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Sample records for black fly larvae

  1. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

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    Nina S Liland

    Full Text Available Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  2. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liland, Nina S; Biancarosa, Irene; Araujo, Pedro; Biemans, Daan; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  3. PENGOLAHAN SAMPAH ORGANIK PERKOTAAN MENGGUNAKAN LARVA BLACK SOLDIER FLY (Hermetia illucens

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    Lena Monita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Black soldier fly (BSF larvae (Hermetia illucens can be used as insect based municipal organic waste recycling technology. The purpose of this research was to examine the utilization of BSF larvae as bio-processors of organic waste in order to produce compost and nutritious larvae biomass. Larvae feeds as treatments of experiment consist of restaurant organic waste mixed with fish silage 6% as treatment A, restaurant organic waste with dairy blood waste 6% as treatment B, and restaurant organic waste as treatment C. The result of this research showed that the highest larvae growth according to its length, width and body weigth was resulted by treatment B, followed by treatments A and C. Total metamorphic development time from egg to imago was 35 days; comprised of as larvae, prepupa, pupa, and imago for 12-13, 6, 6, and 15 days, respectively. Proximate analysis showed that BSF larvae had protein content 33.31 to 33.88%, and fat content 30.07 to 34.39%. Final solid residues of the three treatments was ranged from 90.3-90.6% after 10-11 days of bio-processing.

  4. Growth rates of black soldier fly larvae fed on fresh human faeces and their implication for improving sanitation.

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    Banks, Ian J; Gibson, Walter T; Cameron, Mary M

    2014-01-01

    To determine the capacity of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) to convert fresh human faeces into larval biomass under different feeding regimes, and to determine how effective BSFL are as a means of human faecal waste management. Black soldier fly larvae were fed fresh human faeces. The frequency of feeding, number of larvae and feeding ratio were altered to determine their effects on larval growth, prepupal weight, waste reduction, bioconversion and feed conversion rate (FCR). The larvae that were fed a single lump amount of faeces developed into significantly larger larvae and prepupae than those fed incrementally every 2 days; however, the development into pre-pupae took longer. The highest waste reduction was found in the group containing the most larvae, with no difference between feeding regimes. At an estimated 90% pupation rate, the highest bioconversion (16-22%) and lowest, most efficient FCR (2.0-3.3) occurred in groups that contained 10 and 100 larvae, when fed both the lump amount and incremental regime. The prepupal weight, bioconversion and FCR results surpass those from previous studies into BSFL management of swine, chicken manure and municipal organic waste. This suggests that the use of BSFL could provide a solution to the health problems associated with poor sanitation and inadequate human waste management in developing countries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Aflatoxin B1 Tolerance and Accumulation in Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) and Yellow Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor).

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    Bosch, Guido; Fels-Klerx, H J van der; Rijk, Theo C de; Oonincx, Dennis G A B

    2017-06-02

    Crops contaminated with fungal mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are often downgraded or removed from the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of AFB1 in two insect species to determine whether they could be used to retain condemned mycotoxin contaminated crops in the food chain. First, instar black soldier fly larvae ( Hermetia illucens , BSF) and yellow mealworm ( Tenebrio molitor , YMW) were fed poultry feed spiked with AFB1 and formulated to contain levels of 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.25, and up to 0.5 mg/kg dry feed. Poultry feed without any additions and feed with only the solvent added served as controls. The AFB1 in the feed did not affect survival and body weight in the BSF and YMW larvae ( p > 0.10), indicating a high tolerance to aflatoxin B1 in both species. Furthermore, AFB1 and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) were below the detection limit (0.10 µg/kg) in BSF larvae, whereas the YMW had AFB1 levels that were approximately 10% of the European Union's legal limit for feed materials and excreted AFM1. It is concluded that both BSF larvae and YMW have a high AFB1 tolerance and do not accumulate AFB1.

  6. A survey of the mycobiota associated with larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens reared for feed production.

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    Ilaria Varotto Boccazzi

    Full Text Available Feed security, feed quality and issues surrounding the safety of raw materials are always of interest to all livestock farmers, feed manufacturers and competent authorities. These concerns are even more important when alternative feed ingredients, new product developments and innovative feeding trends, like insect-meals, are considered. The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens is considered a good candidate to be used as feed ingredient for aquaculture and other farm animals, mainly as an alternative protein source. Data on transfer of contaminants from different substrates to the insects, as well as the possible occurrence of toxin-producing fungi in the gut of non-processed insects are very limited. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of the substrate/diet on the intestinal mycobiota of H. illucens larvae using culture-dependent approaches (microbiological analyses, molecular identification through the typing of isolates and the sequencing of the 26S rRNA D1/D2 domain and amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (454 pyrosequencing. We fed five groups of H. illucens larvae at the third growing stage on two substrates: chicken feed and/or vegetable waste, provided at different timings. The obtained results indicated that Pichia was the most abundant genus associated with the larvae fed on vegetable waste, whereas Trichosporon, Rhodotorula and Geotrichum were the most abundant genera in the larvae fed on chicken feed only. Differences in the fungal communities were highlighted, suggesting that the type of substrate selects diverse yeast and mold genera, in particular vegetable waste is associated with a greater diversity of fungal species compared to chicken feed only. A further confirmation of the significant influence of diet on the mycobiota is the fact that no operational taxonomic unit common to all groups of larvae was detected. Finally, the killer phenotype of isolated yeasts was tested, showing the inhibitory activity of just one

  7. Black flies (Diptera : Simuliidae attracted to humans and water buffalos and natural infections with filarial larvae, probably Onchocerca sp., in northern Thailand

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    Takaoka H.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Several Simulium species were investigated as to their biting habits and natural infections with filarial larvae at Ban Pan Fan, Chiang Mai Province, in northern Thailand. Female adults flies landing on or flighting around a human and a water buffalo were collected during the daytime from 06.00 to 19.00 hours on 22 June 2001. As a result, 217 S. nodosum, 86 S. asakoae and two S. nigrogilvum were obtained from a human attractant, and 416 S. nodosum, 25 S. nakhonense, 16 S. asakoae, four 5. fenestratum and two S. nigrogilvum, from a water buffalo. The blood-feeding was confirmed only for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum on humans, and for S. nodosum and S. nakhonense on water buffalos. Dissections of these simuliids showed that S. nodosum was naturally infected with developing filarial larvae. Two types of microfilariae were distinguished but only one type of infective larvae. These larvae resembled Onchocerca suzukii, a parasite from a wild Japanese bovid, suggesting that an unknown Onchocerca species from ruminants was transmitted in Thailand. Infection rates with all stages of larvae and third-stage larvae were 2.3 % (14/608 and 1 .0 % (6/608, respectively. This is the first report of natural infections of black flies with Onchocerca larvae in Southeast Asia, and the involved black fly species is shown to be not only anthropophilic but also zoophilic in this region.

  8. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: Anin vitrorumen fermentation study.

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    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Novandri, Briliannanda; Yantina, Nover; Ridla, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1) and 2 weeks (BSF2) were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis): T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF2; T5, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF1; and T6, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF2. The samples were determined for their chemical composition and were incubated in vitro using buffered rumen fluid for 48 h at 39°C. In vitro incubation was carried out in three runs and represented by two incubation bottles per run. Supplementation of BSF, both BSF1 and BSF2, increased ether extract, neutral- and acid-detergent insoluble crude protein contents of T3-T6 diets. The T3 or T4 diet resulted in lower ruminal ammonia concentration, in vitro DM digestibility, and in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility as compared to those in T2 (p<0.05). Diet supplemented with BSF produced lower methane emission in comparison to that of supplemented with SBM (p<0.05). Diet containing BSF2 produced lower methane and methane per digestible OM than that containing BSF1 (p<0.05). Substitution of SBM by BSF in ruminant diet results in a lower nutritional value in vitro but with an advantage of lowering ruminal methane emission.

  9. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: An in vitro rumen fermentation study

    OpenAIRE

    Anuraga Jayanegara; Briliannanda Novandri; Nover Yantina; Muhammad Ridla

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Materials and Methods: Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1) and 2 weeks (BSF2) were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis): T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 4...

  10. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: An in vitro rumen fermentation study

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanegara, Anuraga; Novandri, Briliannanda; Yantina, Nover; Ridla, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM) by black soldier fly (BSF) larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Materials and Methods: Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1) and 2 weeks (BSF2) were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis): T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 40% B...

  11. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVI. Oestrid fly larvae of sheep, goats, springbok and black wildebeest in the Eastern Cape Province

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    I.G. Horak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Merino sheep in Thornveld, Dorper sheep and Angora goats in inland Valley Bushveld, Angora goats and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau, and springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, and black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou, in Karroid Mountainveld, all in the Eastern Cape Province, were examined for the larvae of nasal bot flies. The sheep and goats were infested with the larvae of Oestrus ovis, and Dorper sheep and Boer goats harboured more larvae than Angora goats on the same farms. Most infestation was present from November to May in Merino sheep in Thornveld, from February to June in Dorper sheep in inland Valley Bushveld, and from May to September in Angora and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau. These patterns of seasonality appeared to be regulated by the severity of the summer temperatures at the various localities. The springbok were infested with the larvae of Rhinoestrus antidorcitis, most of which seemed to mature from June to August. All larval sages of Oestrus variolosus and Gedoelstia hässleri were present in the black wildebeest, and large numbers of 1st instar larvae of G. hässleri appeared to accumulate on the dura of the wildebeest from June to August.

  12. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVI. Oestrid fly larvae of sheep, goats, springbok and black wildebeest in the Eastern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G

    2005-12-01

    Merino sheep in Thornveld, Dorper sheep and Angora goats in inland Valley Bushveld, Angora goats and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau, and springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis, and black wildebeest, Connochaetes gnou, in Karroid Mountainveld, all in the Eastern Cape Province, were examined for the larvae of nasal bot flies. The sheep and goats were infested with the larvae of Oestrus ovis, and Dorper sheep and Boer goats harboured more larvae than Angora goats on the same farms. Most infestation was present from November to May in Merino sheep in Thornveld, from February to June in Dorper sheep in inland Valley Bushveld, and from May to September in Angora and Boer goats in Valley Bushveld on the coastal plateau. These patterns of seasonality appeared to be regulated by the severity of the summer temperatures at the various localities. The springbok were infested with the larvae of Rhinoestrus antidorcitis, most of which seemed to mature from June to August. All larval sages of Oestrus variolosus and Gedoelstia hässleri were present in the black wildebeest, and large numbers of 1st instar larvae of G. hässleri appeared to accumulate on the dura of the wildebeest from June to August.

  13. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

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    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  14. Use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens to substitute soybean meal in ruminant diet: An in vitro rumen fermentation study

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    Anuraga Jayanegara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This experiment aimed to evaluate substitution of soybean meal (SBM by black soldier fly (BSF larvae meal in a napier grass diet as performed by an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Materials and Methods: Samples of napier grass, SBM, and BSF larvae age 1 week (BSF1 and 2 weeks (BSF2 were arranged according to the following dietary treatments (dry matter [DM] basis: T1, 100% napier grass; T2, 60% napier grass + 40% SBM; T3, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF1; T4, 60% napier grass + 40% BSF2; T5, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF1; and T6, 60% napier grass + 20% SBM + 20% BSF2. The samples were determined for their chemical composition and were incubated in vitro using buffered rumen fluid for 48 h at 39°C. In vitro incubation was carried out in three runs and represented by two incubation bottles per run. Results: Supplementation of BSF, both BSF1 and BSF2, increased ether extract, neutral- and acid-detergent insoluble crude protein contents of T3-T6 diets. The T3 or T4 diet resulted in lower ruminal ammonia concentration, in vitro DM digestibility, and in vitro organic matter (OM digestibility as compared to those in T2 (p<0.05. Diet supplemented with BSF produced lower methane emission in comparison to that of supplemented with SBM (p<0.05. Diet containing BSF2 produced lower methane and methane per digestible OM than that containing BSF1 (p<0.05. Conclusion: Substitution of SBM by BSF in ruminant diet results in a lower nutritional value in vitro but with an advantage of lowering ruminal methane emission.

  15. Moisture adsorption properties and shelf-life estimation of dried and pulverised edible house cricket Acheta domesticus (L.) and black soldier fly larvae Hermetia illucens (L.).

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    Kamau, E; Mutungi, C; Kinyuru, J; Imathiu, S; Tanga, C; Affognon, H; Ekesi, S; Nakimbugwe, D; Fiaboe, K K M

    2018-04-01

    Edible insects are part of the diets of a significant proportion of rural populations in the tropics especially Africa and Asia, and their use as source of key nutrients for better nutrition is re-emerging. Indigenously, elemental methods are used to process the insects before they are consumed or sold in retail outlets. In recent years, better knowledge of processing, packaging and storage has become necessary because of commercialisation needs. A common processing approach involves drying after a brief heat-treatment step, and then milling into a powdered product which is sold to manufacturers or consumers as ingredient for processing final products. The hydration properties of dried powders of edible house cricket and black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) were studied with the aim of predicting shelf-life stability under typical packaging and storage temperatures experienced in the tropics. Moisture adsorption isotherms were determined gravimetrically at 25, 30 and 35 °C, over 0.11-0.97 water activity (a W ) range, and the data fitted to various models. Sorption isotherms were of type II according to Brunauer classification indicating monolayer-multilayer sorption behaviour. Cricket powder exhibited higher hydration capacity, and a W of this product was less sensitive to temperature variation as compared to BSFL powder. In the two products, water exhibited transitions from bound- to free- state at ~5 g/100 g moisture content. Based on Heiss-Eichner model, a shelf-life of 7 months at 25 °C can be achieved if the cricket and BSFL powders are dried to ca. 5 g/100 g moisture content and packaged in 80 μm thick polyethylene films. At 35 °C the shelf-life of the cricket product is shortened three- to four-fold whereas the BSFL powder is unable to store. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A fly larva (Syrphidae: Ocyptamus that preys on adult flies

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    Onanchi Ureña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory syrphid larvae feed on relatively immobile prey, but here we report the first case (as far as we are aware of obligatory predation on very mobile prey. Larvae of an undescribed species of Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae were found in whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae aggregations on the undersides of citrus leaves. However, instead of preying on the whitefly nymphs (as would be expected, the larvae preyed on adult flies (Diptera that were attracted to the honeydew. In the laboratory, larvae captured significantly more flies on whitefly infested leaves than on washed leaves, and generally abandoned leaves that lacked whiteflies. Most cases of successful prey capture involved flies that probed the anterior part of the larva’s body with its proboscis (as if it were honeydew. The syrphid larva lashed out at the fly and entangled it in sticky oral secretion. The prey did not recover when they were removed from the larva, suggesting that this new predatory species also employs venom to subdue its prey. Although the larvae consumed some honeydew, they were unable to complete their development on this diet. Two parasitoids were reared from Ocyptamus puparia, Proaspicera sp. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Paracarotomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, both of which are endoparasitic koinobionts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1157-1163. Epub 2010 December 01.Las larvas depredadoras de Syrphidae se alimentan de presas relativamente inmóviles, pero aquí reportamos el primer caso (hasta ahora conocido de la depredación obligatoria en presas muy móviles. Se encontraron las larvas de una especie no descrita de Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae juntas con ninfas de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en el envés de las hojas de cítricos. Sin embargo, en vez de alimentarse de las ninfas de mosca blanca (como debería esperarse, las larvas se alimentaron de moscas adultas (Diptera que fueron atraídas a las excreciones azucaradas de la mosca blanca. En el

  17. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, C., E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  18. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, C.; Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M.; Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K.; Vinnerås, B.

    2016-01-01

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  19. Impact of substrate contamination with mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides on the growth performance and composition of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) for use in the feed and food value chain.

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    Purschke, Benedict; Scheibelberger, Rafaela; Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Jäger, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Edible insects have emerged as an alternative and sustainable source of high-quality, animal-derived protein and fat for livestock production or direct human nutrition. During the production of insects, substrate quality is a key parameter to assure optimal insect biomass gain as well as the safety of feed and food derived from commercially reared insects. Therefore, the influence of a realistic substrate contamination scenario on growth performance and accumulation behaviour of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL; Hermetia illucens L.) was investigated. Newly hatched larvae were fed on a corn-based substrate spiked with heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb), mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1/B2/G2, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone) and pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl) under defined breeding conditions (10 days, 28°C, 67% relative humidity). The extent of contaminants' bioaccumulation in the larval tissue as well as the effect on growing determinants were examined. The applied heavy metal substrate contamination was shown to impair larval growing indicated by significantly lower post-trial larval mass and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Cd and Pb accumulation factors of 9 and 2, respectively, were determined, while the concentrations of other heavy metals in the larvae remained below the initial substrate concentration. In contrast, mycotoxins and pesticides have neither been accumulated in the larval tissue nor significantly affected the growing determinants in comparison with the control. The use of BSFL as livestock feed requires contaminant monitoring - especially for Cd and Pb - in the substrates as well as in feedstuff containing BSFL to ensure feed and food safety along the value chain.

  20. Nutrient utilisation by black soldier flies fed with chicken, pig, or cow manure

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    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the suitability of chicken, pig, and cow manure as feed for larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.); Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Newly hatched larvae were inoculated on moistened manure (33% dry matter). Water and dried manure were added three

  1. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; Meulenaer, De Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; Clercq, De Patrick; Smet, De Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and

  2. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly.

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    Li, Wu; Li, Qing; Zheng, Longyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jibin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Yanlin

    2015-10-01

    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VS(added) by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Symbiotic Bacteria Enable Olive Fly Larvae to Overcome Host Defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. (author)

  4. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...... and C. jejuni. Pupae or newly hatched flies were not carriers of C. jejuni although larvae were grown in contaminated manure. Impact When composting poultry manure with Md fly larvae, it is possible both to reduce the amount of waste and to sanitize it from C. jejuni, thereby reducing the risk...

  5. Use of distiller’s dried grains with solubles, which had been used as substrate for black soldier fly larvae, in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (MFM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black...

  6. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent a sustainable method for reducing animal and plant wastes. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. The prepupae can be self-harvested and used as feedstuff for livestock and poultry. While som...

  7. Gastrointestinal symptoms resembling ulcerative proctitis caused by larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Gaillard, Julien; Borée-Moreau, Diane; Bailly, Éric; Andres, Christian R; Chandenier, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of facultative intestinal myiasis due to larvae of the drone fly Eristalis tenax, also named the rat-tailed maggots. The development of larvae in the lower bowel was responsible for non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms that resembled ulcerative proctitis. The diagnosis was established upon the observation of four spontaneously excreted mobile larvae. The definite identification of the E. tenax species was made possible by scanning electron microscopy. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  8. The Effects of Oral Application of Cyromazine and Triflumuron on House-Fly Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of large quantities of wastes (manure, used litter, dead birds which are excellent medium for fly-larvae over poultry houses provide breeding places for different groups of fly pests, with house-flies being the dominant species. This project is a comparative lab study. In this research project the larvicidal effects of cyromazine and triflumuron were studied as two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs to reduce the fly population using oral application. Both IGRs had a signifi-cant effect on larval mortality compared with their controls among the concentrations (P< 0.01, Fisher's LSD with Bonf-feroni correction including a dose-dependent relationship. Comparisons among LC50 and LC90 values, using fiducial limits, showed that cyromazine was significantly more toxic to the larvae of the two strains than triflumuron. It is concluded that cyromazine should be used in a larvicidal programme to control house-fly rather than triflumuron.

  9. The Effects of Oral Application of Cyromazine and Triflumuron on House-Fly Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulations of large quantities of wastes (manure, used litter, dead birds which are excellent medium for fly-larvae over poultry houses provide breeding places for different groups of fly pests, with house-flies being the dominant species. This project is a comparative lab study. In this research project the larvicidal effects of cyromazine and triflumuron were studied as two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs to reduce the fly population using oral application. Both IGRs had a signifi-cant effect on larval mortality compared with their controls among the concentrations (P< 0.01, Fisher's LSD with Bonf-feroni correction including a dose-dependent relationship. Comparisons among LC50 and LC90 values, using fiducial limits, showed that cyromazine was significantly more toxic to the larvae of the two strains than triflumuron. It is concluded that cyromazine should be used in a larvicidal programme to control house-fly rather than triflumuron.

  10. Genes Expressed Differentially in Hessian Fly Larvae Feeding in Resistant and Susceptible Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shun Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor, is a destructive pest of wheat worldwide and mainly controlled by deploying resistant cultivars. In this study, we investigated the genes that were expressed differentially between larvae in resistant plants and those in susceptible plants through RNA sequencing on the Illumina platform. Informative genes were 11,832, 14,861, 15,708, and 15,071 for the comparisons between larvae in resistant versus susceptible plants for 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 days, respectively, after larvae had reached the feeding site. The transcript abundance corresponding to 5401, 6902, 8457, and 5202 of the informative genes exhibited significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in the respective paired comparisons. Overall, genes involved in nutrient metabolism, RNA and protein synthesis exhibited lower transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants, indicating that resistant plants inhibited nutrient metabolism and protein production in larvae. Interestingly, the numbers of cytochrome P450 genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants were comparable to, or higher than those with lower transcript abundance, indicating that toxic chemicals from resistant plants may have played important roles in Hessian fly larval death. Our study also identified several families of genes encoding secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs that were expressed at early stage of 1st instar larvae and with more genes with higher transcript abundance in larvae from resistant plants. Those SSGPs are candidate effectors with important roles in plant manipulation.

  11. Evolution of insecticide resistance in non-target black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mónica Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Black flies, a non-target species of the insecticides used in fruit production, represent a severe medical and veterinary problem. Large increases in the level of resistance to the pyrethroids fenvalerate (more than 355-fold and deltamethrin (162-fold and a small increase in resistance to the organophosphate azinphos methyl (2-fold were observed between 1996-2008 in black fly larvae under insecticide pressure. Eventually, no change or a slight variation in insecticide resistance was followed by a subsequent increase in resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance in a field population is a complex and stepwise process that is influenced by several factors, the most significant of which is the insecticide selection pressure, such as the dose and frequency of application. The variation in insecticide susceptibility within a black fly population in the productive area may be related to changes in fruit-pest control. The frequency of individuals with esterase activities higher than the maximum value determined in the susceptible population increased consistently over the sampling period. However, the insecticide resistance was not attributed to glutathione S-transferase activity. In conclusion, esterase activity in black flies from the productive area is one mechanism underlying the high levels of resistance to pyrethroids, which have been recently used infrequently. These enzymes may be reselected by currently used pesticides and enhance the resistance to these insecticides.

  12. A simple isothermal DNA amplification method to screen black flies for Onchocerca volvulus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Alhassan

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Adult worms live in subcutaneous tissues and produce large numbers of microfilariae that migrate to the skin and eyes. The disease is spread by black flies of the genus Simulium following ingestion of microfilariae that develop into infective stage larvae in the insect. Currently, transmission is monitored by capture and dissection of black flies and microscopic examination of parasites, or using the polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of parasite DNA in pools of black flies. In this study we identified a new DNA biomarker, encoding O. volvulus glutathione S-transferase 1a (OvGST1a, to detect O. volvulus infection in vector black flies. We developed an OvGST1a-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay where amplification of specific target DNA is detectable using turbidity or by a hydroxy naphthol blue color change. The results indicated that the assay is sensitive and rapid, capable of detecting DNA equivalent to less than one microfilaria within 60 minutes. The test is highly specific for the human parasite, as no cross-reaction was detected using DNA from the closely related and sympatric cattle parasite Onchocerca ochengi. The test has the potential to be developed further as a field tool for use in the surveillance of transmission before and after implementation of mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis.

  13. Rate of Parasitism of the Antlion Larvae, Myrmeleon bore (Neuroptera : Myrmeleontidae) by the Bee Fly, Villa myrmeleonostena (Diptera : Bombyliidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiaki, MATSURA; Hiroki, OHNO; Megumi, SAKAMOTO; Department of Biology, Kyoto University of Education; Department of Biology, Kyoto University of Education; Department of Biology, Kyoto University of Education

    1998-01-01

    The bee fly, Villa myrmeleonostena parasitize the antlion larva, Myrmeleon bore living in seaside dune. To obtain the ecological information on the parasitism by V. myrmeleonostena, we examined rates of parasitism in the antlion larvae collected monthly from April to October in 1991. Adult bee flies emerged from cocoons, which we obtained by rearing the antlion larvae. The emergence times of parasitoids and hosts were similar. The parasitism rate based on pooled data was the highest in the th...

  14. Reduction of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in poultry manure by rearing of Musca domestica fly larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Fischer, C.; Bjerrum, L.

    2017-01-01

    A major barrier for using animal waste as substrate for production of insects for feed or food is the concern for safety of the end products. In this study we investigated how rearing of fly larvae of Musca domestica in poultry manure influenced the counts of three pathogenic test strains...... of the larvae stage. This study provides data for evaluation of feed safety of fly larvae reared on animal waste. Furthermore suggests a potential use for reduction of these pathogens in manure....

  15. Effects of antinutrient proteins on Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    One strategy to enhance the durability of Hessian fly resistance (R) genes in wheat is to combine them with transgenes for resistance. To identify potential transgenes for resistance a protocol for rapidly screening the proteins they encode for efficacy toward resistance is required. However, the ...

  16. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of the Lesser Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Low, Van Lun; Suana, I Wayan

    2017-05-01

    Surveys of pupae and larvae of black flies were carried out in Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa and Flores in the Lesser Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia, where 10 species were known. A total of 14 simuliid species including four new species and five new records of the genus Simulium were collected, bringing the number of species from the Lesser Sunda Archipelago to 19. They are classified into four subgenera: two in Nevermannia, nine in Gomphostilbia, seven in Simulium and one in Wallacellum. One of four new species, Simulium (Simulium) baliense, is described based on females, males, pupae and larvae from Bali and Lombok. This new species, which is placed in the Simulium striatum species-group of the subgenus Simulium, is closely related to S. (S.) argyrocinctum De Meijere from Java and Sumatra, but it is distinguished from the latter species by the smaller number of the male enlarged upper-eye facets and larval abdomen lacking dorsal pairs of conical protuberances. The distribution record of S. (S.) upikae Takaoka & Davies from Flores is corrected as that of S. (S.) eximium De Meijere. Some aberrant characters of the pupal gill filaments of S. (G.) atratum De Meijere, S. (G.) floresense Takaoka, Hadi & Sigit and S. (G.) sunapii Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Suana are illustrated. Characteristics of the fauna of black flies in this archipelago are briefly noted. Keys to all 19 species are provided for females, males, pupae and larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of irradiation on development of Caribbean fruit fly (diptera: tephritidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nation, J.L.; Milne, K.; Dykstra, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), were irradiated at hatching with 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 75, 100 and 150 Gy doses from a Cesium-137 source and dissected for measurements of the supraesophageal ganglion (brain) and proventriculus (B/Prv) as mature third instars. Cross-sectional area of a plane through the brain and proventriculus, and simple dorsal width measurements of the two organs were evaluated as indicators of radiation exposure. Brain area, brain width, and brain/proventriculus (B/Prv) ratios were significantly different from controls in insects treated with a dose ≥20 Gy. Detailed dissections of hatching larvae exposed to 50 Gy revealed reductions in brain growth, small and misshapen compound eye and leg imaginal disks, and a ventral nerve cord that was elongated and sinuous. Larvae irradiated on the 1st d of each of the three instars had smaller brains, with the percentage of reduction in brain size being greater the younger the larvae were at the time of exposure. Brain and proventriculus measurements and calculated B/Prv values are indicative of irradiation in Caribbean fruit fly larvae, but the procedure may not be adaptable for routine use by quarantine inspectors. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Fly larvae as sustainable bioconverters of waste for feed in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Aabo, Søren

    2014-01-01

    to be especially rich in essential amino and fatty acids. Atthe Food institute we have investigated in feed safety of using these fly larvae as feed for egg laying hens.The larvae were reared on poultry manure which implies the risk of transmission of pathogenicmicroorganism between animals and to humans, as well...... that these substances could be accumulated in thelarvae. Feeding trials of chickens and egg laying hens with insect supplements showed superior growthresults compared to standard feed, showing inclusion of insects in future poultry diet is an sustainable andattractive alternative ot other protein soruces....

  19. Parasites of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Jitklang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of larval black flies are reported for the first time from Thailand, including mermithid nematodes(Mermithidae, microsporidian fungi (Zygomycota, and the fungus Coelomycidium simulii Debaisieux (Blastocladiomycetes.The following nine species of black flies were infected with one or more parasites: Simulium asakoae, S. chamlongi,S. chiangmaiense, S. fenestratum, S. feuerborni, S. nakhonense, S. nodosum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. tani. The prevalenceof patent infections per host species per season was 0.1–7.1% for mermithids, 0.1–6.0% for microsporidia, and 0.1–3.0% forC. simulii.

  20. Cutaneous myiasis with Dermatobia hominis (human bot fly) larvae treated both conservatively and surgically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, G

    2006-01-01

    A case is presented of infestation with the larvae of Dermatobia hominis (human bot fly). This case is unusual in that it provides an example of three different outcomes for separate lesions in the same patient; spontaneous resolution, conservative treatment and surgical intervention. It also illustrates that myiasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of any skin lesion of a patient returning from the tropics.

  1. [New public health challenges in vector management: black flies in Murcia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Pedro F; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Kotter, Heiko; Pacheco Martínez, Francisco; Segovia Hernández, Manuel; Gómez Campoy, M Elisa

    Historically, no black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) nuisance has been reported in the Murcia Region. Back in September 2016 the Ojós City Council has contacted the Regional Public Health General Directorate for help regarding a local insect nuisance, most probably based on mosquitoes. After sampling with a BG-sentinel 2 trap, collecting adult specimens with an entomological aspirator, and collect larvae and pupae on submerged giant cane stalks at the river, it turned out that Simulium sergenti was the insect species causing the nuisance. This species is not considered particularly anthropophilic; therefore, a low vector risk for human health was considered. However, the high fly density impaired the life quality of the people at the village. A management plan was recommended, treating the river with Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, parasitoid affecting Black Soldier Fly production systems in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Devic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758 is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production, egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae, which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.

  3. Identification of Nanopillars on the Cuticle of the Aquatic Larvae of the Drone Fly (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew J; Levine, Timothy P; Wilson, Roger H

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a nano-scale surface structure on the rat-tailed maggot, the aquatic larva of the Drone fly Eristalis tenax(L.). Larvae of this syrphid hover fly live in stagnant, anaerobic water-courses that are rich in organic matter. The larvae burrow into fetid slurry and feed on microorganisms which they filter out from the organic material. This environment is rich in bacteria, fungi and algae with the capacity to form biofilms that might develop on the larval surface and harm them. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy we have identified an array of slender (typically < 100 nm in diameter) nanopillars that cover the surface of the larvae. The high density and dimensions of these spine-like projections appear to make it difficult for bacteria to colonize the surface of the animal. This may interfere with the formation of biofilms and potentially act as a defence against bacterial infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. Surface ultrastrucure of larva and puparia of blow fly Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Samerjai, Chutharat; Sontigun, Narin; Limsopatham, Kwankamol; Sukontason, Kom

    2012-12-01

    Flies of the genus Hypopygiopsis are forensically important, as their larvae are found to associate with human corpses. In this study, the ultrastructure of larvae and puparia of Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi is presented using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The larvae are vermiform-shaped, creamy white, and have a smooth integument. The pseudocephalon of larvae bears sensory structures, i.e., antenna, maxillary palpus, and ventral organ. Two tufts of fresh outgrowths (or cerri) were observed along the dorsal margin of the mouth opening of the first instar; whereas a strong mouth hook was apparent in the second and third instars. Keilin's organ, the sensory structure, was noticeable on the ventral surface of the thoracic segments in all instars. In the second and third instars, six conspicuous tubercles were present along the peripheral rims of the last abdominal segment. The puparia were relatively large, measuring 7.77-9.51 mm in length and 3.10-3.97 mm in width. At the latero-dorsal edge of the first abdominal segment, a cluster of ~125 bubble membranes was seen in young puparia; whereas a minute pupal respiratory horn was observed in old one. An SEM image revealed antler-like projections lined within a chamber of a broken pupal respiratory horn. Comparison on number of the bubble membranes of the other blow fly species was shown and the role of pupal respiratory horn compared with other dipterans was discussed.

  5. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; De Clercq, Patrick; De Smet, Stefaan

    2017-06-01

    Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and substrates were freeze-dried and proximate, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral analyses were performed. Protein content of prepupae varied between 399 and 431 g kg -1 dry matter (DM) among treatments. Differences in amino acid profile of prepupae were small. On the other hand, the ether extract (EE) and ash contents differed substantially. Prepupae reared on digestate were low in EE and high in ash (218 and 197 g kg -1 DM, respectively) compared to those reared on vegetable waste (371 and 96 g kg -1 DM, respectively), chicken feed (336 and 100 g kg -1 DM, respectively) and restaurant waste (386 and 27 g kg -1 DM, respectively). Prepupal fatty acid profiles were characterised by high levels of C12:0 in all treatments. Since protein content and quality were high and comparable for prepupae reared on different substrates, black soldier fly could be an interesting protein source for animal feeds. However, differences in EE and ash content as a function of substrate should be considered. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. External Morphology of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Kristina; Chen, Han; Zhu, Jerry; Taylor, David B

    2015-07-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the external morphology of first-, second-, and third-instar stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)). In the cephalic region, the antennae, labial lobe, and maxillary palpi are morphologically similar among instars. Antennae comprise a prominent anterior dome that is the primary site of olfaction, while the maxillary palpi are innervated with mechano- and chemosensilla and scolopodia. The ventral organ and facial mask, also located in the pseudocephalon, are not well-developed in first instars, but become progressively more so in the subsequent instars. When the pseudocephalon is partially retracted, anterior spines cusp around the oral ridges of the facial mask. This indicates the anterior spinose band may be used in conjunction with the facial mask in predigestion. Functional anterior spiracles are absent on first instars, but become evident as a pair of palmate spiracular processes with five to seven lobes in second and third instars. A pair of Keilin's organs, functioning as hygroreceptors, is located on each thoracic segment. Abdominal segments are marked with ventral creeping welts, the anal pad, anus, papillae, and posterior spiracles. Ventral creeping welts are thought to aid in locomotion, while the anal pad acts as an osmoregulatory structure. Posterior spiracles are modified from round spiracular discs with two straight slits in the first instar to triangular discs with two and three sinuous slits in the second and third instars, respectively. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Investigating the potential of fluorescent fingerprint powders as a marker for blow fly larvae (Diptera: calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Jennifer Y; Robinson, Scott D; Devine, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Four fluorescent fingerprint powders (RedWop(™) , GreenWop(™) , Basic Yellow(™) , and Yellow Powder(™) ) were evaluated as a marker for blow fly larvae. Administration methods included ingestion (high vs. low concentration) or topical. Ingestion of high concentrations of Basic Yellow(™) and RedWop(™) caused higher larval mortality. Basic Yellow(™) delayed development and adult emergence while RedWop(™) and Yellow Powder(™) had a significant effect on particular stages of development, however, emergence time was not altered. Optimal administration is through ingestion at low concentration levels (blow flies. It can also be used in entomological studies to differentiate between larval blow flies (or other dipteran) species or individuals to further understand complex interactions and behavior during larval development. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Bacterial Infection and Immune Responses in Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Fly Larvae Midgut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Heerman

    Full Text Available The midgut microbial community in insect vectors of disease is crucial for an effective immune response against infection with various human and animal pathogens. Depending on the aspects of their development, insects can acquire microbes present in soil, water, and plants. Sand flies are major vectors of leishmaniasis, and shown to harbor a wide variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Sand fly larval stages acquire microorganisms from the soil, and the abundance and distribution of these microorganisms may vary depending on the sand fly species or the breeding site. Here, we assess the distribution of two bacteria commonly found within the gut of sand flies, Pantoea agglomerans and Bacillus subtilis. We demonstrate that these bacteria are able to differentially infect the larval digestive tract, and regulate the immune response in sand fly larvae. Moreover, bacterial distribution, and likely the ability to colonize the gut, is driven, at least in part, by a gradient of pH present in the gut.

  9. Bacterial Infection and Immune Responses in Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Fly Larvae Midgut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerman, Matthew; Weng, Ju-Lin; Hurwitz, Ivy; Durvasula, Ravi; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The midgut microbial community in insect vectors of disease is crucial for an effective immune response against infection with various human and animal pathogens. Depending on the aspects of their development, insects can acquire microbes present in soil, water, and plants. Sand flies are major vectors of leishmaniasis, and shown to harbor a wide variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Sand fly larval stages acquire microorganisms from the soil, and the abundance and distribution of these microorganisms may vary depending on the sand fly species or the breeding site. Here, we assess the distribution of two bacteria commonly found within the gut of sand flies, Pantoea agglomerans and Bacillus subtilis. We demonstrate that these bacteria are able to differentially infect the larval digestive tract, and regulate the immune response in sand fly larvae. Moreover, bacterial distribution, and likely the ability to colonize the gut, is driven, at least in part, by a gradient of pH present in the gut. PMID:26154607

  10. Characterization of the excretory/secretory products of Dermatobia hominis larvae, the human bot fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, M P R; Guimarães, S; Souza-Neto, J A; Ribolla, P E M; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G

    2010-03-25

    Proteolytic activity in excretory/secretory products (ESP) of first- (L1), second- (L2) and third-instar (L3) larvae of Dermatobia hominis was analyzed through gelatin-gel and colorimetric enzyme assays with the chromogenic substrates azocasein and BApNA. The functional characterization of proteases was based on inhibition assays including synthetic inhibitors. ESP were obtained from new-hatched larvae reared in the laboratory and from second- and third-instar larvae removed from naturally infested cattle. Gelatin-gel analysis evidenced few bands of proteolysis, predominantly of high apparent molecular masses, in ESP of L1, whereas in the gel of L2 and L3 ESP there was a wide range of proteolytic activity most of them not resolved in a single species. Azocasein assays revealed a progressive increase of protease activity from first- to third-instar larvae. Protease inhibitor assays revealed a predominance of metalloproteases in L1 ESP that could be related to a skin penetration process and to a diversion of host immune response. The predominance of serine proteases in L2 and L3 and the great tryptic activity presented by L3 ESP were attributed to an increasing trophic activity by the growing larvae, since the viability of adult flies strictly depends on larval abilities to assimilate nutrients from the host. Taking together, these results suggest that Dematobia larvae secrete/excrete different proteases that may be related to diverse functions during host penetration and infestation, which reinforces the relevance of the study of such proteolytic enzymes.

  11. Water pollution and distribution of the black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

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    Tatiana N Docile

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Black flies have medical importance because some species are vectors of the Onchocerciasis and Mansonelosis, nevertheless, their ecology and potential use as bioindicators is still poorly studied in the Neotropical Region. In Brazil, bioindicators use is strongly focused in a multimetrical ecological index approach; this way, we investigated the black fly spatial distribution, in relation to abiotic factors correlated to water quality, to provide baseline information for their utilization as standalone indicators of lotic systems integrity. We have tested the hypothesis that environmental changes related to urbanization, lead to decreased abundance and loss in the number of species of the black fly fauna. The sampling was conducted in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September of 2012, in the mountainous region of Teresópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The streams were characterized for their environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. In each stream, five different rapid points were sampled in a section of 50 meters, 10 meters apart from each other. The black flies were sampled with a kick-net sampler on rocky substrates. The material was separated and the larvae were sorted in morphotypes, and later, the final instar specimens were dissected and identified with the help of taxonomical literature at species level. A total abundance of 488 larvae from nine species were collected, 5 (1.02 % in extremely impacted streams, 470 (96.31 % in intermediate streams and 13 (2.66 % in preserved streams. The visual evaluation (HII differed in rela&tion to the water physico-chemical evaluation, in which more variation in the characterization of the sampling sites was observed. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis Simulium subpallidum, S. inscrustatumand S. pertinaxwere significantly associated with intermediate values of most of the variables, and then to intermediate impacted

  12. Water pollution and distribution of the black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docile, Tatiana N; Figueiró, Ronaldo; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo H; Nessimian, Jorge L

    2015-09-01

    Black flies have medical importance because some species are vectors of the unenocerciasis and Mansonelosis, nevertheless, their ecology and potential use as bioindicators is still poorly studied in the Neotropical Region. In Brazil, bioindicators use is strongly focused in a multimetrical ecological index approach; this way, we investigated the black fly spatial distribution, in relation to abiotic factors correlated to water quality, to provide baseline information for their utilization as standalone indicators of lotic systems integrity. We have tested the hypothesis that environmental changes related to urbanization, lead to decreased abundance and loss in the number of species of the black fly fauna. The sampling was conducted in 10 urban and 10 preserved streams during the dry season (August-September) of 2012, in the mountainous region of Teres6polis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The streams were characterized for their environmental integrity conditions and physico-chemical properties of water. In each stream, five different rapid points were sampled in a section of 50 meters, 10 meters apart from each other. The black flies were sampled with a kick-net sampler on rocky substrates. The material was separated and the larvae were sorted in morphotypes, and later, the final instar specimens were dissected and identified with the help of taxonomical literature at species level. A total abundance of 488 larvae from nine species were collected, 5 (1.02 %) in extremely impacted streams, 470 (96.31 %) in intermediate streams and 13 (2.66 %) in preserved streams. The visual evaluation (HII) differed in relation to the water physico-chemical evaluation, in which more variation in the characterization of the sampling sites was observed. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis Simulium subpallidum, S. inscrustatum and S. pertinax were significantly associated with intermediate values of most of the variables, and then to intermediate impacted sites. On the other hand

  13. The timing and departure rate of larvae of the warble fly Hypoderma (= Oedemagena tarandi (L. and the nose bot fly Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer (Diptera: Oestridae from reindeer

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    Arne C. Nilssen

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of larvae of the reindeer warble fly Hypoderma (= Oedemagena tarandi (L. (n = 2205 from 4, 9, 3, 6 and 5 Norwegian semi-domestic reindeer yearlings (Rangifer tarandus tarandus (L. was registered in 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991 and 1992, respectively. Larvae of the reindeer nose bot fly Cephenemyia trompe (Moder (n = 261 were recorded during the years 1990, 1991 and 1992 from the same reindeer. A collection cape technique (only H. tarandi and a grating technique (both species were used. In both species, dropping started around 20 Apr and ended 20 June. Peak emergence occurred from 10 May - 10 June, and was usually bimodal. The temperature during the larvae departure period had a slight effect (significant only in 1991 on the dropping rate of H. tarandi larvae, and temperature during infection in the preceding summer is therefore supposed to explain the uneven dropping rate. This appeared to be due to the occurrence of successive periods of infection caused by separate periods of weather that were favourable for mass attacks by the flies. As a result, the temporal pattern of maturation of larvae was divided into distinct pulses. Departure time of the larvae in relation to spring migration of the reindeer influences infection levels. Applied possibilities for biological control by separating the reindeer from the dropping sites are discussed.

  14. Posterior spiracles of fourth instar larvae of four species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

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    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, posterior spiracles of laboratory-reared fourth instar larvae of Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. lenti, and L. whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The number of papillae of spiracles examined varied according to the species examined, but no intraspecific differences were found. The importance of this structure to sand fly larva identification and phylogeny is commented.

  15. Nasal myiasis in a cat caused by larvae of the nasal bot fly, Oestrus ovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S M; Grillo, V L

    2010-11-01

    An 8-year-old desexed male Burmese cat, which lived on a sheep-grazing property in central New South Wales, Australia, was presented following the sudden onset of dyspnoea, moist coughing and violent sneezing. The respiratory distress started several hours after the cat had made an outdoor excursion. Anterior rhinoscopy demonstrated small, white objects moving across oedematous and moderately inflamed nasal mucosa. These were retrieved via a series of vigorous nasal flushes and subsequently identified as larvae of the nasal bot fly, Oestrus ovis. The cat was treated with ivermectin followed by selamectin 7 days later. It went on to make a complete recovery over 2-3 weeks. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2010 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Contact toxicity of the crude extract of Chinese star anise fruits to house fly larvae and their development

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    Guntharee Sripongpun

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Contact toxicity of the ethanol crude extract of Chinese star anise fruits, Illicium verum Hook. F. (Illiciaceae to house fly larvae, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae and their development were determined by a dipping method. Younger larvae were more susceptible than older. The median lethal concentration (LC50 values of the crude extract to the 2nd instar larvae at 24, 48 and 72 hours were 7.4x104, 4.1x104 and 3.2x104 mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, treated extractsaffected house fly development in pupal and adult stages. The number of test larvae developed to pupae and adults was lessthan that of control group. The crude extract at concentration 8.5x104 mg/l completely inhibited development from larvae to pupae. In addition, small pupae were found at every concentration between 2.5x103 -105x103 mg/l. Small treated pupae were observed more at higher concentrations. Some of them could continually develop to adults but their developmental percentageswere less than those of normal sized pupae in treatments and in control group. The crude extract of Chinese star anise fruits can be applied as an optional point source control of house fly.

  17. Mortality of horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in bovine dung supplemented with loline alkaloids from tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, C T; Knapp, F W; Bush, L P; Maul, J E; Van Willigen, J

    1998-09-01

    Larvae of arthropod ectoparasites of livestock, such as the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), may be exposed to acyl-loline alkaloids in dung of ruminant livestock ingesting herbage of the tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)-endophyte association [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones & W. Gams) Glenn, Bacon & Hanlin comb. nov.]. Biological activity of alkaloid-supplemented bovine dung was assayed by growth, development, and survival of 1st instars of horn fly. An extract from tall fescue seed, containing N-formyl loline (NFL), N-acetyl loline (NAL), and loline (59:21:20 by mass, respectively) caused 100% mortality of horn fly larvae when dung was supplemented at > or = 100 micrograms/g. Probit analysis of data corrected for natural mortality indicated a LD50 of 30 micrograms/g (95% fidicial limits: 20-49 micrograms/g). When horn fly larvae were introduced to dung supplemented with up to 50 microM of acyl-loline derivatives, mortality of larvae varied significantly between alkaloids (P < 0.0001). Probit analysis indicated that NFL [LD50: 34 microM (95% fidicial limits: 3-53 microM)] was more toxic than NAL [LD50: 46 microM (0-83 microM)], and that loline hydrochloride was not toxic.

  18. Tracking movement and temperature selection of larvae of two forensically important blow fly species within a "maggot mass".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wighton, Samuel J; Wallman, James F

    2014-11-01

    The current study responds to the lack of understanding about the temperatures experienced by individual blow fly larvae within "maggot masses." The temperature selection of both aggregating (in a mass) and nonaggregating larvae was compared and their pattern of movement assessed. Infrared imaging determined the temperatures within a mass and in the vicinity of the constituent individual larvae, whose movements were tracked by dyeing their tissues red. Individual Chrysomya rufifacies larvae selected temperatures above 27°C, significantly higher than the temperature selected by Calliphora vicina larvae (24.5°C). However, this same difference was not seen within a mass, with both species selecting temperatures around 28°C. Larval movement in a mass was nonrandom, indicating that larvae actively select their position in a mass. Furthermore, larvae have a strong tendency to select the hottest part of a mass; therefore, maximum mass temperatures might provide a reliable proxy for the actual temperatures experienced by larvae. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens as Animal Feed and Human Food

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    Yu-Shiang Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.

  20. Nutritional immunology: Diversification and diet-dependent expression of antimicrobial peptides in the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Heiko; Müller, Ariane; Heckel, David G; Gutzeit, Herwig; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens is used for the bioconversion of organic waste into feed for livestock and aquaculture, and is economically among the most important farmed insects in the world. The larvae can be fed on agricultural waste and even liquid manure, resulting in highly unpredictable pathogen levels and dietary conditions. Here we show that H. illucens larvae express a remarkably expanded spectrum of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), many of which are induced by feeding on a diet containing high bacterial loads. The addition of sulfonated lignin, cellulose, chitin, brewer's grains or sunflower oil revealed the diet-dependent expression profiles of AMPs in the larvae. The highest number of AMPs and the highest levels of AMP expression were induced by feeding larvae on diets supplemented with protein or sunflower oil. Strikingly, the diet-dependent expression of AMPs translated into diet-dependent profiles of inhibitory activities against a spectrum of bacteria, providing an intriguing example for the emerging field of nutritional immunology. We postulate that the fine-tuned expression of the expanded AMP repertoire mediates the adaptation of the gut microbiota to the digestion of unusual diets, and this feature could facilitate the use of H. illucens for the bioconversion of organic waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Impact of Diet Protein and Carbohydrate on Select Life-History Traits of The Black Soldier Fly Hermetia illucens (L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae

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    Jonathan A. Cammack

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of diet protein and carbohydrate percentages as well as moisture on the immature development, survivorship, and resulting adult longevity and egg production of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae. Moisture impacted development and corresponding life-history traits more than protein:carbohydrate content; larvae were unable to develop on diets at 40% moisture. Larvae fed diets at 70% moisture developed faster, grew larger, and required less food than those reared on diets at 55% moisture. Larvae reared on the balanced diet (21% protein:21% carbohydrate at 70% moisture developed the fastest on the least amount of food and had the greatest survivorship to the prepupal stage. Adult emergence and longevity were similar across treatments, indicating immature life-history traits were impacted the most. The control (Gainesville house fly diet was superior to the artificial diets for all parameters tested. These differences could indicate that other constituents (e.g., associated microbes serve a role in black soldier fly development. These data are valuable for industrialization of this insect as a “green” technology for recycling organic waste, which can be highly variable, to produce protein for use as feed in the livestock, poultry, and aquaculture industries, as well as for bioenergy production.

