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Sample records for black fly simulium

  1. Cues used by the black fly, Simulium annulus, for attraction to the common loon (Gavia immer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinandt, Meggin L; Meyer, Michael; Strand, Mac; Lindsay, Alec R

    2012-12-01

    The parasitic relationship between a black fly, Simulium annulus, and the common loon (Gavia immer) has been considered one of the most exclusive relationships between any host species and a black fly species. To test the host specificity of this blood-feeding insect, we made a series of bird decoy presentations to black flies on loon-inhabited lakes in northern Wisconsin, U.S.A. To examine the importance of chemical and visual cues for black fly detection of and attraction to hosts, we made decoy presentations with and without chemical cues. Flies attracted to the decoys were collected, identified to species, and quantified. Results showed that S. annulus had a strong preference for common loon visual and chemical cues, although visual cues from Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and mallards (Anas platyrynchos) did attract some flies in significantly smaller numbers. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  2. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, K.M.; Gowland, J.A.; Dillon, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 μg/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment

  3. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, K.M. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Gowland, J.A. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Dillon, P.J. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)]. E-mail: pdillon@trentu.ca

    2006-10-15

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 {mu}g/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment.

  4. Development of a Novel Trap for the Collection of Black Flies of the Simulium ochraceum Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A.; Adeleke, Monsuru A.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Garza-Hernández, Javier A.; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Cupp, Eddie W.; Toé, Laurent; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Américo D.; Katholi, Charles R.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human landing collections are currently the standard method for collecting onchocerciasis vectors in Africa and Latin America. As part of the efforts to develop a trap to replace human landing collections for the monitoring and surveillance of onchocerciasis transmission, comprehensive evaluations of several trap types were conducted to assess their ability to collect Simulium ochraceum sensu lato, one of the principal vectors of Onchocerca volvulus in Latin America. Methodology/Principal Findings Diverse trap designs with numerous modifications and bait variations were evaluated for their abilities to collect S. Ochraceum s.l. females. These traps targeted mostly host seeking flies. A novel trap dubbed the “Esperanza window trap” showed particular promise over other designs. When baited with CO2 and BG-lure (a synthetic blend of human odor components) a pair of Esperanza window traps collected numbers of S. Ochraceum s.l. females similar to those collected by a team of vector collectors. Conclusions/Significance The Esperanza window trap, when baited with chemical lures and CO2 can be used to collect epidemiologically significant numbers of Simulium ochraceum s.l., potentially serving as a replacement for human landing collections for evaluation of the transmission of O. volvulus. PMID:24116169

  5. Cryptic Biodiversity and the Origins of Pest Status Revealed in the Macrogenome of Simulium colombaschense (Diptera: Simuliidae, History's Most Destructive Black Fly.

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    Peter H Adler

    Full Text Available The European black fly Simulium (Simulium colombaschense (Scopoli, once responsible for as many as 22,000 livestock deaths per year, is chromosomally mapped, permitting its evolutionary relationships and pest drivers to be inferred. The species is 12 fixed inversions removed from the standard sequence of the subgenus Simulium. Three of these fixed inversions, 38 autosomal polymorphisms, and a complex set of 12 X and 6 Y chromosomes in 29 zygotic combinations uniquely characterize S. colombaschense and reveal 5 cytoforms: 'A' in the Danube watershed, 'B' in Italy's Adige River, 'C' in the Aliakmonas River of Greece, 'D' in the Aoös drainage in Greece, and 'E' in the Belá River of Slovakia. 'C' and 'D' are reproductively isolated from one another, and 'B' is considered a cytotype of 'A,' the probable name bearer of colombaschense. The species status of 'E' cannot be determined without additional collections. Three derived polytene sequences, based on outgroup comparisons, place S. colombaschense in a clade of species composed of the S. jenningsi, S. malyschevi, and S. reptans species groups. Only cytoforms 'A' and 'B' are pests. Within the Simuliidae, pest status is reached through one of two principal pathways, both of which promote the production of large populations of blood-seeking flies: (1 colonization of the world's largest rivers (habitat specialization or (2 colonization of multiple habitat types (habitat generalization. Evolutionary acquisition of the ability to colonize large rivers by an ancestor of the S. jenningsi-malyschevi-reptans clade set the scene for the pest status of S. colombaschense and other big-river members of the clade. In an ironic twist, the macrogenome of S. colombaschense reveals that the name associated with history's worst simuliid pest represents a complex of species, two or more of which are nonpests potentially vulnerable to loss of their limited habitat.

  6. Simukunin from the Salivary Glands of the Black Fly Simulium vittatum Inhibits Enzymes That Regulate Clotting and Inflammatory Responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsujimoto, H.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Eum, J. H.; Strand, M. R.; Champagne, D. E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2012), e29964 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Simulium vittatum * Kunitz-family protein * elastase * cathepsin G * Factor Xa * coagulation * inflammation * serine proteases * BPTI-like inhibitor * Simukunin Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  7. Distribution of larval and pupal stages of Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) flies in the Nilgiris hills of Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Arul Prakash, M

    2017-09-01

    Endemicity of onchocerciasis (river blindness) in humans is linked to the location of Simulium spp. (black fly). The distribution of immature stages of Simulium in Sholur, Pykara, Gudalur, Coonoor and Kotagiri streams of the Nilgiris hills of Tamil Nadu was investigated during the months of May and July 2012. Out of these five streams, only Sholur was infested with larval and pupal stages of Simulium spp. Out of six plants collected from various water bodies, larval and pupal stages were found on the leaves and stems of an aquatic plant Nasturtium officinale and on the roots and leaves of Pennisetum glandulosum. The stages of Simulium were observed only during the summer month of May.

  8. Simulium (Psilopelmia virescens, a new black-fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae from the southwestern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Neusa Hamada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The last-instar larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium virescens sp. nov. are described and illustrated. This species has a peculiar larva, which has an elongated head capsule and light-green colour. The first thoracic segment has tubercle on its dorsal region and the third thoracic segment has one pair of tubercles; the first to the fourth abdominal segments have one pair of tubercles on each segment. Until now this new species had only been collected at the type locality, which is on the middle stretch of the Correntina River in the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Females were voraciously biting humans during the field work. This new species represents the second species of Simulium(Psilopelmia in Brazil and the first registered outside of the Brazilian Amazon Region.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA markers reveal high genetic diversity but low genetic differentiation in the black fly Simulium tani Takaoka & Davies along an elevational gradient in Malaysia.

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    Van Lun Low

    Full Text Available The population genetic structure of Simulium tani was inferred from mitochondria-encoded sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI and II (COII along an elevational gradient in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A statistical parsimony network of 71 individuals revealed 71 haplotypes in the COI gene and 43 haplotypes in the COII gene; the concatenated sequences of the COI and COII genes revealed 71 haplotypes. High levels of genetic diversity but low levels of genetic differentiation were observed among populations of S. tani at five elevations. The degree of genetic diversity, however, was not in accordance with an altitudinal gradient, and a Mantel test indicated that elevation did not have a limiting effect on gene flow. No ancestral haplotype of S. tani was found among the populations. Pupae with unique structural characters at the highest elevation showed a tendency to form their own haplotype cluster, as revealed by the COII gene. Tajima's D, Fu's Fs, and mismatch distribution tests revealed population expansion of S. tani in Cameron Highlands. A strong correlation was found between nucleotide diversity and the levels of dissolved oxygen in the streams where S. tani was collected.

  10. Karyotypic studies of four species of the blackfly, Simulium (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mallory

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... Drosophila melanogaster: Practical uses in cell and molecular biology in: Goldstein LSB (Eds). Methods in cell biology. Academic Press Inc. p. 555. Henry W, Dey SK, Varma R (2009). The salivary gland chromosomes of the Himalayan Black fly Simulium (Simulium) dentatum (Diptera: Simuliidae). Zool. Sci.

  11. Two new Species of Simulium (Simulium) (Diptera: Simuliidae) From Mount Murud, Sarawak, Malaysia.

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    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Simulium) murudense and Simulium (Simulium) cheedhangi, are described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and larvae collected in Mount Murud, Sarawak, Malaysia. Both species belong to the Simulium melanopus Edwards species group. S. (S.) murudense sp. nov. is distinguished from most known species by a combination of the haired basal portion of the radial vein and the darkened fore coxae, and S. (S.) cheedhangi sp. nov. is characterized in the female by having a medium-sized claw tooth and in the pupa by six somewhat inflated gill filaments. Notes are given on the S. melanopus species-group in Sarawak and Sabah. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Parasites of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae in Thailand

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    Sanae Jitklang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of larval black flies are reported for the first time from Thailand, including mermithid nematodes(Mermithidae, microsporidian fungi (Zygomycota, and the fungus Coelomycidium simulii Debaisieux (Blastocladiomycetes.The following nine species of black flies were infected with one or more parasites: Simulium asakoae, S. chamlongi,S. chiangmaiense, S. fenestratum, S. feuerborni, S. nakhonense, S. nodosum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. tani. The prevalenceof patent infections per host species per season was 0.1–7.1% for mermithids, 0.1–6.0% for microsporidia, and 0.1–3.0% forC. simulii.

  13. Seasonal biodiversity of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and evaluation of ecological factors influencing species distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, Thailand.

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    Srisuka, Wichai; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Yasushi; Fukuda, Masako; Thongsahuan, Sorawat; Taai, Kritsana; Choochote, Wej; Saeung, Atiporn

    2015-09-01

    This is the first study on the seasonal biodiversity of black flies and evaluation of ecological factors influencing their distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, northern Thailand. Larvae were collected from six fixed-stream sites in relation to altitude gradients from May 2011 to April 2013. The water temperature, water pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), salt, water velocity, stream width and depth, streambed particle sizes, riparian vegetation, and canopy cover were recorded from each site. Monthly collections from the six sites yielded 5475 last-instar larvae, belonging to 29 black fly species. The most frequently found species from all sites were Simulium asakoae (100%) followed by Simulium yuphae (83.3%), and Simulium chiangdaoense, Simulium gombakense, Simulium phahompokense, Simulium fruticosum, Simulium maeaiense and Simulium fenestratum (66.6%). Of the 5475 last-instar larvae, S. maeaiense (19.3%), S. chiangdaoense (15.8%) and S. asakoae (14.8%), were the three most abundant species. The Shannon diversity index (H) at the six sites with different altitudes of 2100m, 2000m, 1500m, 1400m, 700m, and 500m above mean sea level, were 2.042, 1.832, 2.158, 2.123, 1.821 and 1.822, respectively. The Shannon index and number of taxa in the cold season were higher than those in the rainy and hot seasons. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that at least three principal components have eigen values >1.0 and accounted for 93.5% of the total variability of ecological factors among sampling sites. The Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that most species had a trend towards altitude, canopy cover, riparian vegetation and water velocity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chromosomal Translocations in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae-Facilitators of Adaptive Radiation?

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    Peter H Adler

    Full Text Available A macrogenomic investigation of a Holarctic clade of black flies-the Simulium cholodkovskii lineage-provided a platform to explore the implications of a unique, synapomorphic whole-arm interchange in the evolution of black flies. Nearly 60 structural rearrangements were discovered in the polytene complement of the lineage, including 15 common to all 138 analyzed individuals, relative to the central sequence for the entire subgenus Simulium. Three species were represented, of which two Palearctic entities (Simulium cholodkovskii and S. decimatum were sympatric; an absence of hybrids confirmed their reproductive isolation. A third (Nearctic entity had nonhomologous sex chromosomes, relative to the other species, and is considered a separate species, for which the name Simulium nigricoxum is revalidated. A cytophylogeny is inferred and indicates that the two Palearctic taxa are sister species and these, in turn, are the sister group of the Nearctic species. The rise of the S. cholodkovskii lineage encompassed complex chromosomal and genomic restructuring phenomena associated with speciation in black flies, viz. expression of one and the same rearrangement as polymorphic, fixed, or sex linked in different species; taxon-specific differentiation of sex chromosomes; and reciprocal translocation of chromosome arms. The translocation is hypothesized to have occurred early in male spermatogonia, with the translocated chromosomal complement being transmitted to the X- and Y-bearing sperm during spermatogenesis, resulting in alternate disjunction of viable F1 translocation heterozygotes and the eventual formation of more viable and selectable F2 translocation homozygous progeny. Of 11 or 12 independently derived whole-arm interchanges known in the family Simuliidae, at least six are associated with subsequent speciation events, suggesting a facilitating role of translocations in adaptive radiations. The findings are discussed in the context of potential

  15. Vietnam, a Hotspot for Chromosomal Diversity and Cryptic Species in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae)

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    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Low, Van Lun; Ya’cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da

    2016-01-01

    The increasing attention on Vietnam as a biodiversity hotspot prompted an investigation of the potential for cryptic diversity in black flies, a group well known elsewhere for its high frequency of isomorphic species. We analyzed the banding structure of the larval polytene chromosomes in the Simulium tuberosum species group to probe for diversity beyond the morphological level. Among 272 larvae, 88 different chromosomal rearrangements, primarily paracentric inversions, were discovered in addition to 25 already known in the basic sequences of the group in Asia. Chromosomal diversity in Vietnam far exceeds that known for the group in Thailand, with only about 5% of the rearrangements shared between the two countries. Fifteen cytoforms and nine morphoforms were revealed among six nominal species in Vietnam. Chromosomal evidence, combined with available molecular and morphological evidence, conservatively suggests that at least five of the cytoforms are valid species, two of which require formal names. The total chromosomal rearrangements and species (15) now known from the group in Vietnam far exceed those of any other area of comparable size in the world, supporting the country’s status as a biodiversity hotspot. Phylogenetic inference based on uniquely shared, derived chromosomal rearrangements supports the clustering of cytoforms into two primary lineages, the Simulium tani complex and the Southeast Asian Simulium tuberosum subgroup. Some of these taxa could be threatened by habitat destruction, given their restricted geographical distributions and the expanding human population of Vietnam. PMID:27695048

  16. Chemical Control of Black Flies in Large Rivers as an Impact in Agrochemical Residue-Biota Interactions in Water Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haufe, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    Livestock losses have been an obstacle to economic development of the farming and livestock industry in more northerly areas of Canada until two species of black fly, Simulium arcticum and S. luggeri, outbreaks are controlled effectively. The problem is complicated by its association with an abundance of large rivers and streams. Since effective control of black flies is presently limited to reduction of their breeding sources in flowing water, the managers of Canadian inland waters have been concerned about any major practice of using pesticides as black fly larvicides. Consequently, Canadian inland waters have been subject to continuous monitoring of major drainage systems with special attention to the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides. The latest status of residues was published from a Canadian Survey of 333 sampling locations between 1972 and 1975

  17. Water pollution and distribution of the black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

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    Docile, Tatiana N; Figueiró, Ronaldo; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo H; Nessimian, Jorge L

    2015-09-01

    Black flies have medical importance because some species are vectors of the unenocerciasis and Mansonelosis, nevertheless, their ecology and potential use as bioindicators is still poorly studied in the Neotropical Region. In Brazil, bioindicators use is strongly focused in a multimetrical ecological index approach; this way, we investigated the black fly spatial distribution, in relation to abiotic factors correlated to water quality, to provide baseline information for their utilization as standalone indicators of lotic systems integrity. We have tested the hypothesis that environmental changes related to urbanization, lead to decreased abundance and loss in the number of species of the black fly fauna. The sampling was conducted in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September) of 2012, in the mountainous region of Teres6polis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The streams were characterized for their environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. In each stream, five different rapid points were sampled in a section of 50 meters, 10 meters apart from each other. The black flies were sampled with a kick-net sampler on rocky substrates. The material was separated and the larvae were sorted in morphotypes, and later, the final instar specimens were dissected and identified with the help of taxonomical literature at species level. A total abundance of 488 larvae from nine species were collected, 5 (1.02 %) in extremely impacted streams, 470 (96.31 %) in intermediate streams and 13 (2.66 %) in preserved streams. The visual evaluation (HII) differed in relation to the water physico-chemical evaluation, in which more variation in the characterization of the sampling sites was observed. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis Simulium subpallidum, S. inscrustatum and S. pertinax were significantly associated with intermediate values of most of the variables, and then to intermediate impacted sites. On the other hand

  18. Individual exposure to Simulium bites and intensity of Onchocerca volvulus infection

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    Enyong P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of river blindness, is transmitted through the black fly Simulium damnosum s.l., which breeds in turbulent river waters. To date, the number of flies attacking humans has only been determined by standard fly collectors near the river or the village. In our study, we counted the actual number of attacking and successfully feeding S. damnosum s.l. flies landing on individual villagers during their routine day-time activities in two villages of the Sudan-savannah and rainforest of Cameroon. We compared these numbers to the number of flies caught by a standard vector-collector, one positioned near the particular villager during his/her daily activity and the other sitting at the nearest Simulium breeding site. Results Using these data obtained by the two vector-collectors, we were able to calculate the Actual Index of Exposure (AIE. While the AIE in the savannah was on average 6,3%, it was 34% in the rainforest. The Effective Annual Transmission Potential (EATP for individual villagers was about 20 fold higher in the rainforest compared to the savannah. Conclusions Here we show for the first time that it is possible to determine the EATP. Further studies with more subjects are needed in the future. These data are important for the development of future treatment strategies.

  19. Water pollution and distribution of the black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Tatiana N Docile

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Black flies have medical importance because some species are vectors of the Onchocerciasis and Mansonelosis, nevertheless, their ecology and potential use as bioindicators is still poorly studied in the Neotropical Region. In Brazil, bioindicators use is strongly focused in a multimetrical ecological index approach; this way, we investigated the black fly spatial distribution, in relation to abiotic factors correlated to water quality, to provide baseline information for their utilization as standalone indicators of lotic systems integrity. We have tested the hypothesis that environmental changes related to urbanization, lead to decreased abundance and loss in the number of species of the black fly fauna. The sampling was conducted in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September of 2012, in the mountainous region of Teresópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The streams were characterized for their environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. In each stream, five different rapid points were sampled in a section of 50 meters, 10 meters apart from each other. The black flies were sampled with a kick-net sampler on rocky substrates. The material was separated and the larvae were sorted in morphotypes, and later, the final instar specimens were dissected and identified with the help of taxonomical literature at species level. A total abundance of 488 larvae from nine species were collected, 5 (1.02 % in extremely impacted streams, 470 (96.31 % in intermediate streams and 13 (2.66 % in preserved streams. The visual evaluation (HII differed in rela&tion to the water physico-chemical evaluation, in which more variation in the characterization of the sampling sites was observed. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis Simulium subpallidum, S. inscrustatumand S. pertinaxwere significantly associated with intermediate values of most of the variables, and then to intermediate impacted

  20. Variation in density of cattle-visiting muscid flies between Danish inland pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    The density of cattle-visiting flies (Muscidae) and the load of black-flies (Simulium spp.) were estimated in twelve and eighteen inland pastures in Denmark in 1984 and 1985 respectively. No differences in the geographical distribution pattern of the predominant cattle-visiting Muscidae were reco......-exposed pastures. A comparable relationship was found for Haematobia irritans. With Haematobosca stimulans (Mg.) and Morellia spp. no relation between grassland environment and fly density was detected....

  1. Black flies (Diptera : Simuliidae attracted to humans and water buffalos and natural infections with filarial larvae, probably Onchocerca sp., in northern Thailand

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    Takaoka H.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Several Simulium species were investigated as to their biting habits and natural infections with filarial larvae at Ban Pan Fan, Chiang Mai Province, in northern Thailand. Female adults flies landing on or flighting around a human and a water buffalo were collected during the daytime from 06.00 to 19.00 hours on 22 June 2001. As a result, 217 S. nodosum, 86 S. asakoae and two S. nigrogilvum were obtained from a human attractant, and 416 S. nodosum, 25 S. nakhonense, 16 S. asakoae, four 5. fenestratum and two S. nigrogilvum, from a water buffalo. The blood-feeding was confirmed only for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum on humans, and for S. nodosum and S. nakhonense on water buffalos. Dissections of these simuliids showed that S. nodosum was naturally infected with developing filarial larvae. Two types of microfilariae were distinguished but only one type of infective larvae. These larvae resembled Onchocerca suzukii, a parasite from a wild Japanese bovid, suggesting that an unknown Onchocerca species from ruminants was transmitted in Thailand. Infection rates with all stages of larvae and third-stage larvae were 2.3 % (14/608 and 1 .0 % (6/608, respectively. This is the first report of natural infections of black flies with Onchocerca larvae in Southeast Asia, and the involved black fly species is shown to be not only anthropophilic but also zoophilic in this region.

  2. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

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    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular identification of infective larvae of three species of Onchocerca found in wild-caught females of Simulium bidentatum in Japan

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    Fukuda M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wild female black flies attracted to a man or an idling automobile were collected at Oita, Japan where five cases of zoonotic onchocerciasis had occurred. Among the five Simulium species captured, 2% of Simulium bidentatum, the predominant species, were infected with filarial larvae. There were at least two types of infective larvae, types A and B, based on morphometric observation. Moreover, molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene revealed that types A and B were represented by a single unknown species of Onchocerca and two species, i.e., Onchocerca dewittei japonica from wild boar, the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan, and an undescribed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rRNA gene also showed that type A is likely to be an unknown species of Onchocerca. Natural infection of black flies with infective larvae of O. dewittei japonica and O. sp. was demonstrated for the first time. The present study strongly suggests that S. bidentatum plays a role as a vector in the transmission of zoonotic onchocerciasis due to O. dewittei japonica in Japan.

  4. Infective larvae of five Onchocerca species from experimentally infected Simulium species in an area of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan

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    Fukuda M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfilariae of five Onchocerca species, O. dewittei japonica (the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Oita, Kyushu, Japan from wild boar (Sus scrofa, O. skrjabini and O. eberhardi from sika deer (Cervus nippon, O. lienalis from cattle, and an as yet unnamed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, were injected intrathoracically into newly-emerged black flies of several species from Oita to search the potential vector(s of these parasites and identify their infective larvae. Development of O. dewittei japonica microfilariae to the infective larvae occurred in Simulium aokii, S. arakawae, S. bidentatum, S. japonicum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. rufibasis while development of infective larvae of O. skrjabini, O. eberhardi, and the unnamed Onchocerca sp. was observed in S. aokii, S. arakawae, and S. bidentatum. Development of O. lienalis microfilaria to infective larvae occurred in S. arakawae. Based on the morphology of infective larvae obtained, we proposed a key of identification of Onchocerca infective larvae found in Oita. We also reconsider the identification of three types of infective larvae previously recovered from Simulium species captured at cattle sheds: the large type I larvae that may be an undescribed species; the small type III identified as O. lienalis may include O. skrjabini too; the intermediary type II that may be O. gutturosa, or O. dewittei japonica, or the unnamed Onchocerca sp. of wild boar.

  5. [Adolpho Lutz's collection of black flies (Diptera - Simuliidae), its history and importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro do Amaral-Calvão, Ana Margarida; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

    2003-01-01

    This is part of a master's thesis currently being written under the auspices of the Post-Graduate Program in Animal Biology of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with support from CAPES. It presents the species of black flies in Adolpho Lutz's collection, held at the Laboratory of Black Flies and Oncocercosis of the Department of Entomology of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. A pioneer in the study of these dipterons, Lutz described about 25 species from different places in Brazil. A vector of round worm, the black fly's importance to public health was recognized at the end of the 1920s.

  6. Variation in density of cattle-visiting muscid flies between Danish inland pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    recorded, whilst the relative abundance and density of the species and the total fly-load varied considerably between pastures. In most cases the mean loads of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Hydrotaea irritans (Fall.) on heifers varied significantly in relation to site topography and shelter. These crude......The density of cattle-visiting flies (Muscidae) and the load of black-flies (Simulium spp.) were estimated in twelve and eighteen inland pastures in Denmark in 1984 and 1985 respectively. No differences in the geographical distribution pattern of the predominant cattle-visiting Muscidae were...... site variables explained 65-98% of the variation in densities of horn flies and sheep head flies observed between pastures. Highest densities of Hydrotaea irritans were primarily associated with permanent, low-lying, fairly sheltered grassland sites, whereas the density was low in temporary, dry, wind...

  7. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin

    2015-10-01

    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel spirochetes isolated from mosquitoes and black flies in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikutová, Silvie; Halouzka, Jiří; Mendel, Jan; Knoz, J.; Rudolf, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2010), s. 50-55 ISSN 1081-1710 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1234; GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Spirochetes * mosquitoes * black flies * tabanid flies * Czech Republic Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.256, year: 2010

  9. Australian bat lyssavirus infection in a captive juvenile black flying fox.

    OpenAIRE

    Field, H.; McCall, B.; Barrett, J.

    1999-01-01

    The newly emerging Australian bat lyssavirus causes rabieslike disease in bats and humans. A captive juvenile black flying fox exhibited progressive neurologic signs, including sudden aggression, vocalization, dysphagia, and paresis over 9 days and then died. At necropsy, lyssavirus infection was diagnosed by fluorescent antibody test, immunoperoxidase staining, polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation. Eight human contacts received postexposure vaccination.

  10. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; Meulenaer, De Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; Clercq, De Patrick; Smet, De Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and

  11. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, hermetia illucens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were dev...

  12. Evolution of insecticide resistance in non-target black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mónica Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Black flies, a non-target species of the insecticides used in fruit production, represent a severe medical and veterinary problem. Large increases in the level of resistance to the pyrethroids fenvalerate (more than 355-fold and deltamethrin (162-fold and a small increase in resistance to the organophosphate azinphos methyl (2-fold were observed between 1996-2008 in black fly larvae under insecticide pressure. Eventually, no change or a slight variation in insecticide resistance was followed by a subsequent increase in resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance in a field population is a complex and stepwise process that is influenced by several factors, the most significant of which is the insecticide selection pressure, such as the dose and frequency of application. The variation in insecticide susceptibility within a black fly population in the productive area may be related to changes in fruit-pest control. The frequency of individuals with esterase activities higher than the maximum value determined in the susceptible population increased consistently over the sampling period. However, the insecticide resistance was not attributed to glutathione S-transferase activity. In conclusion, esterase activity in black flies from the productive area is one mechanism underlying the high levels of resistance to pyrethroids, which have been recently used infrequently. These enzymes may be reselected by currently used pesticides and enhance the resistance to these insecticides.

  13. Evolution of insecticide resistance in non-target black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Cristina Mónica; Gauna, Lidia Ester; D'Angelo, Ana Pechen de; Anguiano, Olga Liliana

    2012-06-01

    Black flies, a non-target species of the insecticides used in fruit production, represent a severe medical and veterinary problem. Large increases in the level of resistance to the pyrethroids fenvalerate (more than 355-fold) and deltamethrin (162-fold) and a small increase in resistance to the organophosphate azinphos methyl (2-fold) were observed between 1996-2008 in black fly larvae under insecticide pressure. Eventually, no change or a slight variation in insecticide resistance was followed by a subsequent increase in resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance in a field population is a complex and stepwise process that is influenced by several factors, the most significant of which is the insecticide selection pressure, such as the dose and frequency of application. The variation in insecticide susceptibility within a black fly population in the productive area may be related to changes in fruit-pest control. The frequency of individuals with esterase activities higher than the maximum value determined in the susceptible population increased consistently over the sampling period. However, the insecticide resistance was not attributed to glutathione S-transferase activity. In conclusion, esterase activity in black flies from the productive area is one mechanism underlying the high levels of resistance to pyrethroids, which have been recently used infrequently. These enzymes may be reselected by currently used pesticides and enhance the resistance to these insecticides.

  14. Histopathological and ultrastructural effects of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis in the midgut of Simulium pertinax larvae (Diptera, Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFG Cavados

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt produces parasporal crystals containing delta-endotoxins responsible for selective insecticidal activity on larvae. Upon ingestion, these crystals are solubilized in the midgut lumen and converted into active toxins that bind to receptors present on the microvilli causing serious damage to the epithelial columnar cells. We investigated the effect of these endotoxins on larvae of the Simulium pertinax, a common black fly in Brazil, using several concentrations during 4 h of the serovar israelensis strain IPS-82 (LFB-FIOCRUZ 584, serotype H-14 type strain of the Institute Pasteur, Paris. Light and electron microscope observations revealed, by time and endotoxin concentration, increasing damages of the larvae midgut epithelium. The most characteristic effects were midgut columnar cell vacuolization, microvilli damages, epithelium cell contents passing into the midgut lumen and finally the cell death. This article is the first report of the histopathological effects of the Bti endotoxins in the midgut of S. pertinax larvae and the data obtained may contribute to a better understanding of the mode of action of this bacterial strain used as bioinsecticide against black fly larvae.

  15. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam M A Zarroug

    Full Text Available The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007-2008 and 2009-2010. Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests.Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies than Galabat (8,202 flies. In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month, and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month. In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month, whereas, none appeared in collection from April to

  16. Morphology and Ecological Notes on the Larvae and Pupae of Simulium (Simulium from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam-Kyu Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of larvae and pupae of twelve species of Simulium (Simulium from Korea are investigated and redescribed. Detailed descriptions of immature stages of each species are provided with photographs. For the Korean members of subgenus Simulium, combinations of the following characteristics can be used to separate them from other Korean subgenera: larval abdomen without a pair of conical-shaped ventral tubercles; postgenal cleft variously shaped, viz., miter shaped, spearhead, bullet shaped or triangular; rectal papillae 3 simple lobe or compound lobes; pupal gill of 6-16 filaments; cocoon shoe, boot or slipper shaped; and head trichomes 3 pairs (1 facial+2 frontal. Habitat information and other ecological aspects of each species are provided. Updated keys to larvae and pupae of the Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are also provided to facilitate species identification. Taxonomic treatment based on external morphologies of larvae and pupae of Korean species of the subgenus Simulium are focused and included in this study. To understand their interspecific relationships, phylogenetic analyses using multiple data from molecule, morphology, and ecology are warranted in future research. Also continued exploration for new character systems is needed to establish more stable boundaries for subgenus and species delimitations.

  17. Blue and Black Cloth Targets: Effects of Size, Shape and Color on Stable Fly (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable fly management has been challenging. Insecticide-treated targets made from blue and black fabric, developed in Africa, were evaluated in Louisiana and Florida to determine if they would attract and kill stable flies. Untreated targets were used to answer questions about configuration, size an...

