Nansen, Christian; James, Jacob; Bowling, David; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, Patrick
The larger black flour beetle Cynaeus angustus (Leconte) thrives in cotton gin trash piles on the Southern High Plains of Texas and sometimes becomes a nuisance after invading public and private structures. For better understanding of the basic larger black flour beetle ecology in gin trash piles, we conducted a series of laboratory and semirealistic field trials. We showed (1) in naturally infested gin trash piles, that similar trap captures were obtained in three cardinal directions; (2) in a laboratory study, late-instar larvae stayed longer in larval stage in moist soil compared with drier soil; (3) in both horizontal and vertical choice experiments, late instars preferred soil with low moisture content; and (4) specifically larger black flour beetle adults, but most larvae as well, responded negatively to high moisture content in gin trash. The results presented are consistent with reports of larger black flour beetle living in decaying yucca palms in deserts and suggest that maintaining gin trash piles with high moisture content may be an important component in an integrated control strategy.
Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G
The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses.
McIntyre, N E; Porter, P
The larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an agricultural and home nuisance pest in North America. In the Southern High Plains of Texas, the larger black flour beetle is associated with cotton gin trash, by-products of cotton ginning that are field stored in large piles for economic reasons. Larger black flour beetle overwinter in gin trash piles but may disperse by the millions in summer and autumn, entering houses as far as 2 km away where they cause distress to homeowners. Because > 1.2 billion kg of gin trash is produced annually in Texas alone, the potential consequences of the larger black flour beetle are enormous. We conducted a field experiment that evaluated the efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) on the abundance of the larger black flour beetle in gin trash. There were no significant differences in numbers of larger black flour beetle among treatments and controls (mean number of adults summed over time: controls = 115.41, layered treatment = 87.60, top and bottom treatment = 96.50, bottom treatment = 115.16). There were sufficient numbers of beetles in treated piles to still pose a potential home nuisance problem, likely because the moisture content of field-stored gin trash is too high for DE to work effectively. Therefore, treating cotton gin trash with diatomaceous earth will probably be unable to prevent home infestations of larger black flour beetle. Location within a gin trash pile and season influenced pest numbers, which has implications for long-term field storage of cotton gin trash.
Sohail Ahmed; Waqas Wakil; H.M. Salman Saleem; Mohammad Shahid; M. Usman Ghazanfar
Iron overload in the fortified flour can influence the life stages and physiology of the insects. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of commercially available premix iron fortified flour as well as effect of different concentrations of post-mix iron fortified flour (30–5 ppm) on biology of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Hebrst.). Larval and pupal duration, total developmental time, fecundity and larval weights in two consecutive generations of beetle were compare...
Arthur, F H
A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of a flour food source on survival of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (DuVal), exposed to the labeled rate (0.5 mg/cm2) of Protect-It, a marine formulation of diatomaceous earth. Beetles were exposed at 27 degrees C, and 40, 57, and 75% RH in 62-cm2 petri dishes. When beetles were exposed for 1 or 2 d in dishes with the labeled rate (0.5 mg/cm2, or 31 mg per dish) of diatomaceous earth or in dishes containing flour at varying levels from 0 to 200 mg mixed with the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth, survival of both species increased as the amount of flour increased, and quickly plateaued at levels approaching 100%. In a second set of experiments, beetles were transferred to dishes containing flour at varying levels from 0 to 200 mg after they were exposed for 1 or 2 d in dishes with the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth alone. There were no significant differences in beetle survival among the levels of flour, however, survival in dishes with flour was usually greater than survival in dishes with diatomaceous earth alone. In a third test, beetles were exposed for 1, 2, and 3 d in dishes with either the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth alone (clean dishes), dishes with diatomaceous earth and empty straws, or dishes with diatomaceous earth and approximately 300 mg of flour packed in the straws. Survival was not significantly different between clean dishes or dishes with straws, but survival in dishes containing the straws with flour was usually 100%, regardless of exposure interval. In all experiments, confused flour beetles were less susceptible to diatomaceous earth than red flour beetles. In addition, survival was negatively related to exposure interval and positively related to relative humidity.
Arthur, F H
Red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and confused flour beetles, Tribolium confusum (DuVal), were exposed for 8-72 h to diatomaceous earth (Protect-It) at 22, 27, and 32 degrees C and 40, 57, and 75% RH (9 combinations). Insects were exposed to the diatomaceous earth at 0.5 mg/cm2 on filter paper inside plastic petri dishes. After exposure, beetles were held for 1 wk without food at the same conditions at which they were exposed. Mortality of both species after initial exposure was lowest at 22 degrees C but increased as temperature and exposure interval increased, and within each temperature decreased as humidity increased. With 2 exceptions, all confused flour beetles were still alive after they were exposed at 22 degrees C, 57 and 75% RH. Mortality of both species after they were held for 1 wk was greater than initial mortality for nearly all exposure intervals at each temperature-humidity combination, indicating delayed toxic effects from exposure to diatomaceous earth. For both species, the relationship between mortality and exposure interval for initial and 1-wk mortality was described by linear, nonlinear, quadratic, and sigmoidal regression. Mortality of confused flour beetles was lower than mortality of red flour beetles exposed for the same time intervals for 46.7% of the total comparisons at the various temperature-relative humidity combinations.
Full Text Available Iron overload in the fortified flour can influence the life stages and physiology of the insects. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of commercially available premix iron fortified flour as well as effect of different concentrations of post-mix iron fortified flour (30–5 ppm on biology of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Hebrst.. Larval and pupal duration, total developmental time, fecundity and larval weights in two consecutive generations of beetle were compared with control treatment. Amylase and protease activities of gut of the beetle were also measured in premix and postmix flours. Results showed that larval mortality increased in two sources of premix iron flour when compared with control. Larval weight was reduced in first generation only. The larval mortality was significantly higher in 30 ppm postmix iron fortified flour than in other postmix concentrations and control treatment. The larvae of T. castaneum fed on two sources of premix and in various concentrations of postmix iron fortified flour revealed an increase in amylases and decrease in protease activities.
Full Text Available Hermetic storage is used to protect grain against insect pests, but its utility is not limited to whole grains. We evaluated hermetically-sealed, polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles for preserving wheat and maize flour against red flour beetle (RFB, Tribolium castaneum, Herbst population growth. Flours infested with RFB and kept in sealed PET bottles experienced much less weight loss over a three-month storage period than infested flour kept in unsealed bottles. RFB populations in wheat flour kept in sealed bottles did not increase, while populations in unsealed bottles grew about 50-fold during the same three-month period. Flour in sealed bottles had lower levels of oxygen and moisture than flour stored in unsealed bottles. Similar trends were observed for oxygen and moisture levels in maize flour held in hermetically sealed bottles. Hermetically-sealed bottles were effective in preventing RFB population growth and preserving maize and wheat flour. Farmers, consumers and food processors can safely store grain flour in hermetic sealed containers.
Bosly, Hanan AbuAlQasem; Kawanna, Maha Adel
Infection of stored wheat flour with insects and toxic fungi can be an extremely serious problem. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungal species and insects in different stages, which infested and contaminated the stored flour under Jazan region conditions and changed its color and flavor. The obtained results revealed that the isolated insect was the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Live adult, larvae and cast skin were isolated. Four Aspergillus species were isolated from stored wheat flour; the isolated species prevalence being A. flavus > A. niveus > A. terreus > A. niger by rate 44.5%, 37.8%, 10.9% and 6.7%, respectively. The same fungal species isolated from flour were also isolated from different insect stages. A. flavus was the most common fungus and A. niger was isolated with a lower rate. The results about the isolated fungi either from the suspension of adult insects, larvae or cast skins may confirm the role of T. castaneum to carry and distribute fungi in different parts of the stored flour.
The distribution, efficacy, and residual activity of dichlorvos applied as an aerosol to each of five floors of the Kansas State University pilot flour mill (9,968.8 m3 total volume) were evaluated based on responses of adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Jacquelin du Val), and ...
Shaheen, F.A.; Parveen, S.; Qadir, G.
The red flour beetle (RFB), Tribolium castaneum is one of the most destructive pests of stored grains and other food products including wheat flour. Due to its severe infestation, the flour gets mouldy, turns yellowish, gets pungent odour and becomes unhealthy for human consumption. The infested samples of wheat flour by T. castaneum were collected from different localities and its culture was maintained in laboratory. Three ant species namely, Dorylus labiatus, Camponotus rufipes and Monomorium minimum were collected from forest and non-forest habitats and compared for their predation against different life stages of RFB. Results showed D. labiatus of forest habitat as an efficient pupal predator that consumed 91.66% pupae of RFB. It was significantly different from non-forest ant population and control with 73.33% and 11.66% pupal predation, respectively. C. rufipes from forest habitat showed maximum adult predation (25%), which was significantly higher than non-forest ant population and control jar with 15% and 3.33% adult predation, respectively. The forest population of M. minimum exhibited 56.66% larval predation that was significantly different from non-forest population with 41.66% larval consumption. Pupal stage was the highest vulnerable stage to the ant predation and was extremely predated by D. labiatus collected from forest habitats. The lowest predation was observed at larval stage by forest population of M. minimum (1.66%) that was significantly different from all the susceptible stages of RFB. These results indicate that ants could be used as biological control agents against RFB. (author)
Kabbashi, E.E.B.M.; Ahmed, E.G.H.; Aljack, S.A.; Hamad, S.A.A.; Ahmed, M.E.; Elmamoun, K.
Three doses of gamma irradiation (viz. 2, 2.5 and 3 KGy) were tested against the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hrbst) in bread flour in Khartoum, Sudan. Corresponding control exhibited two groups of infested and uninfested flours. The results obtained showed that all the doses used reduced the infestation in a range 46-100 % during a six month storage period. The 2 KGy mortality range, of the test insect, was 46 - 100%, whereas the corresponding readings for 2.5 KGy and 3 KGy were 90 - 100% and total kill (100%), respectively. However, a natural infestation occurred in all the treated flours and in the infested and uninfested controls as well. This may refer to the resistant eggs of this insect whose a smaller size than the major bulk flour particles and therefore not affected by the milling process and the irradiation doses used too.The treatment mortality in this test was corrected by the Abbott's formula. Moreover, the flour analyses results implied that all the chemical parameters (moisture %, ash % and protein %) and the quality parameters (wet gluten and falling number) are within the recommended levels of the Codex Alimentarius.It was also found that these doses used had no harmful effect on dough rheological properties.
Li, Bin; Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne
Neuropeptides and protein hormones are ancient molecules that mediate cell-to-cell communication. The whole genome sequence from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, along with those from other insect species, provides an opportunity to study the evolution of the genes encoding neuropeptide...
King, Benedict; Denholm, Barry
Malpighian tubules (MpTs) are the major organ for excretion and osmoregulation in most insects. MpT development is characterised for Drosophila melanogaster, but not other species. We therefore do not know the extent to which the MpT developmental programme is conserved across insects. To redress this we provide a comprehensive description of MpT development in the beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), a species separated from Drosophila by >315 million years. We identify similarities with Drosophila MpT development including: 1) the onset of morphological development, beginning when tubules bud from the gut and proliferate to increase organ size. 2) the tubule is shaped by convergent-extension movements and oriented cell divisions. 3) differentiated tip cells activate EGF-signalling in distal MpT cells through the ligand Spitz. 4) MpTs contain two main cell types - principal and stellate cells, differing in morphology and gene expression. We also describe development of the beetle cryptonephridial system, an adaptation for water conservation, which represents a major modification of the MpT ground plan characterised by intimate association between MpTs and rectum. This work establishes a new model to compare MpT development across insects, and provides a framework to help understand how an evolutionary novelty - the cryptonephridial system - arose during organ evolution. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Milutinović, Barbara; Peuß, Robert; Ferro, Kevin; Kurtz, Joachim
Immune priming has now been demonstrated in a wide range of invertebrate species. Studies testing this phenomenon largely differ in terms of experimental design, host-parasite combinations, agents used for priming, and in particular the degree of demonstrated specificity of the primed response. This review provides an overview of known and putative mechanisms underlying broad-spectrum and specific immune priming in arthropods. We focus on insects and particularly the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, where priming has been demonstrated within and across generations. We will also draw attention to the relevance of routes of priming and infection, which can occur septically and orally, with largely differing physiology. For oral priming, an involvement of gut microbiota was demonstrated in mosquitoes and flour beetles. Generally, a primed state could result from long-lasting immune activation or a form of memory that does not entail lingering immune components. Moreover, the primed state could also be of a qualitatively different kind than the challenge response. Finally, we will consider that there should be natural variation in priming capability, and therefore a possibility to study this trait with experimental evolution approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Yang, C.H.; Silver, I.L.; Tobias, C.A.