  2. Efficiency of entomopathogenic fungi in the control of eggs and larvae of the horn fly Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochi, Dinalva Alves; Monteiro, Antonio Carlos; Machado, Ana Carolina Ribeiro; Yoshida, Luciana

    2010-01-20

    The present study assessed the pathogenic effect of isolates E9, IBCB425 and IBCB159 of the Metarhizium anisopliae fungus, JAB06, JAB07 and AM09 of Beauveria bassiana, IBCB133 and CB75 of Isaria fumosorosea (=Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) and CG189 and CG195 of Isaria farinosa (=Paecilomyces farinosus) against eggs and larvae of the horn fly Haematobia irritans. Eggs were inoculated with suspensions containing 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8)conidiaml(-1) of the fungal isolates and observed after 48h to determine viability. In the larvae study, eggs were allowed to hatch into fresh bovine feces that had been treated with 10(8), 10(7) or 10(6)conidiamgfeces(-1). In both studies, 5 days after initial procedures, all formed pupae were transferred to an incubator at 27+/-0.5 degrees C until the emergence of the adult flies was complete. The M. anisopliae isolates did not cause the death of H. irritans eggs, but they did promote the death of larvae that hatched from treated eggs, and therefore increased the total mortality. Isolate E9 promoted 100% mortality of treated larvae at a concentration of 10(8)conidiaml(-1). For the B. bassiana isolates, no activity was observed against insect eggs or larvae. Both I. fumosorosea isolates promoted significant mortality (p<0.05) of eggs at every concentration of conidia. Isolate CG195 of I. farinosa increased the mortality of larvae and pupae that hatched from treated eggs and promoted significant total mortality (p<0.05) of the insect at every concentration of conidia. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamic changes of nutrient composition throughout the entire life cycle of black soldier fly.

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    Xiu Liu

    Full Text Available Black soldier fly (BSF larvae, Hermetia illucens L., develops on organic wastes, reducing ecological pollution and converting waste biomass into protein and fat rich insect biomass. BSF can replace increasingly expensive protein sources used in poultry, aquaculture and livestock compound diet formulation, such as fish meal and soybean meal, which holds the potential to alleviate future food and feed insecurity. The fate of nutritional spectra in BSF during its life cycle phases is still poorly understood. This study assessed metabolic changes in nutrition composition of BSF from egg to adult. A rapid increase of crude fat content was observed since the development of 4-14 days of larvae with its maximum level reaching 28.4% in dry mass, whereas the crude protein displayed a continuous decreasing trend in the same development phases with minimum level of 38% at larval phase (12 days and peak level of 46.2% at early pupa stage. A sharp drop in crude fat was noticed from early prepupae to late pupae (24.2%, 8.2% respectively. However crude protein shows its maximum value being 57.6% at postmortem adult stage with 21.6% fat level. In addition, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals and vitamins composition in different development stages of BSF were presented and compared. Findings from this study could provide podium to food and feed industry for framing a strategy for specific molecular nutritional component intake into the diets of humans, aquaculture and animals. It is also indicated that BSF is a possible insect which can be applied to combating the food scarcity of countries where micronutrient deficiency is prevalent. Moreover it contributes to advance exploring for developmental and metabolic biology of this edible insect.

  4. Mutualists or parasites? Context-dependent influence of symbiotic fly larvae on carnivorous investment in the Albany pitcher plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, Samuel J; Didham, Raphael K; Hopper, Stephen D; Simmons, Leigh W

    2016-11-01

    Carnivorous plants allocate more resources to carnivorous structures under nutrient-limited conditions, and relative investment can also be influenced by animals (infauna) that live in association with these plants and feed on their prey. We investigated these effects within a population of the pitcher plant Cephalotus follicularis containing varying densities of larvae of the fly Badisis ambulans . For plants with a relatively high proportion of adult pitchers, increasing larval density was associated with lower relative leaf allocation to new pitcher buds. For plants with relatively few adult pitchers, however, there was greater relative leaf allocation to pitcher buds with increasing larval density. In a field experiment, there was no significant effect of experimental larval presence or absence on the change in carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of plants. Although the direction of the correlation between B. ambulans larvae and relative investment in carnivorous and non-carnivorous structures depends on the relative number of mature structures, whether the larvae enhance or reduce nutrient stress under different conditions remains unclear. The change in C/N was, however, less variable for pitchers that contained larvae, suggesting a stabilizing effect. Eighteen of 52 experimental pitchers were damaged by an unknown species, causing the pitcher fluid to drain. These pitchers were significantly more likely to survive if they contained larvae. These results suggest that the relationship between infauna and host varies with the initial resource status and environmental context of the host plant.

  5. Vietnam, a Hotspot for Chromosomal Diversity and Cryptic Species in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter H; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Low, Van Lun; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da

    2016-01-01

    The increasing attention on Vietnam as a biodiversity hotspot prompted an investigation of the potential for cryptic diversity in black flies, a group well known elsewhere for its high frequency of isomorphic species. We analyzed the banding structure of the larval polytene chromosomes in the Simulium tuberosum species group to probe for diversity beyond the morphological level. Among 272 larvae, 88 different chromosomal rearrangements, primarily paracentric inversions, were discovered in addition to 25 already known in the basic sequences of the group in Asia. Chromosomal diversity in Vietnam far exceeds that known for the group in Thailand, with only about 5% of the rearrangements shared between the two countries. Fifteen cytoforms and nine morphoforms were revealed among six nominal species in Vietnam. Chromosomal evidence, combined with available molecular and morphological evidence, conservatively suggests that at least five of the cytoforms are valid species, two of which require formal names. The total chromosomal rearrangements and species (15) now known from the group in Vietnam far exceed those of any other area of comparable size in the world, supporting the country's status as a biodiversity hotspot. Phylogenetic inference based on uniquely shared, derived chromosomal rearrangements supports the clustering of cytoforms into two primary lineages, the Simulium tani complex and the Southeast Asian Simulium tuberosum subgroup. Some of these taxa could be threatened by habitat destruction, given their restricted geographical distributions and the expanding human population of Vietnam.

  6. Vietnam, a Hotspot for Chromosomal Diversity and Cryptic Species in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Low, Van Lun; Ya’cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da

    2016-01-01

    The increasing attention on Vietnam as a biodiversity hotspot prompted an investigation of the potential for cryptic diversity in black flies, a group well known elsewhere for its high frequency of isomorphic species. We analyzed the banding structure of the larval polytene chromosomes in the Simulium tuberosum species group to probe for diversity beyond the morphological level. Among 272 larvae, 88 different chromosomal rearrangements, primarily paracentric inversions, were discovered in addition to 25 already known in the basic sequences of the group in Asia. Chromosomal diversity in Vietnam far exceeds that known for the group in Thailand, with only about 5% of the rearrangements shared between the two countries. Fifteen cytoforms and nine morphoforms were revealed among six nominal species in Vietnam. Chromosomal evidence, combined with available molecular and morphological evidence, conservatively suggests that at least five of the cytoforms are valid species, two of which require formal names. The total chromosomal rearrangements and species (15) now known from the group in Vietnam far exceed those of any other area of comparable size in the world, supporting the country’s status as a biodiversity hotspot. Phylogenetic inference based on uniquely shared, derived chromosomal rearrangements supports the clustering of cytoforms into two primary lineages, the Simulium tani complex and the Southeast Asian Simulium tuberosum subgroup. Some of these taxa could be threatened by habitat destruction, given their restricted geographical distributions and the expanding human population of Vietnam. PMID:27695048

  7. Diversity and microdistribution of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae assemblages in the tropical savanna streams of the Brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Figueiró

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the abiotic factors affecting the distribution of black flies at a microhabitat scale, rather than at the regional scale usually present in the literature on the Neotropics. Black fly larvae were sampled from the Tocantins River and three tributaries, located in the Brazilian savanna (state of Tocantins, Brazil during six bi-monthly sampling periods from October 2004-August 2005. At each sampling site, 15 random quadrats (30 x 30 cm were sampled each period and for each quadrat were determined mean water velocity, predominant substrate type (rocks, riffle litter or riparian vegetation and depth detrended correspondence analysis (DCA was used to determine associations with current velocity, whereas correspondence analysis (CA was used to estimate site specific current velocity associations. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA was used to identify general microhabitat associations. The CCA showed that most species had a trend towards riffle litter, except for Simulium nigrimanum associated with rocky substrate and Simulium cuasiexiguum associated with riparian vegetation. The DCA showed a well defined pattern of water velocity associations. The CA revealed that the species showed different speed associations from one site to another, suggesting different competitive pressures resulting in the occurrence of different realized niches.

  8. A full-scale house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae bioconversion system for value-added swine manure reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Zhang, Zhijian; Czapar, George F; Winkler, Mari K H; Zheng, JianGuo

    2013-02-01

    Manure produced from confined animal farms can threaten public and environmental health if not managed properly. Herein, a full-scale commercial bioconversion operation in DeQing County, China for value-added swine manure reduction using house fly, Musca domestica L., larvae is reported. The greenhouse-assisted larvae bioreactor had a maximum daily treatment capacity of 35 m(3) fresh raw manure per day. The bioconversion process produced a fresh larvae yield of 95-120 kg m(3) fresh raw manure. This process provided an alternative animal foodstuff (having 56.9 and 23.8% protein and total fat as dry matter, respectively), as well as captured nutrients for agricultural re-utilization. Bioconversion reduced odour emission (characterized by 3-methylindole) and the Escherichia coli (E. coli) index by 94.5 and 92.0%, respectively, and reductions in total weight, moisture and total Kjeldahl nitrogen in solids were over 67.2, 80.0 and 76.0%, respectively. Yearly profit under this trial period ranged from US$33.4-46.1 per m(3). It is concluded that swine manure larvae bioconversion technology with subsequent production of value-added bio-products can be a promising avenue when considering a programme to reduce waste products in an intensive animal production system.

  9. A simple and cost-effective protocol for extraction of genomic DNA from ethanol preserved black flies (Simuliidae: Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Neelamegam Rameshkumar; Sankarappan Anbalagan; Nagarajan Kayalvizhi; Rasiravuthanahalli Kaveriyappan Govindarajan; Vimalanathan Arun Prasanna; Muthukalingan Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of extraction methodology for the proposed DNA from the ethanol preserved black flies (Simuliidae: Diptera). Methods: This study addressed a simple and effective protocol for extraction of DNA from black flies stored in the ethanol. The sizes of larval and adult black flies ranged from 1.5 to 2.5 mm and 3 to 7 mm, respectively. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology, the DNA was extracted from the ethanol preserved sample ...

  10. Good species behaving badly: Non-monophyly of black fly sibling species in the Simulium arcticum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conflitti, Ida M; Kratochvil, Michael J; Spironello, Michael; Shields, Gerald F; Currie, Douglas C

    2010-10-01

    Mitochondrial based phylogenetic reconstructions often show deviations from species-level monophyly. We used the Simulium arcticum species complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) as a model system for interpreting non-monophyly in light of chromosomal data supporting species status of siblings. For cytogenetic identification of morphologically indistinguishable black fly sibling species, larvae must be preserved in Carnoy's solution, a fixative known to degrade DNA. Consequently, we reconstructed phylogenetic relationships based on 12S, COII, cyt b, and ITS-1 gene sequences obtained from larvae sampled from presumed taxon-pure localities. As species composition at 'taxon-pure' sites may have changed at the time of sampling, we performed a second study that aimed to: (1) assess phylogenetic relationships among cytologically verified members of the S. arcticum species complex using COI and COII gene sequences; (2) determine whether useable genetic information could be gleaned from Carnoy's fixed specimens; and (3) determine the extent to which Carnoy's fixative degrades DNA over time. We consistently obtained genetic data from material stored in Carnoy's solution for two to three months. Genetic analysis of samples fixed in Carnoy's solution for up to six years indicates that larvae preserved for a maximum of five years can provide useable information for molecular analysis. Our preliminary and cytologically confirmed phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA fails to resolve species-level monophyly of chromosomally distinct S. arcticum taxa. As results of analyses based on cytologically verified larvae mirror those of our preliminary study, we rule out imperfect taxonomy as the reason for species-level non-monophyly. Although we cannot confidently reject either inadequate phylogenetic information or incomplete lineage sorting as the cause of non-monophyly, the sharing of alleles between sympatric siblings suggests introgressive hybridization between taxa. We

  11. Augmenting laboratory rearing of stable fly (diptera: muscidae) larvae with ammoniacal salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies are blood feeding parasites and serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well a...

  12. Detection of Mango Infested with Fruit Fly Eggs and Larvae by Infrared Imaging and Discriminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly infestation causes significant loss of perishable products around the world and is an economic threat to growers, processors, and exporters. A rapid, economical, and non-destructive technique for detection of fruit fly infestation is reported based on hyperspectral imaging and discriminant...

  13. Novel spirochetes isolated from mosquitoes and black flies in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikutová, Silvie; Halouzka, Jiří; Mendel, Jan; Knoz, J.; Rudolf, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2010), s. 50-55 ISSN 1081-1710 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1234; GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Spirochetes * mosquitoes * black flies * tabanid flies * Czech Republic Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.256, year: 2010

  14. PHYSIOLOGIC BIOMARKERS AND HENDRA VIRUS INFECTION IN AUSTRALIAN BLACK FLYING FOXES (PTEROPUS ALECTO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; Mayer, David; Broos, Alice; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2017-01-01

    Bats of the genus Pteropus (Pteropodidae), colloquially known as flying foxes, are recognized as the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, a zoonotic paramyxovirus responsible for mortality in horses and humans. Some previous studies have suggested that physiologic and ecologic factors promote Hendra virus infection in flying foxes, and by extension, spillover to horses and humans. However, the impact of Hendra virus infection on relevant physiologic biomarkers in flying foxes has not been measured. Over 12 mo in eastern Australia, we captured and sampled 446 individual black flying foxes ( Pteropus alecto ), a putative primary reservoir host species, and measured a suite of hematologic, plasma biochemistry, and urinary biomarkers. All mean hematologic and biochemical values in both Hendra virus-positive and virus-negative cohorts were within the published reference ranges for black flying foxes. We found no association between Hendra virus infection (as indicated by PCR detection of Hendra virus RNA) and biomarkers for nutritional stress, reproductive stress, or extreme metabolic demand. However, we identified associations between several other biomarkers and Hendra virus infection, which may partly elucidate the physiologic effects of Hendra virus infection in flying foxes. Our findings highlight the need for critical evaluation of putative risk factors for infection in flying foxes and provide insights for future epidemiologic studies of Hendra virus and related viruses in the Pteropus species.

  15. Biolarvacidal activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhana AH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis or “belatungan” is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animal tissue with dipterous larvae, Chrysomya bezziana. In general, synthetic insecticides were applied to control the disease. However, it causes negative impact on animal product, so that it is required to find an alternative treatment using herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to access activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against various stages of C. bezziana larvae (L1, L2 and L3. Five treatments were applied with five replications, i.e. control/water (P0, 0,5%, 1%, 2% of the extract for PI, PII and PIII, respectively. Another treatment was 0,05% Asuntol for positive control (PIV. Each treatment was added with1% DMSO and twenty larvae were examined for each replication. Bioassay of L1 and L2 was addressed to investigate effect of intestinal toxicity by mixing the extract with Meat-Blood Mixture (MBM and Larval Rearing Media (LRM for L1 and L2, respectively. Bioassay of L3 was to investigate effect of contact toxicity through soaking the larvae into the extract solution for 10 seconds followed by incubating in vermiculite at 36oC. All living larvae after being treated by various concentration of the extract were reared to pupae and allowed to emerge as imago. Number of living larvae and pupae, pupae weight and number of imago were observed. All data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett test at 95% confidential limit. For L2, larval mortality were counted and probit analysed using POLO-PC software, therefore the lethal concentration (LC50 and LC95 and lethal time (LT50 and LT95 were defined. Results demonstrated that 1% of the extract was the most effective concentration which was able to kill the larvae and decrease the pupae weight. It also caused to fail pupation and imago emergence. The further study might be pursued to investigate in vivo assay of the extract in infested livestock.

  16. Experimental skin lesions from larvae of the bot fly Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M C; Leite, V H; Leite, A C

    2001-03-01

    Skin biopsies from larvae of Rattus norvegicus, experimentally infested with Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr) (Diptera: Cuterebridae), were processed for histopathological studies. Two days after infestation, the first-stage larvae (L1) were located deep in the dermis, surrounded by an inflamed area infiltrated predominantly by neutrophils. On the fourth day a thin necrotic layer could be seen close to the larvae, surrounded by large numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, macrophages with a few eosinophils and mast cells. A small warble was formed after the fourth day, increasing in size until the seventh day, when the L1 moulted to the second-stage larva (L2). The inflammatory process continued with increasing numbers of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells invading the area, as well as the proliferation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells and the appearance of a few localized haemorrhages. After 18-20 days, the L2 moulted to the third-stage larva (L3), when a few plasma cells could be seen in the inflamed area. At 25-30 days there was a reduction in the necrotic layer, as well as in the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, although large amounts of eosinophils, plasma cells, and collagen fibres were seen. The L3 usually left the host after 30 days. Two days later, the larval cavity was reduced, mast cells infiltrated the region and collagen fibre production were increased. After 7 days, an intense infiltration of plasma cells and scattered necrotic areas could be seen. A scar formed after 10 days. This study showed the laboratory rat to be a suitable model for studies of D. hominis infestation.

  17. Evaluation of the Mating Competitiveness of the Adult Oriental Fruit Fly Reared as Larvae in Liquid vs. Those Raised on Standard Wheat-based Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three strains (standard lab, DTWP pupal color sexing strain and wild strain) of adult oriental fruit flies, which were reared as larvae on a liquid diet, mill feed diet (Tanaka’s diet), or natural host fruit diet, were evaluated for mating competitiveness in both indoor and outdoor Boller’s mating c...

  18. Modulation of nonessential amino acid biosynthetic pathways in virulent Hessian fly larvae (Mayetiola destructor), feeding on susceptible host wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), an obligate plant-parasitic gall midge, is an important dipteran pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The insect employs an effector-based feeding strategy to reprogram the host plant to be nutritionally beneficial for the developing larva by inducing formation of p...

  19. DNA barcoding of human-biting black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramual, Pairot; Thaijarern, Jiraporn; Wongpakam, Komgrit

    2016-12-01

    Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are important insect vectors and pests of humans and animals. Accurate identification, therefore, is important for control and management. In this study, we used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) barcoding sequences to test the efficiency of species identification for the human-biting black flies in Thailand. We used human-biting specimens because they enabled us to link information with previous studies involving the immature stages. Three black fly taxa, Simulium nodosum, S. nigrogilvum and S. doipuiense complex, were collected. The S. doipuiense complex was confirmed for the first time as having human-biting habits. The COI sequences revealed considerable genetic diversity in all three species. Comparisons to a COI sequence library of black flies in Thailand and in a public database indicated a high efficiency for specimen identification for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum, but this method was not successful for the S. doipuiense complex. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two divergent lineages in the S. doipuiense complex. Human-biting specimens formed a separate clade from other members of this complex. The results are consistent with the Barcoding Index Number System (BINs) analysis that found six BINs in the S. doipuiense complex. Further taxonomic work is needed to clarify the species status of these human-biting specimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of pig manure fermented by larvae of house flies on the yield parameters of sunflowers (Helianthus annus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fermented pig manure processed on a bed of wooden shavings and fermented for seven days by larvae of house flies on the yield parameters of sunflowers have been investigated on Haplic Luvisol in the pot trial realized in vegetative cage placed on the territory of SAU in Nitra. The experiment consisted of six treatments (0, NPK, Manure1, Manure2, Manure3, Veget. Treatments 0, NPK, and Veget were compared with the treatments Manure1, Manure2, and Manure3, i.e. with fermented manure applied at doses of 4, 6, and 8 t . ha−1.The results showed that application of fermented manure resulted in statistically significant greater stem thickness, higher leaf chlorophyll content, composites and harvest yield of seeds. The plants appeared healthy. Increasing the doses of fermented manure resulted in greater harvest yield of achenes and fat content in them. The dose of 4 t . ha−1 of fermented manure has proven to be insufficient.Out of the tested doses of 4, 6 and 8 t . ha−1 of fermented manure the highest achene yield has been achieved at the dose of 8 t . ha−1 but it was lower than the yield of the treatments fertilized by NPK fertilizers or Veget. From the viewpoint of achene yield quality (fat content out of six variants the best parameters were achieved with the treatment where fermented manure at the dose of 8 t . ha−1 was applied.The gathered data point towards the applicability and usefulness of manure processed by larvae of flies in agronomy. It is of note, that the manure fermentation period can be significantly shortened, whereby reducing the storage difficulties.

  1. Feasibility study of utilizing simplified near infrared imaging for detecting fruit fly larvae in intact fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the previous research to classify intact mangoes infested with oriental fruit fly from the control ones using near infrared (NIR) spectra acquired by a spot-type handheld NIR instrument, an attempt to improve the sensitivity of the system by employing NIR imaging technology was conducted. ...

  2. Pollination of Vietnamese Aspidistra xuansonensis (Asparagaceae) by female Cecidomyiidi flies: larvae of pollinator feed on fertile pollen in anthers of anthetic bisexual flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislobokov, Nikolay A; Galinskaya, Tatiana V; Degtjareva, Galina V; Valiejo-Roman, Carmen M; Samigullin, Tahir H; Kuznetsov, Andrey N; Sokoloff, Dmitry D

    2014-09-01

    • Aspidistra is a species-rich, herbaceous monocot genus of tropical Southeast Asia. Most species are recently discovered and apparently endangered, though virtually nothing is known about their biology. Species of the genus are primarily distinguished using flower morphology, which is enormously diverse. However, the pollination process has not been directly observed in the center of diversity of the genus (N Vietnam and S China). Indirect and partly direct data on the only widely cultivated species of the genus (A. elatior) placed it among angiosperms with the most unusual pollination biology, though these data are highly controversial, suggesting pollen transfer by mollusks, crustaceans, flies, or possibly tiny soil invertebrates such as collembolans.• Pollination of Aspidistra xuansonensis in the center of diversity of the genus was studied using visual observations and videos and light and scanning electron microscopy investigation of flowers and their pollinators. Pollinators and their larvae were molecularly barcoded.• Aspidistra xuansonensis is pollinated by female cecidomyiid flies (gall midges). They oviposit on anthers, and larvae develop among the pollen mass. Molecular barcoding proved taxonomic identity of the larvae and the flies. The larvae neither damage floral parts nor cause gall formation, but feed on pollen grains by sucking out their content. The larvae move out of the flowers before decomposition starts. Carebara ants steal developing larvae from flowers but do not contribute to pollination.• More than one kind of myiophily is present in Aspidistra. Brood site pollination was documented for the first time in Aspidistra. The pollination system of A. xuansonensis differs from other kinds of brood site pollination in the exit of the larvae prior to the decomposition of floral parts. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Trichomycete Fungi (Zygomycota Associated with the Digestive Tract of Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello and Simulium ulyssesi (Py-Daniel & Coscarón (Diptera: Simuliidae Larvae, in Central Amazônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ríos-Velásquez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomycete fungi are associated with digestive tract of black fly larvae. These fungi have not been studied in Brazil, knowing them and their relationship with black flies could be an alternative to control vector populations. The objectives of this study were to survey the Trichomycete fungi associated with larvae of Simulium goeldii and S. ulyssesi, and to determine if there is specificity and/or difference in the infection rates in these species. Black flies were collected in Central Amazônia, Brazil. Three genera of Trichomycetes were found: Harpella, Genistellospora and Smittium. All these fungi were common to both black fly species.

  4. Effects of moisture content of food waste on residue separation, larval growth and larval survival in black soldier fly bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2017-09-01

    In order to foster sustainable management of food waste, innovations in food waste valorization technologies are crucial. Black soldier fly (BSF) bioconversion is an emerging technology that can turn food waste into high-protein fish feed through the use of BSF larvae. The conventional method of BSF bioconversion is to feed BSF larvae with food waste directly without any moisture adjustment. However, it was reported that difficulty has been experienced in the separation of the residue (larval excreta and undigested material) from the insect biomass due to excessive moisture. In addition to the residue separation problem, the moisture content of the food waste may also affect the growth and survival aspects of BSF larvae. This study aims to determine the most suitable moisture content of food waste that can improve residue separation as well as evaluate the effects of the moisture content of food waste on larval growth and survival. In this study, pre-consumer and post-consumer food waste with different moisture content (70%, 75% and 80%) was fed to BSF larvae in a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor. The results show that the residue can be effectively separated from the insect biomass by sieving using a 2.36mm sieve, for both types of food waste at 70% and 75% moisture content. However, sieving of the residue was not feasible for food waste at 80% moisture content. On the other hand, reduced moisture content of food waste was found to slow down larval growth. Hence, there is a trade-off between the sieving efficiency of the residue and the larval growth rate. Furthermore, the larval survival rate was not affected by the moisture content of food waste. A high larval survival rate of at least 95% was achieved using a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor for all treatment groups. The study provides valuable insights for the waste management industry on understanding the effects of moisture content when employing BSF bioconversion for food waste recycling

  5. Augmenting Laboratory Rearing of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Larvae With Ammoniacal Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Kristina; Berkebile, Dennis R; Zhu, Jerry J; Taylor, David B

    2017-01-01

    Stable flies are blood feeding parasites and serious pests of livestock. The immature stages develop in decaying materials which frequently have high ammonium content. We added various ammonium salts to our laboratory stable fly rearing medium and measured their effect on size and survival as well as the physical properties of the used media. The addition of ammonium hydroxide, ammonium phosphate and ammonium sulfate reduced larval survival. These compounds decreased pH and increased ammonium content of the used media. Ammonium bicarbonate had no effect on pH and marginally increased ammonium while increasing survival twofold. The optimal level of ammonium bicarbonate was 50 g (0.63 mol) per pan. Larval survival decreased when pH was outside the range of 8.5 to 9.0. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Turkish Thrace, with a new record for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Hakan; Şahin, Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006. New information All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species. PMID:25941452

  7. Equilibrium and kinetic mechanism for Reactive Black 5 sorption onto high lime Soma fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Zeynep; Acar, Filiz Nuran

    2007-05-08

    Batch adsorption studies were carried out for the sorption of C.I. Reactive Black 5, a reactive dye, onto high lime fly ash, obtained from Soma Thermal Power Plant (Turkey), to be low cost adsorbent. The effect of various experimental parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dose and initial dye concentration were investigated. Determination of the adsorption equilibrium concentrations was determined by UV-vis spectrophotometry analytical method. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm equations and the equilibrium data were found to be well represented by the Freundlich isotherm equation. The adsorption kinetics of C.I. Reactive Black 5 onto high lime fly ash were also studied to characterize of the surface complexation reaction. A pseudo-second-order mechanism has been developed to predict the rate constant of the adsorption, the equilibrium capacity and initial adsorption rate with the effect of initial concentration. A single-stage batch adsorber design of the adsorption of C.I. Reactive Black 5 onto high lime fly ash has been studied based on the Freundlich isotherm equation.

  8. A patient with severe black fly (Simuliidae) hypersensitivity referred for evaluation of suspected immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange, Jordan S; Song, Leslie A; Twarog, Frank J; Schneider, Lynda C

    2004-02-01

    Biting flies of the Diptera order and specifically the black fly (Simuliidae family) can be rare causes of severe hypersensitivity reactions. To describe a patient referred for evaluation of immunodeficiency whose clinical course is explained by severe Simuliidae hypersensitivity. The patient's immune system was investigated using standard laboratory evaluations. Hypersensitivity to Simuliidae was pursued because of historical features of her presentation and was specifically examined by skin prick and intradermal testing with whole body extract. The patient's history was notable for recurrent and severe seasonal episodes of presumed cellulitis after black fly bites that responded poorly to intravenous antibiotics. One episode was followed by acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (Guillain-Barré syndrome) and another by minimal change nephrotic syndrome. The results of immunologic investigations were unremarkable, but cutaneous hypersensitivity to Simuliidae was demonstrated with a 6.5-mm wheel and 35-mm flare reaction to intradermal injection of only 0.0005 microg of whole body extract. Similar to Hymenoptera, Simuliidae can rarely result in extreme hypersensitivity and should be considered in appropriate cases. This patient illustrates how severe reactions toinsect bites can be misdiagnosed.

  9. Blue and Black Cloth Targets: Effects of Size, Shape, and Color on Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Foil, Lane D

    2018-04-02

    Stable fly management is challenging because of the fly's dispersal behavior and its tendency to remain on the host only while feeding. Optically attractive traps have been used to survey and sometimes reduce adult populations. Insecticide-treated blue and black cloth targets developed for tsetse fly management in Africa were found to be attractive to stable flies in the United States, and various evaluations were conducted in Louisiana and Florida. Tests using untreated targets were designed to answer questions about configuration, size, and color relative to efficacy and stability in high winds. Studies with electric grid targets and with targets paired with Olson traps showed cloth target color attraction in the following decreasing order: black > blue-black > blue. A solid black target is easier to make than a blue-black target because no sewing is involved. Attraction was not affected when flat 1-m2 targets were formed into cylinders, despite the limited view of the blue and black colors together. There was no reduction in attraction when the 1-m2 cylindrical targets were compared with smaller (63 × 30 cm high) cylindrical targets. In addition, there was no difference in attraction between the small blue-black, blue, and black targets. Significance of findings and implications of potential uses for treated targets are discussed. Target attraction was indicated by the numbers of stable flies captured on an Olson sticky trap placed 30 cm from the target. Although this system is adequate for field research, it greatly underestimates the actual numbers of stable flies attracted to treated targets.

  10. Effect of dietary pigment on growth performance and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyaratpalin, M.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary pigment on survival and disease (white spot syndrome virus: WSSV resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius (PL15 for a 30-day period were studied. The results showed that not only was mean survival of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed with supplementation of Lucarotene or Betatene at 125 mg/kg diet significantly higher (P<0.05 but also the body color was increased. There were no effects of dietary pigment on mean weight, percent weight gain and WSSV resistance. However, mean WSSV resistance of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed diet containing Lucantin pink 50 mg/kg diet, Spirulina 30 g/kg diet or Betatene 125 mg/kg diet was higher than that of control.

  11. Anti-oxidative and inflammatory responses induced by fly ash particles and carbon black in lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diabate, Silvia; Plaumann, Diana; Uebel, Caroline; Weiss, Carsten [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bergfeldt, Britta [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Technical Chemistry, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Combustion-derived nanoparticles as constituents of ambient particulate matter have been shown to induce adverse health effects due to inhalation. However, the components inducing these effects as well as the biological mechanisms are still not fully understood. The fine fraction of fly ash particles collected from the electrostatic precipitator of a municipal solid waste incinerator was taken as an example for real particles with complex composition released into the atmosphere to study the mechanism of early biological responses of BEAS-2B human lung epithelial cells. The studies include the effects of the water-soluble and -insoluble fractions of the fly ash and the well-studied carbon black nanoparticles were used as a reference. Fly ash induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased the total cellular glutathione (tGSH) content. Carbon black also induced ROS generation; however, in contrast to the fly ash, it decreased the intracellular tGSH. The fly ash-induced oxidative stress was correlated with induction of the anti-oxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 and increase of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2. Carbon black was not able to induce HO-1. ROS generation, tGSH increase and HO-1 induction were only induced by the insoluble fraction of the fly ash, not by the water-soluble fraction. ROS generation and HO-1 induction were markedly inhibited by pre-incubation of the cells with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine which confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress. Both effects were also reduced by the metal chelator deferoxamine indicating a contribution of bioavailable transition metals. In summary, both fly ash and carbon black induce ROS but only fly ash induced an increase of intracellular tGSH and HO-1 production. Bioavailable transition metals in the solid water-insoluble matrix of the fly ash mostly contribute to the effects. (orig.)

  12. A simple and cost-effective protocol for extraction of genomic DNA from ethanol preserved black flies (Simuliidae: Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelamegam Rameshkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficacy of extraction methodology for the proposed DNA from the ethanol preserved black flies (Simuliidae: Diptera. Methods: This study addressed a simple and effective protocol for extraction of DNA from black flies stored in the ethanol. The sizes of larval and adult black flies ranged from 1.5 to 2.5 mm and 3 to 7 mm, respectively. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology, the DNA was extracted from the ethanol preserved sample of black flies using the commercial kids. The extracted DNA was further validated in the PCR amplification using internal transcribed spacer-1 rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit II rDNA target primers. Results: Interestingly, a minor modification in the proposed methodology yielded a good DNA concentration in comparison with the commercial kids. The extracted DNA sample using the proposed methodology was successfully validated in the PCR amplification using internal transcribed spacer-1 rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit II rDNA genes. Conclusions: The proposed DNA extraction procedure yielded good concentration of DNA from the ethanol preserved black flies. The added advantage is that the procedure is suitable for a range of insect species preserved in the ethanol obtained from the various field conditions.

  13. Radiological significance of coal, slag and fly ash samples from the Eastern Black Sea region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damla, Nevzat [Batman Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Cevik, Ugur [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Physics; Kara, Ayhan [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    This work presents a study of natural radioactivity levels in coal and its combustion residues (fly ash and slag) used in the houses in Black Sea Region, Turkey. Coal, fly ash and slag samples were provided from different locations of the region and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy using a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Also, chemical analyses of these samples were carried out using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The mean {sup 226}Ra activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 83, 99 and 38 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean {sup 232}Th activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were measured as 108, 113 and 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean {sup 40}K activity concentrations in coal, slag and fly ash were found to be 366, 381 and 204 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The potential radiological hazards associated to these materials were evaluated by calculating the radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the air absorbed gamma dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (AED), the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) and internal hazard index (H{sub in}) and compared with the internationally accepted or reference values. The mean Ra{sub eq} values of the coal, fly ash and slag samples were lower than the recommended maximum values 370 Bq kg{sup -1} by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The overall mean outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate in coal, fly ash and slag samples are 119, 129 and 62 nGy h{sup -1} and the corresponding outdoor annual effective doses are 0.60, 0.32 and 0.64 mSv y{sup -1}, which is higher than the worldwide average (0.07 mSv y{sup -1}), respectively. Moreover, the enrichment factors relative to the input coal are calculated for the radionuclide contents observed. Calculated enrichment factor values for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found 1.14 and 1.01, respectively. (orig.)

  14. Chemical Control of Black Flies in Large Rivers as an Impact in Agrochemical Residue-Biota Interactions in Water Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haufe, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    Livestock losses have been an obstacle to economic development of the farming and livestock industry in more northerly areas of Canada until two species of black fly, Simulium arcticum and S. luggeri, outbreaks are controlled effectively. The problem is complicated by its association with an abundance of large rivers and streams. Since effective control of black flies is presently limited to reduction of their breeding sources in flowing water, the managers of Canadian inland waters have been concerned about any major practice of using pesticides as black fly larvicides. Consequently, Canadian inland waters have been subject to continuous monitoring of major drainage systems with special attention to the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides. The latest status of residues was published from a Canadian Survey of 333 sampling locations between 1972 and 1975

  15. Insight into stable fly larvae: Salivary gland-specific polypeptides and evidence for genes that may have a role in the stable fly innate immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stable fly is a pest of veterinary and economic importance, with damages in the United States estimated at $1 billion USD/year. Current control approaches have mostly been directed towards the adult stage of the fly, but control of the larval stage by identifying and treating larval habitats has...

  16. Araucnephia iberaensis n. sp., a Neotropical Black Fly with a Peculiar Distribution (Diptera-Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Coscarón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Araucnephia Wygodzinsky & Coscarón is a Neotropical black fly genus in which only one species from Central Chile is known. Another species has now been found in Corrientes province on the eastern side of the Iberá tropical swamps of Argentina, on the western border of the mountainous region of southern Brazil. This new species, A. iberaensis, is herein described and illustrated and information on its bionomics is recorded. It is an interesting species because previous to its discovery no black fly genus or subgenus from Central Chile region has been found in tropical areas, because these two regions are separated by the Monte and Pampas realms. Similarly, no Brazilian genus or subgenus has crossed the Andes mountains to Chile. A comparison with other Neotropical, Nearctic, Ethiopian (Afrotropical and Australian Prosimuliini (sensu Crosskey & Howard showed Araucnephia to be a valid taxon most closely related to Araucnephioides (sympatric in Chile. Araucnephia also shows great affinities with Lutzsimulium from Southeast Brazil and Argentina and Paracnephia from South Africa.

  17. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment against eggs of Citrus black fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Araujo, Michel M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert H.S.F.; Silva, Priscila P.V.; Arthur, Valter

    2009-01-01

    The citrus black fruit fly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby) is an important pest of citrus originated in Southeast Asia and its first record in the new world was in Jamaica in 1913. In Brazil, it was detected in 2001 in the state of Para and more recently it was detected in Sao Paulo in 2008. This pest that attacks over 300 species of plants, but its main host are citrus. It is an A2 quarantine pest, because it is not spread throughout the country. The objective of this study was to test doses of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 Gy of gamma irradiation for disinfection of eggs of the citrus black fruit fly in leaves of citrus plants. Treatment consisted of 5 replicates with 60 eggs each. Evaluations were performed in the following periods: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after irradiation. Under the conditions assayed, it could be concluded that a dose of 200 Gy caused 100% mortality of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby eggs and could be recommended as a successful quarantine processing against infested plants. (author)

  18. Repellency of hydrogenated catmint oil formulations to black flies and mosquitoes in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spero, Niketas C; Gonzalez, Yamaira I; Scialdone, Mark A; Hallahan, David L

    2008-11-01

    The essential oil of catmint, Nepeta cataria L., was hydrogenated to yield an oil enriched in dihydronepetalactone (DHN) diastereomers, termed. This material was used for the preparation of liquid alcohol-based and lotion formulations. The efficacy of these formulations as repellents was tested after application to human test subjects at two locations in the United States: Maine and Florida. In Maine, data on repellency of the hydrogenated catmint oil formulations toward black flies (Simulium decorum Walker) and mosquitoes (primarily Aedes intrudens Dyar) were obtained. In these tests, protection from black flies was conferred for 6 h or more with all formulations, and both liquid and lotion formulations at 15 wt% active ingredient gave complete protection for 7.5 h. All formulations conferred protection from mosquitoes for >4 h, with the best (15 wt% lotion) giving >8 h of complete protection. In Florida, data on repellency toward a mixed population of mosquitoes indicated that all formulations conferred protection for >4 h, with the 15 wt% lotion giving >6 h complete protection from bites.

  19. A New Human-Biting Black Fly Species of Simulium (Simulium) (Diptera: Simuliidae) From Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn

    2017-07-01

    Simulium (Simulium) umphangense, a new human-biting species of black fly, is described based on females captured while attacking humans in western and central Thailand. The female of this new species is similar to those of S. (S.) indicum Becher, S. (S.) nigrogilvum Summers, and S. (S.) vanellum Huang et al. in the Simulium griseifrons species-group of the subgenus Simulium Latreille in having the frons densely covered with golden-yellow short hairs, a character rarely found in the subgenus Simulium. This new species is readily distinguished from the three related species by having a darkened fore tibia, a bare subcosta (or rarely with a few hairs), and an ovipositor valve not protruded posteriorly. Additional diagnostic characters of this new species are noted. This is the seventh human-biting species of black fly in Thailand. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Version of Record, first published online April 7, 2017 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 8.1.3.2 ICZN.

  20. DNA barcoding as an aid for species identification in austral black flies (Insecta: Diptera: Simuliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Montes De Oca, Fernanda; Prosser, Sean W J; Hebert, Paul D N; Gregory, T Ryan; McMurtrie, Shelley

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the utility of a partial sequence of the COI gene, the DNA barcoding region, for the identification of species of black flies in the austral region was assessed. Twenty-eight morphospecies were analyzed: eight of the genus Austrosimulium (four species in the subgenus Austrosimulium s. str., three species in the subgenus Novaustrosimulium, and one species unassigned to subgenus), two of the genus Cnesia, eight of Gigantodax, three of Paracnephia, one of Paraustrosimulium, and six of Simulium (subgenera Morops, Nevermannia, and Pternaspatha). The neighbour-joining tree derived from the DNA barcode sequences grouped most specimens according to species or species groups recognized by morphotaxonomic studies. Intraspecific sequence divergences within morphologically distinct species ranged from 0% to 1.8%, while higher divergences (2%-4.2%) in certain species suggested the presence of cryptic diversity. The existence of well-defined groups within S. simile revealed the likely inclusion of cryptic diversity. DNA barcodes also showed that specimens identified as C. dissimilis, C. nr. pussilla, and C. ornata might be conspecific, suggesting possible synonymy. DNA barcoding combined with a sound morphotaxonomic framework would provide an effective approach for the identification of black flies in the region.

  1. Larvae for layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Lotte; Fischer, Christian Holst; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Companies and researchers are in close collaboration developing a container- based system for cultivating fly larvae at organic poultry farms. In a one week process, manure will be converted to compost and the live larvae will be harvested and used for feeding laying hens. The larvae are expected...

  2. Parasitic infection levels by Anisakis spp. larvae (Nematoda: Anisakidae in the black scabbardfish Aphanopus carbo (Osteichthyes: Trichiuridae from Portuguese waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aphanopus carbo, black scabbardfish, specimens from 3 Portuguese regions (the mainland, Madeira and the Azores during four (mainland and Madeira or two (Azores seasons of the year were examined for the presence of Anisakis. All the fish examined (n=287 were infected with Anisakis L3 larvae (prevalence = 100%. Significant geographical differences in intensity were found: the Azores showed the lowest mean intensity value (53.7 and Madeira the highest one (253.9. The intensity of infection was positively correlated with the host length in specimens of Sesimbra and Madeira. Significant seasonal differences in intensity were found in the studied regions. The very high values in prevalence and intensity strongly suggest that the consumption of raw or undercooked black scabbard fish is a potential risk for human health.

  3. Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract in the conversion of larvae to pupa and pupa to mature of fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster M.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fani Yazdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativusL., a native plant from Iran and especially of Khorasan region, has a specific place for people's diet. According to several studies about effects of saffron and because there are no specific studies on the effects of saffron aqueos extract on the development of Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model, this subject evaluated in conversion of larvae to pupa and pupa to mature of fruit flies. 5 pairs of 3-day-old wild D. melanogaster were transferred to every culture plate containing different concentrations of saffron aqueos extract in order to intercross and oviposition and were brought out after 8 hrs. The percent of larvae to pupa transitionand pupa to mature conversion, were evaluated in all concentrations. The obtained data were evaluated statistically using SAS software and the mean of data were compared using Tukey test with minimum significance level of pD. elanogaster depends on dose proportionately. It means that saffron has some effects on the percentage of conversion of larvae to pupa, pupa to mature in low volumes and increased consuming concentrations of saffron may have inverse effects on that.

  4. Black-flies and Leucocytozoon spp. as causes of mortality in juvenile Great Horned Owls in the Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Bruce Hunter; Christoph Rohner; Doug C. Currie

    1997-01-01

    Black fly feeding and infection with the blood parasite Leucocytozoon spp. caused mortality in juvenile Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) in the Yukon, Canada during 1989-1990. The mortality occurred during a year of food shortage corresponding with the crash in snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) populations. We...

  5. Nutritional value of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) and its suitability as animal feed - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barragan-Fonseca, K.B.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens L.; Diptera: Stratiomyidae) has been studied for its capability to convert organic waste to high quality protein, control certain harmful bacteria and insect pests, provide potential chemical precursors to produce biodiesel and for its use as feed for

  6. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia.

  7. Mitochondrial genome of the black flying fox, Pteropus alecto (Chiroptera: Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report the complete mitochondrial genome of black flying fox, Pteropus alecto, with the sequence length of 16,739 bp for the first time. The mitogenome contained a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region. The base composition was A (33.1%), G (14.5%), C (27.2%) and T (25.2%), indicating that the percentage of A and T (58.3%) was higher than that of G and C. Most of these genes were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome analyzed here will provide new genetic information to study the evolution of bats.

  8. The localization of the larvae of the nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe L in the pharynx of reindeer in an earlier unknown tonsil tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available The localization of the larvae of the reindeer nostril fly (Cephenemyia trompe L in the pharynx was investigated in 21 reindeer, 11 months old, during April, and in 5 animals during November. In reindeer, without the presence of larvae, no preformed pharyngeal pouch was found at the predilection site, dorsomedially in the pharynx, but an unpaired tronsil, tentatively named Tonsilla pharyngis dorso-medialis. In 12 of the animals investigated during April, a puch containing larvae of C. trompe was found at the predilection site, i.e. the site of the dorsomedially located tonsil. Histologically remnants of tonsil tissue was present at the opening of the pouch. In 3 animals a pouch, containing larvae, was found in the left lateral wall and in 2 animals in the right lateral wall of the pharynz between the opening of Tuba auditiva and the tonsil. In one animal 2 pouches were found, one in the tonsil tissue and one located in the right lateral wall of pharynx. In serial sections from two animals investigated during November, 1 :st instar larvae of Cephenomyia trompe were found in the crypts of the tonsills. The fact that the tonsil tissue is a predilection site for C. trompe larvae may be due to the mechanical protection the 1st instar larvae can find in the crypts. Larvae may, however, also attach to other parts of the pharyngeal mucosa. During their development the larvae penetrate the mucosa forming a pouch. The wall of this pouch consists of a naked acute granulation tissue heavily infiltrated with eosinophilic leucocytes. In connection with the healing process, starting when the larvae have left, a pouch may remain, characterized by walls of chronic granulation tissue covered by a mucous membrane. This pouch could well be misinterpreted as a preformed pouch.Lokalisationen av svalgkormflugans (Cephenemyia trompe L larver i svalget på ren i en tidigare okänd tonsillvävnad (Tonsilla pharyngis dorso-medialis.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning

  9. Effect of symbiotic bacteria added to the middle of the Mediterranean fruit fly larvae on the performance of sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toukebri, Achraf; Kefi, Amal

    2009-01-01

    The program of the fight against the Mediterranean fly of fruits ''SIT'' becomes increasingly efficient when one control his various factors well mainly the performances of the sterile males within the unit. In this present work, we adopted a method of breeding which could improve quality of the sterile males intended for releasing. This method consists in introducing certain beneficial bacteria (Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Klebsiella) into the milieu of breeding according to different combinations. The effect of these bacteria was analyzed by carrying out various tests of quality control to determin the parameters of quality (Productivity, weight, Emergence, flying aptitude) and the parameters of reproduction (latency time, Duration of coupling and competitiveness). According to the results obtained, we could observe changes on the level of the parameters of quality. The addition of Pseudomonas alone in the milieu of breeding significantly decreased the quality of the produced flies while the addition of this same bacteria in partnership with Citrobacter and Klebsiella showed a beneficial effect on their host. This is observed through the remarkable improvement of the competitiveness of the fly. Thus we can conclude that the presence of the bacteria alone or in synergy enormously affects the fitness flies and consequently their sexual competitiveness. (Author)

  10. External morphology of sensory structures of fourth instar larvae of neotropical species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae under scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, some morphological structures of antennae, maxillary palps and caudal setae of fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared phlebotomine sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. evandroi, L. lenti, L. sericea, L. whitmani and L. intermedia of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The antennal structures exhibited considerable variation in the morphology and position. A prominent digitiform distal segment has been observed only on the antenna of species of the subgenus Nyssomyia. The taxonomic relevance of this and other antennal structure is discussed. The papiliform structures found in the maxillae and the porous structures of the caudal setae of all species examined may have chemosensory function. Further studies with transmission electron microscopy are needed to better understand the physiological function of these external structures.

  11. [Cutaneous larva migrans: report of three cases from the Western Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Emel; Uslu, Esma; Turan, Hakan; Başkan, Elife; Kılıç, Nida

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a parasitosis frequently seen in persons who have travelled to tropical or subtropical regions and in those who have worked in contact with soil. The disease frequently develops due to Ancylostoma braziliensis and Ancylostoma caninum species. After penetrating the skin and entering the body, the hookworm larva proceeds to bore tunnels through the epidermis, creating pruritic, erythematous, serpiginous lesions. Secondary bacterial infections of the lesions can often be seen, especially on the legs and buttocks. In this article we presented three atypical local cases which have not been declared previously in our country. The first case, a 54-year-old male who was admitted to hospital in August with complaints of an obverse body rash and itching lasting for a week. Eruptions were observed over a small area on the right side of the abdomen, consisting of itchy, raised, erythematous, curvilinear string-like lesions. Moreover, no eosinophilia was detected in the patient, whose culture showed a growth of Streptococcus pyogenes. The patient was clinically diagnosed with CLM accompanied by secondary bacterial infection and treated for three days with 1 g of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, mupirocin cream and albendazole 400 mg/d. Under this regime, the lesions were seen to decline. The second case, a 38-year-old male was also admitted in August, complaining of itching and redness on his body. The patient, whose blood count values were normal, exhibited itchy, raised, serpiginous string-like lesions located on the left side of his body. The patient, whose bacterial culture was negative, was clinically diagnosed as CLM and treated for three days with albendazole 400 mg/d and the lesions were seen to improve. The third case, a 23-year old male was admitted in September complaining of itching and redness on his neck. An itchy, crescent-shaped erythematous lesion was detected on his neck; bacteriological cultures and blood count were normal. The

  12. Revision of the Australasian genus Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchida), with molecular phylogeny, and descriptions of clades and associated Fergusonina fly larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a mutualistic association with Fergusonina flies, Fergusobia nematodes form galls on Myrtaceous hosts. The genus Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchida) is revised, an emended diagnosis of the genus is presented, and its putative phylogeny is discussed. There is molecular and morphological evidence ...