  18. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liland, Nina S; Biancarosa, Irene; Araujo, Pedro; Biemans, Daan; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  19. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S Liland

    Full Text Available Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  20. Adaptation and prospects of breeding flies Black lvink (Hermetia illucens in circumpolar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology has recently become pervasive, as a prospective branch of science that study the possibilities of using living organisms, systems or products of their vital activity to solve technological problems. American type of fly - the Black lvink (Hermetia illucens is used as a research object. The species lives in countries with warm climate, but recently the issue of flies breeding in the regions with cold climatic conditions has been actively discussed. Unlike America and countries of Western Europe, in Russia this issue is underexplored. The analysis of literature sources will allow determining the optimal conditions for the growth, development and reproduction of the species in artificially created laboratory conditions. The insect has gained widespread appreciation due to its highly effective bioconversion of various solid organic wastes as well as high nutrition of larvae with the possibility of using them in feeding farm animals and aquaculture. However, this is not the full range of research areas of fly use. The larva of the fly is characterized by the ability to absorb virtually any biowastes. As a result, its body accumulates a complex of substances, the percentage of which depends on the diet. The larva contains about 40% amino acids which produce a favorable effect on the growth and development of farm animals and birds, and confirm the possibility of using dry larvae as a fodder additive. Black lvink causes great scientific and practical interest. Artificial creation of the necessary conditions for the life of the species when studying and adaptation of an insect in cold climate as well as the development of technologies for the development and reproduction of insects in laboratory and industrial conditions will provide fly breeding in circumpolar regions and allow developing a number of biotechnology directions in Arkhangelsk region.

  1. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  2. Blue and Black Cloth Targets: Effects of Size, Shape, and Color on Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Foil, Lane D

    2018-04-02

    Stable fly management is challenging because of the fly's dispersal behavior and its tendency to remain on the host only while feeding. Optically attractive traps have been used to survey and sometimes reduce adult populations. Insecticide-treated blue and black cloth targets developed for tsetse fly management in Africa were found to be attractive to stable flies in the United States, and various evaluations were conducted in Louisiana and Florida. Tests using untreated targets were designed to answer questions about configuration, size, and color relative to efficacy and stability in high winds. Studies with electric grid targets and with targets paired with Olson traps showed cloth target color attraction in the following decreasing order: black > blue-black > blue. A solid black target is easier to make than a blue-black target because no sewing is involved. Attraction was not affected when flat 1-m2 targets were formed into cylinders, despite the limited view of the blue and black colors together. There was no reduction in attraction when the 1-m2 cylindrical targets were compared with smaller (63 × 30 cm high) cylindrical targets. In addition, there was no difference in attraction between the small blue-black, blue, and black targets. Significance of findings and implications of potential uses for treated targets are discussed. Target attraction was indicated by the numbers of stable flies captured on an Olson sticky trap placed 30 cm from the target. Although this system is adequate for field research, it greatly underestimates the actual numbers of stable flies attracted to treated targets.

  3. Application of dry separative methods for decreasing content the residues unburned coal and separation Fe from black coal flies ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Kaľavský

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Main obstacle using of fly ashes in building, that is its main consumer, is the residue of unburned coal; it is expressed of loss onignition - LOI. In present, the valid STN and EU standard limits the content of LOI to 3 – 5 %, in national conditions maximum 7 %.Application of processing technologies also has to assure utilization of fly ash that provides a possibility of complex utilizationof individual products obtained by modification.By means of corona separation, based on different conductivity of individual fly ash elements, it is possible to separate unburnedcoal particles. The fly ash sample from black coal burning in melting boiler that was deposited on fly ash deposit, content of LOIof dielectric particle 6,45 % at 61 % weight yield was achieved. In the samples taken from dry taking of fly ash the non-conductingproduct contained 7,72 % of LOI at 73 % of weight yield.

  4. Anti-oxidative and inflammatory responses induced by fly ash particles and carbon black in lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diabate, Silvia; Plaumann, Diana; Uebel, Caroline; Weiss, Carsten [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bergfeldt, Britta [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Technical Chemistry, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Combustion-derived nanoparticles as constituents of ambient particulate matter have been shown to induce adverse health effects due to inhalation. However, the components inducing these effects as well as the biological mechanisms are still not fully understood. The fine fraction of fly ash particles collected from the electrostatic precipitator of a municipal solid waste incinerator was taken as an example for real particles with complex composition released into the atmosphere to study the mechanism of early biological responses of BEAS-2B human lung epithelial cells. The studies include the effects of the water-soluble and -insoluble fractions of the fly ash and the well-studied carbon black nanoparticles were used as a reference. Fly ash induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased the total cellular glutathione (tGSH) content. Carbon black also induced ROS generation; however, in contrast to the fly ash, it decreased the intracellular tGSH. The fly ash-induced oxidative stress was correlated with induction of the anti-oxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 and increase of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. Carbon black was not able to induce HO-1. ROS generation, tGSH increase and HO-1 induction were only induced by the insoluble fraction of the fly ash, not by the water-soluble fraction. ROS generation and HO-1 induction were markedly inhibited by pre-incubation of the cells with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine which confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress. Both effects were also reduced by the metal chelator deferoxamine indicating a contribution of bioavailable transition metals. In summary, both fly ash and carbon black induce ROS but only fly ash induced an increase of intracellular tGSH and HO-1 production. Bioavailable transition metals in the solid water-insoluble matrix of the fly ash mostly contribute to the effects. (orig.)

  5. Araucnephia iberaensis n. sp., a Neotropical Black Fly with a Peculiar Distribution (Diptera-Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Coscarón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Araucnephia Wygodzinsky & Coscarón is a Neotropical black fly genus in which only one species from Central Chile is known. Another species has now been found in Corrientes province on the eastern side of the Iberá tropical swamps of Argentina, on the western border of the mountainous region of southern Brazil. This new species, A. iberaensis, is herein described and illustrated and information on its bionomics is recorded. It is an interesting species because previous to its discovery no black fly genus or subgenus from Central Chile region has been found in tropical areas, because these two regions are separated by the Monte and Pampas realms. Similarly, no Brazilian genus or subgenus has crossed the Andes mountains to Chile. A comparison with other Neotropical, Nearctic, Ethiopian (Afrotropical and Australian Prosimuliini (sensu Crosskey & Howard showed Araucnephia to be a valid taxon most closely related to Araucnephioides (sympatric in Chile. Araucnephia also shows great affinities with Lutzsimulium from Southeast Brazil and Argentina and Paracnephia from South Africa.

  6. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against eggs of Citrus black fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Araujo, Michel M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert H.S.F.; Silva, Priscila P.V.; Arthur, Valter

    2009-01-01

    The citrus black fruit fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) is an important pest of citrus originated in Southeast Asia and its first record in the new world was in Jamaica in 1913. In Brazil, it was detected in 2001 in the state of Para and more recently it was detected in Sao Paulo in 2008. This pest that attacks over 300 species of plants, but its main host are citrus. It is an A2 quarantine pest, because it is not spread throughout the country. The objective of this study was to test doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy of gamma irradiation for disinfection of eggs of the citrus black fruit fly in leaves of citrus plants. Treatment consisted of 5 replicates with 60 eggs each. Evaluations were performed in the following periods: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after irradiation. Under the conditions assayed, it could be concluded that a dose of 200 Gy caused 100% mortality of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby eggs and could be recommended as a successful quarantine processing against infested plants. (author)

  7. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; De Clercq, Patrick; De Smet, Stefaan

    2017-06-01

    Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and substrates were freeze-dried and proximate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral analyses were performed. Protein content of prepupae varied between 399 and 431 g kg -1 dry matter (DM) among treatments. Differences in amino acid profile of prepupae were small. On the other hand, the ether extract (EE) and ash contents differed substantially. Prepupae reared on digestate were low in EE and high in ash (218 and 197 g kg -1 DM, respectively) compared to those reared on vegetable waste (371 and 96 g kg -1 DM, respectively), chicken feed (336 and 100 g kg -1 DM, respectively) and restaurant waste (386 and 27 g kg -1 DM, respectively). Prepupal fatty acid profiles were characterised by high levels of C12:0 in all treatments. Since protein content and quality were high and comparable for prepupae reared on different substrates, black soldier fly could be an interesting protein source for animal feeds. However, differences in EE and ash content as a function of substrate should be considered. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia.

  9. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  10. Tests of conspecificity for allopatric vectors: Simulium nodosum and Simulium shirakii (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Van Lun; Adler, Peter H; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn; Huang, Yao-Te; Hadi, Upik Kesumawati; Da Pham, Xuan; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-29

    Allopatric populations present challenges for biologists working with vectors. We suggest that conspecificity can be concluded in these cases when data from four character sets-chromosomal, ecological, molecular, and morphological-express variation no greater between the allopatric populations than between corresponding sympatric populations. We use this approach to test the conspecificity of Simulium nodosum Puri on the mainland of Southeast Asia and Simulium shirakii Kono & Takahasi in Taiwan. The validity of these two putative species has long been disputed given that they are morphologically indistinguishable. The mitochondria-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), 12S rRNA, and 16S rRNA genes and the nuclear-encoded 28S rRNA gene support the conspecific status of S. nodosum from Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam and S. shirakii from Taiwan; 0 to 0.19 % genetic differences between the two taxa suggest intraspecific polymorphism. The banding patterns of the polytene chromosomes of the insular Taiwanese population of S. shirakii and mainland populations of S. nodosum are congruent. The overlapping ranges of habitat characteristics and hosts of S. nodosum and S. shirakii corroborate the chromosomal, molecular, and morphological data. Four independent sources of evidence (chromosomes, DNA, ecology, and morphology) support the conspecificity of S. nodosum and S. shirakii. We, therefore, synonymize S. shirakii with S. nodosum. This study provides a guide for applying the procedure of testing conspecificity to other sets of allopatric vectors.

  11. To Find an Image: Black Films from Uncle Tom to Super Fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James P.

    This book surveys the roles of blacks in the film industry. The introduction discusses the question if why there should be a black cinema. The seventeen sections of the book discuss such people and topics as the black actor, movies and life and black people, Sidney Poitier as the black superstar, Diahann Carroll and black female singers in movies,…

  12. "A Fly in the Buttermilk": Descriptions of University Life by Successful Black Undergraduate Students at a Predominately White Southeastern University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mitzi; Dias-Bowie, Yvonne; Greenberg, Katherine; Klukken, Gary; Pollio, Howard R.; Thomas, Sandra P.; Thompson, Charles L.

    2004-01-01

    "And so a lot of times I felt out of place, because you see all white faces. You know I'm the only fly in the buttermilk, so that took some getting used to ..." These words, shared by a black student during an interview for the present study, poignantly reflect the essence of the experience of being a minority student on a predominately white…

  13. Polymerase Chain Reaction Pool Screening Used To Compare Prevalence of Infective Black Flies in Two Onchocerciasis Foci in Northern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higazi, Tarig B.; Zarroug, Isam M. A.; Mohamed, Hanan A.; Mohamed, Wigdan A.; Deran, Tong Chor M.; Aziz, Nabil; Katabarwa, Moses; Hassan, Hassan K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Mackenzie, Charles D.; Richards, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Onchocerciasis remains an important debilitating disease in many areas of Africa, including Sudan. The status of infection transmission in 2007 was assessed in the vectors of two disease foci in Sudan: Abu Hamed in northern Sudan, which has received at least 10 years of annual treatment and Galabat focus in eastern Sudan, where only minor, largely undocumented treatment activity has occurred. Assessment of more than 30,000 black flies for Onchocerca volvulus infectious stage L3 larvae by using an O-150 polymerase chain reaction protocol showed that black fly infectivity rates were 0.84 (95% confidence interval = 0.0497–1.88) per 10,000 flies for Abu Hamed and 6.9 (95% confidence interval = 1.1–16.4) infective flies per 10,000 for Galabat. These results provide entomologic evidence for suppressed Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Abu Hamed focus and a moderate transmission rate of the parasite in the Galabat focus. PMID:21540385

  14. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens as Animal Feed and Human Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shiang Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  15. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) as Animal Feed and Human Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Shiang; Shelomi, Matan

    2017-10-18

    Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  16. Uptake of heavy metals and arsenic in black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae grown on seaweed-enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancarosa, Irene; Liland, Nina S; Biemans, Daan; Araujo, Pedro; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan; Amlund, Heidi

    2018-04-01

    The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is one of the most promising insect species for use in animal feed. However, studies investigating feed and food safety aspects of using black soldier fly as feed are scarce. In this study, we fed black soldier fly larvae feeding media enriched with seaweed, which contains naturally high concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential transfer of such undesirable substances from the feeding media to the larvae. The larvae accumulated cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic. Concentrations of these elements in the larvae increased when more seaweed was added to the feeding media. The highest retention was seen for cadmium (up to 93%) and the lowest for total arsenic (up to 22%). When seaweed inclusion exceeded 20% in the media, this resulted in larval concentrations of cadmium and total arsenic above the current European Union maximum levels for these elements in complete feed. Our results confirm that insect larvae can accumulate heavy metals and arsenic when present in the feeding media. A broader understanding of the occurrence of these undesirable substances in processed larvae products is needed to assess feed and food safety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent a sustainable method for reducing animal and plant wastes. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. The prepupae can be self-harvested and used as feedstuff for livestock and poultry. While som...

  18. Performances of local poultry breed fed black soldier fly larvae reared on horse manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Moula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In poultry, feed based on maggots, like larvae of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens is an attractive option to substitute current ingredients which are expensive and often in direct or indirect competition with human food. Little information is currently available on the utility of these larvae in poultry feed, so goals of this study were to determine whether larvae could be reared on horse manure under traditional farming conditions and to evaluate the growth performances of a local poultry fed these larvae and the fatty acids profiles of their meat. After freezing and thawing, larvae were introduced in the feed of Ardennaise chickens between 30 and 80 days of age. Birds in the control group received a commercial standard feed, while those in the treatment group received the same commercial feed in which 8% was substituted with whole fresh larvae corresponding to 2% on a dry matter basis. Means ± standard errors of larval length and weight were 20.67 ± 2.21 mm and 0.14 ± 0.02 g, respectively. Mean larval percentages of dry matter and of substances extractable in diethyl ether were 24.6% and 23.1%, respectively. Larval fatty acids profiles were predominantly composed of lauric acid (28.1% and palmitic acid (22.0%. Least squares means of weekly weights of chicken, adjusted for the effects of sex, replication and initial weights, were significantly higher (P < 0.05 by 77.03 ± 53.37 g in larvae-fed than in control chickens. All other measurements were not statistically different between larvae-fed and control chicken, including fatty acid profiles, protein content and ω6/ω3 ratio. Keywords: Insect farming, Chicken, Local breed, Growth performance, Meat quality, Fatty acid profile

  19. Dynamic changes of nutrient composition throughout the entire life cycle of black soldier fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Liu

    Full Text Available Black soldier fly (BSF larvae, Hermetia illucens L., develops on organic wastes, reducing ecological pollution and converting waste biomass into protein and fat rich insect biomass. BSF can replace increasingly expensive protein sources used in poultry, aquaculture and livestock compound diet formulation, such as fish meal and soybean meal, which holds the potential to alleviate future food and feed insecurity. The fate of nutritional spectra in BSF during its life cycle phases is still poorly understood. This study assessed metabolic changes in nutrition composition of BSF from egg to adult. A rapid increase of crude fat content was observed since the development of 4-14 days of larvae with its maximum level reaching 28.4% in dry mass, whereas the crude protein displayed a continuous decreasing trend in the same development phases with minimum level of 38% at larval phase (12 days and peak level of 46.2% at early pupa stage. A sharp drop in crude fat was noticed from early prepupae to late pupae (24.2%, 8.2% respectively. However crude protein shows its maximum value being 57.6% at postmortem adult stage with 21.6% fat level. In addition, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals and vitamins composition in different development stages of BSF were presented and compared. Findings from this study could provide podium to food and feed industry for framing a strategy for specific molecular nutritional component intake into the diets of humans, aquaculture and animals. It is also indicated that BSF is a possible insect which can be applied to combating the food scarcity of countries where micronutrient deficiency is prevalent. Moreover it contributes to advance exploring for developmental and metabolic biology of this edible insect.

  20. Human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian area of southern Venezuela: spatial and temporal variations in biting and parity rates of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, M E; Basáñez, M G; Vivas-Martínez, S; Villamizar, N; Frontado, H; Cortez, J; Coronel, P; Botto, C

    2001-07-01

    We investigated some entomological factors underlying altitudinal prevalence variation in the Venezuelan Amazonia human onchocerciasis focus. Spatial and temporal variation in relative abundance, daily biting rate, proportion of parous flies, and monthly parous biting rate were studied for the three main simuliid vectors (based on their vectorial competence: Simulium oyapockense s.l. Floch & Abonnenc approximately = S. incrustatum Lutz Yanomami villages were selected among sentinel communities of the ivermectin control program, representing hypo- to hyperendemicity conditions of infection. Spatial variation was explored via increasing village altitude on two river systems (A: Ocamo-Putaco and B: Orinoco-Orinoquito). Temporal variation was studied between 1995 and 1999 by sampling the biting population during dry and rainy mouths. Environmental variables included monthly rainfall and maximum river height. Simuliid species composition itself varied along the altitudinal and prevalence gradient. S. oyapockense s.l. prevailed below 150 m. Above this altitude and up to 240 m, S. incrustatum and S. guianense s.l. became more frequently and evenly collected along A but not along B, where S. incrustatum remained absent. The daily biting rate of S. oyapockense s.l. was higher during the dry season along A, whereas the converse took place along B. Daily biting rate of S. incrustatum was lowest during early rains. By contrast, the daily biting rate of S. guianense s.l. was highest during this period. There was a significant negative cross-correlation between proportion of parous of S. oyapockense s.l. and river height (2 and 3 mo lagged), whereas this variable (1 and 2 mo lagged) was positively correlated with the proportion of parous flies for S. incrustatum. Monthly parous biting rate values suggest that the months contributing most to onchocerciasis transmission in the area are likely to be the dry season and the transition periods between seasons.

  1. Seasonal and diurnal biting activities and zoonotic filarial infections of two Simulium species (Diptera: Simuliidae in northern Thailand

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    Ishii Y.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and daily biting activity patterns, and natural filarial infections of adult black flies attracted to human bait were investigated at Ban Pang Faen, a rural area in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand. Collections were carried out twice a month from 06-00 to 18-00 hours from January 2005 to February 2006. Among ten Simulium species collected, S. nodosum and S. asakoae were predominant occupying 57.3% and 37.2% of the total 16, 553 females, respectively. These two predominant species showed different patterns in seasonal abundance: majority of S. nodosum (86.7% were collected in hot season (from mid February to mid May, while most of S. asakoae (74.5% were collected in rainy season (from mid May to mid October. For the daily biting activity, S. nodosum had two patterns: the main one was unimodal with a peak from 17-00 to 18-00, and the other was bimodal and had the major peak from 16-00 to 18-00 and the minor one from 07-00 to 09-00. The pattern of S. asakoae was mostly unimodal with a peak from 06-00 to 10-00. The filarial larvae found in S. nodosum and S. asakoae were morphologically different from each other. The short and thick infective larvae found in S. asakoae differed from all known filarial larvae; it is suggested that they might be a bird parasite, Splendidofilariinae or Lemdaninae. The infection of the mammophilic S. nodosum with large Onchocerca type infective larvae was confirmed in this area. Natural filarial infections were found in each month (except December in either S. nodosum or S. asakoae or in both. Monthly infection rates with all stages of larvae were 0.6-5.0% for S. nodosum, and 1.0-4.0% for S. asakoae. It is suggested that people in this village are exposed to the risk of infection with zoonotic filariae throughout the year.

  2. Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Low, Van Lun; Zaid, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from Yagyakarta, Java, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium epistum species-group, and is characterized by the pupal gill with eight short filaments all arising at the same level from a short stalk, somewhat enlarged basal fenestra, entirely bare pupal head and thoracic integument, and small and short larval postgenal cleft. These characters rarely are found in the subgenus. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from related species of the S. epistum species-group. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Assessing the potential effects of fungicides on nontarget gut fungi (trichomycetes) and their associated larval black fly hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emma R.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Gray, Elmer; Bond, Laura; Steele, Lance; Kandel, Prasanna; Chamberlin, Alison; Gause, Justin; Reynolds, Nicole; Robertson, Ian; Novak, Stephen; Feris, Kevin; White, Merlin M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungicides are moderately hydrophobic and have been detected in water and sediment, particularly in agricultural watersheds, but typically are not included in routine water quality monitoring efforts. This is despite their widespread use and frequent application to combat fungal pathogens. Although the efficacy of these compounds on fungal pathogens is well documented, little is known about their effects on nontarget fungi. This pilot study, a field survey in southwestern Idaho from April to December 2010 on four streams with varying pesticide inputs (two agricultural and two reference sites), was conducted to assess nontarget impact of fungicides on gut fungi, or trichomycetes. Tissues of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), hosts of gut fungi, were analyzed for pesticide accumulation. Fungicides were detected in hosts from streams within agricultural watersheds but were not detected in hosts from reference streams. Gut fungi from agricultural sites exhibited decreased percent infestation, density and sporulation within the gut, and black fly tissues had elevated pesticide concentrations. Differences observed between the sites demonstrate a potential effect on this symbiotic system. Future research is needed to parse out the details of the complex biotic and abiotic relationships; however, these preliminary results indicate that impacts to nontarget organisms could have far-reaching consequences within aquatic ecosystems.

  4. The phylogeny of Simulium (Chirostilbia (Diptera: Simuliidae and perspectives on the systematics of the genus in the Neotropical Region

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    Leonardo Henrique Gil-Azevedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, knowledge of Neotropical Simuliidae has been accumulating quickly. However, information about supra-specific relationships is scarce and diagnoses of Simulium subgenera are unsatisfactory. To investigate the relationships among Simulium (Chirostilbia species and test the subgenus monophyly, we performed a cladistic analysis. The ingroup included all species of this subgenus and the outgroup included representatives of the 17 species groups of Neotropical Simulium and three Holarctic species. The study was based on a data matrix with 31 terminal taxa and 45 morphological characteristics of adult, pupa and larva. The phylogenetic analysis under equal weights resulted in eight most-parsimonious trees (length = 178, consistency index = 34, retention index = 67. The monophyly of the S. (Chirostilbia was not supported in our analysis. The Simulium subpallidum species group was closer to Simulium (Psilopelmia and Simulium (Ectemnaspis than to the Simulium pertinax species group. Additionally, we describe the three-dimensional shape of the terminalia of male and female of Simulium (Chirostilbia for the first time and provide comments about the taxonomic problems involving some species of the subgenus: Simulium acarayense, Simulium papaveroi, S. pertinax, Simulium serranum, Simulium striginotum and S. subpallidum.

  5. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) informing the design of LED-based illumination to enhance indoor reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Volk, N.; Diehl, J.J.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Belušič, G.

    2016-01-01

    Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements

  6. Diurnal biting periodicity of parous Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) vectors in the onchocerciasis Amazonian focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, M-E; Villamizar, N J; Cortez, J; Frontado, H L; Escalona, M; Vivas-Martínez, S; Basáñez, M-G

    2005-05-01

    We describe the hourly patterns of parous biting activity of the three main simuliid vectors of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus straddling between Venezuela and Brazil, namely, Simulium guianense s.l. Wise; S. incrustatum Lutz, and S. oyapockense s.l. Floch and Abonnenc. Time series of the hourly numbers of host-seeking parous flies caught in five Yanomami villages during dry, rainy, and their transition periods from 1995 to 2001 were investigated using harmonic analysis (assuming an underlying circadian rhythm) and periodic correlation (based on Spearman's r). Parous S guianense s.l. showed a bimodal activity pattern, with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at 16:00 h. S. incrustatum exhibited mainly unimodal activity during either early morning or midday according to locality. S. oyapockense s.l. bit humans throughout the day mainly between 10:00 and 16:00 h but also showed bimodal periodicity in some localities. Superimposed on the endogenous, species-specific daily cycles, parous activity showed variation according to locality, season, air temperature and relative humidity, with biting being promoted by warmer and drier hours during wet seasons/periods and reduced during hotter times in dry seasons or transitions. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for blackfly biology and ecology as well as onchocerciasis epidemiology and control.

  7. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Neusa Hamada

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season.

  8. Simulium hiroyukii, a new species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Mount Murud, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2015-01-20

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) hiroyukii is described based on females, males, pupae and larvae collected in Mount Murud, Sarawak, Malaysia. This new species is assigned to the Simulium darjeelingense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia, and is characterized by the darkened fore coxae and the pupal gill with eight long filaments, of which middle and dorsal triplets have elongated primary and secondary stalks, respectively. 

  9. Possibilities of utilization of fly ash from the black coal Power Engineering of the U. S. Steel Košice

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    Františka Michalíková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents modes of a direct utilization of the fly ash by-product of the combustion of black power coal in the slag - bottom boilers of the Division Plant Power Engineering ( DP PE of the U. S. Steel Košice ( next USSK . The properties of fly ash limit its use in metallurgy and foundry industry. The fly ash is directly utilizable in the metallurgical industry as a component of powder cover mixtures and insulation inserts, heat insulation parts and exothermical mixtures. The most important components in the mixtures are light micro spheres – cenospheres and heavy micro spheres – plerospheres. The micro spheres significantly improve properties of the powder cover mixtures.

  10. Aflatoxin B1 Tolerance and Accumulation in Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) and Yellow Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Guido; Fels-Klerx, H J van der; Rijk, Theo C de; Oonincx, Dennis G A B

    2017-06-02

    Crops contaminated with fungal mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are often downgraded or removed from the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of AFB1 in two insect species to determine whether they could be used to retain condemned mycotoxin contaminated crops in the food chain. First, instar black soldier fly larvae ( Hermetia illucens , BSF) and yellow mealworm ( Tenebrio molitor , YMW) were fed poultry feed spiked with AFB1 and formulated to contain levels of 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.25, and up to 0.5 mg/kg dry feed. Poultry feed without any additions and feed with only the solvent added served as controls. The AFB1 in the feed did not affect survival and body weight in the BSF and YMW larvae ( p > 0.10), indicating a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 in both species. Furthermore, AFB1 and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) were below the detection limit (0.10 µg/kg) in BSF larvae, whereas the YMW had AFB1 levels that were approximately 10% of the European Union's legal limit for feed materials and excreted AFM1. It is concluded that both BSF larvae and YMW have a high AFB1 tolerance and do not accumulate AFB1.

  11. The immune gene repertoire of an important viral reservoir, the Australian black flying fox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papenfuss Anthony T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bats are the natural reservoir host for a range of emerging and re-emerging viruses, including SARS-like coronaviruses, Ebola viruses, henipaviruses and Rabies viruses. However, the mechanisms responsible for the control of viral replication in bats are not understood and there is little information available on any aspect of antiviral immunity in bats. Massively parallel sequencing of the bat transcriptome provides the opportunity for rapid gene discovery. Although the genomes of one megabat and one microbat have now been sequenced to low coverage, no transcriptomic datasets have been reported from any bat species. In this study, we describe the immune transcriptome of the Australian flying fox, Pteropus alecto, providing an important resource for identification of genes involved in a range of activities including antiviral immunity. Results Towards understanding the adaptations that have allowed bats to coexist with viruses, we have de novo assembled transcriptome sequence from immune tissues and stimulated cells from P. alecto. We identified about 18,600 genes involved in a broad range of activities with the most highly expressed genes involved in cell growth and maintenance, enzyme activity, cellular components and metabolism and energy pathways. 3.5% of the bat transcribed genes corresponded to immune genes and a total of about 500 immune genes were identified, providing an overview of both innate and adaptive immunity. A small proportion of transcripts found no match with annotated sequences in any of the public databases and may represent bat-specific transcripts. Conclusions This study represents the first reported bat transcriptome dataset and provides a survey of expressed bat genes that complement existing bat genomic data. In addition, these data provide insight into genes relevant to the antiviral responses of bats, and form a basis for examining the roles of these molecules in immune response to viral infection.

  12. The Impact of Diet Protein and Carbohydrate on Select Life-History Traits of The Black Soldier Fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, Jonathan A; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2017-05-31

    This study examined the impact of diet protein and carbohydrate percentages as well as moisture on the immature development, survivorship, and resulting adult longevity and egg production of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Moisture impacted development and corresponding life-history traits more than protein:carbohydrate content; larvae were unable to develop on diets at 40% moisture. Larvae fed diets at 70% moisture developed faster, grew larger, and required less food than those reared on diets at 55% moisture. Larvae reared on the balanced diet (21% protein:21% carbohydrate) at 70% moisture developed the fastest on the least amount of food and had the greatest survivorship to the prepupal stage. Adult emergence and longevity were similar across treatments, indicating immature life-history traits were impacted the most. The control (Gainesville house fly) diet was superior to the artificial diets for all parameters tested. These differences could indicate that other constituents (e.g., associated microbes) serve a role in black soldier fly development. These data are valuable for industrialization of this insect as a "green" technology for recycling organic waste, which can be highly variable, to produce protein for use as feed in the livestock, poultry, and aquaculture industries, as well as for bioenergy production.