Tribolium confusum, the flour beetle; was chosen as a test organism for determination of possible synergistic effects of radiation and space environment in the inertial flight of Biosatellite-II. The organism subjected to weightlessness and radiation during the flight exhibited greater than expected wing abnormalities. However, a postflight vibration control experiment produced anomalous results, and some doubt remained with respect to assigning weightlessness as the sole cause of the increased wing abnormalities. Results are reported from experiments performed on the interaction of gravity compensation, radiation, and Tribolium development. It was found that gravity compensation together with heavy ion irradiation did not cause more wing abnormalities than those caused by radiation alone. However, radiation and gravity compensation plus high temperature did cause an increased percentage of wing abnormalities. Two possible reasons are discussed
Futo, Momir; Sell, Marie P; Kutzer, Megan A M; Kurtz, Joachim
Immune specificity is the degree to which a host's immune system discriminates among various pathogens or antigenic variants. Vertebrate immune memory is highly specific due to antibody responses. On the other hand, some invertebrates show immune priming, i.e. improved survival after secondary exposure to a previously encountered pathogen. Until now, specificity of priming has only been demonstrated via the septic infection route or when live pathogens were used for priming. Therefore, we tested for specificity in the oral priming route in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum For priming, we used pathogen-free supernatants derived from three different strains of the entomopathogen, Bacillus thuringiensis , which express different Cry toxin variants known for their toxicity against this beetle. Subsequent exposure to the infective spores showed that oral priming was specific for two naturally occurring strains, while a third engineered strain did not induce any priming effect. Our data demonstrate that oral immune priming with a non-infectious bacterial agent can be specific, but the priming effect is not universal across all bacterial strains. © 2017 The Author(s).
Shostak, Allen W.
Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible fo...
Full Text Available Background: During extrusion of black gram flour, formation of amylose-lipid complexes lowers down the gelatinization enthalpy of extrudates, and the partially gelatinized black gram starch leads to lowering down the water-holding capacity and alters functional properties resulting in changing quality attributes of the end product on frying/microwaving/roasting. Methods: Attempts have been made to improve the quality of an Indian traditional snack (e.g., papad by incorporating extruded black gram flour as partial substitute for raw (unextruded black gram flour. In present work, overall quality improvement was achieved by analyzing prefrying and postfrying characteristics (diameter, moisture content, expansion ratio, oil uptake, texture, and color of papad and physical properties (color and viscosity of fried oil. Results: Four different papad samples were prepared (control papads without addition of papadkhar, papads with use of 3% papadkhar, papads with incorporation of extruded black gram flour at 25% concentration, papads with incorporation of extruded black gram flour at 50% concentration along with 1% papadkhar and analyzed along standard market sample. Incorporation of extruded black gram flour in papad resulted in greater expansion with less oil uptake in fried papad. Further addition of extruded black gram flour permitted the use of lower concentration of papadkhar. After frying, the quality of oil was characterized after numerous frying cycles. Conclusion: Oil used for frying of papads containing highest concentration of papadkhar was effective only up to two frying cycles, after which color and viscosity increased significantly, adversely affecting the quality of fried oil. Keywords: Black gram flour, Extrusion, Prefrying and postfrying characteristics of papad, Quality of fried oil
Milutinović, Barbara; Stolpe, Clemens; Peuβ, Robert; Armitage, Sophie A. O.; Kurtz, Joachim
Experimental infection systems are important for studying antagonistic interactions and coevolution between hosts and their pathogens. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and the spore-forming bacterial insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used and tractable model organisms. However, they have not been employed yet as an efficient experimental system to study host-pathogen interactions. We used a high throughput oral infection protocol to infect T. castaneum insects with coleopteran specific B. thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis (Btt) bacteria. We found that larval mortality depends on the dietary spore concentration and on the duration of exposure to the spores. Furthermore, differential susceptibility of larvae from different T. castaneum populations indicates that the host genetic background influences infection success. The recovery of high numbers of infectious spores from the cadavers indicates successful replication of bacteria in the host and suggests that Btt could establish infectious cycles in T. castaneum in nature. We were able to transfer plasmids from Btt to a non-pathogenic but genetically well-characterised Bt strain, which was thereafter able to successfully infect T. castaneum, suggesting that factors residing on the plasmids are important for the virulence of Btt. The availability of a genetically accessible strain will provide an ideal model for more in-depth analyses of pathogenicity factors during oral infections. Combined with the availability of the full genome sequence of T. castaneum, this system will enable analyses of host responses during infection, as well as addressing basic questions concerning host-parasite coevolution. PMID:23737991
Full Text Available Experimental infection systems are important for studying antagonistic interactions and coevolution between hosts and their pathogens. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and the spore-forming bacterial insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are widely used and tractable model organisms. However, they have not been employed yet as an efficient experimental system to study host-pathogen interactions. We used a high throughput oral infection protocol to infect T. castaneum insects with coleopteran specific B. thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis (Btt bacteria. We found that larval mortality depends on the dietary spore concentration and on the duration of exposure to the spores. Furthermore, differential susceptibility of larvae from different T. castaneum populations indicates that the host genetic background influences infection success. The recovery of high numbers of infectious spores from the cadavers indicates successful replication of bacteria in the host and suggests that Btt could establish infectious cycles in T. castaneum in nature. We were able to transfer plasmids from Btt to a non-pathogenic but genetically well-characterised Bt strain, which was thereafter able to successfully infect T. castaneum, suggesting that factors residing on the plasmids are important for the virulence of Btt. The availability of a genetically accessible strain will provide an ideal model for more in-depth analyses of pathogenicity factors during oral infections. Combined with the availability of the full genome sequence of T. castaneum, this system will enable analyses of host responses during infection, as well as addressing basic questions concerning host-parasite coevolution.
Shostak, Allen W; Van Buuren, Kala G; Cook, Ranon
Organisms face a multitude of potential stressors, and the way these stressors interact can provide insights into underlying biological processes. This study examined the flour beetle Tribolium confusum and its survival, net fecundity, and surface-seeking behavior in response to combinations of stressors from 3 categories. Infection by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta provided a stress of parasitic origin. Exposure to diatomaceous earth (DE) provided a stress of environmental origin. Use of virgin and mated beetles evaluated reproduction as a stress of host origin. Single and multiple exposure of beetles to parasite eggs achieved a maximum mean abundance of 21 parasites/beetle and a maximum intensity of 90 parasites in an individual beetle. DE reduced initial parasite establishment, but did not directly affect survival of parasites after their establishment in the host. A rehydration technique was used to recover parasites from dead beetles, enabling this to be the first study to correlate H. diminuta intensity at time of death directly to mortality of T. confusum. A dichotomous intensity-mortality relationship was observed in 8% DE, whereby lightly infected (<20 parasites) hosts were killed by DE in an intensity-independent manner, but more heavily infected hosts were killed in an intensity-dependent manner. Host mating status did not affect host survival, but there were interactions among mating status, parasitism, and DE on net fecundity and surface-seeking behavior. However, these effects were minor compared to the host mortality that occurred when parasite abundance and DE concentration were both high. The aggregated distribution of T. confusum in beetles, the difficulty of achieving high mean abundances, and an apparent need for the stressors to have strong effects individually if they are to have enhanced effects when in combination, suggests that exposure to multiple stressors would seriously impact only a small proportion of the host population.
The results of electrophoretic separation of proteins (SDS-PAGE) revealed several protein bands from homogenate samples of irradiated and control adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum DuVal. However, it was nor possible to detect protein bands that show any shifts or separations between the irradiated and control beetles of the confused flour beetle. A remarkable reduction in the content of total proteins in irradiated adults was noted. Irradiation treatment altered the electrophoretic patterns and densities of proteins. The density of low molecular weight proteins ( 23 kDa) decreased. The alterations in total proteins of adult confused beetles are related to the dose of gamma radiation and the time elapsed after treatment. However, these clear changes in the electrophoretic pattern of protein fractions cannot be used to distinguish irradiated insects from non-irradiated ones as these alterations are not specific for irradiation. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs
Bhatia, Parvathy; Sethi, G.R.
Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum adults reared on five food media viz., wheat, jowar, barley, maize and Bengal gram flour to gamma radiation was studied. The LD 50 values based on mortality observed 12 days after irradiation ranged from 4206 rads for beetles reared on Bengal gram to 9826 rads for those reared on jowar. On the basis of LD 50 values, the relative susceptibility of beetles reared on these foods was Bengal gram > barley> maize > wheat > jowar. Delayed response to irradiation (8000 rads) as indicated by LT 50 values also showed that insects reared on Bengal gram were more susceptible than those obtained from other media. On the basis of lower adult emergence and prolonged development period, Bengal gram was found to be much inferior food as compared to the rest. (author)
Cato, A J; Elliott, Brent; Nayak, Manoj K; Phillips, Thomas W
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), is a common stored-product pest found worldwide. Phosphine, hydrogen phosphide (PH3), is the most commonly used fumigant for stored grains, for which genetically based resistance has been recorded for several pest species. This study assessed phosphine resistance in 25 T. castaneum populations from across the United States and Canada using a discriminating dose bioassay. Dose-mortality assays were conducted with adults from seven of these populations to categorize weak and strong resistance phenotypes. Phosphine resistance was detected in 12 out of the 25 populations, and the frequency of resistance within populations varied from 2% in Victoria, TX, to 100% in Red Level, AL. Two resistant populations from Kansas that had been sampled three years earlier were found to have similar resistance frequencies in the current study. None of the four Canadian populations had any detectable resistance among the insects tested. Resistance ratio calculations from LC50 value in resistant populations relative to the LC50 for the laboratory susceptible strain allowed resistance phenotypes to be assigned as either weak resistance, at 5- to 26-fold resistance relative to susceptible, or strong resistance at 95- to 127-fold relative to susceptible. This study suggests that proper resistance assessment techniques can help to determine occurrence of phosphine resistance in populations of T. castaneum and can further characterize the strength of resistance present. These data can be used to support resistance management programs that consider either cessation or modification of phosphine fumigation to control T. castaneum. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Świątek, Zuzanna
By studying the internal compartmentalization of metals in different subcellular fractions we are able to better understand the mechanisms of metal accumulation in organisms and the transfer of metals through trophic chains. We investigated the internal compartmentalization of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) larvae by breeding them in flour contaminated with either Cd at 100, 300 and 600mgkg(-1), or Zn at 1000 and 2000mgkg(-1). We separated the cellular components of the larvae into 3 fractions: the S1 or cytosolic fraction containing organelles, heat-sensitive and heat-stable proteins, the S2 or cellular debris fraction and the G or metal-rich granule fraction. The concentration of Cd and Zn in each fraction was measured at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of being fed the flour. The concentration of Cd in the flour affected the concentration of Cd measured in each larval subcellular fraction (p≤0.0001), while the concentration of Zn in the flour only affected the Zn concentration in the S2 and G fractions (p≤0.02). Both Cd and Zn concentrations in mealworms remained relatively constant during the exposure (days 7, 14 and 21) in all three fractions, but the Cd concentrations were much higher than those found in larvae before the exposure (day 0). The concentration of Cd in the flour, however, did not affect the percentage of Cd in the S1 fraction. The contribution of Cd in the G fraction to the total Cd amount was similar (30-40%) in all Cd treatments. The percentage of Zn in all three fractions was not affected by the concentration of Zn in the flour and the relative contributions of each subcellular fraction to the total burden of Zn remained generally constant for both control and treated larvae. In general, larvae sequestered approximately 30% of Cd and Zn in the S1 fraction, which is important for the transport of metals to higher trophic levels in a food web. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scharf, Inon; Wertheimer, Keren-Or; Xin, Joy Lim; Gilad, Tomer; Goldenberg, Inna; Subach, Aziz
Animals are exposed in nature to a variety of stressors. While stress is generally harmful, mild stress can also be beneficial and contribute to reproduction and survival. We studied the effect of five cold shock events versus a single cold shock and a control group, representing three levels of stress (harsh, mild, and no stress), on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, Herbst 1797). Beetles exposed to harsh cold stress were less active than a control group: they moved less and failed more frequently to detect a food patch. Their probability to mate was also lower. Beetle pairs exposed to harsh cold stress frequently failed to reproduce at all, and if reproducing, females laid fewer eggs, which were, as larvae in mid-development, smaller than those in the control group. However, harsh cold stress led to improved female starvation tolerance, probably due to enhanced lipid accumulation. Harsh cold shock also improved tolerance to an additional cold shock compared to the control. Finally, a single cold shock event negatively affected fewer measured response variables than the harsh cold stress, but also enhanced neither starvation tolerance nor tolerance to an additional cold shock. The consequences of a harsher cold stress are thus not solely detrimental but might even enhance survival under stressful conditions. Under benign conditions, nevertheless, harsh stress impedes beetle performance. The harsh stress probably shifted the balance point of the survival-reproduction trade-off, a shift that did not take place following exposure to mild stress. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...
