huge de-formation causes a great challenge to current tracking al-gorithms. We propose a segmentation based approach to enable tracking can adapt to the varying shape of bird. The approach works by segmenting object at a region of inter-est, where is determined by the object localization method and heuristic edge information. The segmentation is per-formed by Markov random field, which is trained by fore-ground and background mixture Gaussian models. Exper-iments demonstrate that the proposed approach provides the ability to handle large deformations and outperforms the m ost state-of-the-art tracker in the infrared flying bird tracking problem.

  3. Theta motion processing in fruit flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Shoemaker

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The tiny brains of insects presumably impose significant computational limitations on algorithms controlling their behavior. Nevertheless, they perform fast and sophisticated visual maneuvers. This includes tracking features composed of second order motion, in which the feature is defined by higher-order image statistics, but not simple correlations in luminance. Flies can track the true direction of even theta motions, in which the first-order (luminance motion is directed opposite the second order moving feature. We exploited this paradoxical feature tracking response to dissect the particular image properties that flies use to track moving objects. We find that theta motion detection is not simply a result of steering towards any spatially restricted flicker. Rather, our results show that fly high-order feature tracking responses can be broken down into positional and velocity components---in other words, the responses can be modeled as a superposition of two independent steering efforts. We isolate these elements to show that each has differing influence on phase and amplitude of steering responses, and together they explain the time course of second order motion tracking responses during flight. These observations are relevant to natural scenes, where moving features can be much more complex.

  4. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  5. Black Widow Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dling boxes, firewood, lumber, and rocks, etc. The black widow is commonly found in the following places: • Outdoors - woodpiles, rubble piles, under stones, in hol- low stumps, and in rodent burrows, privies, sheds ...

  6. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m3, which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  7. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Black Friday er et godt eksempel på, hvordan ikke kun produktbrands og corporate brands rejser på tværs af landegrænser, men også traditioner som Halloween, Valentines Day og i dette tilfælde den ultimative tilbuds-fredag, som i USA går under navnet Black Friday. Men hvad er Black Friday i Danmark......? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  8. Black holes in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review we shall concentrate on the application of the concept of black hole to different areas in astrophysics. Models in which this idea is involved are connected with basically two areas in astrophysics: a) The death of massive stars due to gravitational collapse. This process would lead to the formation of black holes with stellar masses (10-20 M sun). The detection of these kind of - objects is in principle possible, by means of studying the so-called X-ray binary system. b) Active nuclei of galaxies, including quasars as an extreme case. In this case, the best model available to explain the generation of the enormous amounts of energy observed as well as several other properties, is accretion into a supermassive black hole (106-1010 M sun) in the center. The problem of the origin of such black holes is related to cosmology. (author)

  9. Cosmic censorship inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Thorlacius, L

    2006-01-01

    A simple argument is given that a traversable Cauchy horizon inside a black hole is incompatible with unitary black hole evolution. The argument assumes the validity of black hole complementarity and applies to a generic black hole carrying angular momentum and/or charge. In the second part of the paper we review recent work on the semiclassical geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes.

  10. Quantum Black Holes as Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.

    1997-01-01

    In some respects the black hole plays the same role in gravitation that the atom played in the nascent quantum mechanics. This analogy suggests that black hole mass $M$ might have a discrete spectrum. I review the physical arguments for the expectation that black hole horizon area eigenvalues are uniformly spaced, or equivalently, that the spacing between stationary black hole mass levels behaves like 1/M. This sort of spectrum has also emerged in a variety of formal approaches to black hole ...

  11. Cosmological Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model for the formation of the cosmological voids. We show that cosmological voids can form directly after the collapse of extremely large wavelength perturbations into low-density black holes or cosmological black holes (CBH). Consequently the voids are formed by the comoving expansion of the matter that surrounds the collapsed perturbation. It follows that the universe evolves, in first approximation, according to the Einstein-Straus cosmological model. We discuss...

  12. Quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references

  13. Thermal corpuscular black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number $N$ of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy $\\omega>m$). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temp...