  13. Composition of Mediterranean fruit fly third instar larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and diet: Nutrient balance studies on amino acids, minerals and nutrient composition in fresh and spent mass rearing diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Harvey T. Jr.; Jang, Eric B.; Ako, Harry; Niino-Duponte, Ruth Y.; Carpenter, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Mass production of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) larvae, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, requires a rearing diet (Tanaka et al. 1969 1970) of which the nutrient requirements and digestibility have not been established. Setbacks in rearing productivity from the expected 100% yield to as low as 3% yield may occasionally be directly attributed to insecticide contamination or a variety of possible cause(s) (Kobayashi, 1993). These causes include inadequate nutrition, poor diet formulation, overcrowding of either microorganisms or Drosophila, or to the inherent processes of oxidative or microbial deterioration of nutrients. The purpose of this study was to establish the nutritional status of the Mediterranean fruit fly diet through a material balance study for changes in proximate composition (i.e., moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates), amino acids, minerals between fresh and spent diets, and in the fruit fly larvae themselves

  14. Protection via parasitism: Datura odors attract parasitoid flies, which inhibit Manduca larvae from feeding and growing but may not help plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J K; Woods, H A

    2015-12-01

    Insect carnivores frequently use olfactory cues from plants to find prey or hosts. For plants, the benefits of attracting parasitoids have been controversial, partly because parasitoids often do not kill their host insect immediately. Furthermore, most research has focused on the effects of solitary parasitoids on growth and feeding of hosts, even though many parasitoids are gregarious (multiple siblings inhabit the same host). Here, we examine how a gregarious parasitoid, the tachinid fly Drino rhoeo, uses olfactory cues from the host plant Datura wrightii to find the sphingid herbivore Manduca sexta, and how parasitism affects growth and feeding of host larvae. In behavioral trials using a Y-olfactometer, female flies were attracted to olfactory cues emitted by attacked plants and by cues emitted from the frass produced by larval Manduca sexta. M. sexta caterpillars that were parasitized by D. rhoeo grew to lower maximum weights, grew more slowly, and ate less of their host plant. We also present an analytical model to predict how tri-trophic interactions change with varying herbivory levels, parasitization rates and plant sizes. This model predicted that smaller plants gain a relatively greater benefit compared to large plants in attracting D. rhoeo. By assessing the behavior, the effects of host performance, and the variation in ecological parameters of the system, we can better understand the complex interactions between herbivorous insects, the plants they live on and the third trophic level members that attack them.

  15. "A Fly in the Buttermilk": Descriptions of University Life by Successful Black Undergraduate Students at a Predominately White Southeastern University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mitzi; Dias-Bowie, Yvonne; Greenberg, Katherine; Klukken, Gary; Pollio, Howard R.; Thomas, Sandra P.; Thompson, Charles L.

    2004-01-01

    "And so a lot of times I felt out of place, because you see all white faces. You know I'm the only fly in the buttermilk, so that took some getting used to ..." These words, shared by a black student during an interview for the present study, poignantly reflect the essence of the experience of being a minority student on a predominately white…

  16. Toxicity of cadmium on larvae of Palaemon adspersus Rathke, 1837 from the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Bat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the suitability of Palaemon adspersus (P. adspersus as a bio-indicator for 4 and 10 days of cadmium toxicity bioassays. Methods: Four and ten days experiments were designed. CdCl2·2½H2O was dissolved in distilled water and a stock solution was made. At 4-day bioassay, the larvae of Baltic prawns were exposed to nominal concentrations of 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/L of Cd for 4 days. The 4-day LC50 was calculated by the probit analysis. At 10-day bioassay, the concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/L were introduced into each of the jars in triplicate treatments and 0 mg/L as control. Each tank containing 20 larvae was exposed to test solutions. Results: Results from probit analysis showed that the 96-h LC50 value was 0.14 mg/L for Cd. The 10 days bioassays were conducted with nominal concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/L Cd. Mortality increased in parallel with the increase in concentrations of Cd on Zoea – I stage of P. adspersus and time of exposure. The toxicity rate of the organism is concentration-dependent. All organisms except the control group died at the end of 10 days. Less than 25% of the animals survived at the 5 days of the exposure to concentrations of 0.5 mg/kg Cd or more. Only 20% of the organisms survived at the 7 days of the exposure to concentrations of 0.1 mg/kg Cd or less in seawater with clean sediment. Conclusions: The results showed that Cd was highly toxic to P. adspersus. When the larvae were exposed to concentrations of Cd, they become slightly excited and swam erratically, probably due to stress. However, behavioural and swimming patterns in control groups were normal, and there was not any mortality during the course of the experiment.

  17. Population genetic structure and demographic history of the black fly vector, Simulium nodosum in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyasan, P; Pramual, P

    2016-09-01

    An understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of vector species is crucial for effective control and management. In this study, mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to examine the genetic structure, diversity and demographic history of a black fly vector, Simulium nodosum Puri (Diptera: Simuliidae), in Thailand. A total of 145 sequences were obtained from 10 sampling locations collected across geographical ranges in the country. Low genetic diversity was found in populations of S. nodosum that could be explained by the recent population history of this species. Demographic history analysis revealed a signature of demographic expansion dating back to only 2600-5200 years ago. Recent population expansion in S. nodosum possibly followed an increase in agriculture that enabled its hosts', humans and domestic animals, densities to increase. Alternatively, the Thai populations could be a derivative of an older expansion event in the more northern populations. Mitochondrial DNA genealogy revealed no genetically divergent lineages, which agrees with the previous cytogenetic study. Genetic structure analyses found that only 27% of the pairwise comparisons were significantly different. The most likely explanation for the pattern of genetic structuring is the effect of genetic drift because of recent colonization. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Early transcriptional events linked to induction of diapause revealed by RNAseq in larvae of drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poupardin, Rodolphe; Schöttner, Konrad; Korbelová, Jaroslava; Provazník, Jan; Doležel, David; Pavlinic, D.; Beneš, V.; Košťál, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, Sep 21 (2015), article number 720 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-01057S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Grant - others:Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013(CZ) MODBIOLIN no. 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fruit fly * photoperiodism * developmnet Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/16/720

  19. Some ultrastructural superficial changes in house fly (Diptera: Muscidae and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae larvae induced by eucalyptol oil Algumas alterações ultraestruturais superficiais nas larvas da mosca doméstica (Diptera: Muscidae e da mosca varejeira (Diptera: Calliphoridae induzidas pelo óleo de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabkaew L. Sukontason

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural superficial changes in third instar house fly (Musca domestica and blow fly (Chrysomya megacephala induced by eucalyptol oil were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Dipped in 0.902 g/ml eucalyptol for 30 sec, the larvae integument of both species showed significant aberrant appearance of the body surface, particularly swelling integument, bleb formation, partial breach and deformation of spines.Alterações ultraestruturais superficiais no terceiro estágio da mosca doméstica (Musca domestica e da mosca varejeira (Chrysomya megacephala induzidas pelo óleo de eucalipto foram observadas usando-se microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Imersos em 0,902 g/ml de óleo de eucalipto durante 30 segundos os tegumentos das larvas de ambas espécies mostraram aparência aberrante significativa da superfície corporal, particularmente edema do tegumento, formação de bolhas, fenda parcial e deformação das espículas.

  20. DNA barcoding of Neotropical black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae): Species identification and discovery of cryptic diversity in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Chaverri, Luis G; Rodríguez- Pérez, Mario A; Prosser, Sean W J; Hebert, Paul D N; Gregory, T Ryan; Johnson, Nick

    2015-03-18

    Although correct taxonomy is paramount for disease control programs and epidemiological studies, morphology-based taxonomy of black flies is extremely difficult. In the present study, the utility of a partial sequence of the COI gene, the DNA barcoding region, for the identification of species of black flies from Mesoamerica was assessed. A total of 32 morphospecies were analyzed, one belonging to the genus Gigantodax and 31 species to the genus Simulium and six of its subgenera (Aspathia, Eusimulium, Notolepria, Psaroniocompsa, Psilopelmia, Trichodagmia). The Neighbour Joining tree (NJ) derived from the DNA barcodes grouped most specimens according to species or species groups recognized by morphotaxonomic studies. Intraspecific sequence divergences within morphologically distinct species ranged from 0.07% to 1.65%, while higher divergences (2.05%-6.13%) in species complexes suggested the presence of cryptic diversity. The existence of well-defined groups within S. callidum (Dyar & Shannon), S. quadrivittatum Loew, and S. samboni Jennings revealed the likely inclusion of cryptic species within these taxa. In addition, the suspected presence of sibling species within S. paynei Vargas and S. tarsatum Macquart was supported. DNA barcodes also showed that specimens of species that are difficult to delimit morphologically such as S. callidum, S. pseudocallidum Díaz Nájera, S. travisi Vargas, Vargas & Ramírez-Pérez, relatives of the species complexes such as S. metallicum Bellardi s.l. (e.g., S. horacioi Okazawa & Onishi, S. jobbinsi Vargas, Martínez Palacios, Díaz Nájera, and S. puigi Vargas, Martínez Palacios & Díaz Nájera), and S. virgatum Coquillett complex (e.g., S. paynei and S. tarsatum) grouped together in the NJ analysis, suggesting they represent valid species. DNA barcoding combined with a sound morphotaxonomic framework provided an effective approach for the identification of medically important black flies species in Mesoamerica and for the

  1. Black soldier fly as dietary protein source for broiler quails: apparent digestibility, excreta microbial load, feed choice, performance, carcass and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullere, M; Tasoniero, G; Giaccone, V; Miotti-Scapin, R; Claeys, E; De Smet, S; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-12-01

    In order to expand with validated scientific data the limited knowledge regarding the potential application of insects as innovative feed ingredients for poultry, the present study tested a partial substitution of soya bean meal and soya bean oil with defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (H) in the diet for growing broiler quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on growth performance, mortality, nutrients apparent digestibility, microbiological composition of excreta, feed choice, carcass and meat traits. With this purpose, a total of 450 10-day-old birds were allocated to 15 cages (30 birds/cage) and received three dietary treatments: a Control diet (C) and two diets (H1 and H2) corresponding to 10% and 15% H inclusion levels, respectively (H substituted 28.4% soya bean oil and 16.1% soya bean meal for H1, and 100% soya bean oil and 24.8% soya bean meal for H2, respectively). At 28 days of age, quails were slaughtered, carcasses were weighed, breast muscles were then excised from 50 quails/treatment, weighed, and ultimate pH (pHu) and L*, a*, b* colour values were measured. Breast muscles were then cooked to assess cooking loss and meat toughness. For the digestibility trial, a total of 15 28-day-old quails were assigned to the three feeding groups. The excreta samples were subjected to chemical and microbiological analysis. The same 15 quails were then simultaneously provided with C and H2 diets for a 10-day feed choice trial. Productive performance, mortality and carcass traits were in line with commercial standards and similar in all experimental groups. With the exception of ether extract digestibility, which was lower in H1 group compared with C and H2 (P=0.0001), apparent digestibility of dry matter, CP, starch and energy did not differ among treatments. Microbial composition of excreta was also comparable among the three groups. Feed choice trial showed that quails did not express a preference toward C or H2 diets. Breast meat weight and

  2. Assessing the potential effects of fungicides on nontarget gut fungi (trichomycetes) and their associated larval black fly hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emma R.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Gray, Elmer; Bond, Laura; Steele, Lance; Kandel, Prasanna; Chamberlin, Alison; Gause, Justin; Reynolds, Nicole; Robertson, Ian; Novak, Stephen; Feris, Kevin; White, Merlin M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungicides are moderately hydrophobic and have been detected in water and sediment, particularly in agricultural watersheds, but typically are not included in routine water quality monitoring efforts. This is despite their widespread use and frequent application to combat fungal pathogens. Although the efficacy of these compounds on fungal pathogens is well documented, little is known about their effects on nontarget fungi. This pilot study, a field survey in southwestern Idaho from April to December 2010 on four streams with varying pesticide inputs (two agricultural and two reference sites), was conducted to assess nontarget impact of fungicides on gut fungi, or trichomycetes. Tissues of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), hosts of gut fungi, were analyzed for pesticide accumulation. Fungicides were detected in hosts from streams within agricultural watersheds but were not detected in hosts from reference streams. Gut fungi from agricultural sites exhibited decreased percent infestation, density and sporulation within the gut, and black fly tissues had elevated pesticide concentrations. Differences observed between the sites demonstrate a potential effect on this symbiotic system. Future research is needed to parse out the details of the complex biotic and abiotic relationships; however, these preliminary results indicate that impacts to nontarget organisms could have far-reaching consequences within aquatic ecosystems.

  3. ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF FUNGICIDES ON NONTARGET GUT FUNGI (TRICHOMYCETES) AND THEIR ASSOCIATED LARVAL BLACK FLY HOSTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emma R; Smalling, Kelly L; Reilly, Timothy J; Gray, Elmer; Bond, Laura; Steele, Lance; Kandel, Prasanna; Chamberlin, Alison; Gause, Justin; Reynolds, Nicole; Robertson, Ian; Novak, Stephen; Feris, Kevin; White, Merlin M

    2014-04-01

    Fungicides are moderately hydrophobic and have been detected in water and sediment, particularly in agricultural watersheds, but typically are not included in routine water quality monitoring efforts. This is despite their widespread use and frequent application to combat fungal pathogens. Whereas the efficacy of these compounds on fungal pathogens is well documented, little is known about their effects on nontarget fungi. This pilot study, a field survey in southwestern Idaho from April to December 2010 on four streams with varying pesticide inputs (two agricultural and two reference sites), was conducted to assess nontarget impact of fungicides on gut fungi, or trichomycetes. Tissues of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), hosts of gut fungi, were analyzed for pesticide accumulation. Fungicides were detected in hosts from streams within agricultural watersheds but were not detected in hosts from reference streams. Gut fungi from agricultural sites exhibited decreased percent infestation, density within the gut, and sporulation, and black fly tissues had elevated pesticide concentrations. Differences observed between the sites demonstrate a potential effect on this symbiotic system. Future research is needed to parse out the details of the complex biotic and abiotic relationships; however, these preliminary results indicate that impacts to nontarget organisms could have far-reaching consequences within aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Studi Laju Umpan pada Proses Biokonversi Limbah Pengolahan Tuna menggunakan Larva Hermetia illucens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Rahman Hakim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Seiring dengan berkembangnya industri tuna, limbah pengolahan yang dihasilkan semakin meningkat. Namun demikian pemanfaatan limbah tersebut belum optimal. Biokonversi bahan organik limbah tuna menjadi biomassa larva sebagai bahan pakan diharapkan mampu mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Biokonversi menggunakan larva Hermetia illucens atau Black Soldier Fly (BSF memiliki keunggulan dibandingkan proses konversi lain; di antaranya larva BSF mampu mengkonversi berbagai macam bahan organik, memiliki kandungan nutrisi tinggi serta bukan vektor penyakit. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah mempelajari laju umpan larva BSF dalam mengkonversi limbah tuna menjadi biomassa larva. Limbah tuna yang digunakan sebagai umpan larva BSF adalah kepala dan jeroan. Larva dipelihara selama 19 hari dengan pemberian umpan bervariasi (60, 80, 100 mg/larva/hari. Analisa dilakukan terhadap konsumsi umpan, indeks pengurangan limbah (waste reduction index/WRI, efisiensi konversi umpan tercerna (efficiency of conversion of digested-feed/ECD, tingkat kelulusan hidup (survival rates /SR, bobot larva, kandungan protein dan lemak larva. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kepala dan jeroan tuna dapat digunakan sebagai pakan BSF, dengan nilai SR 41,33 – 98,33%. Laju umpan yang menghasilkan proses biokonversi paling optimum adalah umpan berupa kepala tuna sebesar 60 mg/larva/hari (K60. Nilai parameter pada perlakuan K60 adalah konsumsi umpan 77,09 %, WRI 4,06 % per hari, ECD 8,32 %, bobot larva 72,59 mg dan SR 98,33 %. Limbah berupa kepala tuna menghasilkan konsumsi umpan, WRI, ECD, bobot larva dan SR yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan limbah jeroan tuna. Penggunaan limbah kepala tuna dapat dimanfaatkan untuk mereduksi limbah sekaligus menghasilkan bahan pakan yang potensial. Kandungan larva BSF dengan umpan kepala tuna 60 mg/larva/hari meliputi protein 25,38 %, lemak 6,85 % dan air 62,81 %.

  5. Macrogenomic evidence for the origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii (Diptera: Simuliidae on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Adler

    Full Text Available To determine the geographic origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii on Okinawa Island, Japan, macrogenomic profiles derived from its polytene chromosomes were compared with those of mainland and other insular populations of S. suzukii and of the isomorphic Simulium tani species complex. The Okinawan population is a chromosomally unique cytoform, designated 'D,' which is essentially monomorphic and differs by about 27 fixed rearrangements from the chromosomal standard sequence for the subgenus Simulium and by two fixed differences from its nearest known relative, representing the type of S. suzukii, on the main islands of Japan. Chromosomal band sequences revealed two additional, sympatric cytoforms of S. suzukii, designated 'A' and 'B,' each with species status, in Korea, and a third cytoform, designated 'C,' on Hokkaido, Japan. A new cytoform, 'K,' of S. tani from Malaysia, representing the type of S. tani, is more closely related to cytoforms in Thailand, as are populations from Taiwan previously treated as S. suzukii but more closely aligned with S. tani and newly recognized as cytoform 'L' of the latter nominal species. Rooting of chromosomal band sequences by outgroup comparisons allowed directionality of chromosomal rearrangements to be established, enabling phylogenetic inference of cytoforms. Of 41 macrogenomic rearrangements discovered in the five new cytoforms, four provide evidence for a stepwise origin of the Okinawan population from populations characteristic of the main islands of Japan. The macrogenomic approach applied to black flies on Okinawa Island illustrates its potential utility in defining source areas for other species of flies including those that might pose medical and veterinary risks.

  6. The Study of Compound Quality of various Siam Weed (Eupatorium odoratum) Extracts and Toxicity Detoxification mechanisms Against 3rd Instar Larvae of Fruit Fly (Dacus dorsalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutthivaiyakit, Pakawadee; Visetson, Suraphon; Sutthivaiyakit, Somyote; Patharakorn, Thipamon; Patharakorn, Surapol; Piadang, Patharakorn

    2006-09-01

    The 1H-NMR spectroscopy showed signals of DeltaH tild0.71.6 from hexane-leaf extracts from Siam weed (Eupatorium odoratum) These signals derive from protons of non-polar compounds which include fatty acid residues and terpinoids. In addition, the amplification of the signals indicated of some minor DeltaH tild6.2-7.7. This revealed protons from aromatic rings possibly involving in flavonoids from 1H-NMR spectrum. This is a believe that is a believe that these compounds could be varied from slightly polar compounds to moderately polar compounds. Furthermore, the Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of hexane, chloroform and methanol fractions showed the extracts composed of majority of less polar. It is and indication of the method of separation is quite food for separation of polarity basis from these extracts. Finally, the TLC of hexane fraction distinctively produced 7-8 compounds from the extracts. Toxicity testing using topical spray method showed that methnoloc extracts gave highest toxicity against 3rd instar larvae of fruit fly (Darcus dorsalis). The root extracts produced ca. 5 fold mohile GSH-S-transferase ws elevated 2-3 fold. The addition of dimethyl maleate into the extraccts increased their toxicity. The persistent experiment of eupathal from the extracts showed that the extracts can be stabilixed under aqueous solution upto 1 month with losing the compound. Finally, the Siam weed extracts prosuced non toxic to non-target organisms such as gabbies, bee, and mouse. The results of LC50 showed 15,000-26,000 mg/L 6,000-15,000 mg/L and 3,000-10,000 mg/L from hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts, respectively.

  7. Toxicity of Barnoof Plant Extract Combined with Gamma Irradiation against the Larvae of the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufngel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.F.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of irradiating parental male full grown pupae of Agrotis ipsilon with the two substerile doses 100 and 150 Gray (Gy) followed by treated F 1 4 t h instar larvae with three concentrations of the Barnoof plant leaves extract (0 , 15000 and 30000 ppm) or each of them alone were studied. The combined treatment of gamma irradiation and the Barnoof plant extract to F 1 larvae had a poisonous special effects on average total larval mortality when compared with the effect of gamma irradiation or plant leaves extract which of them alone. Gamma irradiation increased the susceptibility of F 1 larvae descendant from irradiated parental male pupae with 100 and 150 Gy to the Barnoof plant leaves extract. A gradual increase in susceptibility was noticed as the dose of radiation increase. The efficiency of gamma irradiation and / or plant leaves extract to inhibit the 4 t h instar larvae of A. ipsilon was evaluated. The results showed highly toxic effect to the 4 t h instar larvae at the two concentrations (15000 and 30000 ppm). On the other hand the dose 150 Gy combined with 30000 ppm of plant extract treatment (Acetone or Petroleum ether solvents) had highly effect on the 4 t h instar larvae as compared with the other treatments.

  8. [Variability of the morphological traits in the blood-sucking black fly Odagmia caucasica (Diptera: Simuliidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachvorian, E A; Mirumian, L S; Grigorian, V G

    1995-01-01

    Eleven morphometric and four qualitative features of larvae, as well as 6 morphometric parameters of pupae of Odagmia caucasica, which had been collected in 5 geographically remote regions of Armenia, have been studied. In this work besides absolute values of features we have used their ratios (indices) that shows forms and proportions of different organs. It was found, that larvae taken from Bzhni and Getashen had asymmetry of bilateral characteristics and that there were differences in the level of morphometric features variability; the latter fact is connected with sex and phase of the insect. Study of chronological variability of populations from Bzhni, Getashen and Martuni has revealed differences in the nature of distribution of features. It was shown that the rate of differentiation between geographically isolated populations fluctuated in the range from 20 (Getashen) to 33% (Amassiya). Differences in the qualitative alternative features and in the rate of microsporidium infection distinguish the differentiation of populations from Bzhni and Amassiya, which is caused by anthropogenic factor in Bzhni and by isolating landscape barrier in Amassiya. Species-specific morphometric features were discovered; these were the indices of proportions of larva ventral sclerite and of pupa respiratory filaments.

  9. Aflatoxin B1 Tolerance and Accumulation in Black Soldier Fly Larvae (Hermetia illucens) and Yellow Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.; Fels, van der Ine; Rijk, de T.C.; Oonincx, D.G.A.B.

    2017-01-01

    Crops contaminated with fungal mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are often downgraded or removed from the food chain. This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of AFB1 in two insect species to determine whether they could be used to retain condemned mycotoxin contaminated

  10. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity of the compound eyes of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) informing the design of LED-based illumination to enhance indoor reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Volk, N.; Diehl, J.J.E.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Belušič, G.

    2016-01-01

    Mating in the black soldier fly (BSF) is a visually mediated behaviour that under natural conditions occurs in full sunlight. Artificial light conditions promoting mating by BSF were designed based on the spectral characteristics of the compound eye retina. Electrophysiological measurements

  11. Two New Species of the Simulium (Simulium) variegatum Species-Group of Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) From Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn

    2017-09-01

    Two new species of black flies, Simulium (Simulium) srisukai and S. (S.) kiewmaepanense, are described from specimens collected in Thailand. Both species are assigned to the Simulium variegatum species-group of the subgenus Simulium (Simulium) Latreille. They are characterized by the darkened female femora and tibiae and six inflated pupal gill filaments, and the darkened female tibiae and six ordinary thread-like pupal gill filaments, respectively. Taxonomic notes are given to separate these new species from 10 related species among the group. These new species represent the third and fourth species of the S. variegatum species-group from Thailand. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Version of Record, first published online May 15, 2017 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 8.1.3.2 ICZN.

  12. Accumulation of dioxins and PCB in house fly larvae (musca domestica) reared in poultry manure and used in feed for organic laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Fischer, Christian Holst

    2014-01-01

    larvae, poultry manure, compost and compound feed as well as pooled egg samples from each group were analysed for levels of dioxins and PCB. Analytical procedure: after extraction of the sample with a mixture of pentane and acetone (88:12), the extracts were cleaned-up on a multilayer silica column.......09 pg WHO-TEQ/g dry weight). This indicates the accumulation of the lipophilic substances in the larvae from the rearing medium. However, although the levels of dioxins and PCB in the larvae was four times the levels in the compound feed the added exposure of the hens when feed with 15 g larvae perday...... constitute only a minor amount compared to the exposure from the compound feed alone. The measured content of dioxins and dioxin-like PCB in the eggs from layers receiving larvae in the feed was not different from the control group (1.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat)....

  13. Seasonal Distributions of the Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Among Host and Nonhost Fruit Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) ( Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R . indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  14. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXXV. Ixodid ticks and bot fly larvae in the Bontebok National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; Boomker, J

    1998-09-01

    Ixodid ticks were collected during February of each year from 1983-1992 from bontebok and grey rhebok in the Bontebok National Park, Western Cape Province. When available other mammals as well as ground-nesting birds and leopard tortoises were examined. Eleven tick species were recovered. Rhipicephalus nitens followed by Rhipicephalus glabroscutatum and an Ixodes sp. (near I. pilosus) were the most abundant, while Amblyomma marmoreum infested the widest host range. The larvae of three bot files were also collected. Gedoelstia sp. and Strobiloestrus sp. larvae were recovered from bontebok and grey rhebok and larvae of Oestrus ovis only from grey rhebok.

  15. The associated microflora to the larvae of human bot fly Dermatobia hominis L. Jr. (Diptera: Cuterebridae and its furuncular lesions in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sancho

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The microflora associated to furuncular lesions, larvae and pupae of Dermatobia hominis, as well as the relationships between parasite, host and microflora associated, as a comprehensive microsystem, has been studied. One hundred and two furuncular myiasis due to D. hominis larvae in several breeds of cattle were studied and the following bacterial species were significant: Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. warneri, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Closely related, the microflora associated to 141 samples from first, second, third instar larva and both external surface and larval cavities has been studied. The representative associated microflora to the larvae were: S. aureus, B. subtilis, S. hycus and Moraxella phenylpiruvica, Moerella wisconsiensis, Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris, M. phenylpiruvica, M. wisconsiensis, P. mirabilis and P. rettgeri were the representative microflora associated to 64 pupae of D. hominis.

  16. A New Black Fly Species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) (Diptera: Simuliidae) From Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn; Maleewong, Wanchai; Low, Van Lun

    2017-11-07

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) laosense sp. nov. is described based on adults, pupae, and mature larvae from Laos. This new species is placed in the Simulium batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein. It is characterized by the pupal gill with eight filaments arranged as 3 + 3 + 2 from dorsal to ventral, of which an inner filament of the ventral pair is slightly longer than its counter filament, and is 1.7-1.8 times as long as filaments of the middle triplet. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish this new species from Simulium (G.) johorense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Ya'cob from Peninsular Malaysia and four other related species. The phylogenetic position of this new species in the S. batoense species-group is also presented based on the mitochondrial COI gene. This new species represents the second species known from Laos. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  18. Possibilities of utilization of fly ash from the black coal Power Engineering of the U. S. Steel Košice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Františka Michalíková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents modes of a direct utilization of the fly ash by-product of the combustion of black power coal in the slag - bottom boilers of the Division Plant Power Engineering ( DP PE of the U. S. Steel Košice ( next USSK . The properties of fly ash limit its use in metallurgy and foundry industry. The fly ash is directly utilizable in the metallurgical industry as a component of powder cover mixtures and insulation inserts, heat insulation parts and exothermical mixtures. The most important components in the mixtures are light micro spheres – cenospheres and heavy micro spheres – plerospheres. The micro spheres significantly improve properties of the powder cover mixtures.

  19. Development of myiasis vaccine: In vitro detection of immunoprotective responses of peritrophic membrane protein, first instar larva Ll supernatant and pellet antigen of fly Chrysomyia bezziana in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarsih

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis control by means of individual treatment of animals which are mainly rised extensively is time consumed and expensive. The alternative way to control this disease by vaccination is considered effective and economically accepted. However the expected vaccine is now still being developed under a collaborative project between CSIRO, Inter-University Centre on Biotechnology-ITB and Research Institute for Veterinary Science and funded by ACIAR. There are several antigens have been identified as vaccine candidates and an in vitro bioassay technique has been developed for assessing the immunoresponses of vaccine in sheep. Three antigens were used for vaccines in this study, these included protein peritrophic membrane (PM, soluble extract (SE and pellet extract (PE of 1st instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana. Twenty four experimental sheep were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals, 3 groups of animals were injected with PM, SE and PE vaccines with the dose rate of 0.5 g PM/head, 0.8 g PE/head and 4.2 ml LE/head respectively, and the other one group was injected with 4 ml PBS/head as a control group. Vaccination with the same dose was repeated 4 weeks after the 1st vaccination as a booster, and 2 weeks after the booster the sheep were challenged with live larvae, 3 days after challenge animals were killed. Sera were collected at the day of vaccination, 4 weeks after vaccination, 2 weeks after booster, and 3 days after challenge. An in vitro bioassay technique was conducted by culturing 1st instar larvae on five media containing sera collected from each experimental animal. The effects of sera on cultivated larvae were assessed by means of larval weight and larval mortality rate. The results indicated that the growth rate and survival of cultivated larvae in media containing anti-PM sera were significantly lower (P<0.01 compared to the larvae cultivated on media with sera on the day of vaccination. The larval weight depression by anti- PM sera

  20. Comparing electroantennogram and behavioral responses of two Pseudacteon phorid fly species to body extracts of Black, Red and Hybrid imported fire ants, Solenopsis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Ochieng, Samuel A; He, Xiaofang; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2012-10-01

    Several phorid fly species were introduced to the southern United States for biological control of the invasive imported fire ants, Solenopsis richteri (Black), Solenopsis invicta (Red), and their Hybrid S. richteri×S. invicta (Hybrid). It has been previously reported that the Jaguariuna biotype of Pseudacteon tricuspis and the Formosan biotype of Pseudacteon curvatus could distinguish among the three fire ant species with greater preference for Hybrid and Red fire ants. We hypothesized that phorid flies might use host derived chemical cues to differentiate ant species. To determine possible differential olfactory sensitivity of phorid fly species to different fire ant species, we compared electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral responses of both sexes of P. tricuspis and P. curvatus to body extracts of Black, Red and Hybrid fire ants. As worker sizes of Black and Hybrid fire ants used in this study were much larger than that of Red fire ant (the average weight for Black, Red and Hybrid workers was 1.707, 0.863, 1.223mg per ants, respectively), at doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1 worker equivalent, body extracts of Black and Hybrid fire ant elicited significantly greater EAG response in both sexes of P. tricuspis than that of Red fire ant. Similarly, the EAG response in female P. curvatus to body extract of Black fire ant was significantly greater than to body extract of Red fire ant. To eliminate worker size influence on EAG response in phorid flies, we conducted a second EAG study using a dose of 1mg ant equivalent (body extract from 1mg of worker). No difference in EAG responses was recorded to body extract obtained from the same amount of workers among the three fire ant species (we consider viable Hybrid fire ant as a species in this paper), suggesting that worker size differences contributed to difference in EAG response in the first EAG study. In both EAG studies, male P. tricuspis showed significantly greater EAG responses than male P. curvatus to all three fire ant

  1. The Use Of Local Product Yeast For Substitution Torula Yeast In The Formulation Of Artificial Diet Fruit Fly Larvae Bactrocera Carambolae Drew and Hancock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikumbang, I.; Nasution, A.I.; Indarwatmi, M.; Kuswandi, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The use of local product yeast I.e brewer yeast, yeast of tapai (fermented cassava), yeast of tempe (fermented soy beam), and brem(intoxicating beverage made of fermented rice) after cooked and uncooked were used to substitute torula yeast to reduce cost production for mass-rearing of fruit fly had been carried out. Artificial diet formulation consisted of torula yeast, wheat bran, nipagin, sodium benzoate, cane sugar, water and HCI ti make pH of 4. One kilogram of diet was inoculated with 1 ml of fruit fly eggs. Parameters of the experiment were, the number of pupae, weight of pupae, percentage of pupae and the percentage of viable fly. The results showed that the number of pupae were 6356 for brewers yeast with cooked and 0.942 gram/100 pupae for brem. Percentage viable emergence fly were 70%, 18.25% and 15.25% for brewers yeast with cooked and uncooked respectively. Cost production for 1.000.000 using cooked brewer yeast was reduced about Rp.179,200 or cost efficiency were 55.56%

  2. The moose throat bot fly Cephenemyia ulrichii larvae (Diptera: Oestridae found developing in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus for the first time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksanen Antti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About fifty larvae of Cephenemyia ulrichii Brauer (Diptera: Oestridae, some of them nearly full-grown third instars, were found in the throat of a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in June 2007 near Helsinki in Finland. The parasite is considered to be host specific, occurring only in the moose (Alces alces, and this paper is apparently the first report of a successful infestation in an aberrant host.

  3. Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geden, Christopher J; Moon, Roger D

    2009-06-01

    Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios, and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with five dipteran hosts: house fly (Musca domestica L.), stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.), horn fly (Hematobia irritans L.), black dump fly [Hydrotaea aenescens (Weidemann)] (Diptera: Muscidae), and a flesh fly (Sarcophaga bullata Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). M. raptorellus killed and successfully parasitized all five host species and produced an average 2.6 parasitoid progeny from each host. Host attack rates were highest on stable fly and lowest on horn fly; there were no differences among hosts in the total number of progeny produced. T. zealandicus killed larvae of all fly host species in similar numbers, but parasitism was most successful on H. aenescens and S. bullata and least successful on horn fly and house fly hosts. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (10.2 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 2.5 progeny were produced from parasitized horn fly hosts. Most of the killed puparia that produced neither adult flies nor parasitoids ("duds") contained dead parasitoids; in house fly, stable fly, and horn fly hosts, >30% of these dudded pupae contained adult wasps that failed to eclose. T. nigra successfully parasitized pupae of all host species except house fly and was most successful on stable fly. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (30.6 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 5.7 progeny were produced from horn fly hosts.

  4. Enhanced toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki and aizawai to black cutworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Bacillus sp. NFD2 and Pseudomonas sp. FNFD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashtoly, Tamer A; Abolmaaty, Assem; El-Zemaity, Mohamed El-said; Hussien, Mohamed I; Alm, Steven R

    2011-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki and aizawai are important control agents for lepidopteran pests. Bioassays were designed to test B. t. kurstaki and aizawai against second- and-fourth instar black cutworm larvae with and without Bacillus sp. NFD2 and Pseudomonas sp. FNFD1 bacteria. B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai (XenTari) was more toxic to both second- and fourth-instar black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), larvae than B. t. kurstaki (DiPel) at 7 d after treatment (DAT). When DiPel was combined with NFD2 or FNFD1 versus second instars, the LC50s were 5.0X and 4.7X lower, respectively, than with DiPel alone. DiPel combined with both NFD2 and FNFD1 versus second instars resulted in an LC50 value 7.7X lower than with DiPel alone. When XenTari was combined with NFD2 or FNFD1 versus second instars, the LC50s were 5.2X and 3.8X lower, respectively, than with XenTari alone. XenTari combined with both NFD2 and FNFD1 versus second instars resulted in an LC50 9.7X lower than with XenTari alone. When DiPel was combined with NFD2 or FNFD1 versus fourth instars, the LC50s were 4.4X and 3.4X lower, respectively, than with DiPel alone. DiPel combined with both NFD2 and FNFD1 versus fourth instars resulted in an LC50 5.0X lower than with DiPel alone. When XenTari was combined with NFD2 or FNFD1 versus fourth instars, the LC50s were 5.7X and 3.3X lower, respectively, than with XenTari alone. XenTari combined with both NFD2 and FNFD1 versus fourth instars resulted in an LC50 6.7X lower than with XenTari alone.

  5. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to Rhagoletis pomonella flies from the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Sim, Sheina B; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-03-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA as major hosts: the native black hawthorn (C. douglasii) and the introduced ornamental English hawthorn, C. monogyna. Apple and downy hawthorn-origin flies in the eastern USA use volatile blends emitted from the surface of their respective ripening fruit to find and discriminate among host trees. To test whether the same is true for western flies, we used coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and developed a 7-component apple fruit blend for western apple-origin flies, an 8-component black hawthorn fruit blend for flies infesting C. douglasii, and a 9-component ornamental hawthorn blend for flies from C. monogyna. Crataegus douglasii and C. monogyna-origin flies showed similar levels of upwind directed flight to their respective natal synthetic fruit blends in flight tunnel assays compared to whole fruit adsorbent extracts, indicating that the blends contain all the behaviorally relevant fruit volatiles to induce maximal response levels. The black and ornamental hawthorn blends shared four compounds in common including 3-methylbutan-1-ol, which appears to be a key volatile for R. pomonella populations in the eastern, southern, and western USA that show a preference for fruit from different Crataegus species. However, the blends also differed from one another and from domesticated apple in several respects that make it possible that western R. pomonella flies behaviorally discriminate among fruit volatiles and form ecologically differentiated host races, as is the case for eastern apple and hawthorn flies.

  6. Larval distribution and behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera:Calliphoridae) relative to other species on Florida black bear(Carnivora:Ursidae) carcasses decompsing in North Central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval interactions of blow flies were documented daily temporally and spatially on 5 black bear carcasses from June – November, 2002. Cochliomyia macellaria or Chrysomya megacephala larvae were collected first, then Chrysomya rufifacies oviposited in multiple locations on the carcasses uninhabited...

  7. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  8. Persistence of Escherichia coli in immature house fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in relation to larval growth and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, K; Lysyk, T J; Selinger, L B

    2004-11-01

    The persistence of Escherichia coli in artificially fed larvae was examined for up to 48 h after ingestion by house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). The rate of change in the E. coli load was similar for both species for up to 5 h after ingestion. Up to 48 h after ingestion, abundance of E. coli declined in immature house flies but remained constant in immature stable flies. When different E. coli concentrations were fed to larvae, the abundance of E. coli increased in stable fly larvae regardless of the initial concentration. The E. coli load in house fly larvae increased when larvae were fed a low concentration of bacteria, but it declined when larvae were fed a high concentration of bacteria. Survival of house fly and stable fly larvae averaged 62 and 25%, respectively, when reared on pure E. coli cultures. These observations suggest that house fly larvae digest E. coli and use it as a food source but stable fly larvae do not.

  9. Histopathological and ultrastructural effects of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis in the midgut of Simulium pertinax larvae (Diptera, Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFG Cavados

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt produces parasporal crystals containing delta-endotoxins responsible for selective insecticidal activity on larvae. Upon ingestion, these crystals are solubilized in the midgut lumen and converted into active toxins that bind to receptors present on the microvilli causing serious damage to the epithelial columnar cells. We investigated the effect of these endotoxins on larvae of the Simulium pertinax, a common black fly in Brazil, using several concentrations during 4 h of the serovar israelensis strain IPS-82 (LFB-FIOCRUZ 584, serotype H-14 type strain of the Institute Pasteur, Paris. Light and electron microscope observations revealed, by time and endotoxin concentration, increasing damages of the larvae midgut epithelium. The most characteristic effects were midgut columnar cell vacuolization, microvilli damages, epithelium cell contents passing into the midgut lumen and finally the cell death. This article is the first report of the histopathological effects of the Bti endotoxins in the midgut of S. pertinax larvae and the data obtained may contribute to a better understanding of the mode of action of this bacterial strain used as bioinsecticide against black fly larvae.

  10. Fly Sings

    OpenAIRE

    Osmond, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Fly Sings (winner of the Bitish Library's 2015 Michael Marks Poetry Illustration award) forms the first installment of a prequel to the deadman and hare stories. It concerns how hare first came to be ‘summoned to the world below’, to look for deadman.\\ud \\ud Strandline Books chapbooks are produced as signed and numbered editions of 48, printed in black inkjet on 90gsm off-white recycled paper. They sell at £8 + £2 p&p. If interested, please email Mat Osmond at

  11. Recovery and techno-functionality of flours and proteins from two edible insect species: Meal worm (Tenebrio molitor and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bußler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the species, edible insects are highly nutritious and thus represent a noteworthy alternative food and feed source. The current work investigates the protein extractability and techno-functionality of insect flour fractions recovered from Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens. T. molitor and H. illucens flours contained about 20% crude fat and 60% and 36 % crude protein, respectively. Defatting reduced the crude fat content to 2.8% (T. molitor and 8.8% (H. illucens and increased the crude protein content to 68% and 47%, respectively. To isolate proteins from the flours, protein solubility was optimized by varying the pH, the ionic strength, and the extraction temperature of the solvent. All products and by-products accumulated in the protein production process were characterized by composition, selected techno-functional properties, protein solubility, composition and structure as well as their microbial load.

  12. Cryptic Biodiversity and the Origins of Pest Status Revealed in the Macrogenome of Simulium colombaschense (Diptera: Simuliidae, History's Most Destructive Black Fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Adler

    Full Text Available The European black fly Simulium (Simulium colombaschense (Scopoli, once responsible for as many as 22,000 livestock deaths per year, is chromosomally mapped, permitting its evolutionary relationships and pest drivers to be inferred. The species is 12 fixed inversions removed from the standard sequence of the subgenus Simulium. Three of these fixed inversions, 38 autosomal polymorphisms, and a complex set of 12 X and 6 Y chromosomes in 29 zygotic combinations uniquely characterize S. colombaschense and reveal 5 cytoforms: 'A' in the Danube watershed, 'B' in Italy's Adige River, 'C' in the Aliakmonas River of Greece, 'D' in the Aoös drainage in Greece, and 'E' in the Belá River of Slovakia. 'C' and 'D' are reproductively isolated from one another, and 'B' is considered a cytotype of 'A,' the probable name bearer of colombaschense. The species status of 'E' cannot be determined without additional collections. Three derived polytene sequences, based on outgroup comparisons, place S. colombaschense in a clade of species composed of the S. jenningsi, S. malyschevi, and S. reptans species groups. Only cytoforms 'A' and 'B' are pests. Within the Simuliidae, pest status is reached through one of two principal pathways, both of which promote the production of large populations of blood-seeking flies: (1 colonization of the world's largest rivers (habitat specialization or (2 colonization of multiple habitat types (habitat generalization. Evolutionary acquisition of the ability to colonize large rivers by an ancestor of the S. jenningsi-malyschevi-reptans clade set the scene for the pest status of S. colombaschense and other big-river members of the clade. In an ironic twist, the macrogenome of S. colombaschense reveals that the name associated with history's worst simuliid pest represents a complex of species, two or more of which are nonpests potentially vulnerable to loss of their limited habitat.

  13. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  14. Mass rearing of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavala Lopez, J.L.; Dominguez G, J.; Gomez S, Y.; Moreno, P.

    1999-01-01

    A description of the present methods for mass rearing Anastrepha ludens, known as the Mexican fruit fly, at the Fruit Flies Biofactory in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas, is given. Important contributions and improvements are described for the rearing stages, e.g. egg production and incubation, larvae diets, lab conditions for the development of larvae and pupae, larvae and pupae handling and environmental control. (author)

  15. Impact of black soldier fly larval meal on growth performance, apparent digestibility, haematological and blood chemistry indices of guinea fowl starter keets under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, P A; Nyameasem, J K; Adu-Aboagye, G A; Affedzie-Obresi, S; Nkegbe, E K; Karbo, N; Murray, F; Leschen, W; Maquart, P -O

    2017-08-01

    In order to assess the impact of larval meal on guinea fowl, six iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were fed to day-old-keets ad libitum till 8 weeks of age. Water was also freely provided. The fishmeal (FM) component of the experimental diets was replaced with black soldier fly larval meal (BSFLM) in the following percentage ratios of 0-100%. Results showed that body weight gain significantly (P  0.05) ME intake and faecal output as well as weight changes of the keets. Digestibility of dry matter and energy were not affected (P > 0.05) by the differences in diet. Organ and haematopoietic integrity were assured regardless of the protein types used as well as levels of inclusion. The results suggest that the replacement of fishmeal with BSFLM in so far as the economics of production is concerned could result in reduced feed cost for starter guinea keet judging from diets that contained 60-100% BSFLM.

  16. Sexual selection on morphological and physiological traits and fluctuating asymmetry in the black scavenger fly Sepsis cynipsea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckenhorn, W U; Kraushaar, U R S; Teuschl, Y; Reim, C

    2004-05-01

    Previous univariate studies of the fly Sepsis cynipsea (Diptera: Sepsidae) have demonstrated spatiotemporally variable and consequently overall weak sexual selection favouring large male size, which is nevertheless stronger on average than fecundity selection favouring larger females. To identify specific target(s) of selection on body size and additional traits possibly affecting mating success, two multivariate field studies of sexual selection were conducted. In one study using seasonal replicates from three populations, we assessed 15 morphological traits. No clear targets of sexual selection on male size could be detected, perhaps because spatiotemporal variation in selection was again strong. In particular, there was no (current) selection on male abdomen length or fore coxa length, the only traits for which S. cynipsea males are not smaller than females. Interestingly, copulating males had a consistently shorter fore femur base, a secondary sexual trait, and a wider clasper (hypopygium) gap, an external genital trait. In a second study using daily and seasonal replicates from one population, we included physiological measures of energy reserves (lipids, glucose, glycogen), in addition to hind tibia length and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of all pairs of legs. This study again confirmed the mating advantage of large males, and additionally suggests independent positive influences of lipids (the long-term energy stores), with effects of glucose and glycogen (the short-term energy stores) tending to be negative. FA of paired traits was not associated with male mating success. Our study suggests that inclusion of physiological measures and genital traits in phenomenological studies of selection, which is rare, would be fruitful in other species.

  17. Use Of Fly Iarvae In Space Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    The concept of space agriculture is full use of biological and ecological components ot drive materials recycle loop. In an ecological system, producers, consumers and decomposers are its member. At limited resources acailable for space agriculture, full use of members' function is required to avoid food shortage and catastrophe.Fly is categrized to a decomposer at its eating excreta and rotten materials. However, is it could be edible, certainly it is eaten in several food culture of the world, it functions as a converter of inedible biomass ot edible substance. This conversion enhances the efficiency of usage of resource that will be attributed to space agriculture. In this context, we examine the value of melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, as a candidate fly species ofr human food. Nutrients in 100g of melon fly larvae were protein 12g, lipid 4.6g Fe 4.74mg, Ca 275mg, Zn 6.37mg, Mn 4.00mg. Amino acids compositon in 100g of larvae was glutamic acid 1.43g and aspartic acid 1.12g. Because of high contents of these amino acids taste of fly larva might be good. Life time of adult melon fly is one to two month, and lays more than 1,000 eggs in total during the life. Larvae hatch after one to two days, and metamorphose after 8 to 15 days to pupae. Srxual maturity is reached after 22 days the earliest from it egg. Sixteen generations could be succeeded in a year for melon fly at maximum. The rate of proliferation of fly is quite high compared to silkworm that can have 8.7 generations per year. The wide food habit of fly, compared to mulberry leaf for silkworm, is another advantage to choose fly for entomophage. Rearing technology of melon fly is well established, since large scaled production of sterile male fly has been conducted in order ot exterminate melon fly in the field. Feeding substance for melon fly larvae in production line is a mixture of wheat, bran, raw sugar, olara, beer yeast, tissue paper, and additive chemicals. A 1 kg of feed substance can be converted to

  18. Purification and characterisation of immunoglobulins from the Australian black flying fox (Pteropus alecto using anti-fab affinity chromatography reveals the low abundance of IgA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Wynne

    Full Text Available There is now an overwhelming body of evidence that implicates bats in the dissemination of a long list of emerging and re-emerging viral agents, often causing illnesses or death in both animals and humans. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding the immunological mechanisms by which bats coexist with highly pathogenic viruses. Immunoglobulins are major components of the adaptive immune system. Early studies found bats may have quantitatively lower antibody responses to model antigens compared to conventional laboratory animals. To further understand the antibody response of bats, the present study purified and characterised the major immunoglobulin classes from healthy black flying foxes, Pteropus alecto. We employed a novel strategy, where IgG was initially purified and used to generate anti-Fab specific antibodies. Immobilised anti-Fab specific antibodies were then used to capture other immunoglobulins from IgG depleted serum. While high quantities of IgM were successfully isolated from serum, IgA was not. Only trace quantities of IgA were detected in the serum by mass spectrometry. Immobilised ligands specific to IgA (Jacalin, Peptide M and staphylococcal superantigen-like protein also failed to capture P. alecto IgA from serum. IgM was the second most abundant serum antibody after IgG. A survey of mucosal secretions found IgG was the dominant antibody class rather than IgA. Our study demonstrates healthy P. alecto bats have markedly less serum IgA than expected. Higher quantities of IgG in mucosal secretions may be compensation for this low abundance or lack of IgA. Knowledge and reagents developed within this study can be used in the future to examine class-specific antibody response within this important viral host.