Full Text Available Chemical defense is one of the most important traits, which endow insects the ability to conquer a most diverse set of ecological environments. Chemical secretions are used for defense against anything from vertebrate or invertebrate predators to prokaryotic or eukaryotic parasites or food competitors. Tenebrionid beetles are especially prolific in this category, producing several varieties of substituted benzoquinone compounds. In order to get a better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of defensive secretions, we performed RNA sequencing in a newly emerging insect model, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. To detect genes that are highly and specifically expressed in the odoriferous gland tissues that secret defensive chemical compounds, we compared them to a control tissue, the anterior abdomen. 511 genes were identified in different subtraction groups. Of these, 77 genes were functionally analyzed by RNA interference (RNAi to recognize induced gland alterations morphologically or changes in gland volatiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 29 genes (38% presented strong visible phenotypes, while 67 genes (87% showed alterations of at least one gland content. Three of these genes showing quinone-less (ql phenotypes - Tcas-ql VTGl; Tcas-ql ARSB; Tcas-ql MRP - were isolated, molecularly characterized, their expression identified in both types of the secretory glandular cells, and their function determined by quantification of all main components after RNAi. In addition, microbe inhibition assays revealed that a quinone-free status is unable to impede bacterial or fungal growth. Phylogenetic analyses of these three genes indicate that they have evolved independently and specifically for chemical defense in beetles.
Ignatowicz, S. [Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Warsaw (Poland)
The results of electrophoretic separation of proteins (SDS-PAGE) revealed several protein bands from homogenate samples of irradiated and control adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum DuVal. However, it was nor possible to detect protein bands that show any shifts or separations between the irradiated and control beetles of the confused flour beetle. A remarkable reduction in the content of total proteins in irradiated adults was noted. Irradiation treatment altered the electrophoretic patterns and densities of proteins. The density of low molecular weight proteins (<16 kDa) increased, while the of high molecular weight proteins (> 23 kDa) decreased. The alterations in total proteins of adult confused beetles are related to the dose of gamma radiation and the time elapsed after treatment. However, these clear changes in the electrophoretic pattern of protein fractions cannot be used to distinguish irradiated insects from non-irradiated ones as these alterations are not specific for irradiation. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs.
Bergmann, David J; Brandenburg, Dylan; Petit, Samantha; Gabel, Mark
Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are a major component of terrestrial invertebrate communities and have been used as bioindicators of habitat change and disturbance. The Black Hills of South Dakota is a small area with a high biodiversity, but the ground beetles of this region are little studied. The habitat preferences of ground beetles in the Black Hills are unknown, and baseline data must be collected if these beetles are to be used in the future as bioindicators. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were collected from pitfall traps at two sites in each of five kinds of habitats (grassland, bur oak-ironwood forests, ponderosa pine-common juniper forests, aspen-pine forests, and a spruce forest) from which habitat structure characteristics and plant abundance data also were collected. In total, 27 species of ground beetles were identified. Although some species, such as Dicaelus sculptilis Say were found in most habitats, other species showed distinct habitat preferences: Poecilus lucublandus (Say) preferred oak forests, Pasimachus elongatus LeConte preferred grasslands, and Calathus ingratus Dejean preferred high-elevation aspen-pine forests. Pterostichus adstrictus Escholtz was found only in woodlands, and Carabus taedatus Say strictly in higher elevation (over 1,500 m) aspen or coniferous woods, and may represent relict populations of boreal species. Elevation, exposure to sunlight, and cover of woody plants strongly influence the structure of carabid communities in the Black Hills.
Shostak, Allen W.
Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0–4%) diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for cannibalism
Allen W Shostak
Full Text Available Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0-4% diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for
Shostak, Allen W
Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0-4%) diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for cannibalism studies.
Fraga, Amanda; Ribeiro, Lupis; Lobato, Mariana; Santos, Vitória; Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Helga; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; de Souza Menezes, Jackson
Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis) and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and hexokinase (HexA) genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi) of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen. PMID:23750237
Full Text Available Polyphosphates have been found in all cell types examined to date and play diverse roles depending on the cell type. In eukaryotic organisms, polyphosphates have been mainly investigated in mammalian cells with few studies on insects. Some studies have demonstrated that a pyrophosphatase regulates polyphosphate metabolism, and most of them were performed on trypanosomatids. Here, we investigated the effects of sPPase gene knocked down in oogenesis and polyphosphate metabolism in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum. A single sPPase gene was identified in insect genome and is maternally provided at the mRNA level and not restricted to any embryonic or extraembryonic region during embryogenesis. After injection of Tc-sPPase dsRNA, female survival was reduced to 15% of the control (dsNeo RNA, and egg laying was completely impaired. The morphological analysis by nuclear DAPI staining of the ovarioles in Tc-sPPase dsRNA-injected females showed that the ovariole number is diminished, degenerated oocytes can be observed, and germarium is reduced. The polyphosphate level was increased in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions in Tc-sPPase RNAi; Concomitantly, the exopolyphosphatase activity decreased in both fractions. Altogether, these data suggest a role for sPPase in the regulation on polyphosphate metabolism in insects and provide evidence that Tc-sPPase is essential to oogenesis.
Carvalho, Klébea; Ribeiro, Lupis; Moraes, Jorge; da Silva, José Roberto; Costa, Evenilton P.; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Logullo, Carlos; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Campos, Eldo
Polyphosphates have been found in all cell types examined to date and play diverse roles depending on the cell type. In eukaryotic organisms, polyphosphates have been mainly investigated in mammalian cells with few studies on insects. Some studies have demonstrated that a pyrophosphatase regulates polyphosphate metabolism, and most of them were performed on trypanosomatids. Here, we investigated the effects of sPPase gene knocked down in oogenesis and polyphosphate metabolism in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) A single sPPase gene was identified in insect genome and is maternally provided at the mRNA level and not restricted to any embryonic or extraembryonic region during embryogenesis. After injection of Tc-sPPase dsRNA, female survival was reduced to 15% of the control (dsNeo RNA), and egg laying was completely impaired. The morphological analysis by nuclear DAPI staining of the ovarioles in Tc-sPPase dsRNA-injected females showed that the ovariole number is diminished, degenerated oocytes can be observed, and germarium is reduced. The polyphosphate level was increased in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions in Tc-sPPase RNAi; Concomitantly, the exopolyphosphatase activity decreased in both fractions. Altogether, these data suggest a role for sPPase in the regulation on polyphosphate metabolism in insects and provide evidence that Tc-sPPase is essential to oogenesis. PMID:25811926
Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael
coleopteran (beetle) to be sequenced. Coleoptera is the largest insect order and about 30% of all animal species living on earth are coleopterans. Some coleopterans are severe agricultural pests, which is also true for T. castaneum, a global pest for stored grain and other dried commodities for human...... consumption. In addition, T. castaneum is a model for insect development. Here, we have investigated the presence of neurohormone GPCRs in Tribolium and compared them with those from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera) and the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera). We found 20 biogenic amine...
J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; W. C. Schaupp
Mountain pine beetle-killed ponderosa pine trees in three stands of different stocking levels near Bear Mountain in the Black Hills National Forest were surveyed over a 5-year period to determine how long they persisted as unbroken snags. Rate of breakage varied during the first 5 years after MPB infestation: only one tree broke during the first 2 years in the three...
Carl W. Fatzinger; Gary L. DeBarr
Trunk attacks by the black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Oh.), and the larvae of Dioryctria amatella (Hulst) on the southern pines results in a copious flow of pitch. This external pitch mass or pitch tube exhibits characteristics that can be used as symptoms to distinguish between attacks by these two insects.
Prühs, Romy; Beermann, Anke; Schröder, Reinhard
In both vertebrates and invertebrates, the Wnt-signaling pathway is essential for numerous processes in embryogenesis and during adult life. Wnt activity is fine-tuned at various levels by the interplay of a number of Wnt-agonists (Wnt ligands, Frizzled-receptors, Lrp5/6 coreceptors) and Wnt-antagonists (among them Axin, Secreted frizzled and Lrp4) to define anterior-posterior polarity of the early embryo and specify cell fate in organogenesis. So far, the functional analysis of Wnt-pathway components in insects has concentrated on the roles of Wnt-agonists and on the Wnt-antagonist Axin. We depict here additional features of the Wnt-antagonist Axin in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum . We show that Tc-axin is dynamically expressed throughout embryogenesis and confirm its essential role in head development. In addition, we describe an as yet undetected, more extreme Tc-axin RNAi-phenotype, the ectopic formation of posterior abdominal segments in reverse polarity and a second hindgut at the anterior. For the first time, we describe here that an lrp4 ortholog is involved in axis formation in an insect. The Tribolium Lrp4 ortholog is ubiquitously expressed throughout embryogenesis. Its downregulation via maternal RNAi results in the reduction of head structures but not in axis polarity reversal. Furthermore, segmentation is impaired and larvae develop with a severe gap-phenotype. We conclude that, as in vertebrates, Tc-lrp4 functions as a Wnt-inhibitor in Tribolium during various stages of embryogenesis. We discuss the role of both components as negative modulators of Wnt signaling in respect to axis formation and segmentation in Tribolium .
Scharf, Inon; Braf, Hila; Ifrach, Naama; Rosenstein, Shai; Subach, Aziz
The effects of different temperatures and diets experienced during distinct life stages are not necessarily similar. The silver-spoon hypothesis predicts that developing under favorable conditions will always lead to better performing adults under all adult conditions. The environment-matching hypothesis suggests that a match between developmental and adult conditions will lead to the best performing adults. Similar to the latter hypothesis, the beneficial-acclimation hypothesis suggests that either developing or acclimating as adults to the test temperature will improve later performance under such temperature. We disentangled here between the effect of growth, adult, and mating conditions (temperature and diet) on reproduction in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), in reference to the reproduction success rate, the number of viable offspring produced, and the mean offspring mass 13 days after mating. The most influential stage affecting reproduction differed between the diet and temperature experiments: adult temperature vs. parental growth diet. Generally, a yeast-rich diet or warmer temperature improved reproduction, supporting the silver-spoon hypothesis. However, interactions between life stages made the results more complex, also fitting the environment-matching hypothesis. Warm growth temperature positively affected reproduction success, but only when adults were kept under the same warm temperature. When the parental growth and adult diets matched, the mean offspring mass was greater than in a mismatch between the two. Additionally, a match between warm adult temperature and warm offspring growth temperature led to the largest offspring mass. These findings support the environment-matching hypothesis. Our results provide evidence for all these hypotheses and demonstrate that parental effects and plasticity may be induced by temperature and diet.
Full Text Available Some cytochrome P450 (CYP genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively, permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold, whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification.
Lin, Xianyu; Yu, Na; Smagghe, Guy
The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), the major developmental hormone in insects, controls all the developmental transitions including ecdysis and metamorphosis. In our study with last larval stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of Forkhead box protein O (FoxO) resulted in reduced food intake and larval mass and this agreed with a reduction in the expression of insulin signaling-related genes (insulin-like peptides 2, 3, 4, and chico). Interestingly, we also observed a significant delay in the moment of the pupation and these FoxO-silenced larvae then turned brown at the middle pupal stage followed by death. The observed delay of pupation concurred with a significant delay in 20E titer in dsFoxO-injected larvae and this in turn agreed with a significant delay in expression of prothoracicotropic hormone (ptth) that is a gene stimulating ecdysteroid biosynthesis, and of spook (spo) that is one of the early Halloween genes involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis. In addition, there was also a delayed expression of the ecdysteroid response gene hormone receptor 3 (HR3). In an attempt to rescue the effects by dsFoxO, injection of 20E into T. castaneum larvae stimulated the expression of HR3 and induced one extra larval-larval molt, confirming the responsiveness for ecdysteroid signaling in dsFoxO-injected larvae. The observations of this project suggest that FoxO is a player in the timing of pupation via the regulating of ecdysteroid biosynthesis, together with the regulation of both insulin signaling and nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3 and hexokinase (HexA genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen.
Eggert, Hendrik; Diddens-de Buhr, Maike F; Kurtz, Joachim
Trans-generational immune priming (TGIP) describes the transfer of immune stimulation to the next generation. As stress and immunity are closely connected, we here address the question whether trans-generational effects on immunity and resistance can also be elicited by a nonpathogen stress treatment of parents. General stressors have been shown to induce immunity to pathogens within individuals. However, to our knowledge, it is as of yet unknown whether stress can also induce trans-generational effects on immunity and resistance. We exposed a parental generation (mothers, fathers, or both parents) of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a species where TGIP has been previously been demonstrated, to either a brief heat or cold shock and examined offspring survival after bacterial infection with the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. We also studied phenoloxidase activity, a key enzyme of the insect innate immune system that has previously been demonstrated to be up-regulated upon TGIP. We quantified parental fecundity and offspring developmental time to evaluate whether trans-generational priming might have costs. Offspring resistance was found to be significantly increased when both parents received a cold shock. Offspring phenoloxidase activity was also higher when mothers or both parents were cold-shocked. By contrast, parental heat shock reduced offspring phenoloxidase activity. Moreover, parental cold or heat shock delayed offspring development. In sum, we conclude that trans-generational priming for resistance could not only be elicited by pathogens or pathogen-derived components, but also by more general cues that are indicative of a stressful environment. The interaction between stress responses and the immune system might play an important role also for trans-generational effects.
Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.
Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D
Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Audley, Jackson; Klingeman, William E; Mayfield, Albert; Myers, Scott; Taylor, Adam
Thousand cankers disease, caused by the invasive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and an associated fungal pathogen Geosmithia morbida M.Kolařík, E. Freeland, C. Utley, N. Tisserat, currently threatens the health of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in North America. Both the beetle and pathogen have expanded beyond their native range via transport of infested walnut wood. Geosmithia morbida can develop in seedlings following inoculation, but the ability of P. juglandis to colonize young, small diameter trees has not been investigated. This study assessed the beetle's colonization behavior on J. nigra nursery trees. Beetles were caged directly onto the stems of walnut seedlings from five nursery sources representing a range of basal stem diameter classes. Seedlings were also exposed to P. juglandis in a limited choice, field-based experiment comparing pheromone-baited and unbaited stems. When beetles were caged directly onto stems, they probed and attempted to colonize seedlings across the range of diameters and across sources tested, including stems as small as 0.5 cm in diameter. In the field experiment, beetles only attempted to colonize seedlings that were baited with a pheromone lure and appeared to prefer (though not statistically significant) the larger diameter trees. Despite several successful penetrations into the phloem, there was no evidence of successful progeny development within the young trees in either experiment. Further investigation is recommended to better elucidate the risk nursery stock poses as a pathway for thousand cankers disease causal organisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.
Yao Chen; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen and moisture content (MC) on the chemical and color changes of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood during heat treatment. The wood flour was conditioned to different initial MCs and heated for 24 h at a constant temperature of 120Â°C in either oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The pH values and...
Dec 1, 2009 ... Endogenous cellulases in animals: isolation of -1,4- endoglucanase genes from two species of plant-parasitic cyst nematodes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95: 4906-4911. Teather RM, Wood PJ (1982). Use of Congo red polysaccharide interactions in enumeration and characterization of cellulolytic bacteria ...
Polsinelli, Gregory A; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Suranyi, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen
Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shostak, Allen W
The response of Tribolium confusum to sublethal levels of 2 environmental stressors was studied, i.e., parasitic infection represented by the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta , and a physical stressor represented by the natural pesticide diatomaceous earth (DE). These were applied sequentially (DE, then infection) to detect indirect or carryover effects of DE, and concurrently (DE applied immediately after exposure to parasites and DE presence maintained throughout the infection) to detect direct effects of DE. DE alone, but not parasitism alone, produced significant host mortality, and concurrent treatment with DE and parasitism did not increase mortality over DE alone. Parasite abundance was significantly higher following sequential, but not concurrent, DE exposure. Parasite abundance in mated hosts was significantly higher than in virgin hosts. Parasitic infection resulted in significantly fewer eggs retained in the oviduct of beetles, but there was no difference in the number of eggs that accumulated in the culture medium and no difference in the surface-seeking behavior of beetles. Mating status of beetles in all treatments, and DE exposure in concurrent treatments significantly increased their surface-seeking behavior. Concurrent exposure to DE also resulted in a 4- to 6-fold increase in host egg numbers that accumulated in the culture medium. Although DE exposure increased parasite numbers in the beetles, these 2 stressors otherwise appeared to act independently.
Andrić, Goran G; Marković, Mirjana M; Adamović, Milan; Daković, Aleksandra; Golić, Marijana Prazić; Kljajić, Petar J
Insecticidal potential of natural zeolites and diatomaceous earths originating from Serbia against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) was evaluated. Two natural zeolite formulations (NZ and NZ Modified) were applied to wheat at rates of 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 g/kg, while two diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations (DE S-1 and DE S-2) were applied at rates of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.0 g/kg. A bioassay was conducted under laboratory conditions: temperature of 24 +/- 1 degrees C, relative humidity in the range 50-55%, in tests with natural zeolites, and 60-65%, in tests with DEs, and in all combinations for progeny production. Mortality was assessed after 7, 14, and 21 d of insect contact with treated wheat, and the total mortality after an additional 7-d recovery on untreated broken wheat. Progeny production was also assessed after 8 wk for S. oryzae and 12 wk for T. castaneum. The highest mortality for S. oryzae and T. castaneum was found after the longest exposure period and 7 d of recovery, on wheat treated with NZ at the highest rate and DEs at rates of 0.50 -1.0 g/kg. Progeny reduction higher than 90% was achieved after 14 and 21 d of contact of both beetle pests with wheat treated with DE S-1 at 0.50-1.0 g/kg and DE S-2 at 0.75-1.0 g/kg, while the same level of reduction was achieved only for T. castaneum after its contact with the highest rate of NZ formulation. NZ Modified, applied even at the highest rate, revealed much lower insecticidal potential.
Rota, Christopher T.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Rumble, Mark A.; Lehman, Chad P.; Kesler, Dylan C.
Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire. PMID:24736502
Christopher T Rota
Full Text Available Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.
Rota, Christopher T; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Rumble, Mark A; Lehman, Chad P; Kesler, Dylan C
Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.
Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caufield
The term âwood flourâ is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour âis applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and textureâ. Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...
Reddy, M Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y
Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60-80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17-20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95-105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300-350 rpm screw speed, 100 ± 10 °C die temperature and 15 ± 2 kg/h feed rate. The exit diameter of the circular die was 3 mm. Sensory acceptability, physical parameters and nutrient analysis along with storage stability of the products was conducted. The fiber and energy content of the RTE extruded snack improved in experimental samples prepared using root and tuber flours. A serving of 100 g of the snack can provide more than 400 Kcal and 10 g of protein. The overall acceptability of RTE extruded products made with potato and taro were highly acceptable compared to yam and sweet potato. The study demonstrates utilization of roots and tuber flours as potential and diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties in RTE extruded snack.
Susceptibility of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws.), to mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attack in uneven-aged stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming USA
Jose F. Negron; Kurt Allen; Blaine Cook; John R. Withrow
Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins can cause extensive tree mortality in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Most studies that have examined stand susceptibility to mountain pine beetle have been conducted in even-aged stands. Land managers...
Abundance and Night Hourly Dispersal of the Vesicating Beetles of the Genus Paederus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) Attracted to Fluorescent, Incandescent, and Black Light Sources in the Brazilian Savanna.
Lima, D C B; Costa, A A V; Silva, F S
Paederus beetles are cosmopolitan medically important insects that cause dermatitis linearis to humans. In Brazil, despite the medical importance of these beetles, no studies focusing directly on the abundance and ecological features of harmful species exist. Therefore, this study aims at determining the abundance and the nocturnal hourly dispersal of Paederus species attracted to fluorescent, incandescent, and black light sources in the Brazilian savanna. Paederus species were captured from May to September for three consecutive years, between 2011 and 2013. The specimens were caught hourly, from 1800 to 0600 hours. Paederus beetles were attracted to incandescent, fluorescent, and black light lamps as light sources. A total of 959 individuals of five species were collected. The collected species were Paederus protensus Sharp (59.85%), Paederus columbinus Laporte de Castelnau (29.20%), Paederus mutans Sharp (7.09%), Paederus brasiliensis Erichson (3.34%), and Paederus ferus Erichson (0.52%). The black light was the most attractive source, and the darkest collecting point was the most representative for the number of individuals. The lowest catches were captured at full moon, and the highest catches were between 2200 and 0100 hours. Future investigations are needed to better understand the role of night temperature and soil humidity affecting the seasonal growth of Paederus beetle populations of northeastern Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
T. Evan Nebeker
Dendroctonus frontalis (southern pine beetle), D. terebrans (black turpentine beetle), Ips avulsus (small southern pine engraver or four-spined engraver), I. grandicollis (five-spined engraver), and I. calligraphus (six-spined engraver) comprise the southern pine bark beetle guild. Often they are found sharing the same hosts in the Southeastern United States. They...
Gregory J. Wiggins
Full Text Available Thousand cankers disease (TCD is an insect-mediated disease of walnut trees (Juglans spp. involving walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis and a fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida. Although first documented on walnut species in the western U.S., TCD is now found on black walnut (J. nigra in five states in the eastern U.S. Most collections of P. juglandis or G. morbida are from trees in agriculturally- or residentially-developed landscapes. In 2013, 16 pheromone-baited funnel traps were deployed in or near black walnuts in forested conditions to assess the risk of infestation of forested trees by P. juglandis. Four of the 16 funnel traps collected adult P. juglandis from three forested areas (one in North Carolina and two in Tennessee. These collections, while in forested settings, may still be strongly influenced by human activities. The greatest number of P. juglandis (n = 338 was collected from a forested location in an urbanized area near a known TCD-positive tree. The other two forested locations where P. juglandis (n = 3 was collected were in areas where camping is common, and infested firewood may have introduced P. juglandis unintentionally into the area. Future studies to assess P. juglandis on more isolated forested walnuts are planned.
Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Ziegler, Valmor; Lindemann, Igor da Silva; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Oliveira, Maurício de
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture content and storage temperature on the percentage of moldy and fermented beans, mycotoxins levels, phenolic acids content, pasting properties of whole flour, as well as functional and thermal properties of protein isolates from black beans stored for 12 months. Beans stored under 14%/32 °C exhibited 16% of fermented grains, while at 17%/25 °C (42.3%) and 17%/32 °C (93.5%) of moldy plus fermented grains, named drastic conditions (DC). Mycotoxins were not present in grains from all storage conditions. Reduction of gallic, caffeic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid contents, and increase of sinapic acid were observed in DC. Reduction of peak, final, and setback viscosities of bean flours in DC indicate the application in refrigerated and frozen products. The increase in foaming and reduction in foam degradation of the proteins highlights their use in beverages where the foam is an important factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
.... The predominant tree species on lands of all ownerships in the Black Hills is ponderosa pine (Pinus...-commercial methods such as chipping trees or cutting them into short sections; and spraying small areas of...
... species on lands of all ownerships in the Black Hills is ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae). Since 1997 the... such as chipping trees or cutting them into short sections; and spraying small areas of trees to...
Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Perez-Carrillo, Esther
Ethanolic extract from black beans coat is a source of flavonoids, saponins and antocyanins. Nixtamalized maize flours (NF) are used for the preparation of products such as tortillas, tortillas chips, cookies among others. The objective of this research was to study the effect on textural parameters and color after adding flavonoids, saponins and anthocyanins from black bean seed coat in NF used for the production of tortillas and gluten-free cookies. Furthermore, the retention of bioactive compounds after tortilla and gluten-free-cookie preparation was assessed. Ethanolic extracts of black bean seed coats were added (3g/kg or 7 g/kg) to NF in order to prepare corn tortillas and gluten free cookies characterized in terms of dimensions, color and texture. Addition of 7 g/kg affected the color of cookies and tortillas without effect on texture and dimensions. It was possible to retain more than 80% and 60% of bioactives into baked tortillas and cookies, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klingeman, William E; Bray, Alicia M; Oliver, Jason B; Ranger, Christopher M; Palmquist, Debra E
Knowledge about which bark and ambrosia beetle species are active and at what heights in black walnut canopies is not well understood. Neither is the role of these beetles in spreading Thousand Cankers Disease. To assist with future planned research, which will assess the extent to which these beetle species are associated with Geosmithia morbida Kolařík, Freeland, Utley, and Tisserat (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Bionectriaceae), experiments were undertaken to monitor bark and ambrosia beetles in urban landscapes and parks in Tennessee between 2011 and 2013. Within mature walnut tree canopies, sticky panel, modified soda bottle, and Lindgren traps were deployed at different heights, with and without ethanol as an attractant and with and without walnut stem sections, or in situ limbs that had been girdled or injection with ethanol to simulate stressed tree tissues. Bark and ambrosia beetle species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) collected in greatest abundance included Ambrosiodmus rubricollis (Eichhoff), Ambrosiophilus atratus (Eichhoff), Cnestus mutilatus (Blandford), Dryoxylon onoharaense (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Monarthrum fasciatum (Say), Monarthrum mali (Fitch), Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg), Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius), Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford). C. mutilatus, X. saxesenii, and X. crassiusculus were more active higher in trees than most other species and were strongly attracted to ethanol via all means of lure deployment. C. mutilatus, which were captured from April through October and increased in abundance across the 3-yr study, were most abundant in late May with a second activity period in late August. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Thousand cankers disease is caused by plant pathogenic Geosmithia morbida Kolarík, Freeland, Utley, and Tisserat; a fungus vectored primarily by the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis (Blackman). The role of other bark and ambrosia beetle species in persistence and spread of this disease r...
Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus
Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad
Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994
Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.
Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad
Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects.
Ahmed, Z.A.; Hassan, M.M.N.
The effects of rearing diet and gamma irradiation on the growth rate development of T. Confusum were investigated. The test larvae were fed on four different rearing diets. Three-day old eggs were irradiated by dosages 20, 40 and 60 Gy. There was a variation of the weight gain, feeding period, and growth rate of larvae according to the effect of rearing diet. when larvae were fed on wheat bran, the highest growth rate was recorded. There is an inverse relationship between the weight gain, the growth rate of larvae and the dosage dosage of gamma ray. The feeding period increased as the doses increased from 0.0 -60 Gy. The average number number of the total progeny depends on the type of the rearing diet. Samples of the diets were analyzed to determine protein % and carbohydrate % which were higher in flour extraction. The moisture %, total fiber %, ash content %, most minerals and vitamins were found in higher content as bran only used
Ligarnasari, I. P.; Anam, C.; Sanjaya, A. P.