  14. Black hairy tongue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although ...

  15. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  16. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  17. Improved attractants for enhancing tsetse fly suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the initiation of this co-ordinated research project (CRP), the available visually attractant devices and odours for entomological monitoring and for suppression of tsetse fly populations were not equally effective against all economically important tsetse fly species. For species like G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. swynnertoni and some species of the PALPALIS-group of tsetse flies no sufficiently effective combinations of visual or odour attractants were available for efficient suppression and standardized monitoring as part of an operational integrated intervention campaign against the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. The Co-ordinated Research Project on Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns involved (a) the identification, synthesis and provision of candidate kairomones, their analogues and of dispensers; (b) laboratory screening of synthesised candidate kairomones through electrophysiological studies and wind tunnel experiments; (c) field tests of candidate kairomones alone or as part of odour blends, in combination with available and or new trap designs; and (d) analysis of hydrocarbons that influence tsetse sexual behaviour. The CRP accomplished several main objectives, namely: - The screening of new structurally related compounds, including specific stereoisomers, of known tsetse attractants resulted in the identification of several new candidate odour attractants with promising potential. - An efficient two-step synthetic method was developed for the pilot plant scale production of 3-n-propyphenol, synergistic tsetse kairomone component. - Electrophysiological experiments complemented with wind tunnel studies provided an efficient basis for the laboratory screening of candidate attractants prior to the initiation of laborious field tests. - New traps were identified and modifications of existing traps were tested for some species

  18. Charged Galileon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  19. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steven L Liebling

    2000-10-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  20. Area-wide management of fruit flies in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Commonwealth of Australia is comprised of six States and several Territories. Each State and Territory Government maintains quarantine activities for its borders under the guidance of the Commonwealth Government. These activities, with regard to fruit flies, include quarantine at airports and harbours, compliance with import and export regulations and monitoring for, and action against, incursions of exotic fruit fly pests. There are about eighty species of fruit fly that are native to Australia that infest mainly native fruit and vegetables but, of these, six are classed as pests of horticultural significance. The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) is by far the most destructive of these native Australian fruit fly species. Another, non-native species, now endemic to parts of Western Australia, which arrived in Australia in the 1890's, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), is just as damaging and it, too, is a critical quarantine pest. The distribution of these flies in Australia is such that not all pest species inhabit the same region. Quarantine restrictions are placed by States and fruit fly free-areas within States due to pest fruit fly species that are not native there. For example the State of Tasmania, to the southeast of Australia, is classified as entirely free from pest fruit flies. Fruit fly host produce exported to Tasmania from the rest of Australia is either prohibited or allowed entry following various quarantine requirements such as an approved postharvest disinfestation treatment. The State of Western Australia is free from Queensland fruit fly, but the eastern States of New South Wales and Queensland are not. while the eastern states are free from Mediterranean fruit fly and Western Australia is not. Quarantine restrictions are in place on trade between eastern and western Australia. Mediterranean fruit fly is now endemic to parts of Western Australia and nowhere else in Australia. It is a most destructive pest

  1. Behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many species of tephritid fruit flies have gained global status as pests of economic importance in fruit and vegetable cultivation. Bactrocera species are no exception. Males of most Bactrocera species are known to be attracted to either methyl eugenol (ME) or cuelure (CL)/raspberry ketone (RK) (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1987 and 1990). At the turn of the century, male fruit flies of both B. diversa (Coquillett) (formerly Dacus diversus) and B. zonata (Saunders) (formerly Dacus zonatus) were first observed to have a strong attraction to citronella oil (Howlett 1912). The chemical responsible for the attraction was discovered to be ME (Howlett 1915). Since that discovery, ME has been used successfully in monitoring and male annihilation programmes (Steiner et al. 1965), in estimating native population density and survival rates (Tan 1985, Tan and Jaal 1986, Tan and Serit 1994), and movements between ecosystems (Tan and Serit 1988). The unique characteristic of male Bactrocera flies is that not only are they strongly attracted to certain male attractants but they compulsively feed on them. This phenomenon was not fully understood (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1990, Metcalf and Metcalf 1992) until early this decade. Certain male attractants play a very important role in the behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies, and aid in the understanding of the intricate interrelationships between plants, fruit flies and their predators (Tan 1993). Every organism actively or passively secretes chemicals which act as a characteristic 'body odour'. This 'body odour' affects behaviour of individuals, both intraspecies and interspecies, within a community and it is here referred to as ecomone (ecohormone) under a large group of semiochemicals (behaviour modifying chemicals). To understand the different roles of chemicals acting as a medium in communication between individuals and affecting behaviour of a receptive organism, a brief classification of semiochemicals is essential

  2. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body wt/day and 0.6 mg/kg body wt/day) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% AI Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musc...