  13. Identification of semiochemicals attractive to Simulium vittatum (IS-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verocai, G G; McGAHA, T W; Iburg, J P; Katholi, C R; Cupp, E W; Noblet, R; Unnasch, T R

    2017-06-01

    Many blackfly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) are economically important insect pests, both as nuisance biters and as vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance. Among the important blackfly pest species in North America is Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt sensu lato. The objective of this study was to identify compounds excreted by mammalian hosts that are attractive to host-seeking S. vittatum females. The attractiveness of putative compounds to colonized S. vittatum was tested through electrophysiological (electroantennography; n = 58 compounds) and behavioural (Y-tube assays; n = 7 compounds in three concentrations) bioassays. Five compounds were significantly attractive to host-seeking S. vittatum females: 1-octen-3-ol; 2-heptanone; acetophenone; 1-octanol, and naphthalene. These candidate compounds might be useful as attractants in traps that could be developed for use in alternative or complementary management tactics in programmes to suppress nuisance blackfly populations, or for the collection of samples in which to study the transmission ecology of pathogens transmitted by blackflies of the S. vittatum complex. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. Effects of moisture content of food waste on residue separation, larval growth and larval survival in black soldier fly bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2017-09-01

    In order to foster sustainable management of food waste, innovations in food waste valorization technologies are crucial. Black soldier fly (BSF) bioconversion is an emerging technology that can turn food waste into high-protein fish feed through the use of BSF larvae. The conventional method of BSF bioconversion is to feed BSF larvae with food waste directly without any moisture adjustment. However, it was reported that difficulty has been experienced in the separation of the residue (larval excreta and undigested material) from the insect biomass due to excessive moisture. In addition to the residue separation problem, the moisture content of the food waste may also affect the growth and survival aspects of BSF larvae. This study aims to determine the most suitable moisture content of food waste that can improve residue separation as well as evaluate the effects of the moisture content of food waste on larval growth and survival. In this study, pre-consumer and post-consumer food waste with different moisture content (70%, 75% and 80%) was fed to BSF larvae in a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor. The results show that the residue can be effectively separated from the insect biomass by sieving using a 2.36mm sieve, for both types of food waste at 70% and 75% moisture content. However, sieving of the residue was not feasible for food waste at 80% moisture content. On the other hand, reduced moisture content of food waste was found to slow down larval growth. Hence, there is a trade-off between the sieving efficiency of the residue and the larval growth rate. Furthermore, the larval survival rate was not affected by the moisture content of food waste. A high larval survival rate of at least 95% was achieved using a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor for all treatment groups. The study provides valuable insights for the waste management industry on understanding the effects of moisture content when employing BSF bioconversion for food waste recycling

  15. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies from the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Sim, Sheina B; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-03-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA as major hosts: the native black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and the introduced ornamental English hawthorn, C. monogyna. Apple and downy hawthorn-origin flies in the eastern USA use volatile blends emitted from the surface of their respective ripening fruit to find and discriminate among host trees. To test whether the same is true for western flies, we used coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and developed a 7-component apple fruit blend for western apple-origin flies, an 8-component black hawthorn fruit blend for flies infesting C. douglasii, and a 9-component ornamental hawthorn blend for flies from C. monogyna. Crataegus douglasii and C. monogyna-origin flies showed similar levels of upwind directed flight to their respective natal synthetic fruit blends in flight tunnel assays compared to whole fruit adsorbent extracts, indicating that the blends contain all the behaviorally relevant fruit volatiles to induce maximal response levels. The black and ornamental hawthorn blends shared four compounds in common including 3-methylbutan-1-ol, which appears to be a key volatile for R. pomonella populations in the eastern, southern, and western USA that show a preference for fruit from different Crataegus species. However, the blends also differed from one another and from domesticated apple in several respects that make it possible that western R. pomonella flies behaviorally discriminate among fruit volatiles and form ecologically differentiated host races, as is the case for eastern apple and hawthorn flies.

  16. Determining the Number of Instars in Simulium quinquestriatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) Using k-Means Clustering via the Canberra Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao Ming; Jia, Ruo; Xun, Hui; Yang, Jie; Chen, Qiang; Zeng, Xiang Guang; Yang, Ming

    2018-02-21

    Simulium quinquestriatum Shiraki (Diptera: Simuliidae), a human-biting fly that is distributed widely across Asia, is a vector for multiple pathogens. However, the larval development of this species is poorly understood. In this study, we determined the number of instars in this pest using three batches of field-collected larvae from Guiyang, Guizhou, China. The postgenal length, head capsule width, mandibular phragma length, and body length of 773 individuals were measured, and k-means clustering was used for instar grouping. Four distance measures-Manhattan, Euclidean, Chebyshev, and Canberra-were determined. The reported instar numbers, ranging from 4 to 11, were set as initial cluster centers for k-means clustering. The Canberra distance yielded reliable instar grouping, which was consistent with the first instar, as characterized by egg bursters and prepupae with dark histoblasts. Females and males of the last cluster of larvae were identified using Feulgen-stained gonads. Morphometric differences between the two sexes were not significant. Validation was performed using the Brooks-Dyar and Crosby rules, revealing that the larval stage of S. quinquestriatum is composed of eight instars.

  17. Isozyme variation in four species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidae from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic studies of isozymes were done with four closely related species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidade in the Brazilian Amazon, using last-instar larvae collected in the field. Ten enzymes were studied, which yielded 11 loci. Diagnostic loci were not found between Simulium maroniense cytotype D and Simulium rorotaense. Simulium maroniense and S. rorotaense differed from Simulium trombetense by two diagnostic loci (Me and Xdh, and Simulium perflavum differed from the other three species by four diagnostic loci (Me, Xdh, Mdh, and Got. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.30 to 2.30, the percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 18.2 to 63.6% and the mean heterozygosity values observed ranged from 0.062 to 0.108. Genetic distances among the species ranged from 0.010 to 0.581. The lowest value was obtained between S. maroniense and S. rorotaense, and the highest between S. perflavum and S. trombetense. The genetic relationships among the four S. perflavum group species indicate that they are closely related. The high similarity at the isozyme level, allied to previous studies of morphology and polytene chromosomes, may suggest that the divergence time since the separation of S. maroniense and S. rorotaense is still too recent for diagnostic loci to have evolved.

  18. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) informing the design of LED-based illumination to enhance indoor reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; Volk, N; Diehl, J J E; van Loon, J J A; Belušič, G

    2016-12-01

    Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements revealed that BSF ommatidia contained UV-, blue- and green-sensitive photoreceptor cells, allowing trichromatic vision. An illumination system for indoor breeding based on UV, blue and green LEDs was designed and its efficiency was compared with illumination by fluorescent tubes which have been successfully used to sustain a BSF colony for five years. Illumination by LEDs and the fluorescent tubes yielded equal numbers of egg clutches, however, the LED illumination resulted in significantly more larvae. The possibilities to optimize the current LED illumination system to better approximate the skylight illuminant and potentially optimize the larval yield are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biting-density and microfilariae infection of Simulium damnosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations on the biting-density and microfilariae infection rate of S. damnosumsl population caught around the Mada River was conducted between May 2013 to April 2014. Captured flies were morphologically identified and dissected for parity and infectivity rate. A total of 308 adult female S. damnosum sl were caught, ...

  20. distribution of simulium species and its infection with onchocerca

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    . Detection of the parasites in the vector was attained by dissection of flies under dissecting microscope. The result revealed that the prevalence of microfilariae among insects collected in the months July and August was 23.08% and 21.47%.

  1. Coleção de simuliídeos (Diptera - Simuliidae de Adolpho Lutz, sua história e importância Adolpho Lutz's collection of black flies (Diptera - Simuliidae, its history and importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Ribeiro do Amaral-Calvão

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é parte de uma dissertação de mestrado em elaboração no curso de pós-graduação em biologia animal da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, apoiado pela CAPES. Nele, são apresentadas as espécies de simuliídeos que pertencem à coleção de Adolpho Lutz depositadas no Laboratório de Simuliídeos e Oncocercose do Departamento de Entomologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC. Pioneiro no estudo desses dípteros, Lutz descreveu cerca de 25 espécies de diferentes localidades do Brasil. Vetor da oncocercose, os simuliídeos tiveram sua importância médico-sanitária reconhecida em fins da década de 1920.This paper is part of a master's thesis currently being written under the auspices of the Post-Graduate Program in Animal Biology of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, with support from CAPES. It presents the species of black flies in Adolpho Lutz's collection, held at the Laboratory of Black Flies and Oncocercosis of the Department of Entomology of the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. A pioneer in the study of these dipterons, Lutz described about 25 species from different places in Brazil. A vector of round worm, the black fly's importance to public health was recognized at the end of the 1920s.

  2. Identification of entomopathogenic Bacillus isolated from Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae larvae and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavados CFG

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic bacteria isolated from Simulium larvae and adults from breeding sites in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were identified as 18 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and one of B. sphaericus. Most of these strains were serotyped according to their flagellar antigens. However, nine of the B. thuringiensis samples, could not be serotyped and were designated as "autoagglutinating"; they were also shown to be toxic in preliminary tests against Aedes aegypti larvae. Additionally, B. sphaericus was also shown to be toxic towards Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

  3. Distribution of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) along an elevational gradient in the Andes Mountains of Colombia during the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Juan S; Moncada, Ligia I; Matta, Nubia E; Adler, Peter H

    2018-07-01

    Vector ecology is a key factor in understanding the transmission of disease agents, with each species having an optimal range of environmental requirements. Scarce data, however, are available for how interactions of local and broad-scale climate phenomena, such as seasonality and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), affect simuliids. We, therefore, conducted an exploratory study to examine distribution patterns of species of Simuliidae along an elevational gradient of the Otún River in the Colombian Andes, encompassing four ecoregions. Larval and pupal simuliids were sampled at 52 sites ranging from 1800 to 4750 m above sea level in dry and wet seasons and during the La Niña phase (2011-2012) and the El Niño phase (2015-2016) of the ENSO; physicochemical measurements were taken during the El Niño phase. Twenty-seven species in two genera (Gigantodax and Simulium) were collected. Species richness and occurrence in each ecoregion were influenced by elevation, seasonality, and primarily the warm El Niño and cool La Niña phases of the ENSO. The degree of change differed among ecoregions and was related to physicochemical factors, mainly with stream discharge. Some putative simuliid vectors of Leucocytozoon, such as G. misitu and S. muiscorum, markedly changed in distribution and occurrence, potentially influencing parasite transmission. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Purification and characterisation of immunoglobulins from the Australian black flying fox (Pteropus alecto using anti-fab affinity chromatography reveals the low abundance of IgA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Wynne

    Full Text Available There is now an overwhelming body of evidence that implicates bats in the dissemination of a long list of emerging and re-emerging viral agents, often causing illnesses or death in both animals and humans. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding the immunological mechanisms by which bats coexist with highly pathogenic viruses. Immunoglobulins are major components of the adaptive immune system. Early studies found bats may have quantitatively lower antibody responses to model antigens compared to conventional laboratory animals. To further understand the antibody response of bats, the present study purified and characterised the major immunoglobulin classes from healthy black flying foxes, Pteropus alecto. We employed a novel strategy, where IgG was initially purified and used to generate anti-Fab specific antibodies. Immobilised anti-Fab specific antibodies were then used to capture other immunoglobulins from IgG depleted serum. While high quantities of IgM were successfully isolated from serum, IgA was not. Only trace quantities of IgA were detected in the serum by mass spectrometry. Immobilised ligands specific to IgA (Jacalin, Peptide M and staphylococcal superantigen-like protein also failed to capture P. alecto IgA from serum. IgM was the second most abundant serum antibody after IgG. A survey of mucosal secretions found IgG was the dominant antibody class rather than IgA. Our study demonstrates healthy P. alecto bats have markedly less serum IgA than expected. Higher quantities of IgG in mucosal secretions may be compensation for this low abundance or lack of IgA. Knowledge and reagents developed within this study can be used in the future to examine class-specific antibody response within this important viral host.

  5. Purification and Characterisation of Immunoglobulins from the Australian Black Flying Fox (Pteropus alecto) Using Anti-Fab Affinity Chromatography Reveals the Low Abundance of IgA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiell, Brian J.; Beddome, Gary; Cowled, Christopher; Peck, Grantley R.; Huang, Jing; Grimley, Samantha L.; Baker, Michelle L.; Michalski, Wojtek P.

    2013-01-01

    There is now an overwhelming body of evidence that implicates bats in the dissemination of a long list of emerging and re-emerging viral agents, often causing illnesses or death in both animals and humans. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding the immunological mechanisms by which bats coexist with highly pathogenic viruses. Immunoglobulins are major components of the adaptive immune system. Early studies found bats may have quantitatively lower antibody responses to model antigens compared to conventional laboratory animals. To further understand the antibody response of bats, the present study purified and characterised the major immunoglobulin classes from healthy black flying foxes, Pteropus alecto. We employed a novel strategy, where IgG was initially purified and used to generate anti-Fab specific antibodies. Immobilised anti-Fab specific antibodies were then used to capture other immunoglobulins from IgG depleted serum. While high quantities of IgM were successfully isolated from serum, IgA was not. Only trace quantities of IgA were detected in the serum by mass spectrometry. Immobilised ligands specific to IgA (Jacalin, Peptide M and staphylococcal superantigen-like protein) also failed to capture P. alecto IgA from serum. IgM was the second most abundant serum antibody after IgG. A survey of mucosal secretions found IgG was the dominant antibody class rather than IgA. Our study demonstrates healthy P. alecto bats have markedly less serum IgA than expected. Higher quantities of IgG in mucosal secretions may be compensation for this low abundance or lack of IgA. Knowledge and reagents developed within this study can be used in the future to examine class-specific antibody response within this important viral host. PMID:23308125

  6. Moisture adsorption properties and shelf-life estimation of dried and pulverised edible house cricket Acheta domesticus (L.) and black soldier fly larvae Hermetia illucens (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, E; Mutungi, C; Kinyuru, J; Imathiu, S; Tanga, C; Affognon, H; Ekesi, S; Nakimbugwe, D; Fiaboe, K K M

    2018-04-01

    Edible insects are part of the diets of a significant proportion of rural populations in the tropics especially Africa and Asia, and their use as source of key nutrients for better nutrition is re-emerging. Indigenously, elemental methods are used to process the insects before they are consumed or sold in retail outlets. In recent years, better knowledge of processing, packaging and storage has become necessary because of commercialisation needs. A common processing approach involves drying after a brief heat-treatment step, and then milling into a powdered product which is sold to manufacturers or consumers as ingredient for processing final products. The hydration properties of dried powders of edible house cricket and black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) were studied with the aim of predicting shelf-life stability under typical packaging and storage temperatures experienced in the tropics. Moisture adsorption isotherms were determined gravimetrically at 25, 30 and 35 °C, over 0.11-0.97 water activity (a W ) range, and the data fitted to various models. Sorption isotherms were of type II according to Brunauer classification indicating monolayer-multilayer sorption behaviour. Cricket powder exhibited higher hydration capacity, and a W of this product was less sensitive to temperature variation as compared to BSFL powder. In the two products, water exhibited transitions from bound- to free- state at ~5 g/100 g moisture content. Based on Heiss-Eichner model, a shelf-life of 7 months at 25 °C can be achieved if the cricket and BSFL powders are dried to ca. 5 g/100 g moisture content and packaged in 80 μm thick polyethylene films. At 35 °C the shelf-life of the cricket product is shortened three- to four-fold whereas the BSFL powder is unable to store. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    the disease bring about the need to control onchocerciasis by understanding the mechanism of the host's ... The insect vector of Onchocerca is the black fly, Simulium. The larvae ...... D. immitis infection in dogs (WHO, 1987). Introduction of.

  8. Stability and change in the distribution of cytospecies of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in southern Ghana from 1971 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Rory J; Cheke, Robert A; Boakye, Daniel A; Wilson, Michael D; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Tetteh-Kumah, Anthony; Lamberton, Poppy Hl; Crainey, J Lee; Yaméogo, Laurent; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2013-07-13

    Simulium damnosum s.l., the most important vector of onchocerciasis in Africa, is a complex of sibling species that have been described on the basis of differences in their larval polytene chromosomes. These (cyto) species differ in their geographical distributions, ecologies and epidemiological roles. In Ghana, distributional changes have been recorded as a consequence of vector control and environmental change (e.g. deforestation), with potential disease consequences. We review the distribution of cytospecies in southern Ghana and report changes observed with reference to historical data collated from 1971 to 2005 and new identifications made between 2006 and 2011. Larvae were collected from riverine breeding sites, fixed in Carnoy's solution and chromosome preparations made. Cytotaxonomic identifications from 1,232 samples (including 49 new samples) were analysed. We report long-term stability in cytospecies distribution in the rivers Afram, Akrum, Pawnpawn and Pru. For the rivers Oda, Ofin and Tano we describe (for the first time) patterns of distribution. We could not detect cytospecies composition changes in the upper Pra, and the lower Pra seems to have been stable. The elimination of the Djodji form of S. sanctipauli in the Volta Region seems to have had no long-term effects on the distribution of the other cytospecies, despite an initial surge by S. yahense. There has been a recent increase in the occurrence of savannah cytospecies in the river Asukawkaw, and this might be related to continuing deforestation. Cytospecies' distributions have not been stable from 1971 to 2011. Although there are no obvious causes for the temporary appearance and subsequent disappearance of cytospecies in a particular location, a major influence has been vector control and migration patterns, probably explaining observed changes on the Black Volta and lower Volta rivers. Deforestation was previously implicated in an increase of savannah cytospecies in southern Ghana (1975

  9. Phylogeography and population diversity of Simulium hirtipupa Lutz (Diptera: Simuliidae based on mitochondrial COI sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderly Andrade-Souza

    Full Text Available High morphological homogeneity and cryptic speciation may cause the diversity within Simuliidae to be underestimated. Recent molecular studies on population genetics and phylogeography have contributed to reveal which factors influenced the diversity within this group. This study aimed at examining the genetic diversity of Simulium hirtipupa Lutz, 1910 in populations from the biomes Caatinga, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest. In this study, we carried out phylogeographic and population genetic analyses using a fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI. The 19 populations studied were clustered into seven groups, most of which are associated with geography indicating certain genetic structure. The northern region of the state of Minas Gerais is most likely the center of origin of this species. The average intergroup genetic distance was 3.7%, indicating the presence of cryptic species. The species tree as well as the haplotype network recovered all groups forming two major groups: the first comprises groups Gr-Bahia (in which the São Francisco river has not acted as geographical barrier, Gr-Pernambuco, and Gr-Mato Grosso do Sul. The second included groups comprising populations of the states of Goiás, Tocantins, Minas Gerais, Bahia, São Paulo, and Espírito Santo. The mismatch distribution for groups was consistent with the model of demographic expansion, except for the Gr-Central-East_1 group. The diversification in this group occurred about 1.19 Mya during the Pleistocene, influenced by paleoclimatic oscillations during the Quaternary glacial cycles.

  10. Evidence of phenotypic plasticity of larvae of Simulium subpallidum Lutz in different streams from the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Figueiró

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the overall morphological differences between populations of Simulium subpallidum Lutz, 1909 are studied. Several studies found in the literature point to a relationship between the labral fans and body size and the habitat where blackfly larvae occur. However, other characteristics potentially related to the microhabitat, such as abdominal hook circlet morphology, which is used for larvae to fix themselves in the substratum, and thoracic prolegs morphology, which help larvae move in the substratum, were analyzed in three different populations of S. subpallidum, one of which occupied a faster flow. The results suggest phenotypic plasticity in S. subpallidum and a tendency toward larger structures in faster flows.

  11. Use of distiller’s dried grains with solubles, which had been used as substrate for black soldier fly larvae, in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (MFM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black...

  12. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  13. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  14. On the ecology of the fauna of stones in the current in a South African river supporting a very large simulium (Diptera) population

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chutter, FM

    1968-12-01

    Full Text Available the studies described here were made. The first aim of this work was to record the density of the Simulium larvae and also of the other invertebrate animals in the river at different times of the year from Warrenton down to Barkly West....

  15. The Genomic Architecture of Novel Simulium damnosum Wolbachia Prophage Sequence Elements and Implications for Onchocerciasis Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Crainey

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Research interest in Wolbachia is growing as new discoveries and technical advancements reveal the public health importance of both naturally occurring and artificial infections. Improved understanding of the Wolbachia bacteriophages (WOs WOcauB2 and WOcauB3 [belonging to a sub-group of four WOs encoding serine recombinases group 1 (sr1WOs], has enhanced the prospect of novel tools for the genetic manipulation of Wolbachia. The basic biology of sr1WOs, including host range and mode of genomic integration is, however, still poorly understood. Very few sr1WOs have been described, with two such elements putatively resulting from integrations at the same Wolbachia genome loci, about 2 kb downstream from the FtsZ cell-division gene. Here, we characterize the DNA sequence flanking the FtsZ gene of wDam, a genetically distinct line of Wolbachia isolated from the West African onchocerciasis vector Simulium squamosum E. Using Roche 454 shot-gun and Sanger sequencing, we have resolved >32 kb of WO prophage sequence into three contigs representing three distinct prophage elements. Spanning ≥36 distinct WO open reading frame gene sequences, these prophage elements correspond roughly to three different WO modules: a serine recombinase and replication module (sr1RRM, a head and base-plate module and a tail module. The sr1RRM module contains replication genes and a Holliday junction recombinase and is unique to the sr1 group WOs. In the extreme terminal of the tail module there is a SpvB protein homolog—believed to have insecticidal properties and proposed to have a role in how Wolbachia parasitize their insect hosts. We propose that these wDam prophage modules all derive from a single WO genome, which we have named here sr1WOdamA1. The best-match database sequence for all of our sr1WOdamA1-predicted gene sequences was annotated as of Wolbachia or Wolbachia phage sourced from an arthropod. Clear evidence of exchange between sr1WOdamA1 and other Wolbachia

  16. Impact of substrate contamination with mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides on the growth performance and composition of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) for use in the feed and food value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purschke, Benedict; Scheibelberger, Rafaela; Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Jäger, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Edible insects have emerged as an alternative and sustainable source of high-quality, animal-derived protein and fat for livestock production or direct human nutrition. During the production of insects, substrate quality is a key parameter to assure optimal insect biomass gain as well as the safety of feed and food derived from commercially reared insects. Therefore, the influence of a realistic substrate contamination scenario on growth performance and accumulation behaviour of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL; Hermetia illucens L.) was investigated. Newly hatched larvae were fed on a corn-based substrate spiked with heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb), mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1/B2/G2, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone) and pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl) under defined breeding conditions (10 days, 28°C, 67% relative humidity). The extent of contaminants' bioaccumulation in the larval tissue as well as the effect on growing determinants were examined. The applied heavy metal substrate contamination was shown to impair larval growing indicated by significantly lower post-trial larval mass and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Cd and Pb accumulation factors of 9 and 2, respectively, were determined, while the concentrations of other heavy metals in the larvae remained below the initial substrate concentration. In contrast, mycotoxins and pesticides have neither been accumulated in the larval tissue nor significantly affected the growing determinants in comparison with the control. The use of BSFL as livestock feed requires contaminant monitoring - especially for Cd and Pb - in the substrates as well as in feedstuff containing BSFL to ensure feed and food safety along the value chain.

  17. New molecular identifiers for Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. and the detection of genetic substructure with potential implications for onchocerciasis epidemiology in the Amazonia focus of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Priscila A; Crainey, James L; Almeida, Tatiana P; Shelley, Anthony J; Luz, Sergio L B

    2013-08-01

    The Amazonia onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil is the larger of the two remaining Latin American onchocerciasis foci where disease transmission still occurs and is often regarded as the most challenging of all the Latin American foci to eliminate onchocerciasis. The site is home to a population of over 20,000 semi-nomadic, hunter-gatherer Yanomami people and is made-up of a mosaic of rainforest and savannah ecologies, which are influenced by the area's undulating terrain and rich geological diversity. At least six blackfly vectors have been implicated in onchocerciasis transmission in this focus; however, because of the difficulty in their routine identification the relative importance of each has been obscured. Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. have both been recorded as vectors in the Amazonia focus, but they are difficult to discriminate morphologically and thus the ecological range of these species, and indeed the presence of S. limbatum in the Amazonia focus at all, have remained controversial. In the work described here, we report 15 S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences and 27 S. limbatum sequences obtained from field-caught adult female blackflies collected from forest and savannah localities, inside and just outside the Amazonia focus. Phylogenetic analysis with the sequences generated in this study, showed that both the S. limbatum and the S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences obtained (even from specimens living in sympatry) all fell into discrete species-specific bootstrap-supported monophyletic groups and thus confirmed the utility of the CO1 gene for identifying both these species inside the Amazonia focus. As the S. limbatum-exclusive cluster included CO1 sequences obtained from forest-caught and morphologically identified specimens these results provide the clearest evidence yet of the presence of S. limbatum inside the Amazonia focus. The question, however, of whether S. limbatum is actually a vector in the focus

  18. Controle integrado de espécies de Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae por Bacillus thuringiensis e manejos mecânicos no riacho e nos vertedouros de tanques de piscicultura, Almirante Tamandaré, Paraná, Brasil Integrated pest control of Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae with Bacillus thuringiensis and mechanical handling in creek and pisciculture spillway, Almirante Tamandaré, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Petry

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available No Riacho dos Padres na Chácara Evíssima, numa microempresa de agronegócio com criação de peixes e animais domésticos, área de lazer e salão de eventos, localizada na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, os simulídeos em grande proliferação causaram sério impacto com as picadas a tal ponto que dificultaram o convívio habitual. De janeiro a agosto de 2002, coletou-se 24.021 pupas por meio das quais foram identificadas as espécies: Simulium inaequale, Simulium perflavum, Simulium pertinax com 85,98% e Simulium orbitale, Simulium subnigrum, Simulium distinctum e Simulium incrustatum com somente 14,02% de freqüência. O combate a estas populações iniciado em 28 de fevereiro terminou em 08 de agosto de 2002. O controle integrado consistiu na aplicação de biopesticida Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti e em manejos mecânicos não só removendo os imaturos (ovos, larvas e pupas por meio de escovação de vertedouros, mas também pela retirada de substratos naturais e antrópicos do leito. A densidade larvária média inicial, antes da aplicação de Bti no leito do riacho (75 m e no último vertedouro, verificada em substratos antrópicos fitilhos (área 13.500 cm², foi de 6,7 e 11,5 larvas/cm², respectivamente. Nestes habitats, o controle integrado com Bti de 1,77 a 2,09 mg/litro do ingrediente ativo, suplementado com manejos mecânicos, monitorado em substratos fitilhos (área 20.250 cm², resultou em redução larvar de 72,61% a 99,97% e de 74,91% a 99,45%, respectivamente, nas vazões de 0,39 a 0,45 e de 0,38 a 0,43 m³/min. No primeiro vertedouro (área 5.110 cm², porém, só com manejos mecânicos, atingiu-se a redução larvária de 53,81% a 99,59%. O controle efetuado reduziu as picadas hematófagas ao nível esperado, surtindo o efeito positivo almejado.At Riacho dos Padres, Chácara Evíssima, a small agribusiness venture featuring fish, poultry and cattle farming; a recreation outdoor facility and Event Hall

  19. Aspectos ecológicos de Simulium goeldii (Diptera: Simuliidae: relação entre substrato e densidade de larvas Ecological aspects of Simulium goeldii (Diptera: Simuliidae: relation between substrate and larval density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Hamada

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of larvae of Simulium goeldii was studies in four streams in upland tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. In each month 32 points were sampled, each with an area of 30 x 50 cm. The areas of all substrates available were measured at each point. The larvae of S. goeldii were collected and later counted for all substrate types where larvae of this species were found. The available substrates were classified into eight types: dry leaves, green leaves, branches, fruits, detritus, rocks and sand; anly the first four types had larvae present. The Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance indicated that the larvae occupy these substrates differently; the Newman-Keuls identified the following differences in intensity of occupation of the susbstrates: branchs differ from roots, dry leaves and green leaves, and green leaves differ from roots and dry leaves. The highest density of larvae was observed on green leaves. However, because the most abundant substrates in the study area were roots and dry leaves, I suggest that the latter two substrates are the most important ones for the esteblishment of this population of S. goeldii.

  20. "White cranes fly over black cranes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thi Thao; Agergaard, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    The changing nature of rural–urban migration, in the context of transition economies of East and Southeast Asia, is usually interpreted as an outcome of structural transformation, while the longue durée of these migration flows tends to be neglected. Adopting a historical perspective, supported b...

  1. A new simple technique for rearing F1 progeny from females of the Simulium damnosum Theobald complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, J N; Barro, T; Sawadogo, R; Mordzifa, F

    1982-06-01

    Laboratory rearing of Simulium damnosum complex species enables female adults to be indirectly identified from their larval progeny. A simple, readily transportable rearing apparatus was developed for investigations by the Onchocerciasis Control programme by using unbreakable, easily packed and reassembled parts and by feeding the larvae at least partly with living green algae (Chlorophyceae) cultured in the laboratory. Although the larvae are sensitive to excess nitrogen compounds, the use of algae and a large volume of water obviated the need for a separate purification system in which water was circulated by an A/C electrical centrifugal pump between a container and an inclined trough in which most of the larvae developed. The rate of development was rapid giving rise to full size larvae (suitable for cytotaxonomic determination), pupae and adults. The adults were attracted into a collecting device by light. Developments to protect the larvae during electrical power failures included a slow-drying wooden rearing trough and an automatic switch to an alternative D/C power supply and pump. This technique has been in general use in O.C.P. laboratories in Benin, Ghana, Ivory Coast and Upper Volta and many thousands of larvae have been reared.

  2. Cytological and isoenzyme analysis of the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes of the onchocerciasis vector Simulium exiguum (Diptera: Simuliidae in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Charalambous

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Four cytotypes of Simulium exiguum occur in Ecuador, where this morphospecies is the primary vector of onchocerciasis. In this paper, we give the first full description of the banding pattern of the larval polytene chromosomes of the Quevedo cytotypes differ from the chromosomal standard sequence (of the Cayapa cytotype by the fixed inversions IIL-5 and IIL-6. The Quevedo cytotype additionally differs from the standard and Bucay cytotypes by processing a differentiated X chromosome, wich is indicated by the inversion IIS-A. As the degree of reproductive isolation between the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes has not yet been estabilished, they must be regarded as intraspecific variants of the same species. In fact, isoenzyme characterizations showed that the Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes are differentiated only to the extent expected of incipient species or geographical populations. Moreover, the sibiling species status previously given to the Bucay cytotype needs be reassessed, there being inadequate analysis from areas in Ecuador where Bucay occurs in sympatry with the standard Cayapa cytotype. No isoenzyme electromorphs were discovered that identified all or mostadult females of any one (cytotype-pure collection.