Effect of addition black cumin oil on the physical (hardness) characteristics, chemical (water, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate, antioxidant IC50, total phenol and active component) characteristics and sensory (flavor, taste, texture, overall) characteristics of brownies substituted sweet potato flour were investigated. Substituted brownies was added with 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20% and 0.25% of nigella sativa oil. The result showed that water content, ash, protein, fat, total phenol were increased and carbohydrate, antioxidant IC50 was decreased by the addition of nigella sativa oil. Due to the sensory characteristics, panelist gave the high score for substituted brownies which was added 0.05% nigella sativa oil. The result showed that the best formula of substituted brownies which was added 0.05% of nigella sativa oil had 24.89% water content, 1.19% ash content, 7.54% protein content, 37.79% fat content, 53.06% carbohydrate contain, 1043.6 ppm IC50 antioxidant and 0.22% total phenol. The active component on the brownies using GCMS identification were palmitic acid, oleic acid, lauric acid, theobromine and vitamin E.
Elizabeth A. Rondini
Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that black bean (BB and soy flour (SF-based diets inhibit azoxymethane (AOM-induced colon cancer. The objective of this study was to identify genes altered by carcinogen treatment in normal-appearing colonic mucosa and those attenuated by bean feeding. Ninety-five male F344 rats were fed control (AIN diets upon arrival. At 4 and 5 weeks, rats were injected with AOM (15 mg/kg or saline and one week later administered an AIN, BB-, or SF-based diet. Rats were sacrificed after 31 weeks, and microarrays were conducted on RNA isolated from the distal colonic mucosa. AOM treatment induced a number of genes involved in immunity, including several MHC II-associated antigens and innate defense genes (RatNP-3, Lyz2, Pla2g2a. BB- and SF-fed rats exhibited a higher expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and water and sodium absorption and lower expression of innate (RatNP-3, Pla2g2a, Tlr4, Dmbt1 and cell cycle-associated (Cdc2, Ccnb1, Top2a genes. Genes involved in the extracellular matrix (Col1a1, Fn1 and innate immunity (RatNP-3, Pla2g2a were induced by AOM in all diets, but to a lower extent in bean-fed animals. This profile suggests beans inhibit colon carcinogenesis by modulating cellular kinetics and reducing inflammation, potentially by preserving mucosal barrier function.
Wolfgang Schweigkofler; William J. Otrosina; Sheri L. Smith; Daniel R. Cluck; Kevin Maeda; Kabir G. Peay; Matteo Garbelotto
Black-stain root disease is a threat to conifer forests in western North America. The disease is caused by the ophiostomatoid fungus Leptographium wageneri (W.B. Kendr.) M.J. Wingf., which is associated with a number of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and weevil species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). We developed a polymerase chain reaction test...
The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), an economically important pest in flour mills, was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to two, 24-h heat treatments. One hundred eggs or 100 adults of T...
Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum life stages exposed to elevated temperatures during heat treatments of a pilot flour mill: influence of sanitation, temperatures attained among mills floors, and costs
The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to three, 24 hour heat treatments using forced-air gas heaters. Two sanitation levels, dusting of wheat flour an...
Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan
Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.
Full Text Available For the first time an ecological study of the carabid fauna of the area of Cape Emine (Bulgarian Black sea coast was conducted. Over the period 2010 – 2011 adult carabid beetles were collected. The investigation was carried out at 7 sampling sites and pitfall traps were used. During the study altogether 6245 specimens were captured. The greatest number of both species and specimens was found in the steppe-like habitat, least – in the pine (Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold plantation. Indices for α- and β-diversity were calculated. The dominant structure of the whole carabid complex showed the presence of two eudominant, three dominant, two subdominant, eleven recedent and 85 subrecedent species. The analysis of the sex structure showed the total prevalence of males over females. Cluster analysis indicated a low percentage of taxonomic similarity between the communities, which reflected the diversity of the landscape.
Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae
Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. A atividade inseticida de Toona sureni (Blume Merr. foi avaliada considerando repelência, mortalidade e a produção de progênie de adultos F1 de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Extrato seco de sementes
Sheryl L. Costello; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron
Wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infest ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson and C. Lawson, killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and fire. No data is available comparing wood borer and bark beetle densities or species guilds associated with MPB-killed or fire-...
Full Text Available Depending on the species, edible insects are highly nutritious and thus represent a noteworthy alternative food and feed source. The current work investigates the protein extractability and techno-functionality of insect flour fractions recovered from Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens. T. molitor and H. illucens flours contained about 20% crude fat and 60% and 36 % crude protein, respectively. Defatting reduced the crude fat content to 2.8% (T. molitor and 8.8% (H. illucens and increased the crude protein content to 68% and 47%, respectively. To isolate proteins from the flours, protein solubility was optimized by varying the pH, the ionic strength, and the extraction temperature of the solvent. All products and by-products accumulated in the protein production process were characterized by composition, selected techno-functional properties, protein solubility, composition and structure as well as their microbial load.
Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron
There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.
Stored product insects can potentially be exposed to grain protectants for variable time periods. Adults of six species, the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the red flour beetle, ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flour. 137.105 Section 137.105 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.105 Flour. (a) Flour, white flour, wheat flour, plain flour, is the food prepared...
Charles O. Rexrode; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith
Bark beetles, primarily the bark beetle Phlosotribus liminori (Harris), are the major cause of gum spots in sawtimber-size black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Approximately 90 percent of all gum spots in the bole sections are caused by bark beetles. Gum spots were studied in 95 black cherry trees near Parsons, West Virginia. Over 50 percent of the bark beetle-caused gum...
Plain flour has a lot of chemical energy packed into it. When the flour is in a clump or pile it does not ignite although it may blacken. This is because there is not enough flour exposed to the oxygen in the air. Aerosolising the flour exposes it to much more oxygen allowing a self sustaining combustion reaction to occur when an ignition source…
Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph
The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...
Vinokurov, Konstantin; Elpidina, E. N.; Zhuzhikov, D. P.; Oppert, B.; Kodrík, Dalibor; Sehnal, František
Roč. 70, č. 4 (2009), s. 254-279 ISSN 0739-4462 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/06/1591; GA MŠk 1M06030 Grant - others:Russian Foundation for Basic Reserach(RU) 08-04-00737-a; Russian Foundation for Basic Reserach(RU) 09-04-01449-a; Russian Foundation for Basic Reserach(RU) 09-04-91289-INIS; INTAS Post Doctoral Fellowship(US) 06-1000014-6040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Coleopteran insects * insect digestive peptidases * organization of digestion Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.381, year: 2009
Lü, Jianhua; Ma, Dan
The ability of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), to infest wheat flour under packaged and unpackaged conditions was investigated in the laboratory at 27 ± 2°C and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. Five common packaging materials, namely, vacuum plastic bags, kraft paper bags, nonwoven cloth bags, aluminum foil bags, and woven plastic bags, were investigated. Adults and eggs of L. serricorne were released on different packaged wheat flour or on unpackaged wheat flour, and infestation levels (number of live adults and larvae) were determined after 45 days. When adults were released on wheat flour, the infestation degree varied depending on the package materials. The highest infestation was observed in refined wheat flour packaged in nonwoven cloth bags. With wheat flour packaged in kraft paper bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation or insect infestation was negligible (mean population, flour packaged in aluminum foil bags and vacuum plastic bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation. Damage to the packaging materials along the folds or edges was found in nonwoven cloth bags and woven plastic bags. Therefore, both aluminum foil and plastic bags had the greatest resistance to package invasion by L. serricorne.
V. Yadama; Eini Lowell; N. Petersen; D. Nicholls
The primary objectives of the study were to characterize the critical properties of wood flour produced using highly deteriorated beetle-killed spruce for wood-plastic composite (WPC) production and evaluate important mechanical and physical properties of WPC extruded using an industry standard formulation. Chemical composition analysis indicated no significant...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.220 Durum flour. (a) Durum flour is the food prepared by grinding and bolting...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated flour. 137.155 Section 137.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.155 Bromated flour. Bromated flour conforms to the definition and standard of...
Richard H. Smith
The Jeffrey pine beetle (Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopk.), one of the bark beetles that kill trees by mining between the bark and the wood, is the principal insect enemy of Jeffrey pine. The beetle is of economic importance chiefly in California, where most of the Jeffrey pine grows, and is most destructive in old-growth stands in the timber-producing areas of northeastern...
Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; Oohinata, Hiroshi; Ohara, Tadahiko; Oh-ike, Terui; Matsuhashi, Tetsujiro.
For buckwheat noodle in which taste is important and its main material, buckwheat flour, the ordinary sterilization by heating or ozone cannot be applied. The number of the bacteria sticking to buckwheat flour is much more as compared with that of wheat flour, and is 10 5 -10 7 per 1 g. The effective countermeasures are not yet found. Also noxious insects are apt to infect buckwheat flour. It has been known that radiation is effective for the sterilization of flavorings. In this study, the microorganism contamination of buckwheat flour and sterilization dose, the change of taste and properties after irradiation, and the capability of storage were examined, and the results are reported. The bacteria in buckwheat flour were mostly Erwinia which forms yellow colonies, and is plant-parasitic bacteria having sugar fermentation function, and also some Enterobacer, Klebsiella and Aspergillus were found. When gamma ray was irradiated on buckwheat flour, it was sterilized to less than 10 3 per 1 g bacteria at the dose of 5 kGy, and microorganisms were almost sterilized at 10 kGy. With the electron beam of 3 MeV, the effect of sterilization somewhat decreased. The noodle-making property of irradiated buckwheat flour, and the taste and storage capability of the noodle of irradiated flour were tested. (K.I.)
Yasui, Akiko; Oishi, Mitsuo; Hayafuji, Chieko; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Shindo, Tetsuya; Ozawa, Hideki; Nakazato, Mitsuo
Azodicarbonamide (ADA) is used in some countries as a flour bleaching agent and a dough conditioner. However, ADA is prohibited for use as a food additive in Japan. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an efficient and sensitive method to determine ADA in wheat flour. A simple and practical procedure to analyze ADA in wheat flour and prepared flour mixes was developed. ADA was extracted from samples by ultrasonication with acetone. ADA in the solution was derivatized with triphenylphosphine (TPP). The ADA-TPP derivative was concentrated and cleaned up using a reversed-phase solid-phase extraction cartridge, and the ADA-TPP derivative was analyzed using HPLC for determination and LC-MS/MS for identification. Good linearity was achieved over the concentration range of 0.25-100 ppm ADA in wheat flour and prepared flour mixes. The mean recoveries from wheat flour and prepared flour mixes fortified at the levels of 1 and 10 ppm ranged from 86.9 to 101.0%, and the coefficients of variation ranged from 1.9 to 3.4%.
Afifah, N.; Ratnawati, L.
Mocaf flour, rice flour, and corn flour in different concentrations were used to produce dry noodles. The aims of this study were to investigate physicochemical properties of the flours and the quality characteristics of dry noodles made from these flours. Dry noodles were prepared by gelatinization of blending flours followed by feeding the dough to extruder and drying overnight in room temperature. Flours were analyzed for chemical and pasting properties and noodle samples were evaluated for chemical, cooking, and texture properties. The results showed there were significant differences in protein content and elongation between noodles made from blending mocaf and rice flour with that of blending mocaf, rice, and corn flour. The moisture, ash, and protein content of noodle samples ranged from 10.98 to 14.18%, 1.23 to 1.39%, and 4.09 to 5.58%, respectively. Values of noodle cooking quality were ranging from 12.0 - 13.8 minutes, 10.6 to 14.3%, and 204 to 248%, respectively for cooking time, cooking loss, and cooking weight. The elongation, hardness, and adhesiveness of noodles ranged from 276 to 374%, 3,523 to 10,478 gf, and -81.99 to -52.49 g.sec.
Full Text Available _castaneum_NL.png Tribolium_castaneum_S.png Tribolium_castaneum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=N...L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=NS ...
Ocloo, Fidelis C.K.; Okyere, Abenaa A.; Asare, Isaac K.
Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) has been recognised as one of the best nutritional crops that can be used to augment the Ghanaian diet. The application of gamma irradiation as means of preserving tiger nut could modify the characteristics of resultant flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut. The yellow and black types of tiger nut were sorted, washed and dried in an air-oven at 60 o C for 24 h. The dried tiger nut samples were irradiated at 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy and then flours produced from them. Moisture, ash, pH, titratable acidity, water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power, solubility, bulk density and pasting properties of the flours were determined using appropriate analytical methods. Results showed that irradiation did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. Gamma irradiation significantly (P≤0.05) increased titratable acidity with concomitant decrease in pH of the flours. No significant differences were observed for water and oil absorption capacities, swelling power as well as bulk density. Solubility significantly (P≤0.05) increased generally with irradiation dose. Peak viscosity, viscosities at 92 °C and 55 °C, breakdown and setback viscosities decreased significantly with irradiation dose. Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a potential in complementary food formulations due to its low viscosity and increased solubility values. - Highlights: • Physicochemical, functional and pasting characteristics of flour from gamma irradiated tiger nut were studied. • Irradiation did not affect the moisture and ash contents of the resultant flours. • Titratable acidity increased with decrease in pH of the flours from the irradiated tiger nut. • Solubility increased whereas peak viscosity decreased with irradiation dose. • Flour produced from irradiated tiger nut has a
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and phosphated...