  3. Comparison of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with gasoline and ramses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Jared M.; Capelo, Pedro R.; Volonteri, Marta; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bellovary, Jillian; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Supermassive black hole dynamics during galaxy mergers is crucial in determining the rate of black hole mergers and cosmic black hole growth. As simulations achieve higher resolution, it becomes important to assess whether the black hole dynamics is influenced by the treatment of the interstellar medium in different simulation codes. We compare simulations of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with two codes: the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code gasoline, and the adaptive mesh refinement code ramses. We seek to identify predictions of these models that are robust despite differences in hydrodynamic methods and implementations of subgrid physics. We find that the general behavior is consistent between codes. Black hole accretion is minimal while the galaxies are well-separated (and even as they fly by within 10 kpc at the first pericenter). At late stages, when the galaxies pass within a few kpc, tidal torques drive nuclear gas inflow that triggers bursts of black hole accretion accompanied by star formation. We also note quantitative discrepancies that are model dependent: our ramses simulations show less star formation and black hole growth, and a smoother gas distribution with larger clumps and filaments than our gasoline simulations. We attribute these differences primarily to the subgrid models for black hole fueling, feedback, and gas thermodynamics. The main conclusion is that differences exist quantitatively between codes, and this should be kept in mind when making comparisons with observations. However, both codes capture the same dynamical behaviors in terms of triggering black hole accretion, star formation, and black hole dynamics, which is reassuring.

  4. Efectos de la dispersión sobre la reconstrucción por árboles reconciliados y el patrón de distribución de los subgéneros neotropicales de Simulium (Diptera:Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda-Esquivel Daniel Rafael

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis ofthe distribution pattern ofNeotropical Simulium (Diptera:Simuliidae subgenera suggests that dispersal between Mesoamerica and the Pacifíc region, and SE of Brazil and Cerrado could interfere with the evaluation of the general pattern. To agree with the premise ofno dispersion when reconciliated trees is used and to tackle the dispersal problem, the most frequent events of dispersal to each subgenus were eliminated. The dispersal evaluation was carried out using the dispersal-vicariance approach. Reconciliated trees approach, optimizing losses, yields six cladograms and the strict consensus is congruent with previous works using terrestrial organisms where there are two domains: Neotropics and antarctic.El análisis de los patrones biogeográficos de los subgéneros neotropicales de Simulium (Diptera:Simuliidae, sugiere que los eventos de dispersión desde Mesoamerica a la región Pacífica y del SE de Brasil al Cerrado pueden oscurecer la reconstrucción del patrón de las áreas. Para ser concordantes con este fenómeno y  con las limitantes del método de árboles reconciliados, que supone no dispersión, se evaluó los eventos de dispersión para cada subgénero usando el enfoque de dispersión-vicarianza y los eventos de dispersión más frecuentes fueron eliminados de la reconstrucción al usar árboles reconciliados. Al optimizar el número de perdidas se obtienen seis cladogramas de áreas; el consenso estricto sugiere relaciones entre áreas que son congruentes con estudios biogeográficos preliminares usando organismos terrestres donde se presentan claramente los dominios antártico y neotropical. 

  5. Area-wide fruit fly control in Mauritius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Mauritius, there exist several species of fruit flies namely the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), the Natal fly, Ceratitis rosa (Karsch), and the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann), which attack fleshy fruits such as mango, peach, guava, papaya among others, the Ber fruit fly, Carpomya vesuviana, in addition attacks jujube only, and the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), which is the most important pest of cucurbits. In the absence of control measures, fruit flies constitute a severe constraint to fruit and vegetable production and thus limit their commercialisation. As such, large quantities of fruits have to be imported. An area-wide National Fruit Fly Control Programme (NFFCP) was initiated in 1994, funded by the European Union until 1999 and now fully financed by the Government of Mauritius. The NFFCP targets mainly some 75,000 backyard fruit trees owners. The bait application and male annihilation techniques (BAT and MAT) are currently being applied against the fruit flies attacking fleshy fruits and are targeting selected major fruit growing areas in the north, north-east, central and western parts of the island. Successful control has been achieved using these two techniques as demonstrated by trap catches and fruit samplings. The level of fruit fly damage to fruits has been reduced. Presently, the baitinsecticide mixture is being supplied free of charge to the public. For the melon fly control, an integrated approach has been developed and recommended to cucurbit growers. This package includes use of insecticide cover sprays combined with bait application, male annihilation and cultural control with emphasis on field sanitation. The current status of the area-wide suppression programme is such that continuation of using BAT/MAT is a never-ending process and as such is not viable. In this context, an International Atomic Energy Agency TC project MAR 5/015 entitled 'Feasibility studies for integrated