  3. Langton's flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorbec, P; Gajardo, A

    2008-01-01

    Langton's ant is an automaton defined over a two-dimensional grid. Its movement is governed by the environment in a very simple way: it turns to the left over white vertices and to the right over black vertices. This definition only applies on a two-dimensional space. We look for generalizations of this automaton to n-dimensional lattices. Remembering the different ways through which the ant was originally defined, we consider two approaches: the first comes from physics (lattice gas) and the second from artificial life (virtual ants). Two generalizations are proposed defining two families of dynamical systems. From the physics point of view, the ant is seen as a particle and hence it has no internal state other than its velocity. From the artificial life point of view, the ant is viewed as an insect, and it has an orientation in space which we represent by an orthogonal basis. This constitutes the ant's internal state. This formulation allows us to define the ant's behaviour without drawing upon any information relative to the global system of external coordinates. Each model yields different sets of rules with distinctive behaviours. We characterize all the possible rules satisfying some basic restrictions. We found that many rules produce trajectories which are restricted to a diagonal plane and are equivalent to a version of Langton's ant over a two-dimensional grid, squared or hexagonal. In the particle model, only two of them use the whole space, and it is shown that such rules do not admit periodical trajectories. This result reinforces a previous one reported by Leonid Bunimovich, who states that 'the skeleton of any bounded trajectory cannot contain any three-dimensional polyhedron'

  4. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...

  5. Occurrence of filamentous fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello (diptera: simuliidae larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil Ocorrência de fungos filamentosos associados a larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello da Amazônia Central, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quézia Ribeiro Fonseca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Simuliidae is the host of simbiontes fungi that inhabit the digestive tracts of arthropods. This paper reports the presence of fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello larvae in Amazonia. We observed that the larvae are a good component of aquatic systems to isolate filamentous fungi.A família Simuliidae é hospedeira de fungos simbiontes que habitam o trato digestivo de artrópodos. Este estudo reporta a presença de fungos em larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello da Amazônia. Foi observado que as larvas são bons componentes do sistema aquático para isolar fungos filamentosos.

  6. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...

  7. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  8. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibility...... to break through a common way of depicting the world, trying to find different surfaces and using strange apparatus to insist in the interstice of visibility. The Fly Printer is a printing apparatus in a form of a closed environment that contains a flock of fruit flies. The flies eat special food...... that is prepared for them that is mixed with laser jet printer inks. The flies digest the food and gradually print different color dots onto the paper that is placed under the fly habitat. In the Fly Printer biological organisms are used for replacing a standard part of our common printer technology. The work...

  9. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2018-01-01

    , and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of E. coli and genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. RESULTS: Rice was at greater risk (p ... with E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (p ...-landings, the average CFU per fly-landing was > 0·6 x 103 CFU. Genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified; the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). CONCLUSION: Flies may...

  10. Filth fly transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica to lettuce, Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filth flies have been implicated in the dispersal of human disease pathogens; however, fly transmission parameters of human pathogens to plants are largely undescribed. The capacity of the black blow fly, Phormia regina, to acquire and subsequently release bacteria onto baby lettuce leaves was comp...

  11. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  12. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  13. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2014. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. The onion fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loosjes, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the origin, practical application, problems in application and prospects of control of the onion fly, Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in the Netherlands by the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The larva of the onion fly is a severe pest in onions in temperate regions. Development of resistance of the onion fly against insecticides caused research on the SIT to be started by the Dutch Government in 1965. This research was on mass-rearing, long-term storage of pupae, sterilization, and release and ratio assessment techniques. By 1979 sufficient information had been turned over to any interested private company. In the case of the onion fly the SIT can be applied like a control treatment instead of chemical control to individual onion fields. This is due to the limited dispersal activity of the flies and the scattered distribution of onion fields in the Netherlands, with 5-10% of the onion growing areas planted with onions

  15. [Susceptibility of populations of Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Culicomorpha, Simuliidae) to eemephos and to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis-based formulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, C F; Castello Branco Júnior, A

    1991-10-01

    The use of wooden troughs on stream beds, artificially colonized by blackfly larvae, is proposed for larvicide evaluations. Mortality was recorded 3 or 4 hours after treatment. Larval susceptibility was also evaluated utilizing the LT50 criterion. In there field assays Simulium (C.) pertinax populations from the litoral of S. Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States were shown to be resistant to temephos, even when subjected to high concentrations. Vectobac 12 AS, a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis product, was shown to be more potent against late instar larvae and efficient in concentrations higher than 7,200 ITU/l (10 min). The LT50 to 3,744 ITU/l (10 min) was calculated as 70.9 min.

  16. Larval biometry of Simulium rubrithorax (Diptera: Simuliidae and size comparison between populations in the states of Minas Gerais and Roraima, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvan-Aguilar Miriam Adriana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of larval instars of Simulium (Hemicnetha rubrithorax Lutz (Diptera: Nematocera was determined using the lateral length of the head capsule. In this study 1,035 larvae, of different sizes, were measured (639 from the state of Roraima and 396 from the state of Minas Gerais. A frequency distribution analysis was carried out on the measurements of the lateral length of the head capsule to determine the number of larval instars. The limits of each instar were defined by the lower frequency of the measurements falling in a range of values, by the presence of the "egg burster" that characterizes the first larval instar, and by the developmental stage of the gill histoblast. The determination of the instar number was tested using a Student's t-test (p 0.05 were observed between them.

  17. ONCHOCERCIASIS – A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic disease with a wide range of cutaneous and ocular manifestations. It is caused by the tissue nematode, Onchocerca volvulus, and it is transmitted by the bite of a female black fly, Simulium damnosum. Onchocerciasis is a serious public health and socio-economic problem with 95% of all ...

  18. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  19. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  20. Black Air: African American Contributions to Airpower before Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Bullard Black Expatriate in Jazz -Age Paris, 151. 13 of influential white Americans that no Black man could ever do, and that was to fly. Flight was a... BLACK AIR: AFRICAN AMERICAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO AIRPOWER BEFORE INTEGRATION BY MAJOR DAMONE GARNER A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE...contributions to the overall victory. When Black Americans went into combat on the beaches of Normandy, in the hills of Italy, and in the jungles of the

  1. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  2. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  3. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  4. Flies without centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto, Renata; Lau, Joyce; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Gardiol, Alejandra; Woods, C Geoffrey; Khodjakov, Alexey; Raff, Jordan W

    2006-06-30

    Centrioles and centrosomes have an important role in animal cell organization, but it is uncertain to what extent they are essential for animal development. The Drosophila protein DSas-4 is related to the human microcephaly protein CenpJ and the C. elegans centriolar protein Sas-4. We show that DSas-4 is essential for centriole replication in flies. DSas-4 mutants start to lose centrioles during embryonic development, and, by third-instar larval stages, no centrioles or centrosomes are detectable. Mitotic spindle assembly is slow in mutant cells, and approximately 30% of the asymmetric divisions of larval neuroblasts are abnormal. Nevertheless, mutant flies develop with near normal timing into morphologically normal adults. These flies, however, have no cilia or flagella and die shortly after birth because their sensory neurons lack cilia. Thus, centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella, but, remarkably, they are not essential for most aspects of Drosophila development.

  5. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other to make the aircraft roll. For example, a downward dis- placement of the left aileron causes the airplane to roll to the right. In Figure 4 the elevators have been deflected downwards, giving rise to a 'nose-down' moment about the pitch axis. Delaying Turbulence. In the last few decades, flying machines have proliferated ...

  6. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Susceptibilidade de populações de Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Culicomorpha, Simuliidae ao temephos e a um formulado à base de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Susceptibility of population of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Culicomorpha, Simuliidae to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando S. de Andrade

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso de pequenas calhas de madeira no leito de riachos, manualmente colonizadas com borrachudos, é proposto para avaliações da eficiência de larvicidas 3 ou 4 horas após as aplicações. A susceptibilidade larval também foi avaliada pelo critério de TL50. Em três ensaios no litoral do Estado de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro, populações de Simulium (C. pertinax Kollar, 1832 mostraram-se resistentes ao temephos, mesmo em altas concentrações. Vectobac 12 AS, à base de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis mostrou-se mais potente contra larvas dos últimos estádios e eficiente para controle em concentrações a partir de 7.200 UIP/1 (10 min.. O TL50para 3.744 UIP/1 (10 min. foi de 70,9 minutos.The use of wooden troughs on stream beds, artificially colonized by blackfly larvae, is proposed for larvicide evaluations. Mortality was recorded 3 or 4 hours after treatment. Larval susceptibility was also evaluated utilizing the LT50 criterion. In there field assays Simulium (C. pertinax populations from the litoral of S. Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States were shown to be resistant to temephos, even when subjected to high concentrations. Vectobac 12 AS, a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis product, was shown to be more potent against late instar larvae and efficient in concentrations higher than 7,200 ITU/1 (10 min. The LT50 to 3,744 ITU/1 (10 min was calculated as 70.9 min.

  8. The Potential for Dispersal of Onchocerciasis in Ecuador in Relation to the Distribution of the Vector Simulium exiguum (Diptera:Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambous M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The future dispersal of onchocerciasis in Ecuador is dependent on the distribution of cytotypes of the vector species complex Simulium exiguum. Over the last 14 years, collections of larvae have been made from over 25 rivers, between 80-1600 m altitude, from various sites on both sides of the Andes. Analysis of larval polytene chromosomes was used to determine the distributions of each cytotype. On the western side of the Andes, the Cayapa cytotype (the only cytotype directly incriminated as a vector has a distribution from Santo Domingo de los Colorados northwards. The Quevedo and Bucay cytotypes occur from Santo Domingo de los Colorados southwards. On the eastern side of the Andes, the Aguarico cytotype occurs in the Rio Aguarico and a new cytotype is present in the tributaries of the Rio Napo. Whether the disease will spread south of Santo Domingo and on the eastern side of the Andes depends on vector capacity of the cytotypes and the dispersal patterns of individuals infected with onchocerciasis. At present the Aguarico, Bucay and Quevedo cytotypes are known to be efficient hosts, but their biting preferences and biting densities have not yet been evaluated

  9. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental alertness as well as learning, memory, and information processing skills. It is also used for treating headache; ... of carbamazepine. Since black tea contains caffeine, in theory taking black tea with carbamazepine might decrease the ...

  11. Black holes at neutrino telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, M.; Ringwald, A.; Tu, H.

    2002-01-01

    In scenarios with extra dimensions and TeV-scale quantum gravity, black holes are expected to be produced in the collision of light particles at center-of-mass energies above the fundamental Planck scale with small impact parameters. Black hole production and evaporation may thus be studied in detail at the large hadron collider (LHC). But even before the LHC starts operating, neutrino telescopes such as AMANDA/IceCube, ANTARES, Baikal, and RICE have an opportunity to search for black hole signatures. Black hole production in the scattering of ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrinos on nucleons in the ice or water may initiate cascades and through-going muons with distinct characteristics above the Standard Model rate. In this Letter, we investigate the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to black hole production and compare it to the one expected at the Pierre Auger Observatory, an air shower array currently under construction, and at the LHC. We find that, already with the currently available data, AMANDA and RICE should be able to place sensible constraints in black hole production parameter space, which are competitive with the present ones from the air shower facilities Fly's Eye and AGASA. In the optimistic case that a ultrahigh energy cosmic neutrino flux significantly higher than the one expected from cosmic ray interactions with the cosmic microwave background radiation is realized in nature, one even has discovery potential for black holes at neutrino telescopes beyond the reach of LHC. (orig.)

  12. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  13. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  14. Determinants of abundance and effects of blood-sucking flying insects in the nest of a hole-nesting bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Gustavo; Merino, Santiago; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa

    2008-05-01

    Compared to non-flying nest-dwelling ectoparasites, the biology of most species of flying ectoparasites and its potential impact on avian hosts is poorly known and rarely, if ever, reported. In this study we explore for the first time the factors that may affect biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) abundances in the nest cavity of a bird, the hole-nesting blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, and report their effects on adults and nestlings during reproduction. The abundance of biting midges was positively associated with nest mass, parental provisioning effort and abundance of blowflies and black flies, while negatively associated with nestling condition. Furthermore, a medication treatment to reduce blood parasitaemias in adult birds revealed that biting midges were more abundant in nests of females whose blood parasitaemias were experimentally reduced. This finding would be in accordance with these insect vectors attacking preferentially uninfected or less infected hosts to increase their own survival. The abundance of black flies in the population was lower than that of biting midges and increased in nests with later hatching dates. No significant effect of black fly abundance on adult or nestling condition was detected. Blood-sucking flying insects may impose specific, particular selection pressures on their hosts and more research is needed to better understand these host-parasite associations.

  15. Flying car design and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, S.; Smrcek, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is primarily concerned with the inverted design process and manufacture of a flying car prototype which can overcome the problem of traffic management in the world today. A possible solution to the problem of overcrowded roads would be to design a flying or hovering car. Given technological advances in aircraft construction, navigation and operation, flying cars or personal aircraft are now a feasible proposition. The viability of such a concept was investigated in terms of produci...

  16. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  17. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  18. Impact of sugar industry fly ash emissions on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memom, A.R.; Ansari, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    This work was conducted in 1992 to find out the effects and causes of environmental problems due to sugar mills of Sindh. Most of the complaints were received from Nawabshah, Tando Mohammed Khan residential areas where following mills are located, emitting large amounts of fly ash from their chimneys into the atmosphere: (i) Habib Sugar Mills, Nawabshah, (II) Fauji Sugar Mills, Tando Mohammed Khan. Environmental survey of above localities was carried out which reveals that eye-allergy and asthma are the major health effects of fly ash besides the aesthetic problems. Sieve analysis of two fly ash samples viz Fauji Sugar Mills (Old Plant) and Sanghar Sugar Mills (New Plant) showed that the particle size of over 50% of fly ash was above 300 mu m. These large size black particles were unburned carbon particles, which on burning in air gave a weight loss of over 87% at 1000 centi grade. The fly ash analytical results showed that combustion of bagasse in sugar mills was not complete at all and this was not only polluting the atmosphere but also causing energy losses. (author)

  19. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  20. Morphometric comparison of Simulium perflavum larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae in relation to season and gender in Central Amazônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamile B Alencar

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Number of larval instars, age structure and environmental effects on these parameters represent basic information in the study of insect population biology. When species have economic importance, this information is essential in order to choose the best period to apply different control methods and to determine the stages of the life cycle of the insect that are most susceptible to each treatment. The family Simuliidae has many species of medical/veterinary importance in the world, and some studies in the temperate region have suggested that the number of larval instars and the larval size can vary according to the season, gender and some environmental factors, such as temperature and diet. This study, with the zoophilic species Simulium perflavum Roubaud, is the first in the Neotropics observing some of these factors and will serve as a template for other species of medical importance in the region. S. perflavum larvae were collected in five streams in Central Amazônia (Manaus and Presidente Figueiredo counties, State of Amazonas, in Sept./Oct. 1996 (dry season and Feb./Mar. 1997 (rainy season. These larvae were measured (lateral length of head capsule and width of cephalic apodema to determine the number of larval instars (n=3985, to compare the larval size between seasons and genders (last and penultimate larval instars, n=200. Seven larval instars were determined for this species using frequency distributions, t-tests and Crosby´s growth rule. Significant differences were not detected (t-test, p>0.05 in larval size between seasons and genders. Our results differ from some found in temperate regions suggesting that in the Neotropical region the larval size in different seasons and different genders remains constant, although some environmental parameters, such as diet, change depending on the season.

  1. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  2. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  3. The Flying University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  4. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  5. Self mixing of fly larvae during feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, Olga; Johnson, Christopher; Hu, David

    How do we sustainably feed a growing world population? One solution of increasing interest is the use of black solider fly larvae, pea-sized grubs envisioned to transform hundreds of tons of food waste into a sustainable protein source. Although startups across the world are raising these larvae, a physical understanding of how they should be raised and fed remains missing. In this study, we present experiments measuring their feeding rate as a function of number of larvae. We show that larger groups of larvae have greater mixing which entrains hungry larvae around the food, increasing feeding rate. Feeding of larvae thus differs from feeding of cattle or other livestock which exhibit less self-mixing.

  6. Plant growth on 'fly ash'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R; Hodgson, D R; Townsend, W N; Wood, J W

    1958-04-12

    Plants were grown in plot and pot experiments to assess the toxicity of the fly ash. It was found that plants grouped into three classes: tolerant, moderately tolerant, and sensitive. Boron was found to be a major compoent of the toxic principle of fly ash.

  7. The flying radiation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum

  8. Disposal of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Foley, C.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical arguments and pilot plant results have shown that the transport of fly-furnace ash from the power station to the disposal area as a high concentration slurry is technically viable and economically attractive. Further, lack of free water, when transported as a high concentration slurry, offers significant advantages in environmental management and rehabilitation of the disposal site. This paper gives a basis for the above observations and discusses the plans to exploit the above advantages at the Stanwell Power Station. (4 x 350 MWe). This will be operated by the Queensland Electricity Commission. The first unit is to come into operation in 1992 and other units are to follow progressively on a yearly basis

  9. Africa and the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  10. Africa and the tsetse fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  11. Fly pollination of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae), and a possible mimetic function for dark spots on the capitulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.D.; Midgley, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the functional significance of raised black spots on the ray florets of Gorteria diffusa (Asteraceae) in South Africa. Field observations showed that G. diffusa is pollinated by a small bee-fly, Megapalpus nitidus (Bombyliidae). which is strikingly similar to the raised spots that occur on some of the ray florets. Removal of the spots resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of fly visits to capitula, but did not significantly affect seed set. Replacement of the spots with simple ink spots also significantly reduced the rate of pollinator visits, suggesting that flies respond to details in the structure of the spots. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy showed that the spots of G. diffusa consist of a complex of different cell types. Differences in epidermal sculpturing may partly explain the UV reflectance pattern of these spots, which is similar to that of the flies. Mate flies are strongly attracted to the spots, as well as to other flies sitting in the capitula, although female flies also visit the capitula. We conclude that the spots of G. diffusa mimic resting flies, thereby eliciting mate-seeking and aggregation responses in fly pollinators. Similar dark spots have evolved in unrelated South African Gazania. Dimorphotheca, and Pelargonium species pollinated by bee-flies

  12. Monitoring guidelines improve control of walnut husk fly in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, Susan B.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Pickel, Carolyn; Olson, William

    2000-01-01

    The walnut husk fly (WHF), Rhagoletis completa Cresson, is a key pest of walnuts (Juglans spp.) in California, where over 95% of the US and approximately two-thirds of the world's commercial walnuts are produced. The primary hosts of this monophagous fruit fly are J. regia L. (commercially grown English walnut), J. californica S. Wats. var. hindsii (northern California black walnut), J. californica var. californica (southern California black walnut) and J. nigra Thunb. (eastern black walnut). Some cultivars of the English walnut are more susceptible than others; the most heavily infested varieties of English walnut include Eureka, Franquette, Hartley, Mayette and Payne. Neither English walnuts nor the walnut husk fly are native to California. So-called 'English' walnuts are sometimes more appropriately called 'Persian' walnuts, in reference to Persia, the origin of J. regia. English walnuts were first planted in southern California in the 1860s. In contrast, the native range of WHF is the mid- and south-central United States where it attacks J. nigra (Boyce 1934). The fly was likely to have been introduced into southern California in the mid-1920s by tourists travelling from Kansas, New Mexico, Texas or Oklahoma. WHF was first documented in California in 1926 in the San Bernardino County when maggots were found in the husks of English walnuts (Boyce 1929). The fly gradually spread throughout walnut growing regions of California. In 1928, only three or four orchards in the San Bernardino County were known to be infested. By 1932, the fly was also found in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties (Boyce 1933), and by 1954, it was found in Ventura, Riverside, and the San Diego Counties, in addition to the northern California county of Sonoma (Anonymous 1966). The spread of the fly in northern California was rapid. By 1958, WHF was found in San Joaquin County; in 1963, the fly was in Amador, Lake, Solano, Tulare and Yolo Counties; in 1964, it was found in Fresno, Mendocino

  13. Characteristic fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion found in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliksaar, T.; Hoerstedt, P.; Renberg, I.

    1998-01-01

    Fly-ash particles accumulate in sediments and can be used to assess spatial distribution and temporal trends of atmospheric deposition of pollutants derived from high temperature combustion of fossil fuels. Previous work has concerned fly-ash derived from oil and coal. Oil-shale is the main fossil fuel used in Estonia and a major source of atmospheric pollution in the Baltic states. To assess if oil-shale power plants produce specific fly-ash particles scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to compare fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion with particles from oil and coal combustion. Two types were analysed, large black (10-30μm) and small glassy (< 5 μm) spheroidal particles. Although article morphology to some extent is indicative of the fuel burnt, morphological characters are not sufficient to differentiate between particles of different origin. However, the results indicate that with EDX analysis the fly-ash from oil-shale can be distinguished form oil and coal derived particles in environmental samples. Concentrations of large black and small glassy spheroidal fly-ash particles in a sediment core from an Estonian lake showed similar trends to oil-shale combustion statistics from Estonian power plants. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Bioextraction of copper and zinc from fly ash from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczok, T; Cwalina, B; Chrostowska, D

    1986-02-01

    Results are evaluated of investigations carried out by the Institute of Chemistry and Physics of the Silesia Medical Academy in Sosnowiec into feasibility of bacterial leaching for utilization of fly ash from combustion of black coal. Fly ash separated by electrostatic precipitators in the Dolna Odra power plant fired with black coal was used. Copper content in the fly ash on the average was 0.012%, that of zinc was 0.025%. When Thiobacillus ferroxidans, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and bacteria separated from fly ash were used leaching efficiency after 21 days ranged from 69 to 87% in the case of copper and from 48 to 72% in the case of zinc. Origin of bacteria separated from fly ash was unclear. Autochthonous bacteria in the fly ash being leached increased efficiency of bacterial leaching. Effects of autochthonous bacteria were similar to those of the bacterial culture of Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Investigation results were shown in a table and 2 diagrams. 19 references.

  15. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  16. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  17. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    definition of ageing?), and that the word ageing (or senescence) has a fairly precise .... Populations that evolved increased longevity and egg production late in life, as a .... life-span exceeding 120 days whereas flies from control populations ...

  18. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  19. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  20. XMM flying beautifully

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The early orbit phase came to an end on 16 December after XMM had been manoeuvred to its final orbit. This required four firings of its thrusters, on successive passages at apogee, in order to increase XMM's velocity, thus elongating its orbit and raising the perigee from 826 km to 7,365 km. One burn was then made to fine tune the apogee to around 114,000km. The spacecraft, being tracked by ground stations in Perth, Kourou and Villafranca, is now circling the Earth in this highly elliptical orbit once every 48 hours. The XMM flight operations staff have found themselves controlling a spacecraft that responds exceptionally well. During these first orbits, the satellite has been oriented several times with razor-sharp precision. On board systems have responded without incident to several thousand instructions sent by controllers. "XMM is flying so beautifully" says Dietmar Heger, XMM Spacecraft Operations Manager. "The satellite is behaving better in space than all our pre-launch simulations and we have been able to adjust our shifts to this more relaxed situation". On his return from French Guiana, Robert Lainé, XMM Project Manager immediately visited the Darmstadt Mission Control Centre, at ESOC. "The perfect behaviour of XMM at this early stage reflects the constructive cooperation of European industrial companies and top scientists. Spacecraft operations are in the hands of professionals who will endeavour to fulfill the expectations of the astronomers and astrophysicists of the world. I am very happy that ESA could provide them with such a wonderful precision tool". During the early orbit phase, controllers have activated part of XMM's science payload. The three EPIC X-ray cameras have been switched on and vented. On 17 December the telescope doors were opened allowing the spacecraft's golden X-ray Multi Mirror modules to see the sky. The Optical Monitor telescope door was opened on 18 December. During this last weekend, XMM's Radiation Monitor which records

  1. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, F.; Loosjes, M.

    1987-01-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars

  2. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  3. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  4. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  5. Tsetse flies and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D J; Hendrickx, G; Slingenbergh, J H

    1994-12-01

    The authors use a quantitative modelling framework to describe and explore the features of the biology of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) which are important in determining the rate of transmission of the African trypanosomiases between hosts. Examples are presented of the contribution of previous research on tsetse to quantified epidemiological and epizootiological understanding, and areas of current ignorance are identified for future study. Spatial and temporal variations in risk are important (but rarely-studied) determinants of the impact of trypanosomiasis on humans, domestic animals and agricultural activities. Recent grid-based sampling surveys to Togo provide valuable data sets on tsetse, cattle and trypanosomiasis throughout the country. A combination of ground-based meterological and remotely-sensed satellite data, within linear discriminant analytical models, enables description of the observed distributions of the five species of tsetse occurring in Togo, with accuracies of between 72% (Glossina palpalis and G. tachinoides) and 98% (G. fusca). Abundance classes of the two most widespread species, G. palpalis and G. tachinoides, are described with accuracies of between 47% and 83%. This is especially remarkable given the relatively small differences between the average values of the predictor variables in areas of differing fly abundance. Similar analyses could be used to predict the occurrence and abundance of flies in other areas, which have not been surveyed to date, in order to plan tsetse control campaigns or explore development options. Finally, some recent tsetse control campaigns are briefly reviewed. The shift of emphasis from fly eradication to fly control is associated with a devolution of responsibility for control activities from central government to local areas, communities or even individuals. The future role of central governments will remain crucial, however, in determining the areas in which different control options are practised, in

  6. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  7. Flying Training Capacity Model: Initial Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Susan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) Determine the flying training capacity for 6 bases: * Sheppard AFB * Randolph AFB * Moody AFB * Columbus AFB * Laughlin AFB * Vance AFB * (2) Develop versatile flying training capacity simulation model for AETC...

  8. Ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Piangjai, Somsak; Upakut, Sorawit; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-06-01

    This work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann)], house flies (Musca domestica L.), and flesh flies (Liosarcophaga dux Thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. The head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, and the clear compound eye was dissected into six small parts, each of which was placed onto a slide and flattened using a coverslip. Images of each part were obtained using a microscope connected to a computer. The printed images of each part were magnified, and the total number of ommatidia per eye was manually counted. For males, the mean number of ommatidia was statistically different among all flies examined: L. dux (6,032) > C. rufifacies (5,356) > C. nigripes (4,798) > C. megacephala (4,376) > L. cuprina (3,665) > M. domestica (3,484). Likewise, the mean number of facets in females was statistically different: L. dux (6,086) > C. megacephala (5,641) > C. rufifacies (5,208) > C. nigripes (4,774) > L. cuprina (3,608) > M. domestica (3433). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of adult flies revealed the sexual dimorphism in the compound eye. Male C. megacephala had large ommatidia in the upper two thirds part and small ommatidia in the lower one third part, whereas only small ommatidia were detected in females. Dense postulate appearance was detected in the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia of C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, and C. nigripes, while a mix of dense postulate appearance and variable groove array length was detected in L. cuprina and M. domestica. The probable functions of ommatidia are discussed with reference to other literature.

  9. To Fly in the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  10. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  11. The Spider and the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  12. Louse flies on birds of Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Tella, José Luis; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (México). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  13. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter ...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  14. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extrageni...

  15. Development of iron oxide and titania treated fly ash based ceramic and its bioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultana, Parveen [Physics Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032 (India); Das, Sukhen, E-mail: das_sukhen@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032 (India); Bhattacharya, Alakananda [Physics Department, West Bengal State University, Barasat (India); Basu, Ruma [Physics Department, Jogamaya Devi College, Kolkata-700026 (India); Nandy, Papiya [Centre for Interdisciplinary Research and Education, Kolkata-700 068 (India)

    2012-08-01

    The increasing accumulation of fly ash from thermal power plants poses a major problem to the environment. The present work reflects the novel utilization of this profusely available industrial waste in the form of an antibacterial hard ceramic material by treating fly ash with ferric oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and titania (TiO{sub 2}) during sintering process at 1600 Degree-Sign C. The developed material shows more than 90% bacterial reduction against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The mechanism of their antibacterial action was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image analysis of the bacterial cross-section. The developed ceramic material acquires hardness due to the enhancement of the natural mullite content in the matrix. The mullite content and the crystallinity of mullite have shown their increasing trend with increasing concentration of the metal oxide during sintering process. A maximum of {approx} 37% increase in mullite was obtained for 7% w/w Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}. Metal oxide lowered the activation energy of the reaction and enhanced the reaction rate of alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})-silica (SiO{sub 2}) to form mullite which increases the hardness. The study highlights novel utilization of fly ash as a hard ceramic antibacterial product (bioceramics) for both structural and hygiene applications in an eco-friendly way. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel antibacterial hard ceramic material by treating fly ash with metal oxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material shows excellent antibacterial activity (> 90%) against pathogenic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of antibacterial action by TEM analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement of the concentration of 'natural mullite content' in the material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardness induced by enhanced mullite content is an added advantage for prolonged product life.

  16. Briquetting fly ash from power plants for use as a charge in production of FeSiAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnowski, R.; Jastrzebski, R.; Podbiol, S.; Mendecki, K.

    1983-02-01

    The paper discusses waste product utilization of fly ash from black coal combustion for production of alloys consisting of iron, silicon and aluminium under laboratory conditions. Proportion of fly ash and coal reducing agent was 60% and 40%, grain size distribution of fly ash and coal ranged from 0 to 0.4 mm. Coal pitch and waste products from the cellulose industry were used as binders (resin soap, waste sulfite liquor etc.). Briquetting pressure was 400 kG/cm/sup 2/. Fly ash briquets were stabilized 168 h long and dried from 0.5 h to 1.0 h at 373 to 523 C. Effects of briquet composition, binders, briquetting pressure, stabilizing and drying on physical and mechanical properties of fly ash briquets are analyzed. The results of analyses are shown in 4 diagrams. Shatter test was used for determining briquet properties. The test shows that fly ash briquets with coal pitch, resin soap and waste sulfite liquor used as binders are characterized by compression strength not lower than 245 x 10/sup 4/ Pa and produce less than 5% fines in the shatter test. The tested fly ash briquets are a suitable charge for metallurgy. Effects of fly ash utilization on environmental protection are discussed. (8 refs.)