  19. Purification and Characterisation of Immunoglobulins from the Australian Black Flying Fox (Pteropus alecto) Using Anti-Fab Affinity Chromatography Reveals the Low Abundance of IgA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiell, Brian J.; Beddome, Gary; Cowled, Christopher; Peck, Grantley R.; Huang, Jing; Grimley, Samantha L.; Baker, Michelle L.; Michalski, Wojtek P.

    2013-01-01

    There is now an overwhelming body of evidence that implicates bats in the dissemination of a long list of emerging and re-emerging viral agents, often causing illnesses or death in both animals and humans. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding the immunological mechanisms by which bats coexist with highly pathogenic viruses. Immunoglobulins are major components of the adaptive immune system. Early studies found bats may have quantitatively lower antibody responses to model antigens compared to conventional laboratory animals. To further understand the antibody response of bats, the present study purified and characterised the major immunoglobulin classes from healthy black flying foxes, Pteropus alecto. We employed a novel strategy, where IgG was initially purified and used to generate anti-Fab specific antibodies. Immobilised anti-Fab specific antibodies were then used to capture other immunoglobulins from IgG depleted serum. While high quantities of IgM were successfully isolated from serum, IgA was not. Only trace quantities of IgA were detected in the serum by mass spectrometry. Immobilised ligands specific to IgA (Jacalin, Peptide M and staphylococcal superantigen-like protein) also failed to capture P. alecto IgA from serum. IgM was the second most abundant serum antibody after IgG. A survey of mucosal secretions found IgG was the dominant antibody class rather than IgA. Our study demonstrates healthy P. alecto bats have markedly less serum IgA than expected. Higher quantities of IgG in mucosal secretions may be compensation for this low abundance or lack of IgA. Knowledge and reagents developed within this study can be used in the future to examine class-specific antibody response within this important viral host. PMID:23308125

  20. Molecular identification of infective larvae of three species of Onchocerca found in wild-caught females of Simulium bidentatum in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wild female black flies attracted to a man or an idling automobile were collected at Oita, Japan where five cases of zoonotic onchocerciasis had occurred. Among the five Simulium species captured, 2% of Simulium bidentatum, the predominant species, were infected with filarial larvae. There were at least two types of infective larvae, types A and B, based on morphometric observation. Moreover, molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene revealed that types A and B were represented by a single unknown species of Onchocerca and two species, i.e., Onchocerca dewittei japonica from wild boar, the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan, and an undescribed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rRNA gene also showed that type A is likely to be an unknown species of Onchocerca. Natural infection of black flies with infective larvae of O. dewittei japonica and O. sp. was demonstrated for the first time. The present study strongly suggests that S. bidentatum plays a role as a vector in the transmission of zoonotic onchocerciasis due to O. dewittei japonica in Japan.

  1. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-02-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.

  2. Larval Distribution and Behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Relative to Other Species on Florida Black Bear (Carnivora: Ursidae) Decomposing Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiger, S L; Hogsette, J A; Butler, J F

    2014-02-01

    Larval interactions of dipteran species, blow flies in particular, were observed and documented daily over time and location on five black bear carcasses in Gainesville, FL, USA, from June 2002 - September 2004. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) or Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae were collected first, after which Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) oviposited on the carcasses in multiple locations (i.e., neck, anus, and exposed flesh) not inhabited already by the other blow fly larvae. Within the first week of decomposition, C. rufifacies larvae grew to ≥12 mm, filling the carcasses with thousands of larvae and replacing the other calliphorid larvae either through successful food source competition or by predation. As a result, C. macellaria and C. megacephala were not collected past their third instar feeding stage. The blow fly species, C. megacephala, C. macellaria, Lucilia caeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), and C. rufifacies, completed two developmental cycles in the 88.5-kg carcass. This phenomenon might serve to complicate or prevent the calculation of an accurate postmortem interval.

  3. Abundance of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, across different areas in central Washington, with special reference to black-fruited hawthorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Klaus, Michael W; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple orchards. The fly was first detected on traps in Klickitat, Yakima, and Kittitas Counties in 1981, 1995, and 1997, respectively. From 1981-2010 in Kittitas and Yakima Counties, only 0 to 4.7% of traps on apple, crabapple, and hawthorn trees were positive for flies, whereas in Klickitat County, located farther from commercial apple orchards, 0 to 41.9% of traps were positive. In 2008, in Yakima County and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 7.8% of black-fruited hawthorn trees were infested, with 0 to 0.00054 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in Kittitas and Yakima Counties and Goldendale in Klickitat County, 25.0% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.00042 to 0.00248 larvae per fruit. In 2010, in a remote forested area of Klickitat County far from commercial apple orchards, 94.7% of C. douglasii trees were infested, with 0.20813 larvae per fruit. Overall results suggest R. pomonella is unlikely to develop high populations rapidly near major commercial apple-growing areas in central Washington, including in black-fruited hawthorns, increasing chances it can be kept out of commercial orchards.

  4. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, José-Arturo; Gilles, Jeremie; Bravo, Oscar; Vargas, Cristina; Gomez-Bonilla, Yannery; Bingham, Georgina V; Taylor, David B

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16 d after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3-7 d after chopping to 1:1 at 24-28 d. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3-7 d after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Effect of using insect larvae meal as a complete protein source on quality and productivity characteristics of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Farooq Abdulhameed Al-Qazzaz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL as a source of protein in layer diets on product performance, egg quality, hatchability, fertility, and sensory characteristics of eggs. The BSFL contained a high percentage of protein (559.9 g kg−1, metabolizable energy (696.3 kcal kg−1, crude fat (18.6 g kg−1, and dry matter (178 g kg−1 and a good balance of amino acids. A total of 54 Arabic strain hens at nine months of age were mixed with nine cocks at 12 months old; all were divided into three treatments. The diets were formulated based on three levels of energy-to-protein ratio: 155, 140, and 170. The BSFL meal was added at 0, 50, and 10 g kg−1 respectively. The results showed that feed intake, weight gain, Haugh unit, and hatchability were not affected by dietary treatments with BSFL. However, there was significant improvement in hen day egg production and hen house egg production due to dietary treatments of BSFL. Also, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, shell thickness, shell weight, egg yolk color, fertility, and egg mass were affected by dietary treatments. In addition, a significant improvement was observed in appearance, texture, taste, and acceptance of eggs of hens fed BSFL at 50 g kg−1. The odor was not affected by dietary treatments. Black soldier fly larvae can be a good source of protein in layer diets.

  6. Evidence for Sticky-Trap Avoidance by Stable Fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), in Response to Trapped Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, D V; Sutcliffe, J F

    2017-09-01

    Populations of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other filth flies are often sampled using sticky traps. We wanted to know whether flies already caught on sticky traps might inhibit to some extent subsequent flies from being caught. To test this, we recorded the number of stable flies landing on white plastic corrugated panels (Coroplast®), which were prepared according to 4 treatments: 12 live stable flies glued to the surface, 12 live house flies (Musca domestica) glued to the surface, 12 black dots, and no treatment. From 160 observations, we found that fewer stable flies landed on panels with either attached stable flies (129) or house flies (133) compared with the number landing on panels with black dots (259) and/or with no treatment (210). This apparent inhibitory effect of trapped flies may explain published trap-catch patterns from field studies.

  7. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, F.; Loosjes, M.

    1987-01-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars

  8. Managing the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) using an electric walk-through fly trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D W; Stringham, S M; Denning, S S; Washburn, S P; Poore, M H; Meier, A

    2002-10-01

    An electric walk-through fly trap was evaluated for the management of the horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), on dairy cattle in North Carolina over 2 yr. The trap relies on black lights and electrocution grids to attract and kill flies that are brushed from the cattle passing through. During the first season, horn fly densities were reduced from >1,400 to flies per animal. Horn fly density averaged 269.2 +/- 25.8 on cattle using the walk-through fly trap twice daily, and 400.2 +/- 43.5 on the control group during the first year. The second year, seasonal mean horn fly density was 177.3 +/- 10.8 on cattle using the walk-through fly trap compared with 321.1 +/- 15.8 on the control group. No insecticides were used to control horn flies during this 2-yr study.

  9. Persistent Pediatric Gastro-Intestinal Myiasis: A Case Report of Fly Larval Infestation with Musca Domestica with Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kandi, Venkataramana; Lal, Sandeep Kumar; Akhila,; Shruthi,; Sandhya, K.; Simar, Harender; Pranuthi, Mispah; Kumar, Moses Vinay; Anand, Kalaskar; Rao, Sanjeev D.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of dipterous fly larvae in human is termed as human myiasis. Human myiasis can be classified based on clinical condition it causes like cutaneous myiasis, ocular myiasis, urogenital myiasis and intestinal myiasis. Based on the need for a particular host, myiasis can be divided as specific myiasis, semi-specific myiasis. Accidental myiasis results when the fly larvae are deposited/ingested by human resulting in infestation, which is also called as pseudomyiasis. Fly larvae may b...

  10. Mortality Patterns of Simulium vittatum Larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) Following Exposure to Insecticidal Proteins Produced by Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iburg, Joseph P; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond

    2015-03-01

    Products containing insecticidal crystalline proteins (ICPs) produced by Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti ICPs) are used to suppress vector and nuisance populations of black flies. The efficacy of an application of these products is often determined by a posttreatment evaluation of larval mortality. Larvae are typically removed from the substrate at some point in time after application of the product and mortality is determined. The time necessary for the effects of Bti ICPs to cause morality in exposed larvae can vary, and there is little consensus on how long operators should wait before evaluating larval mortality. This study was conducted to provide more information to larvicide applicators when performing posttreatment evaluations. Simulium vittatum larvae were exposed to Bti ICPs under controlled conditions and the mortality was monitored over time. Larvae exposed to operational concentrations of ICPs exhibited maximum mortality, approximately 87%, after 4 h. Exposure of larvae to 1/3 of that concentration resulted in similar mortality; however, the maximum mortality was not reached until 8 h postexposure. Additional experiments revealed that maximum mortality and time to maximum mortality can also be affected by components in the larval medium. Larval mortality was compared between larvae exposed to Bti ICPs in moderately hard water, medium containing 50 parts per million (ppm) of kaolinite, and medium containing 50 ppm of cellulose. The clay material had no significant effect on larval mortality or time to achieve maximum mortality. When cellulose was present in the medium, the time to maximum mortality was increased 50% and overall mortality was reduced by more than 40%.

  11. A Laboratory Practical on the House Building Behaviour of Caddis Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a laboratory practical on animal behavior suitable for senior secondary school or university biology classes. Several separate exercises relating to the house building behavior of caddis fly larvae are detailed, together with the time required for preparation. (JR)

  12. Flying Scared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Sie, Marco; Josiassen, Alexander

    service quality expectations and fear of flying affect travellers' flight choices on long-haul flights. The study was set in Bangkok and primary data were obtained from a large sample of travelers departing from Suvarnabhumi Airport. While service quality emerged as a relevant factor, fear of flying didn......’t turn out as a variable affecting travellers’ choices....

  13. Simulium (Psilopelmia virescens, a new black-fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae from the southwestern region of the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Hamada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The last-instar larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium virescens sp. nov. are described and illustrated. This species has a peculiar larva, which has an elongated head capsule and light-green colour. The first thoracic segment has tubercle on its dorsal region and the third thoracic segment has one pair of tubercles; the first to the fourth abdominal segments have one pair of tubercles on each segment. Until now this new species had only been collected at the type locality, which is on the middle stretch of the Correntina River in the southwestern portion of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Females were voraciously biting humans during the field work. This new species represents the second species of Simulium(Psilopelmia in Brazil and the first registered outside of the Brazilian Amazon Region.

  14. The importance of yeasts in the ecology and control of the Queensland fruit fly

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander M Piper

    2017-01-01

    Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) is a major orchard pest in Australia. Adult flies lay their eggs into ripe fruit, resulting in larval infestation and the spread of bacterial and fungal rots. The role of these microbes in fruit fly ecology is only now being elucidated, with much of the emphasis to date focusing on bacterial communities. In our study, we explored the diversity of yeast species associated with B. tryoni adults and larvae. We found larvae were highly assoc...

  15. New sanitation techniques for controlling tephritid fruit flies (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New approaches to sanitation in a cropping system susceptible to tephritid fruit flies (Diptera tephritidae) in Hawaii have been investigated. Six trials were conducted in tent-like structures to demonstrate that melon fly larvae (Bacrocera cucurbitae, Coquillett) are not reliably controlled by malathion sprayed on the surface of ...

  16. Tracheopulmonary Myiasis Caused by a Mature Third-Instar Cuterebra Larva: Case Report and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cornet, Muriel; Florent, Martine; Lefebvre, Aurélie; Wertheimer, Christophe; Perez-Eid, Claudine; Bangs, Michael J.; Bouvet, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of vertebrate tissues with fly larvae (Diptera). Most human cases in North America are subcutaneous forms due to Dermatobia hominis imported from Central and South America. Human cases of myiasis acquired in North America are rare and are primarily subdermal or ophthalmologic forms of infestation caused by early stages of Cuterebra larvae. We report an unusual case of tracheopulmonary myiasis, resulting from the in situ development of a mature cuterebrine larva asso...

  17. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates against immature horn fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysyk, T J; Kalischuk-Tymensen, L D; Rochon, K; Selinger, L B

    2010-06-01

    We screened 85 isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), making up 57 different subspecies, and two isolates of Bacillus sphaericus (Meyer and Neide) for activity against immature horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). The majority of B. thuringiensis and the B. sphaericus isolates had little or no activity against horn fly and stable fly. Approximately 87% of the isolates caused fly larvae and 64% caused stable fly, 95% of the isolates caused fly and stable fly immatures. These isolates were B. t. tolworthi 4L3, B. t. darmstadiensis 4M1, B. t. thompsoni 401, B. t. thuringiensis HD2, and B. t. kurstaki HD945. The LD50 values ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 x 10(6) spores per g manure for horn fly and from 6.3 to 35 x 10(6) spores per g media for stable fly. These were consistently more toxic compared with the B. t. israelensis isolates examined. All had DNA that hybridized with cry1Aa, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac toxin probes, three hybridized with a cry1B probe, and two hybridized with a cry2A probe. These may have potential for use in integrated management of pest flies.

  18. Transcriptomic analyses of the secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the wheat midge larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana) and the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) belong to a group of insects called gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and both are destructive pests of wheat. From Hessian fly larvae, a large number of genes have been identified to encode Secreted Salivary...

  19. Persistent pediatric gastro-intestinal myiasis: A case report of fly larval infestation with musca domestica with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataramana Kandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dipterous fly larvae in human is termed as human myiasis. Human myiasis can be classified based on clinical condition it causes like cutaneous myiasis, ocular myiasis, urogenital myiasis and intestinal myiasis. Based on the need for a particular host, myiasis can be divided as specific myiasis, semi-specific myiasis. Accidental myiasis results when the fly larvae are deposited/ingested by human resulting in infestation, which is also called as pseudomyiasis. Fly larvae may be present on the dead and decaying organic matter and domestic animals like dog and cats which are naturally infested with fly larvae and can be source for infection in children. Very few cases have been retrieved from literature on the occurrence of intestinal myiasis in children throughout the world. We report a case of two siblings in the same family infested with dipterous fly larvae.

  20. Persistent pediatric gastro-intestinal myiasis: a case report of fly larval infestation with Musca domestica with review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandi, Venkataramana; Lal, Sandeep Kumar; Akhila; Shruthi; Sandhya, K; Simar, Harender; Pranuthi, Mispah; Kumar, Moses Vinay; Anand, Kalaskar; Rao, Sanjeev D

    2013-07-01

    The occurrence of dipterous fly larvae in human is termed as human myiasis. Human myiasis can be classified based on clinical condition it causes like cutaneous myiasis, ocular myiasis, urogenital myiasis and intestinal myiasis. Based on the need for a particular host, myiasis can be divided as specific myiasis, semi-specific myiasis. Accidental myiasis results when the fly larvae are deposited/ingested by human resulting in infestation, which is also called as pseudomyiasis. Fly larvae may be present on the dead and decaying organic matter and domestic animals like dog and cats which are naturally infested with fly larvae and can be source for infection in children. Very few cases have been retrieved from literature on the occurrence of intestinal myiasis in children throughout the world. We report a case of two siblings in the same family infested with dipterous fly larvae.

  1. Oral Treatment of Rodents with Insecticides for Control of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and the Fluorescent Tracer Technique (FTT) as a Tool to Evaluate Potential Sand Fly Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    S132 Journal of Vector Ecology March 2011 Oral treatment of rodents with insecticides for control of sand flies ( Diptera : Psychodidae) and the...insecticides for control of sand flies ( Diptera : Psychodidae) and the fluorescent tracer technique (FTT) as a tool to evaluate potential sand fly control... attractiveness of different sugar baits to sand flies. DISCUSSION Survival of sand fly larvae was greatly reduced when they were fed feces of

  2. Weaver Ants to Control Fruit Fly Damage to Tanzanian Mangoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Nina

    observation studies were made to verify the experiences expressed by the interviewees. Mango traders and consumers were also interviewed to better understand the impact of fruit fly infestation on the quality and quantity of fruits in the supply chain. Eighty percent of the farmers, and all pickers...... to approximately 40oC which has been reported to be sufficient to kill fruit fly eggs and larvae. Thus the traditional way of packing mangoes helped to kill fruit fly eggs and larvae at an early stage so visible damage was avoided. As fruit flies were not a major problem to the farmers, and weaver ants were...... identified, but none of the compounds seemed to be related to the presence of weaver ants as they were present in similar quantities in samples with and without weaver ants. However, three compounds, which attract fruit flies, trans-beta-ocimene, cis-beta-ocimene and 2-butanol, seemed to be related to weaver...

  3. Pertumbuhan dan Perkembangan Larva Musca Domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) dalam Beberapa Jenis Kotoran Ternak

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Rosyad, Abdul; Kinasih, Ida

    2013-01-01

    House fly (Musca domestica) is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly's life history. The research is focused on the development of house fl...

  4. Parasite-host relationships of warble fly (Oedemagena tarandi L. and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Solomakha

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The interspecific relations of the warble fly and reindeer have assumed a character of a lenient parasitism. Many researchers note that almost all reindeer are infested by warble fly and reindeer and they also note that almost all domestic reindeer are more heavily infested than wild reindeer. Infestation rates in young domestic reindeer range from 26 to 324 larvae per animal and in young wild reindeer from 15 to 126 larvae per animal. Mature, domestic reindeer are infested with 25 to 417 larvae per animal and in mature wild reindeer the infestation ranges from 38 to 94 larvae per animal. Infestation rates decrease with age.

  5. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  6. Combined and separated effects of gamma irradiation and bifuran plant extract on the dietary profile of the black cutworm, agitators ipsilon (Hun.) 1- treatment of the eight days old larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, S.E.M.; Ibrahim, S.M.; Mohamed, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    The combined and separate effects of two sub sterilizing doses 100 or 150 Gy of gamma irradiation and the plant extract Conyza dioscorides (Barnoof) on eight days- old larvae of F1 generation of Agrotis ipsilon as to their ability to consume, digest and utilize food were studied. Gamma irradiation alone reduced the amount of food consumed and digested by the larvae as compared to non-irradiated ones. Also, the utilization efficiency was decreased more significantly at the dose level 150 Gy than at the dose level 100 Gy leading to a reduction in weight gain. The effect of plant extract (Barnoof) alone was non-significantly different at the two tested concentrations 1.5 or 3 % by the solvent (Petroleum ether) treatment. The combined effect of gamma radiation and plant extract on F1 larvae significantly decreased the growth rate of the larvae than when treating them alone as compared to the untreated larvae. Also, the combined effects of gamma radiation and plant extract significantly decreased the utilization of food as indicated by determining both efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I.) and digested food (E.C.D.) to body matters

  7. House and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) seasonal abundance, larval development substrates, and natural parasitism on small equine farms in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 1-year study was designed to determine adult fly population levels and development substrates on four small equine farms. Results showed that pest flies were present year-round, but differences existed in population levels among farms and seasons. Fly larvae were not found on two of the farms, ...

  8. Odor-taste learning assays in Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bertram; Biernacki, Roland; Thum, Jeannette

    2013-03-01

    The Drosophila larva is an emerging model for studies in behavioral neurogenetics because of its simplicity in terms of cell number. Despite this simplicity, basic features of neuronal organization and key behavior faculties are shared with adult flies and with mammals. Here, we describe a pavlovian-type learning assay in fruit fly larvae. A group of larvae is sequentially exposed to specific odors in the presence or the absence of sugar, and then tested to determine whether they prefer the odor previously experienced with the reward. The protocol uses a two-group, reciprocal training design: One group of Drosophila larvae is exposed to n-amyl acetate (AM) with a sugar reward (+), then subsequently exposed to 1-octanol (OCT) with no reward (denoted AM+/OCT). The other group receives the reciprocal training (AM/OCT+). The two groups of larvae are then tested for their choices between AM and OCT. Relatively higher preferences for AM after AM+/OCT training than after AM/OCT+ training reflect associative learning and are quantified by the learning index (LI). This method offers a robust, simple, cheap, and reasonably quick test for learning ability (an aversive version is available as well, using either high-concentration salt or quinine as punishment). With the concerted efforts of the Drosophila research community, we anticipate it will allow us to unravel the full circuitry underlying odor-taste learning on a single-cell level.

  9. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  10. Salivary gland hypertrophy virus of house flies in Denmark: Prevalence, host range, and comparison with a Florida isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geden, C. J.; Steenberg, T.; Lietze, V.-U.

    2011-01-01

    House flies (Musca domestica) infected with Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV) were found in fly populations collected from 12 out of 18 Danish livestock farms that were surveyed in 2007 and 2008. Infection rates ranged from 0.5% to 5% and averaged 1.2%. None of the stable...... flies (Sarcophaga bullata), black dump flies (Hydrotaea aenescens), or face flies (Musca autumnalis) that were injected with MdSGHV from Danish house flies. However, in two species (stable fly and black dump fly), virus injection resulted in suppression of ovarian development similar to that observed...... flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), rat-tail maggot flies (Eristalis tenax) or yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) collected from MdSGHV-positive farms displayed characteristic salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH). In laboratory transmission tests, SGH symptoms were not observed in stable flies, flesh...

  11. Parasite-host relationships of warble fly (Oedemagena tarandi L.) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Solomakha, A. I.

    1990-01-01

    The interspecific relations of the warble fly and reindeer have assumed a character of a lenient parasitism. Many researchers note that almost all reindeer are infested by warble fly and reindeer and they also note that almost all domestic reindeer are more heavily infested than wild reindeer. Infestation rates in young domestic reindeer range from 26 to 324 larvae per animal and in young wild reindeer from 15 to 126 larvae per animal. Mature, domestic reindeer are infested with 25 to 417 lar...

  12. Baylisascaris Larva Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazacos, Kevin R.; Abbott, Rachel C.; van Riper, Charles

    2016-05-26

    SummaryBaylisascaris procyonis, the common raccoon roundworm, is the most commonly recognized cause of clinical larva migrans (LM) in animals, a condition in which an immature parasitic worm or larva migrates in a host animal’s tissues, causing obvious disease. Infection with B. procyonis is best known as a cause of fatal or severe neurologic disease that results when the larvae invade the brain, the spinal cord, or both; this condition is known as neural larva migrans (NLM). Baylisascariasis is a zoonotic disease, that is, one that is transmissible from animals to humans. In humans, B. procyonis can cause damaging visceral (VLM), ocular (OLM), and neural larva migrans. Due to the ubiquity of infected raccoons around humans, there is considerable human exposure and risk of infection with this parasite. The remarkable disease-producing capability of B. procyonis in animals and humans is one of the most significant aspects of the biology of ascarids (large roundworms) to come to light in recent years. Infection with B. procyonis has important health implications for a wide variety of free-ranging and captive wildlife, zoo animals, domestic animals, as well as human beings, on both an individual and population level. This report, eighth in the series of U.S. Geological Survey Circulars on zoonotic diseases, will help us to better understand the routes of Baylisascaris procyonis infections and how best to adequately monitor this zoonotic disease.

  13. Differential utilization of ash phloem by emerald ash borer larvae: Ash species and larval stage effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Michael D. Ulyshen; Therese M. Poland

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the extent to which ash species (black, green and white) and larval developmental stage (second, third and fourth instar) affect the efficiency of phloem amino acid utilization by emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larvae. EAB larvae generally utilized green ash...

  14. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan larva Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae dalam beberapa jenis kotoran ternak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Eka Putra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available House fly (Musca domestica is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly’s life history. The research is focused on the development of house fly larvae reared with different livestock manures, such as cow, chicken, and horse. As comparison, rice bran were used as control. Results showed that larvae reared with horse manure has the shortest development time (5 days, with lowest larval survival rate (30%, pupal weight (6.8 ± 0.141 g, and weight of female imago (4.9 ± 0.14 g. This finding indicates the lowest nutrition value of horse manure for house flies larvae. Further research is needed to find the effect of manure to variables that directly influence population growth, such as fecundity of female flies and egg survivorship. These additional information on life history will help the design of appropriate house fly population management program for animal farm.

  15. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  16. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-02-10

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters. 

  17. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan larva Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) dalam beberapa jenis kotoran ternak

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhani Eka Putra; Abdul Rosyad; Ida Kinasih

    2015-01-01

    House fly (Musca domestica) is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly’s life history. The research is focused on the development of house fl...

  18. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to R. pomonella flies from the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonel...

  19. Uncommon Human Urinary Tract Myiasis Due to Psychoda Sp. Larvae, Kashan, Iran: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima RASTI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of human and animal body tissues with flies’ larvae and diptera cause myiasis. A 26 yr old female patient refers to Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital, central Iran because of urogenital infection, pain in the right part of stomach, smelly and reddish vaginal discharge and frequent urination. In the first checking, urine sample was taken. In the sample, active and alive larvae were seen. The live samples were taken to the Environmental Health Department Lab of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in clean glass jars. In the morphological survey, Psychoda sp larvae were identified. In Iran, this study is the first report of this species of larva that causes urinary myiasis. This fly larva is not carnivore or bloodsucker and feeds on bacterial agents. Observance of personal hygiene especially during defecation and urination is essential to prevent contamination of this type of myiasis.

  20. Berbagai Cara Pengendalian Larva Nyamuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nungki Hapsari Suryaningtyas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tindakan pencegahan dengan memberantas sarang nyamuk dan membunuh larva serta nyamuk dewasa terus digalakkan. Stadium pradewasa atau larva dapat dikontrol secara biologi maupun kimiawi.1 Berikut adalah beberapa cara pengendalian larva nyamuk.Pengendalian secara biologi Beberapa organisme yang efektif untuk mengendalikan larva secara biologi diantaranya adalah Ikan (larvavivorous fish,Aplocheilus panchax (ikan kepala timah, Ctenops vittatus (ikan cupang,Oreochromis (Tilapia mossambicus (ikan nila dan Cyprinus carpio (ikan tombro, larva nyamuk dari genus Toxorhynchites, Capung (Dragonflies/Labellula . Kelompok Udang (Cyclopoid copepods Jenis Copepoda yang tersebar sebagai plankton dan bentos ini bersifat predator yang efektif untuk mengendalikan stadium pradewasa nyamuk instar satu dan instar dua. Pada suatu penelitian di Polynesia Perancis terbukti bahwa M. aspericornis pengaruhnya tidak konsisten terhadap larva Ae. aegypti yang ditemukan berada di tangki air, drum dan sumur yang tertutup. Keadaan tersebut tampaknya bergantung pada tersedianya mikrofauna di tempat perkembangbiakannya yang dibutuhkan untuk pertumbuhan Copepoda tersebut

  1. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron as a development site treatment for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M

    2012-05-01

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% [AI]), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.); house flies, Musca domestica L.; and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), in cow manure. Various rates and insecticide placement locations (top, middle, and bottom of manure) were evaluated in this study and all combinations of these variables reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated controls. The presence of deformed pupae indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Top, middle, or bottom application rates of 0.125, 0.195, 0.25, and 0.375 g novaluron onto manure samples, reduced adult horn fly emergence by > 90%. Middle and bottom application rates of 0.195, 0.25, and 0.375 g novaluron reduced adult house fly emergence >93%. All rates and placement combinations resulted in >98% reduction of adult stable fly emergence. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species along with the ease of use of a granular formulation, make this product an ideal candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program.

  2. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  3. Sterilization of blow fly eggs, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia cuprina, (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for maggot debridement therapy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limsopatham, Kwankamol; Khamnoi, Phadungkiat; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Boonyawan, Dheerawan; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Sukontason, Kom

    2017-05-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is an application of sterile laboratory-reared blow fly larvae to remove necrotic tissue and disinfect wounds for medical conditions. For effective application, the blow fly larvae used in the wound treatment are required to be in aseptic condition. Here, we report the results of a detailed assessment of bacteria and fungi isolated from the eggs of two blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) before and after sterilization by disinfectants Chlorhex-C, povidone-iodine, and sodium hypochlorite. We also assess the survival ability of larvae and their sterility after the cleansing process. The results indicate that the isolated microorganisms from the control group of both the species consisted of 10 species of gram-positive bacteria, 21 species of gram-negative bacteria, and 4 species of yeast. As for sterility testing, the eggs and the larvae of C. megacephala were found to have been completely sterilized after being subjected to thioglycollate medium for 5 days, leading to aseptic larvae. By contrast, some microorganisms from the bacterial culture were still detected in the L. cuprina larvae treated with Chlorhex-C and povidone-iodine. The survival ability of the larvae in both the species was not significantly different between the treated and the control groups. Due to its high disinfection efficacy in destroying microorganisms in both the blow fly eggs, sodium hypochlorite is recommended for preparing sterile larvae before using MDT.

  4. "White cranes fly over black cranes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thi Thao; Agergaard, Jytte

    2012-01-01

    by the ’migration as resistance’ approach, this paper examines the changes in rural–urban migration dynamics in Vietnam from the 1950s to 2010 in relation to the country’s political and economic reforms (пi M¿i). Drawing on a case study of female migration between Phu Khe and Hanoi, it analyses how migrants resist...

  5. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  6. Trichinella surveillance in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, J A; Kent, M L; Fowler, D R; Chomel, B B; Immell, D A

    2014-01-01

    We used serology and muscle digestion to test black bears (Ursus americanus) from western Oregon, USA, for Trichinella. Results indicate black bears in Oregon are not part of a sylvatic cycle for Trichinella, and risk of human exposure to Trichinella larvae from eating black bear meat from Oregon appears low.

  7. Overview: Pyraloidea larvae (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larvae of pyraloid or snout moths are pests to many crops and stored products and rank as among the most destructive pests to graminaceous crops such as corn, sugarcane, and rice. On the other hand, some larvae have been investigated and used for the biological control of noxious terrestrial a...

  8. Development changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in Chrysomya rufifacies larvae: potential for determining larval age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G H; Ye, G Y; Hu, C; Xu, X H; Li, K

    2006-12-01

    Age determination is the basis of determining the postmortem interval using necrophagous fly larvae. To explore the potential of using cuticular hydrocarbons for determining the ages of fly larvae, changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in developing larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were investigated using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study showed that the larvae produced cuticular hydrocarbons typical of insects. Most of the hydrocarbons identified were alkanes with the carbon chain length of 21-31, plus six kinds of alkenes. The hydrocarbon composition of the larvae correlated with age. The statistical results showed that simple peak ratios of n-C29 divided by another eight selected peaks increased significantly with age; their relationships with age could be modelled using exponential or power functions with R(2) close to or > 0.80. These results suggest that cuticular hydrocarbon composition is a useful indicator for determining the age of larval C. rufifacies, especially for post-feeding larvae, which are difficult to differentiate by morphology.

  9. Cutaneous larva migrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Wieczorek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM is a tropical zoonosis, caused by parasites, usually Ancylostoma braziliense. Humans are an accidental host. Polish patients with CLM are usually tourists visiting tropical and subtropical countries. The first symptoms do not always appear as creeping eruptions, which complicates the diagnosis. Objective. To present the case of a man with CLM after returning from Thailand to Poland and associated diagnostic difficulties. Case report. We present a case of a 28-year-old man who returned to Poland from Thailand. The first symptoms appeared as disseminated pruritic papules. No improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines was observed. The diagnosis was established after the appearance of serpentine erythemas and improvement after albendazole therapy. Conclusions. In the case of returnees from exotic countries suffering from raised, pruritic rashes, and no improvement after treatment with corticosteroids and antihistamines, parasitic etiology should be considered.

  10. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses.......Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance...

  11. Host gut microorganisms' cues mediate orientation behaviour in the larva of the parasitoid Mallophora ruficauda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groba, H F; Castelo, M K

    2016-02-01

    The robber fly Mallophora ruficauda is one of the most important apicultural pests in the Pampas region of Argentina. This species is a parasitoid of scarab beetle larvae. Females lay eggs away from the host, and the larvae perform active search behaviour toward Cyclocephala signaticollis third instar larvae, parasitoid's preferred host. This behaviour is mediated by host-related chemical cues produced in hosts' fermentation chamber. Also, C. signaticollis larvae are attracted to fermentation chamber extracts. As scarab larvae have microbe-rich fermentation chamber, it has been suggested that microorganisms could be involved in the production of these semiochemicals. The aims of this work were first to ascertain the presence of microorganisms in the fermentation chamber of C. signaticollis larvae and second to determine the role of microorganisms in the orientation response of parasitoid and host larvae. We found that microorganisms-free C. signaticollis larvae showed deterioration in their development and did not produce the attractive semiochemicals. Therefore, we isolated fermentation chamber microorganisms of host larvae by means of different cultures media, and then, assayed different microorganisms' stimuli by binary choice tests. We were able to isolate microorganisms and determine that M. ruficauda larvae are attracted to semiochemicals from protein degradation in the fermentation chamber. However, C. signaticollis larvae were not attracted to any semiochemicals associated with microorganisms' activity in the fermentation chamber. Although we were unable to elucidate the exact role of gut microorganisms in host behaviour, we discuss their relevance in parasitoid host-seeking behaviour and host conspecific interaction in M. ruficauda-C. signaticollis system.

  12. Image enhancement for tracking the translucent larvae of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukant Khurana

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster larvae are model systems for studies of development, synaptic transmission, sensory physiology, locomotion, drug discovery, and learning and memory. A detailed behavioral understanding of larvae can advance all these fields of neuroscience. Automated tracking can expand fine-grained behavioral analysis, yet its full potential remains to be implemented for the larvae. All published methods are unable to track the larvae near high contrast objects, including the petri-dish edges encountered in many behavioral paradigms. To alleviate these issues, we enhanced the larval contrast to obtain complete tracks. Our method employed a dual approach of optical-contrast boosting and post-hoc image processing for contrast enhancement. We reared larvae on black food media to enhance their optical contrast through darkening of their digestive tracts. For image processing we performed Frame Averaging followed by Subtraction then Thresholding (FAST. This algorithm can remove all static objects from the movie, including petri-dish edges prior to processing by the image-tracking module. This dual approach for contrast enhancement also succeeded in overcoming fluctuations in illumination caused by the alternating current power source. Our tracking method yields complete tracks, including at the edges of the behavioral arena and is computationally fast, hence suitable for high-throughput fine-grained behavioral measurements.

  13. Differences in the fly-load of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) on cattle is modified by endophyte infection of pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Parra,Leonardo; Rojas,Claudio; Catrileo,Adrian; Galdames,Rafael; Mutis,Ana; Birkett,Michael A; Quiroz,Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Background: The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is an obligate bloodsucking ectoparasite of pastured cattle and is a major pest of livestock production in North and South America and Europe. In this study, we investigated the potential to use cattle pastures, infected with non-toxic, "friendly" fungal-endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., as a strategy for reducing horn fly loads in cattle, and to evaluate the possible bioinsecticide effect on horn fly larvae. Resul...

  14. Molecular identification of Cordylobia anthropophaga Blanchard (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae collected from dogs (Canis familiaris) in Jos South, Plateau State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogo, Ndudim I.; Galindo, Ruth C.; Lastra, José M. P. de la; Fuente, José de la

    2012-01-01

    Myiasis-causing larvae were extracted from dogs attending veterinary clinics in Plateau State, Nigeria and subjected to molecular analysis involving polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 28S rRNA gene of blowflies, cloning and sequencing techniques. All larvae were confirmed as Cordylobia anthropophaga Blanchard (Diptera: Calliphoridae) after the initial morphological identification. This is the first molecular identification of any myiasis-causing fly species in Nigeria and ma...

  15. Application of Pheromone Traps for Managing Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in the Southern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Allen E; Giles, K L; Royer, T A; Elliott, N C; Bradford, N

    2017-06-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say, is an important pest of winter wheat in the Southern Great Plains of the United States. As larvae feed behind the leaf sheath, infestations often go undetected until crop damage is evident, and there are no remedial actions that can prevent economic loss once a field is infested. The recent discovery of the sex-attractant pheromone of the Hessian fly provides an opportunity to use pheromone traps to detect and monitor adult activity and potentially better manage this pest. Adult male Hessian fly activity was monitored during 4 yr at six locations from northcentral Oklahoma, 36° N latitude, south to central Texas, 31° N latitude. In Oklahoma, trap captures were low in the fall, no flies were captured during the winter, and the largest number of flies was captured in the spring. However, in southcentral Texas, adults were captured throughout the fall, winter, and in the spring when trap captures were again the greatest. The relationship between trap captures and density of Hessian fly larvae per tiller was investigated during the fall and spring. Although large numbers of adults (>100 per trap per day) were often captured, economic infestation of larvae rarely developed. Results identify optimum times for field sampling to determine immature Hessian fly infestations in wheat in Oklahoma and Texas. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Cutaneous myiasis caused by a double infestation with larvae of Dermatobia hominis and Cochliomyia hominivorax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan-Kajcovski, B; Simonian, H; Keller, J J; Faber, W R

    2004-10-16

    In a 51-year-old man who had visited Surinam, cutaneous myiasis was diagnosed, caused by simultaneous infestation with the larvae of two different species of flies: Dermatobia hominis and Cochliomyia hominivorax. On his right lower arm the man had two solitary, furuncle-like lesions with a central breathing hole. Two days after these holes had been occluded with vaseline, two white larvae of D. hominis emerged. On both ankles the man had large, undermined ulcers containing hundreds of creeping larvae about 2 cm in length with a salmon-like colour: C. hominivorax. The larvae were removed from the ulcers by hand and by rinsing with physiological saline, after which the wounds healed rapidly. Myiasis is seen in the Netherlands mostly in people returning from a holiday in myiasis-endemic areas.

  17. Filth fly transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica to lettuce, Lactuca sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filth flies have been implicated in the dispersal of human disease pathogens; however, fly transmission parameters of human pathogens to plants are largely undescribed. The capacity of the black blow fly, Phormia regina, to acquire and subsequently release bacteria onto baby lettuce leaves was comp...

  18. Environmental Parameters Associated With Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Development at Hay Feeding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Kristina; Berkebile, Dennis; Wienhold, Brian; Durso, Lisa; Zhu, Jerry; Taylor, David B

    2016-03-25

    Substrates composed of hay residues, dung, and urine accumulate around winter hay feeding sites in cattle pastures, providing developmental habitats for stable flies. The objective of this study was to relate physiochemical and microbial properties of these substrates to the presence or absence of stable fly larvae. Properties included pH, temperature, moisture, ammonium concentration, electrical conductivity, and numbers of coliform, fecal coliform,Escherichia coli, andEnterococcusbacteria. Each physiochemical sample was classified as a function of belonging to one of the three 2-m concentric zones radiating from the feeder as well as presence or absence of larvae. In total, 538 samples were collected from 13 sites during 2005-2011. Stable fly larvae were most likely to be found in moist, slightly alkaline substrates with high levels of ammonium and low temperature. The probability of larvae being present in a sample was the highest when the moisture content was 347% relative to dry weight and the average pH was 8.4. Larvae were recovered within all zones, with a nonsignificant, but slightly higher, percentage of samples containing larvae taken 2-4 m from the center. All methods used to enumerate bacteria, except total coliform, indicated decreasing concentrations in hay bale residue throughout the summer. In addition to the environmental parameters, cumulative degree day 10°C had a significant effect on the probability of observing stable fly larvae in a sample, indicating that unidentified seasonal effects also influenced immature stable fly populations. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  19. The status of Rhionaeschna galapagoensis (Currie, 1901) with notes on its biology and a description of its ultimate instar larva (Odonata, Aeshnidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero-Rivera, A.; Encalada, A.C.; Sanchez-Guillen, R.A.; Santolamazza-Carbone, S.; Ellenrieder, N. von

    2016-07-01

    A morphological, molecular, and behavioural characterization of Rhionaeschna galapagoensis is presented, based on a series of specimens and observations from San Cristóbal Island, Galápagos, including both adults and larvae. Several of the characters proposed earlier to distinguish between the adults of this species and its closest relative, R. elsia, are found to be variable, but the presence of a black band over the fronto–clypeal suture is confirmed as a good diagnostic character. The ultimate instar larvae of R. galapagoensis is described for the first time, and diagnosed from its closest relatives by a combination of characters, including the acute angle between the prothoracic apophyses, absence of lateral spines on abdominal segment 6, and length of cerci relative to paraprocts. Molecular analysis confirmed that R. galapagoensis and R. elsia are sister species, and showed that their genetic distance is the closest among the analyzed species, which is to be expected given the young age of the Galápagos Islands. The larvae of R. galapagoensis were very common and widespread in the mountain streams and a pond in the southwest of San Cristóbal. Swarms of tens of individuals formed at sunrise in the coastal vegetation, together with adults of Tramea cf. cophysa, feeding on small flying insects. Males showed patrolling behaviour on small sections of the streams and at a pond. Only one copulation was observed, lasting 10 minutes. Females oviposited alone on floating vegetation in running and standing waters. Our observations corroborate that R. galapagoensis and R. elsia are two parapatric species, morphologically and genetically close. In San Cristóbal, R. galapagoensis had large populations, apparently not threatened. (Author)

  20. On the invasion of the parasitic fly Lucilia bufonivora (Diptera, Calliphoridae on the common frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyabzina Svetlana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lucilia bufonivora is an obligate, specialised parasite of amphibians. Larval development takes place in the host body. The paper gives a detailed description of parasite observation. This observation was carried out beginning with the moment of finding larvae in the head of the frog till its death and adults flying out. Initially the larvae are located deep in the nostrils, occasionally crawling out on the head. In the frontal part of the frog’s head between the eyes, under the skin, they form a noticeable tubercle. The larvae in the head disturb the frog and lead to its death. After the death of the frog, the larvae move to the nostrils for time, filling them completely. In a day they destroy all soft tissues and cartilages of the host body. The development of larvae on the corpse continues for two days, then they move into the soil for pupation. Their puparia are located under the corpse at a depth of several centimeters. The adults fly out on the 10th day after their pupation. Of the 78 larvae found on the corpse, there were 59 flies, (31 females and 28 males.

  1. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture.

  2. Horn Fly, (L.), Overwintering

    OpenAIRE

    Allan T. Showler; Weste L.A. Osbrink; Kimberly H. Lohmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), is an ectoparasitic blood feeder mainly on cattle. Its cosmopolitan distribution extends from boreal and grassland regions in northern and southern latitudes to the tropics. Stress and blood loss from horn flies can reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Horn flies show substantial plasticity in their response to winter. Populations in warmer, lower latitudes have been reported to overwinter in a state of dormancy, but most overwinter a...

  3. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M; Yeater, K M; May, M A

    2014-07-01

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body weight/d and 0.6 mg/kg body weight/d) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% active ingredient Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), developing in cow manure. Both rates of feed-through novaluron, delivered consecutively for 10 d, reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated control. The presence of deformed puparia indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Both of the feed-through rates evaluated resulted in 100% reduction of adult stable fly emergence after the second day of feed-through treatment. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species make this feed-through formulation a candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program, particularly in confined cattle production situations where a feed-through product could be easily administered.

  4. Mites and spiders act as biological control agent to sand flies

    OpenAIRE

    Diwakar Singh Dinesh; Vijay Kumar; Shreekant Kesari; Pradeep Das

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out natural biological control agents of sand flies vector of kala azar in Bihar, India. Methods: Sand flies collected from the field using CDC light trap installing overnight to the collection site scrutitinized for Phlebotomus argentipes, the established vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Blood fed adult females were confined in the insectary for its development of life cycle. During developmental stages 2nd to 4th instars larvae were examined closely by usi...

  5. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  6. The effect of starvation on the larval behavior of two forensically important species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devinder; Bala, Madhu

    2009-12-15

    The postfeeding larval stage in blow flies is generally an irreversible condition when the fully grown third instar larvae stop feeding and give no response towards food. The larvae of most species then disperse away from their feeding medium and pupariate. There are several cases reported about the use of postfeeding larvae as forensic evidence. It is a matter of common observation that the postfeeding stage can be reached earlier than the expected time if food becomes unavailable. However, no information is available on whether postfeeding stage induced by scarcity of food is also irreversible. Similarly, the minimum period of development required by the larvae of different blow flies species to enable their survival as postfeeding larvae and pupariation in the absence of food is unknown. It was observed during the present studies that the larvae of two Chrysomya species must feed for at least 35 h at 28 degrees C in order to be capable of reaching the postfeeding stage and subsequent pupariation. Duration of the starvation period required to induce postfeeding behavior decreases with increasing age of larvae. In the case of Chrysomya megacephala, 35, 45, 55 and 65 h old larvae attained irreversible postfeeding stage after 30, 20, 12 and 2 h of starvation, respectively. Similarly, larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies that were 35, 45, 55 and 60 h old attained irreversible postfeeding stage after 25, 16, 6 and 2 h of starvation, respectively.

  7. [Reevaluation of the biological control of vector mosquitoes using predatory larvae of Toxorhynchites mosquitoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, M; Horio, M

    1985-09-01

    Attempts to control mosquito-borne disease using predatory mosquitoes such as Toxorhynchites larvae have led to indefinite results for many years, mainly because of the lack of adequate species or strains of Toxorhynchites. Recent improvements of natural and artificial matings of adults in the laboratory and of mass breeding of larvae, however, have made it possible to establish laboratory colonies of most Toxorhynchites species whenever and wherever necessary. Effects of biological control by releasing large numbers of Toxorhynchites mosquitoes should be reevaluated from a new concept of comparing the usual chemical insecticides with the living and flying "insecticides" which cause no environmental pollution.

  8. [Dipteran parasitoidism on larvae of Caligo atreus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Renin

    2004-12-01

    Parasitoids on larvae of Caligo atreus were studied at the Estación de Biologia Tropical in Rio Macho, Cartago, Costa Rica. (1 600 masl), from March through July 2000. Fifth instar larvae of C. atreus were placed on Heliconia tortuosa Griggs var. Red Twist (Heliconiaceae) host plants at a mean temperature of 16.7 degrees C. The parasitoids obtained belong to an unidentified species of the genus Winthemia (Diptera: Tachinidae). Most flies emerge some 40 days after the eggs were laid (maximum 68 days). They make an orifice on the upper ventral part of the lepidopteran pupa. Winthemia is used commercially as biological control of cotton and banana.

  9. Food selection in larval fruit flies: dynamics and effects on larval development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Durisko, Zachary; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Selecting food items and attaining a nutritionally balanced diet is an important challenge for all animals including humans. We aimed to establish fruit fly larvae ( Drosophila melanogaster) as a simple yet powerful model system for examining the mechanisms of specific hunger and diet selection. In two lab experiments with artificial diets, we found that larvae deprived of either sucrose or protein later selectively fed on a diet providing the missing nutrient. When allowed to freely move between two adjacent food patches, larvae surprisingly preferred to settle on one patch containing yeast and ignored the patch providing sucrose. Moreover, when allowed to move freely between three patches, which provided either yeast only, sucrose only or a balanced mixture of yeast and sucrose, the majority of larvae settled on the yeast-plus-sucrose patch and about one third chose to feed on the yeast only food. While protein (yeast) is essential for development, we also quantified larval success on diets with or without sucrose and show that larvae develop faster on diets containing sucrose. Our data suggest that fruit fly larvae can quickly assess major nutrients in food and seek a diet providing a missing nutrient. The larvae, however, probably prefer to quickly dig into a single food substrate for enhanced protection over achieving an optimal diet.