  6. Standardizing Visual Control Devices for Tsetse Flies: East African Species Glossina swynnertoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mramba, Furaha; Oloo, Francis; Byamungu, Mechtilda; Kröber, Thomas; McMullin, Andrew; Mihok, Steve; Guerin, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Here we set out to standardize long-lasting, visually-attractive devices for Glossina swynnertoni, a vector of both human and animal trypanosomiasis in open savannah in Tanzania and Kenya, and in neighbouring conservation areas used by pastoralists. The goal was to determine the most practical device/material that would induce the strongest landing response in G. swynnertoni for use in area-wide population suppression of this fly with insecticide-impregnated devices. Methods and Findings Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Serengeti and Maasai Mara to measure the performance of traps and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a simple enumerator at these remote locations to compare trapping efficiencies of devices. Independent of season or presence of chemical baits, targets in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue cloth with adhesive film were the best devices for capturing G. swynnertoni in all situations, catching up to 19 times more flies than pyramidal traps. Baiting with chemicals did not affect the relative performance of devices. Fly landings were two times higher on 1 m2 blue-black targets as on pyramidal traps when equivalent areas of both were covered with adhesive film. Landings on 1 m2 blue-black targets were compared to those on smaller phthalogen blue 0.5 m2 all-blue or blue-black-blue cloth targets, and to landings on all-blue plastic 0.32–0.47 m2 leg panels painted in phthalogen blue. These smaller targets and leg panels captured equivalent numbers of G. swynnertoni per unit area as bigger targets. Conclusions Leg panels and 0.5 m2 cloth targets show promise as cost effective devices for management of G. swynnertoni as they can be used for both control (insecticide-impregnated cloth) and for sampling (rigid plastic with insect glue or adhesive film) of populations. PMID:23469299

  7. Investigation of Aerodynamic Capabilities of Flying Fish in Gliding Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.; Choi, H.

    In the present study, we experimentally investigate the aerodynamic capabilities of flying fish. We consider four different flying fish models, which are darkedged-wing flying fishes stuffed in actual gliding posture. Some morphological parameters of flying fish such as lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins, incidence angles of pectoral and pelvic fins are considered to examine their effect on the aerodynamic performance. We directly measure the aerodynamic properties (lift, drag, and pitching moment) for different morphological parameters of flying fish models. For the present flying fish models, the maximum lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio are similar to those of medium-sized birds such as the vulture, nighthawk and petrel. The pectoral fins are found to enhance the lift-to-drag ratio and the longitudinal static stability of gliding flight. On the other hand, the lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio decrease with increasing lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins.

  8. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the...... electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even...... consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by...

  9. Winter flight of flies (Diptera in Hongneung Arboretum, Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter phenology (diapause and activity of insects is expected to change more significantly than that of other seasons, because temperature will increase more in winter than in other seasons in temperate regions. However, studies on winter phenology of insects are rare. It is expected that winter flights of flies (Diptera will increase as climate warms. This study aims to find the relationship between flight of flies and temperature. The survey on flies and weather (temperature and rainfall was carried out in the Hongneung Arboretum in Seoul, Korea. Flies were collected weekly from December 2012 to February 2013 using sweeping and Malaise trap. In the survey, 106 flies belonging to 28 morphospecies and 17 families were collected. Richness and abundance of flies were positively correlated with temperature.

  10. Analysis list: Fli1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Fli1 Blood,Embryo + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  11. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  12. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  13. TeV mini black hole decay at future colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally believed that mini black holes decay by emitting elementary particles with a black body energy spectrum. The original calculation leads to the conclusion that about the 90% of the black hole mass is radiated away in the form of photons, neutrinos and light leptons, mainly electrons and muons. With the advent of string theory, such a scenario must be updated by including new effects coming from the stringy nature of particles and interactions. The main modifications with respect to the original picture of black hole evaporation come from recent developments in non-perturbative string theory globally referred to as TeV-scale gravity. By taking for granted that black holes can be produced in hadronic collisions, then their decay must take into account that: (i) we live in a D3 brane embedded into a higher dimensional bulk spacetime; (ii) fundamental interactions, including gravity, are unified at the TeV energy scale. Thus, the formal description of the Hawking radiation mechanism has to be extended to the case of more than four spacetime dimensions and includes the presence of D-branes. This kind of topological defect in the bulk spacetime fabric acts as a sort of 'cosmic fly-paper' trapping electro-weak standard model elementary particles in our (3 + 1)-dimensional universe. Furthermore, unification of fundamental interactions at an energy scale many orders of magnitude lower than the Planck energy implies that any kind of fundamental particle, not only leptons, is expected to be emitted. A detailed understanding of the new scenario is instrumental for optimal tuning of detectors at future colliders, where, hopefully, this exciting new physics will be tested. In this review, we study higher dimensional black hole decay, considering not only the emission of particles according to the Hawking mechanism, but also their near-horizon QED/QCD interactions. The ultimate motivation is to build up a phenomenologically reliable scenario, allowing a clear

  14. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The video gives general information on the reproductive anatomy and the reproductive cycles of tsetse flies, shows in detail the steps to make a membrane for food supply of mass-reared flies, and explains how their feed is prepared and processed. The different stages of mass-rearing of flies, including their irradiation and the effects of irradiation on eggs and spermatozoa, are demonstrated. The video also introduces the insect sterilization programme BICOT carried out in Nigeria

  15. Team organization may help swarms of flies to become invisible

    OpenAIRE

    Chesnel, Lucas; Nazarov, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    We are interested in a time harmonic acoustic problem in a waveguide containing flies. The flies are modelled by small sound soft obstacles. We explain how they should arrange to become invisible to an observer sending waves from $-\\infty$ and measuring the resulting scattered field at the same position. We assume that the flies can control their position and/or their size. Both monomodal and multimodal regimes are considered. On the other hand, we show that any sound soft obstacle (non neces...