  17. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO43–125 or FliO1–95 was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO43–125, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO43–125-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  18. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  19. Formation and utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargyai, J

    1974-01-01

    General problems of slag and fly ash formation and utilization are discussed. The ever-increasing energy demand, and the comeback of coal as an energy carrier in power plants call for efficient solutions to the problem of slag and fly ash. Slag and fly ash are used for concrete in which they partly replace cement. Other possible uses are the amelioration of acid soils, fireclay manufacture, road construction, and tiles. It is possible to recover metals, such as vanadium, iron, aluminum, and radioactive materials from certain types of fly ash and slag. The utilization of fly ash is essential also with respect to the abatement of entrainment from dumps.

  20. Engineering properties of fly ash concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmi Mahmud

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some of the engineering properties of Malaysian fly ash concrete. Workability, compressive, flexural, tensile splitting, drying shrinkage, elastic modulus and non destructive tests were performed on fly ash and control OPC concrete specimens. Data show that concrete containing 25% fly ash replacement of cement exhibit superior or similar engineering properties to that normal concrete without fly ash. These encouraging results demonstrated the technical merits of incorporating fly ash in concrete and should pave the way for wide scale use of this versatile material in the Malaysian construction industry. (author)

  1. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  2. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  3. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  4. Flying Qualities (Qualites de Vol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    CIIANAIT DUMINIIG MA𔃼I1 FXCURSIOH /~o --- ~A 0- /10 CMFIGURE 4 AL-PHA-JETr ELEVATOR CONTROL CINEMATIC ; LP HEINi" KINEMATIC HORIZONTAL STABILIZER...ih-flight simulation is the ultimale assessment techntque providing high realism , flexibility, and credibility. rhe utilization (,f an in-fli:,ht si...1london, UK ()PERATIONAL H-ELICOPTER IIN - FLIGHT SIMULATOR (HIGH REALISM ) I(HIGH FLEAiBILITY Fligt t A tehrtqueTechnology implementation Flight t

  5. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    al estudio de los Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psichodidae). Phlebotomus del grupo anthophorus en Guatemala. Rev. Colegio Mdd. Guatemala 22:187-193...studied in detail. A review of the North American Phiebotominae is in progress. Unclassie SECRIT CLASSFICTIO O TH PGE~ en om nteed 4[ AD_____ STUDIES OF...Diptera, Psychodidae) in Belize, Central America. Bull . Ent. Res. 65:595-599. Young, D.G. 1979. A review of the bloodsucking psychodid flies of Colombia

  6. Producing zeolites from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayalu, S.; Labhestwar, N.K.; Biniwale, R.B.; Udhoji, J.S.; Meshram, S.U.; Khanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Fly ash has virtually become a menace of thermal power generation, leading to its devastating effects on the environment. Development of alternate methods of its disposal - especially those with recourse to recovery of valuable materials-has thus become imperative. This paper deals with the utilisation of fly ash for the production of high value-added products, viz., commercial grade zeolites. The physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of fly ash based Zeolite-A (FAZ-A) compares well with commercial Zeolite-A. High calcium binding capacity, appropriate particle/pore size and other detergency characteristics of FAZ-A brings forth its potential as a substitute for phosphatic detergent builder. The technology is extremely versatile, and other products like Zeolite-X, Zeolite-Y, sodalite and mordenite are also amenable for cost effective production with modifications in certain reaction parameters. Low temperature operations, ready availability of major raw materials, simplicity of process and recycling of unused reactants and process water are special features of the process. (author)

  7. Black widow spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider (Latrodectus) has a shiny black body with a ...

  8. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  9. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  10. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, José-Arturo; Gilles, Jeremie; Bravo, Oscar; Vargas, Cristina; Gomez-Bonilla, Yannery; Bingham, Georgina V; Taylor, David B

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16 d after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3-7 d after chopping to 1:1 at 24-28 d. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3-7 d after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  12. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  13. Evaluation of the impact of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Temephos, used for the control of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Diptera, Simuliidae on the associated entomofauna, Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo-Coutinho Carlos José Pereira da Cunha de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was set up to evaluate the impact of two commercial larvicide formulations, Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis base (Bti at 15 ppm/1 min and temephos at 0.03 ppm of active ingredient, used to control Simulium pertinax populations, on associated non-target entomofauna occupying the same breeding sites. The experiments were carried out on the Pedra Branca and Muricana rivers, on the slopes of Serra do Mar massif, municipality of Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bti was applied to the river Pedra Branca and temephosto theriver Muricana. On both rivers, treatment and control sections were labeled as such, each one with two observation posts: slow moving water and fast water regions respectively. Artificial substrata was used to evaluate the abundance of associated entomofauna. Attached immature stages of arthropods were removed from both of its surfaces fortnightly. Were collected, from the two rivers, 28 477 specimens of the entomofauna associated with S. pertinax. The families Hydropsychidae, Chironomidae, Bactidae, Simuliidae, Blephariceridae and Megapodagrionidae were represented. These was an impact of temephos on the entomofauna associated with S. pertinax only in Simuliidae and Chironomidae, and to Bti only in Simuliidae. However, the reduction in their numbers was not statistically significant.

  14. Evaluation of the impact of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and Temephos, used for the control of Simulium (Chirostilbia) pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Diptera, Simuliidae) on the associated entomofauna, Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo-Coutinho, Carlos José Pereira da Cunha; Cunha, Andrea de Barros Pinto Viviani; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; de Mello, Rubens Pinto

    2003-07-01

    The study was set up to evaluate the impact of two commercial larvicide formulations, Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis base (Bti) at 15 ppm/1 min and temephos at 0.03 ppm of active ingredient, used to control Simulium pertinax populations, on associated non-target entomofauna occupying the same breeding sites. The experiments were carried out on the Pedra Branca and Muricana rivers, on the slopes of Serra do Mar massif, municipality of Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bti was applied to the river Pedra Branca and temephosto theriver Muricana. On both rivers, treatment and control sections were labeled as such, each one with two observation posts: slow moving water and fast water regions respectively. Artificial substrata was used to evaluate the abundance of associated entomofauna. Attached immature stages of arthropods were removed from both of its surfaces fortnightly. Were collected, from the two rivers, 28 477 specimens of the entomofauna associated with S. pertinax. The families Hydropsychidae, Chironomidae, Bactidae, Simuliidae, Blephariceridae and Megapodagrionidae were represented. These was an impact of temephos on the entomofauna associated with S. pertinax only in Simuliidae and Chironomidae, and to Bti only in Simuliidae. However, the reduction in their numbers was not statistically significant.

  15. Caractéristiques du développement larvaire de Simulium buissoni Roubaud, 1906 et de S. sechani Craig et Fossati, 1995 (Diptera : Simuliidae dans l'archipel des Marquises (Polynésie Française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séchan Y.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Deux espèces de Simulies anthropophiles sévissent dans l'archipel des Marquises en Polynésie Française : Simulium buissoni Roubaud, 1906 et S . sechani Craig & Fossati, 1995. la nécessité de leur contrôle implique une meilleure connaissance de leur développement larvaire, les larves constituent en effet actuellement la seule phase du cycle susceptible d'être détruite. Une étude biométrique réalisée à partir de mesures des capsules céphaliques des larves des deux espèces montre qu'elles présentent toutes deux sept stades de développement. Les variations de taille suivant les espèces et les lieux de récoltes sont examinées, ainsi que les variations suivant le sexe pour les larves les plus âgées. Une expérience de recolonisation après traitement d'une section de rivière permet de déterminer que la durée de développement larvaire de S . buissoni est d'environ 12 jours. Ces données permettent de déterminer la fréquence optimale de traitement.

  16. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  17. Studies in Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-30

    Reporte de dos casos de [a ology of a sand fly, P/mlebolomu’,s diabolicuw Hall. in forma anergica difusa. Der matol. Rev. Mex. southwestern -Texas...Contribuiin al estudio de los Phmle- CDC, Veterinary Public Health Notes. USDHEW. bwmwnn de Costa Rica (Diptera, Psychodidae). Tesis. CDC. October. pp. 6- 7...janeiron R. j. 195 pp. the Unrited States (D1)pre ra: Psscfirdidae). j. Ortiz, 1. 1965a. Contribuci~in a! estudio tie los flebor- Partrsirtrl. 30:274-275

  18. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  19. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  20. Hydration of fly ash cement and microstructure of fly ash cement pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiyuan, H.

    1981-01-01

    The strength development and hydration of fly ash cement and the influence of addition of gypsum on those were studied at normal and elevated temperatures. It was found that an addition of a proper amount of gypsum to fly ash cement could accelerate the pozzolanic reaction between CH and fly ash, and as a result, increase the strength of fly ash cement pastes after 28 days.

  1. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  2. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Black hole based tests of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C

    2016-01-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar–tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory. (paper)

  4. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  5. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Gunneswara Rao; Mudimby Andal

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conven...

  7. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  8. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  9. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  10. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  11. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like us, without enough sleep, flies feel the effects of sleep deprivation. Cirelli has shown that they are a good model for researching human sleep. She has found fruit fly genes that seem to have a powerful effect on sleep. In time, her research could lead ...

  12. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  13. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  14. A Dancing Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  15. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  16. Visual Spatial Disorientation: Re-Visiting the Black Hole Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-24

    National Transportation Safety Board. Controlled Flight into Terrain, Korean Air Flight 801 , Nimitz Hill, Guam; 1997. 50. National Transportation Safety...According to a Boeing study of worldwide commercial airline accidents, the approach and landing phase of flying, although only accounting for 4% of the...VISUAL SPATIAL DISORIENTATION Kraft (31) described four night visual, landing airline accidents. Black Hole Illusion 5 1. In 1965, a United Airlines

  17. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... dorsalis), peach fruit fly (Anastrepha zonata), and sapote fruit fly (Anastrepha serpentina) in the... obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. J. Econ. Entomol...

  18. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  19. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  20. Physiological stress and Hendra virus in flying-foxes (Pteropus spp., Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available Pteropid bats (flying-foxes are the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, an emergent paramyxovirus responsible for fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Pteropus alecto (the Black flying-fox and the paraphyletic P. conspicillatus (the Spectacled flying-fox appear to be the primary reservoir hosts. Previous studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may underpin infection dynamics in flying-foxes, and subsequent spillover to horses and in turn humans. We sought to examine temporal trends in urinary cortisol concentration in wild Australian flying-fox populations, to elucidate the putative relationship between Hendra virus infection and physiological stress. Pooled and individual urine samples were non-invasively collected from under roosting flying-foxes at two latitudinally disparate regions in the eastern Australian state of Queensland. Hendra virus detection, and (in individual urine samples sex and species determination were PCR-based. Urinary cortisol measurement used a validated enzyme immunoassay. We found no direct correlation between increased urinary cortisol and Hendra virus excretion, but our findings do suggest a biologically plausible association between low winter temperatures and elevated cortisol levels in P. alecto in the lower latitude Southeast Queensland roosts. We hypothesize an indirect association between low winter temperatures and increased Hendra virus infection and excretion, mediated by the physiological cost of thermoregulation. Our findings and our approach are directly relevant to elaboration of the disease ecology of Nipah virus and other emerging henipaviruses in bats. More broadly, they inform investigation of emerging disease infection dynamics across the wildlife/livestock/human interface.

  1. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  2. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large values of Ф, black holes do form and for small values the scalar field ... on the near side of the ridge ultimately evolve to form black holes while those configu- ... The inset shows a bird's eye view looking down on the saddle point.

  3. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  4. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  5. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  6. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  7. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  8. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  9. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  10. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  11. Improving lithium-ion battery performances by adding fly ash from coal combustion on cathode film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyartanti, Endah Retno; Jumari, Arif, E-mail: arifjumari@yahoo.com; Nur, Adrian; Purwanto, Agus [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    A lithium battery is composed of anode, cathode and a separator. The performance of lithium battery is also influenced by the conductive material of cathode film. In this research, the use of fly ash from coal combustion as conductive enhancer for increasing the performances of lithium battery was investigated. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) was used as the active material of cathode. The dry fly ash passed through 200 mesh screen, LiFePO{sub 4} and acethylene black (AB), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to form slurry. The slurry was then coated, dried and hot pressed to obtain the cathode film. The ratio of fly ash and AB were varied at the values of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% while the other components were at constant. The anode film was casted with certain thickness and composition. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer, the composition of the cathode film was examined by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), and the structure and morphology of the anode film was analyzed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). The composition, structure and morphology of cathode film was only different when fly ash added was 4% of AB or more. The addition of 2% of AB on cathode film gave the best performance of 81.712 mAh/g on charging and 79.412 mAh/g on discharging.

  12. Web Services Integration on the Fly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leong, Hoe W

    2008-01-01

    .... Given data, software agents and supporting software infrastructure, web services integration on the fly means that human coding is not required to integrate web services into a Web Service Architecture...

  13. Schlieren photography on freely flying hawkmoth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Roll, Jesse; Van Kooten, Stephen; Deng, Xinyan

    2018-05-01

    The aerodynamic force on flying insects results from the vortical flow structures that vary both spatially and temporally throughout flight. Due to these complexities and the inherent difficulties in studying flying insects in a natural setting, a complete picture of the vortical flow has been difficult to obtain experimentally. In this paper, Schlieren , a widely used technique for highspeed flow visualization, was adapted to capture the vortex structures around freely flying hawkmoth ( Manduca ). Flow features such as leading-edge vortex, trailing-edge vortex, as well as the full vortex system in the wake were visualized directly. Quantification of the flow from the Schlieren images was then obtained by applying a physics-based optical flow method, extending the potential applications of the method to further studies of flying insects. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Snowballing and flying under the radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2013-01-01

    management and venture development paths. More specifically, flying under radar in terms of operating under lower institutional requirements, and slowly accumulating resources (snowballing) are major leveraging strategies. We integrate our results into a hypothesized framework for resource management in East...

  15. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  16. The fly's eye camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.; Jaskó, A.; Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Mezö, G.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the Fly's Eye Camera System, an all-sky monitoring device intended to perform time domain astronomy. This camera system design will provide complementary data sets for other synoptic sky surveys such as LSST or Pan-STARRS. The effective field of view is obtained by 19 cameras arranged in a spherical mosaic form. These individual cameras of the device stand on a hexapod mount that is fully capable of achieving sidereal tracking for the subsequent exposures. This platform has many advantages. First of all it requires only one type of moving component and does not include unique parts. Hence this design not only eliminates problems implied by unique elements, but the redundancy of the hexapod allows smooth operations even if one or two of the legs are stuck. In addition, it can calibrate itself by observed stars independently from both the geographical location (including northen and southern hemisphere) and the polar alignment of the full mount. All mechanical elements and electronics are designed within the confines of our institute Konkoly Observatory. Currently, our instrument is in testing phase with an operating hexapod and reduced number of cameras.

  17. Fruit flies and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, François V; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation--known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability--is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory.

  18. MAXI J1659-152: the shortest orbital period black-hole binary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; van der Horst, A. J.

    Following the detection of a bright new X-ray source, MAXI J1659-152, a series of observations was triggered with almost all currently flying high-energy missions. We report here on XMM-Newton, INTEGRAL and RXTE observations during the early phase of the X-ray outburst of this transient black-hol...

  19. Inside the Black Box: Tracking Decision-Making in an Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cathryn

    2017-01-01

    Action research has been described as "designing the plane while flying it" (Herr & Anderson, 2005, p. 69). A black box documented the researcher's decisions while facilitating leadership development sessions with teacher leaders. Ten process folio steps informed the study through six iterations. Planning steps included a design…

  20. OPTIMUM PROGRAMMABLE CONTROL OF UNMANNED FLYING VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. А. Lobaty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an analytical synthesis problem pertaining to programmable control of an unmanned flying vehicle while steering it to the fixed space point. The problem has been solved while applying a maximum principle which takes into account a final control purpose and its integral expenses. The paper presents an optimum law of controlling overload variation of a flying vehicle that has been obtained analytically

  1. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Attracting the attention of a fly

    OpenAIRE

    Sareen, Preeti; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Organisms with complex visual systems rarely respond to just the sum of all visual stimuli impinging on their eyes. Often, they restrict their responses to stimuli in a temporarily selected region of the visual field (selective visual attention). Here, we investigate visual attention in the fly Drosophila during tethered flight at a torque meter. Flies can actively shift their attention; however, their attention can be guided to a certain location by external cues. Using visual cues, we can d...

  3. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  4. Feeding and rearing behaviour in tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)

  5. Evaluation of radioactivity levels of coal, slag and fly ash samples used in Giresun province of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, A.; Chevik, U.; Damla, N.; Yeshilbag, Y.O.

    2010-01-01

    In present work natural radionuclides activities (236Ra, 232Th and 40K) of the different types of coal, slag and fly ash samples used in Giresun province (Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey) were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry. These samples were collected as homogeneously and separately around Giresun province. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radionuclides in coal, slag and fly ash samples were found as 107, 67 and 440 Bg.Kg - 1 for coal; 59, 25 and 268 Bg.kg - 1 for slag and 136, 60 and 417 Bg.kg - 1 for fly ash samples, respectively. To estimate health effect due to the aforementioned radionuclides, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses have been calculated. These values were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values

  6. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  7. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  8. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio [Comision Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas.

  9. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  10. Eradicating tsetse flies: Senegal nears first victory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    After a four-year eradication programme including nuclear techniques, the Niayes region of Senegal is now almost free of the tsetse fly, which used to decimate livestock. “I have not seen a single tsetse fly for a year now,” said cattle farmer Oumar Sow. “This is in contrast to earlier, when they increased in numbers, especially during the cold season. The flies were really a nuisance to our animals and we had to carefully select the time for milking. Now, there is no problem with that.” The tsetse fly is a bloodsucking insect that kills more than three million livestock in sub-Saharan Africa every year, costing the agriculture industry more than US $4 billion annually. The tsetse fly transmits parasites that cause a wasting disease called nagana in cattle. In some parts of Africa the fly also causes over 75 000 cases of human ‘sleeping sickness’, which affects the central nervous system, and causes disorientation, personality changes, slurred speech, seizures, difficulty walking and talking, and ultimately death.

  11. Energetical fly ashes – separation and utilization of metallic valuable components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalíková Františka

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution, methods of separating metals – Fe, Al, Ge from energetic wastes – fly ashes are presented along with further possibilities of utilization of particular valuable components for industrial purposes.In the contribution, properties of energetic wastes are presented influencing the contents, separability, and utilizability of metal-bearing valuable components. From among physical properties these are grain size distribution and surface area. Chemical properties are characterized by elements contained in combusted coal whose content after combustion is increased 2 to 4 times, depending on the content of ash and combustible matters in original coal. Mineralogical properties of energetic wastes are determined by the combustion process conditions in the course of which mineral novelties are produced in concentrations suitable for separation.In the contribution, methods of separation and utilization of metals such as Fe, Al, Ge are described. From literature information on the processing of Fe component, as well as from results of experiments made at the Department of Mineral Processing and Environmental Protection, Technical University of Kosice follows that the highest concentration and mass yield of the component can be obtained from black coal fly ashes produced in smelting boilers. The content of Al in Slovak energetic wastes is lower than the 30 % Al2O3 limit that conditions an economic technological processing. Only in the case of black coal fly ash from TEKO Kosice and EVO Vojany was the Al2O3 content of 32.93 %. Therefore, in an indirect way – by separating the residues of uncombusted coal and magnetite Fe – the content of Al in fly ash was increased.For Ge, a principle of selective sizing has been utilized.A complex utilization of energetic wastes, that is the separation of metallic components, elimination of particular metals and the subsequent treatment of nonmetallic residue, should be an effective solution in various

  12. Sand Fly Fauna (Diptera, Pcychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Different Leishmaniasis-Endemic Areas of Ecuador, Surveyed Using a Newly Named Mini-Shannon Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Kazue; Velez N., Lenin; Kato, Hirotomo; Criollo F., Hipatia; Romero A., Daniel; Gomez L., Eduardo; Martini R., Luiggi; Zambrano C., Flavio; Calvopina H., Manuel; Caceres G., Abraham; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    To study the sand fly fauna, surveys were performed at four different leishmaniasis-endemic sites in Ecuador from February 2013 to April 2014. A modified and simplified version of the conventional Shannon trap was named “mini-Shannon trap” and put to multiple uses at the different study sites in limited, forested and narrow spaces. The mini-Shannon, CDC light trap and protected human landing method were employed for sand fly collection. The species identification of sand flies was performed mainly based on the morphology of spermathecae and cibarium, after dissection of fresh samples. In this study, therefore, only female samples were used for analysis. A total of 1,480 female sand flies belonging to 25 Lutzomyia species were collected. The number of female sand flies collected was 417 (28.2%) using the mini-Shannon trap, 259 (17.5%) using the CDC light trap and 804 (54.3%) by human landing. The total number of sand flies per trap collected by the different methods was markedly affected by the study site, probably because of the various composition of species at each locality. Furthermore, as an additional study, the attraction of sand flies to mini-Shannon traps powered with LED white-light and LED black-light was investigated preliminarily, together with the CDC light trap and human landing. As a result, a total of 426 sand flies of nine Lutzomyia species, including seven man-biting and two non-biting species, were collected during three capture trials in May and June 2014 in an area endemic for leishmaniasis (La Ventura). The black-light proved relatively superior to the white-light with regard to capture numbers, but no significant statistical difference was observed between the two traps. PMID:25589880

  13. Standardising visual control devices for tsetse flies: Central and West African species Glossina palpalis palpalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Kaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8-51%. There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m(2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m(2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Blue-black 0.25 m(2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for

  14. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An overview of quarantine for fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    What is meant by 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The Collins dictionary describes 'quarantine' as a period of isolation or detention, especially of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease. In providing an overview of quarantine for fruit flies, a broader definition needs to be applied, that is, the combination of activities required to maintain the fruit fly status of a particular geographical area - perhaps better referred to as a 'quarantine system'. Familiarity with New Zealand's quarantine system for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provides a useful basis for subsequent comparison with other countries' systems where some fruit fly species may be present. But, why have 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The multivoltine life history of many species. combined with a relatively long-lived adult stage and highly fecund females, results in a high potential for rapid population increase (Bateman 1979, Fletcher 1987). These factors and the close association of fruit flies with harvested fruit or vegetables explain the high quarantine profile of these insects. However, there is no international requirement for a country to have a quarantine system and unless there are natural quarantine barriers (e.g., mountain range, oceans, deserts) that can be utilised, effective quarantine by an individual country may be an impossible task. The implementation of a successful quarantine system is very expensive and therefore, it would be expected that any benefits attained outweigh the costs (Ivess 1998). Ivess (1998) listed the following benefits from the implementation of an effective quarantine system: minimising production costs (including post harvest treatments), maintaining competitive advantages for market access due to the ongoing freedom from particular pests of quarantine significance, an environment free from many pests harmful to plant health, the maintenance of ecosystems

  16. Primary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.; Polnarev, A.

    1981-01-01

    Proves are searched for of the formation of the so-called primary black holes at the very origin of the universe. The black holes would weigh less than 10 13 kg. The formation of a primary black hole is conditional on strong fluctuations of the gravitational field corresponding roughly to a half of the fluctuation maximally permissible by the general relativity theory. Only big fluctuations of the gravitational field can overcome the forces of the hot gas pressure and compress the originally expanding matter into a black hole. Low-mass black holes have a temperature exceeding that of the black holes formed from stars. A quantum process of particle formation, the so-called evaporation takes place in the strong gravitational field of a black hole. The lower the mass of the black hole, the shorter the evaporation time. The analyses of processes taking place during the evaporation of low-mass primary black holes show that only a very small proportion of the total mass of the matter in the universe could turn into primary black holes. (M.D.)

  17. [Correlation of Persistent Free Radicals, PCDD/Fs and Metals in Waste Incineration Fly Ash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-jiao; Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiao-dong

    2016-03-15

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are relatively highly stable and found in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Recent studies have concentrated on model dioxin formation reactions and there are few studies on actual waste incineration fly ash. In order to study EPFRs and the correlation with dioxins and heavy metals in waste incineration fly ash, the spins of EPFRs, concentration of PCDD/Fs and metals in samples from 6 different waste incinerators were detected. The medical waste incineration fly ash from Tianjin, municipal solid waste incineration fly ash from Jiangxi Province, black carbon and slag from municipal solid waste incinerator in Lanxi, Zhejiang Province, all contained EPFRs. Above all the signal in Tianjin sample was the strongest. Hydroxyl radicals, carbon-center radicals and semiquinone radicals were detected. Compared with other samples, Jiangxi fly ash had the highest toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) of dioxins, up to 7.229 4 ng · g⁻¹. However, the dioxin concentration in the Tianjin sample containing the strongest EPFR signals was only 0.092 8 ng · g⁻¹. There was perhaps little direct numeric link between EPFRs and PCDD/Fs. But the spins of EPFRs in samples presented an increasing trend as the metal contents increased, especially with Al, Fe, Zn. The signal strength of radicals was purposed to be related to the metal contents. The concentration of Zn (0.813 7% ) in the Tianjin sample was the highest and this sample contained much more spins of oxygen-center radicals. We could presume the metal Zn had a greater effect on the formation of EPFRs, and was easier to induce the formation of radicals with a longer half-life period.

  18. Ge extraction from gasification fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriol Font; Xavier Querol; Angel Lopez-Soler; Jose M. Chimenos; Ana I. Fernandez; Silvia Burgos; Francisco Garcia Pena [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-01

    Water-soluble germanium species (GeS{sub 2}, GeS and hexagonal-GeO{sub 2}) are generated during coal gasification and retained in fly ash. This fact together with the high market value of this element and the relatively high contents in the fly ashes of the Puertollano Integrated Gasification in Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant directed our research towards the development of an extraction process for this element. Major objectives of this research was to find a low cost and environmentally suitable process. Several water based extraction tests were carried out using different Puertollano IGCC fly ash samples, under different temperatures, water/fly ash ratios, and extraction times. High Ge extraction yields (up to 84%) were obtained at room temperature (25{sup o}C) but also high proportions of other trace elements (impurities) were simultaneously extracted. Increasing the extraction temperature to 50, 90 and 150{sup o}C, Ge extraction yields were kept at similar levels, while reducing the content of impurities, the water/fly ash ratio and extraction time. The experimental data point out the influence of chloride, calcium and sulphide dissolutions on the Ge extraction. 16 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  20. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  1. Investigation of gliding flight by flying fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2006-11-01

    The most successful flight capability of fish is observed in the flying fish. Furthermore, despite the difference between two medium (air and water), the flying fish is well evolved to have an excellent gliding performance as well as fast swimming capability. In this study, flying fish's morphological adaptation to gliding flight is experimentally investigated using dry-mounted darkedged-wing flying fish, Cypselurus Hiraii. Specifically, we examine the effects of the pectoral and pelvic fins on the aerodynamic performance considering (i) both pectoral and pelvic fins, (ii) pectoral fins only, and (iii) body only with both fins folded. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment at the free-stream velocity of 12m/s for each case. Case (i) has higher lift-to-drag ratio (i.e. longer gliding distance) and more enhanced longitudinal static stability than case (ii). However, the lift coefficient is smaller for case (i) than for case (ii), indicating that the pelvic fins are not so beneficial for wing loading. The gliding performance of flying fish is compared with those of other fliers and is found to be similar to those of insects such as the butterfly and fruitfly.

  2. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  3. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  4. Accreting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these ...

  5. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2001-01-01

    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom......Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included...

  8. The Black Family as Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joan

    The black family is the primary socializing agent of the black child and, thus, the primary educator. The culture of blacks in America, in which the child is steeped, is unique, complex and rich-the result of a convergence and fusion of African, American, and European influences. In its education of the black child, the black family must deal,…

  9. Genetic or mechanical sexing system for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1990-01-01

    A black puparium, monofactorial mutant was isolated in 1983 from a laboratory colony of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The mutant was used to construct a genetic sexing strain based on pupal sorting. Translocations were induced in wild male adults, 48 hours old, by gamma radiation (55 Gy; 60 Co). These males were crossed to black pupae females and produced two pupal sorting strains (T-44 and T-213) in 1987. These strains were lost after six generations. In another series of translocation inductions the strain T-87B was screened. Rearing the strain for eight generations in the laboratory provided no indication of instability in the strain. T-87B is now being mass reared. (author). 16 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Discriminating fever behavior in house flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Anderson

    Full Text Available Fever has generally been shown to benefit infected hosts. However, fever temperatures also carry costs. While endotherms are able to limit fever costs physiologically, the means by which behavioral thermoregulators constrain these costs are less understood. Here we investigated the behavioral fever response of house flies (Musca domestica L. challenged with different doses of the fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Infected flies invoked a behavioral fever selecting the hottest temperature early in the day and then moving to cooler temperatures as the day progressed. In addition, flies infected with a higher dose of fungus exhibited more intense fever responses. These variable patterns of fever are consistent with the observation that higher fever temperatures had greater impact on fungal growth. The results demonstrate the capacity of insects to modulate the degree and duration of the fever response depending on the severity of the pathogen challenge and in so doing, balance the costs and benefits of fever.

  11. Mercury release from fly ashes and hydrated fly ash cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen; Zhang, Chao-yang; Kong, Xiang-ming; Zhuo, Yu-qun; Zhu, Zhen-wu

    2018-04-01

    The large-scale usage of fly ash in cement and concrete introduces mercury (Hg) into concrete structures and a risk of secondary emission of Hg from the structures during long-term service was evaluated. Three fly ashes were collected from coal-fired power plants and three blend cements were prepared by mixing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with the same amount of fly ash. The releasing behaviors of Hg0 from the fly ash and the powdered hydrated cement pastes (HCP) were measured by a self-developed Hg measurement system, where an air-blowing part and Hg collection part were involved. The Hg release of fly ashes at room temperature varied from 25.84 to 39.69 ng/g fly ash during 90-days period of air-blowing experiment. In contrast, the Hg release of the HCPs were in a range of 8.51-18.48 ng/g HCP. It is found that the Hg release ratios of HCPs were almost the same as those of the pure fly ashes, suggesting that the hydration products of the HCP have little immobilization effect on Hg0. Increasing temperature and moisture content markedly promote the Hg release.