  10. Desiccation resistance of Chironomid larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Frouz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to desiccation in larvae of eight species of aquatic, semiaquatic and terrestrial chironomids (Pseudodiamesa branickii, Macropelopia sp., Prodiamesa olivacea, Micropsectra sp., Chironomus riparius, Chironomus dorsalis, Metriocnemus martini and Camptocladius stercorarius was studied. The larvae were desiccated in exicator at constant conditions (15 °C, 80% RH and changes in moisture and body water content was recorded. The LD-50 for loss of body water was calculated. The lowest resistance to loss of body water was found in larvae from subfamilies Tanypodinae and Diamesinae Macropelopia sp. and P. branickii. They survived loss of 49.7 and 56.6% of original water content (presented values are LD-50. On the other hand the highest resistance to water loss was found in C. dorsalis. M. martini and C. stercorarius. The larvae of these species may survive loss of 67.4, 76.6 and 84.2% of original water content. Nevertheless the survival time under experimental conditions depends more closely on larval size than on lethal level of water loss. The smaller larvae desiccated faster and perished sooner than large ones despite they tolerate higher loss of body water.

  11. Variations in mitochondrial DNA and gene transcription in freezing-tolerant larvae of Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Gynaephora groenlandica (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, D B; Danks, H V; Barber, S A

    2003-06-01

    Respiration, mitochondrial (mt)DNA content, and mitochondrial-specific RNA expression in fat body cells from active and cold-adapted larvae of the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis, and the Arctic woolly bear caterpillar, Gynaephora groenlandica, were compared. Reduced amounts of mtDNA were observed in cold-adapted larvae of both E. solidaginis and G. groenlandica collected in fall or winter, compared with summer-collected larvae. mtDNA increased to levels similar to those of summer-collected larvae after incubation at 10 degrees C or 15 degrees C for 5 h. Mitochondrial-specific RNAs (COI and 16S) were observed in fat body cells of both active and cold-adapted E. solidaginis larvae. Our results suggest that mitochondrial proteins required for respiration may be restored rapidly from stable RNAs present in overwintering larvae.

  12. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    points to a divide between the engineered and the organic and shows a human aspiration for control of information and of biological species. Frustratingly, the work does not allow control over the flies and the printing surface; the flies decide whether it is suitable to print on the paper...

  13. Horn Fly, (L., Overwintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L., is an ectoparasitic blood feeder mainly on cattle. Its cosmopolitan distribution extends from boreal and grassland regions in northern and southern latitudes to the tropics. Stress and blood loss from horn flies can reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Horn flies show substantial plasticity in their response to winter. Populations in warmer, lower latitudes have been reported to overwinter in a state of dormancy, but most overwinter as active adults in normal or reduced numbers. As latitudes increase, winters are generally colder, and correspondingly, larger percentages of horn fly populations become dormant as pharate adults (a post-pupal, pre-emergent stage or die. Reports on the effect of elevation on horn fly dormancy at high elevations were contradictory. When it occurs, dormancy takes place beneath cattle dung pats and in the underlying soil. The horn fly's mode of dormancy is commonly called diapause, but the collective research on horn fly diapause (behavioral and biochemical is not conclusive. Understanding the horn fly's overwintering behaviors can lead to development of pre-dormancy insecticide spray strategies in colder latitudes while other strategies must be determined for warmer regions.

  14. Barcoding Queensland Fruit Flies (Bactrocera tryoni): impediments and improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacket, Mark J; Semeraro, Linda; Malipatil, Mallik B

    2012-05-01

    Identification of adult fruit flies primarily involves microscopic examination of diagnostic morphological characters, while immature stages, such as larvae, can be more problematic. One of the Australia's most serious horticultural pests, the Queensland Fruit Fly (Bactrocera tryoni: Tephritidae), is of particular biosecurity/quarantine concern as the immature life stages occur within food produce and can be difficult to identify using morphological characteristics. DNA barcoding of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene could be employed to increase the accuracy of fruit fly species identifications. In our study, we tested the utility of standard DNA barcoding techniques and found them to be problematic for Queensland Fruit Flies, which (i) possess a nuclear copy (a numt pseudogene) of the barcoding region of COI that can be co-amplified; and (ii) as in previous COI phylogenetic analyses closely related B. tryoni complex species appear polyphyletic. We found that the presence of a large deletion in the numt copy of COI allowed an alternative primer to be designed to only amplify the mitochondrial COI locus in tephritid fruit flies. Comparisons of alternative commonly utilized mitochondrial genes, Cytochrome Oxidase II and Cytochrome b, revealed a similar level of variation to COI; however, COI is the most informative for DNA barcoding, given the large number of sequences from other tephritid fruit fly species available for comparison. Adopting DNA barcoding for the identification of problematic fly specimens provides a powerful tool to distinguish serious quarantine fruit fly pests (Tephritidae) from endemic fly species of lesser concern. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Variation in density of cattle-visiting muscid flies between Danish inland pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    The density of cattle-visiting flies (Muscidae) and the load of black-flies (Simulium spp.) were estimated in twelve and eighteen inland pastures in Denmark in 1984 and 1985 respectively. No differences in the geographical distribution pattern of the predominant cattle-visiting Muscidae were reco......-exposed pastures. A comparable relationship was found for Haematobia irritans. With Haematobosca stimulans (Mg.) and Morellia spp. no relation between grassland environment and fly density was detected....

  16. Mineralogy of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Young; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moo Seung [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on mineralogical and chemical characteristics of coal fly ash collected from Boreong, Honam, Samcheonpo, Gunsan, Seocheon power plants. Mineralogical and chemical characters of fly ashes are clarified by experimental studies, using x-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, differential thermal analyzer, grain size analyzer and chemical analysis. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; The coal fly ashes from the all power plants are mainly consisted with mullite and quartz, and minor quantity of hematite. In particular, fly ash from the Honam power plant is converted into the anorthite under the 1200 degree. According to the result grain size analysis, most of the fly ashes are under the 200 mesh except 66% of fly ashes from the Boreong and Honam, 54% from Seocheon, 83% from Gunsan and 31% from Samcheonpo power plants. The unburned carbon contents are decreased in the small grain size of fly ashes. Under the 200 mesh grain size of Honam fly ashes shows particularly less than 1% content of unburned carbon. Chemical components of fly ashes are found to be 49-80% of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents in the bituminous and anthracite coal ash are 49-69% and 75-80%, respectively. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO concentrations in the bituminous coal ash are higher than anthracite coal ash. The trace elements such as Pb and Zn are higher anthracite coal ash than bituminous coal ash, which is mainly due to the grain size characteristic. The fly ash from Honam power plant with high CaO content can be used potassium silicate fertilizer and raw materials for cements after separation of 200 mesh. Anorthite are formed after 1200 degree heating of bituminous coal ash, which can be utilized as aggregate and bricks. (author). 21 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Visual and olfactory enhancement of stable fly trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei J; Zhang, Qing-He; Taylor, David B; Friesen, Kristina A

    2016-09-01

    Stable flies are considered to be one of the major blood-feeding pests in the US livestock industry, causing losses running into billions of dollars annually. Adult stable flies are highly attracted to Alsynite traps; however, Alsynite is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain and is expensive. Here, we report on the development of a less expensive and more efficacious trap based upon a white panel with the option to add visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. White panel traps caught twice as many stable flies than Alsynite traps. Baiting the traps with synthetic manure volatiles increased catches 2-3-fold. Electroretinographic recordings of stable flies showed strong peaks of visual sensitivities occurring at 330-360 nm, 460-525 nm and 605-635 nm. A laboratory study indicated that young stable flies are more responsive to white, whereas gravid females prefer blue; in the field, white traps caught more stable flies than patterned or blue-black traps. Stable fly control can be enhanced by developing more efficient trapping systems with added visual and olfactory stimuli. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Energetic cost of bot fly parasitism in free-ranging eastern chipmunks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Thomas, Donald W; Humphries, Murray M

    2010-02-01

    The energy and nutrient demands of parasites on their hosts are frequently invoked as an explanation for negative impacts of parasitism on host survival and reproductive success. Although cuterebrid bot flies are among the physically largest and most-studied insect parasites of mammals, the only study conducted on metabolic consequences of bot fly parasitism revealed a surprisingly small effect of bot flies on host metabolism. Here we test the prediction that bot fly parasitism increases the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of free-ranging eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), particularly in juveniles who have not previously encountered parasites and have to allocate energy to growth. We found no effect of bot fly parasitism on adults. In juveniles, however, we found that RMR strongly increased with the number of bot fly larvae hosted. For a subset of 12 juveniles during a year where parasite prevalence was particularly high, we also compared the RMR before versus during the peak of bot fly prevalence, allowing each individual to act as its own control. Each bot fly larva resulted in a approximately 7.6% increase in the RMR of its host while reducing juvenile growth rates. Finally, bot fly parasitism at the juvenile stage was positively correlated with adult stage RMR, suggesting persistent effects of bot flies on RMR. This study is the first to show an important effect of bot fly parasitism on the metabolism and growth of a wild mammal. Our work highlights the importance of studying cost of parasitism over multiple years in natural settings, as negative effects on hosts are more likely to emerge in periods of high energetic demand (e.g. growing juveniles) and/or in harsh environmental conditions (e.g. low food availability).

  19. Behavioural response of Heterorhabditis megidis towards plant roots and insect larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, M.I.C.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Smits, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    The behavioural response of infective juveniles (IJs) of Heterorhabditis megidis (strain NLH-E87.3) to cues from roots of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), thuja (Thuja occidentalis L.) and to larvae of the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, was studied. Choice assays were conducted in

  20. Microbial effects on the development of forensically important blow fly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Esther R; Bulling, Mark T; Barnes, Kate M

    2016-09-01

    Colonisation times and development rates of specific blow fly species are used to estimate the minimum Post Mortem Interval (mPMI). The presence or absence of bacteria on a corpse can potentially affect the development and survival of blow fly larvae. Therefore an understanding of microbial-insect interactions is important for improving the interpretation of mPMI estimations. In this study, the effect of two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) on the growth rate and survival of three forensically important blow fly species (Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria) was investigated. Sterile larvae were raised in a controlled environment (16:8h day: night light cycle, 23:21°C day: night temperature cycle and a constant 35% relative humidity) on four artificial diets prepared with 100μl of 10(5) CFU bacterial solutions as follows: (1) E. coli, (2) S. aureus, (3) a 50:50 E. coli:S. aureus mix and (4) a sterile bacteria-free control diet. Daily measurements (length, width and weight) were taken from first instar larvae through to the emergence of adult flies. Survival rates were also determined at pupation and adult emergence. Results indicate that bacteria were not essential for the development of any of the blow fly species. However, larval growth rates were affected by bacterial diet, with effects differing between blow fly species. Peak larval weights also varied according to species-diet combination; C. vomitoria had the largest weight on E. coli and mixed diets, C. vicina had the largest weight on S. aureus diets, and treatment had no significant effect on the peak larval weight of L. sericata. These results indicate the potential for the bacteria that larvae are exposed to during development on a corpse to alter both developmental rates and larval weight in some blow fly species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  2. A study of the effect of Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H14 (subspecies israelensis) delta endotoxin on Musca larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Mohammad Reza; Zoghimofrad, Laya; Mazinani, Mahboubeh; Akbarzadeh, Azim; Rahimi, Amirabbas

    2015-01-01

    House flies (Musca domestica) are of major public health concern in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene conditions. Biological control through the use of parasitoids and pathogens is one of the alternatives to the use of chemical pesticides for control of insects of public health importance. The effects of the delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis on house fly larval mortality were studied. Gel filtration and SDS-PAGE methods were used for separation and purification of proteins. Delta endotoxin was incubated with larvae in concentrations of 0.43 mg/mL and 0.27 mg/mL in bioassay tests. The results of this study indicated protein crystal toxicity against larvae of the house fly. A concentration of 0.43 mg/mL of this toxin caused 100% mortality in house fly larvae. The LD50 amount of these toxins was calculated as 125 µg/g. The results of this study suggest that the use of the protein crystal including delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H14 is an effective weapon in the biological fight against the house fly.

  3. Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae) in maize (Zea mays L.) and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskal in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz,Ivan; Silva,Rafael Braga da; Figueiredo,Maria de Lourdes Corrêa; Penteado-Dias,Angélica Maria; Sarto,Mário César Laboissiérè Del; Nuessly,Gregg Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Survey of ear flies (Diptera, Ulidiidae) in maize (Zea mays L.) and a new record of Euxesta mazorca Steyskalin Brazil. Species of Euxesta (Diptera, Ulidiidae), known as silk flies or ear flies, are becoming increasingly important as maize insect pests in South America, although very little is known about them in Brazil. The larvae of some species of this genus initially damage female reproductive tissues, and then the developing kernels on the ear. As a result of feeding, fermentation and ass...

  4. Flesh fly myiasis (Diptera, Sarcophagidae in Peruvian poison frogs genus Epipedobates (Anura, Dendrobatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Hagman

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this note we review records of myiasis in poison frogs collected in various locations in Peru during 1982-2005 and present evidence that larger and medium-sized poison frogs (Epipedobates are infected with sarcophagid fly larvae.

  5. Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    larvae cut the growing tip which results in dead heart for- mation. Infestation causes dead hearts in seedlings as well as in tillers of old plants, resulting in considerable damage to the crop (Aruna and Padmaja 2009). Many approaches have been employed to minimize the loss caused by shoot fly. These include agronomic ...

  6. Genes Involved in the Evolution of Herbivory by a Leaf-Mining, Drosophilid Fly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteman, Noah K.; Gloss, Andrew D.; Sackton, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Herbivorous insects are among the most successful radiations of life. However, we know little about the processes underpinning the evolution of herbivory. We examined the evolution of herbivory in the fly, Scaptomyza flava, whose larvae are leaf miners on species of Brassicaceae, including the wi...

  7. [Biotechnological aspects in "loco" larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inestrosa, N C; Labarca, R; Perelman, A; Campos, E O; Araneda, R; González, M; Brandan, E; Sánchez, J P; González-Plaza, R

    1990-10-01

    The biology of planktotrophic larvae of Concholepas concholepas is the main bottleneck towards developing biotechnologies to rear this muricid. Data concerning planktonic larvae development, diets and environmental signals triggering larval settlement and recruitment is scarce. We have begun the study of the molecular and cell biology of embryos, larvae and recruits having as a final goal, the development of appropriate biotechnologies to rear this gastropod. First, an inverse ratio between BuChE and AChE enzyme activities was established. This ratio may be a precise developmental marker for this species. Second, for the first time a phosphoinositide related regulatory pathway is reported in a muricid, opening a new approach to the biotechnological management of larvae. Third, the relation between sulfate in sea water and larval motility was studied. Concentrations below 125 microM sulfate decreases larval motility. The sulfate is incorporated in proteoglycans which participate in different developmental phenomena. Lastly, a genomic Concholepas concholepas DNA sequence, similar to that of a human growth hormone probe was detected. This is very interesting since growth factors are key molecules during development, growth and are involved in food conversion rates in fish and also, in a variety of marine invertebrates.

  8. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... period was rather short, as even high doses of Campylobacter remained viable for less than 24 hours in flies, when they were incubated at temperatures from 20 ºC and higher. Lower temperatures are less- or irrelevant, as flies become slow or immobile below 15-20 ºC....

  9. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  10. Transcriptional response of Musca domestica larvae to bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Tang

    Full Text Available The house fly Musca domestica, a cosmopolitan dipteran insect, is a significant vector for human and animal bacterial pathogens, but little is known about its immune response to these pathogens. To address this issue, we inoculated the larvae with a mixture of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and profiled the transcriptome 6, 24, and 48 h thereafter. Many genes known to controlling innate immunity in insects were induced following infection, including genes encoding pattern recognition proteins (PGRPs, various components of the Toll and IMD signaling pathways and of the proPO-activating and redox systems, and multiple antimicrobial peptides. Interestingly, we also uncovered a large set of novel immune response genes including two broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides (muscin and domesticin, which might have evolved to adapt to house-fly's unique ecological environments. Finally, genes mediating oxidative phosphorylation were repressed at 48 h post-infection, suggesting disruption of energy homeostasis and mitochondrial function at the late stages of infection. Collectively, our data reveal dynamic changes in gene expression following bacterial infection in the house fly, paving the way for future in-depth analysis of M. domestica's immune system.

  11. Cockchafer larvae smell host root scents in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Weissteiner

    Full Text Available In many insect species olfaction is a key sensory modality. However, examination of the chemical ecology of insects has focussed up to now on insects living above ground. Evidence for behavioral responses to chemical cues in the soil other than CO(2 is scarce and the role played by olfaction in the process of finding host roots below ground is not yet understood. The question of whether soil-dwelling beetle larvae can smell their host plant roots has been under debate, but proof is as yet lacking that olfactory perception of volatile compounds released by damaged host plants, as is known for insects living above ground, occurs. Here we show that soil-dwelling larvae of Melolontha hippocastani are well equipped for olfactory perception and respond electrophysiologically and behaviorally to volatiles released by damaged host-plant roots. An olfactory apparatus consisting of pore plates at the antennae and about 70 glomeruli as primary olfactory processing units indicates a highly developed olfactory system. Damage induced host plant volatiles released by oak roots such as eucalyptol and anisol are detected by larval antennae down to 5 ppbv in soil air and elicit directed movement of the larvae in natural soil towards the odor source. Our results demonstrate that plant-root volatiles are likely to be perceived by the larval olfactory system and to guide soil-dwelling white grubs through the dark below ground to their host plants. Thus, to find below-ground host plants cockchafer larvae employ mechanisms that are similar to those employed by the adult beetles flying above ground, despite strikingly different physicochemical conditions in the soil.

  12. Comparison of Host-Seeking Behavior of the Filth Fly Pupal Parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J; Teal, P E; Leppla, N C

    2015-04-01

    The pupal parasitoids, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, can be purchased for biological control of house flies Musca domestica L. and stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Little is known about the odors involved in host-seeking behavior of these two species, so odors associated with house flies were investigated in the laboratory using a Y-tube olfactometer. Odor stimuli from house fly host puparia, larvae, pine-shavings bedding with horse manure, and developing flies in the pine-shavings-manure substrate were evaluated in bioassays using the two pteromalid species. In choice tests, naïve female S. cameroni were strongly attracted to odor from the substrate containing house fly larvae and secondarily from the uninfested substrate and substrate with puparia versus humidified and purified air. This species also selected the substrate with larvae versus the substrate with the house fly puparia or uninfested substrate. Muscidifurax raptor was attracted to odor from the substrate containing puparia, washed puparia, and substrate with puparia removed. The data suggest that coexistence between the two pteromalid parasitoids, S. cameroni and M. raptor, might be promoted by different host-seeking behavior. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) as a forensically-important fly species in Thailand: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, K L; Sukontason, K; Narongchai, P; Lertthamnongtham, S; Piangjai, S; Olson, J K

    2001-12-01

    The first documented use of the larvae of the hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies, for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) of a decomposing human corpse in Thailand is reported. A honeycomb-like wound observed on one leg of the corpse was infested with numerous third-stage C. rufifacies larvae. Based on the pupae and larvae present in accordance with the ambient temperature previously recorded, six days postmortem was estimated for a corpse at the time of its discovery and investigation. Since adult C. rufifacies specimens have been collected in many parts of both urban and mountainous areas in Thailand, more biological information about this blowfly species is needed to increase the accuracy of forensic investigations where the fly is present.

  14. Tracheopulmonary myiasis caused by a mature third-instar Cuterebra larva: case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Muriel; Florent, Martine; Lefebvre, Aurélie; Wertheimer, Christophe; Perez-Eid, Claudine; Bangs, Michael J; Bouvet, Anne

    2003-12-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of vertebrate tissues with fly larvae (Diptera). Most human cases in North America are subcutaneous forms due to Dermatobia hominis imported from Central and South America. Human cases of myiasis acquired in North America are rare and are primarily subdermal or ophthalmologic forms of infestation caused by early stages of Cuterebra larvae. We report an unusual case of tracheopulmonary myiasis, resulting from the in situ development of a mature cuterebrine larva associated with high eosinophilia. Only two other cases of tracheopulmonary cuterebrid myiasis have been reported in humans, and they are reviewed herein. Cuterebra myiasis (cuterebrosis) remains a rare and aberrant cause of tracheopulmonary disease and is a newly described cause of eosinophilia in humans.

  15. Tracheopulmonary Myiasis Caused by a Mature Third-Instar Cuterebra Larva: Case Report and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Muriel; Florent, Martine; Lefebvre, Aurélie; Wertheimer, Christophe; Perez-Eid, Claudine; Bangs, Michael J.; Bouvet, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of vertebrate tissues with fly larvae (Diptera). Most human cases in North America are subcutaneous forms due to Dermatobia hominis imported from Central and South America. Human cases of myiasis acquired in North America are rare and are primarily subdermal or ophthalmologic forms of infestation caused by early stages of Cuterebra larvae. We report an unusual case of tracheopulmonary myiasis, resulting from the in situ development of a mature cuterebrine larva associated with high eosinophilia. Only two other cases of tracheopulmonary cuterebrid myiasis have been reported in humans, and they are reviewed herein. Cuterebra myiasis (cuterebrosis) remains a rare and aberrant cause of tracheopulmonary disease and is a newly described cause of eosinophilia in humans. PMID:14662989

  16. Evaluation of rhodamine B as an orally delivered biomarker for rodents and a feed-through transtadial biomarker for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascari, T M; Foil, L D

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of rhodamine B as an orally delivered biomarker for rodents and a feed-through transtadial biomarker for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae). Rhodamine B-treated hamsters were visibly marked for up to 8 wk, and their feces were fluorescent when examined under a fluorescence microscope. The development and survival of sand fly larvae fed feces of rhodamine B-treated hamsters were not significantly different from control sand flies. Adult male and female sand flies, that had been fed as larvae the feces of rhodamine B-treated hamsters, were fluorescent when examined using fluorescent microscopy and could be distinguished from control sand flies. Adult female sand flies that took bloodmeals from rhodamine B-treated hamsters were fluorescent when examined immediately after feeding. Rhodamine B incorporated rodent baits could be used to detect adult male and female sand flies that fed on the feces of baited rodents as larvae, or adult female sand flies that have taken a bloodmeal from bait-fed rodents. This would allow the delineation of specific foci with rodent-sand fly associations that would be susceptible to control by using feed-through or systemic insecticides.

  17. Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorat, Leena J. [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gaikwad, Sushama M. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@unipune.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add

  18. Observations of the third instar larva and puparium of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, K L; Piangjai, S; Boonsriwong, W; Bunchu, N; Ngern-klun, R; Vogtsberger, R C; Sukontason, K

    2006-11-01

    Observations on the ultrastructure of the third instar larva and puparium of the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, are presented utilizing both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of this study indicate that the shape of the intersegmental spines between the pro- and mesothorax markedly differ from other blow fly species (Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya nigripes, Lucilia cuprina) in being broad-based with sharp recurved tips. Other characters such as the posterior spiracles, number of papillae on the anterior spiracles, oral grooves, and posterior spiracular hairs also differ. The strong and robust mouthhooks may explain the ability of larvae to penetrate deeply into human tissues. Perforated sieve plates covered with antler-like projections were observed within the anterior spiracles of the puparium of C. bezziana. The posterior spiracular discs each bear three spiracular slits with approximately 2-microm wide openings that were viewed either open or closed by a membrane underneath. This study expands our knowledge of the fine details of the external morphology of both the third instar larva and puparium of C. bezziana, which is an obligatory myiasis-producing species in many regions. A key to differentiate the third instar of C. bezziana from other blow flies in Thailand is given.

  19. Autonomous Martian flying rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.

  20. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  1. Molecular identification of blow flies recovered from human cadavers during crime scene investigations in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2012-12-01

    Forensic entomology applies knowledge about insects associated with decedent in crime scene investigation. It is possible to calculate a minimum postmortem interval (PMI) by determining the age and species of the oldest blow fly larvae feeding on decedent. This study was conducted in Malaysia to identify maggot specimens collected during crime scene investigations. The usefulness of the molecular and morphological approach in species identifications was evaluated in 10 morphologically identified blow fly larvae sampled from 10 different crime scenes in Malaysia. The molecular identification method involved the sequencing of a total length of 2.2 kilo base pairs encompassing the 'barcode' fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and t-RNA leucine genes. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya nigripes. In addition, one unidentified blow fly species was found based on phylogenetic tree analysis.

  2. Blow fly maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae)from a human corpse in a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-09-01

    Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.

  3. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  4. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  5. icacy test of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seeds for Chrysomya bezziana larvae growth in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H Wardhana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya bezziana is primer agent causing myiasis in livestock and human throughout Africa to Asia. At present, treatment of myiasis using chemical synthetic insecticide causing environment and livestock production contaminations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seed to kill C. bezziana as botanical insecticide. Three level and method preparation of larvae (L1, L2 and L3 were carried out. Meat blood mixture (MBM and larval rearing media (LRM were mixed with hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed and tested to 625 and 750 larvae (L1and L2 respectively, while for L3 625 larvae were soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract. This last preparation was carried out to observe the effect of toxic contact. Each larvae treatment was divided into 5 levels such as negative control using distillation water (PO, given 0.25% hexane extract (P I; 0.50% (P II; 0.75% (P III and positive control was given with 0.10% Asuntol®. This assay was to know digest toxic effect of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for those larvae. Number of 625 instar III larvae (L3 was soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for 10 second, placed into vermicullite and incubated on 36oC. This assay was to know contact toxic effect of them. All of larvae were allowed to become pupae. Parameters oberserve were number of larvae death, pupae weight and number of pupae become into fly. The data was analyzed using Anova (5% and Z test (5% then smallest significant difference test (BNT 5%. The results showed that 0.50% of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed was able to decrease pupae weight for L1 and L2 and to cause fail pupae become fly (P0.05.

  6. Oviposition preferences of two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and implications for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Tsai; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Necrophagous blow fly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the most important agents for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic entomology. Nevertheless, the oviposition preferences of blow flies may cause a bias of PMI estimations because of a delay or acceleration of egg laying. Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and C. rufifacies (Macquart) are two predominant necrophagous blow fly species in Taiwan. Their larvae undergo rather intense competition, and the latter one can prey on the former under natural conditions. To understand the oviposition preferences of these two species, a dual-choice device was used to test the choice of oviposition sites by females. Results showed when pork liver with and without larvae of C. rufifacies was provided, C. megacephala preferred to lay eggs on the liver without larvae. However, C. megacephala showed no preference when pork liver with and without conspecific larvae or larvae of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) was provided. These results indicate that females of C. megacephala try to avoid laying eggs around larvae of facultatively predaceous species of C. rufifacies. However, C. rufifacies showed significant oviposition preference for pork liver with larvae of C. megacephala or conspecific ones when compared with pork liver with no larvae. These results probably imply that conspecific larvae or larvae of C. megacephala may potentially be alternative food resources for C. rufifacies, so that its females prefer to lay eggs in their presence. When considering the size of the oviposition media, pork livers of a relatively small size were obviously unfavorable to both species. This may be because females need to find sufficient resources to meet the food demands of their larvae. In another experiment, neither blow fly species showed an oviposition preference for pork livers of different stages of decay. In addition, the oviposition preferences of both species to those media with larvae were greatly disturbed in a dark

  7. Severe infestation of blow flies in a raccoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.

    1955-01-01

    A raccoon. (Procyon lotor) was observed in a weakened condition for several days at a farm a few miles east of Salisbury, Maryland. It was then caught and held in captivity for a few days. It continued to become weaker and on May 3, 1954, B. Mixon of the Maryland Department of Game and Inland Fish submitted it to us for study. There was no evidence of trauma, either internal or external. The fur was matted over the right hind leg, the inguinal region, and over much of the left hind leg. Inspection revealed the presence of thousands of larvae of the green-bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata, (Meigen}1 actively tunneling in and out of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Muscle under lying infested skin appeared healthy and untraumatized. A few larvae were in comers of the eyes but none were found in other orifices. Gross and microscopic examination of tissue from the raccoon gave no indication of any acute process which might have led to its moribund condition. James (1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. U. S. Govt. Print. Off.) and Hall (1948: The blowflies of North America.. Thom. Say Foundation) indicate that P. sericata may vary in virulence, some strains becoming parasitic with an ability to invade healthy tissue. In all probability, the larvae described above hatched from eggs originally laid in a skin wound although no evidence for this was found.

  8. Isolamento de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae no Brasil Detectionof Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Tocchetto Schuch

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou detectar presença de esporos de Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae em produtos de um entreposto do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a identificação de possíveis fontes de contaminação e a avaliação da possibilidade da transferência de esporos para colméias de apiários adjacentes a partir de produtos importados contaminados. Foram analisados mel e pólen importados disponíveis no entreposto, favo do ninho (crias, pólen e mel colhido de uma colméia sadia, mel estocado em um dos apiários e abelhas adultas. Os resultados foram positivosem relação ao mel e pólen importados, a três grupos de abelhas adultas e ao mel do favo.The objective of this work was to detect the presence of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae spores in products from a warehouse located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, the identification of possible contamination sources, and the assessment of spores transference possibility from contaminated imported products from the warehouse to apiaries located in the surrounding area. Samples of imported pollen and bulk honey stocked in the warehouse, and honeycomb (brood, honey and pollen from a healthy hive, honey from one apiary and adult bees were analyzed. Imported honey and pollen, and three groups of adult bees and the honey collected from the honeycomb resulted positive.

  9. Identification of Ruffe larvae (Gymnocephalus cernuus) in the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernua; family Percidae) were first detected in the Laurentian Great Lakes in 1986, and are not included in the Great Lakes larval fish key which was published several years prior to their discovery. In addition, subsequent scientific literature has inconsistently described Ruffe larvae. As a result, identification of larval Ruffe remains challenging. We used traditional morphology paired with DNA technology to develop diagnostics for Ruffe larvae collected in the lower St. Louis River, and compared them to similar species. Ruffe < 6 mm total length have myomere counts and a phenotype that more closely resemble centrarchids like Black Crappie, Bluegill and Pumpkinseed rather than percids. However, morphometrics and pigment patterns can be used to distinguish Ruffe from similar centrarchids at this size. As Ruffe larvae develop, they increasingly resemble other percids such as Yellow Perch, but can be distinguished using myomere counts and morphological features. The findings presented here clarify conflicting descriptions in the scientific literature, and provide additional data to support more confident morphological identification of larval Ruffe. The impact of invasive Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) on the ecology of Great Lakes systems is currently being studied. Reproduction and early life history data, however, may be hampered by a general lack of information regarding their early life stage morphological description.

  10. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  11. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Hamilton, James G C; Ward, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies.

  12. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D. [University of Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology. Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-01-15

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  13. The house fly (Musca domestica) as a potential vector of metazoan parasites caught in a pig-pen in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Maike; Klimpel, Sven; Sievert, Kai

    2009-03-09

    In the present study a total of 224 specimens of the synanthropic house fly (Musca domestica) were caught in a pig-pen of an organic farmer in Dormagen (Germany). The flies were examined for their potential as a carrier of metazoan parasites. On the exoskeletons and in the intestines of the flies the eggs and/or larvae of four endoparasite nematode species of domestic pigs (Ascaris suum, Strongyloides ransomi, Metastrongylus sp., undetermined Strongylida) were isolated. Also one ectoparasite species, the hog louse (Haematopinus suis), was detected on the exoskeleton of one fly. The analysis of the pig faeces as potential source revealed many eggs and larvae of nematodes. A high number of A. suum eggs (62.0% of all found nematode eggs), many eggs of strongylid nematodes (21.0%), some eggs of S. ransomi and few eggs of Trichuris suis were detected. However Metastrongylus sp. could not be identified in the faeces. Further laboratory experiments verified the potential of the house fly as a transmitter of the pig parasites A. suum and T. suis. In the intestines of 59 flies (49.2%) from 120 experimentally used house flies, nematode eggs of both nematode species were detected. The present study clearly demonstrates the potential of the house fly as a vector of metazoan pig parasites.

  14. Density, Viability Conidia And Symptoms of Metarhizium anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, D. R.; Putri, R. I. P.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Herlina, L.

    2017-04-01

    M. anisopliae is parasitic fungus on insect pests; it is used as a biocontrol agent. M. anisopliae can be propagated on maize or rice substrate. M. anisopliae is currently sold in the form of kaolin powder formulations. Before it is used to check the density, viability and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae. However the problem is the kaolin powder very soft, so it difficult to distinguish between kaolin and conidia. This article gives information on how to calculate conidia density, viability and symptoms of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae. The study was conducted in the laboratory to determine the density and viability. The pathogenicity testing was done using pots. The Pot is containing soil substrate mixed with M. Anispoliae and ten tails O. Rhinoceros larvae per pot. The results showed that the density of M. anisopliae conidia was 1.81 x 108 conidia mL-1 and the viability was 94% within 24 hours. The larval mortality began to emerge in the 1st week, and all larvae died at the sixth week. The symptom of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae, there was a black spot on the larval integument. The larvae movements become slow and poor appetite; it will die within 3-7 days. The larvae die hard, and the white hyphae grow on the body surface that turns green.

  15. [Imported myiasis: 7 cases of cutaneous parasitism caused by Dermatobia hominis flie larvas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenone, H; Apt, W; Vélez, R; Bustamante, S; Sepúlveda, C; Montaldo, G; Salinas, E

    2001-07-01

    Myiasis is the parasitism of organs and tissues of warm-blooded vertebrates by flies larvae. D hominis is a flie geographically restricted to tropical America from Mexico to northern Argentina. The adult flie, which is not hematophagous, needs to put its eggs on the abdominal surface of hematophagous arthropods which serve as carriers of future larvae which are deposited on the skin of the hosts (mammals, birds and accidentally men) when biting. Seven patients (two females) aged 7 to 35 years old, of different nationalities, recalled receiving mosquito bites, after staying in tropical American areas in the previous forty days. They presented furuncle-like lesions in exposed surfaces of the body. These lesions, 2-3 cm long, pruritic and mildly tender, broke and released a serous or serohematic fluid. Through the resulting opening, it was possible to partially observe the larva. Larvae were extracted by manual pressure (4) or surgical incision (3) and identified as D hominis larvae. Diagnosis of dermatobiasis, an imported myiasis, must be based on the characteristics of lesions and the previous residence in endemic areas of America.

  16. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Wanderley Mendes de [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Inspecao de Produtos de Origem Animal]. E-mail: sipa-rj@agricultura.gov.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br; Schuch, Dulce Maria Tocchetto [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: micro-lara-rs@agricultura.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x10{sup 3} spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5{+-}0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D{sub 10} (3.1{+-}0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  17. Effect of temperature and tree species on damage progression caused by whitespotted sawyer (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) larvae in recently burned logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Sébastien; Bauce, Eric; Berthiaume, Richard; Long, Bernard; Labrie, Jacques; Daigle, Louis-Frédéric; Hébert, Christian

    2013-06-01

    The whitespotted sawyer, Monochamus scutellatus scutellatus (Say) (Coleoptera: Ce-rambycidae), is one of the most damaging wood-boring insects in recently burned boreal forests of North America. In Canada, salvage logging after wildfire contributes to maintaining the timber volume required by the forest industry, but larvae of this insect cause significant damage that reduces the economic value of lumber products. This study aimed to estimate damage progression as a function of temperature in recently burned black spruce (Picea mariana (Miller) Britton, Sterns, and Poggenburg) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lambert) trees. Using axial tomographic technology, we modeled subcortical development and gallery depth progression rates as functions of temperature for both tree species. Generally, these rates were slightly faster in black spruce than in jack pine logs. Eggs laid on logs kept at 12 degrees C did not hatch or larvae were unable to establish themselves under the bark because no larval development was observed. At 16 degrees C, larvae stayed under the bark for > 200 d before penetrating into the sapwood. At 20 degrees C, half of the larvae entered the sapwood after 30-50 d, but gallery depth progression stopped for approximately 70 d, suggesting that larvae went into diapause. The other half of the larvae entered the sapwood only after 100-200 d. At 24 and 28 degrees C, larvae entered the sapwood after 26-27 and 21 d, respectively. At 28 degrees C, gallery depth progressed at a rate of 1.44 mm/d. Temperature threshold for subcortical development was slightly lower in black spruce (12.9 degrees C) than in jack pine (14.6 degrees C) and it was 1 degrees C warmer for gallery depth progression for both tree species. These results indicate that significant damage may occur within a few months after fire during warm summers, particularly in black spruce, which highlights the importance of beginning postfire salvage logging as soon as possible to reduce economic

  18. Microarray analysis of female- and larval-specific gene expression in the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Felix D; Dowd, Scot E; Sun, Yan; Saldivar, Leonel; Wiley, Graham B; Macmil, Simone L; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce A; Foil, Lane D

    2009-03-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans L., is an obligate blood-feeding parasite of cattle, and control of this pest is a continuing problem because the fly is becoming resistant to pesticides. Dominant conditional lethal gene systems are being studied as population control technologies against agricultural pests. One of the components of these systems is a female-specific gene promoter that drives expression of a lethality-inducing gene. To identify candidate genes to supply this promoter, microarrays were designed from a horn fly expressed sequence tag (EST) database and probed to identify female-specific and larval-specific gene expression. Analysis of dye swap experiments found 432 and 417 transcripts whose expression levels were higher or lower in adult female flies, respectively, compared with adult male flies. Additionally, 419 and 871 transcripts were identified whose expression levels were higher or lower in first-instar larvae compared with adult flies, respectively. Three transcripts were expressed more highly in adult females flies compared with adult males and also higher in the first-instar larval lifestage compared with adult flies. One of these transcripts, a putative nanos ortholog, has a high female-to-male expression ratio, a moderate expression level in first-instar larvae, and has been well characterized in Drosophila. melanogaster (Meigen). In conclusion, we used microarray technology, verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and massively parallel pyrosequencing, to study life stage- and sex-specific gene expression in the horn fly and identified three gene candidates for detailed evaluation as a gene promoter source for the development of a female-specific conditional lethality system.

  19. Breeding sites of Phlebotomus sergenti, the sand fly vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Judean Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncaz, Aviad; Faiman, Roy; Kirstein, Oscar; Warburg, Alon

    2012-01-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies transmit Leishmania, phlebo-viruses and Bartonella to humans. A prominent gap in our knowledge of sand fly biology remains the ecology of their immature stages. Sand flies, unlike mosquitoes do not breed in water and only small numbers of larvae have been recovered from diverse habitats that provide stable temperatures, high humidity and decaying organic matter. We describe studies designed to identify and characterize sand fly breeding habitats in a Judean Desert focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To detect breeding habitats we constructed emergence traps comprising sand fly-proof netting covering defined areas or cave openings. Large size horizontal sticky traps within the confined spaces were used to trap the sand flies. Newly eclosed male sand flies were identified based on their un-rotated genitalia. Cumulative results show that Phlebotomus sergenti the vector of Leishmania tropica rests and breeds inside caves that are also home to rock hyraxes (the reservoir hosts of L. tropica) and several rodent species. Emerging sand flies were also trapped outside covered caves, probably arriving from other caves or from smaller, concealed cracks in the rocky ledges close by. Man-made support walls constructed with large boulders were also identified as breeding habitats for Ph. sergenti albeit less important than caves. Soil samples obtained from caves and burrows were rich in organic matter and salt content. In this study we developed and put into practice a generalized experimental scheme for identifying sand fly breeding habitats and for assessing the quantities of flies that emerge from them. An improved understanding of sand fly larval ecology should facilitate the implementation of effective control strategies of sand fly vectors of Leishmania.

  20. Breeding sites of Phlebotomus sergenti, the sand fly vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Judean Desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviad Moncaz

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies transmit Leishmania, phlebo-viruses and Bartonella to humans. A prominent gap in our knowledge of sand fly biology remains the ecology of their immature stages. Sand flies, unlike mosquitoes do not breed in water and only small numbers of larvae have been recovered from diverse habitats that provide stable temperatures, high humidity and decaying organic matter. We describe studies designed to identify and characterize sand fly breeding habitats in a Judean Desert focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. To detect breeding habitats we constructed emergence traps comprising sand fly-proof netting covering defined areas or cave openings. Large size horizontal sticky traps within the confined spaces were used to trap the sand flies. Newly eclosed male sand flies were identified based on their un-rotated genitalia. Cumulative results show that Phlebotomus sergenti the vector of Leishmania tropica rests and breeds inside caves that are also home to rock hyraxes (the reservoir hosts of L. tropica and several rodent species. Emerging sand flies were also trapped outside covered caves, probably arriving from other caves or from smaller, concealed cracks in the rocky ledges close by. Man-made support walls constructed with large boulders were also identified as breeding habitats for Ph. sergenti albeit less important than caves. Soil samples obtained from caves and burrows were rich in organic matter and salt content. In this study we developed and put into practice a generalized experimental scheme for identifying sand fly breeding habitats and for assessing the quantities of flies that emerge from them. An improved understanding of sand fly larval ecology should facilitate the implementation of effective control strategies of sand fly vectors of Leishmania.

  1. The innate immune and systemic response in honey bees to a bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Leonard J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a major paradox in our understanding of honey bee immunity: the high population density in a bee colony implies a high rate of disease transmission among individuals, yet bees are predicted to express only two-thirds as many immunity genes as solitary insects, e.g., mosquito or fruit fly. This suggests that the immune response in bees is subdued in favor of social immunity, yet some specific immune factors are up-regulated in response to infection. To explore the response to infection more broadly, we employ mass spectrometry-based proteomics in a quantitative analysis of honey bee larvae infected with the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Newly-eclosed bee larvae, in the second stage of their life cycle, are susceptible to this infection, but become progressively more resistant with age. We used this host-pathogen system to probe not only the role of the immune system in responding to a highly evolved infection, but also what other mechanisms might be employed in response to infection. Results Using quantitative proteomics, we compared the hemolymph (insect blood of five-day old healthy and infected honey bee larvae and found a strong up-regulation of some metabolic enzymes and chaperones, while royal jelly (food and energy storage proteins were down-regulated. We also observed increased levels of the immune factors prophenoloxidase (proPO, lysozyme and the antimicrobial peptide hymenoptaecin. Furthermore, mass spectrometry evidence suggests that healthy larvae have significant levels of catalytically inactive proPO in the hemolymph that is proteolytically activated upon infection. Phenoloxidase (PO enzyme activity was undetectable in one or two-day-old larvae and increased dramatically thereafter, paralleling very closely the age-related ability of larvae to resist infection. Conclusion We propose a model for the host response to infection where energy stores and metabolic enzymes are regulated in concert with direct

  2. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of fecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. METHODS: Over a period of two months paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and the nu......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of fecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. METHODS: Over a period of two months paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh...

  3. Ecdysis Triggering Hormone Signaling (ETH/ETHR-A Is Required for the Larva-Larva Ecdysis in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Insects must undergo ecdysis for successful development and growth, and the ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH, released by the Inka cells, is a master hormone in this process. In this study, we determined the sequence of the ETH precursor and receptors in an agriculturally important pest insect, the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel. We identified two functionally distinct splice receptor isoforms: BdETH-R-A and BdETH-R-B, and when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-WTA11 cells, they exhibited a high sensitivity to the two mature peptides BdETH1 and BdETH2. The BdETH transcript was detected in the tracheal tissue of the larvae. Inka cells were identified with immunohistochemical antibody staining against Drosophila melanogaster ETH1, and in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes. Selective RNA silencing of BdETH or BdETH-R-A, but not of BdETH-R-B, caused developmental failure at ecdysis. The dsRNA-treated larvae displayed tracheal defects and could not shed the old cuticle followed by death. Our results demonstrated that BdETH, via activation of BdETH-R-A but not ETH-R-B, plays an essential role in regulating the process of larva-larva ecdysis in B. dorsalis.

  4. Molecular identification of Cordylobia anthropophaga Blanchard (Diptera: Calliphoridae larvae collected from dogs (Canis familiaris in Jos South, Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndudim I. Ogo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis-causing larvae were extracted from dogs attending veterinary clinics in Plateau State, Nigeria and subjected to molecular analysis involving polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 28S rRNA gene of blowflies, cloning and sequencing techniques. All larvae were confirmed as Cordylobia anthropophaga Blanchard (Diptera: Calliphoridae after the initial morphological identification. This is the first molecular identification of any myiasis-causing fly species in Nigeria and may serve as a reliable alternative to morphological identification where samples are not well preserved or difficult to identify to species level.

  5. Excision of a Dermatobia hominis larva from the heel of a South American traveler: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Donald W; Cooney, Ryan T

    2004-01-01

    Although foot and ankle specialists are well versed in treating insect bites and foreign bodies, many physicians in the United States are unfamiliar with parasitic organisms that are common in other parts of the world. This article presents a case of a patient inoculated in the posterior heel with the larva of a Dermatobia hominis, or human bot fly. Excision of the larva provided a complete resolution of the patient's symptoms. Although the initial clinical presentation suggested a simple foreign body, the patient's recent travel history to Brazil shows that a thorough history is essential to establishing a complete list of differential diagnoses.

  6. Olfactory conditioning in the third instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster using heat shock reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Sukant; Robinson, Brooks G; Wang, Zihe; Shropshire, William C; Zhong, Allen C; Garcia, Laura E; Corpuz, Jonathan; Chow, Jonathan; Hatch, Michael M; Precise, Eric F; Cady, Amanda; Godinez, Ryan M; Pulpanyawong, Terapat; Nguyen, Andrew T; Li, Wen-Ke; Seiter, Max; Jahanian, Kambiz; Sun, Jeffrey C; Shah, Ruchita; Rajani, Sunaina; Chen, William Y; Ray, Sofia; Ryazanova, Natalie V; Wakou, Dorah; Prabhu, Rohith K; Atkinson, Nigel S

    2012-01-01

    Adult Drosophila melanogaster has long been a popular model for learning and memory studies. Now the larval stage of the fruit fly is also being used in an increasing number of classical conditioning studies. In this study, we employed heat shock as a novel negative reinforcement for larvae and obtained high learning scores following just one training trial. We demonstrated heat-shock conditioning in both reciprocal and non-reciprocal paradigms and observed that the time window of association for the odor and heat shock reinforcement is on the order of a few minutes. This is slightly wider than the time window for electroshock conditioning reported in previous studies, possibly due to lingering effects of the high temperature. To test the utility of this simplified assay for the identification of new mutations that disrupt learning, we examined flies carrying mutations in the dnc gene. While the sensitivity to heat shock, as tested by writhing, was similar for wild type and dnc homozygotes, dnc mutations strongly diminished learning. We confirmed that the learning defect in dnc flies was indeed due to mutation in the dnc gene using non-complementation analysis. Given that heat shock has not been employed as a reinforcement for larvae in the past, we explored learning as a function of heat shock intensity and found that optimal learning occurred around 41 °C, with higher and lower temperatures both resulting in lower learning scores. In summary, we have developed a very simple, robust paradigm of learning in fruit fly larvae using heat shock reinforcement.

  7. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.

    2016-01-01

    diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...... was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults....

  8. Identification of stable fly attractant compounds in vinasse, a byproduct of sugarcane-ethanol distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvez Serra, N S; Goulart, H F; Triana, M F; Dos Santos Tavares, S; Almeida, C I M; DA Costa, J G; Santana, A E G; Zhu, J J

    2017-12-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is a worldwide pest of livestock. Recent outbreaks of stable flies in sugarcane fields in Brazil have become a serious problem for livestock producers. Larvae and pupae found inside sugarcane stems after harvesting may indicate that stable flies use these stems as potential oviposition or larval development sites. Field observations suggest that outbreaks of stable flies are associated with the vinasse and filter cake derived from biomass distillation in sugarcane ethanol production that are used as fertilizers in sugarcane fields. Adult stable flies are attracted to vinasse, which appears to present an ideal larval development site. The primary goal of the present study is to demonstrate the role of vinasse in influencing the sensory physiological and behavioural responses of stable flies, and to identify its associated volatile attractant compounds. Both laboratory and field studies showed that vinasse is extremely attractive to adult stable flies. Chemical analyses of volatiles collected revealed a wide range of carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenols and aldehydes as potential attractant compounds. These newly identified attractants could be used to develop a tool for the attractant-baited mass trapping of stable flies in order to reduce infestations. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Indoor decomposition study in Malaysia with special reference to the scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja M. Zuha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are a diversified insect group of forensic importance. Their frequent presence on human corpses indoors and in concealed environments can be the sole indicators to estimate the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin. However, bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcasses are rarely documented indoors. The objective of this research is to observe and document the occurrence of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcass placed inside a portable cabin maintained at room temperature (≈25.0 °C in Bangi, Malaysia. This study was conducted in two rounds for a period of 40-day each and samplings were carried out in different intervals. Adult scuttle flies were aspirated directly from the carcass and preserved in 70% ethanol. Their larvae and pupae were reared until adult stage to facilitate identification. Megaselia scalaris (Loew, Megaselia spiracularis (Schmitz and Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot were the scuttle flies found on the carcasses with M. scalaris being the earliest and dominant to colonize the body. This cosmopolitan species proved to be the best indicator to estimate PMImin indoor but in the increased presence of other fly species, it might be relegated to a secondary role. The scuttle flies were also found to coexist with other dipterans of forensic importance in an indoor environment, mainly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae. This information expands the knowledge on the bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal remains indoors.