  16. FlyBase: a Drosophila database. Flybase Consortium.

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    FlyBase (http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/) is a comprehensive database of genetic and molecular data concerning Drosophila . FlyBase is maintained as a relational database (in Sybase) and is made available as html documents and flat files. The scope of FlyBase includes: genes, alleles (with phenotypes), aberrations, transposons, pointers to sequence data, gene products, maps, clones, stock lists, Drosophila workers and bibliographic references.

  17. Geoenvironmental aspects of coal refuse-fly ash blends

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Allwyn J.

    1994-01-01

    The separate land disposal of coal refuse and fly ash presents difficulties throughout the Appalachian region, both in terms of disposal costs per acre and in terms of its potential environmental impacts on soil, ground water, revegetation, and slope stability. The purpose of this study was to determine how fly ash addition to coal refuse would impact on certain geotechnical properties of the refuse disposal piles, and whether the refuse-fly ash blends would be suitable as co-d...

  18. The behaviour of tsetse flies in an odour plume.

    OpenAIRE

    Groenendijk, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. m. morsitans Westw. (Diptera: Glossinidae) are obligatory blood feeding insects that do not live in close association with their hosts (mainly mammals). Tsetse flies are relatively long lived insects and have to take a blood meal regularly. Tsetse flies use smell and vision to find their hosts. In the last decade, many aspects of tsetse foraging and host-location behaviour have been elucidated. A range of kairomones has been identified. These...

  19. Dynamics and Energetics of Animal Swimming and Flying: Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Malcolm S.; Hove, Jay R.; Bartol, Ian K.

    2002-01-01

    A few broad general questions have been central to the study of the dynamics and energetics of animal swimming and flying since the field began. A partial list includes: 1. What are the biomechanical bases for swimming and flying in the various groups of animals? 2. What are the kinematic and kinetic bases for swimming and flying? How do the shapes and movements of involved body parts generate thrust, drag, lift, dynamic stability, and maneuverability? 3. What are the energy co...

  20. A restoration plan for the Fly River, Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    The Fly River Catchment drains about 3,300 km2 of southwester Papua New Guinea. The Fly River and its largest tributary, the Strickland river, are both subject to sediment discharges from mines in their headwaters. However, because of a naturally large sediment load, the increased loading on the Strickland and on the Lower fly below the confluence of the two rivers is not problematic. However, the discharge form the Ok Tedi mine into a tributaries of the Fly by the same name has choked po...

  1. Processing the right building materials with fly ash content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostendorp, F.E. [EZH (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    The use of power station ash and fly ash in construction in the Netherlands is described. Fly ash production by the industry is high, but practically all is used as a building material. The fly ash is used in producing cement, artificial gravel, as an asphalt filter, in concrete, and for special applications. Two processes are used to turn fly ash into artificial gravel. The LYTAG process mixes the ash with pulverized coal and water to form pellets, then ignites the pellets resulting in their sintering. The Aerdelite process mixes dry ash with lime, then blows steam through at 85{degree}C, resulting in a hardening reaction.

  2. The Cement Solidification of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Haobo; HE Xinghua; ZHU Shujing; ZHANG Dajie

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition, the content and the leachability of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration ( MSWI) fly ash were tested and analyzed. It is shown that the leachability of Pb and Cr exceeds the leaching toxicity standard, and so the MSWI fly ash is considered as hazardous waste and must be solidifled. The effect of solidifying the MSWI fly ash by cement was studied, and it is indicated that the heavy metals can be well immobilized if the mass fraction of the fly ash is appropriate. The heavy metals were immobilized within cement hydration products through either physical fixation, substitution, deposition or adsorption mechanisms.