  12. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  13. A Flying Wire System in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Buxton, W.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Roser, T.; Smith, G.; Syphers, M.; Williams, N.; Witkover, R.

    1999-01-01

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less dependent on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system

  14. Studies of the behaviour of New World screwworm flies in the field in Libya in support of the development of an adult suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.H.; Hall, M.J.R.; Fergiani, M.

    1992-01-01

    Electrocuting grids were used to study the attractiveness of targets to sterile released adults of C. hominivorax in Libya. Three different sizes of black targets were tested using ''swormlure-4'' (S4) odour baits. No differences in catch between the targets was detected. In a choice comparison between a red and a black target, twice as many flies were caught by the black target as by the red. Unbaited targets caught less than 1% of the C. hominivorax caught by targets baited with S4, indicating that the odour baits are essential for the operation of targets. Dimethyl disulphide (DMDS) had a greater effect on target catches of males than females and can probably be omitted from attractants for population suppression using targets. The effect on trap catches was greater, so DMDS should be retained for trapping purposes. The length of time that a screw-worm fly spends in contact with a target was studied both by direct observation and by employing an intermittently active electrocuting grid. From direct observations, the mean time per contact (backtransformed log sec) was 6.5 s. From the electric net study, the mean cumulative time per fly was 15 s, implying multiple contacts by each fly with the target. 3 figs, 2 tabs

  15. High innate attractiveness to black targets in the blue blowfly, Calliphora vomitoria (L.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Otranto, Domenico; Caselli, Alice; Romano, Donato; Remorini, Damiano; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Stefanini, Cesare; Mele, Marcello; Canale, Angelo

    2018-06-01

    Calliphora vomitoria is a myiasis-causing fly in many animal species including humans. The control of blowflies is still anchored on the use of chemicals. However, mass trapping and lure-and-kill techniques represent a promising alternative to pesticides. Visual and olfactory cues are the main stimuli routing the fly's landing behavior. Notably, color attractiveness has been barely explored in flies of medical and veterinary importance, with special reference to blowflies. In this study, we investigated the innate color preferences in C. vomitoria adults, testing binary combinations of painted targets under laboratory conditions. The identity of tested species C. vomitoria was confirmed by DNA sequencing (18S and cox1 genes). C. vomitoria flies showed a significant preference for black colored targets in all tested binary color combinations, after 5, 15, 30 and 60 min of exposure. Black targets were significantly preferred over blue, red, yellow and white ones. Spectral characteristics of all tested color combinations were quantified and the innate attraction of blowflies towards black targets was discussed in relation to their behavioral ecology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on innate color preferences in the Calliphora genus. Our findings can be useful to develop new, cheap and reliable monitoring traps as well as "lure and kill" tools to control blowfly pests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  17. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  18. on black ironbark (Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Apis meOifera) on black ironbark. (Eucalyptus sideroxylon). B. Buys. Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,. Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Received May /984; accepted 28 November /986. Black ironbark trees secrete nectar during the night. Argentine ants collected 42% of the nectar before ...

  19. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  20. Quantum black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooft, G. 't

    1987-01-01

    This article is divided into three parts. First, a systematic derivation of the Hawking radiation is given in three different ways. The information loss problem is then discussed in great detail. The last part contains a concise discussion of black hole thermodynamics. This article was published as chapter $6$ of the IOP book "Lectures on General Relativity, Cosmology and Quantum Black Holes" (July $2017$).

  1. Protecting Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  2. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  3. The Black Woman's Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in…

  4. Black Boycott: Gainsville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arthur O.

    1975-01-01

    A case study of the events precipitating a black student boycott in 1969 in Gainesville, Flordia, when school board manuevering to avoid school integration led to the threatened closing of Lincoln High School, a reputable black community school. Also described are the subsequent transformations of Lincoln into a vocational-technical school and…

  5. Optimization of soil stabilization with class C fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Previous Iowa DOT sponsored research has shown that some Class : C fly ashes are cementitious (because calcium is combined as calcium : aluminates) while other Class C ashes containing similar amounts of : elemental calcium are not (1). Fly ashes fro...

  6. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-06-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  7. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  8. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  9. Legitimizing Blacks in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameliah Shorter-Bourhanou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.

  10. Cloud formations caused by emissions from high-flying aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, H

    1990-09-01

    Kerosene combustion in aircraft engines leads to the emission of gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapour, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, sulphur dioxide and poorly or incompletely burnt hydrocarbons, as well as to particulate emissions which mainly consist of carbon black. In higher atmospheric strata with temperatures below -50deg C, these gas and particle emissions are no longer negligible when compared to the concentrations prevailing in the absence of air traffic; i.e. aircraft emissions produce the wellknown condensation trails which persist for a longer period of time. Since these trails are similar to natural ice clouds, their effect on the atmosphere's radiation balance almost invariably is that of an additional greenhouse agent. They change climatic parameters, probably not only locally but alos regionally via feedback mechanisms. After describing efforts aimed at separating the effect of condensation trails from natural variations, this paper will conclude with reduction proposals which will primarily demonstrate that the likelihood of the formation of condensation trails decreases drastically at only slightly lower flying altitudes. (orig.).

  11. Efectos de la dispersión sobre la reconstrucción por árboles reconciliados y el patrón de distribución de los subgéneros neotropicales de Simulium (Diptera:Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda-Esquivel Daniel Rafael

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis ofthe distribution pattern ofNeotropical Simulium (Diptera:Simuliidae subgenera suggests that dispersal between Mesoamerica and the Pacifíc region, and SE of Brazil and Cerrado could interfere with the evaluation of the general pattern. To agree with the premise ofno dispersion when reconciliated trees is used and to tackle the dispersal problem, the most frequent events of dispersal to each subgenus were eliminated. The dispersal evaluation was carried out using the dispersal-vicariance approach. Reconciliated trees approach, optimizing losses, yields six cladograms and the strict consensus is congruent with previous works using terrestrial organisms where there are two domains: Neotropics and antarctic.El análisis de los patrones biogeográficos de los subgéneros neotropicales de Simulium (Diptera:Simuliidae, sugiere que los eventos de dispersión desde Mesoamerica a la región Pacífica y del SE de Brasil al Cerrado pueden oscurecer la reconstrucción del patrón de las áreas. Para ser concordantes con este fenómeno y  con las limitantes del método de árboles reconciliados, que supone no dispersión, se evaluó los eventos de dispersión para cada subgénero usando el enfoque de dispersión-vicarianza y los eventos de dispersión más frecuentes fueron eliminados de la reconstrucción al usar árboles reconciliados. Al optimizar el número de perdidas se obtienen seis cladogramas de áreas; el consenso estricto sugiere relaciones entre áreas que son congruentes con estudios biogeográficos preliminares usando organismos terrestres donde se presentan claramente los dominios antártico y neotropical. 

  12. Blow flies as urban wildlife sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Constanze; Merkel, Kevin; Sachse, Andreas; Rodríguez, Pablo; Leendertz, Fabian H; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2018-05-01

    Wildlife detection in urban areas is very challenging. Conventional monitoring techniques such as direct observation are faced with the limitation that urban wildlife is extremely elusive. It was recently shown that invertebrate-derived DNA (iDNA) can be used to assess wildlife diversity in tropical rainforests. Flies, which are ubiquitous and very abundant in most cities, may also be used to detect wildlife in urban areas. In urban ecosystems, however, overwhelming quantities of domestic mammal DNA could completely mask the presence of wild mammal DNA. To test whether urban wild mammals can be detected using fly iDNA, we performed DNA metabarcoding of pools of flies captured in Berlin, Germany, using three combinations of blocking primers. Our results show that domestic animal sequences are, as expected, very dominant in urban environments. Nevertheless, wild mammal sequences can often be retrieved, although they usually only represent a minor fraction of the sequence reads. Fly iDNA metabarcoding is therefore a viable approach for quick scans of urban wildlife diversity. Interestingly, our study also shows that blocking primers can interact with each other in ways that affect the outcome of metabarcoding. We conclude that the use of complex combinations of blocking primers, although potentially powerful, should be carefully planned when designing experiments. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The peaks observed at 1546 and 1511 cm−1 correspond to CO3. 2- group. Symmetric .... The values of RL reported in Table 5 obtained were less than one, indicating that the adsorption of eosin dye ... This work. Coal fly ash. Crystal Violet.

  14. Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J

    2002-01-01

    In fly photoreceptor cells, two processes dominate the Ca2+ homeostasis: light-induced Ca2+ influx through members of the TRP family of ion channels, and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange.Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is quantitatively insignificant. Both, the light-activated channels and

  15. Letting Your Students "Fly" in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Students investigate the concept of motion by making simple paper airplanes and flying them in the classroom. Students are introduced to conversion factors to calculate various speeds. Additional activities include rounding decimal numbers, estimating, finding averages, making bar graphs, and solving problems. Offers ideas for extension such as…

  16. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  17. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  18. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to attempt making zeolite from fly ash (Höller and Wir- sching 1985; Henmi ... thermal treatment method to synthesize low silica NaX- type zeolite from .... catalytic applications. Mixture of ... amount of Fe2O3 and the oxides of Mg, Ca, P, Ti etc. The chemical ..... This work is partly supported by the Ministry of Human. Resource ...

  19. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET method for surface area measurement etc.

  20. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  1. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Panduka S; Marston, Denise A; Ellis, Richard J; Wise, Emma L; Karawita, Anjana C; Breed, Andrew C; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R

    2016-08-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus.

  2. On Optical Crosstalk between Fly Rhabdomeres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, W.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    In a fly retinula light may be transferred among the rhabdomeres. It is estimated that the light from a point source imaged on the axis of a rhabdomere may eventually be transferred completely to a neighbouring rhabdomere. However, the effect on the sensitivity of this latter rhabdomere will remain

  3. Upshot of Elevated Temperature on Performance Facet of Fly Ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effects of elevated temperature variation on the compressive strength of Fly Ash/Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Laterized concrete ... and 10% Fly ash content at 2500C. This is an indication that the strength of Fly ash/OPC Laterized concrete is generally sufficient for use at elevated temperature ...

  4. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, which are vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, depending on the sand fly species geographic range. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. milita...

  5. Vestibular schwannoma and fitness to fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Yoann; Raynal, Marc; Hunkemöller, Iris; Lepage, Pierre; Kossowski, Michel

    2010-10-01

    When a pilot is referred for vestibular schwannoma (VS), his or her fitness to fly may be questioned. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe a series of VS cases in a pilot population and to discuss their fitness to fly options. Between September 2002 and March 2010, the ENT/Head and Neck Surgery Department of the National Pilot Expertise Center conducted nearly 120,000 expert consultations for 40,000 pilots. We examined the files of 10 pilots who were referred to our 2 national experts for VS. At the time of the expert consultation, hypoacusis was present in nine cases (four with total deafness), tinnitus in one case, and vertigo in nine cases. In our series, only 2 of the 10 pilots experienced a negative impact on their fitness to fly. Decisions on fitness to fly were based on several factors: minimally disturbed audition, i.e., less than a 35-dB hearing loss with a good speech discrimination score; good balance, i.e., no reported difficulties; no spontaneous nystagmus recorded on videonystagmography (VNG); no postural deviation; and a normal head-shaking test. The delay and the VS's evolution between diagnosis and expert consultation are important because the selection of a treatment to control VS is critical in minimizing the possible associated complications. When a pilot is referred for VS, his or her fitness to fly is determined by the size of the tumor, balance, auditory status, and the follow-up results of these findings. The complications that may arise from VS treatments must also be considered.

  6. Effects of eucalyptol on house fly (Diptera: Muscidae and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukontason Kabkaew L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of eucalyptol were evaluated against the house fly, Musca domestica L., and blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.. The bioassay of adults, using topical application, indicated that M. domestica males were more susceptible than females, with the LD50 being 118 and 177 mg/fly, respectively. A higher LD50 of C. megacephala was obtained; 197 mg/fly for males and 221 mg/fly for females. Living flies of both species yielded a shorter life span after being treated with eucalyptol. The bioassay of larvae, using the dipping method on the third instar, showed that M. domestica was more susceptible than C. megacephala, with their LC50 being 101 and 642 mg/ml, respectively. The emergence of adults, which had been treated with eucalyptol in larvae, decreased only in M. domestica. Having the volatile property, fumigation or impregnated paper test of eucalyptol or the efficacy of repellence or attractiveness merits further investigations to enhance bio-insecticidal efficacy.

  7. Efficacy of Different Sampling Methods of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in Endemic Focus of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Kashan District, Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Hesam-Mohammadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficiency and practicality of seven trapping methods for adult phlebotominae sand flies. The results of this investigation provide information to determine the species composition and nocturnal activity pattern of different sand fly species.The study was carried out in both plain region (about 5km far from northeast and mountainous region (about 40km far from southwest of Kashan City. Seven traps were selected as sampling methods and sand flies were collected during 5 interval times starting July to September 2011 and from 8:00PM to 6:00AM in outdoors habitats. The traps include: sticky traps (4 papers for 2 hours, Disney trap, Malaise, CDC and CO2 light traps, Shannon traps (black and white nets and animal-baited trap.A total of 1445 sand flies belonging to 15 species of Phlebotomus spp. and five of Sergentomyia spp. were collected. Females and males comprised 44.91% and 55.09% of catches, respectively. Of the collected specimens, Se. sintoni was found to be the most prevalent (37.86% species, while Ph. papatasi, accounted for 31.76% of the sand flies.Disney trap and sticky traps exhibited the most productivity than other traps. In addition, in terms of the efficiency of sampling method, these two trapping methods appeared to be the most productive for both estimating the number of sand flies and the species composition in the study area.

  8. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  9. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  10. "Black Like Me": Reframing Blackness for Decolonial Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, George J. Sefa

    2018-01-01

    From a particular vantage point, as an African-born scholar with a politics to affirm my Black subjectivity and Indigeneity in a diasporic context, my article engages a (re)theorization of Blackness for decolonial politics. Building on existing works of how Black scholars, themselves, have theorized Blackness, and recognizing the fluid,…

  11. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  12. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  13. Future fly ash marketing; Flugaschevermarktung in der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, R.; Hugot, A. [Evonik Power Minerals GmbH, Dinslaken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It can be assumed that the fly ash production volumes will undergo a marked increase over the next few years. The conditions of fly ash production will improve as a result of modern and refurbished power plants, yielding a positive effect on the quality of fly ashes. Other vital parameters of future fly ash marketing are fly ash logistics and the infrastructure of power plants. Basically, economic utilisation of the increased production volumes is possible; however, new and long-term strategies are necessary. (orig.)

  14. Norm in coal, fly ash and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, K.; Upadhyay, S.B.; Sharma, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    Coal is technologically important materials being used for power generation and its cinder (fly ash) is used in manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. 222 Rn (radon) and its daughters are the most important radioactive and potentially hazardous elements, which are released in the environment from the naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) present in coal, fly ash and cement. Thus it is very important to carry out radioactivity measurements in coal, fly ash and cement from the health and hygiene point of view. Samples of coal and fly ash from different thermal power stations in northern India and various fly ash using establishments and commercially available cement samples (O.P.C. and P.P.C.) were collected and analyzed for radon concentration and exhalation rates. For the measurements, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. The radon concentration varied from 147 Bq/m 3 to 443 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 1.5 to 4.5 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 11.8 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 to 35.7 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 104.5 mBq.m -2 .h -1 to 314.8 mBq.m -2 .h -1 for surface exhalation rate in coal samples. The radon concentration varied from 214 Bq/m 3 to 590 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 1.0 to 2.7 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 7.8 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 to 21.6 mBq.kg -1 .h -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 138 mBq m -2 h -1 to 380.6 mBq.m -2 .h -1 for surface exhalation rate in fly ash samples. The radon concentration varied from 157.62 Bq/m 3 to 1810.48 Bq/m 3 , the radium concentration varied from 0.76 Bq/kg to 8.73 Bq/kg and radon exhalation rate varied from 6.07 mBq.kg -1 .hr -1 to 69.81 mBq.kg -1 .hr -1 for mass exhalation rate and from 107.10 mBq.m -2 .hr -1 to 1230.21 mBq.m -2 .hr -1 for surface exhalation rate in different cement samples. The values were found higher in P.P.C. samples than in O.P.C. samples. (authors)

  15. Understanding the Black Aesthetic Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    Discussing the importance of the Black aesthetic experience, Curtis examines Black cultural heritage and participatory style, the spiritual, and the creation and recreation of Black music. Advocating multicultural music education in teacher training, he suggests that Black music be studied for its value and contribution to society. Lists five ways…

  16. New Directions for Black Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Dorothy, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This collection of papers deals with various aspects of the black female experience in America. "The Black Woman in Transition" discusses the effects of sexism and racism on black women with particular reference to employment and education; it is noted that black women, in comparison with other groups in society, suffer a proportionately higher…

  17. Black Writers' Views of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Loyle

    1979-01-01

    This article argues that the stagnation, pessimism, and self-pity evident in recent Black writing results in part from the alienation of Black writers from the mainstream of Black life, and in part from the illusions that they share with other Blacks who have embraced the American value system. (Author/EB)

  18. Fly ash dynamics in soil-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Fulekar, M.H.; Jayalakshmi, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    Studies regarding the effluents and coal ashes (or fly ash) resulting from coal burning are numerous, but their disposal and interactions with the soil and water systems and their detailed environmental impact assessment with concrete status reports on a global scale are scanty. Fly ash dynamics in soil and water systems are reviewed. After detailing the physical composition of fly ash, physicochemical changes in soil properties due to fly ash amendment are summarized. Areas covered include texture and bulk density, moisture retention, change in chemical equilibria, and effects of fly ash on soil microorganisms. Plant growth in amended soils is discussed, as well as plant uptake and accumulation of trace elements. In order to analyze the effect of fly ash on the physicochemical properties of water, several factors must be considered, including surface morphology of fly ash, pH of the ash sluice water, pH adjustments, leachability and solubility, and suspended ash and settling. The dynamics of fly ash in water systems is important due to pollution of groundwater resources from toxic components such as trace metals. Other factors summarized are bioaccumulation and biomagnification, human health effects of contaminants, and the impact of radionuclides in fly ash. Future research needs should focus on reduction of the environmental impact of fly ash and increasing utilization of fly ash as a soil amendment. 110 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  19. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Analysis list: FLI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FLI1 Blood,Bone,Muscle + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/targe...t/FLI1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedb...c.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Bone.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Bl

  1. Black holes with halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  2. Tuberculosis in Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are reported in blacks received training to enhance skills for engaging communities, develop strategies, and sustain partnerships for reducing TB rates. Other CDC activities include a study to identify the socio-cultural, racial, and health ...

  3. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  4. Colliding black hole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  5. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacisalihoglu, G.; Eliyakut, F.; Anwari, M.A.; Ataman, O.Y.; Balkas, T.I.; Tuncel, G.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m 3 , which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  6. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  7. Black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Including black holes in the scheme of thermodynamics has disclosed a deep-seated connection between gravitation, heat and the quantum that may lead us to a synthesis of the corresponding branches of physics

  8. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. White dwarfs - black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexl, R.; Sexl, H.

    1975-01-01

    The physical arguments and problems of relativistic astrophysics are presented in a correct way, but without any higher mathematics. The book is addressed to teachers, experimental physicists, and others with a basic knowledge covering an introductory lecture in physics. The issues dealt with are: fundamentals of general relativity, classical tests of general relativity, curved space-time, stars and planets, pulsars, gravitational collapse and black holes, the search for black holes, gravitational waves, cosmology, cosmogony, and the early universe. (BJ/AK) [de

  10. Supersymmetric black holes

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The effective action of $N=2$, $d=4$ supergravity is shown to acquire no quantum corrections in background metrics admitting super-covariantly constant spinors. In particular, these metrics include the Robinson-Bertotti metric (product of two 2-dimensional spaces of constant curvature) with all 8 supersymmetries unbroken. Another example is a set of arbitrary number of extreme Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. These black holes break 4 of 8 supersymmetries, leaving the other 4 unbroken. We ha...

  11. Bumpy black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Emparan, Roberto; Figueras, Pau; Martinez, Marina

    2014-01-01

    We study six-dimensional rotating black holes with bumpy horizons: these are topologically spherical, but the sizes of symmetric cycles on the horizon vary non-monotonically with the polar angle. We construct them numerically for the first three bumpy families, and follow them in solution space until they approach critical solutions with localized singularities on the horizon. We find strong evidence of the conical structures that have been conjectured to mediate the transitions to black ring...

  12. British Dance: Black Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Adair, C.; Burt, Ramsay, 1953-

    2016-01-01

    British Dance: Black Routes re-examines the distinctive contributions made to British dance by dancers who are Black. Covering the period 1946 to the present, it presents a radical re-reading of dancers and their companies, placing their achievements within a broader historical, cultural and artistic context. The result of a two year research project, British Dance and the African Diaspora, led by editors Christy Adair and Ramsay Burt, the collection looks at artists working with contempor...

  13. Black Holes and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    We review the remarkable relationship between the laws of black hole mechanics and the ordinary laws of thermodynamics. It is emphasized that - in analogy with the laws of thermodynamics - the validity the laws of black hole mechanics does not appear to depend upon the details of the underlying dynamical theory (i.e., upon the particular field equations of general relativity). It also is emphasized that a number of unresolved issues arise in ``ordinary thermodynamics'' in the context of gener...

  14. Quality characteristics of Greek fly ashes and potential uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Grammelis, P.; Kakaras, E. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Ptolemais (Greece); Karangelos, D.; Anagnostakis, M.; Hinis, E. [Nuclear Engineering Section, Mechanical Engineering Department, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2007-01-15

    The main characteristics of fly ash from Greek coal-fired boilers are presented in this paper in relation to its exploitation potential. Both fuel and fly ash samples were collected and analyzed according to the ASTM Standards. Apart from the typical analyses (proximate, ultimate, ash analysis and calorific value), an ICP-AES spectrometer was used for the analysis of heavy metals in the ash. Experimental measurements in order to determine the radioactivity content of raw fuel and the fly ash were carried out as well. A representative fly ash sample from Ptolemais power plant was evaluated and tested as filler in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). Ashes from the Greek brown coal are classified in type C, most of the fly ash being produced in Ptolemais of Northern Greece, while the rest in Megalopolis. Ptolemais fly ash is rich in calcium compounds, while Megalopolis fly ash contains more pyrite. Increased heavy metal concentrations are observed in the fly ash samples of Greek coal. Greek fly ash appears to have not only pozzolanic but also hydraulic behaviour. Furthermore, Greek fly ash, depending on its origin, may have relatively high natural radioactivity content, reaching in the case of Megalopolis fly ash 1 kBq kg{sup -1} of {sup 226}Ra. The laboratory results showed that fly ashes can be a competitive substitute to conventional limestone filler material in SCC. Fly ash is mostly used in Greece in cement industry replacing cement clinker and aiming to the production of special types of Portland cements. However, a more aggressive utilisation strategy should be developed, since low quantities of the total produced fly ash are currently further utilised. (author)

  15. Plant nutrition on fly-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, W J; Sidrak, G H

    1956-12-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the plant nutritional potential of fly ash. Chemical analysis indicates that it contains all the essential nutrients. It is deficient in nitrogen and only manganese and aluminum appear to be available in quantities toxic to plants. Barley and spinach grown on fly ash accumulate excessive quantities of Al and Mn in their leaves and exhibit symptoms of toxicities of these metals. Atriplex hastata grows vigorously on the ash, has a high Al and Mn leaf content, but does not show toxicity symptoms. Atriplex, barley and spinach grown at reduced N levels gave lower yields than the normal controls, but symptoms of N deficiency which were evident in barley and spinach were not observed in Atriplex. 17 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  16. Utah Fly's Eye detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrusaitis, R.M.; Cady, R.; Cassiday, G.L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J.W.; Gerhardy, P.R.; Ko, S.; Loh, E.C.; Salamon, M.; Steck, D.; Sokolsky, P.

    1985-10-15

    We report the details of the design, operation and performance of the University of Utah Fly's Eye detector which was built to record the passage of ultra-high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere via atmospheric fluorescence. Emphasized in the presentation are (1) light production by charged particles in the atmosphere, (2) kinematics of an EAS as seen by the Fly's Eye, (3) signal to noise considerations and its impact on detector design, (4) details of detector hardware and software, (5) detector calibration, (6) techniques employed in measurement of shower longitudinal development profiles and primary particle energy, and (7) assessment of detector performance by a comparison of Monte Carlo and real data distributions. (orig.).

  17. Pulse generation scheme for flying electromagnetic doughnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasimakis, Nikitas; Raybould, Tim; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Tsai, Din Ping; Youngs, Ian; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2018-05-01

    Transverse electromagnetic plane waves are fundamental solutions of Maxwells equations. It is less known that a radically different type of solutions has been described theoretically, but has never been realized experimentally, that exist only in the form of short bursts of electromagnetic energy propagating in free space at the speed of light. They are distinguished from transverse waves by a doughnutlike configuration of electric and magnetic fields with a strong field component along the propagation direction. Here, we demonstrate numerically that such flying doughnuts can be generated from conventional pulses using a singular metamaterial converter designed to manipulate both the spatial and spectral structure of the input pulse. The ability to generate flying doughnuts is of fundamental interest, as they shall interact with matter in unique ways, including nontrivial field transformations upon reflection from interfaces and the excitation of toroidal response and anapole modes in matter, hence offering opportunities for telecommunications, sensing, and spectroscopy.

  18. Radiation dose to the global flying population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Luis E; Eastham, Sebastian D; Barrett, Steven R H

    2016-01-01

    Civil airliner passengers and crew are exposed to elevated levels of radiation relative to being at sea level. Previous studies have assessed the radiation dose received in particular cases or for cohort studies. Here we present the first estimate of the total radiation dose received by the worldwide civilian flying population. We simulated flights globally from 2000 to 2013 using schedule data, applying a radiation propagation code to estimate the dose associated with each flight. Passengers flying in Europe and North America exceed the International Commission on Radiological Protection annual dose limits at an annual average of 510 or 420 flight hours per year, respectively. However, this falls to 160 or 120 h on specific routes under maximum exposure conditions. (paper)

  19. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  20. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Arthropoda Drosophila_melanogaster_L.png Drosophila_mela...nogaster_NL.png Drosophila_melanogaster_S.png Drosophila_melanogaster_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/...taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=NS ...

  2. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    World War II, women in the United States turned manpower into woman power as housewives across the nation took manufacturing jobs building bombers...delineates responsibilities for the entire volunteer organization. Safety -first Flying Culture CHP CHP’s first- class safety program uses the most...civilian pilots to augment law enforcement based aviation operations. This thesis uses recommendations of the Public Safety Aviation Accreditation

  3. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  4. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koenig

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA. The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  5. Lime-Stabilized Black Cotton Soil and Brick Powder Mixture as Subbase Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srikanth Reddy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various researchers, for the past few decades, had tried to stabilize black cotton soil using lime for improving its shrinkage and swelling characteristics. But these days, the cost of lime has increased resulting in increase in need for alternative and cost effective waste materials such as fly ash and rice husk ash. Brick powder, one among the alternative materials, is a fine powdered waste that contains higher proportions of silica and is found near brick kilns in rural areas. The objective of the study is to investigate the use of lime-stabilized black cotton soil and brick powder mixture as subbase material in flexible pavements. Black cotton soil procured from the local area, tested for suitability as subbase material, turned out to be unsuitable as it resulted in very less CBR value. Even lime stabilization of black cotton soil under study has not showed up the required CBR value specified for the subbase material of flexible pavement by MORTH. Hence the lime-stabilized black cotton soil is proportioned with brick powder to obtain optimum mixture that yields a better CBR value. The mixture of 20% brick powder and 80% lime-stabilized black cotton soil under study resulted in increase in the CBR value by about 135% in comparison with lime-stabilized black cotton soil. Thus it is promising to use the mixture of brick powder and lime-stabilized black cotton soil as subbase material in flexible pavements.

  6. Flying the Needles: Flight Deck Automation Erodes Fine-Motor Flying Skills Among Airline Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Hoermann, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of practice and training on fine-motor flying skills during a manual instrument landing system (ILS) approach. There is an ongoing debate that manual flying skills of long-haul crews suffer from a lack of flight practice due to conducting only a few flights per month and the intensive use of automation. However, objective evidence is rare. One hundred twenty-six randomly selected airline pilots had to perform a manual flight scenario with a raw data precision approach. Pilots were assigned to four equal groups according to their level of practice and training by fleet (short-haul, long-haul) and rank (first officer, captain). Average ILS deviation scores differed significantly in relation to the group assignments. The strongest predictor variable was fleet, indicating degraded performance among long-haul pilots. Manual flying skills are subject to erosion due to a lack of practice on long-haul fleets: All results support the conclusion that recent flight practice is a significantly stronger predictor for fine-motor flying performance than the time period since flight school or even the total or type-specific flight experience. Long-haul crews have to be supported in a timely manner by adequate training tailored to address manual skills or by operational provisions like mixed-fleet flying or more frequent transitions between short-haul and long-haul operation. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  8. Improved attractants for enhancing tsetse fly suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    At the initiation of this co-ordinated research project (CRP), the available visually attractant devices and odours for entomological monitoring and for suppression of tsetse fly populations were not equally effective against all economically important tsetse fly species. For species like G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. swynnertoni and some species of the PALPALIS-group of tsetse flies no sufficiently effective combinations of visual or odour attractants were available for efficient suppression and standardized monitoring as part of an operational integrated intervention campaign against the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. The Co-ordinated Research Project on Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns involved (a) the identification, synthesis and provision of candidate kairomones, their analogues and of dispensers; (b) laboratory screening of synthesised candidate kairomones through electrophysiological studies and wind tunnel experiments; (c) field tests of candidate kairomones alone or as part of odour blends, in combination with available and or new trap designs; and (d) analysis of hydrocarbons that influence tsetse sexual behaviour. The CRP accomplished several main objectives, namely: - The screening of new structurally related compounds, including specific stereoisomers, of known tsetse attractants resulted in the identification of several new candidate odour attractants with promising potential. - An efficient two-step synthetic method was developed for the pilot plant scale production of 3-n-propyphenol, synergistic tsetse kairomone component. - Electrophysiological experiments complemented with wind tunnel studies provided an efficient basis for the laboratory screening of candidate attractants prior to the initiation of laborious field tests. - New traps were identified and modifications of existing traps were tested for some species

  9. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  10. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y.; Michailides, Themis J.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C.