  10. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cluding section. What Makes Flight Possible. It is obvious to most of us today that a body in flight must obey. Newton's laws of motion. Leonardo da Vinci in the early 1500's had already realised that "a bird flies according to mathematical .... Here x is the distance from the leading edge along the wing surface. In a majority of ...

  12. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera: Tephritidae in southern Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab. Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recording the number of larvae emerged from these fruits. In addition, suspected overwintering refuges were sampled at weekly intervals during the three coldest months of the year (December – February and the number of collected larvae was recorded. The results of trap catches and fruit sampling studies showed a similar pattern of occurrence of medfly populations in the study areas, particularly in Damascus Ghota, during the three years of the study. In Damascus Ghota, flies were caught continuously from early June to late December with some variability between years. Two distinct periods of high fly activity were observed: the first one occurred in August and the second in November with a much higher amplitude. In general, seasonal fluctuations in the pattern of occurrence were influenced by differences in temperature and abundance of preferred host fruits. Traps on fig Ficus carica and oriental persimmon Diospyros kaki trees caught the highest numbers of flies, and fruits collected from these trees showed the highest level of infestation, reaching 100% for fig fruit late in the season. Sampling fruits (in Damascus Ghota from trees during the three coldest months of the year showed that a small population of medfly larvae was able to survive winter conditions in prickly pear Opuntia vulgaris fruit left on the trees. In the other areas of the study (Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab, only a few flies were caught.

  13. Distribution and Seasonal Activity of Phlebotominae Sand Flies in Yazd and Its Outskirts, Center of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhoseini, Motahareh; Salehzadeh, Aref; Ramazan Jamaat, Sara; Zahirnia, Amir Hosein; Rahmanzadeh, Najmeh

    2017-01-01

    Phlebotominae sand flies are the main vectors of leishmaniasis and some other diseases. Using sticky traps, sand flies were collected fortnightly from outdoors and indoors areas of selected sites. A total of 2032 specimens (498 in the city and 1534 in the outskirts of Yazd) belonging to 11 species were collected. The activity of sand flies started in early-April and ended in mid-November. There were two peaks of activity in the end of April and mid-September. Phlebotomus sergenti and P. papatasi were the most abundant species in the city and outskirts of Yazd city, respectively. Other species were P. salehi , P. ansarii , P. kazerouni , P. caucasicus , P. andrejevi , P. alexandri , P. mongolensis , Sergentomyia sintoni, and S. palestinensis . In comparison to some other parts of Iran, the extended period between two peaks suggests that the larvae to adult development of sand fly were delayed by the higher temperature of the summer months in Yazd province.

  14. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowiong behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva)(Diptera: Psychodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Hamilton, J.G.C.; Ward, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to

  15. Warble? What’s a Warble? A recap of the human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr. 1781)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human bot fly, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) is a major pest of livestock in Mexico, Central and South America. Myiasis caused by the larvae result in economic losses due to hide damage and reductions in weight gain and milk production. They have a broad host range which includes wildl...

  16. Effect of cryopreservation on the pre-hatching behavior in the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a sampling of untreated embryos of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, the cumulative hatch percentage was 84.77±7.8% of which ~70% of the larvae eclosed through the posterior pole of the egg. This is due to an unusual and seemingly energy demanding act of flipping of the fully developed pre-ha...

  17. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  18. DISTRIBUIÇÃO DE LARVAS DE NEMATÓDEOS GASTRINTESTINAIS DE OVINOS EM PASTAGENS DE INVERNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Louise Gazda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the dynamics of nematode larvae of sheep on winter pasture species. A completely randomized design was used. The treatments were composed by two different dry matter offers of each forage species (black oat 5% and 12%; ryegrass 10% and 20%. A total of 28 Suffolk female lambs were used. Pasture was taken every fifteen days and samples were separated into superior and inferior fractions and sent for counting and identification of parasite larvae. Lambs were evaluated each fifteen days for parasitological evaluations. Ryegrass (104.53 L/g MS presented higher (p0.05 in the worm burden. Otherwise a trend of linear increase in the number of fecal egg count was observed in the treatment with black oat with lower dry matter content. Sheep rearing in high stocking rates leads to parasitic infection of animals and environment contamination by pathogenic helminth larvae.

  19. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Marhaver, K.L.; Huijbers, C.M.; Nagelkerken, I.; Simpson, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm) that influence settlement success are difficult to

  1. Spatial distribution of tuna larvae in the Gulf of Gabes (Eastern Mediterranean in relation with environmental parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. KOCHED

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution and ecology of the larvae of three tuna species (Thunnus thynnus, Auxis rochei and Euthynnus alletteratus were studied during an ichthyoplankton survey carried out in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia in June and July 2009. A total of 80 stations, distributed on a regular sampling grid, were sampled. The main objectives of this survey were to provide information on tuna larvae distribution in the Gulf of Gabes in relation to the environmental parameters. Regarding small tunas, larvae of A. rochei (bullet tuna showed the more widespread distribution, being found at both inshore and offshore stations. E. alletteratus (Atlantic black skipjack larvae were mainly found at the inshore stations covering the wide continental shelf of this region. On the other hand, larvae of the large migratory tuna T. Thynnus (Atlantic bluefin tuna, were mainly recorded at offshore stations, suggesting that spawning possibly takes place mainly near the shelf break. Regarding the biological and physical parameters examined, our results indicate that tuna larvae were mainly collected in oligotrophic and mixed waters resulting from the confluence of surface water of recent Atlantic origin and resident surface Mediterranean waters, as shown by their preference for lower chlorophyll a concentrations (from 1.4 to 2.5 mg m-3 and moderate salinity values (between 37.35 and 37.75. Significantly, tuna larvae seemed to avoid the more eutrophic and saltier waters of the gulf situated very close to the coast and around Kerkennah and Djerba islands.

  2. Control of egg hatch ability and adult emergence of three fruit fly species in papayas by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, S.S.; Pasion, W.B.; Moy, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquilett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Weidemann) were studied. Melon fly was determined to be the most susceptible of the three species. A dosage of 550 Gy rendered the eggs 100% sterile when irradiated in papayas at 4-6 hours before hatching. Oriental and mediterranean fruit flies were found to be more resistant, requiring doses of 750 and 850 Gy, respectively. A dose of only 100 Gy was needed to inhibit adult eclosion when the three species were treated at third instar larvae. Warm water treatment at 49 0 C for 20 minutes was found sufficient in preventing the hatching of any egg in the infested papaya fruits. However, since eggs may hatch before the warm-water treatment can be applied, a combination of irradiation treatment using 100 Gy is recommended for disinfestation of papaya fruits. (author). 17 refs.; 3 tabs

  3. Degrees of polarization of reflected light eliciting polarotaxis in dragonflies (Odonata), mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and tabanid flies (Tabanidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriska, György; Bernáth, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Horváth, Gábor

    2009-12-01

    With few exceptions insects whose larvae develop in freshwater possess positive polarotaxis, i.e., are attracted to sources of horizontally polarized light, because they detect water by means of the horizontal polarization of light reflected from the water surface. These insects can be deceived by artificial surfaces (e.g. oil lakes, asphalt roads, black plastic sheets, dark-coloured cars, black gravestones, dark glass surfaces, solar panels) reflecting highly and horizontally polarized light. Apart from the surface characteristics, the extent of such a 'polarized light pollution' depends on the illumination conditions, direction of view, and the threshold p* of polarization sensitivity of a given aquatic insect species. p* means the minimum degree of linear polarization p of reflected light that can elicit positive polarotaxis from a given insect species. Earlier there were no quantitative data on p* in aquatic insects. The aim of this work is to provide such data. Using imaging polarimetry in the red, green and blue parts of the spectrum, in multiple-choice field experiments we measured the threshold p* of ventral polarization sensitivity in mayflies, dragonflies and tabanid flies, the positive polarotaxis of which has been shown earlier. In the blue (450nm) spectral range, for example, we obtained the following thresholds: dragonflies: Enallagma cyathigerum (0%

  4. Multispecies blow fly myiasis combined with hypothermia in a man assumed to be dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Victoria; Finkelmeier, Fabian; Tal, Andrea; Bojunga, Jörg; Derwich, Wojciech; Meier, Simon; Lux, Constantin; Verhoff, Marcel A; Amendt, Jens

    2018-02-01

    We describe the case of a man who was found with severe hypothermia and advanced myiasis involving five species of blow flies, which eventually led to a transtibial amputation of the man's right leg. A case of such a heavy and species-rich infestation with fly larvae in an urban environment is extraordinary and has, to our knowledge, never been described so far. Best practice in cases such as this one demands accurate species identification not only to ensure appropriate treatment and pest management but also, from a forensic point of view, to explore the possibility of third-party responsibility. The cooperation between physicians and forensic entomologists is highlighted.

  5. New host and the extend of the host range of warble fly Hypoderma diana (Diptera, Hypodermatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlásek Ivan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Warble fly Hypoderma diana is known to be a parasite not only of roe deer and other species of Cervidae but also of non-specific hosts from among other orders of ungulates. First-instar larvae of Hypoderma diana, a specific parasite of Cervidae, have been found in a new non-specific host, i.e. the wild boar (Sus scrofa. This finding is further evidence of the exceptional adaptability of this species of subcutaneous warble fly of the family Hypodermatidae. It corroborates the validity of the proposition that the host range of a host-specific parasite can only be ext

  6. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambolas infested with Caribbean fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, W.P.; Windeguth, D.L. von

    1991-01-01

    Carambolas infested with the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation. Probit 9 was estimated to be 22.95 Gy (95% fiducial limits 16.68 Gy - 49.73 Gy). Over 100,000 immature A. suspensa infesting carambolas were treated at 50 Gy with no adult survivors. This dose did not cause any observable damage to the fruit. The 50 Gy dose satisfies quarantine requirements for treatment of fruits exposed from fruit fly infested areas. (author) [es

  7. Furuncular myiasis caused by the human bot-fly Dermatobia hominis in a domestic cat from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verocai, Guilherme G; Fernandes, Julio I; Correia, Thais R; de Souza, Clarissa P; Melo, Raquel M P S; Scott, Fabio B

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports a case of furuncular myiasis caused by the human bot-fly Dermatobia hominis in a domestic cat from Brazil. A crossbred shorthaired female cat of approximately 3 years old, presented with three boil-like cutaneous lesions at the left cranioventral region of the neck. These were diagnosed as furuncular myiasis. The animal was sedated, and after shaving the fur, bot-fly larvae were removed from the lesion by digital compression. Afterwards, the wounds were treated with 10% iodine solution and also with wound-healing cream containing sulfanilamide, urea and beeswax. Maggots were identified as third-stage larvae of D hominis. Clinical case reports of human bot-fly myiasis in cats are relevant due to its scarce occurrence in feline veterinary practice in some countries. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feline cuterebrosis caused by a lagomorph-infesting Cuterebra spp. larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slansky, Frank

    2007-08-01

    Native species of rodents and lagomorphs in the Americas are the typical hosts of Cuterebra spp. larvae. Although these bot flies are relatively host specific, they occasionally parasitize other native and introduced mammals (including domestic animals and humans), an affliction termed cuterebrosis. Cuterebra spp. larvae generally cause benign, subcutaneous lesions (warbles), but when infesting domestic cats, they can invade the eyes, respiratory tract, and cerebral tissues, causing severe, and in some cases fatal, injury. Despite more than 2 dozen published reports of feline cuterebrosis, the type (rodent- or lagomorph-infesting) or species parasitizing domestic cats has rarely been determined. Here, I identify a larva removed from a kitten in southern Wisconsin as belonging to a lagomorph-infesting Cuterebra species, most likely C. abdominalis, based especially on features of the cuticular platelets covering its exterior, and its geographic location. This seems to be only the third substantiated report of feline cuterebrosis in more than 50 yr in which a larva has been identified beyond "Cuterebra spp." In each case, lagomorph-infesting species were involved, suggesting that domestic cats may not be susceptible to rodent-infesting Cuterebra species. However, because these studies are limited in number and geographic area, additional research is required to establish the spectrum of Cuterebra species involved in feline cuterebrosis.

  9. Selection of a Bacillus pumilus strain highly active against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, C Alfonso; Caña-Roca, Juan F; Osuna, Antonio; Vilchez, Susana

    2010-03-01

    Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), is one of the most important fruit pests worldwide. The medfly is a polyphagous species that causes losses in many crops, which leads to huge economic losses. Entomopathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus have been proven to be safe, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective tools to control pest populations. As no control method for C. capitata based on these bacteria has been developed, isolation of novel strains is needed. Here, we report the isolation of 115 bacterial strains and the results of toxicity screening with adults and larvae of C. capitata. As a result of this analysis, we obtained a novel Bacillus pumilus strain, strain 15.1, that is highly toxic to C. capitata larvae. The toxicity of this strain for C. capitata was related to the sporulation process and was observed only when cultures were incubated at low temperatures before they were used in a bioassay. The mortality rate for C. capitata larvae ranged from 68 to 94% depending on the conditions under which the culture was kept before the bioassay. Toxicity was proven to be a special characteristic of the newly isolated strain, since other B. pumilus strains did not have a toxic effect on C. capitata larvae. The results of the present study suggest that B. pumilus 15.1 could be considered a strong candidate for developing strategies for biological control of C. capitata.

  10. Fitness benefits of the fruit fly Rhagoletis alternata on a non-native rose host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Kim; Smit, Christian; Schilthuizen, Menno; Beukeboom, Leo W

    2016-05-01

    Many species have been introduced worldwide into areas outside their natural range. Often these non-native species are introduced without their natural enemies, which sometimes leads to uncontrolled population growth. It is rarely reported that an introduced species provides a new resource for a native species. The rose hips of the Japanese rose, Rosa rugosa, which has been introduced in large parts of Europe, are infested by the native monophagous tephritid fruit fly Rhagoletis alternata. We studied differences in fitness benefits between R. alternata larvae using R. rugosa as well as native Rosa species in the Netherlands. R. alternata pupae were larger and heavier when the larvae fed on rose hips of R. rugosa. Larvae feeding on R. rugosa were parasitized less frequently by parasitic wasps than were larvae feeding on native roses. The differences in parasitization are probably due to morphological differences between the native and non-native rose hips: the hypanthium of a R. rugosa hip is thicker and provides the larvae with the possibility to feed deeper into the hip, meaning that the parasitoids cannot reach them with their ovipositor and the larvae escape parasitization. Our study shows that native species switching to a novel non-native host can experience fitness benefits compared to the original native host.

  11. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  12. Activated host neutrophils in the larval midgut lumen of the human bot fly Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Antônio C R; Evangelista, L G

    2002-04-01

    Light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils from mammalian hosts as well as invading bacteria in the midgut lumen of larvae of the human bot fly Dermatobia hominis. Other resident or recruited cells associated with dermal myiasis were fed on by larvae and digested more rapidly than neutrophils. The latter were observed moving towards bacteria and particles of food, extending the filopodia and engulfing material to be digested within phagosomes. The larval midgut lumen, thus, appears to be a suitable environment to produce neutrophil activation at least for short periods, as seen in mammalian hosts. Although interactions between phagocytes and bacteria in the midgut lumen may be important in bot fly larval development, further studies are required to confirm this.

  13. Effects of irradiation on phenoloxidase levels in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neven, L.G.; Morford, M.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory trials were conducted to determine if changes in phenoloxidase, a common hemolymph component in insects, could be detected in codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). The 5 instars of codling moth were irradiated at doses of 0, 100, 300, 600, and 900 Gy and phenoloxidase levels were monitored at 0, 2, 4, and 6 d after treatment. The melanization method, protein electrophoresis, dot blot, and enzyme activity analyses were performed to determine phenoloxidase levels. No significant changes in the protein levels, enzymatic activity, or melanization rates in irradiated codling moth larvae were found. Although the melanization method may be adequate for determining whether larvae of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (L.), were irradiated, it is not applicable to codling moth

  14. RAF-5074: Enhancing Capacity for Detection, Surveillance and Suppression of Exotic and Established Fruit Fly Species through Integration of Sterile Insect Technique with Other Suppression Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyoki, M.; Kasina, M.

    2017-01-01

    Fruit flies (Family Tephritidae) is one of the most destructive and economically challenging pest insect of fruits and vegetables. It is responsible for loss of export markets and poor farm gate prices of fruits and vegetables. Fruit flies are insects (Diptera) and undergoes complete metamorphosis: eggs- larva- pupa- adult. Only larva (maggots) are extremely damaging and the Adults in addition cause economic injury through stippling. The purpose of this project is to build capacity of African countries in the management of fruit flies using area wide approach and incorporating sterile insect technique (SIT ). sterile insect technique is a method that uses sterile insects (males) to flood them in the wild, and by so doing they mate with wild fertile individuals, resulting to no progeny. KALRO looking forward to develop mass rearing facility for fruit flies and SIT facility

  15. A study of relative horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), abundance on Holstein steers and steers of two Holstein crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, A A; Volpogni, M M; Castro, H; Mangold, A J; Anziani, O S

    2002-10-16

    A study was performed to determine if the number of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) adults differ significantly on Holstein (black and white coat color), Holstein x Holstein Friesian (black and white coat color) and Holstein x Jersey (black coat color) steers, 10-12 months old at the onset of the study. All steers were run together on lucerne paddocks and the number of flies counted at 30-day intervals from September 2000 to August 2001. No significant differences (P > 0.05, test of Kruskal-Wallis) were found in fly numbers, even in the period April-May 2001 when the infestation reached its peak. We were unable to demonstrate that coat color influenced horn fly abundance in the present study. It appears that none of the biotypes evaluated had any advantage for natural control of H. irritans.

  16. Comparisons of demographic parameters: Six parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and their fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Roger I.; Ramadan, Mohsen

    2000-01-01

    Four economically important fruit flies have been introduced accidentally into the Hawaiian Islands. They are the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (introduced in 1895), the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (in 1907), the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) (in 1945) and the Solanaceous fruit fly, B. latifrons (Hendel) (in 1983). These fruit flies jeopardise development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable industry in Hawaii, cause exported fruits to undergo expensive quarantine treatment and provide a reservoir for introduction into mainland United States. The establishment of fruit flies in Hawaii resulted in subsequent releases of numerous entomophagous insects. For example, Bess et al. (1961) listed a total of 32 natural enemies released between 1947 and 1952. Today, Fopius (=Biosteres) arisanus (Sonan), Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead), Biosteres vandenboschi (Fullaway), Psyttalia incisi (Silvestri), Diachasmimorpha tryoni (Cameron) and Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri) are the most abundant species. These species have played a major role in the reduction of fruit flies throughout the Hawaiian Islands. For example, as a result of parasitisation (60-79.1%) by F. arisanus, the average number of Oriental fruit fly larvae per guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit declined from 8.5 in 1950 to 2.6 in 1955 (Clausen et al. 1965). Demographic population analysis has diverse applications: analysing population stability and structure, estimating extinction probabilities, predicting life history evolution, predicting outbreaks in pest species and examining the dynamics of colonising or invading species. This study of the demography of Hawaiian fruit flies and their parasitoids is based on data from Vargas et al. (1984) and Vargas and Ramadan (1998). This paper describes the comparative demography of F. arisanus, B. tryoni, B. longicaudata, B. vandenboschi, P. incisi and P. fletcheri

  17. The Combined Effects of Gamma Irradiation and Plant Extract (Barnoof) on the Nutritional Profile of the black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) II-The effect on the F1 Progeny during the 5 th and 6 th instars larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shall, S.S.A.; Mohamed, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    The combined effects of two sub-sterilizing doses (100 and 150 Gray) of gamma irradiation to male Full grown pupae of Agrotis ipsilon and Barnoof plant extract, Conyza dioscorides to the resulting larvae of F1 progeny on the consumption and utilization of food during the fifth and sixth instars larvae were studied. In general, plant extract and gamma irradiation each of them alone or in combination reduced the amount of food consumed and digested by the F1 larvae as compared to the control. As well, Barnoof treatments decreased significantly the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (E.C.I.), together with the efficiency of conversion of digested food to body substances (E.C.D.) at the two tested concentration (1.5 and 3 %) for the two solvents (Acetone and Petroleum ether) when compared with the untreated ones, Also, the food utilization efficiencies decreased in both irradiation doses leading to a significant reduction in weight gain and growth rate. In addition, it could be noticeable that, food utilization efficiencies for growth and development were lower in F1 larvae resulting from irradiation treatment alone than those resulting from combination treatments. Supplementary the combined effects of gamma irradiation and/or plant extract on the percentage of development per day, the growth and survival indices were considered. Most of the treatments decreased the values of these indices of the F1 progeny, as compare to the control. The reduction in these values was more obvious in combination treatments compared to gamma irradiation or plant extract treatments each of them alone. However, this decrease in the values of the previous indices associated with an increase of assimilation index in most treatments compare to control. However, a significant increase of the assimilation index values was observed at the majority of combination treatment as compare to the control

  18. Variation in density of cattle-visiting muscid flies between Danish inland pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Nielsen, B. Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    recorded, whilst the relative abundance and density of the species and the total fly-load varied considerably between pastures. In most cases the mean loads of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Hydrotaea irritans (Fall.) on heifers varied significantly in relation to site topography and shelter. These crude......The density of cattle-visiting flies (Muscidae) and the load of black-flies (Simulium spp.) were estimated in twelve and eighteen inland pastures in Denmark in 1984 and 1985 respectively. No differences in the geographical distribution pattern of the predominant cattle-visiting Muscidae were...... site variables explained 65-98% of the variation in densities of horn flies and sheep head flies observed between pastures. Highest densities of Hydrotaea irritans were primarily associated with permanent, low-lying, fairly sheltered grassland sites, whereas the density was low in temporary, dry, wind...

  19. Sand fly-borne viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Nedvědová Cvanová, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important vectors of protozoan, bacterial and viral patogens causing diseases in humans and domestic animals. This thesis summarizes the current knowledge on sand fly-born viruses, their distribution in the World, infection symptoms and life cycle in the nature. These viruses are transmitted by sand flies of genera Phlebotomus, Lutzomyia and Sergentomyia and they can be found on every continent except for Antarctica. They belong into four families, Bunyav...

  20. Utilization of Coal Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    T1 Thallium Br Bromine U Uranium C Carbon V Vanadium Ca Calcium W Tungsten Cd Cadmium Zn Zinc Ce Cerium Cl Chlorine Co Cobalt Cr Chromium Cu Copper...2933 (1987). £ 46 I A 3 Christensen, J., L. Kryger, and N. Pind, "The Determination of Traces of Cadmium, Lead, and Thallium in Fly Ash by...Elements and Radioactivity in Fly Ashes, Adsorption of Elements by Cabbage Grown in Fly Ash-Soil Mixtures," Environmental Science and Technology, v.11

  1. Black Cohosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have had hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer or for pregnant women or nursing mothers. Black cohosh should not be confused with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) , which has different effects and may not be safe. Black cohosh has ...

  2. Horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) saliva targets thrombin action in hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, M S; Zhang, D; Cupp, E W

    2000-05-01

    The horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), is an important pest of livestock because the adult stage of both sexes are aggressive blood-feeders. Remarkably, even though horn fly adults feed recurrently on their hosts as ectoparasites, these flies lack the ADP-responsive antiplatelet aggregation and vasodilatory antihemostatic systems described for other blood-feeding Diptera. Horn fly salivary gland extracts do interfere with the normal coagulation process as demonstrated by the recalcification time assay. Using this as a baseline, the effects of saliva on recalcification time, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time were measured to determine which arm(s) of the coagulation cascade might be impacted. Factor-deficient plasma assays also were used to measure possible perturbations in clotting. Gland-free saliva delayed the recalcification time as well as the activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time. Saliva also further delayed clotting times of plasmas deficient in factor V, factor VIII, and factor XIII, indicating that other factors in the coagulation cascade were inhibited. Although horn fly saliva did not alter the ability of deficient plasma reconstituted with factor X to clot, it did inhibit deficient plasma reconstituted with factor II (thrombin). Antithrombin activity in saliva was confirmed by its ability to interfere with thrombin hydrolysis of fibrinogen, its normal substrate, and by its inhibition of thrombin action on a chromagenic substrate that mimics the hydrolytic site of fibrinogen. Thus, horn fly saliva contains a factor that specifically targets thrombin, a key component in the coagulation cascade. While the biochemical mechanisms of inhibition may vary, this antihemostatic characteristic is shared with other zoophilic Diptera such as black flies, Simulium spp., and tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, that feed on ungulates.

  3. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  4. DNA extraction and barcode identification of development stages of forensically important flies in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olekšáková, Tereza; Žurovcová, Martina; Klimešová, Vanda; Barták, Miroslav; Šuláková, Hana

    2018-04-01

    Several methods of DNA extraction, coupled with 'DNA barcoding' species identification, were compared using specimens from early developmental stages of forensically important flies from the Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae families. DNA was extracted at three immature stages - eggs, the first instar larvae, and empty pupal cases (puparia) - using four different extraction methods, namely, one simple 'homemade' extraction buffer protocol and three commercial kits. The extraction conditions, including the amount of proteinase K and incubation times, were optimized. The simple extraction buffer method was successful for half of the eggs and for the first instar larval samples. The DNA Lego Kit and DEP-25 DNA Extraction Kit were useful for DNA extractions from the first instar larvae samples, and the DNA Lego Kit was also successful regarding the extraction from eggs. The QIAamp DNA mini kit was the most effective; the extraction was successful with regard to all sample types - eggs, larvae, and pupari.

  5. Performance of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae larvae fed on artificial diets Desempenho das larvas de Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae alimentadas com dietas artificiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M. L. Fontellas-Brandalha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Moscas das frutas do gênero Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 são conhecidas por sua importância econômica devido aos danos que elas causam nos frutos comerciais. As exigências nutricionais dos estágios imaturo e adulto são diferentes e as larvas não se desenvolvem bem utilizando a mesma dieta do adulto. Embora as necessidades nutricionais básicas dos insetos sejam bem conhecidas, existe ainda o problema de elaborar dietas de criação adequadas para espécies com necessidades específicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes tipos e quantidades de carboidratos na dieta sobre a performance larval de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835. Larvas foram criadas individualmente em tubos de ensaio contendo uma das dietas artificiais a serem testadas onde elas foram mantidas até a pupação. A composição básica das dietas testadas incluia 2,5 g de agar, 3,25 g de levedo de cerveja e quantidades variadas de sacarose e farinha de trigo. A adequação do meio artificial para A. obliqua foi testada pela avaliação da sobrevivência larval e pupal (% e o tempo de desenvolvimento larval, pupal e de larva-adulto. A dieta contendo farinha de trigo (2 g e sacarose (2 g e a dieta somente com sacarose (5,5 g foram as que apresentaram melhor performance larval. Todas as dietas testadas apresentaram resultados similares ou superiores às dietas utilizadas em outros trabalhos. A importância da presença da farinha de trigo e seu valor nutricional para as larvas são discutidos.Fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha Schiner, 1868 are well-known for having economical importance since they damage commercially cultivated fruits. Nutritional demands during the immature and adult stages are different, so the larvae do not develop well using the same diet as the adults. Although the insect basic nutritional needs are well-known, there is also the challenge to elaborate rearing diets adequate to species with specific needs. The aim of this study

  6. Identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kom

    2007-10-01

    In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. Of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. However, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is crucial that they are able to accurately identify the species of fly found in a corpse. Typically, these puparia are similar in general appearance, being coarctate and light brown to dark brown in color, which makes identification difficult. In this study, we report on the clearing technique used to pale the integument of fly puparia, thereby allowing observation of the anterior end (second to fourth segments) and the profile of the posterior spiracle, which are important clues for identification. We used puparia of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.), as the model species in this experiment. With placement in a 20% potassium hydroxide solution daily and mounting on a clearing medium (Permount(R), New Jersey), the profile of the posterior spiracle could be clearly examined under a light microscope beginning on the fifth day after pupation, and the number of papillae in the anterior spiracle could be counted easily starting from the ninth day. Comparison of morphological features of C. megacephala puparia with those of other blowflies (Chrysomya nigripes [Aubertin], Chrysomya rufifacies [Macquart], Chrysomya villeneuvi [Patton], Lucilia cuprina [Wiedemann], and Hemipyrellia ligurriens [Wiedemann]) and a housefly (Musca domestica L.) revealed that the anterior ends and the profiles of the posterior spiracles had markedly distinguishing characteristics. Morphometric analysis of the length and width of puparia, along with the length of the gaps between the posterior spiracles

  7. Laboratory Colonization of the Blow Flies, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiger, Sonja Lise; Hogsette, Jerome A; Butler, Jerry F

    2014-10-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were colonized so that larval growth rates could be compared. Colonies were also established to provide insight into the protein needs of adult C. rufifacies and developmental rates of the ensuing larvae. The C. megacephala and C. rufifacies laboratory colonies were reared for five and six generations, respectively, at 28°C. C. megacephala developmental mean rate from egg to adult was 20.4 ± 0.38 d. First-instar larvae emerge in 1.4 ± 0.24 d, second-instar larvae develop in 2.6 ± 0.38 d and third instars occur at 6.3 ± 0.72 d. Development from egg to pupation occurred in 12 ± 1.10 d. C. rufifacies developed at a mean rate of 16.2 ± 0.78 d from egg to adult emergence. Each stage occurred in succession from first-instar larvae 1.1 ± 0.25 d, second-instar larvae developed 2.3 ± 0.25 d later, and the third-instar larvae developed 5.7 ± 0.41 d later. The larvae pupated 10.0 ± 0.57 d after oviposition. Both of these flies can be collected in the wild and easily colonized using conditioned chicken as an oviposition and larval medium. C. megacephala apparently prefers a lower development and maintenance temperature than C. rufifacies, as evidenced by the high pupal mortality. Laboratory-reared C. rufifacies benefited from bloodmeal as a protein supplement to enhance egg production. C. rufifacies larvae were not observed preying on each other and additional larval species were not provided to serve as prey. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  8. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  9. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  10. The Flying University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  11. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  12. Activity of R(+ limonene against Anisakis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Giarratana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+ limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showing a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+ limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status.

  13. Activity of R(+) Limonene Against Anisakis Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolino, Daniele; Panebianco, Felice; Patania, Andrea; Benianti, Chiara; Ziino, Graziella; Giuffrida, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+) limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showed a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+) limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status. PMID:27800423

  14. Activity of R(+) limonene against Anisakis larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Filippo Giarratana; Daniele Muscolino; Felice Panebianco; Andrea Patania; Chiara Benianti; Graziella Ziino; Alessandro Giuffrida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the activity of R(+) limonene of against Anisakidae larvae. Its effectiveness was tested in vitro. The results obtained showing a significant activity of the compound against Anisakis larvae, suggesting further investigation on its potential use in the industrial marinating process. In this regard, the use of R(+) limonene in seafood products could be interesting, also due the sensory attributes resulting from its use and its relatively safe status.

  15. Coral larvae move toward reef sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J A Vermeij

    Full Text Available Free-swimming larvae of tropical corals go through a critical life-phase when they return from the open ocean to select a suitable settlement substrate. During the planktonic phase of their life cycle, the behaviours of small coral larvae (<1 mm that influence settlement success are difficult to observe in situ and are therefore largely unknown. Here, we show that coral larvae respond to acoustic cues that may facilitate detection of habitat from large distances and from upcurrent of preferred settlement locations. Using in situ choice chambers, we found that settling coral larvae were attracted to reef sounds, produced mainly by fish and crustaceans, which we broadcast underwater using loudspeakers. Our discovery that coral larvae can detect and respond to sound is the first description of an auditory response in the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria, which includes jellyfish, anemones, and hydroids as well as corals. If, like settlement-stage reef fish and crustaceans, coral larvae use reef noise as a cue for orientation, the alleviation of noise pollution in the marine environment may gain further urgency.

  16. Learning from the Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Andrea; Schwartz, Renee

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly ("Drosophila melanogaster") is an ideal subject for studying inheritance patterns, Mendel's laws, meiosis, Punnett squares, and other aspects of genetics. Much of what we know about genetics dates to evolutionary biologist Thomas Hunt Morgan's work with mutated fruit flies in the early 1900s. Many genetic laboratories…

  17. Investigation of the bacterial communities associated with females of Lutzomyia sand fly species from South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R V Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania that are acquired by the female sand fly during blood feeding on an infected mammal. Leishmania parasites develop exclusively in the gut lumen during their residence in the insect before transmission to a suitable host during the next blood feed. Female phlebotomine sand flies are blood feeding insects but their life style of visiting plants as well as animals, and the propensity for larvae to feed on detritus including animal faeces means that the insect host and parasite are exposed to a range of microorganisms. Thus, the sand fly microbiota may interact with the developing Leishmania population in the gut. The aim of the study was to investigate and identify the bacterial diversity associated with wild adult female Lutzomyia sand flies from different geographical locations in the New World. The bacterial phylotypes recovered from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries obtained from wild caught adult female Lutzomyia sand flies were estimated from direct band sequencing after denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of bacterial 16 rRNA gene fragments. These results confirm that the Lutzomyia sand flies contain a limited array of bacterial phylotypes across several divisions. Several potential plant-related bacterial sequences were detected including Erwinia sp. and putative Ralstonia sp. from two sand fly species sampled from 3 geographically separated regions in Brazil. Identification of putative human pathogens also demonstrated the potential for sand flies to act as vectors of bacterial pathogens of medical importance in addition to their role in Leishmania transmission.

  18. Predatory activity of Rhantus sikkimensis and larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens on mosquito larvae in Darjeeling, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Gautam; Ash, Anirban; Saha, Goutam K

    2006-06-01

    Predation potential of the dytiscid beetle, Rhantus sikkimensis Regimbart 1899 and the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens Wiedemann 1819 occurring along with the larval stages of the mosquitoes in the annual lentic water bodies of Darjeeling was evaluated using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 as preys, in the laboratory under simulated natural conditions. Field collected R. sikkimensis and larvae of Tx. splendens were offered IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus to observe the rate of predation, at varying prey and predator densities. Based on the data obtained on the predation for a period of three consecutive days, two indices of predation, predatory impact (PI) and clearance rate (CR) values were estimated, and compared between the predator species. The rate of predation of IV instar Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae by R. sikkimensis ranged between 21.56 and 86.89 larvae per day, depending on the prey and predator densities. The PI value remained between 18.67 and 35.33 larvae/day depending on prey densities, while the CR ranged between 2.21 and 2.23 larvae litres/day/predator. Compared to these, the Tx. splendens larvae consumed the prey larvae at the rate of 0.67 to 34.22 larvae per day, depending on the prey and predator densities. The PI value ranged between 7.67 and 11.33 larvae/day, and the CR value ranged between 1.41 and 1.76 larvae litres/day/predator. The rate of predation, CR values and PI values of R. sikkimensis and Tx. splendens varied significantly. Both the predators R. sikkimensis and larvae of Tx. splendens can consume a good number of mosquito larvae, though the rate of consumption between the two predators vary owing to the difference in the life history traits and features. It can be assumed that these predators play an important role in larval population regulation of mosquitoes and thereby impart an effect on species composition and interactions in the aquatic insect communities of Darjeeling Hills, India.

  19. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...

  20. Sugarcane stems as larval habitat for the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans in sugarcane plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H.D. Cançado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, cause losses for livestock producers located near sugarcane mills in Brazil, especially in southern Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane mills are often pointed by local farmers as the primary source of these outbreaks; some mills also joined the farmers in combating the flies. Brazilian beef cattle production has great economic importance in similar level to bio-fuel production as ethanol. In this context, the wide-ranging knowledge on the biology and ecology of the stable fly, including larval habitats and their reproduction sites is extremely important for further development of control programs. This paper aims to report the occurrence and development of S. calcitrans larvae inside sugarcane stems in three municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane stems give protection against bad weather conditions and insecticide application. In this way, for sustainable sugarcane growth specific research concerning this situation should be conducted.

  1. Immunohistological localization of serotonin in the CNS and feeding system of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Li, Andrew Y; Witt, Colleen M; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2011-08-01

    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), plays critical roles as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that control or modulate many behaviors in insects, such as feeding. Neurons immunoreactive (IR) to 5-HT were detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of the larval and adult stages of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, using an immunohistological technique. The location and pattern of the 5-HT IR neurons are described and compared for these two different developmental stages. Anatomical features of the fly feeding system were analyzed in third instar larvae and adult flies using a combination of histological and immunohistological techniques. In third instar larvae, the cibarial dilator muscles were observed within the cibarial pump skeleton and innervated by 5-HT IR neurons in nerves arising from the brain. There were four pairs of nerves arising from the frontal surface of the larval brain that innervate the cibarial pump muscles, pharynx, and muscles controlling the mouth hooks. A strong serotoninergic innervation of the anterior stomatogastric system was observed, which suggests 5-HT may play a role in the coordination of different phases of food ingestion by larvae. Similarly, many 5-HT IR neurons were found in both the brain and the thoracico-abdominal ganglia in the adult, some of which innervate the cibarial pump dilator muscles and the stomatogastric muscles. This is tnhe first report describing neuromuscular structures of the stable fly feeding system. The results reported here suggest 5-HT may play a critical role in feeding behaviors of stable fly larvae and adults. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The insecticidal activities of fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) venoms against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Chuan; Kuo, Tai-Chih; Huang, Rong-Nan; Wu, Wen-Jer

    2012-10-01

    Although fire ants frequently have negative impacts on agricultural systems and public health, they have additional beneficial insecticidal effects. To evaluate the potential effect of fire ant venoms on agricultural pests, the compositions of the venoms and their insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The alkaloids found in Solenopsis geminata (F.) venom are primarily saturated C11, which occur in both cis and trans forms, whereas the venom of S. invicta Buren contains six principal alkaloids (from trans C1, to C17). Moreover, the proportions of unsaturated alkaloids in the venom of polygynous S. invicta were significantly higher than the corresponding proportions in the monogynous S. invicta, as shown by our previous studies. Fire ant venoms were topically applied to the dorsal thoracic region of fourth-instar larvae of P. xylostella. The results of the experiment showed that the larval symptoms induced by fire ant venom include contractile, flaccid paralysis, black coloration and death. P. xylostella larvae were most susceptible to S. geminata venom. The order of the susceptibilities of the larvae to the venoms was as follows: S. geminata > S. invicta (monogyne form) > S. invicta (polygyne form), as measured by the corresponding LT50 values at 24 h.

  3. Trypanosoma avium: experimental transmission from black flies to canaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Svobodová, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 2 (2004), s. 147-151 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1094 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 147/2002/B-BIO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Trypanosoma * birds * transmission Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2004

  4. Monitoring guidelines improve control of walnut husk fly in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, Susan B.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Pickel, Carolyn; Olson, William

    2000-01-01

    The walnut husk fly (WHF), Rhagoletis completa Cresson, is a key pest of walnuts (Juglans spp.) in California, where over 95% of the US and approximately two-thirds of the world's commercial walnuts are produced. The primary hosts of this monophagous fruit fly are J. regia L. (commercially grown English walnut), J. californica S. Wats. var. hindsii (northern California black walnut), J. californica var. californica (southern California black walnut) and J. nigra Thunb. (eastern black walnut). Some cultivars of the English walnut are more susceptible than others; the most heavily infested varieties of English walnut include Eureka, Franquette, Hartley, Mayette and Payne. Neither English walnuts nor the walnut husk fly are native to California. So-called 'English' walnuts are sometimes more appropriately called 'Persian' walnuts, in reference to Persia, the origin of J. regia. English walnuts were first planted in southern California in the 1860s. In contrast, the native range of WHF is the mid- and south-central United States where it attacks J. nigra (Boyce 1934). The fly was likely to have been introduced into southern California in the mid-1920s by tourists travelling from Kansas, New Mexico, Texas or Oklahoma. WHF was first documented in California in 1926 in the San Bernardino County when maggots were found in the husks of English walnuts (Boyce 1929). The fly gradually spread throughout walnut growing regions of California. In 1928, only three or four orchards in the San Bernardino County were known to be infested. By 1932, the fly was also found in the Los Angeles and Orange Counties (Boyce 1933), and by 1954, it was found in Ventura, Riverside, and the San Diego Counties, in addition to the northern California county of Sonoma (Anonymous 1966). The spread of the fly in northern California was rapid. By 1958, WHF was found in San Joaquin County; in 1963, the fly was in Amador, Lake, Solano, Tulare and Yolo Counties; in 1964, it was found in Fresno, Mendocino

  5. Identification of immature stages of phlebotomine sand flies using MALDI-TOF MS and mapping of mass spectra during sand fly life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halada, Petr; Hlavackova, Kristyna; Dvorak, Vit; Volf, Petr

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the species identification of sand flies at different developmental stages and map changes in their protein profiles during the course of whole life cycle. Specimens of six different species from laboratory colonies at larval and pupal stages were examined using MALDI-TOF MS. The protein profiles of larvae were stable from the L2 to L4 developmental stages and clearly distinguishable at the species level. In a validation study, 123 larvae of the six species were queried against reference database resulting in 93% correct species identification (log score values higher than 2.0). The spectra generated from sand fly pupae allow species identification as well and surprisingly, in contrast to biting midges and mosquitoes, they did not change during this developmental stage. For adults, thorax was revealed as the optimal body part for sample preparation yielding reproducible spectra regardless age and diet. Only variations were uncovered for freshly engorged females profiles of which were affected by blood signals first two days post bloodmeal. The findings demonstrate that in addition to adult species differentiation MALDI-TOF MS may also serve as a rapid and effective tool for species identification of juvenile stages of phlebotomine sand flies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Zebras and Biting Flies: Quantitative Analysis of Reflected Light from Zebra Coats in Their Natural Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth H Britten

    Full Text Available Experimental and comparative evidence suggests that the striped coats of zebras deter biting fly attack, but the mechanisms by which flies fail to target black-and-white mammals are still opaque. Two hypotheses have been proposed: stripes might serve either to defeat polarotaxis or to obscure the form of the animal. To test these hypotheses, we systematically photographed free-living plains zebras in Africa. We found that black and white stripes both have moderate polarization signatures with a similar angle, though the degree (magnitude of polarization in white stripes is lower. When we modeled the visibility of these signals from different distances, we found that polarization differences between stripes are invisible to flies more than 10 m away because they are averaged out by the flies' low visual resolution. At any distance, however, a positively polarotactic insect would have a distinct signal to guide its visual approach to a zebra because we found that polarization of light reflecting from zebras is higher than from surrounding dry grasses. We also found that the stripes themselves are visible to flies at somewhat greater distances (up to 20 m than the polarization contrast between stripes. Together, these observations support hypotheses in which zebra stripes defeat visually guided orienting behavior in flies by a mechanism independent of polarotaxis.

  7. Nest-climatic factors affect the abundance of biting flies and their effects on nestling condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Lobato, Elisa; Aguilar, Juan Rivero-de; del Cerro, Sara; Ruiz-de-Castañeda, Rafael; Moreno, Juan

    2010-11-01

    The first step in the establishment of a host-biting fly relationship is host location. While a number of studies highlight the role of host emitted products as important cues affecting host location by biting flies, the role of host temperature is far from clear. We investigated the role of different nest microclimatic variables affecting the interaction between pied flycatchers and two biting flies: black flies and biting midges. Biting midge abundances increased with temperature inside the nest, supporting the potential importance of nest temperature as a cue used by insects to localize their hosts. The possibility that biting fly infestations were associated to ecological conditions in the vicinity of the nests is also discussed. Furthermore, we found a negative association between nestling weight (including tarsus length as a covariate in the analyses) and the interaction between the abundance of biting midges and the presence/absence of black flies in nests. The potential negative effect of these ectoparasites on nestling weight (condition index) and potential differences in the bird phenotypic/genetic quality associated with nest site choice and parasite infestations are considered.

  8. Africa and the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  9. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M.; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The...

  10. Bacterial Associations Across House Fly Life History: Evidence for Transstadial Carriage From Managed Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Klara; Nayduch, Dana

    2016-01-01

    House flies (Diptera: Muscidae; Musca domestica L.) associate with microbe-rich substrates throughout life history. Because larvae utilize bacteria as a food source, most taxa present in the larval substrate, e.g., manure, are digested or degraded. However, some species survive and are present as third-instar larvae begin pupation. During metamorphosis, many bacteria are again lost during histolysis of the larval gut and subsequent remodeling to produce the gut of the imago. It has been previously demonstrated that some bacterial species survive metamorphosis, being left behind in the puparium, present on the body surface, or in the gut of the emerged adult. We used a combined culture-molecular approach to identify viable microbes from managed manure residue and a wild population of house fly larvae, pupae, puparia, and adults to assess transstadial carriage. All larval (10/10), pupal (10/10), and puparial (10/10) cultures were positive for bacteria. Several bacterial species that were present in larvae also were present either in pupae or puparia. Four viable bacterial species were detectable in 6 of 10 imagoes reared from manure. Of note is the apparent transstadial carriage of Bacillus sonorensis, which has been associated with milk spoilage at dairies, and Alcaligenes faecalis, which can harbor numerous antibiotic resistance genes on farms. The potential of newly emerged flies to harbor and disseminate bacteria from managed manure on farms is an understudied risk that deserves further evaluation. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarič, Tina; Gambardella, Chiara; Milivojević, Tamara; Faimali, Marco; Drobne, Damjana; Falugi, Carla; Makovec, Darko; Jemec, Anita; Sepčić, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change

  12. High surface adsorption properties of carbon-based nanomaterials are responsible for mortality, swimming inhibition, and biochemical responses in Artemia salina larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesarič, Tina, E-mail: tina.mesaric84@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gambardella, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.gambardella@ge.ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Milivojević, Tamara, E-mail: milivojevictamara@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faimali, Marco, E-mail: marco.faimali@ismar.cnr.it [Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council, Genova (Italy); Drobne, Damjana, E-mail: damjana.drobne@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CO Nanocentre), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Falugi, Carla, E-mail: carlafalugi@hotmail.it [Department of Earth, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Makovec, Darko, E-mail: darko.makovec@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jemec, Anita, E-mail: anita.jemec@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sepčić, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.sepcic@bf.uni-lj.si [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Carbon-based nanomaterials adsorb onto the body surface of A. salina larvae. • Surface adsorption results in concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming. • Carbon-based nanomaterials induce no significant mortality of A. salina larvae. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of three different carbon-based nanomaterials on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations of carbon black, graphene oxide, and multiwall carbon nanotubes for 48 h, and observed using phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy. Acute (mortality) and behavioural (swimming speed alteration) responses and cholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase enzyme activities were evaluated. These nanomaterials were ingested and concentrated in the gut, and attached onto the body surface of the A. salina larvae. This attachment was responsible for concentration–dependent inhibition of larval swimming, and partly for alterations in the enzyme activities, that differed according to the type of tested nanomaterials. No lethal effects were observed up to 0.5 mg/mL carbon black and 0.1 mg/mL multiwall carbon nanotubes, while graphene oxide showed a threshold whereby it had no effects at 0.6 mg/mL, and more than 90% mortality at 0.7 mg/mL. Risk quotients calculated on the basis of predicted environmental concentrations indicate that carbon black and multiwall carbon nanotubes currently do not pose a serious risk to the marine environment, however if uncontrolled release of nanomaterials continues, this scenario can rapidly change.

  13. Antibacterial potency of housefly larvae extract from sewage sludge through bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng; Zhou, Lixiang

    2013-09-01

    Use of the fly to convert sewage sludge into nutrient-rich soil conditioner and amendment is an attractive approach for sludge bioconversion. During this process, fecal coliforms, an indicating pathogen, in sludge were reduced to 5.3 x 10(2) most probable number/g dry solid from initial 3.32 x 10(6) MPN/g dry solid. It was also found that the extract of larvae grown in sludge during bioconversion have an observable inhibitory effect against bacteria compared to larvae grown in wheat bran as measured by minimum bacterial concentration tests. In vitro antimicrobial assay tests over time also showed that the extract had strong inhibitory efficiencies of ca. 99% against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens, while the efficiency was 69% and 57% against Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. The observed pathogenic bacterial cell membrane damage was found to be responsible for the phenomenon mentioned above, with nuclear acids leaching out quickly and alkaline phosphatase increasing in the outer membrane, followed by an increase of beta-galactosidase in the inner membrane. Clearly, housefly larvae extract from sewage sludge through bioconversion possesses antibacterial potency against pathogenic bacteria.