  3. Sulfate resistance of high calcium fly ash concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhole, Rajaram

    Sulfate attack is one of the mechanisms which can cause deterioration of concrete. In general, Class C fly ash mixtures are reported to provide poor sulfate resistance. Fly ashes, mainly those belonging to the Class C, were tested as per the ASTM C 1012 procedure to evaluate chemical sulfate resistance. Overall the Class C fly ashes showed poor resistance in the sulfate environment. Different strategies were used in this research work to improve the sulfate resistance of Class C fly ash mixes. The study revealed that some of the strategies such as use of low W/CM (water to cementing materials by mass ratio), silica fume or ultra fine fly ash, high volumes of fly ash and, ternary or quaternary mixes with suitable supplementary cementing materials, can successfully improve the sulfate resistance of the Class C fly ash mixes. Combined sulfate attack, involving physical and chemical action, was studied using sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate solutions. The specimens were subjected to wetting-drying cycles and temperature changes. These conditions were found to accelerate the rate of degradation of concrete placed in a sodium sulfate environment. W/CM was found to be the main governing factor in providing sulfate resistance to mixes. Calcium sulfate did not reveal damage as a result of mainly physical action. Characterization of the selected fly ashes was undertaken by using SEM, XRD and the Rietveld analysis techniques, to determine the relation between the composition of fly ashes and resistance to sulfate attack. The chemical composition of glass represented on the ternary diagram was the main factor which had a significant influence on the sulfate resistance of fly ash mixtures. Mixes prepared with fly ashes containing significant amounts of vulnerable crystalline phases offered poor sulfate resistance. Comparatively, fly ash mixes containing inert crystalline phases such as quartz, mullite and hematite offered good sulfate resistance. The analysis of hydrated lime-fly

  4. Fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors for gunshot localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijun; Currano, Luke; Gee, Danny; Yang, Benjamin; Yu, Miao

    2009-05-01

    The supersensitive ears of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea have inspired researchers to develop bio-inspired directional microphone for sound localization. Although the fly ear is optimized for localizing the narrow-band calling song of crickets at 5 kHz, experiments and simulation have shown that it can amplify directional cues for a wide frequency range. In this article, a theoretical investigation is presented to study the use of fly-ear inspired directional microphones for gunshot localization. Using an equivalent 2-DOF model of the fly ear, the time responses of the fly ear structure to a typical shock wave are obtained and the associated time delay is estimated by using cross-correlation. Both near-field and far-field scenarios are considered. The simulation shows that the fly ear can greatly amplify the time delay by ~20 times, which indicates that with an interaural distance of only 1.2 mm the fly ear is able to generate a time delay comparable to that obtained by a conventional microphone pair with a separation as large as 24 mm. Since the parameters of the fly ear structure can also be tuned for muzzle blast and other impulse stimulus, fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors offers great potential for developing portable gunshot localization systems.

  5. Adaptive Supervisory Engine for Autonomous Formation Flying GNC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous multiple spacecraft formation flying represents a critical enabling technology for future space missions, including NASA's Space and Earth Science...

  6. Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash Influence on the Properties of Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelijus Daugėla; Džigita Nagrockienė; Laurynas Zarauskas

    2016-01-01

    Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study: Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% 20%, and 25% of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the prop...

  7. Experimental Study on Volume for Fly Ash of Building Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is a waste substance from thermal power plants, steel mills, etc. That is found in abundance in the world. It has polluted the environment, wasting the cultivated land. This study introduces an experimental research on fly ash being reused effectively, the study introduces raw materials of fly ash brick, production process and product inspection, fly ash content could be amounted to 40%~75%. High doping fly ash bricks are manufactured, which selects wet fly ash from the power plants, adding aggregate with reasonable ratio and additives with reasonable dosage and do the experimental research on manufacture products for properties, production technology and selection about technology parameter of production equipment. Index of strength grade and freezing-thawing resisting etc and the high doping fly ash brick building which we are working on can achieve the national standard on building materials industry. Based on the tests, this achievement of research has a very wide practical prospect in using fly ash, industrial waste residue, environmental protection and reducing the cost of enterprises. The efficient reuse of fly ash from coal boiler and power plants has very vital significance of protecting the environment, benefiting descendants and developing of circular economy.

  8. Virtual black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1996-03-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foamlike structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the nontrivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S2×S2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S2×S2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix S/ that does not factorize into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the θ angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The picture of virtual black holes given here also suggests that macroscopic black holes will evaporate down to the Planck size and then disappear in the sea of virtual black holes.

  9. Charged Galileon black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...

  10. Reactive leaching of recovery boiler fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Frigård, Antti

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studied a new CaO leaching method for chloride and potassium removal from recovery boiler fly ash. The concept of this method is to use calcium oxide (or calcium hydroxide) as an additive in the leaching stage in order to ease the subsequent solid-liquid separation. CaO leaching has several benefits over traditional leaching process which uses sulphuric acid as an additive: CaO does not include sulphur that would affect the mills sulphur sodium balance, CaO is readily available in...