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  11. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kim Y; Michailides, Themis J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  12. Surface geometry of 5D black holes and black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Goswami, Rituparno

    2007-01-01

    We discuss geometrical properties of the horizon surface of five-dimensional rotating black holes and black rings. Geometrical invariants characterizing these 3D geometries are calculated. We obtain a global embedding of the 5D rotating black horizon surface into a flat space. We also describe the Kaluza-Klein reduction of the black ring solution (along the direction of its rotation) which, though it is nakedly singular, relates this solution to the 4D metric of a static black hole distorted by the presence of external scalar (dilaton) and vector ('electromagnetic') fields. The properties of the reduced black hole horizon and its embedding in E 3 are briefly discussed

  13. Behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Keng-Hong

    2000-01-01

    Many species of tephritid fruit flies have gained global status as pests of economic importance in fruit and vegetable cultivation. Bactrocera species are no exception. Males of most Bactrocera species are known to be attracted to either methyl eugenol (ME) or cuelure (CL)/raspberry ketone (RK) (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1987 and 1990). At the turn of the century, male fruit flies of both B. diversa (Coquillett) (formerly Dacus diversus) and B. zonata (Saunders) (formerly Dacus zonatus) were first observed to have a strong attraction to citronella oil (Howlett 1912). The chemical responsible for the attraction was discovered to be ME (Howlett 1915). Since that discovery, ME has been used successfully in monitoring and male annihilation programmes (Steiner et al. 1965), in estimating native population density and survival rates (Tan 1985, Tan and Jaal 1986, Tan and Serit 1994), and movements between ecosystems (Tan and Serit 1988). The unique characteristic of male Bactrocera flies is that not only are they strongly attracted to certain male attractants but they compulsively feed on them. This phenomenon was not fully understood (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1990, Metcalf and Metcalf 1992) until early this decade. Certain male attractants play a very important role in the behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies, and aid in the understanding of the intricate interrelationships between plants, fruit flies and their predators (Tan 1993). Every organism actively or passively secretes chemicals which act as a characteristic 'body odour'. This 'body odour' affects behaviour of individuals, both intraspecies and interspecies, within a community and it is here referred to as ecomone (ecohormone) under a large group of semiochemicals (behaviour modifying chemicals). To understand the different roles of chemicals acting as a medium in communication between individuals and affecting behaviour of a receptive organism, a brief classification of semiochemicals is essential

  14. The influence of sex and fly species on the development of trypanosomes in tsetse flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Peacock

    Full Text Available Unlike other dipteran disease vectors, tsetse flies of both sexes feed on blood and transmit pathogenic African trypanosomes. During transmission, Trypanosoma brucei undergoes a complex cycle of proliferation and development inside the tsetse vector, culminating in production of infective forms in the saliva. The insect manifests robust immune defences throughout the alimentary tract, which eliminate many trypanosome infections. Previous work has shown that fly sex influences susceptibility to trypanosome infection as males show higher rates of salivary gland (SG infection with T. brucei than females. To investigate sex-linked differences in the progression of infection, we compared midgut (MG, proventriculus, foregut and SG infections in male and female Glossina morsitans morsitans. Initially, infections developed in the same way in both sexes: no difference was observed in numbers of MG or proventriculus infections, or in the number and type of developmental forms produced. Female flies tended to produce foregut migratory forms later than males, but this had no detectable impact on the number of SG infections. The sex difference was not apparent until the final stage of SG invasion and colonisation, showing that the SG environment differs between male and female flies. Comparison of G. m. morsitans with G. pallidipes showed a similar, though less pronounced, sex difference in susceptibility, but additionally revealed very different levels of trypanosome resistance in the MG and SG. While G. pallidipes was more refractory to MG infection, a very high proportion of MG infections led to SG infection in both sexes. It appears that the two fly species use different strategies to block trypanosome infection: G. pallidipes heavily defends against initial establishment in the MG, while G. m. morsitans has additional measures to prevent trypanosomes colonising the SG, particularly in female flies. We conclude that the tsetse-trypanosome interface works

  15. Acidolysis of coal fly ash by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.; Singh, A.K. (EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Biological Processing Technology)

    1993-12-01

    The kinetics of aluminium extraction were investigated, using as-received and calcined fly ash samples and a pure culture of [ital Aspergillus niger]. This fungus metabolized sucrose to citric and oxalic acids, which were involved in the acidolysis of fly ash. Aluminium extraction from as-received fly ash was only 5-8%, whereas from calcined fly ash it was up to 93.5%. The order of reaction and the overall reaction rate constant were determined by the van't Hoff technique with respect to the concentration of calcined fly ash. A linearized form of a modified Monod expression was applied to the experimental data to assess the kinetic constants for the acidolysis process. Statistically designed experiments were carried out with calcined fly ash and synthetic solutions containing citric and oxalic acids to determine the optimum leaching conditions. The acidolysis reaction mechanism is discussed. 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Distinction of Fly Artifacts from Human Blood using Immunodetection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, David B; Acca, Gillian; Fink, Marc; Brogan, Rebecca; Chen, Dorothy; Schoeffield, Andrew

    2018-02-21

    Insect stains produced by necrophagous flies are indistinguishable morphologically from human bloodstains. At present, no diagnostic tests exist to overcome this deficiency. As the first step toward developing a chemical test to recognize fly artifacts, polyclonal antisera were generated in rats against three distinct antigenic sequences of fly cathepsin D-like proteinase, an enzyme that is structurally distinct in cyclorrhaphous Diptera from other animals. The resulting rat antisera bound to artifacts produced by Protophormia terraenovae and synthetic peptides used to generate the polyclonal antisera, but not with any type of mammalian blood tested in immunoassays. Among the three antisera, anti-md3 serum displayed the highest reactivity for fly stains, demonstrated cross-reactivity for all synthetic peptides representing antigenic sequences of the mature fly enzyme, and bound artifacts originating from the fly digestive tract. Further work is needed to determine whether the antisera are suitable for non-laboratory conditions. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsching, Sophie; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state.

  18. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsching, Sophie; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state. PMID:27875580

  19. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Batsching

    Full Text Available Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state.

  20. Analysis list: Fli1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Fli1 Blood,Embryo + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  1. Investigation of Aerodynamic Capabilities of Flying Fish in Gliding Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.; Choi, H.

    In the present study, we experimentally investigate the aerodynamic capabilities of flying fish. We consider four different flying fish models, which are darkedged-wing flying fishes stuffed in actual gliding posture. Some morphological parameters of flying fish such as lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins, incidence angles of pectoral and pelvic fins are considered to examine their effect on the aerodynamic performance. We directly measure the aerodynamic properties (lift, drag, and pitching moment) for different morphological parameters of flying fish models. For the present flying fish models, the maximum lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio are similar to those of medium-sized birds such as the vulture, nighthawk and petrel. The pectoral fins are found to enhance the lift-to-drag ratio and the longitudinal static stability of gliding flight. On the other hand, the lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio decrease with increasing lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins.

  2. TeV mini black hole decay at future colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, Alex; Spallucci, Euro

    2006-01-01

    It is generally believed that mini black holes decay by emitting elementary particles with a black body energy spectrum. The original calculation leads to the conclusion that about the 90% of the black hole mass is radiated away in the form of photons, neutrinos and light leptons, mainly electrons and muons. With the advent of string theory, such a scenario must be updated by including new effects coming from the stringy nature of particles and interactions. The main modifications with respect to the original picture of black hole evaporation come from recent developments in non-perturbative string theory globally referred to as TeV-scale gravity. By taking for granted that black holes can be produced in hadronic collisions, then their decay must take into account that: (i) we live in a D3 brane embedded into a higher dimensional bulk spacetime; (ii) fundamental interactions, including gravity, are unified at the TeV energy scale. Thus, the formal description of the Hawking radiation mechanism has to be extended to the case of more than four spacetime dimensions and includes the presence of D-branes. This kind of topological defect in the bulk spacetime fabric acts as a sort of 'cosmic fly-paper' trapping electro-weak standard model elementary particles in our (3 + 1)-dimensional universe. Furthermore, unification of fundamental interactions at an energy scale many orders of magnitude lower than the Planck energy implies that any kind of fundamental particle, not only leptons, is expected to be emitted. A detailed understanding of the new scenario is instrumental for optimal tuning of detectors at future colliders, where, hopefully, this exciting new physics will be tested. In this review, we study higher dimensional black hole decay, considering not only the emission of particles according to the Hawking mechanism, but also their near-horizon QED/QCD interactions. The ultimate motivation is to build up a phenomenologically reliable scenario, allowing a clear

  3. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  4. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  5. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  6. Anyon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei Abchouyeh, Maryam; Mirza, Behrouz; Karimi Takrami, Moein; Younesizadeh, Younes

    2018-05-01

    We propose a correspondence between an Anyon Van der Waals fluid and a (2 + 1) dimensional AdS black hole. Anyons are particles with intermediate statistics that interpolates between a Fermi-Dirac statistics and a Bose-Einstein one. A parameter α (0 quasi Fermi-Dirac statistics for α >αc, but a quasi Bose-Einstein statistics for α quasi Bose-Einstein statistics. For α >αc and a range of values of the cosmological constant, there is, however, no event horizon so there is no black hole solution. Thus, for these values of cosmological constants, the AdS Anyon Van der Waals black holes have only quasi Bose-Einstein statistics.

  7. Black holes go supersonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    In modern physics, the unification of gravity and quantum mechanics remains a mystery. Gravity rules the macroscopic world of planets, stars and galaxies, while quantum mechanics governs the micro-cosmos of atoms, light quanta and elementary particles. However, cosmologists believe that these two disparate worlds may meet at the edges of black holes. Now Luis Garay, James Anglin, Ignacio Cirac and Peter Zoller at the University of Innsbruck in Austria have proposed a realistic way to make an artificial 'sonic' black hole in a tabletop experiment (L J Garay et al. 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 4643). In the February issue of Physics World, Ulf Leonhardt of the School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, UK, explains how the simulated black holes work. (U.K.)

  8. Black Hole Paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Pankaj S.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We propose here that the well-known black hole paradoxes such as the information loss and teleological nature of the event horizon are restricted to a particular idealized case, which is the homogeneous dust collapse model. In this case, the event horizon, which defines the boundary of the black hole, forms initially, and the singularity in the interior of the black hole at a later time. We show that, in contrast, gravitational collapse from physically more realistic initial conditions typically leads to the scenario in which the event horizon and space-time singularity form simultaneously. We point out that this apparently simple modification can mitigate the causality and teleological paradoxes, and also lends support to two recently suggested solutions to the information paradox, namely, the ‘firewall’ and ‘classical chaos’ proposals. (paper)

  9. Bringing Black Holes Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  10. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  11. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegmann, Brian M.; Trautwein, Michelle D.; Winkler, Isaac S.

    2011-01-01

    Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value......), and Schizophora (65 Ma)—and a number of life history transitions to hematophagy, phytophagy, and parasitism in the history of fly evolution over 260 million y....

  12. Removal mechanism of phosphate from aqueous solution by fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S G; Bai, S Q; Zhu, L; Shan, H D

    2009-01-15

    This work studied the effectiveness of fly ash in removing phosphate from aqueous solution and its related removal mechanism. The adsorption and precipitation of phosphate by fly ash were investigated separately in order to evaluate their role in the removal of phosphate. Results showed that the removal of phosphate by fly ash was rapid. The removal percentage of phosphate in the first 5min reached 68-96% of the maximum removal of phosphate by fly ash. The removal processes of phosphate by fly ash included a fast and large removal representing precipitation, then a slower and longer removal due to adsorption. The adsorption of phosphate on fly ash could be described well by Freundlich isotherm equation. The pH and Ca2+ concentration of fly ash suspension were decreased with the addition of phosphate, which suggests that calcium phosphate precipitation is a major mechanism of the phosphate removal. Comparison of the relative contribution of the adsorption and precipitation to the total removal of phosphate by fly ash showed that the adsorption accounted for 30-34% of the total removal of phosphate, depending on the content of CaO in fly ash. XRD patterns of the fly ash before and after phosphate adsorption revealed that phosphate salt (CaHPO4 x 2H2O) was formed in the adsorption process. Therefore, the removal of phosphate by fly ash can be attributed to the formation of phosphate precipitation as a brushite and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results suggested that the use of fly ash could be a promising solution to the removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  13. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1979-11-01

    The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  14. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The video gives general information on the reproductive anatomy and the reproductive cycles of tsetse flies, shows in detail the steps to make a membrane for food supply of mass-reared flies, and explains how their feed is prepared and processed. The different stages of mass-rearing of flies, including their irradiation and the effects of irradiation on eggs and spermatozoa, are demonstrated. The video also introduces the insect sterilization programme BICOT carried out in Nigeria

  15. Possibilities for stabilization of fly ash from REK 'Bitola' dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica; Ivanovska, Pavlina; Ilievski, Zlatko; Peeva, Liljana

    2002-01-01

    The Coal Power Plants environmental problems, mainly, arise from deposited fly ash-solid particles which, under the influence of the wind, heavily pollute the atmospheric air. Prevention of the environmental problems, coming from spraying from the energetic dumps, is achieved with technical and biological stabilization of dumped fly ash. The choice of the stabilization means and methods depends on the physical-chemical properties of the ash. Therefore, the stabilization possibilities of REK 'Bitola' fly ash were investigated. (Original)

  16. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against tsetse flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-12-31

    The video gives general information on the reproductive anatomy and the reproductive cycles of tsetse flies, shows in detail the steps to make a membrane for food supply of mass-reared flies, and explains how their feed is prepared and processed. The different stages of mass-rearing of flies, including their irradiation and the effects of irradiation on eggs and spermatozoa, are demonstrated. The video also introduces the insect sterilization programme BICOT carried out in Nigeria

  17. The behaviour of tsetse flies in an odour plume

    OpenAIRE

    Groenendijk, C.A.

    1996-01-01


    The tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. m. morsitans Westw. (Diptera: Glossinidae) are obligatory blood feeding insects that do not live in close association with their hosts (mainly mammals). Tsetse flies are relatively long lived insects and have to take a blood meal regularly. Tsetse flies use smell and vision to find their hosts. In the last decade, many aspects of tsetse foraging and host-location behaviour have been elucida...

  18. Behavioral lateralization and optimal route choice in flying budgerigars.

    OpenAIRE

    Partha S Bhagavatula; Charles Claudianos; Michael R Ibbotson; Mandyam V Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to cont...

  19. Modeling black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this book is two-fold: the first part gives a fully detailed and pedagogical presentation of the Hawking effect and its physical implications, and the second discusses the backreaction problem, especially in connection with exactly solvable semiclassical models that describe analytically the black hole evaporation process. The book aims to establish a link between the general relativistic viewpoint on black hole evaporation and the new CFT-type approaches to the subject. The detailed discussion on backreaction effects is also extremely valuable.

  20. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  1. Better Physician's 'Black Bags'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.

  2. Bulletproof Black Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst.......Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst....

  3. Moulting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that ...

  4. Are black holes springlike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-02-01

    A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  5. Dancing with Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, S. J.

    2008-05-01

    We describe efforts over the last six years to implement regularization methods suitable for studying one or more interacting black holes by direct N-body simulations. Three different methods have been adapted to large-N systems: (i) Time-Transformed Leapfrog, (ii) Wheel-Spoke, and (iii) Algorithmic Regularization. These methods have been tried out with some success on GRAPE-type computers. Special emphasis has also been devoted to including post-Newtonian terms, with application to moderately massive black holes in stellar clusters. Some examples of simulations leading to coalescence by gravitational radiation will be presented to illustrate the practical usefulness of such methods.

  6. Scattering from black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging

  7. Virtual Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  8. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  9. Partons and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, L.; Griffin, P.

    1994-01-01

    A light-front renormalization group analysis is applied to study matter which falls into massive black holes, and the related problem of matter with transplankian energies. One finds that the rate of matter spreading over the black hole's horizon unexpectedly saturates the causality bound. This is related to the transverse growth behavior of transplankian particles as their longitudinal momentum increases. This growth behavior suggests a natural mechanism to implement 't Hooft's scenario that the universe is an image of data stored on a 2 + 1 dimensional hologram-like projection

  10. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  11. Trace elements of coal, coal ashes and fly ashes by activation analysis with shor-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Sarac, I.; Grass, F.

    1981-01-01

    On irradiation with neutrons, some of the interesting trace elements in coal, coal ash and fly ash produce short-lived nuclides which may be determined - together with some of the matrix elements - by activation analysis. This enables the characterization of samples. To find out the distribution of elements in the gaseous or aerosol exhaust of fossil-fired power plants, the authors simulated the combustion in a quartz apparatus containing a cold trap, using the combustion temperature (780 deg C) employed for the standard ash determination. High Se values were found in the cold trap deposits of black coal from Poland. Halogens were also found in the deposits. (authors)

  12. Radioactivity of coals and fly ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastefanou, C.

    2008-01-01

    The level and the behavior of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th, 228 Ra and 40 K in coals and fly ashes are described. The activity concentrations of the examined coals and originated from coal mines in Greece ranged from 117 to 435 Bq x kg -1 for 238 U, from 44 to 255 Bq x kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq x kg -1 for 210 Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq x kg -1 for 228 Ra and from 59 to 227 Bq x kg -1 for 40 K. These levels are comparable to those appeared in coals of different countries worldwide. The activity concentrations of the examined fly ashes and produced in coal-fired power plants in Greece ranged from 263 to 950 Bq x kg -1 for 238 U, from 142 to 605 Bq x kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq x kg -1 for 210 Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq x kg -1 for 228 Ra and from 204 to 382 Bq x kg -1 for 40 K. The results showed that there is an enrichment of the radionuclides in fly ash relative to the input coal during the combustion process. The enrichment factors (EF) ranged from 0.60 to 0.76 for 238 U, from 0.69 to 1.07 for 226 Ra, from 0.57 to 0.75 for 210 Pb, from 0.86 to 1.11 for 228 Ra and from 0.95 to 1.10 for 40 K. (author)

  13. Strength Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Quarry Dust Stabilized Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Akshaya Kumar Sabat; Bidula Bose

    2015-01-01

    Effects of quarry dust and polypropylene fiber on compaction properties, shear strength parameters, and California bearing ratio (CBR) of a fly ash have been discussed in this paper. Quarry dust was added to a fly ash from 0 to 60% at an increment of 10%, compaction and soaked CBR tests were conducted on fly ash-quarry dust mixes and the optimum percentage of quarry dust was found out to be 40%. Polypropylene fiber was added to fly ash stabilized with optimum percentage of quarry dust, from 0...

  14. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialy......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...

  15. Sintering of a class F fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Biernacki; Anil K. Vazrala; H. Wayne Leimer [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-05-15

    The sinterability of a class F fly ash was investigated as a function of processing conditions including sintering temperature (1050-1200{sup o}C) and sintering time (0-90 min). Density, shrinkage, splitting tensile strength, water absorption and residual loss on ignition (RLOI) were evaluated as measures of sintering efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microanalysis and X-ray diffraction was used to examine microstructure and phase development due to processing. The results show that premature densification can inhibit complete carbon removal and that carbon combustion is influenced by both internal and external mass transfer conditions. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Flying Airplanes: Realizing Circadian Effects (FARCE)

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Dickinson; Todd McElroy

    2009-01-01

    People differ in their diurnal (time-of-day) preferences—some are morning-types and others are evening-types. These differences are explored in a unique experiment design in which subjects are randomly assigned to produce paper airplanes at either 8:00 a.m. or 10:00 p.m. Our results show that evening-types at their more optimal time-of-day (10:00 p.m.) produce planes that fly statistically significantly farther than those produced by morning-types at their more optimal time-of-day (8:00 a.m.)...

  17. Economic metal recovery from fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Canon, R.M.; Egan, B.Z.; Kelmers, A.D.; Seeley, F.G.; Watson, J.S.

    1982-08-01

    Results are presented to show that fly ash can be an economical source of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and several other metals. Two processes are examined in detail, the direct acid leach of ash with hydrochloric acid and a pressure digestion-acid leach method. An economic evaluation is presented for each process, and direct acid leaching is considered the most attractive process. The benefits derived from using such a process are discussed. (15 refs.)

  18. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies; Praktische Anwendung insektenparasitischer Nematoden und sterilisierter Fliegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galle, F. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Ernaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Muenchen (Germany); Loosjes, M. [De Groene Vlieg, Nieuwe Tonge (Netherlands)

    1987-07-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars.

  19. Micostructural and mechanical properties of geopolymers synthesised from three coal fly ashes from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludlu, MK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, coal fly ashes (CFAs) from three different boiler sites in South Africa, Eskom (E coal fly ash), George Mukhari Academic Hospital (GMH coal fly ash), and KarboChem (KBC coal fly ash), were used to produce geopolymers. The coal fly...

  20. Black Musicians Leading the Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes the careers and musical achievements of Blacks who were forerunners in jazz, blues, gospel, music, spirituals, band music, classical music, ragtime, and opera. The list was compiled to provide teachers with historical background information for "Black History Month." (AM)

  1. Black holes and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    1995-01-01

    1. Qualitative introduction to black holes : classical, quantum2. Model black holes and model collapse process: The Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom metrics, The Oppenheimer-Volkov collapse scenario3. Mode mixing4. From mode mixing to radiance.

  2. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  3. Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, Steven B.

    1994-01-01

    These lectures give a pedagogical review of dilaton gravity, Hawking radiation, the black hole information problem, and black hole pair creation. (Lectures presented at the 1994 Trieste Summer School in High Energy Physics and Cosmology)

  4. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  5. Aspects of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  6. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni FliS and FliW in Flagella Biogenesis and Flagellin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A. Radomska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood. This work demonstrates the importance of the putative flagellar protein FliS in C. jejuni flagella assembly. A constructed fliS knockout strain was non-motile, displayed reduced levels of FlaA/B and FlaC flagellin, and carried severely truncated flagella. Pull-down and Far Western blot assays showed direct interaction of FliS with all three C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA, FlaB, and FlaC. This is in contrast to, the sensor and regulator of intracellular flagellin levels, FliW, which bound to FlaA and FlaB but not to FlaC. The FliS protein but not FliW preferred binding to glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins rather than to their non-glycosylated recombinant counterparts. Mapping of the binding region of FliS and FliW using a set of flagellin fragments showed that the C-terminal subdomain of the flagellin was required for FliS binding, whereas the N-terminal subdomain was essential for FliW binding. The separate binding subdomains required for FliS and FliW, the different substrate specificity, and the differential preference for binding of glycosylated flagellins ensure optimal processing and assembly of the C. jejuni flagellins.

  7. Black fly involvement in the epidemic transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (Rhabdoviridae: Vesiculovirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Daniel G; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Murphy, Molly D; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Stallknecht, David E

    2004-01-01

    The transmission routes of Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV), a causative agent of vesicular stomatitis, an Office International des Epizooties List-A disease, are not completely understood. Epidemiological and entomological studies conducted during the sporadic epidemics in the western United States have identified potential virus transmission routes involving insect vectors and animal-to-animal contact. In the present study we experimentally tested the previously proposed transmission routes which were primarily based on field observations. Results obtained provide strong evidence for the following: (1) hematophagous insects acquire VSNJV by unconventional routes while blood feeding on livestock, (2) clinical course of VSNJV infection in livestock following transmission by an infected insect is related to insect bite site, (3) infection of livestock via insect bite can result in multiple transmission possibilities, including animal-to-animal contact. Taken together, these data significantly add to our understanding of the transmission routes of a causative agent of one of the oldest known infectious diseases of livestock, for which the details have remained largely unknown despite decades of research.

  8. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  9. X-ray diffraction analysis of particles ingested by filter-feeding animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, R.W.; Gersabeck, E.F.; Ross, D.H.; Mortland, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    The size and relative abundance of mineral particles ingested by two filter-feeding aquatic insects, Simulium vittatum Zett. (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. Different minerals representing different particle size categories were supplied larval black flies and mosquitoes. Since minerals possess characteristic diffraction properties, their presence and relative abundance can be determined. Early instars of the black fly ingested and retained particles of three different size ranges: however, more coarse particles relative to fine particles were retained by smaller instars as compared with the larger instars. With mosquito larvae, there was a proportional increase in coarser material ingested with increasing age and size of larvae. Other applications of this method are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Nonsingular black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon); I.H.E.S., Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mukhanov, Viatcheslav [Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We consider the Schwarzschild black hole and show how, in a theory with limiting curvature, the physical singularity ''inside it'' is removed. The resulting spacetime is geodesically complete. The internal structure of this nonsingular black hole is analogous to Russian nesting dolls. Namely, after falling into the black hole of radius r{sub g}, an observer, instead of being destroyed at the singularity, gets for a short time into the region with limiting curvature. After that he re-emerges in the near horizon region of a spacetime described by the Schwarzschild metric of a gravitational radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/3}. In the next cycle, after passing the limiting curvature, the observer finds himself within a black hole of even smaller radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/9}, and so on. Finally after a few cycles he will end up in the spacetime where he remains forever at limiting curvature. (orig.)

  11. Suburban Black Lives Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-McCoy, R. L'Heureux

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the range of experiences and meanings of Black life in suburban space. Drawing from educational, historical, and sociological literatures, I argue that an underconsideration of suburban space has left many portraits of educational inequality incomplete. The article outlines the emergence of American suburbs and the formation…

  12. and black cumin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Black Cumin Seed, Co-pressing, Screw Speed, Oxidative Stability, Niger Seed Oil ... against oxidation resulting in rapid development of .... The machine ... apparatus (Metrohm, Herisau, model Switzerland) at .... present study indicates the need to optimize SS for ..... Mathematical simulation of an oilseed press.

  13. Black and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  14. Black and white holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  15. Annotated black walnut literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Van Sambeek

    2006-01-01

    Many of our publications on the establishment, management, and utilization of black walnut, butternut, and associated high-value hardwoods are printed in conference proceedings or scientific journals that are not readily available at most public libraries or on the internet. As Chair of the Education Committee, I have tried to summarize for you the relevant findings of...

  16. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  17. Dictionary of Black Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.

    This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…

  18. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  19. Black coal. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R

    1973-01-01

    Statistics are given for the Australian black coal industry for 1970-3 (production, value, employment, wages and salaries, productivity, trade, stocks, consumption, export contracts, exploration, etc.). In less detail, world coal trade is reviewed and coke production is mentioned briefly. (LTN )

  20. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  1. Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…

  2. Watchable Wildlife: The Black Bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn L. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Black bears are the bears people most often encounter. Black bears live in forests over much of North America, unlike grizzlies that live only in Alaska, northern and western Canada, and the northern Rocky Mountains. This brochure presents the latest information on black bear life and how this species responds to an ever-increasing number of campers, hikers, and...

  3. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  4. Queering Black Racial Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alandis A.; Quaye, Stephen John

    2017-01-01

    We used queer theory to encourage readers to think differently about previous theories about Black racial identity development. Queer theory facilitates new and deeper understandings of how Black people develop their racial identities, prompting more fluidity and nuance. Specifically, we present a queered model of Black racial identity development…

  5. A Typology of Black Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryman, Donald L.

    1977-01-01

    A leadership typology is developed which describes the relationship of Black leadership styles to the Black masses. The role that such leadership plays in the political integration of Blacks as an ethnic group is analyzed. Four authority types are discussed: traditional brokerage, cultural nationalist, religious nationalist, and faddist…

  6. Warped products and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon-Tae

    2005-01-01

    We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes

  7. Magnetohydrodynamics near a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A numerical computer study of hydromagnetic flow near a black hole is presented. First, the equations of motion are developed to a form suitable for numerical computations. Second, the results of calculations describing the magnetic torques exerted by a rotating black hole on a surrounding magnetic plasma and the electric charge that is induced on the surface of the black hole are presented. (auth)

  8. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  9. Flying Drosophila orient to sky polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Peter T; Dickinson, Michael H

    2012-01-10

    Insects maintain a constant bearing across a wide range of spatial scales. Monarch butterflies and locusts traverse continents [1, 2], and foraging bees and ants travel hundreds of meters to return to their nests [1, 3, 4], whereas many other insects fly straight for only a few centimeters before changing direction. Despite this variation in spatial scale, the brain region thought to underlie long-distance navigation is remarkably conserved [5, 6], suggesting that the use of a celestial compass is a general and perhaps ancient capability of insects. Laboratory studies of Drosophila have identified a local search mode in which short, straight segments are interspersed with rapid turns [7, 8]. However, this flight mode is inconsistent with measured gene flow between geographically separated populations [9-11], and individual Drosophila can travel 10 km across desert terrain in a single night [9, 12, 13]-a feat that would be impossible without prolonged periods of straight flight. To directly examine orientation behavior under outdoor conditions, we built a portable flight arena in which a fly viewed the natural sky through a liquid crystal device that could experimentally rotate the polarization angle. Our findings indicate that Drosophila actively orient using the sky's natural polarization pattern. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Burn Injury Arise From Flying Balloon Toys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalcin Kulahci

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Many of peoples are faced minor or major burn injuries in their life. Even the most widespread burn cause is flame injuries, too different burn cause pointed out in literature like Acetylen burns. The cases which imply in literature, mostly causes from explosion of high pressure acetylene tube, metal oxygene patch flame or carbide lamp using from cave explorers. An interesting acetylene burn cause in Turkey was publised by the authors. This cases was to come into being from flying toy balloons flame. 80 person was injured from flying toy ballons flame in a meeting in 2002. Although this potential risks of acetylene, helium have not any of some risk. But helium was provided from other countries and have more price. The injuries which caused from acetylene burns like 1st -2nd degree burns. Consequently that was known helium is more avaliable for using in toy sector, and never cause burn injuries like this. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 291-296

  11. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  12. Flying spin qualities testing of airplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Čedomir J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the theoretical analysis of origins and characteristics of spinning motion. There are precise explanation of every stage spin flight and basic meaning of notion. Personated equation of motion in spin and equitation of motion airplane in settled spin motion, analysis of them and general recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins. Introduced in valid military and civil specifications flight test demonstration requirements for departure resistance and flying stall and spin qualities testing of airplane. Special attention was given on predicting departure, stall and spin susceptibility and theoretical analysis in the name of magnify flight testing security. There are explanation of test equipment and methodology of flying qualities testing of airplanes. Like a support of this theme are described method and results of flight stall and spin qualities testing of airplane G-4(N-62 super see-gull with precise recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins, from TOC SLI VS (Technical testing center, department for fight testing Air Force of Serbia.