  14. Hyperprolinemic larvae of the drosophilid fly, Chymomyza costata, survive cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Vladimír; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 32 (2011), s. 13041-13046 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0269; GA ČR GA203/09/2014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insect freeze tolerance * cold hardiness * glass transition Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 9.681, year: 2011

  15. Conversion of the chill susceptible fruit fly larva (Drosophila melanogaster) to a freeze tolerant organism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Vladimír; Šimek, Petr; Zahradníčková, Helena; Cimlová, Jana; Štětina, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 9 (2012), s. 3270-3274 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0269; GA ČR GA203/09/2014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insect cold tolerance * long-term storage * metabolomics Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 9.737, year: 2012 http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2012/02/06/1119986109.full.pdf+html

  16. Evading plant defence: Infestation of poisonous milkweed fruits (Asclepiadaceae) by the fruit fly Dacus siliqualactis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Wunder, Cora; Reuss, Esther; Toennes, Stefan W; Mebs, Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    To cope with toxic metabolites plants use for defence, herbivorous insects employ various adaptive strategies. For oviposition, the fruit fly Dacus siliqualactis (Tephritidae) uses milkweed plants of the genus Gomphocarpus (Asclepiadaceae) by circumventing the plant's physical (gluey latex) and chemical (toxic cadenolides) defence. With its long, telescope-like ovipositor, the fly penetrates the exo- and endocarp of the fruit and places the eggs on the unripe seeds located in the centre of the fruit. Whereas most plant parts contain high concentrations of cardenolides such as gomphoside, calotropin/calacatin and gomphogenin, only the seeds exhibit low cardenolide levels. By surmounting physical barriers (fruit membranes, latex), the fly secures a safe environment and a latex-free food source of low toxicity for the developing larvae. One amino acid substitution (Q111V) at the cardenolide binding site of the fly's Na + , K + -ATPase was detected, but the significance of that substitution: reducing cardenolide sensitivity or not, is unclear. However, poisoning of the larvae by low levels of cardenolides is assumed to be prevented by non-resorption and excretion of the polar cardenolides, which cannot passively permeate the midgut membrane. This example of an insect-plant interaction demonstrates that by morphological and behavioural adaptation, a fruit fly manages to overcome even highly effective defence mechanisms of its host plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Insurance against an Old World screw-worm fly invasion of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweddle, Neil; Mahon, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    Australia is fortunate that neither the New World screw-worm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (NWSWF) nor the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (OWSWF), have become established within our country, although much of the northern areas are environmentally suitable (Suthurst et al. 1989). The OWSWF is a substantial threat as it is prevalent in the neighbouring countries of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Perhaps more importantly, it is also present in many of our trading partners in Southeast Asia. The export of live cattle from northern Australian ports to Southeast Asian nations has become an important and rapidly expanding trade. The fly is also present near ports in the Middle East which receive considerable numbers of live sheep exported from various Australian ports. In both situations, there is the ever-present opportunity for the screw-worm fly (SWF) to return to Australia as larvae, pupae or adults on stock carrying vessels. While this means of transport probably represents the most likely route for the pest to gain access to Australia, accidental transport on aircraft and active myiases on humans or companion animals remain possibilities. The introduction of the NWSWF into Australia is considered unlikely, but not impossible. Indeed, in 1992, an Australian tourist returning from South America carried live NWSWF larvae into Australia in a neck wound. Fortunately, the diagnosis was made early and the wound was treated, preventing any larvae evacuating. This was in southern Australia in May, where climatic conditions are unlikely to favour survival at that time of the year, but it demonstrates the potential for inadvertent introduction. Models of the impact of the OWSWF indicate that the cost of an invasion would be high. It has been estimated by Anaman et al. (1993), that the annual cost in an average climate year to beef cattle, sheep and dairy producers of an endemic establishment would be A$281 million. These costs would be

  18. Quantitative proteomics on the fly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, J.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837377

    2009-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms is characterized by complex processes that progressively transform essentially a single cell into a creature with complicated structures and highly specialized functions. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent model system to

  19. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  20. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  1. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doud, C W; Taylor, D B; Zurek, L

    2012-03-01

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas were evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May through 20 October 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May through 18 November 2010 (25 wk). In total, 11,349 muscoid flies were collected emerging from the biosolid cake. Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) and house flies (Musca domestica (L.)), represented 80 and 18% of the muscoid flies, respectively. An estimated 550 stable flies and 220 house flies per square-meter of surface area developed in the biosolid cake annually producing 450,000 stable flies and 175,000 house flies. Stable fly emergence was seasonally bimodal with a primary peak in mid-July and a secondary peak in late August. House fly emergence peaked with the first stable fly emergence peak and then declined gradually for the remainder of the year. House flies tended to emerge from the biosolid cake sooner after its deposition than did stable flies. In addition, house fly emergence was concentrated around midsummer whereas stable fly emergence began earlier in the spring and continued later into the fall. Biosolid age and temperature were the most important parameters affecting emergence for house flies and stable flies, whereas precipitation was not important for either species. This study highlights the importance of biosolid cake as a larval developmental habitat for stable flies and house flies.

  2. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  3. Gamma radiation tolerance in different life stages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paithankar, Jagdish Gopal; Deeksha, K; Patil, Rajashekhar K

    2017-04-01

    Insects are known to have higher levels of radiation tolerance than mammals. The fruit fly Drosophila provides opportunities for genetic analysis of radiation tolerance in insects. A knowledge of stage-specific sensitivity is required to understand the mechanisms and test the existing hypothesis of insect radiation tolerance. Drosophila melanogaster were irradiated using gamma rays at different life stages. Irradiation doses were chosen to start from 100-2200 Gy with increments of 100 Gy, with a dose rate of 12.5 and 25 Gy/min. The threshold of mortality, LD 50 and LD 100 1 h post-irradiation was recorded for larvae and adults and 24 h post-irradiation for eggs and after 2-3 days for early and late pupae. Total antioxidant capacity for all the life stages was measured using the phosphomolybdenum method. Twenty-four hours post-irradiation, 100% mortality was recorded for eggs at 1000 Gy. One hour post irradiation 100% mortality was recorded at 1300 Gy for first instar larvae, 1700 Gy for second instar larvae, 1900 Gy for feeding third instar larvae and 2200 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae. Post-irradiation complete failure of emergence (100% mortality) was observed at 130 Gy for early pupae and 1500 Gy for late pupae; 100% mortality was observed at 1500 Gy for adults. The values of LD 50 were recorded as 452 Gy for eggs, 1049 Gy for first instar larvae, 1350 Gy for second instar larvae, 1265 Gy for feeding third instar larvae, 1590 Gy for non-feeding third instar larvae, 50 Gy for early pupae, 969 Gy for late pupae, 1228 Gy for adult males and 1250 Gy for adult females. Early pupae were found to be prone to radiation, whereas the non-feeding third instar larvae were most resistant among all stages. The chromosome number being constant and total antioxidant capacity being nearly constant in all stages, we suggest that high rate of cell division during early pupae makes this stage sensitive to radiation.

  4. Tailoring fly ash activated with bentonite as adsorbent for complex wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visa, Maria, E-mail: maria.visa@unitbv.ro [Transilvania University of Brasov, Department Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Eroilor 29, 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spent adsorbent annealed at 500 Degree-Sign C can be a suggestion for padding in stone blocks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cations can be adsorbent by the silanol group (Si-OH) of the layers from bentonite Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper has a higher affinity for the active sites on adsorbent FAw + B than cadmium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This substrate can be recommended for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and MB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAw + B is recommended for wastewater treatment resulted in the dyes finishing industry. - Abstract: Used as adsorbent, alkali fly ash represents a low cost solution for advanced wastewater treatment. The alkali treatment raises sustainability issues therefore, in this research we aim to replace alkali fly ash with washed fly ash (FAw). For improving the adsorption capacity of washed fly ash, bentonite powder (B) was added, as a natural adsorbent with a composition almost identical to the fly ash. The new adsorbent was characterized by AFM, XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDS and the surface energy was evaluated by contact angle measurements. For understanding the complex adsorption process on this mixed substrate, preliminary tests were developed on synthetic wastewaters containing a single pollutant system (heavy metal), binary (two-heavy metals) and ternary (dye and two heavy metals) systems. Experiments were done on synthetic wastewaters containing methylene blue, cadmium and copper, using FAw, B and their powder mixtures. The pseudo-second order kinetics could well model all the processes, indicating a good adsorbent material which can be used for the pollutants removal from wastewater. After adsorption the substrates loaded with pollutants, annealed at 500 Degree-Sign C can be reused for padding in stone blocks.

  5. Artificial Induction of Associative Olfactory Memory by Optogenetic and Thermogenetic Activation of Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Octopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    The larval brain of Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent system for the study of the neurocircuitry mechanism of memory. Recent development of neurogenetic techniques in fruit flies enables manipulations of neuronal activities in freely behaving animals. This protocol describes detailed steps for artificial induction of olfactory associative memory in Drosophila larvae. In this protocol, the natural reward signal is substituted by thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons in the brain. In parallel, the odor signal is substituted by optogenetic activation of a specific class of olfactory receptor neurons. Association of reward and odor stimuli is achieved with the concomitant application of blue light and heat that leads to activation of both sets of neurons in living transgenic larvae. Given its operational simplicity and robustness, this method could be utilized to further our knowledge on the neurocircuitry mechanism of memory in the fly brain.

  6. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  7. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  8. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  9. PEMELIHARAAN LARVA KEPITING BAKAU, Scylla olivacea DENGAN PENAMBAHAN BIOFLOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarto Gunarto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak lengkap dapat dilihat pada Full PDF   Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efek penambahan bioflok pada pemeliharaan larva kepiting bakau Scylla olivacea terutaman pada sintasan dan perkembangan larva hingga mencapai stadia krablet.

  10. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition....... To lest this hypothesis, Baltic cod larvae were sampled during the spawning seasons of 1994 and 1995 with depth-resolving multiple opening/closing nets. Each larva was aged by otolith readings and its RNA/DNA ratio was determined as a measure of nutritional condition. The RNA/DNA ratios of these larvae...... caught larvae had RNA/DNA ratios between the mean values found for starving and fed laboratory larvae. Only larvae aged 8-11 days had higher mean RNA/DNA ratios above 45 m than below (t-test, P...

  11. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names HB to HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  12. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names CP to DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  13. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names OM to OX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  14. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names SB to SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  15. Decapod larvae from the nearshore waters of Karwar

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Paulinose, V.T.

    Abundance of decapod larvae at three stations in Binge Bay, Karwar has been reported based on surface collections taken during the period October 1975 to September 1976. The larvae were very common in the Bay and the postmonsoon months sustained...

  16. CalCOFI Larvae Counts, Scientific Names DH to EC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish larvae counts and standardized counts for larvae captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets],...

  17. Suppressing bullfrog larvae with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jackson A.; Ray, Andrew; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Layhee, Megan J.; Mark Abbey-Lambert,; ,

    2014-01-01

    Current management strategies for the control and suppression of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana Shaw) and other invasive amphibians have had minimal effect on their abundance and distribution. This study evaluates the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on pre- and prometamorphic Bullfrog larvae. Bullfrogs are a model organism for evaluating potential suppression agents because they are a successful invader worldwide. From experimental trials we estimated that the 24-h 50% and 99% lethal concentration (LC50 and LC99) values for Bullfrog larvae were 371 and 549 mg CO2/L, respectively. Overall, larvae that succumbed to experimental conditions had a lower body condition index than those that survived. We also documented sublethal changes in blood chemistry during prolonged exposure to elevated CO2. Specifically, blood pH decreased by more than 0.5 pH units after 9 h of exposure and both blood partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and blood glucose increased. These findings suggest that CO2 treatments can be lethal to Bullfrog larvae under controlled laboratory conditions. We believe this work represents the necessary foundation for further consideration of CO2 as a potential suppression agent for one of the most harmful invaders to freshwater ecosystems.

  18. Low salinity tolerance 0/ eggs and larvae.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the larvae permitting C. krauss; to spread into areas where it is unable to breed successfully. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The author acknowledges the financial assistance of the Department of Nature Conserva- tion of the Cape Province of South Africa, and the South African National Committee for. Oceanographic Research ...

  19. Evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Kabra, Mayank; Branson, Kristin; Mirth, Christen

    2015-03-01

    Drosophilids, like other insects, go through a larval phase before metamorphosing into adults. Larvae increase their body weight by several orders of magnitude in a few days. We therefore hypothesized that foraging behavior is under strong evolutionary pressure to best fit the larval environment. To test our hypothesis we used a multidisciplinary approach to analyze foraging behavior across species and larval stages. First, we recorded several videos of larvae foraging for each of 47 Drosophilid species. Then, using a supervised machine learning approach, we automatically annotated the video collection for the foraging sub-behaviors, including crawling, turning, head casting or burrowing. We also computed over 100 features to describe the posture and dynamics of each animal in each video frame. From these data, we fit models to the behavior of each species. The models each had the same parametric form, but differed in the exact parameters. By simulating larva behavior in virtual arenas we can infer which properties of the environments are better for each species. Comparisons between these inferred environments and the actual environments where these animals live will give us a deeper understanding about the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophilid larvae.

  20. Attraction, Oviposition and Larval Survival of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on Fungal Species Isolated from Adults, Larvae, and Mushroom Compost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Cloonan

    Full Text Available We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839 (Diptera: Sciaridae, one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae, are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L. ingenua, we isolated several species of fungi from adult males and females, third instar larvae, and mushroom compost itself. We then analyzed the attraction of females to these substrates using a static-flow two choice olfactometer, as well as their oviposition tendencies in another type of assay under choice and no-choice conditions. We also assessed the survival of larvae to adulthood when first instar larvae were placed on each of the isolated fungal species. We found that female flies were attracted most to the mycoparasitic green mold, T. aggressivum, to Penicilium citrinum isolated from adult female bodies, and to Scatylidium thermophilium isolated from the mushroom compost. Gravid female flies laid the most eggs on T. aggressivum, Aspergillus flavus isolated from third instar larval frass, Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from adult male bodies, and on P. citrinum. This egg-laying trend remained consistent under no-choice conditions as females aged. First instar larvae developed to adulthood only on S. thermophilium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from mushroom compost, and on P. citrinum. Our results indicate that the volatiles from a suite of different fungal species act in tandem in the natural setting of mushroom compost, with some first attracting gravid female flies and then others causing them to oviposit. The ecological context of these findings is important for creating an optimal strategy for using

  1. Attraction, Oviposition and Larval Survival of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on Fungal Species Isolated from Adults, Larvae, and Mushroom Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Kevin R.; Andreadis, Stefanos S.; Chen, Haibin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L. ingenua, we isolated several species of fungi from adult males and females, third instar larvae, and mushroom compost itself. We then analyzed the attraction of females to these substrates using a static-flow two choice olfactometer, as well as their oviposition tendencies in another type of assay under choice and no-choice conditions. We also assessed the survival of larvae to adulthood when first instar larvae were placed on each of the isolated fungal species. We found that female flies were attracted most to the mycoparasitic green mold, T. aggressivum, to Penicilium citrinum isolated from adult female bodies, and to Scatylidium thermophilium isolated from the mushroom compost. Gravid female flies laid the most eggs on T. aggressivum, Aspergillus flavus isolated from third instar larval frass, Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from adult male bodies, and on P. citrinum. This egg-laying trend remained consistent under no-choice conditions as females aged. First instar larvae developed to adulthood only on S. thermophilium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from mushroom compost, and on P. citrinum. Our results indicate that the volatiles from a suite of different fungal species act in tandem in the natural setting of mushroom compost, with some first attracting gravid female flies and then others causing them to oviposit. The ecological context of these findings is important for creating an optimal strategy for using possible

  2. [Dynamics of nitrogen-containing compounds in the hemolymph of 2d- and 3d-stage larvae of the reindeer warblefly (Hypodermatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozdina, N I

    1979-01-01

    The content of the total protein, residual and amine nitrogen, urea and ammoniac depends on the physiological state of the warble fly larvae of the reindeer. Metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds carries out most intensively in the growing organism and during the moulting period. The moulting period is characterized by the fall in the total protein, residual and amine nitrogen and increase of the ammonias and urea.

  3. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  4. Quantum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.

  5. ISOLASI BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DARI LARVA DAN PENGUJIAN PATOGENISITASNYA TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK VEKTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch. P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate pathogenic organisms as cause of mosquito larvae death was conducted at Wonokerto and Pabelan villages, Salatiga Luar Kota subdistrict, Semarang regency in Central Java from May 1991 through December 1991. Bacterial isolation from dead larvae showed that 31 B. thuringicnsis isolates were obtained from 31 larvae samples collected from 2 location e.g Wonokerto village (3 samples, Pabelan village (28 samples. Nineteen isolates (61,3% showed a pathogenicity of more than 50% to third toward instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively 24 hours after exposure. This study shows the possible use of B. thuringiensis for biologic control of mosquitoes which can act as vectors for human diseases.

  6. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio R. M. Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA to evaluate the parasitoid’s potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  7. Augmentative Biological Control Using Parasitoids for Fruit Fly Management in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Flávio R M; Ricalde, Marcelo P

    2012-12-21

    The history of classical biological control of fruit flies in Brazil includes two reported attempts in the past 70 years. The first occurred in 1937 when an African species of parasitoid larvae (Tetrastichus giffardianus) was introduced to control the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata and other tephritids. The second occurred in September 1994 when the exotic parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, originally from Gainesville, Florida, was introduced by a Brazilian agricultural corporation (EMBRAPA) to evaluate the parasitoid's potential for the biological control of Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata. Although there are numerous native Brazilian fruit fly parasitoids, mass rearing of these native species is difficult. Thus, D. longicaudata was chosen due to its specificity for the family Tephritidae and its ease of laboratory rearing. In this paper we review the literature on Brazilian fruit fly biological control and suggest that those tactics can be used on a large scale, together creating a biological barrier to the introduction of new fruit fly populations, reducing the source of outbreaks and the risk of species spread, while decreasing the use of insecticides on fruit destined for domestic and foreign markets.

  8. Application of Nuclear Techniques to Improve the Mass Production and Management of Fruit Fly Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hendrichs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of irradiated hosts in mass rearing tephritid parasitoids represents an important technical advance in fruit fly augmentative biological control. Irradiation assures that fly emergence is avoided in non-parasitized hosts, while at the same time it has no appreciable effect on parasitoid quality, i.e., fecundity, longevity and flight capability. Parasitoids of fruit fly eggs, larvae and pupae have all been shown to successfully develop in irradiated hosts, allowing a broad range of species to be shipped and released without post-rearing delays waiting for fly emergence and costly procedures to separate flies and wasps. This facilitates the early, more effective and less damaging shipment of natural enemies within hosts and across quarantined borders. In addition, the survival and dispersal of released parasitoids can be monitored by placing irradiated sentinel-hosts in the field. The optimal radiation dosages for host-sterility and parasitoid-fitness differ among species, and considerable progress has been made in integrating radiation into a variety of rearing procedures.

  9. Topical treatment of calves with synthetic pyrethroids: effects on the non-target dung fly Neomyia cornicina (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    2001-01-01

    Dung from calves treated with synthetic pyrethroids negatively influenced, in varying degrees, survival, reproduction and size of the common dung fly Neomyia cornicina (Fabricius). This was documented in assays where the coprophagous larvae and adults of N. cornicina were exposed to dung collected......). Fluctuating asymmetry of a wing vein character did not reflect the anticipated levels of exposure. The study strongly indicated that the use of synthetic pyrethroids affected the insect dung fauna and that such use may reduce dung decomposition....

  10. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candid...

  11. Lagrangian Observations and Modeling of Marine Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Claire B.; Irisson, Jean-Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Just within the past two decades, studies on the early-life history stages of marine organisms have led to new paradigms in population dynamics. Unlike passive plant seeds that are transported by the wind or by animals, marine larvae have motor and sensory capabilities. As a result, marine larvae have a tremendous capacity to actively influence their dispersal. This is continuously revealed as we develop new techniques to observe larvae in their natural environment and begin to understand their ability to detect cues throughout ontogeny, process the information, and use it to ride ocean currents and navigate their way back home, or to a place like home. We present innovative in situ and numerical modeling approaches developed to understand the underlying mechanisms of larval transport in the ocean. We describe a novel concept of a Lagrangian platform, the Drifting In Situ Chamber (DISC), designed to observe and quantify complex larval behaviors and their interactions with the pelagic environment. We give a brief history of larval ecology research with the DISC, showing that swimming is directional in most species, guided by cues as diverse as the position of the sun or the underwater soundscape, and even that (unlike humans!) larvae orient better and swim faster when moving as a group. The observed Lagrangian behavior of individual larvae are directly implemented in the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS), an open source Lagrangian tracking application. Simulations help demonstrate the impact that larval behavior has compared to passive Lagrangian trajectories. These methodologies are already the base of exciting findings and are promising tools for documenting and simulating the behavior of other small pelagic organisms, forecasting their migration in a changing ocean.

  12. Evaluation of the toxic potential of aspartame in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, Y.H.; Anjum, S.; Rahul x, Smita Jyoti

    2017-07-01

    Aspartame is commonly used as a sweetener in prepared foods, beverages and in recipes. In the present study the possible toxic effects of aspartame were studied in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on the diet having different doses of aspartame. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the exposure of third instar larvae to the diet having 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM of aspartame did not show any significant the toxic effects after 24 hours of the exposure compared to control (p<0.05). The results for pupae formation and emergence of flies also did not show any significant difference compared to control (p<0.05).

  13. Evaluation of the toxic potential of aspartame in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ Bg9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASIR HASAN SIDDIQUE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is commonly used as a sweetener in prepared foods, beverages and in recipes. In the present study the possible toxic effects of aspartame were studied in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ Bg9. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on the diet having different doses of aspartame. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the exposure of third instar larvae to the diet having 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM of aspartame did not show any significant the toxic effects after 24 hours of the exposure compared to control (p<0.05. The results for pupae formation and emergence of flies also did not show any significant difference compared to control (p<0.05.

  14. Evaluation of the toxic potential of aspartame in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Y.H.; Anjum, S.; Rahul x, Smita Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Aspartame is commonly used as a sweetener in prepared foods, beverages and in recipes. In the present study the possible toxic effects of aspartame were studied in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on the diet having different doses of aspartame. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the exposure of third instar larvae to the diet having 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM of aspartame did not show any significant the toxic effects after 24 hours of the exposure compared to control (p<0.05). The results for pupae formation and emergence of flies also did not show any significant difference compared to control (p<0.05).

  15. Abundance of Apple Maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella, Across Different Areas in Central Washington, with Special Reference to Black-Fruited Hawthorns

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Wee L.; Klaus, Michael W.; Cha, Dong H.; Linn, Charles E.; Goughnour, Robert B.; Feder, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), infests non-commercial apple (Malus domestica (Borkh.) Borkh.) and native black-fruited hawthorns (mostly Crataegus douglasii Lindl.) in central Washington, but little has been published on the abundance of the fly in this region. In this paper, the abundance of R. pomonella across different sites near apple-growing areas in central Washington is documented in order to assess the threat of the fly to commercial apple o...

  16. Case report: A rare case of urinary myiasis induced by the fourth instar larvae of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Lifu; Liu, Jiahua; Xu, Lian; Song, Langui; Wu, Xiaoying; Sun, Xi; Wu, Zhongdao

    2017-12-01

    Telmatoscopus albipunctatus, a cosmopolitan fly, is widely distributed throughout moist environments. It is one of the most medically important insects (especially in urban environments) that may potentially cause myiasis. Urinary myiasis and other sites of infestation, including the intestine, nasal passages, lung, and derma, have been reported. This is the first case report of a Chinese middlescent woman infected with T. albipunctatus in Guangzhou, China. In the present report, a 50-year-old woman came to The Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China, because larvae were found when urinating in the morning; this had occurred every two days within the past two months. She complained of frequent micturition and urgency. Urine tests indicated that all indexes were normal except for slight urinary tract infection. Subsequently, the larvae were sent to the diagnostic section for parasitic infection in the Department of Parasitology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. The stereoscopic microscope and transmission electron microscope were used for morphological observation. On this basis, the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene was specifically amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis of the PCR product and phylogenetic analysis were used to identify the species. Morphological analysis combined with molecular biology methods indicated that the insect was the fourth instar larvae of T. albipunctatus. Our results show that this was a case of a 50-year-old woman infected with T. albipunctatus larvae in her urinary tract, and the findings suggest that clinicians should be vigilant for this infection.

  17. Feeding frequency and caste differentiation in Bombus terrestris larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.F.; Velthuis, H.H.W.; Duchateau, Marie José; Tweel, I. van der

    1998-01-01

    The frequency with which bumble bee larvae are fed during their development was studied using video-recordings. The behaviour of the workers while feeding worker, male and queen larvae of Bombus terrestris was recorded. At the beginning of development, female larvae of both castes were fed at a

  18. Odour avoidance learning in the larva of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    with electric shock in normal and mutant larvae and Tully et al. reported the passage of olfactory ... Drosophila larvae can be trained to avoid odours associated with electric shock. We describe here, an improved method of ..... Pairing odour with shock drives the larvae to the opposite zone. Preference learning index PLI.

  19. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Hessian fly-associated bacteria: transmission, essentiality, and composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bansal

    Full Text Available Plant-feeding insects have been recently found to use microbes to manipulate host plant physiology and morphology. Gall midges are one of the largest groups of insects that manipulate host plants extensively. Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor is an important pest of wheat and a model system for studying gall midges. To examine the role of bacteria in parasitism, a systematic analysis of bacteria associated with HF was performed for the first time. Diverse bacteria were found in different developmental HF stages. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected a bacteriocyte-like structure in developing eggs. Bacterial DNA was also detected in eggs by PCR using primers targeted to different bacterial groups. These results indicated that HF hosted different types of bacteria that were maternally transmitted to the next generation. Eliminating bacteria from the insect with antibiotics resulted in high mortality of HF larvae, indicating that symbiotic bacteria are essential for the insect to survive on wheat seedlings. A preliminary survey identified various types of bacteria associated with different HF stages, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Ochrobactrum, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Nitrosomonas, Arcanobacterium, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Klebsiella. Similar bacteria were also found specifically in HF-infested susceptible wheat, suggesting that HF larvae had either transmitted bacteria into plant tissue or brought secondary infection of bacteria to the wheat host. The bacteria associated with wheat seedlings may play an essential role in the wheat-HF interaction.

  1. Effects of temperature on mortality of larval stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) caused by five isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysyk, T J; Selinger, L B

    2012-04-01

    We examined the effects of temperature on mortality of larval stable fly [Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)] caused by Bacillus thuringiensis tolworthi 4L3, B. t. darmastedensis 4M1, B. t. thompsoni 401, B. t. thuringiensis HD2, and B. t. kurstaki HD945. At moderate doses, mortality caused by all isolates ranged from 87 to 99% at 15 degrees C and declined to 29-63% as temperature increased to 30 degrees C. A similar pattern was seen when a higher dose was used, except that the reduction in mortality at warmer temperatures was not as great as was seen with the moderate doses. Insecticidal activity of each isolate against first-instar larvae was reduced by only 5-15% after 5 d in the medium. Mortality of second- and third-instar larvae ranged from 2 to 21%, suggesting the isolates were less effective against larger larvae.

  2. A New Threat to Honey Bees, the Parasitic Phorid Fly Apocephalus borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Andrew; Runckel, Charles; Ivers, Jonathan; Quock, Christopher; Siapno, Travis; DeNault, Seraphina; Brown, Brian; DeRisi, Joseph; Smith, Christopher D.; Hafernik, John

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD. PMID:22235317

  3. A new threat to honey bees, the parasitic phorid fly Apocephalus borealis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Core

    Full Text Available Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD.

  4. Effect of gamma radiation against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae) in guava fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dòria, H.O.S.; Albergaria, N.M.M.; Arthur, V.; Bortoli, S.A. de

    2007-01-01

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae are considered the most important insects pest risk carried by exported fruits worldwide. Because reports have show that guavas are important host of the pest, quarentine treatments must be developed if it's to exported to countries which impose quarentine restrictions on Mediterranean fruit fly infestable commodities. Ionizing radiation is one alternative method of quarentine treatment. This work was carried out to study the effect of different doses of gamma radiation against eggs and larvae of Ceratitis capitata in guavas of 'Pedro Sato' cultivar. Guavas artificially infested with eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation at the following doses: 0 (control), 50, 100 and 150 Gy for eggs and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy for first and third instar larvae, at the dose rate of 352 Gy per hour. After irradiation fruits were put in plastic pots in a room at 25 +/- 1 deg C and 70 +/- 5% RH. Pupae obtained were sieved out and kept in small glass tubes. All doses tested did not allow emergence of adults in both treatments (eggs and larvae)

  5. The distribution of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval lengths and its implications for estimating post mortem intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Colin; Heaton, Viv; De Haan, Dorine

    2016-01-01

    The length or stage of development of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae may be used to estimate a minimum postmortem interval, often by targeting the largest individuals of a species in the belief that they will be the oldest. However, natural variation in rate of development, and therefore length, implies that the size of the largest larva, as well as the number of larvae longer than any stated length, will be greater for larger cohorts. Length data from the blow flies Protophormia terraenovae and Lucilia sericata were collected from one field-based and two laboratory-based experiments. The field cohorts contained considerably more individuals than have been used for reference data collection in the literature. Cohorts were shown to have an approximately normal distribution. Summary statistics were derived from the collected data allowing the quantification of errors in development time which arise when different sized cohorts are compared through their largest larvae. These errors may be considerable and can lead to overestimation of postmortem intervals when making comparisons with reference data collected from smaller cohorts. This source of error has hitherto been overlooked in forensic entomology.

  6. Characteristics of latrines in central Tanzania and their relation to fly catches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Irish

    Full Text Available The disposal of human excreta in latrines is an important step in reducing the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. However, in latrines, flies can access the latrine contents and serve as a mechanical transmitter of diarrhoeal pathogens. Furthermore, the latrine contents can be used as a breeding site for flies, which may further contribute to disease transmission. Latrines do not all produce flies, and there are some which produce only a few, while others can produce thousands. In order to understand the role of the latrine in determining this productivity, a pilot study was conducted, in which fifty latrines were observed in and around Ifakara, Tanzania. The characteristics of the latrine superstructure, use of the latrine, and chemical characteristics of pit latrine contents were compared to the numbers of flies collected in an exit trap placed over the drop hole in the latrine. Absence of a roof was found to have a significant positive association (t=3.17, p=0.003 with the total number of flies collected, and temporary superstructures, particularly as opposed to brick superstructures (z=4.26, p<0.001, and increased total solids in pit latrines (z=2.57, p=0.01 were significantly associated with increased numbers of blowflies leaving the latrine. The number of larvae per gram was significantly associated with the village from which samples were taken, with the largest difference between two villages outside Ifakara (z=2.12, p=0.03. The effect of latrine superstructure (roof, walls on fly production may indicate that improvements in latrine construction could result in decreases in fly populations in areas where they transmit diarrhoeal pathogens.

  7. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  8. Midgut morphological changes and autophagy during metamorphosis in sand flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Juliana; Heerman, Matthew; Weng, Ju Lin; Fernandes, Kenner M; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2017-06-01

    During metamorphosis, holometabolous insects undergo significant remodeling of their midgut and become able to cope with changes in dietary requirements between larval and adult stages. At this stage, insects must be able to manage and recycle available food resources in order to develop fully into adults, especially when no nutrients are acquired from the environment. Autophagy has been previously suggested to play a crucial role during metamorphosis of the mosquito. Here, we investigate the overall morphological changes of the midgut of the sand fly during metamorphosis and assess the expression profiles of the autophagy-related genes ATG1, ATG6, and ATG8, which are associated with various steps of the autophagic process. Morphological changes in the midgut start during the fourth larval instar, with epithelial degeneration followed by remodeling via the differentiation of regenerative cells in pre-pupal and pupal stages. The changes in the midgut epithelium are paired with the up-regulation of ATG1, ATG6 and ATG8 during the larva-adult transition. Vein, a putative epidermal growth factor involved in regulating epithelial midgut regeneration, is also up-regulated. Autophagy has further been confirmed in sand flies via the presence of autophagosomes residing within the cytoplasmic compartment of the pupal stages. An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of this process should aid the future management of this neglected tropical vector.

  9. Intraspecific larval competition in the olive fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Hannah Joy; Fornell, Angela M; Connell, Joseph H; O'Connell, Neil V; Phillips, Phil A; Vossen, Paul M; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-10-01

    Olive fruit flies [Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)] occur at densities in California that can result in intraspecific larval competition within infested fruit. Larval B. oleae densities tracked in the field at six location were found to be highly variable and related to the proportion of fruit infested and adult densities. Egg and larval distribution within the field was generally aggregated early in the season and trended toward random and uniform as the season progressed. To determine whether B. oleae experienced fitness consequences at a range of larval densities observed in the field, olive fruits were infested with one, two, four, and six eggs, and larval and pupal developmental time, pupal weight, and pupal yield were compared. At the highest egg density, all measures of performance were negatively impacted, resulting in fewer and lighter pupae that took longer to pupate and emerge as adults, and even when only two larvae was present per olive, resulting pupae were significantly smaller. Density did not impact the sex ratio of the resulting flies or survive to adults. As field surveys showed, larval densities ranged from 1 to 11 B. oleae per fruit at some sites, and our results suggest that, at high densities, B. oleae do experience competition for larval resources. The impact of intraspecific larval competition North American in field populations of B. oleae is unknown, but the potential for competition is present.

  10. Mechanical properties and microstructure analysis of fly ash geopolymeric recycled concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X.S. [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Collins, F.G.; Zhao, X.L. [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Wang, Q.Y., E-mail: wangqy@scu.edu.cn [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium silicate solution and sodium hydroxide solution were used to activate fly ash, which substitute cement totally in the concrete. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilizing two kinds of waste materials (fly ash and recycled aggregates) at the same time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical properties and microstructures were studied and compared with different recycled aggregates replacement ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such concrete has greater compressive strength and better microstructure than ordinary concrete and also geopolymer concrete. - Abstract: Six mixtures with different recycled aggregate (RA) replacement ratios of 0%, 50% and 100% were designed to manufacture recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) and alkali-activated fly ash geopolymeric recycled concrete (GRC). The physical and mechanical properties were investigated indicating different performances from each other. Optical microscopy under transmitted light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were carried out in this study in order to identify the mechanism underlying the effects of the geopolymer and RA on concrete properties. The features of aggregates, paste and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) were compared and discussed. Experimental results indicate that using alkali-activated fly ash geopolymer as replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) effectively improved the compressive strength. With increasing of RA contents in both RAC and GRC, the compressive strength decreased gradually. The microstructure analysis shows that, on one hand, the presence of RA weakens the strength of the aggregates and the structure of ITZs; on the other hand, due to the alkali-activated fly ash in geopolymer concrete, the contents of Portlandite (Ca(OH){sub 2}) and voids were reduced, as well as improved the matrix homogeneity. The microstructure of GRC was changed by different reaction products, such

  11. Inflammatory reaction to the human bot-fly, Dermatobia hominis, in infested and reinfested mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lello, E; de Rosis, A M B

    2003-03-01

    Two groups of mice were infested with first stage larvae of the human bot-fly, Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr) (Diptera: Oestridae). In the first group, skin biopsies were carried out 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 18 days after infestation. The second group was also infested but had all the larvae removed 5 days after infestation. The mice in the latter group were reinfested 4 weeks later and skin biopsies were carried out 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 18 days after reinfestation. In the first group, an inflammatory reaction began slowly, the neutrophils being the main inflammatory cells, eosinophils being scarce. The reaction progressed with time, developing a necrotic halo around the larvae containing inflammatory cells surrounded by fibroblasts. The inflammation invaded the adjacent tissue. In the second group, the inflammatory reaction was intense on the day immediately after reinfestation, the pattern being changed by the presence of a large number of eosinophils. Activated fibroblasts surrounding the necrotic area around the larvae appeared 3 days after reinfestation in the second group and 7 days after infestation in the first group. The results demonstrated that the previous contact with the antigens elicited the early arrival of eosinophils, probably through the chemotactic factors liberated by mast cells in the anaphylactic reaction.

  12. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on liquid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol describes the analysis of larvae feeding on liquid food. The test is designed for quantitative assessment of the food ingestion rate of individual larvae under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as food deprivation is prolonged. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  13. Repair studies utilizing a fly-pupariation model of postmitotic cell response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducoff, H.S.; Jayaraman, S.; Blumenthal, L.K.

    1984-01-01

    Delay in pupariation of irradiated fly (and other insect) larvae results from a neuroendocrine disturbance and represents a dose-dependent response of differentiated postmitotic tissue. Many experimental manipulations (e.g. heating) may themselves upset timing, limiting usefulness of this phenomenon as a model of postmitotic tissue response. Doses >20 Gy inhibit retraction of specific muscles at time of pupariation, leading to formation of elongate puparia. Degree of elongation (ratio of length: breadth) was also a function of dose. Peak sensitivity for elongation occurs later than that for delay, but both endpoints exhibit rapid kinetics for sparing effect of dose fractionations (sdf). With degree of elongation as endpoint, we demonstrated synergism between heat and radiation, and heat markedly inhibited sdf. Maintenance of irradiated larvae under wet conditions greatly prolonged the larval stage, and degree of elongation was reduced. This recovery, analogous to repair of potentially-lethal damage (PLD) in plateau-phase cell cultures, proceeds much more slowly than sdf. (author)

  14. The active evolutionary lives of echinoderm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, R A; Byrne, M

    2006-09-01

    Echinoderms represent a researchable subset of a dynamic larval evolutionary cosmos. Evolution of echinoderm larvae has taken place over widely varying time scales from the origins of larvae of living classes in the early Palaeozoic, approximately 500 million years ago, to recent, rapid and large-scale changes that have occurred within living genera within a span of less than a million years to a few million years. It is these recent evolutionary events that offer a window into processes of larval evolution operating at a micro-evolutionary level of evolution of discrete developmental mechanisms. We review the evolution of the diverse larval forms of living echinoderms to outline the origins of echinoderm larval forms, their diversity among living echinoderms, molecular clocks and rates of larval evolution, and finally current studies on the roles of developmental regulatory mechanisms in the rapid and radical evolutionary changes observed between closely related congeneric species.

  15. Sporulation and Germination of Paenibacillus larvae Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Osama S; Fisher, Nathan A

    2018-02-22

    Endospores are metabolically dormant cells formed by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes in response to nutrient limiting or otherwise unfavorable growth conditions. American foulbrood disease (AFB) is a serious disease of honeybees that is caused by the introduction of Paenibacillus larvae endospores into a honeybee colony. Progression to fulminant disease and eventual collapse of the colony requires multiple rounds of endospore germination, vegetative replication, endospore formation, and subsequent spread within the colony. This unit includes protocols for the in vitro sporulation and germination of P. larvae to assist investigators in the study of these processes. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. New Host Record for Camponotophilus delvarei (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae, a Parasitoid of Microdontine Larvae (Diptera: Syrphidae, Associated with the Ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microdontine syrphid flies are obligate social parasites of ants. Larvae prey on ant brood whereas adults live outside the nests. Knowledge of their interaction with their host is often scarce, as it is information about their natural enemies. Here we report the first case of parasitism of a species of microdontine fly by a myrmecophilous eurytomid wasp. This is also the first host record for Camponotophilus delvarei Gates, a recently described parasitic wasp discovered in Chiapas, Mexico, within the nests of the weaver ant, Camponotus sp. aff. textor Forel. Eleven pupal cases of a microdontine fly were found within a single nest of this ant, five of them being parasitized. Five adult C. delvarei females were reared from a puparium and 29 female and 2 male pupae were obtained from another one. The eurytomid is a gregarious, primary ectoparasitoid of larvae and pupae of Microdontinae, its immature stages developing within the protective puparium of the fly. The species is synovigenic. Adult females likely locate and parasitize their hosts within the ant nest. As some species of Microdontinae are considered endangered, their parasitoids are likewise threatened and in need of accurate and urgent surveys in the future.

  17. Two Gut-Associated Yeasts in a Tephritid Fruit Fly have Contrasting Effects on Adult Attraction and Larval Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Alexander M; Farnier, Kevin; Linder, Tomas; Speight, Robert; Cunningham, John Paul

    2017-09-01

    Yeast-insect interactions have been well characterized in drosophilid flies, but not in tephritid fruit flies, which include many highly polyphagous pest species that attack ripening fruits. Using the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) as our model tephritid species, we identified yeast species present in the gut of wild-collected larvae and found two genera, Hanseniaspora and Pichia, were the dominant isolates. In behavioural trials using adult female B. tryoni, a fruit-agar substrate inoculated with Pichia kluyveri resulted in odour emissions that increased the attraction of flies, whereas inoculation with Hanseniaspora uvarum, produced odours that strongly deterred flies, and both yeasts led to decreased oviposition. Larval development trials showed that the fruit-agar substrate inoculated with the 'deterrent odour' yeast species, H. uvarum, resulted in significantly faster larval development and a greater number of adult flies, compared to a substrate inoculated with the 'attractive odour' yeast species, P. kluyveri, and a yeast free control substrate. GC-MS analysis of volatiles emitted by H. uvarum and P. kluyveri inoculated substrates revealed significant quantitative differences in ethyl-, isoamyl-, isobutyl-, and phenethyl- acetates, which may be responsible for the yeast-specific olfactory responses of adult flies. We discuss how our seemingly counterintuitive finding that female B. tryoni flies avoid a beneficial yeast fits well with our understanding of female choice of oviposition sites, and how the contrasting behavioural effects of H. uvarum and P. kluyveri raises interesting questions regarding the role of yeast-specific volatiles as cues to insect vectors. A better understanding of yeast-tephritid interactions could assist in the future management of tephritid fruit fly pests through the formulation of new "attract and kill" lures, and the development of probiotics for mass rearing of insects in sterile insect control programs.

  18. Is aggregated oviposition by the blow flies Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) really pheromone-mediated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S; Wong, Warren H L; VanLaerhoven, Sherah; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    When female blow flies Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) oviposit in aggregations on carrion, even-aged larval offspring reportedly develop faster, and fewer are parasitized or preyed upon. The benefits of aggregated oviposition equally affect con- and heterospecific larvae sharing a resource. The benefits imply that female blow flies engage in coordinated, pheromone-mediated oviposition behavior. Yet, repeated attempts to identify oviposition pheromones have failed invoking doubt that they exist. Simply by regurgitating and feeding on carrion, flies may produce attractive semiochemicals. If flies were to aggregate in response to feeding flies rather than ovipositing flies, then the semiochemical cue(s) may be associated with the salivary gland. Working with L. sericata and P. regina and using liver as a surrogate oviposition medium, we test the hypotheses, and present data in their support, that (i) gravid or nongravid females ovipositing and/or feeding on liver enhance its attractiveness to gravid and nongravid females; (ii) females respond to semiochemicals from feeding heterospecific females; (iii) females respond equally well to semiochemicals from feeding con- and heterospecific females; (iv) macerated head tissues of females applied to liver enhance its attractiveness; and (v) females in direct contact with and feeding on liver, but not when next to yet physically separated from liver, enhance attraction of flies. We conclude that oviposition site-seeking females do not respond to an oviposition pheromone. Instead, they appear to coopt semiochemicals associated with feeding flies as resource indicators, taking chances that resources are suitable for oviposition, and that ovipositing flies are present. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Significance of bacteria in oviposition and larval development of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Microbial ecology of phlebotomine sand flies is not well understood although bacteria likely play an important role in the sand fly biology and vector capacity for Leishmania parasites. In this study, we assessed the significance of the microbial community of rabbit feces in oviposition and larval development of Lutzomyia longipalpis as well as bacterial colonization of the gut of freshly emerged flies. Methods Sterile (by autoclaving) and non-sterile (control) rabbit feces were used in the two-choice assay to determine their oviposition attractiveness to sand fly females. Bacteria were identified by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with universal eubacterial primers. Sterile, control (non-sterile), and sterilized and inoculated rabbit feces were used to assess the significance of bacteria in L. longipalpis development. Newly emerged adult flies were surface-sterilized and screened for the bacterial population size and diversity by the culturing approach. The digestive tract of L4 sterile and control larvae was incubated with Phalloidin to visualize muscle tissues and DAPI to visualize nuclei. Results Two-choice behavioural assays revealed a great preference of L. longipalpis to lay eggs on rabbit feces with an active complex bacterial community (control) (85.8 % of eggs) in comparison to that of sterile (autoclaved) rabbit feces (14.2 %). Bioassays demonstrated that L. longipalpis larvae can develop in sterile rabbit feces although development time to adult stage was greatly extended (47 days) and survival of larvae was significantly lower (77.8 %) compared to that of larvae developing in the control rabbit feces (32 days and 91.7 %). Larval survival on sterilized rabbit feces inoculated with the individual bacterial isolates originating from this substrate varied greatly depending on a bacterial strain. Rhizobium radiobacter supported larval development to adult stage into the greatest extent (39 days, 88.0 %) in

  20. Immunity through early development of coral larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C V; Graham, E; Baird, A H

    2012-10-01

    As a determinant of survival, immunity is likely to be significant in enabling coral larvae to disperse and successfully recruit, however, whether reef-building coral larvae have immune defenses is unknown. We investigated the potential presence and variation in immunity in the lecithotrophic larvae of Acropora tenuis through larval development. Enzymes indicative of tyrosinase and laccase-type melanin-synthesis were quantified, and the concentration of three coral fluorescent proteins was measured over six developmental stages; egg, embryo, motile planula, planula post-exposure to crustose coralline algae (CCA; settlement cue), settled, settled post-exposure to Symbiodinium (endosymbiont). Both types of melanin-synthesis pathways and the three fluorescent proteins were present in A. tenuis throughout development. Laccase-type activity and red fluorescence increased following exposure of planula to CCA, whereas tyrosinase-type activity and cyan fluorescence increased following settlement. No change was detected in the measured parameters following exposure to Symbiodinium. This study is the first to document coral larval immune responses and suggests the melanin-synthesis pathways have disparate roles-the laccase-type potentially non-immunological and the tyrosinase-type in cytotoxic defense. Our results indicate that corals have the potential to resist infection from the earliest life history phase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Piangjai, Somsak; Upakut, Sorawit; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-06-01

    This work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann)], house flies (Musca domestica L.), and flesh flies (Liosarcophaga dux Thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. The head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, and the clear compound eye was dissected into six small parts, each of which was placed onto a slide and flattened using a coverslip. Images of each part were obtained using a microscope connected to a computer. The printed images of each part were magnified, and the total number of ommatidia per eye was manually counted. For males, the mean number of ommatidia was statistically different among all flies examined: L. dux (6,032) > C. rufifacies (5,356) > C. nigripes (4,798) > C. megacephala (4,376) > L. cuprina (3,665) > M. domestica (3,484). Likewise, the mean number of facets in females was statistically different: L. dux (6,086) > C. megacephala (5,641) > C. rufifacies (5,208) > C. nigripes (4,774) > L. cuprina (3,608) > M. domestica (3433). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of adult flies revealed the sexual dimorphism in the compound eye. Male C. megacephala had large ommatidia in the upper two thirds part and small ommatidia in the lower one third part, whereas only small ommatidia were detected in females. Dense postulate appearance was detected in the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia of C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, and C. nigripes, while a mix of dense postulate appearance and variable groove array length was detected in L. cuprina and M. domestica. The probable functions of ommatidia are discussed with reference to other literature.

  2. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Chi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  3. Fly ash effect on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gufran Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to observe the effect of fly ash on hatching, mortality and penetration of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in pumpkin roots. For hatching experiment different fly ash-extract concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% were prepared. Hatching was significantly reduced in all concentrations, maximum being at 50% concentration. The mortality (% of juveniles was observed in 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7th days with different levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 % of fly ash-extract. All the levels were found harmful to juveniles. As the level was increased, the killing percentage of juveniles was also increased. Highest mortality was observed in 7th day with 50% level.For the penetration experiment, fly ash was mixed with soil to prepare different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%. Seeds of pumpkin were grown in coffee cups filled with different mixtures. At two leaf stage, seedlings were inoculated with 2000 larvae. The penetrated larvae in roots were observed after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Root penetration was found inversely proportional to concentration. Significant results in the suppression of nematode penetration were noted up to 40% concentration. However, none of the juveniles was penetrated at 50% concentration.International Journal of Environment Vol.5(3 2016, pp.66-73

  4. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michael W.; Griffith, Leslie C.; Vecsey, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis. PMID:25116571

  5. Interaction Between Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) and the Insecticides Used for Controlling House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in Poultry Farm of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Song-Quan; Ahmad, Hamdan; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Jaal, Zairi

    2017-11-07

    The potential of integrating the mycoinsecticide, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.), into house fly control programs is tremendous. However, the interaction between the fungus and insecticide, when applied at poultry farms, remains poorly understood. This study investigated the interaction between M. anisopliae and two selected insecticides, cyromazine and ChCy (a mixture of chlorpyrifos and cypemethrin), with three objectives: to assess the compatibility of M. anisopliae and the insecticides by measuring fungal vegetative growth and conidia production in the presence of insecticides; to evaluate the effect of M. anisopliae on these insecticides by analyzing insecticidal residue using ultra performance liquid chromatography; and to study the synergistic effects of M. anisopliae and the insecticides by applying sublethal concentrations of insecticides with M. anisopliae to house fly larvae. Metarhizium anisopliae was more tolerant to ChCy than to cyromazine, as M. anisopliae showed significantly more growth when grown with this insecticide. The M. anisopliae + ChCy combination resulted in significantly less chlorpyrifos residues compared to the ChCy plate, and 62-72% house fly larva mortality occurred when M. anisopliae and sublethal concentrations of ChCy were combined, implicating synergistic effects of the fungus with low concentrations of ChCy. Integrating M. anisopliae with compatible chemical at right concentration is crucial for poultry farm house fly control programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Flying in Nightmares - A Neglected Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Schönhammer, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    It is widely supposed in the scientific and popular literature on dreams that flying in dreams is of mostly delightful character. Domhoff (1996) recently emphasised the highly positive feelings experienced in flying dreams although he mentions a turn to apprehension later in the dream ("crashing", "coming down"). In my research (an interview-sample of flying dreams) I met flying experiences in contexts of nightmares which are seldom mentioned and never thoroughly discussed in interdiscipli...