  11. Sistema prototipo Fly-by-Wire

    OpenAIRE

    García Abián, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Este proyecto está destinado a ofrecer una herramienta a la carrera de aeronáutica para realizar experimentos de navegación y seguimiento de aviones, de la forma más real posible. Con este prototipo lo que se pretende es introducir practicas reales a esta carrera. En este documento se presenta un prototipo para guiado de aviones Radio control (RC). Se ha diseñado la implementación de un sistema FLY by WIRE (FbW) reducido, para incorporarlo en un modelo de RC, capaz de recoge...

  12. The Hungry Fly: Hydrodynamics of feeding in the common house fly

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Manu

    2010-01-01

    A large number of insect species feed primarily on a fluid diet. To do so, they must overcome the numerous challenges that arise in the design of high-efficiency, miniature pumps. Although the morphology of insect feeding structures has been described for decades, their dynamics remain largely unknown even in the most well studied species (e.g. fruit fly). Here, in the fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate in-vivo imaging and microsurgery to elucidate the design principles of feeding structures of the common house fly. Using high-resolution X-ray absorption microscopy, we record in-vivo flow of sucrose solutions through the body over many hours during fly feeding. Borrowing from microsurgery techniques common in neurophysiology, we are able to perturb the pump to a stall position and thus evaluate function under load conditions. Furthermore, fluid viscosity-dependent feedback is observed for optimal pump performance. As the gut of the fly starts to fill up, feedback from the stretch receptors in the cuticle di...

  13. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    OpenAIRE

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some c...

  14. Tunneling Through Black Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liu

    2007-01-01

    Hawking radiation of black ring solutions to 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory is analyzed by use of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. To get the correct tunneling amplitude and emission rate, we adopt and develop the Angheben-Nadalini-Vanzo-Zerbini covariant approach to cover the effects of rotation and electronic discharge all at once, and the effect of back reaction is also taken into account. This constitutes a unified approach to the tunneling problem. Provided the first law of thermodynamics for black rings holds, the emission rate is proportional to the exponential of the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Explicit calculation for black ring temperatures agrees exactly with the results obtained via the classical surface gravity method and the quasi-local formalism.

  15. Noncommutative black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a general derivation, for any static spherically symmetric metric, of the relation Th=(K/2π) connecting the black hole temperature (Th) with the surface gravity (K), following the tunneling interpretation of Hawking radiation. This derivation is valid even beyond the semi-classical regime, i.e. when quantum effects are not negligible. The formalism is then applied to a spherically symmetric, stationary noncommutative Schwarzschild space-time. The effects of backreaction are also included. For such a black hole the Hawking temperature is computed in a closed form. A graphical analysis reveals interesting features regarding the variation of the Hawking temperature (including corrections due to noncommutativity and backreaction) with the small radius of the black hole. The entropy and tunneling rate valid for the leading order in the noncommutative parameter are calculated. We also show that the noncommutative Bekenstein-Hawking area law has the same functional form as the usual one

  16. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids. PMID:25768746

  17. Black Hole Bose Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a cold, stable remnant

  18. Black Hole Bose Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2013-12-01

    General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a "cold", stable remnant.

  19. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  20. Rotating Black Droplet

    CERN Document Server

    Fischetti, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    We construct the gravitational dual, in the Unruh state, of the "jammed" phase of a CFT at strong coupling and infinite N on a fixed five-dimensional rotating Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. When the angular momenta are all zero, the solution corresponds to the five-dimensional generalization of the solution first studied by Figueras, Lucietti, and Wiseman. In the extremal limit, when the angular momenta of the Myers-Perry black hole are maximum, the Unruh, Boulware and Hartle-Hawking states degenerate. We give a detailed analysis of the corresponding holographic stress energy tensor for all values of the angular momenta, finding it to be regular at the horizon in all cases. We compare our results with existent literature on thermal states of free field theories on black hole backgrounds.

  1. Turbulent Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Lehner, Luis

    2014-01-01

    We show that rapidly-spinning black holes can display turbulent gravitational behavior which is mediated by a new type of parametric instability. This instability transfers energy from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies--- a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse energy cascade displayed by 2+1-dimensional turbulent fluids. Our finding reveals a path towards gravitational turbulence for perturbations of rapidly-spinning black holes, and provides the first evidence for gravitational turbulence in an asymptotically flat spacetime. Interestingly, this finding predicts observable gravitational wave signatures from such phenomena in black hole binaries with high spins and gives a gravitational description of turbulence relevant to the fluid-gravity duality.

  2. Turbulent Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability—which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold—akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies—a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2 +1 )-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  3. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ∞≅2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  4. Slowly balding black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-10-01

    The “no-hair” theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively “frozen in” the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πcℏ), where Φ∞≈2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole’s magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  5. Black holes and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome ‘remnants’. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a ‘fuzzball’ structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: ► The information paradox is a serious problem. ► To solve it we need to find ‘hair’ on black holes. ► In string theory we find ‘hair’ by the fuzzball construction. ► Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.