  13. Pilot oriental fruit fly management program in Guimaras island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Obra, G.B.; Resilva, S.S.; Reyes, M.R.; Golez, H.G.; Covacha, S.A.; Bignayan, H.G.; Gaitan, E.G.; Zamora, N.F.; Maranon, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The pilot project on the integrated fruit fly management program based on sterile insect technique (SIT) was conducted in Guimaras island. The first island-wide male annihilation treatment (MAT) was implemented from February to October 1997. A total of 6 applications consisting of 525,534 pieces of lured particle board squares (PBS) were distributed in Guimaras both by aerial and ground applications. There was a significant reduction in fruit fly population indicating fruit fly suppression through MAT. However, MAT only reduces the male fruit fly density so many fruits were still found infested with fruit flies. Hence, biweekly releases of sterile flies were conducted from November 1997 to April 1998. About 91.74 million sterile pupae were sent by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) to Guimaras. A total of 34,490,888 sterile flies were released by aerial applications and 12,632,163 sterile flies were released by ground applications. An increase in the S/N ratio was observed from 0.37 in December 1997 to 4.19 in April 1998. However, since the eradication phase was discontinued due to budgetary constraints, the required S/N ratio of more than 10 for a successful application of SIT was not achieved. A second series of MAT application were again conducted from May to September 1998. A total of 4 applications consisting of 357,650 pcs. of lured PBS were distributed throughout the island. Interestingly, the results of fruit fly density estimation before (1995) and after application (1998) of MAT and SIT using Lincoln method showed that the number of fruit flies per hectare was significantly reduced in all areas in Guimaras. Continues biweekly releases of 25 million flies therefore have to be undertaken to eradicate the remaining population. (Author)

  14. Significance and survival of Enterococci during the house fly development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Akhtar, Mastura; Holderman, Chris; Zurek, Ludek

    2014-01-01

    House flies are among the most important nonbiting insect pests of medical and veterinary importance. Larvae develop in decaying organic substrates and their survival strictly depends on an active microbial community. House flies have been implicated in the ecology and transmission of enterococci, including multi-antibiotic-resistant and virulent strains of Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, eight American Type Culture Collection type strains of enterococci including Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcusfaecalis, and Enterococcusfaecium were evaluated for their significance in the development of house flies from eggs to adults in bacterial feeding assays. Furthermore, the bacterial colonization of the gut of teneral flies as well as the importance of several virulence traits of E. faecalis in larval mortality was assessed. Overall survival of house flies (egg to adult) was significantly higher when grown with typically nonpathogenic enterococcal species such as E. hirae (76.0% survival), E. durans (64.0%), and E. avium (64.0%) compared with that with clinically important species E. faecalis (24.0%) and E. faecium (36.0%). However, no significant differences in survival of house fly larvae were detected when grown with E. faecalis strains carrying various virulence traits, including isogenic mutants of the human clinical isolate E. faecalis V583 with in-frame deletions of gelatinase, serine protease, and capsular polysaccharide serotype C. Enterococci were commonly detected in fly puparia (range: 75-100%; concentration: 103-105 CFU/puparium);however, the prevalence of enterococci in teneral flies varied greatly: from 25.0 (E. casseliflavus) to 89.5% (E. hirae). In conclusion, depending on the species, enterococci variably support house fly larval development and colonize the gut of teneral adults. The human pathogenic species, E. faecalis and E. faecium

  15. Looking for the invisible universe - Black matter, black energy, black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbaz, David

    2016-01-01

    As the discovery of the expansion of the universe and of black holes put the study of cosmology into question again because it now refers to invisible things such as black holes, black energy and black matter, the author proposes an other view on the universe within such a context. He first discusses these three enigmas of black matter, black energy and black holes. In a second part, he addresses, discusses and comments five illusions: the Uranian illusion (questions of the existence of an anti-world, of black matter temperature), the Mercurian illusion (quantum gravity, the string theory), the Martian illusion (a patchwork universe, the illusion of the infinite), the cosmic Maya (the John Wheeler's cup, the holographic universe), and the narcissistic illusion

  16. From binary black hole simulation to triple black hole simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Shan; Cao Zhoujian; Han, Wen-Biao; Lin, Chun-Yu; Yo, Hwei-Jang; Yu, Jui-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Black hole systems are among the most promising sources for a gravitational wave detection project. Now, China is planning to construct a space-based laser interferometric detector as a follow-on mission of LISA in the near future. Aiming to provide some theoretical support to this detection project on the numerical relativity side, we focus on black hole systems simulation in this work. Considering the globular galaxy, multiple black hole systems also likely to exist in our universe and play a role as a source for the gravitational wave detector we are considering. We will give a progress report in this paper on our black hole system simulation. More specifically, we will present triple black hole simulation together with binary black hole simulation. On triple black hole simulations, one novel perturbational method is proposed.

  17. Larval distribution and behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera:Calliphoridae) relative to other species on Florida black bear(Carnivora:Ursidae) carcasses decompsing in North Central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval interactions of blow flies were documented daily temporally and spatially on 5 black bear carcasses from June – November, 2002. Cochliomyia macellaria or Chrysomya megacephala larvae were collected first, then Chrysomya rufifacies oviposited in multiple locations on the carcasses uninhabited...

  18. Alkali content of fly ash : measuring and testing strategies for compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Sodium and potassium are the common alkalis present in fly ash. Excessive amounts of fly ash alkalis can cause efflorescence : problems in concrete products and raise concern about the effectiveness of the fly ash to mitigate alkali-silica reaction (...

  19. Statistical mechanics of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, B.; Leblanc, Y.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed

  20. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  1. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  2. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North

    2005-01-01

    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  3. Fly Diversity Revealed by PCR-RFLP of Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asraoui, Jimmy F.; Sayar, Nancy P.; Knio, Khouzama M.; Smith, Colin A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe an inexpensive, two-session undergraduate laboratory activity that introduces important molecular biology methods in the context of biodiversity. In the first session, students bring tentatively identified flies (order Diptera, true flies) to the laboratory, extract DNA, and amplify a region of the mitochondrial gene…

  4. Speciation of arsenic and selenium during leaching of fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, E.E. van der

    1995-01-01

    The leaching (release) of large amounts of oxyanions, such as those of arsenic and selenium, is an major environmental problem when it comes to the disposal or use of coal fly ash. To predict environmentally safe conditions for the disposal or use of fly ash in, for example,

  5. Pore Structure Characterization in Concrete Prepared with Carbonated Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sanjukta

    2018-03-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a technique to address the global concern of continuously rising CO2 level in the atmosphere. Fly ash is considered as a suitable medium for CCS due to presence of metal oxides. The fly ash which has already sequestered carbon dioxide is referred to as carbonated fly ash. Recent research reveals better durability of concretes using carbonated fly ash as part replacement of cement. In the present research pore structure characterization of the carbonated fly ash concrete has been carried out. Mercury Intrusion porosimetry test has been conducted on control concrete and concrete specimens using fly ash and carbonated fly ash at replacement levels of 25% and 40%. The specimens have been water cured for 28 days and 90 days. It is observed that porosity reduction rate is more pronounced in carbonated fly ash concrete compared to control concrete at higher water curing age. Correlation analysis is also carried out which indicates moderately linear relationship between porosity % and pore distribution with particle size and water curing.

  6. Surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Dharmalingam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fly ash, an inorganic alumino silicate has been used as filler in epoxy matrix, but it reduces the mechanical properties due to its poor dispersion and interfacial bonding with the epoxy matrix. To improve its interfacial bonding with epoxy matrix, surface treatment of fly ash was done using surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate and silane coupling agent glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane. An attempt is also made to reduce the particle size of fly ash using high pressure pulverizer. To improve fly ash dispersion in epoxy matrix, the epoxy was modified by mixing with amine containing liquid silicone rubber (ACS. The effect of surface treated fly ash with varying filler loadings from 10 to 40% weight on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of modified epoxy composites was investigated. The surface treated fly ash was characterized by particle size analyzer and FTIR spectra. Morphological studies of surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites indicate good dispersion of fillers in the modified epoxy matrix and improves its mechanical properties. Impact strength of the surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites show more improvement than unmodified composites.

  7. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelder, Mark P.; McCreadie, John W.; Major, Clinton S.

    2009-01-01

    Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA) during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart). Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., C...

  8. New sanitation techniques for controlling tephritid fruit flies (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera tephritidae) in Hawaii have been investigated. Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bacrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of ...

  9. 32 CFR 855.13 - Civil fly-ins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil fly-ins. 855.13 Section 855.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.13 Civil fly-ins. (a) Civil...

  10. Stabilization of Fly Ash Deposits through Selected Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, a waste product from burning coal in power plants, occupies important spaces and is a major harm forenvironment: water, air, soil and associated ecosystems. New deposits do not have available nutrients for plantgrowth. The study presents a process of stimulating growth of oats in deposits of fly ash, which eliminates listed.Phytostabilization of new deposit is fast after fertilization with sewage sludge-based compost in the presence/absence of native or modified volcanic tuff with grain species, Avena sativa L., and variety Lovrin 1. Experimentalstudies have shown the species adaptability to climatic conditions and a growth rate until the maturity correlated withtype of treatment of upper layers of fly ash deposit. Fly ash with sewage sludge compost treatment 50 t/hadetermined the growth with 75% of the amount of grains vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash.Fly ash with sewage sludge compost mixed with modified indigenous volcanic tuff 2.5 t/ha treatment determined thegrowth with 80% vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash. If oat straw harvested from fertilizedvariant without modified indigenous volcanic tuff increases in weight are 30% and for fertilized variant in thepresence of tuff increases in weight are 39.8% vs. quantities harvested from untreated fly ash.

  11. Isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from house flies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella and Shigella species were isolated from House flies (Musca domestica L.) from various sampling sites using selective media. Out of 34 pooled samples Shigella species were isolated in all (100%) of the samples while Salmonella species were isolated in 21 (61.7%) of the samples. The flies pooled from the ...

  12. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  13. Status of biopesticides for control of house flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) have resisted human attempts to control them since antiquity, and the global problem of fly resistance to conventional insecticides has resulted in renewed interest in biopesticides as alternative management tools. Entomopathogenic nematodes such as Steinernema and ...

  14. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae which provides a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericat. This s...

  15. The behaviour of tsetse flies in an odour plume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, C.A.

    1996-01-01


    The tsetse flies Glossina pallidipes Austen and G. m. morsitans Westw. (Diptera: Glossinidae) are obligatory blood feeding insects that do not live in close association with their hosts (mainly mammals). Tsetse flies are relatively long lived

  16. Aerodynamic characteristics of flying fish in gliding flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2010-10-01

    The flying fish (family Exocoetidae) is an exceptional marine flying vertebrate, utilizing the advantages of moving in two different media, i.e. swimming in water and flying in air. Despite some physical limitations by moving in both water and air, the flying fish has evolved to have good aerodynamic designs (such as the hypertrophied fins and cylindrical body with a ventrally flattened surface) for proficient gliding flight. Hence, the morphological and behavioral adaptations of flying fish to aerial locomotion have attracted great interest from various fields including biology and aerodynamics. Several aspects of the flight of flying fish have been determined or conjectured from previous field observations and measurements of morphometric parameters. However, the detailed measurement of wing performance associated with its morphometry for identifying the characteristics of flight in flying fish has not been performed yet. Therefore, in the present study, we directly measure the aerodynamic forces and moment on darkedged-wing flying fish (Cypselurus hiraii) models and correlated them with morphological characteristics of wing (fin). The model configurations considered are: (1) both the pectoral and pelvic fins spread out, (2) only the pectoral fins spread with the pelvic fins folded, and (3) both fins folded. The role of the pelvic fins was found to increase the lift force and lift-to-drag ratio, which is confirmed by the jet-like flow structure existing between the pectoral and pelvic fins. With both the pectoral and pelvic fins spread, the longitudinal static stability is also more enhanced than that with the pelvic fins folded. For cases 1 and 2, the lift-to-drag ratio was maximum at attack angles of around 0 deg, where the attack angle is the angle between the longitudinal body axis and the flying direction. The lift coefficient is largest at attack angles around 30∼35 deg, at which the flying fish is observed to emerge from the sea surface. From glide polar

  17. Internal structure of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)

  18. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Nelder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus, Phormia regina (Meigen, and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., Cochliomyia macellaria, and Phormia regina in the later stages. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was the only synchronous blow fly on the three carcasses; other blow fly species exhibited only site-specific synchrony. Using dichotomous correlations and analyses of variance, we demonstrated that blow fly-community succession was asynchronous among three alligators; however, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that there was some degree of synchrony between the carcasses.

  19. Physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Nizar Ismail; Kamaruddin Hussin; Mohd Sobri Idris

    2007-01-01

    Fly ash is the finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in electric generating plants. Fly ash consists of inorganic, incombustible matter present in the coal that has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous structure. Fly ash particles are generally spherical in shape and range in size from 2 μm to 10 μm. They consist mostly of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) and iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ). Fly ash like soil contains trace concentrations of the following heavy metals: nickel, vanadium, cadmium, barium, chromium, copper, molybdenum, zinc and lead. The chemical compositions of the sample have been examined and the fly ash are of ASTM C618 Class F. (Author)

  20. Leaching of assimilable silicon species from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekos, R.; Paslawska, S.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the leaching of assimilable silicon species from coal fly ash with distilled water, sea waterand synthetic sea water at various fly ash/water ratios, pHs and temperatures. At the 1 g/100 ml fly ash/water ratio, less than 1 mg Si was found in 11 of aqueous slurries over the pH range 4-8 after 2 h at ambient temperature. The leaching was most effective at pH 10.5. At the fly ash/waterratio indicated, the pH of the suspensions decreased from 10.4 to 8.4 after 5days. The pH of fly ash slurries in sea water varied only slightly over time as compared with that in distilled water. Generally, the leaching of assimilable silicon species with distilled water was more intense than that with the sea water. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash Influence on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Daugėla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study: Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% 20%, and 25% of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the properties of concrete. The tests revealed that the increase of biofuel fly ash content up to 20% increases concrete density and compressive strength after 7 and 28 days of curing and decreases water absorption, with corrected water content by using plasticizing admixture. It was found that concrete where 20% of cement is replaced by biofuel ash has higher frost resistance.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of fly ash-zinc oxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Yeole

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, generated in thermal power plants, is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Thus, measures are required to be undertaken to dispose it in an environmentally friendly method. In this paper an attempt is made to coat zinc oxide nano-particles on the surface of fly ash by a simple and environmentally friendly facile chemical method, at room temperature. Zinc oxide may serve as effective corrosion inhibitor by providing sacrificial protection. Concentration of fly ash was varied as 5, 10 and 15 (w/w % of zinc oxide. It was found that crystallinity increased, whereas particle size, specific gravity and oil absorption value decreased with increased concentration of fly ash in zinc oxide, which is attributed to the uniform distribution of zinc oxide on the surface of fly ash. These nanocomposites can potentially be used in commercial applications as additive for anticorrosion coatings.

  3. A New Flying Wire System for the Tevatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokland, Willem; Dey, Joseph; Vogel, Greg

    1997-05-01

    A new Flying Wires system replaces the old system to enhance the analysis of the beam emittance, improve the reliability, and handle the upcoming upgrades of the Tevatron. New VME data acquisition modules and timing modules allow for more bunches to be sampled more precisely. The programming language LabVIEW, running on a Macintosh computer, controls the VME modules and the nuLogic motion board that flies the wires. LabVIEW also analyzes and stores the data, and handles local and remote commands. The new system flies three wires and fits profiles of 72 bunches to a gaussian function within two seconds. A new console application operates the flying wires from any control console. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup, the capabilities and measurement results of the new Flying Wires system.

  4. Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol, Barak; Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi

    2004-01-01

    In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes

  5. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  6. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... where the infested avocados were grown will immediately be suspended from the export program until an... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... certain restrictions regarding the movement of fresh Hass variety avocados. Specifically, we are proposing...

  7. Black-hole astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

  8. Black Holes and Firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.

  9. Forging a Black identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Chevannes

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Rastafarians: sounds of cultural dissonance [revised and updated editionj. LEONARD E. BARRETT, SR. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988. xviii + 302 pp. (Paper US$ 11.95 Rasta and resistance: from Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney. HORACE CAMPBELL. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press, 1987. xiii + 236 pp. (Cloth US$32.95, Paper US$ 10.95 Garvey's children: the legacy of Marcus Garvey. TONY SEWELL. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1990. 128 pp. (Paper £ 17.95 The central theme linking these three titles is the evolution of a black identity among English-speaking Caribbean peoples, in particular Jamaicans. Consequently all three authors cover the two most important historical phenomena in Caribbean black nationalism, namely Garveyism and Rastafari, one focusing on the former and the other two focusing on the latter.

  10. Palpebral myiasis in a Danish traveler caused by the human bot-fly (Dermatobia hominis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Regitze; Holst, Bengt; Krogh, Erik

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis......ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis...

  11. Raman Amplification with a Flying Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, D.; Bucht, S.; Davies, A.; Haberberger, D.; Kessler, T.; Shaw, J. L.; Froula, D. H.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new laser amplifier scheme utilizing stimulated Raman scattering in plasma in conjunction with a "flying focus"—a chromatic focusing system combined with a chirped pump beam that provides spatiotemporal control over the pump's focal spot. Pump intensity isosurfaces are made to propagate at v =-c so as to be in sync with the injected counterpropagating seed pulse. By setting the pump intensity in the interaction region to be just above the ionization threshold of the background gas, an ionization wave is produced that travels at a fixed distance ahead of the seed. Simulations show that this will make it possible to optimize the plasma temperature and mitigate many of the issues that are known to have impacted previous Raman amplification experiments, in particular, the growth of precursors.

  12. Genetic sexing of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1980s, it was recognized by the FAO and the IAEA that a genetic sexing method for the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) would greatly improve the efficacy of the medfly sterile insect technique (SIT) and reduce its costs. These Proceedings summarize the research and development findings of the Agency's co-operators in the co-ordinated research programme to develop a genetic sexing method for the medfly. Great progress has been made in many aspects of medfly genetics. including the development of a number of genetic sexing strains. Contents: Genetics, Cytogenetics and Population Genetics. Genetic Sexing of Ceratitis Capitata by Morphological, Biochemical and other means. Recommendations. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Network Configuration Analysis for Formation Flying Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblock, Eric J.; Wallett, Thomas M.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of two networks to support autonomous multi-spacecraft formation flying systems is presented. Both systems are comprised of a ten-satellite formation, with one of the satellites designated as the central or 'mother ship.' All data is routed through the mother ship to the terrestrial network. The first system uses a TCP/EP over ATM protocol architecture within the formation, and the second system uses the IEEE 802.11 protocol architecture within the formation. The simulations consist of file transfers using either the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or the Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) Protocol. The results compare the IP queuing delay, IP queue size and IP processing delay at the mother ship as well as end-to-end delay for both systems. In all cases, using IEEE 802.11 within the formation yields less delay. Also, the throughput exhibited by SAFE is better than FTP.

  14. Beyond the black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslough, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)

  15. Magnonic black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán-Molina, A.; Nunez, A.S.; Duine, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    We show that the interaction between spin-polarized current and magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons - the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the imp...

  16. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    ? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  17. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Difficulties with this romantic concept developed, however, when General Faidherbe began to expand French control into the Senegalese hinterland. He was...and his German 45 France in Black Africa friends to gain greater control of the AOF.6 The tragi- comedy ended with the 1942 Allied landings in North...service]). Trinquier’s own stay in Africa was short-lived. Belgian resistance to a French invasion of their turf was fierce. Trinquier’s romantic

  18. Black Sea challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevet, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    In this month's European column, Jean-Francois Drevet examines the issues that arise for Europe from the Black Sea region. The Black Sea is increasingly becoming a crucial place of transit for hydrocarbon imports from the Caspian and Russia into the European Union. The considerable increase in this traffic raises both environmental problems (the risk of oil slicks) and issues of security of supply, on account of the economic and political fragility of some of the bordering or neighbouring states (Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia/Chechnya etc.). This is why, as Jean-Francois Drevet stresses, the European Union has been trying since the mid-1990's to claim a role in the management of the affairs of the region. With two bordering states (Rumania and Bulgaria) joining the EU in 2007, cooperation in the Black Sea has become a priority within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, and this column delineates a number of the obstacles that still have to be surmounted. (author)

  19. Development of an odour-baited insecticidal target system for the suppression of adults of the new world screwworm fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allsopp, R.

    1992-02-01

    To provide a rapidly deployable supplemental means of effectively suppressing screwworms, the parameters needed to develop an odour-baited insecticidal target system were established. Electro-antennograph studies indicated the relative attractancy of swormlure component, identified candidate attractants and established that 4-methyl phenol and dimethyl sulphide more strongly attract male than female flies. Wind tunnel studies showed that the swormlure stimulates upwind flight and prolonged searching. By means of electric nets it was shown that screwworms fly directly to the target and land without circling. Black is the most effective colour for targets. The optimal size of the target was not identified, but those of 0.25 m 2 were found to be as effective as much larger ones. Targets are effective only when baited with swormlure. Excellent control of the rate of release of the attractant mixture was achieved by placing it in 120 micron thick polyethylene sachets with the exception that dimethyl disulphide must be dispensed separately form 1 mm thick polyethylene sachets. Of the insecticides tested when applied to black cloth targets, deltamethrin proved to be the most effective. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  1. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  2. Evaluation of the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity for coal fly ash using a flow-through column reactor under ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Ho Young, E-mail: hyjo@korea.ac.kr [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joon-Hoon; Jo, Hwanju [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A conceptual in-situ mineral carbonation method using a coal ash pond is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} uptake occurred by carbonation reaction of CO{sub 2} with Ca{sup 2+} ions from coal fly ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity was affected by the solid dosage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seawater can be used as a solvent for mineral carbonation of coal fly ash. - Abstract: An in-situ CO{sub 2} sequestration method using coal ash ponds located in coastal regions is proposed. The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of coal fly ash (CFA) by mineral carbonation was evaluated in a flow-through column reactor under various conditions (solid dosage: 100-330 g/L, CO{sub 2} flow rate: 20-80 mL/min, solvent type: deionized (DI) water, 1 M NH{sub 4}Cl solution, and seawater). The CO{sub 2} sequestration tests were conducted on CFA slurries using flow-through column reactors to simulate more realistic flow-through conditions. The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity increased when the solid dosage was increased, whereas it was affected insignificantly by the CO{sub 2} flow rate. A 1 M NH{sub 4}Cl solution was the most effective solvent, but it was not significantly different from DI water or seawater. The CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity of CFA under the flow-through conditions was approximately 0.019 g CO{sub 2}/g CFA under the test conditions (solid dosage: 333 g/L, CO{sub 2} flow rate: 40 mL/min, and solvent: seawater).

  3. Black Hole Area Quantization rule from Black Hole Mass Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the black hole mass distribution function that follows from the random emission of quanta by Hawking radiation and with this function we calculate the black hole mass fluctuation. From a complete different perspective we regard the black hole as quantum mechanical system with a quantized event horizon area and transition probabilities among the various energy levels and then calculate the mass dispersion. It turns out that there is a perfect agreement between the statistical and ...

  4. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  5. Standardizing visual control devices for tsetse flies: West African species Glossina tachinoides, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. morsitans submorsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Rayaisse

    Full Text Available Here we describe field trials designed to standardize tools for the control of Glossina tachinoides, G. palpalis gambiensis and G.morsitans submorsitans in West Africa based on existing trap/target/bait technology. Blue and black biconical and monoconical traps and 1 m(2 targets were made in either phthalogen blue cotton, phthalogen blue cotton/polyester or turquoise blue polyester/viscose (all with a peak reflectance between 450-480 nm and a black polyester. Because targets were covered in adhesive film, they proved to be significantly better trapping devices than either of the two trap types for all three species (up to 14 times more for G. tachinoides, 10 times more for G. palpalis gambiensis, and 6.5 times for G. morsitans submorsitans. The relative performance of the devices in the three blue cloths tested was the same when unbaited or baited with a mixture of phenols, 1-octen-3-ol and acetone. Since insecticide-impregnated devices act via contact with flies, we enumerated which device (traps or targets served as the best object for flies to land on by also covering the cloth parts of traps with adhesive film. Despite the fact that the biconical trap proved to be the best landing device for the three species, the difference over the target (20-30% was not significant. This experiment also allowed an estimation of trap efficiency, i.e. the proportion of flies landing on a trap that are caught in its cage. A low overall efficiency of the biconical or monoconical traps of between 11-24% was recorded for all three species. These results show that targets can be used as practical devices for population suppression of the three species studied. Biconical traps can be used for population monitoring, but a correction factor of 5-10 fold needs to be applied to captures to compensate for the poor trapping efficiency of this device for the three species.

  6. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarsha Yap

    Full Text Available Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: 'sugar', 'essential', or 'yeast-sugar'. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging.

  7. Characterization of North American lignite fly ashes. II. XRD Mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Johansen, D.M.; Thedchanamoorthy, A.; Steinwand, S.J.; Swanson, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction has been used to determine the crystalline phase mineralogy in samples of fly ash from each of the lignite mining areas of North America. The characteristic phases of North Dakota lignite fly ashes were periclase, lime, merwinite and the sulfate phases anhydrite, thenardite and a sodalite-structure phase. Mullite was absent in these low-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ashes. Montana lignite ash mineralogy had characteristics of ND lignite and MT subbituminous coal fly ashes; mullite and C/sub 3/A were present and the alkali sulfates were absent. Texas and Louisiana lignite fly ashes had the characteristic mineralogy of bituminous coal fly ash: quartz, mullite, ferrite-spinel (magnetite) and minor hematite. Even though their analytical CaO contents were 7-14%, all but one lacked crystalline CaO-containing phases. Lignite fly ashes from Saskatchewan were generally the least crystalline of those studied and had a mineralogy consisting of quartz, mullite, ferrite spinel and periclase. Quantitative XRD data were obtained. The position of the diffuse scattering maximum in the x-ray diffractograms was indicative of the glass composition of the lignite fly ash

  8. Characterization of fly ash, slag and glass hull for the obtaining of vitreous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Valderrama, D. M.; Gómez Cuaspud, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    This article presents the structural and thermal characterization of fly ash, the waste from blast furnace slag and the glass hull, generated as common residues in industry, which cannot be recycled easily or destroyed in a simple and fast way. In the particular case of fly ash, at present are being used as a lightweight aggregate in the production of cement, concrete and additive in the production of glass and glass ceramics. As far as the slag and hull, are being used as additives for the asphalt and concretes, however its use still is restricted, reason why its use in alternative ways are necessary. Initially the chemical composition of residues was established, determining that the fly ashes contains SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 oxides; 90% of the total composition, was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. As minor constituents, small percentages of Mg, P, S, K, Na and Ti were found. For the slag case, the phases of Fe3O4, Ca3Mg (SiO2)4 and Ca(MgAl)(Si,Al)2O6 were identified, observing the presence of amorphous phase higher than 94% of the total phase of the system. Meanwhile, the glass hull sample showed a higher percentage of 95% amorphicity, mainly identifying a weak signal associated with silicon oxide SiO2. The thermal analyses of the samples, exhibit a decrease in mass for samples between 25-1000°C was observed, which can be attributed to different physical-chemical events that occur in the materials. The heat flow for each sample is related with the removal of the water retained by the physisorption processes around 92-110°C in all cases. With this previous characterization of the precursors, a sample was composed using 70% fly ash, 10% slag and 20% of glass hull was composed and treated at 1200°C/1.5 hours, obtaining a dense black glassy material for potential applications in field of the glass ceramics.

  9. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of..., 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor) and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC (transferees) filed an application for the partial the transfer of licenses...

  10. Quantum effects in black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A strict definition of black holes is presented and some properties with regard to their mass are enumerated. The Hawking quantum effect - the effect of vacuum instability in the black hole gravitational field, as a result of shich the black hole radiates as a heated body is analyzed. It is shown that in order to obtain results on the black hole radiation it is sufficient to predetermine the in-vacuum state at a time moment in the past, when the collapsing body has a large size, and its gravitational field can be neglected. The causes and the place of particle production by the black hole, and also the space-time inside the black hole, are considered

  11. Particle creation by black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 10 15 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law: S + 1/4 A never decreases where S is the entropy of matter outside black holes and A is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon. (orig.) [de

  12. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  13. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  14. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Michael S.; Murtha, Marlyn J.

    1983-05-31

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  15. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  16. Acceleration of black hole universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.

  17. On black hole horizon fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the high angular momentum particles 'atmosphere' near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon suggested that strong gravitational interactions occur at invariant distance of the order of 3 √M [2]. We present a generalization of this result to the Kerr-Newman black hole case. It is shown that the larger charge and angular momentum black hole bears, the larger invariant distance at which strong gravitational interactions occur becomes. This invariant distance is of order 3 √((r + 2 )/((r + - r - ))). This implies that the Planckian structure of the Hawking radiation of extreme black holes is completely broken

  18. Black holes and the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse

  19. Black holes and the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  20. Black report up-date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    In 1984, the Black Report published its results on the incidence of cancer and leukaemia in under 25-year olds in the village of Seascale and the surrounding area near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Since then the pressure group core, as a result of their own independent research, has discovered ten additional cases of childhood cancer which should have been included in the Black Report and a Further two cases since the Black Report was written. This represents an additional 31% over the initial numbers considered and a review of the Black Report is sought. (UK)