  7. Flies blown disease - Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis, a term first introduced by Hope (1840, refers to the invasion of tissues and organs of animals and human wounds and certain body cavities by the dipteran larvae which manifests as subcutaneous furunculoid or boillike lesions. Oral myiasis is a rare pathology and a risk to the patient′s life. Higher incidence is seen in rural areas affecting the tropical and sub-tropical zones of Africa and America. Myiasis affecting the oro-dental complex is rare. Here is a case report of oral myiasis in an 18-year-old male patient who is mentally challenged with anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and periodontal disease. The lesion was treated with turpentine oil, which forced larvae out and irrigated with normal saline solution. Follow-up examination revealed complete remission and healing of the lesion.

  8. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the ... Author Affiliations. Amitabh Joshi1. Animal Behaviour Unit Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research Jakkur P.O. Bangalore 560 064, India ...

  9. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Fly ash (FA) is a coal product generated from coal fired thermal power stations. ... million tons during 2001–2010 AD (Muraka et al 1987;. Satyanarayan and Pushpalata 1991). Disposal of FA and bottom ash are today's burning problems as they have .... Muraka I P, Boyd R H and Harbert H P 1987 Solid waste disposal and ...

  10. To Fly in the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  11. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  12. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1980-01-01

    In years 1920 as a result of quantum mechanics principles governing the structure of ordinary matter, a sudden importance for a problem raised a long time ago by Laplace: what happens when a massive body becomes so dense that even light cannot escape from its gravitational field. It is difficult to conceive how could be avoided in the actual universe the accumulation of important masses of cold matter having been submitted to gravitational breaking down followed by the formation of what is called to day a black hole [fr

  13. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    fly ash were measured through N2 adsorption at 77 K using a TRISTAR-3000 surface area and porosity analyzer (Micromeritics). Surface morphology of fly ash was characterized by a SM-. 6700F field emission scanning electron microscope. Table 2. Chemical composition of fly ash. Oxide of metal. Percentage composition.

  14. Evaluation of fly ash quality control tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Many entities currently use fly ash in portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and structures. Although the body of knowledge is : great concerning the use of fly ash, several projects per year are subject to poor performance where fly ash is named ...

  15. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter ...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  16. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for sweet cherries against Queensland fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessup, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The quality of 'Ron's Seedling', 'American Bing', and 'Lambert' sweet cherry drupes was not affected by irradiation doses up to 300 to 1000 gray. Peduncle discoloration increased in 'Ron's Seedling' cherries when irradiated at 600 and 1000 gray. A dose of 75 gray prevented adult eclosion of more than 1300 Queensland fruit fly (Dacus tryoni, Froggatt). Larvae treated at the third instar were the least susceptible to gamma irradiation. The results indicated that gamma irradiation is a feasible quarantine treatment against D. tryoni without impairment to the quality of cherries

  17. Tsetse fly saliva: Could it be useful in fly infection when feeding in chronically aparasitemic mammalian hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Awuoche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness and nagana are two important diseases cuased by African trypanosomes in humans and animals respectively, in tropical african countries. A number of trypanosome species are implicated in these diseases, but it is the Trypanosoma brucei group that is responsible for the chronic form of sleeping sickness. During the course of this chronic infection the parasite shows a clear tropism for organs and tissues and only sporadically appears in the blood stream. Notwithstanding this feature, tsetse flies normally get infected from chronically infected apparasitemic hosts. For some pathogens like the microfilaria, it has already shown that the saliva of the vector, black fly saliva contribute to orient the pathogen to the site of the vector bite. Chemotaxis of tsetse saliva may perhaps stimulate movement of Trypanosoma brucei parasites from tissues to the bloodstream and via the vascular to the tsetse feeding site, and could explain the relatively high infection rate of tsetse flies feeding on chronically infected animals. This review paper looks into the possible role of trypanosome-vector saliva in ensuring parasite acquisition and its application in the tsetse – trypanosome interaction at the host skin interphase.

  18. Association and attraction of blueberry maggot fly Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Pantoea (Enterobacter) agglomerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCollom, G B; Lauzon, C R; Sjogren, R E; Meyer, W L; Olday, F

    2009-02-01

    The attraction of washed, medium-free cells of Pantoea (Enterobacter) agglomerans to wild, adult Rhagoletis mendax Curran, the blueberry maggot fly, was evaluated in managed blueberry fields in Maine. Attraction was evaluated using Pherocon AM and Ladd traps, each tested with or without washed bacterial cells. Field studies showed significant increases in fly captures on the Pherocon AM traps. Apple volatiles odors on Ladd traps seemed to cancel the effects of bacterial odors. Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were isolated and identified from alimentary organs within wild R. mendax. Isolates indentified included P. agglomerans. Blueberries collected in the field were surveyed for the presence of P. agglomerans and blueberries containing blueberry maggot larvae and noninfested blueberries were analyzed for amino acid content. Maggot-infested blueberry contained twice the amino acid nitrogen than that of noninfested blueberry. P. agglomerans, like with other pest tephritids, seems to be a cosmopolite with blueberry maggot.

  19. Incidence of Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taweel, Ayad A.; Al-Izzi, Mohammed A.J.; Jassim, Fadhil A.

    2000-01-01

    The Old World screw-worm fly (OWSWF), Chrysomya bezziana Villenuve, is a member of the insect family Calliphoridae and is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals in the tropics and sub-tropics (Norris and Murray 1964). Flies lay their eggs on the edge of wounds or body orifices; the resulting larvae invade the host tissues and produce lesions and infertility if the genitals become infested (Humphrey et al. 1980). Recorded hosts include cattle (Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Caprus hircus), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus) and man (Homo sapiens) (Patton 1920, 1922, Stoddar and Peck 1962, Norris and Murray 1964). This investigation describes the incidence of myiasis caused by C. bezziana in Iraq from September 1996 to March 1998

  20. DREADDs in Drosophila: A Pharmacogenetic Approach for Controlling Behavior, Neuronal Signaling, and Physiology in the Fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Becnel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We have translated a powerful genetic tool, designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs, from mammalian systems to Drosophila melanogaster to selectively, rapidly, reversibly, and dose-dependently control behaviors and physiological processes in the fly. DREADDs are muscarinic acetylcholine G protein-coupled receptors evolved for loss of affinity to acetylcholine and for the ability to be fully activated by an otherwise biologically inert chemical, clozapine-N-oxide. We demonstrate its ability to control a variety of behaviors and processes in larvae and adults, including heart rate, sensory processing, diurnal behavior, learning and memory, and courtship. The advantages of this particular technology include the dose-responsive control of behaviors, the lack of a need for specialized equipment, and the capacity to remotely control signaling in essentially all neuronal and nonneuronal fly tissues.

  1. Drosophila larvae fed palm fruit juice (PFJ) delay pupation via expression regulation of hormetic stress response genes linked to ageing and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Soon-Sen; Luu, Alice; Shrestha, Swechhya; Hayes, K C; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2018-03-15

    Palm fruit juice (PFJ) containing oil palm phenolics is obtained as a by-product from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit milling. It contains shikimic acid, soluble fibre and various phenolic acids including p-hydroxybenzoic acid and three caffeoylshikimic acid isomers. PFJ has also demonstrated beneficial health properties in various biological models. Increasing concentrations of PFJ and different PFJ fractions were used to assess growth dynamics and possible anti-ageing properties in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) genotype w 1118 . Microarray gene expression analysis was performed on whole fruit fly larvae and their fat bodies, after the larvae were fed a control Standard Brandeis Diet (SBD) with or without PFJ. Transcripts from Affymetrix GeneChips were utilised to identify the possible mechanisms involved, with genes having fold changes > |1.30| and p < 0.05 considered differentially expressed. PFJ dose-dependently delayed larval growth and pupation, but not percent eclosion from pupae. Eclosed male fruit flies fed PFJ or its fractions during the larval stage tended to have 20-40% improved survival ratings over controls when allowed to age on the control diet (SBD). Microarray analysis of whole fruit fly larvae revealed that 127 genes were up-regulated, while 67 were down-regulated by PFJ. Functional analysis revealed transport and metabolic processes were up-regulated, while development and morphogenesis processes, including the nutrient-sensing Tor gene, were down-regulated by PFJ, whereas microarray analysis of larval fat bodies found 161 genes were up-regulated, while 84 genes were down-regulated. Genes involved in defence response and determination of adult lifespan, including those encoding various heat shock proteins and the antioxidant enzyme Sod2, were up-regulated, while cell cycle and growth genes were down-regulated. Thus, PFJ supplementation lengthened the growth stages in fruit fly larvae that was reflected in extended ageing of

  2. From trochophore to pilidium and back again - a larva's journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslakova, Svetlana A; Hiebert, Terra C

    2014-01-01

    Nemerteans, a phylum of marine lophotrochozoan worms, have a biphasic life history with benthic adults and planktonic larvae. Nemertean larval development is traditionally categorized into direct and indirect. Indirect development via a long-lived planktotrophic pilidium larva is thought to have evolved in one clade of nemerteans, the Pilidiophora, from an ancestor with a uniformly ciliated planuliform larva. Planuliform larvae in a member of a basal nemertean group, the Palaeonemertea, have been previously shown to possess a vestigial prototroch, homologous to the primary larval ciliated band in the trochophores of other spiralian phyla, such as annelids and mollusks. We review literature on nemertean larval development, and include our own unpublished observations. We highlight recent discoveries of numerous pilidiophoran species with lecithotrophic larvae. Some of these larvae superficially resemble uniformly ciliated planuliform larvae of other nemerteans. Others possess one or two transverse ciliary bands, which superficially resemble the prototroch and telotroch of some spiralian trochophores. We also summarize accumulating evidence for planktotrophic feeding by larvae of the order Hoplonemertea, which until now were considered to be lecithotrophic. We suggest that 1) non-feeding pilidiophoran larval forms are derived from a feeding pilidium; 2) such forms have likely evolved many times independently within the Pilidiophora; 3) any resemblance of such larvae to the trochophores of other spiralians is a result of convergence and that 4) the possibility of planktotrophy in hoplonemertean larvae may influence estimates of pelagic larval duration, dispersal, and population connectivity in this group.

  3. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Pino

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b, Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  4. The occurrence of hazardous volatile elements and nanoparticles in Bulgarian coal fly ashes and the effect on human health exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: lfsoliveira@univates.br [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); DaBoit, Katia [Department of Environmental Medicine, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre - RS (Brazil); Jasper, Andre [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Andrade, Maria L. [Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Kostova, Irena J. [Sofia University ' St. Kliment Ohridski' , Department of Geology, Paleontology and Fossil Fuels, 15, Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); and others

    2012-02-01

    Low-rank, high-mineral matter Bulgarian coals were studied using a variety of chemical, optical, and electron beam methods. The larger fly ash carbon phases include charred carbons in contrast to coked carbons present in the fly ashes of bituminous-coal-derived fly ashes. Nanoscale carbons include multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating Hg, Se, and As, among other elements. In addition to the glass which dominates the fly ash, relatively coarse 'rock fragments', consisting of an unmelted to partially melted core surrounded by a glassy rim, are present in the fly ash. Nano-scale minerals can contain hazardous elements and, along with metal-bearing multiwalled nanotubes, can be a path for the entry of hazardous particles into the lungs and other organs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model Bulgarian power plants which have regulated minerals nanoparticles can contain hazardous elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study changes in the level of information about nanominerals importance and the effect on human health exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing information will increase quality if power plants procedures are similar.

  5. Laboratory and field evaluation of formulated Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a feed additive and using topical applications for control of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in caged-poultry manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwamburi, L A; Laing, M D; Miller, R

    2011-02-01

    Infestations of house flies, Musca domestica L., are a continual problem around poultry establishments. Acute toxicity of two commercial Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (Bti) formulations (water-dispersible granules and bran formulation) was evaluated against larvae in the laboratory and against natural populations of M. domestica larvae in the field applied in feed to chickens and as topical applications in the poultry houses. Bioassay data showed that susceptibility of M. domestica larvae increased to a given concentration of Bti as the duration of exposure increased. In the laboratory studies, the LC(50) values of Bti for the larvae ranged between 65 and 77.4 μg/ml. In the field, a concentration of 10 g Bti/kg of feed resulted in 90% reduction of larvae at 4 wk after treatment. A higher concentration (2 g/liter) of Bti in spray applications was not significantly more effective than the lower concentration of 1 g/liter. Adding Bti to chicken feed is potentially an efficient measure for the management and control of house flies in caged-poultry facilities. © 2011 Entomological Society of America

  6. Making Blackness, Making Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Too often the acknowledgment that race is a social construction ignores exactly how this construction occurs. By illuminating the way in which the category of blackness and black individuals are made, we can better see how race matters in America. Antidiscrimination policy, social science research, and the state's support of its citizens can all be improved by an accurate and concrete definition of blackness. Making Blackness, Making Policy argues that blackness and black people are literally...

  7. SEBARAN LARVA IKAN DAN KAITANNYA DENGAN KONDISI OSEANOGRAFI LAUT SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laut Sulawesi diketahui sebagai daerah penangkapan ikan yang potensial sekaligus diduga sebagai lokasi pemijahan. Berbagai jenis larva ikan pelagis maupun demersal ditemukan di perairan ini. Kelimpahan dan sebaran larva ikan di suatu perairan sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi oseanografi seperti temperatur, salinitas dan sejumlah parameter lainnya termasuk ketersediaan pakan. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh parameter oseanografi terhadap kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan di Laut Sulawesi, telah dilakukan penelitian menggunakan kapal riset KR Baruna Jaya VII pada Oktober 2012. Parameter oseanografi yaitu temperatur dan salinitas diukur menggunakan iCTD dan sampling larva menggunakan bonggo net pada 18 stasiun pengukuran. Analisa hubungan kondisi oseanografi dengan sebaran larva dilakukan secara deskriptif dan pemetaan sebarannya dilakukan secara spasial. Hasil menunjukan keterkaitan sejumlah parameter oseanografi dengan kelimpahan dan sebaran spasial larva ikan. Sebaran larva famili Scombroidae dominan berada pada perairan bersalinitas tinggi karena merupakan jenis ikan oseanik. Larva ikan demersal banyak ditemukan di perairan sekitar Kep.Sangihe Talaud. Kelimpahan larva tertinggi ditemukan di perairan bagian utara dan barat lokasi penelitian dimana kelimpahan plankton tinggi ditemukan.   Celebes Sea is known as a potential fishing and spawning grounds for several pelagic fish species. Abundance and distribution of fish larvae are allegedly linked to oceanographic conditions such as temperature, salinity and others oceanographic parameters including food availablity. To see the effect of oceanographic on the abundance and spatial distribution of fish larvae in the Celebes Sea, has conducted a research in October 2012using the research vessel KR Baruna Jaya VII. The measurement of oceanographic parameters including temperature and salinity and larval sampling were done respectively by using iCTD and Bonggo net at 18 measuring stations. The

  8. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black holes; numerical relativity; nonlinear sigma. Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. ... Theoretical and Computational Studies Group, Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA ...

  9. Efficacy and longevity of newly developed catnip oil microcapsules against stable fly oviposition and larval growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J J; Wienhold, B J; Wehrle, J; Davis, D; Chen, H; Taylor, D; Friesen, K; Zurek, L

    2014-06-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of cattle and costs U.S. cattle producers billions of dollars in losses annually. In this study, the efficacy of catnip oil encapsulated in gelatin in oviposition deterrence and larval growth inhibition in stable flies was examined under laboratory conditions. More than 98% inhibition of stable fly larval growth and female oviposition was observed in larval and oviposition media treated with encapsulated catnip oil (0.5 g). Further, dose-response tests showed that as little as 0.1 g of encapsulated catnip oil provided > 85% oviposition deterrence. The release of nepetalactones from the capsules was more rapid when the capsules were placed on a moist substrate rather than a dry substrate. Encapsulated catnip oil also exhibited antibacterial activity, supporting the hypothesis that its inhibition of larval growth may be based on its killing of the bacteria on which larvae feed. The use of encapsulated catnip oil can provide an alternative control strategy for stable fly management. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Distribution and Seasonal Activity of Phlebotominae Sand Flies in Yazd and Its Outskirts, Center of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahareh Mirhoseini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Phlebotominae sand flies are the main vectors of leishmaniasis and some other diseases. Materials and Methods. Using sticky traps, sand flies were collected fortnightly from outdoors and indoors areas of selected sites. Results. A total of 2032 specimens (498 in the city and 1534 in the outskirts of Yazd belonging to 11 species were collected. The activity of sand flies started in early-April and ended in mid-November. There were two peaks of activity in the end of April and mid-September. Phlebotomus sergenti and P. papatasi were the most abundant species in the city and outskirts of Yazd city, respectively. Other species were P. salehi, P. ansarii, P. kazerouni, P. caucasicus, P. andrejevi, P. alexandri, P. mongolensis, Sergentomyia sintoni, and S. palestinensis. Conclusion. In comparison to some other parts of Iran, the extended period between two peaks suggests that the larvae to adult development of sand fly were delayed by the higher temperature of the summer months in Yazd province.

  11. Spatiotemporal Aspects of Hendra Virus Infection in Pteropid Bats (Flying-Foxes) in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hume; Jordan, David; Edson, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Melville, Debra; Parry-Jones, Kerryn; Broos, Alice; Divljan, Anja; McMichael, Lee; Davis, Rodney; Kung, Nina; Kirkland, Peter; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) causes highly lethal disease in horses and humans in the eastern Australian states of Queensland (QLD) and New South Wales (NSW), with multiple equine cases now reported on an annual basis. Infection and excretion dynamics in pteropid bats (flying-foxes), the recognised natural reservoir, are incompletely understood. We sought to identify key spatial and temporal factors associated with excretion in flying-foxes over a 2300 km latitudinal gradient from northern QLD to southern NSW which encompassed all known equine case locations. The aim was to strengthen knowledge of Hendra virus ecology in flying-foxes to improve spillover risk prediction and exposure risk mitigation strategies, and thus better protect horses and humans. Monthly pooled urine samples were collected from under roosting flying-foxes over a three-year period and screened for HeV RNA by quantitative RT-PCR. A generalised linear model was employed to investigate spatiotemporal associations with HeV detection in 13,968 samples from 27 roosts. There was a non-linear relationship between mean HeV excretion prevalence and five latitudinal regions, with excretion moderate in northern and central QLD, highest in southern QLD/northern NSW, moderate in central NSW, and negligible in southern NSW. Highest HeV positivity occurred where black or spectacled flying-foxes were present; nil or very low positivity rates occurred in exclusive grey-headed flying-fox roosts. Similarly, little red flying-foxes are evidently not a significant source of virus, as their periodic extreme increase in numbers at some roosts was not associated with any concurrent increase in HeV detection. There was a consistent, strong winter seasonality to excretion in the southern QLD/northern NSW and central NSW regions. This new information allows risk management strategies to be refined and targeted, mindful of the potential for spatial risk profiles to shift over time with changes in flying-fox species distribution.

  12. Strength Properties of Processed Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Anandan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on the mechanical treatment of fly ash for improving the delayed reactivity of fly ash with the hydration product of cement. Grinding of fly ash was carried out in a ball mill for different time durations and processing time was optimized for maximum fineness. Concrete mixes were prepared using various proportions of processed and unprocessed fly ash replacement in cement (25% and 50%. The influence of steel fiber addition on the mechanical properties of the concrete was studied for different curing periods. The test results on pozzolanic activity and lime reactivity indicate that the processed fly ash exhibited a higher strength gain than the unprocessed fly ash, with a maximum increase in compressive strength of up to 12%. Improved pozzolanic properties were noticed due to the increase in fineness of the fly ash particles.

  13. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on solid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol is designed for quantitative assessment of the willingness of individual larvae to procure solid food under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as the period of food deprivation is increased. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  14. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  15. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  16. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  17. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  18. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  19. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-08

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  20. Geopolymer Mortar with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry accounts for about 7% of all CO2 emissions caused by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to find another material in order to support sustainable material. An alternative way is replacing cement material with alternative material as fly ash. Fly ash as binder need to be added alkaline activator in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 or potassium silicate (K2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH or potassium hydroxide (KOH. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of activator liquid concentration on geopolymer mortar properties and to know the value of compressive strength. Molarity variation of NaOH are 8, 12, 14, and 16 M with ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1.0. Ratio of sand/fly ash = 2.75 and ratio of activator/fly ash = 0.8. The cube-shaped specimen 50 × 50 × 50 mm is cured by steam curing with a temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. The experimental result of fresh mortar reported that the molarity of NaOH affect the slump flow and setting time, higher of NaOH produces the smaller value of slump and the faster time of setting. The experimental of density results reported that the increase of specific gravity when the molarity of NaOH increased. The experimental results of the compressive strength are showed that the maximum compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 14 M is 10.06 MPa and the lowest compressive strength produced by geopolymer mortar 8 M is 3.95 MPa. Testing the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 16 M produces compressive strength lower than 14 M geopolymer mortar is 9.16 MPa.

  1. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...... of the treated products for reuse in construction or farming sectors should be explored further, as should the possibility of recycling of valuable, extracted elements in the metallurgical industry....

  2. Notes on flying and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  3. Biofilms and Marine Invertebrate Larvae: What Bacteria Produce That Larvae Use to Choose Settlement Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Communities of microorganisms form thin coats across solid surfaces in the sea. Larvae of many marine invertebrates use biofilm components as cues to appropriate settlement sites. Research on the tube-dwelling polychaete worm Hydroides elegans, a globally common member of biofouling communities, is described to exemplify approaches to understanding biofilm bacteria as a source of settlement cues and larvae as bearers of receptors for bacterial cues. The association of species of the bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas with larval settlement in many phyla is described, and the question of whether cues are soluble or surface-bound is reviewed, concluding that most evidence points to surface-bound cues. Seemingly contradictory data for stimulation of barnacle settlement are discussed; possibly both explanations are true. Paleontological evidence reveals a relationship between metazoans and biofilms very early in metazoan evolution, and thus the receptors for bacterial cues of invertebrate larvae are very old and possibly unique. Finally, despite more than 60 years of intense investigation, we still know very little about either the bacterial ligands that stimulate larval settlement or the cellular basis of their detection by larvae.

  4. Effect of gut bacterial isolates from Apis mellifera jemenitica on Paenibacillus larvae infected bee larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Ghamdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic effects of seven newly isolated gut bacteria, from the indegenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia were investigated. In vivo bioassays were used to investigate the effects of each gut bacterium namely, Fructobacillus fructosus (T1, Proteus mirabilis (T2, Bacillus licheniformis (T3, Lactobacillus kunkeei (T4, Bacillus subtilis (T5, Enterobacter kobei (T6, and Morganella morganii (T7 on mortality percentage of honey bee larvae infected with P. larvae spores along with negative control (normal diet and positive control (normal diet spiked with P. larvae spores. Addition of gut bacteria to the normal diet significantly reduced the mortality percentage of the treated groups. Mortality percentage in all treated groups ranged from 56.67% up to 86.67%. T6 treated group exhibited the highest mortality (86.67%, whereas T4 group showed the lowest mortality (56.67%. Among the seven gut bacterial treatments, T4 and T3 decreased the mortality 56.67% and 66.67%, respectively, whereas, for T2, T6, and T7 the mortality percentage was equal to that of the positive control (86.67%. Mortality percentages in infected larval groups treated with T1, and T5 were 78.33% and 73.33% respectively. Most of the mortality occurred in the treated larvae during days 2 and 3. Treatments T3 and T4 treatments showed positive effects and reduced mortality.

  5. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. A Madurella mycetomatis Grain Model in Galleria mellonella Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Kloezen

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous subcutaneous infectious disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and most commonly caused by the fungus Madurella mycetomatis. Interestingly, although grain formation is key in mycetoma, its formation process and its susceptibility towards antifungal agents are not well understood. This is because grain formation cannot be induced in vitro; a mammalian host is necessary to induce its formation. Until now, invertebrate hosts were never used to study grain formation in M. mycetomatis. In this study we determined if larvae of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used to induce grain formation when infected with M. mycetomatis. Three different M. mycetomatis strains were selected and three different inocula for each strain were used to infect G. mellonella larvae, ranging from 0.04 mg/larvae to 4 mg/larvae. Larvae were monitored for 10 days. It appeared that most larvae survived the lowest inoculum, but at the highest inoculum all larvae died within the 10 day observation period. At all inocula tested, grains were formed within 4 hours after infection. The grains produced in the larvae resembled those formed in human and in mammalian hosts. In conclusion, the M. mycetomatis grain model in G. mellonella larvae described here could serve as a useful model to study the grain formation and therapeutic responses towards antifungal agents in the future.

  7. Nutritional condition and vertical distribution of Baltic cod larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, P.; Clemmesen, C.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Newly hatched Baltic cod Gadus morhua larvae are typically found at depths >60 m. This is a region of low light and prey availability, hence generating the hypothesis that larvae have to migrate from hatching depth to the surface layer to avoid starvation and improve their nutritional condition...... aged 2-25 days (median 10 days) ranged from 0.4 to 6.2, corresponding to levels exhibited by starving and fast growing larvae in laboratory calibration studies (starvation, protein growth rate, G(pi)=-12.2% day(-1); fast-growing larvae, G(pi)=14.1% day(-1)) respectively. Seventy per cent of the field...

  8. Effects of the Botanical Compound p-Anisaldehyde on Horn Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Repellency, Mortality, and Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T; Harlien, Jessica L

    2018-01-10

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is an economically important obligate blood feeder that mainly attacks cattle in Europe, Asia, and North and South America. As horn fly resistance to conventional insecticides becomes more common, alternative control tactics, such as application of bioactive botanical natural products are being investigated. p-Anisaldehyde has been found in many plant species, and it has shown effects that include mortality, attractancy, and interference with host seeking. The series of bioassays we developed was effective for assessing a range of horn fly responses to chemicals and probably those of some other filth fly species. In our study, p-anisaldehyde was lethal to horn fly eggs at concentrations of 0.00001%, and possibly less. Mixed into cow manure, 5000-20,000 ppm p-anisaldehyde reduced horn fly larvae by 85.4%-100%. p-Anisaldehyde caused some immobilization of adult horn flies when exposed by direct contract with spray droplets and by fumigation. Mortality was 90%-100% in response to 5%-10% concentrations by 30 min, and LD50 and LD90 values are reported for five times from 30 min-4 h. Complete horn fly mortality was achieved by fumigation with 0.75% p-anisaldehyde by 3 h in an enclosed space, and we determined that fumigation was more (≈12.5-fold) lethal to adult horn flies than sprayed droplets. Although horn flies were not repelled by p-anisaldehyde in static air tube olfactometers, the compound completely deterred feeding from cotton pads soaked in bovine blood in response to concentrations of 0.6% and greater in ventilated containers. Although horn fly control is not likely to use fumigation methods, p-anisaldehyde might be useful for adult control using sprays and egg and larval control using feed-through techniques. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of p-anisaldehyde did not affect horn fly egg production and hatching. Aside from causing different responses in the same species of arthropod, p

  9. How to Distinguish Attacks by the Black Turpentine Beetle and Dioryctria Amatella on Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Gary L. DeBarr

    1969-01-01

    Trunk attacks by the black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Oh.), and the larvae of Dioryctria amatella (Hulst) on the southern pines results in a copious flow of pitch. This external pitch mass or pitch tube exhibits characteristics that can be used as symptoms to distinguish between attacks by these two insects.

  10. Suitability of various turfgrass species and cultivars for development and survival of black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S C; Williamson, R C

    2006-06-01

    Black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), feeding bioassays were conducted on young and mature turfgrass species to determine their potential resistance. Measures of resistance included larval weight, survival rate, instar development, pupal weight, duration of pupation, and days to pupation and adult emergence. Black cutworm reared on Poa pratensis 'Midnight', Poa arachnigera 'Tejas', and Poa pratensis X Poa arachnigera 'Reveille' exhibited slower development, lower weight, and higher overall mortality than those fed upon other turfgrasses tested. Larvae reared on Reveille did not survive to pupation and all died within 14 d. Black cutworm larvae reared on Midnight died within 17 d in trial 1 but attained pupation in trial 2. However, development of black cutworm larvae was slower on Poa pratensis Midnight compared with other susceptible turfgrass species such as Agrostis stolonifera 'Penncross', Poa annua ('DW194', 'Q98-4-6', and 'Q98-6-18'), Lolium perenne, and Poa supina 'Supranova'. Generally, larval performance on young plant tissues was better than on mature plant tissues. Larvae reared on P. pratensis 'Midnight' exhibited the most distinctive difference on young versus mature plant tissue. These results suggest that plant age may play an important role in turfgrass susceptibility and resistance.

  11. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  12. Fish larvae from the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Aceves-Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic composition of fish larvae was analysed from 464 plankton samples obtained during 10 oceanographic surveys in the Gulf of California between 1984 and 1988. We identified 283 taxa: 173 species, 57 genera, and 53 families. Tropical and subtropical species predominated except during the winter, when temperate-subarctic species were dominant. The most abundant species were the mesopelagic Benthosema panamense, Triphoturus mexicanus and Vinciguerria lucetia, but the coastal pelagic species Engraulis mordax, Opisthonema spp., Sardinops caeruleus and Scomber japonicus were also prominent. The taxonomic composition of the ichthyoplankton shows the seasonality of the Gulf as well as environmental changes that occurred between the 1984-1987 warm period and the 1956-1957 cool period previously reported. The presence of E. mordax larvae as one of the most abundant species in the Gulf provides evidence of the reproduction of this species two years before the development of the northern anchovy fishery and the decline of the sardine fishery in the Gulf of California.

  13. A Model of Drosophila Larva Chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Davies

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed observations of larval Drosophila chemotaxis have characterised the relationship between the odour gradient and the runs, head casts and turns made by the animal. We use a computational model to test whether hypothesised sensorimotor control mechanisms are sufficient to account for larval behaviour. The model combines three mechanisms based on simple transformations of the recent history of odour intensity at the head location. The first is an increased probability of terminating runs in response to gradually decreasing concentration, the second an increased probability of terminating head casts in response to rapidly increasing concentration, and the third a biasing of run directions up concentration gradients through modulation of small head casts. We show that this model can be tuned to produce behavioural statistics comparable to those reported for the larva, and that this tuning results in similar chemotaxis performance to the larva. We demonstrate that each mechanism can enable odour approach but the combination of mechanisms is most effective, and investigate how these low-level control mechanisms relate to behavioural measures such as the preference indices used to investigate larval learning behaviour in group assays.

  14. Nesting biology, morphological remarks, and description of the mature larva of Mellinus arvensis obscurus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesi, R.; Polidori, C.; Andrietti, F.; Gayubo, S.F.; Tormos, J.; Asis, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Recently re-named as a sub-species of Mellinus arvensis, Mellinus arvensis obscurus Handlirsch 1888 was investigated ecologically and morphologically in Nepal, in order to underline the most important differences with the well known M. arvensis arvensis. Mellinus arvensis obscurus females nested in clumped aggregations on inclined plains at high altitudes, both on sunny bare soil and on a shaded grassy one. Beginning of monsoon season probably interfered with wasp activity, and females performed few provisioning flights during the day. Prey consisted of a broad range of Diptera, except for one case of a spider. Many females were observed not provisioning a nest but floating on the nesting site, and many intraspecific interactions suggested a high degree of usurpation attempts. At least one species of flies and two of ants probably acted as natural enemies of the wasp. Morphological observations on females showed that the Nepal population shares more similarities (shape of tergite I, body punctation) with the European populations than with the closer Japanese population; melanization is strong, according to west-east and altitudinal cline. The mature larva of M. arvensis obscurus Handlirsch is described, illustrated, and compared with the other mature larva of the genus. The differences between both larvae mainly lie in the presence/absence, and number or differentiation of integumental structures. We conclude that morphological traits are more important than ecological and behavioral ones in distinguishing M. arvensis obscurus from M. arvensis arvensis. (author) [es

  15. Sound response mediated by the TRP channels NOMPC, NANCHUNG, and INACTIVE in chordotonal organs of Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Zhiqiang; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2013-08-13

    Mechanical stimuli, including tactile and sound signals, convey a variety of information important for animals to navigate the environment and avoid predators. Recent studies have revealed that Drosophila larvae can sense harsh or gentle touch with dendritic arborization (da) neurons in the body wall and can detect vibration with chordotonal organs (Cho). Whether they can also detect and respond to vibration or sound from their predators remains an open question. Here we report that larvae respond to sound of wasps and yellow jackets, as well as to pure tones of frequencies that are represented in such natural sounds, with startle and burrowing behaviors. The larval response to sound/vibration requires Cho neurons and, to a lesser extent, class IV da neurons. Our calcium imaging and electrophysiological experiments reveal that Cho neurons, but not class IV da neurons, are excited by natural sounds or pure tones, with tuning curves and intensity dependence appropriate for the behavioral responses. Furthermore, our study implicates the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels NOMPC, NANCHUNG, and INACTIVE, but not the dmPIEZO channel, in the mechanotransduction and/or signal amplification for the detection of sound by the larval Cho neurons. These findings indicate that larval Cho, like their counterparts in the adult fly, use some of the same mechanotransduction channels to detect sound waves and mediate the sensation akin to hearing in Drosophila larvae, allowing them to respond to the appearance of predators or other environmental cues at a distance with behaviors crucial for survival.

  16. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  17. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  18. Descrição da larva de Scinax similis (Cochran com notas comparativas sobre o grupo "ruber" no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Description of the larva of Scinax similis (Cochran with comparative notes on the Scinax ruber group in Southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.R Alves

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Scinax similis (Cochran, 1952 is described from Ilha do Fundão (Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Comparisons with other species of the group that occur in Southeastern Brazil are added. The larva of S. similis can be distinguished by the following diagnostic features: (1 eyes large in relation to body length (17,3%, body height (26,8%, and body width (29,7%, interocular distance three times larger than eye diameter; (2 lower beak with two transverse stripes, proximal half white and distal half black.

  19. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Black Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-black-eye/basics/ART-20056675 . Mayo ...

  1. Feeding behaviour of snake head fish, Channa striatus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumronk Amornsakun1*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding scheme experiments were done in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters containing 500 of two-dayold larvae (stage at first feeding. It was found that larval snake head fish aged 3-11 days (average total length 6.08-10.86 mmconsumed Moina. Larvae aged 12-15 days (average total length 10.79-14.61 mm consumed both Moina and commercialpellet (40 % crude protein. Larvae aged more than 16 days consumed only commercial pellet.Determining the daily food uptake by the larvae and juveniles was done in a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10liters containing 1,000 larvae. The larvae consumed Moina ,provide of a density of Moina 10 individual/ml. The amount offood intake was calculated based on changes of food density in the aquarium with and without fish larvae at 2-hour intervals.It was found that larvae aged 3-15 days consumed Moina. The average uptake of Moina in digestive tract per day of larvaeage 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days old was 28.7, 115.70, 162.27, 195.30 and 227.30 individual/larva, respectively at water temperaturesranging between 25 and 28°C.A starvation experiment was carried out using a 15-liter glass aquarium (water volume 10 liters with three replications.Two hundred newly hatched larvae were kept without feeding. Larvae started to die at 216 hr and totally died within 326 hrafter hatching at water temperature ranging between 28.0 and 30.5°C.

  2. Black hole based tests of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C

    2016-01-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar–tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory. (paper)

  3. Effects of Floral Scent, Color and Pollen on Foraging Decisions and Oocyte Development of Common Green Bottle Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekka S Brodie

    Full Text Available The common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata (Meigen and other filth flies frequently visit pollen-rich composite flowers such as the Oxeye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. In laboratory experiments with L. sericata, we investigated the effect of generic floral scent and color cues, and of Oxeye daisy-specific cues, on foraging decisions by recently eclosed flies. We also tested the effect of a floral pollen diet with 0-35% moisture content on the ability of females to mature their oocytes. Our data indicate that (1 young flies in the presence of generic floral scent respond more strongly to a uniformly yellow cue than to any other uniform color cue (green, white, black, blue, red except for ultraviolet (UV; (2 the floral scent of Oxeye daisies enhances the attractiveness of a yellow cue; and (3 moisture-rich pollen provides nutrients that facilitate ovary maturation of flies. With evidence that L. sericata exploits floral cues during foraging, and that pollen can be an alternate protein source to animal feces and carrion, Pollen apparently plays a major role in the foraging ecology of L. sericata and possibly other filth flies. These flies, in turn, may play a significant role as pollinators, as supported by a recently published study.

  4. Contribuição ao conhecimento das larvas dos Sarcophagidae com especial referência ao esqueleto cefálico (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. de Souza Lopes

    1943-01-01

    Full Text Available The author publishes a comparative study of eleven species of Sarcophagid flies and gives a redescription of the larval stages of Musca domestica L. as a model. The work was made upon material obtained from Sarcophagidae reared in the Laboratory. Some of them were parasitic flies from Insects and other invertebrates. Protodexia was reared using the domestic cockroach (Periplaneta americana instead of the Orthroptera or Mantodea its true hosts. The larvae obtained by dissection of female abdomen was reared in flesh or agarhorse serum. The last proceeding is very good since the skins of all larval stages can be conserved for study and it is possible to observe the ecdyses. Some of the larvae prefer dead snails (Bulimulus and Fruticicola and is able to destroy larvae of other species found in the same molluscs. The first stage maggot can be obtained by dissections of dried female specimens and furnishes very good characters to determine the species and establish the philogenetical relationship of the genera in the family. Th pseudocephalon presents very curious ornaments or grooves in some species (Oxysarcodexia. Sometimes there is a pigmented capsule covering a great part of the pseudocephalon (Titanogrypa. The cephaloskeletal sclerietes have a peculiar shape and constitution for every species, mainly in the first stage maggot.

  5. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. BIOCHEMISTRY CHARACTERIZATION OF EXCRETION / SECRETION PRODUCT OF Cochliomyia hominivorax LARVAE (DIPTERA : CALLIPHORIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Gonçalves Teixeira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The species Cochliomyia hominivorax, also known as screwworm fly, is an obligate parasite of warm- blooded animals and its geographic range extends thoughout South America, except Chile. This fly causes significant economic losses and has great importance in Brazil. Few studies have focused on the excretion and secretion products of this species, and this research aimed to study the enzymes present in the secretion and excretion (E/S products of the three larval instars of C. hominivorax. The E/S profile of proteins was obtained by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and proteolytic activity was analyzed using gelatin, azocasein and Na-benzoyl-arginine-nitroanilide as substrates.  In E/S products of the three instars, proteins were detected with an apparent molecular weight ranging between 116 and 20 kDa. In the azocasein assay, at different pH ranges, the major proteolytic activity occurred at pH 7.5 for all larval instars. Assays were performed using the same substrates   in which the samples were treated with the inhibitors Benzamidine, Pepstatin A, 4-(2-Aminoethyl benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF, N-α-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK, N-α- tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK, Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, and Leupeptin-trans-Epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido(4-guanidino butane (E-64. Proteinases present in the E/S product of first larvae instar are mostly serine trypsin and chymotrypsin proteases, whereas for second and third instars serine proteases and aspartyl proteases were predominantly observed. Biochemical characterization of E/S products of all larval stages of C. hominivorax helps to improve the understanding of the physiology and the interaction of this parasite with host tissues. Keywords: Enzyme; fly; myiasis; parasites.

  7. SEM studies on immature stages of the drone flies (diptera, syrphidae): Eristalis similis (Fallen, 1817) and Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Hurtado, Pilar; García-Gras, Elena; Rojo, Santos

    2013-08-01

    Adult drone flies (Syrphidae: Eristalis spp.) resemble male honeybees in appearance. Their immature stages are commonly known as rat-tailed maggots due to the presence of a very long anal segment and a telescopic breathing tube. The larvae are associated with decaying organic material in liquid or semi-liquid media, as in the case of other saprophagous eristalines. Biological and morphological data were obtained from both laboratory cultures and sampling in the field. Drone flies are important pollinators for wild flowers and crops. In fact, mass rearing protocols of Eristalis species are being developed to be used as efficient alternative pollinators. However, deeper knowledge of larval morphology and biology is required to improve artificial rearing. The production quality control of artificial rearing must manage the consistency and reliability of the production output avoiding, for example contamination with similar species. This article presents the first description of the larva and puparium of E. similis, including a comparative morphological study of preimaginal stages of the anthropophilic and ubiquitous European hoverfly species E. tenax. Scanning electron microscopy has been used for the first time to describe larvae and puparia of both species. Moreover, the preimaginal morphology of E. similis has been compared with all known descriptions of the genus Eristalis. The main diagnostic characters of the preimaginal stages of E. similis are the morphology of the anterior spiracles (shape of clear area and arrangement of facets) and pupal spiracles (length, shape, and arrangement of tubercles). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  9. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  10. Trichinella nativa in a black bear from Plymouth, New Hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D E; Gamble, H R; Zarlenga, D S; Coss, C; Finnigan, J

    2005-09-05

    A suspected case of trichinellosis was identified in a single patient by the New Hampshire Public Health Laboratories in Concord, NH. The patient was thought to have become infected by consumption of muscle larvae (ML) in undercooked meat from a black bear killed in Plymouth, NH in October 2003 and stored frozen at -20 degrees C fro 4 months. In January 2004, a 600 g sample of the meat was thawed at 4 degrees C, digested in hydrochloric acid and pepsin, and larvae were collected by sedimentation. Intact, coiled, and motile ML were recovered (366 larvae per gram (l pg) of tissue), which were passed into mice and pigs. Multiplex PCR revealed a single 127 bp amplicon, indicative of Trichinella nativa. The Reproductive Capacity Index (RCI) for the T. nativa-Plymouth isolate in mice was 24.3. Worm burdens in the diaphragms of two 3-month-old pigs given 2,500 ML were 0.05 and 0.2l pg by 35 days post-inoculation, while 2.2 and 0.75 l pg were recovered from two 3-month-old pigs given 10,000 ML; no larvae were recovered from four 1-year-old pigs given 2,500 ML (n=2) or 10,000 ML (n=2). Viable larvae were also recovered from frozen black bear meat harvested at two additional locations, one in southern Ontario, Canada, and one in upstate New York, USA. Multiplex PCR using genomic DNA from these parasite samples demonstrated that both isolates were T. nativa. This is the first report of the freeze-resistant species, T. nativa, within the continental United States.

  11. Morphological comparison between Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton (Diptera: Calliphoridae) puparia, forensically important blow flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Bunchu, Nophawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kom

    2006-12-20

    In Thailand, the hairy maggots of the blow flies, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, are of forensic importance. Both flies are closely related species, not only in the morphological appearance of their larvae and puparia, but also on the aggressive feeding habit of the former. In our continuing studies of forensically important flies, identification of immature ones needs particular attention. In this study, we reported the morphological comparison between the puparia of these two blow fly species using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Observation revealed that the cuticular sculpture of tubercles along the dorsal and lateral segments had markedly different features: with C. rufifacies having many sharp spines assembling only at the tip, while of C. villeneuvi bore stout spines throughout the tubercle. A larger number of globules at the bubble membrane on the dorsolateral border of the fifth segment was found in C. villeneuvi (average 225) than in C. rufifacies (average 35), and more papillae was observed on the anterior spiracle in C. villeneuvi (13-15) than in C. rufifacies (9-12). However, the morphology of distinct net-like patches of the integument and structure of the posterior spiracle of both species were almost identical. Morphological comparison in this study permitted identification of the puparia of both fly species, particularly in areas where they co-exist.

  12. Impact of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill on population size and genetic structure of horse flies in Louisiana marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R; Foil, Lane D

    2016-01-12

    The greenhead horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart, is frequently found in coastal marshes of the Eastern United States. The greenhead horse fly larvae are top predators in the marsh and thus vulnerable to changes in the environment, and the adults potentially are attracted to polarized surfaces like oil. Therefore, horse fly populations could serve as bioindicators of marsh health and toxic effects of oil intrusion. In this study, we describe the impact of the April 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on tabanid population abundance and genetics as well as mating structure. Horse fly populations were sampled biweekly from oiled and unaffected locations immediately after the oil spill in June 2010 until October 2011. Horse fly abundance estimates showed severe crashes of tabanid populations in oiled areas. Microsatellite genotyping of six pristine and seven oiled populations at ten polymorphic loci detected genetic bottlenecks in six of the oiled populations in association with fewer breeding parents, reduced effective population size, lower number of family clusters and fewer migrants among populations. This is the first study assessing the impact of oil contamination at the level of a top arthropod predator of the invertebrate community in salt marshes.

  13. Cloning, recombinant expression and inhibitor profiles of dihydrofolate reductase from the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, A C; Bagnall, N H; Ruffell, A P; Pearson, R

    2014-09-01

    While dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an important drug target in mammals, bacteria and protozoa, no inhibitors of this enzyme have been developed as commercial insecticides. We therefore examined the potential of this enzyme as a drug target in an important ectoparasite of livestock, the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Wiedemann). The non-specific DHFR inhibitors aminopterin and methotrexate significantly inhibited the growth of L. cuprina larvae, with IC50 values at µg levels. Trimethoprim and pyrimethamine were 5-30-fold less active. Relative IC50 values for the inhibition of recombinant L. cuprina DHFR by various inhibitors were in accordance with their relative effects on larval growth. The active-site amino acid residues of L. cuprina DHFR differed by between 34% and 50% when compared with two mammalian species, as well as two bacteria and two protozoa. There were significant charge and size differences in specific residues between the blow fly and human DHFR enzymes, notably the L. cuprina Asn21, Lys31 and Lys63 residues. This study provides bioassay evidence to highlight the potential of blow fly DHFR as an insecticide target, and describes differences in active site residues between blow flies and other organisms which could be exploited in the design of blow fly control chemicals. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. Preliminary screening of plant essential oils against larvae of Culex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary screenings of 22 plant essential oils were tested for mortality of the mosquito larvae Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Percent (%) mortality of the mosquito larvae were obtained for each essential oil. At different exposure periods, viz. 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h among the 22 plant oils tested, eight ...

  15. Biological control agent for mosquito larvae: Review on the killifish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... Biological control of mosquito larvae by using fish has shown many advantages over ... number of malaria cases in India that has been reduced from 75 million to 150,000 and deaths from 750,000 to ... aquatic weeds and G. affinis on the mosquito larvae. In addition to that G. affinis has some adverse effects ...

  16. Temporal dynamics of Chaoborus larvae (Diptera : Chaoboridae) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chaoborus larvae are voracious predators of zooplankton able to change their specific composition and size structure. Thus they appear as competitors of fish. They also represent food for planktophage fish. The temporal dynamics of Chaoborus larvae was studied (from january to october 1997) in the fishery of Bakro ...

  17. Activity of Bacillis thuringiensis toxins against cocoa pod borer larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santoso, D.; Chaidamsari, T.; Wiryadiputra, S.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Twelve Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were tested in bioassays on cacao plantations in Indonesia for activity against the larvae of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen)), an insect pest of the cacao tree. Through the damage caused by their feeding, the larvae of

  18. Protein Metabolism in Lecithotrophic Larvae (Gastropoda: Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavra, J; Manahan, D T

    1999-04-01

    Rates of protein depletion, synthesis, and turnover were measured in larvae of the abalone Haliotis rufescens as an approach to understanding macromolecular metabolism during lecithotrophic development. Protein content decreased linearly during development to metamorphic competence, with 34% of the initial protein in eggs depleted during the 8-day larval life span. Fractional rates of protein synthesis (percentage of total body-protein synthesized per day) decreased during development, from 40% (1-day-old trochophore larva) to 14% (7-day-old veliger larva). Separation of proteins by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that protein pools in larvae are dominated by two high-molecular-weight protein classes (88 and 121 kDa). When the proteins of 1- and 3-day-old larvae were labeled with a mixture of 35S-methionine and cysteine, the pattern on two-dimensional gels showed that the turnover process (protein synthesis and degradation) involved hundreds of different proteins. The energy gained from loss of protein could account for 20% of the protein turnover rates for trochophore larvae and 79% of the lower turnover costs for late-stage veligers. Lecithotrophic larvae of H. rufescens maintained high biosynthetic activities, with up to 40% of their whole-body protein being turned over each day. Such dynamic processes during development of nonfeeding larvae would contribute significantly to maintenance metabolism.

  19. Structure and occurrence of cyphonautes larvae (Bryozoa, Ectoprocta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Worsaae, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    We have studied larvae of the freshwater ctenostome Hislopia malayensis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and LM of serial sections. Some additional observations on larvae of M. membranacea using SEM and CLSM are also reported. The overall configu...

  20. Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Brachyuran Larvae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ocypodidae, Grapsidae and Xanthidae. Abundance of brachyuran larvae was significantly positively correlated with total zooplankton abundance (r2 = 0.8) and salinity (r2 = 0.71). Keywords: Brachyuran larvae, abundance, composition, Mida creek, Kenya West Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science Vol. 3 (2) 2004: pp.