  6. Pilot oriental fruit fly management program in Guimaras island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pilot project on the integrated fruit fly management program based on sterile insect technique (SIT) was conducted in Guimaras island. The first island-wide male annihilation treatment (MAT) was implemented from February to October 1997. A total of 6 applications consisting of 525,534 pieces of lured particle board squares (PBS) were distributed in Guimaras both by aerial and ground applications. There was a significant reduction in fruit fly population indicating fruit fly suppression through MAT. However, MAT only reduces the male fruit fly density so many fruits were still found infested with fruit flies. Hence, biweekly releases of sterile flies were conducted from November 1997 to April 1998. About 91.74 million sterile pupae were sent by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) to Guimaras. A total of 34,490,888 sterile flies were released by aerial applications and 12,632,163 sterile flies were released by ground applications. An increase in the S/N ratio was observed from 0.37 in December 1997 to 4.19 in April 1998. However, since the eradication phase was discontinued due to budgetary constraints, the required S/N ratio of more than 10 for a successful application of SIT was not achieved. A second series of MAT application were again conducted from May to September 1998. A total of 4 applications consisting of 357,650 pcs. of lured PBS were distributed throughout the island. Interestingly, the results of fruit fly density estimation before (1995) and after application (1998) of MAT and SIT using Lincoln method showed that the number of fruit flies per hectare was significantly reduced in all areas in Guimaras. Continues biweekly releases of 25 million flies therefore have to be undertaken to eradicate the remaining population. (Author)

  7. Exact solutions of higher dimensional black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tomizawa, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We review exact solutions of black holes in higher dimensions, focusing on asymptotically flat black hole solutions and Kaluza-Klein type black hole solutions. We also summarize some properties which such black hole solutions reveal.

  8. Black light photography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisin, M.A. [Koon-Hall-Adrian Metallurgical, Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Black light photography of fluorescent penetrant and wet fluorescent magnetic particle indications can yield spectacular and useful results. The technique provides a lasting record of a flaw`s severity and location, as well as its physical relation to other components and important features. The procedures are easily learned and do not require sophisticated apparatus. In fact, equipment costs can often be justified on the basis of a single application. Using the techniques described in this article, black light photography can be a cost-effective, informative NDT tool.

  9. Noncommutative solitonic black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value. (paper)

  10. Noncommutative solitonic black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2012-05-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.

  11. Superfluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hennigar, Robie A; Tjoa, Erickson

    2016-01-01

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "$\\lambda$-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid $^4$He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically AdS hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  12. Virtual Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  13. Dancing with black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Aarseth, Sverre J

    2007-01-01

    We describe efforts over the last six years to implement regularization methods suitable for studying one or more interacting black holes by direct N-body simulations. Three different methods have been adapted to large-N systems: (i) Time-Transformed Leapfrog, (ii) Wheel-Spoke, and (iii) Algorithmic Regularization. These methods have been tried out with some success on GRAPE-type computers. Special emphasis has also been devoted to including post-Newtonian terms, with application to moderately massive black holes in stellar clusters. Some examples of simulations leading to coalescence by gravitational radiation will be presented to illustrate the practical usefulness of such methods.

  14. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  15. Scattering from black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging.

  16. Scattering from black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging

  17. Acoustic black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.

  18. Are Black Holes Springy?

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2014-01-01

    A $(3+1)$-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed $\\Omega_+$ can be used to define an effective spring constant, $k=m\\Omega_+^2$. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, $k = \\kappa $, which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: $2\\pi T = \\kappa - k$. Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force $F = 1/4$, which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  19. Black-pigmented sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Martínez-Girón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black-pigmented sputum, also called "melanoptysis," is a symptom that may be observed in certain pathologies such us coal workers′ pneumoconiosis (anthracosis. The cavitation and liquefaction of a fibrosed mass by an infectious process (tuberculosis, infections by anaerobes, etc. or by ischemic necrosis may cause expectoration of a blackish secretion. We report the case of a patient with labor precedents as a coal worker, from whom abundant black sputum was obtained in the course of an incidental expectoration. Cyto-histological findings are shown and a differential diagnosis is established.

  20. Horndeski black hole geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyakova, D A

    2016-01-01

    We examine geodesics for the scalar-tensor black holes in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits may not be present within some model parameters range. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations. We also present a new (although very similar to those previously known) solution, which contains the orbits we expect from a compact object, admits regular scalar field at the horizon and and can fit into the known stability criteria.