A method of converting the wheat flour quantity of a recipe of wheat-flour cookies into the rice flour quantity of a recipe of rice-flour cookies used domestically for wheat-allergic children was studied. The proportion of the water content with respect to the flour content (the wheat or rice flour content) in cut cookies prepared according to a commercially available recipe was obtained. Next, four types of rice-flour cookies were prepared according to a recipe for wheat-flour cookies using ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat flour. 137.200 Section 137.200 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.200 Whole wheat flour. (a) Whole wheat flour, graham flour, entire...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising flour. 137.180 Section 137.180 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.180 Self-rising flour. (a) Self-rising flour, self-rising white flour...
Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)
In Drosophila, the establishment of regional commitments along most of the anterior/posterior axis of the developing embryo depends on two clusters of homeotic genes: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and the bithorax complex (BX-C). The red flour beetle has a single complex (HOM-C) representing the homologues of the ANT-C and BX-C in juxtaposition. Beetles trans-heterozygous for two particular HOM-C mutations spontaneously generate a large deficiency, presumably by an exchange within the common region of two overlapping inversions. Genetic and molecular results indicate that this deficiency spans at least the interval between the Deformed and abdominal-A homologues. In deficiency homozygous embryos, all gnathal, thoracic and abdominal segments develop antennal appendages, suggesting that a gene(s) has been deleted that acts to distinguish trunk from head. There is no evidence that beetles have a homologue of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu of similar genomic location and function. On the basis of the genetic tractability, convenient genome size and organization of Tribolium, and its relatively long phylogenetic divergence from Drosophila (>300 million years), we have integrated developmental genetic and molecular analyses of the HOM-C. We isolated about 70 mutations in the complex representing at least six complementation groups. The homeotic phenotypes of adults and lethal embryos lead us to believe that these beetle genes are homologous with the Drosophila genes indicated in Fig. 1 (see text).
Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kijak, K.; Grbesa, D.; Martinez, E.; Spruijt, R.B.
This study describes the application of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for quantification of total carotenoids (TC) in corn flours and sweetpotato flours. Overall, thirty-three different corn flours and nine sweetpotato flours were investigated. All PAS measurements were performed at
Nassed, A.; Attia, A.A.
Flour obtained from potato cv. Alpha tubers irradiated with 0, 50 or 150 Gy was combined in 0-15% mixtures with wheat flour, stored for 6 months, then analysed at 3-month intervals for nutrient content. Potato flour contained twice the lysine content of wheat flour, but protein levels fell as irradiated or unirradiated potato flour levels in the mixture were increased; this was attributed to enzyme activity
Edward H. Holsten; Richard A. Werner
Covering stacks of spruce firewood with either clear or black polyethylene sheeting does not raise log temperatures high enough to kill spruce beetle brood in the logs. Based on the results of this study, we do not recommend the use of polyethylene sheeting as a remedial measure for the reduction of spruce beetle brood in infested firewood or log decks in south-central...
Full Text Available The Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Everts is very destructive pest in various stored product and nominated as one of the hundred worst invasive species in the world. The study of starvation and infestation behaviors are important for improvement of insect control method. This study represent the number of molting as fact of regressive molting in starved condition, the larva of T. granarium within 68 days periods can be molted 1-3 times. The infestation behavior on three diets treatment presented. In grain wheat their larva are laid off the casting skin over the surface of product and distributed randomly in whole part of stored product. Respectively in flour casting skin are laid down in bottom of the container as effect of feeding. In flour the casting skin are laid on mostly over surface of the flour mixed with frass. In toilet tissue the infestation is present in hole over the surface and randomly position of casting skin.
Praseptiangga, Danar; Tryas, Anisha Ayuning; Affandi, Dian Rachmawanti; Atmaka, Windi; Ariyantoro, Achmad Ridwan; Minardi, Slamet
The diversity of Indonesian local food sources has potential to be developed for supporting food security based development of local food diversification. Canna tubers (Canna edulis) and lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) are two local commodities in Indonesia which under is utilization and has limited assessment to its characteristics. This study aimed at determining the best formula of composite flour based on physical and chemical properties of composite flour produced. There were three formulas, F1 for 85% of canna flour and 15%of lima beans flour, F2 for 70% of canna flour and 30% of lima beans flour and F3 for 55% of canna flour and 45% of lima beans flour. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted and completely randomized design was used. De Garmo analysis was then used to determine the highest effectiveness index from the three formulas developed in this study and F3 demonstrated the highest effectiveness index (0.545) among three formulas evaluated. Thus, formula (F3) was selected as the best composite of the flour developed from canna flour and lima beans flour.
There are several non- or under-utilized hardwood trees common to the Midwestern states. Wood flour (WF) derived from fast-growing Midwest trees (Osage orange, Black Locust and Red Mulberry) were evaluated as a source of bio-based fiber reinforcements. Wood plastic composites (WPC) of high density p...
Hori, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Ayako
In a previous study, we found that blue-light irradiation kills insects such as fruit flies, mosquitos, and flour beetles. However, the lethal effects of blue light on coleopteran field crop pests have not been investigated. Chrysomelidae, a major family in phytophagous beetles, includes many species of crop pests. We investigated the lethal effect of blue light on chrysomelid beetles by examining the mortality of the strawberry leaf beetle Galerucella grisescens irradiated with different wavelengths of blue light during the non-mobile egg or pupal stage by using light-emitting diodes. Fifty to seventy percent of beetles irradiated with 407, 417, 438, or 465-nm lights at 15 × 10 18 photons·m -2 ·s -1 during the egg stage died before hatching; ca. 90% of hatchlings irradiated with 438-nm light during the egg stage died before eclosion; and 35-55% of beetles irradiated with 407, 417, 454, and 465-nm lights at the same intensity during the pupal stage died before eclosion. Field crop pests are considered to have high tolerance to blue light because they are usually exposed to sunlight in their natural habitats. However, this study suggests that blue light can kill some field crop as well as household insect pests.
Kim, Hee Shin; Murphy, Terence; Xia, Jing; Caragea, Doina; Park, Yoonseong; Beeman, Richard W; Lorenzen, Marcé D; Butcher, Stephen; Manak, J Robert; Brown, Susan J
BeetleBase (http://www.beetlebase.org) has been updated to provide more comprehensive genomic information for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. The database contains genomic sequence scaffolds mapped to 10 linkage groups (genome assembly release Tcas_3.0), genetic linkage maps, the official gene set, Reference Sequences from NCBI (RefSeq), predicted gene models, ESTs and whole-genome tiling array data representing several developmental stages. The database was reconstructed using the upgraded Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) modules. The genomic data is stored in a PostgreSQL relatational database using the Chado schema and visualized as tracks in GBrowse. The updated genetic map is visualized using the comparative genetic map viewer CMAP. To enhance the database search capabilities, the BLAST and BLAT search tools have been integrated with the GMOD tools. BeetleBase serves as a long-term repository for Tribolium genomic data, and is compatible with other model organism databases.
Flavia POP; Zorica VOȘGAN; Lucia MIHALESCU
The research was conducted in order to evaluate the physico-chemical and quality characteristics of biscuits fortified with soy flour that could be used as a protein supplemented food. Wheat flour has been replaced at different levels with soy flour that were 30% (R4), 20% (R3), 10% (R2) and without soy flour, control (R1). The fat content of control was 16.36% and increased to 19.4% in the case of 30% soy flour formulation that could be due to the increase in the proportion of soy flour in t...
The rheological properties of seven danwake flour blend formulations from sorghum, wheat and cassava bases were investigated. The different ingredients in the danwake were sorghum flour, cowpea flour, wheat flour, cassava flour, baobab leaf powder, and trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) (kanwa). The viscosity of the ...
Substitution of wheat flour reduced gluten content and extensibility of the composite flours. Wheat-cassava flours comparatively performed better than wheat-yam flours in all quality attributes evaluated. Cassava substitution at 10% produced cake that compared favourably with the control sample from 100% wheat flour.
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.160 Enriched bromated flour. Enriched bromated flour conforms to the...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched self-rising flour. 137.185 Section 137...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.185 Enriched self-rising flour. Enriched self-rising flour...
Objective: The study was conducted to determine chemical composition of yam flour substituted with soy and whole wheat flour and acceptability of 'amala' prepared from the yam flour blends. Materials and methods: The yam flour was prepared using conventional method adopted from traditional method of yam flour ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to the...
Herminiati, A.; Rahman, T.; Turmala, E.; Fitriany, C. G.
The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of different concentrations of modified cassava flour that was processed for banana fritter flour. The research method consists of two stages: (1) to determine the different types of flour: cassava flour, modified cassava flour-A (using the method of the lactid acid bacteria), and modified cassava flour-B (using the method of the autoclaving cooling cycle), then conducted on organoleptic test and physicochemical analysis; (2) to determine the correlation of concentration of modified cassava flour for banana fritter flour, by design was used simple linear regression. The factors were used different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B (y1) 40%, (y2) 50%, and (y3) 60%. The response in the study includes physical analysis (whiteness of flour, water holding capacity-WHC, oil holding capacity-OHC), chemical analysis (moisture content, ash content, crude fiber content, starch content), and organoleptic (color, aroma, taste, texture). The results showed that the type of flour selected from the organoleptic test was modified cassava flour-B. Analysis results of modified cassava flour-B component containing whiteness of flour 60.42%; WHC 41.17%; OHC 21.15%; moisture content 4.4%; ash content 1.75%; crude fiber content 1.86%; starch content 67.31%. The different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B with the results of the analysis provides correlation to the whiteness of flour, WHC, OHC, moisture content, ash content, crude fiber content, and starch content. The different concentrations of modified cassava flour-B does not affect the color, aroma, taste, and texture.
Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an important resource for Tribes in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the North American continent. Ash in North America is being threatened with widespread destruction as a result of the introduction of emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis) in 2002. Measures are being taken to slow the spread of emerald ash borer beetle....
Ngatchic, Josiane Therese Metsagang; Sokeng, Selestion Dongmo; Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Maoundombaye, Theophile; Oben, Julius; Mbofung, Carl Moses F
This comparative study reports the nutritional and toxicological characteristics of Mucuna pruriens flour and a protein-rich product developed from it. The protein-rich mucuna product (PRMP) was obtained by the three steps procedure: protein solubilization, heat-coagulation and sieving. Three weeks rats (n=6 per group) were fed for 28 days on standard protein-substituted rat feed with mucuna flour or PRMP. The experimental design was a factorial design with three mucuna accessions (Velvet, Black and White) and two treatments (flour and PRMP). The protein content ranged 27.2-31.5 g/100 g for flour and 58.8-61.1% for PRMP. Processing flour into PRMP led to a significant (p<0.05) reduction of tannins (50%), total polyphenols (50%) and trypsin inhibitors (94%). The rats fed PMRP diets witnessed weight gain similar to casein, while those fed mucuna flour lost weight. The levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol observed in animals groups fed mucuna flour and PRMP were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the control group. In addition lymphocytes, granulocytes, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit of rats fed mucuna flour were significantly (p<0.05) lower than values in other rats groups. Kidneys glomerular sclerosis and high creatinine levels were observed in group fed mucuna flour. PRMP then represents a good alternative of using mucuna proteins for human nutrition. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thiago Mendes Fernandes
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of flour using by-products (cephalothorax obtained from the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei industry, and to perform a sensory analysis of shrimp flour-based products. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses on fresh cephalothorax and on manufactured flour were performed, as well as the determination of cholesterol content of this flour, and the sensorial evaluation of soup and pastry made with this flour. By the microbiological analyses, no pathogenic microorganism was detected in the samples. Physicochemical analyses of flour showed high levels of protein (50.05% and minerals (20.97%. Shrimp cephalothorax flour showed high levels of cholesterol. The sensory evaluation indicated a good acceptance of the products, with satisfactory acceptability index (81% for soup, and 83% for pastry, which indicates that shrimp cephalothorax in the form of flour has a potential for developing new products.
Sedej Ivana J.
Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.
M. M. Danina
Full Text Available At the present time, the urgent problem is the development of product range of beer and the reduction of production costs. We used amaranth flour: "protein" and "carbohydrate", is designed and experimentally obtained from seeds of amaranth and made available for research "Agros" company (Kaliningrad region. The article discusses the effects of different concentrations of flour on the process of mashing, fermentation and the quality of beer. Prepared in the ratio of light barley malt:amaranth flour 90:10 and 80:20, respectively. Experimental were chosen of mashing barley malt with the addition of flour. The mashing process started with a temperature of 40 or 500C. Cytolytic pause was 30 min, protein-25 min, malt pause was increased up to 30 min. Using 20% of flour in the total grain charge leads to the increase of first wort extract content to 12.2%. By increasing the amount of flour in the grist of grain products increases the saccharification of the mash. The time of saccharification when you make 20% of the "protein" flour and the initial temperature of mashing 500C is 26 minutes, and "carbohydrate" flour -18min., therefore, when developing technology of new beer, from the point of view of reducing the cost of production, it is advisable to use "carbohydrate" amaranth flour in the amount of 20% in the total grain products. We estimated the impact of concentrations used flour on organoleptic indicators of finished beer on a 25 point scale. The aroma of the beer was felt citrus and malt undertones. Total score of beer with 10% amaranth flour is 18 points, and 20% amaranth flour is 20 points.
Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M
Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it.
Full Text Available The research was conducted in order to evaluate the physico-chemical and quality characteristics of biscuits fortified with soy flour that could be used as a protein supplemented food. Wheat flour has been replaced at different levels with soy flour that were 30% (R4, 20% (R3, 10% (R2 and without soy flour, control (R1. The fat content of control was 16.36% and increased to 19.4% in the case of 30% soy flour formulation that could be due to the increase in the proportion of soy flour in the flour blend. The highest mineral content was obtained in R4 (1.98% and the lowest in R1 (0.552%, soy flour brought a significant contribution to mineral substances, and the ash content increased gradually with the increase in the percentage of soy flour. From the sensory evaluation, the biscuits with 10 and 20% soy flour addition presented similar characteristics, biscuits supplemented with up to 20% soy flour have shown superior nutritional characteristics as compared to wheat flour biscuits.
The effect of soy flour (full fat-FF and defatted- DF) supplementation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of maize flour and kokoro, a maize based snack was investigated. Mixes of maize flour and full fat soy flour were produced at ratios 9:1, 8:2 and 7:3, similarly, mixes of maize flour and defatted soy flour at ...
HUSSAIN, Shahzad; ANJUM, Faqir Muhammad; BUTT, Masood Sadiq; KHAN, Muhammad Issa; ASGHAR, Ali
Full fat flaxseed flour was supplemented with wheat flour @ 5, 10, 15, 20,25 and 30%. Cookies were prepared from composite flours. Cookies prepared without flaxseed flour were kept as control. The mean quality score of the cookies decreased with the increase in the level of the flaxseed flour supplementation. Colour and crispiness of the cookies showed a declining trend as compared to flavour and texture of cookies. Cookies containing 20% and lower level of the full fat flaxseed flour were ac...
Full Text Available In a morphological ontology the expert's knowledge is represented in terms, which describe morphological structures and how these structures relate to each other. With the assistance of ontologies this expert knowledge is made processable by machines, through a formal and standardized representation of terms and their relations to each other. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a representative of the most species rich animal taxon on earth (the Coleoptera, is an emerging model organism for development, evolution, physiology, and pest control. In order to foster Tribolium research, we have initiated the Tribolium Ontology (TrOn, which describes the morphology of the red flour beetle. The content of this ontology comprises so far most external morphological structures as well as some internal ones. All modeled structures are consistently annotated for the developmental stages larva, pupa and adult. In TrOn all terms are grouped into three categories: Generic terms represent morphological structures, which are independent of a developmental stage. In contrast, downstream of such terms are concrete terms which stand for a dissectible structure of a beetle at a specific life stage. Finally, there are mixed terms describing structures that are only found at one developmental stage. These terms combine the characteristics of generic and concrete terms with features of both. These annotation principles take into account the changing morphology of the beetle during development and provide generic terms to be used in applications or for cross linking with other ontologies and data resources. We use the ontology for implementing an intuitive search function at the electronic iBeetle-Base, which stores morphological defects found in a genome wide RNA interference (RNAi screen. The ontology is available for download at http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de.
Dönitz, Jürgen; Grossmann, Daniela; Schild, Inga; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Bradler, Sven; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Bucher, Gregor
In a morphological ontology the expert's knowledge is represented in terms, which describe morphological structures and how these structures relate to each other. With the assistance of ontologies this expert knowledge is made processable by machines, through a formal and standardized representation of terms and their relations to each other. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a representative of the most species rich animal taxon on earth (the Coleoptera), is an emerging model organism for development, evolution, physiology, and pest control. In order to foster Tribolium research, we have initiated the Tribolium Ontology (TrOn), which describes the morphology of the red flour beetle. The content of this ontology comprises so far most external morphological structures as well as some internal ones. All modeled structures are consistently annotated for the developmental stages larva, pupa and adult. In TrOn all terms are grouped into three categories: Generic terms represent morphological structures, which are independent of a developmental stage. In contrast, downstream of such terms are concrete terms which stand for a dissectible structure of a beetle at a specific life stage. Finally, there are mixed terms describing structures that are only found at one developmental stage. These terms combine the characteristics of generic and concrete terms with features of both. These annotation principles take into account the changing morphology of the beetle during development and provide generic terms to be used in applications or for cross linking with other ontologies and data resources. We use the ontology for implementing an intuitive search function at the electronic iBeetle-Base, which stores morphological defects found in a genome wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen. The ontology is available for download at http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de.
Daniel R. Miller; Christopher M. Crowe
The multiple-funnel trap has gained broad acceptance for catching bark and ambrosia beetles since the trap was developed more than 25 years ago (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) (Lindgren 1983). The trap consists of black plastic funnels aligned vertically over each other, allowing for intercepted beetles to fall through the funnels into a wet or dry collection cup located on...
Robin M. Reich; John E. Lundquist; Robert E. Acciavati
The objective of this study was to model the influence of temperature and precipitation on the distribution and abundance of the ambrosia beetles in the genus Trypodendron. Although these beetles do not attack and kill healthy trees, their gallery holes and accompanying black and gray stain associated with symbiotic ambrosial fungi can cause significant economic losses...
Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A
The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.
Yousaf, Ali A; Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Hameed, Tabassum; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Hayat, Imran; Khalid, Nauman
Protein-enriched cookies were prepared by supplementing gram flour into wheat flour at levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% and analysed for physicochemical properties. The protein quality of the cookies was assessed by feeding gram flour-supplemented cookies to albino rats for 10 days. The supplementation resulted in a significant increase in protein, fat, crude fibre and ash contents of the cookies. The thickness and spread factor of cookies differ significantly while non-significant effect was observed in the width of the cookies. The protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilization, biological value and true digestibility differed significantly among diets containing cookies with gram flour fed to rats. Cookies with 30% substitution of straight grade flour and gram flour produced acceptable cookies as compared to control. The cookies containing 40-50% gram flour were best regarded as protein bioavailability for rats.
Apr 19, 2011 ... selected dry wood by grinding. Interest in this modern industrial practice in wood anchors ... flour moulding technology minimizes atmospheric pollution, reduces cost of wood waste disposal and curbs, ... Zhang and Wolcott,. 2007). Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical Education ...
Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical Education in Nigeria. ... Interest in this modern industrial practice in wood anchors around the high level of unemployment among the youths in. Nigeria. ... flour moulding technology minimizes atmospheric pollution, reduces cost of wood waste disposal and curbs, ...
Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha
The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters.
The proximate composition, functional and antinutritional properties of flour produced from seeds of mangoes grown in Ebonyi State were studied. Two cultivars: India and Indochinese were used for the study. The aim of the study was to determine any possible potential that flour obtained from these seeds might possess.
Graveland, A.; Bosveld, P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Moonen, H.H.E.; Scheepstra, A.
Extraction of wheat flour with 1.5% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) solution dissolved 65–67% of the total flour nitrogen. The SDS‐insoluble proteinaceous material was separated into glycoproteins‐I, II and III by ultracentrifugation. Part of the SDS‐soluble proteinaceous material was precipitated by
G. O. Magomedov
Full Text Available Summary. Flour confectionery products for the Russian market are the traditional products and their sales occupy the 1st place among all types of confectionery. Therefore, it is especially important to conduct research aimed at developing biscuits with increased food and biological value, meeting the existing in the human body requirements in nutrients. The use of flour from whole grain rye, wheat and amaranth allows to receive a quality product with a fine pore structure, pleasant taste and aroma and of high nutritional value. Using a mechanical method for dough loosening reduces operating costs, significantly intensifies the whole technological process, greatly reduces production area of enterprise, the duration of the entire technological process of biscuit production is reduced by 40%. In the developed biscuits protein content increases in 1,5 times; fiber in 6 times, potassium in 10.8 times, calcium in 11 times, phosphorus in 3 times, iron in 3.3 times, vitamin the B6 in4.1 times; B12 in 2.4 times, B9 in 12.4 times.
Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P
Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Mortality and reduced brood production in walnut twig beetles, Pityophthorus juglandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), following exposure to commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum
Louela A. Castrillo; Albert E. Mayfield; Michael H. Griggs; Robert Camp; Bryan Mudder; Adam Taylor; John D. Vandenberg
Thousand cankers disease (TCD), caused by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis, and its associated fungal symbiont, Geosmithia morbida, is a disease of economic and ecological concern on eastern black...
Noodles were produced from four flour blends of whole wheat, wheat-cassava, wheat-cassava-soy flour and wheatcassava- carrot flour blends respectively. The flours were analyzed for proximate analysis, functional properties and total carotenoid content. The cooking time of all samples was also determined. Results show ...
This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...
Mango mesocarp flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 15, 20 and 30% levels to evaluate its micronutrients contribution and effect on the physical and organoleptic attributes of wheat-based bread. A control (100% wheat flour) was used for comparison. Proteins in wheat, mango and composite flours were found to be ...
The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...
Nakamura, S; Suzuki, K; Ohtsubo, K
Characteristics of the bread prepared from wheat flour blended with the flour of various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars were investigated. Qualities of the bread made from wheat flour blended with rice flour have been reported to be inferior to those from 100% wheat flour bread. To improve its qualities, we searched for the new-characteristic rice flours among the various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars to blend with the wheat flour for the bread preparation. The most suitable new characteristic rices are combination of purple waxy rice, high-amylose rice, and sugary rice. Specific volume of the bread from the combination of wheat and these 3 kinds of rice flours showed higher specific volume (3.93) compared with the traditional wheat/rice bread (3.58). We adopted the novel method, continuous progressive compression test, to measure the physical properties of the dough and the bread in addition to the sensory evaluation. As a result of the selection of the most suitable rice cultivars and blending ratio with the wheat flour, we could develop the novel wheat/rice bread, of which loaf volume, physical properties, and tastes are acceptable and resistant to firming on even 4 d after the bread preparation. To increase the ratio of rice to wheat, we tried to add a part of rice as cooked rice grains. The specific volume and qualities of the bread were maintained well although the rice content of total flour increased from 30% to 40%.
Rachmawati; Rohaeti, E.; Rafi, M.
Taro flour on the market is usually sold at higher price than wheat and sago flour. This situation could be a cause for adulteration of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. For this reason, we will need an identification and authentication. Combination of near infrared (NIR) spectrum with multivariate analysis was used in this study to identify and authenticate taro flour from wheat and sago flour. The authentication model of taro flour was developed by using a mixture of 5%, 25%, and 50% of adulterated taro flour from wheat and sago flour. Before subjected to multivariate analysis, an initial preprocessing signal was used namely normalization and standard normal variate to the NIR spectrum. We used principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to make an identification and authentication model of taro flour. From the result obtained, about 90.48% of the taro flour mixed with wheat flour and 85% of taro flour mixed with sago flour were successfully classified into their groups. So the combination of NIR spectrum with chemometrics could be used for identification and authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour.
Rachmawati; Rohaeti, E; Rafi, M
Taro flour on the market is usually sold at higher price than wheat and sago flour. This situation could be a cause for adulteration of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. For this reason, we will need an identification and authentication. Combination of near infrared (NIR) spectrum with multivariate analysis was used in this study to identify and authenticate taro flour from wheat and sago flour. The authentication model of taro flour was developed by using a mixture of 5%, 25%, and 50% of adulterated taro flour from wheat and sago flour. Before subjected to multivariate analysis, an initial preprocessing signal was used namely normalization and standard normal variate to the NIR spectrum. We used principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to make an identification and authentication model of taro flour. From the result obtained, about 90.48% of the taro flour mixed with wheat flour and 85% of taro flour mixed with sago flour were successfully classified into their groups. So the combination of NIR spectrum with chemometrics could be used for identification and authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. (paper)
Ken Gibson; Jose F. Negron
Bark beetle populations are at outbreak conditions in many parts of the western United States and causing extensive tree mortality. Bark beetles interact with other disturbance agents in forest ecosystems, one of the primary being fires. In order to implement appropriate post-fire management of fire-damaged ecosystems, we need a better understanding of...
Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Riise, Trond; Eduard, Wijnand; Bråtveit, Magne; Storaas, Torgeir
We aimed to characterize bakers' personal exposure to airborne flour dust with respect to the health-related aerosol fractions inhalable, extrathoracic, and thoracic dust, and to examine possible production-related determinants of dust exposure. Sixty-eight bakers from 7 bakeries in Bergen, Norway (2009-2012) participated in the exposure assessment, comprising full-shift personal samples of inhalable dust (n = 107) and thoracic dust (n = 61). The relation between possible determinants and exposure was estimated using mixed effects models, while associations between the various aerosol fractions across task groups and type of bakeries were described by Pearson's correlation coefficients. Bakers' overall geometric mean personal exposure to inhalable, extrathoracic, and thoracic dust were 2.6 mg/m 3 (95% CI: 2.0, 3.2), 2.2 mg/m 3 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.7), and 0.33 mg/m 3 (95% CI 0.3, 0.4), respectively. A total of 29% of the measurements of inhalable dust were above the Norwegian Occupational Exposure Limit of 3 mg/m 3 . The exposure variability of inhalable dust could not be explained by any of the examined production-related determinants, while the daily production volume explained 18% of the variance in thoracic dust exposure. Overall, the thoracic dust represented 15% of the inhalable dust, being rather stable across the production-related determinants. The overall correlation between inhalable and thoracic dust was nevertheless moderate (r = 0.52, p bakers (r = 0.62) and no correlation during dough forming (r = 0.01). Bakers are exposed to flour dust at a level that most likely represents an excess risk of developing chronic diseases of the respiratory system, and a decrease of present exposure level is imperative. Extrathoracic dust-likely the most relevant sub-fraction in respect to flour-induced sensitization and occupational rhinitis-represented the main proportion of the measured inhalable dust. The variation in correlation coefficients between the dust fractions
Full Text Available Parasite effects on host fitness and immunology are often intensity-dependent. Unfortunately, only few experimental studies on insect-parasite interactions attempt to control the level of infection, which may contribute substantial variation to the fitness or immunological parameters of interest. The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta—flour beetle Tenebrio molitor model—has been used extensively for ecological and evolutionary host–parasite studies. Successful establishment of H. diminuta cysticercoids in T. molitor relies on ingestion of viable eggs and penetration of the gut wall by the onchosphere. Like in other insect models, there is a lack of standardization of the infection load of cysticercoids in beetles. The aims of this study were to: (1 quantify the relationship between exposure dose and establishment success across several H. diminuta egg concentrations; and (2 test parasite establishment in beetles while experimentally manipulating host body condition and potential immune response to infection. Different egg concentrations of H. diminuta isolated from infected rat feces were fed to individual beetles 7–10 days after eclosion and beetles were exposed to starvation, wounding, or insertion of a nylon filament one hour prior to infection. We found that the establishment of cysticercoids in relation to exposure dose could be accurately predicted using a power function where establishment success was low at three lowest doses and higher at the two highest doses tested. Long-term starvation had a negative effect on cysticercoid establishment success, while insertion of a nylon filament and wounding the beetles did not have any effect compared to control treatment. Thus, our results show that parasite load may be predicted from the exposure dose within the observed range, and that the relationship between dose and parasite establishment success is able to withstand some changes in host body condition.
Rick G. Kelsey; Maia Beh; Dave Shaw; Daniel K. Manter
Successful infection of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia NÃ©e) stems by Phytophthora ramorum results in the formation of a canker visible initially at the bark surface by the release of a dark red to black colored exudate referred to as "bleeding." Bark and ambrosia beetles are often attracted to diseased trees within...
The effects offire, bruchid seed beetles and soil type on the germination and seedling establishment of Acacia drepanolobium were experimentally investigated. Seeds subjected to three seed treatments (bruchid damaged, bruchid-free burnt, and bruchid-free unburned) were germinated in three different soil types (black ...
Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.
In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.
Gutiérrez, Tomy J; Guzmán, Romel; Medina Jaramillo, Carolina; Famá, Lucía
Biological macromolecules such as starches of different amylaceous sources have been used in the formulation of edible films. However, there are few studies aimed at evaluating edible and intelligent films with response to pH changes from natural pigments, this despite the importance of these materials. In this context, films from native and modified plantain flour, plasticized with glycerol, with or without the addition of beet flour were developed. The chemical and structural composition of the flours, and its incidence on thickness, water solubility, contact angle, and mechanical and microstructural properties were evaluated, thus as its response to pH changes of the developed films. The observations showed that the incorporation of beet flour allowed to obtain intelligent films front to pH changes alkaline. Likewise, the betalains that were found in beet flour interacted more efficiently with the phosphated plantain flour, limiting well its immediate response to pH changes. In the same way, proteins and sugars of beet flour allowed to obtain more flexible films, due to the hydrogen bond interactions between these constituents and the plantain flours. This latter could justify the decrease of contact angle, and the increase on thickness and solubility of these films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ullah, Fahim; Ahmad, Sajjad; Wahab, Said; Zeb, Alam; Khan Khattak, Mansoor; Khan, Saleem; Kang, Min
The effect of alfalfa seed flour supplementation on the quality characteristics of refined wheat flour-based biscuits was studied. The proximate composition of refined wheat flour and alfalfa seed flour was determined. Refined wheat flour contained 12.43% moisture, 11.52% crude protein, 1.61% crude fat, 0.71% crude fiber, 1.43% ash and 70.83% nitrogen free extract, while alfalfa seed flour contained 5.79%, 29.49%, 12.71%, 5.53%, 4.80% and 41.73% moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract correspondingly. Alfalfa seed flour at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% supplementation levels was incorporated in refined wheat flour to produce composite flour. The biscuits prepared were subjected to quality evaluation. Physical analysis of biscuits disclosed that supplementation of alfalfa seed flour decreased the width from 47.25 to 42 mm and the spread factor from 62.7 to 53.12, while it increased the thickness from 7.53 to 8.10 mm. Supplementation of refined wheat flour–based biscuits with alfalfa seed flour at different inclusion levels significantly (p flour supplementation in refined wheat flour could produce acceptable biscuits with an appropriate nutritional profile. PMID:28231168
The present study was carried out to evaluate Arabic bread produced from potato flour and wheat flour. Potato flour was prepared from Diamont cultivar of potato tubers after irradiation with 50 and 150 Gy. The ratios of potato flour were 5, 10 and 15% and the flour was stored for six months and taken for analysis every three months. Amino acids, protein, carbohydrate, baking and staling tests were applied to study the effect of adding potato flour extracts from tubers of non-irradiated and irradiated potato to wheat flour in Arabic bread making. Amino acids in potato and wheat were studied. The flour of wheat was found to be poor in lysine while potato flour contained about twice of these amino acids. Protein content was decreased with increasing the ratios of potato flour. The addition of potato flour to the Arabic bread increased the percentage of essential amino acids. Moreover, the addition of potato flour during storage periods had an improving effect on the quality of Arabic bread. Water retention capacity (the staling rate) was increased progressively with increasing the percentage as potato flour in the bread which was effective in keeping bread fresh and organoleptic properties
Zhu Jiating; Feng Min; Liu Chunquan; Jin Yudong; Yang Ping
This paper reported decontaminative effects of irradiation on the soy protein flour quality, including main nutrient components, sensitivity of urea enzyme and sensory index. The results show that the irradiation treatment is very effective in eliminating microorganism in soy protein flour. The higher the dose was, the more microorganisms were eliminated. At least 53% microorganisms were eliminated at 2.0 kGy irradiation. Eliminating ratios of 95%, 97% and 100% were obtained at applied doses 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy, respectively. The content of protein, crude fiber, total sugar and amino acid (except Leu) and urea enzyme would not vary much in the ranged of 2 to 8kGy. But the content of crude fat and lecithin in irradiated soy protein flour is significant different (at 0.01 level), and the content of isoflavone significantly decreased (at 0.05 level). Irradiation will not change the sensory index of soy protein flour much when irradiation dose is lower than 6.0 kGy. It was concluded that the optimal dose for bacteria decontamination of soy protein flour is in the range of 3.0 ∼ 5.0 kGy for the sake of various quality factors. (authors)
Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B
Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has
Full Text Available The thermomechanical properties of dough and the physical characteristics of bread from quinoa-wheat and potato-wheat composite flours at 10 and 20% substitution level were evaluated. The functional properties of flours were measured by the water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI and swelling power (SP. The thermomechanical properties of wheat and composite flours were assessed using a Mixolab and the baking quality characteristics of breads were weight, height, width, and specific volume. The results showed that the higher values of WAI (4.48, WSI (7.45%, and SP (4.84 were for potato flour. The quinoa-wheat composite flour presented lower setback and cooking stability data, which are a good indicator of shelf life of bread. On the other hand, the potato-wheat composite flour showed lower stability, minimum torque and peak torque, and higher water absorption. Weight, height, width, and specific volume of wheat bread were most similar to samples of potato-wheat composite flour at 10% substitution level.
Rodrigo Santos Leite
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare roasted and lyophilized tempeh flour with soybean cultivar BRS 267 to apply them in the formulation of coconut biscuits. The cookies produced with whole soy flour and mixed flour of soybean and tempeh were evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and isoflavone aglycones in order to verify the effects of inoculation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus and those of the drying processes of roasting and lyophilization on the chemical characteristics of the final product. Sensory acceptance and purchase intention of the formulated products were also evaluated. The results indicate the maintenance of linolenic acid, which is important in the prevention of coronary diseases, and an increase in the aglycones levels when the tempeh flour was used. Lipids and proteins showed differences, and the sensory analyses demonstrated similarity between the cookies with satisfactory scores for aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability for both samples. when compared to the control. Purchase intent was also positive for the lyophilized and toasted tempeh flours, thus enabling the use of the roasting process as a simple drying method, for processing tempeh and obtaining a flour rich in proteins and aglycones that can be used as a partial substitute for soy flour in cookies and other bakery products.
Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew
Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the
The consumption of bread is globally increasing. However, due to increased costs associated with production of bread from 100% wheat flour especially in developing countries, other cereal based flours are now being blended with wheat flour to produce bread. This study was carried out to assess the effect of using two ...
Adel Mohammed Said
Conclusions: Exposure to wheat flour increases the risk of developing respiratory symptoms; it also causes reduction in the pulmonary function parameters, as regards spirometry and DLCOSB. Exposure to wheat flour causes interstitial lung disease as detected by HRCT chest. Smoking augments the wheat flour induced lung disease.
Pérez, E E; Gutiérrez, M E; De Delahaye, E Pacheco; Tovar, J; Lares, M
The physical proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics, microbiological stability, and in vitro alpha-amylolysis rate of flours produced by conventional dehydration techniques of the edible portions of the aroids Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta were investigated. Flours from the edible portion of both tubers did not show significant statistical differences in moisture, Aw, crude protein, total sugars, amylose, and amylopectin contents. C. esculenta flour showed higher crude fat, total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber, and mineral (P, Ca, Fe, and Zn) contents, whereas X. sagittifolium flour showed higher starch, ash, and reducing sugar content than its counterpart. With regard to physical and physicochemical characteristics, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher titratable acidity and relative density values, being darker and more yellowish than its counterpart. On the other hand, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher gelatinization temperature than C. esculenta flour. Parameters such as viscosity during the holding time (95 degrees C for 30 min), viscosity at 50 degrees C, setback, and consistency were lower in C. esculenta flour than X. sagittifolium flour. The viscosity peak and breakdown indexes were higher in C. esculenta flour than in the X. sagittifolium sample. The colony forming units (CFU) of the microorganisms were much lower than those reported in the literature for similar products. Moreover, due to their moisture content and water activity, these flours could be classified as dry foods and they are shelf-stable foods. The results reflect that flours with good chemical, physicochemical, and nutritional quality and satisfactory microbiological stability may be produced from these aroids.
Charles R. Frihart; Holly Satori
Soy flour adhesives using polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE) resin as the curing agent are being used commercially to make bonded wood products. The original studies on the soy-PAE adhesives used purified soy protein isolate, but the much lower cost soy flour is now used commercially. We examined the performance of commercially available soy flours that have their...
concrete with improved strength and durability. In a pilot investigation on the potentials of cassava flour as a set-retarding admixture in concrete , it was observed that cassava flour exhibited plasticizing effect in concrete. To further enhance the ample use of cassava flour as admixture in concrete, the plasticizing effect of ...
Singh et al., 1989), pumpkin powder. (Lee et al., 2002), raw and cooked pea flour or pea pro- tein concentrate (Nielsen et al., 1980), sweet potato flour. (Collins and Pangloli, 1997), defatted wheat germ (Ge et al., 2001), rye flour ...
Cassava tubers were also peeled, chopped, dried and milled in a similar fashion. Eventually, the soybean and cassava flour samples were blended individually with the quality protein maize flour in three different proportions: 5:95, 10:90 and 15:85, respectively. Normal maize flour was used as a control for the quality ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and...
The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....
Richard A. Goyer; Kier D. Klepzig
Without a doubt, bark beetles are the most destructive insect pests of Southern pines. Among these, the Southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, isi the most notable and most noticed. During outbreak years, this small, but very aggresive, beetle can cause catastrophic losses.
Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.
Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.
Full Text Available In order to produce dough with a lower gluten content, more enriched with rice components and satisfactory rheological properties, the rheological properties, energetic value and cake baking properties of wheat and white or brown rice flour in shares from 3 to 30% (w/w were investigated in this paper. The water absorption in wheat-rice flour mixtures was lower and decreased to 53.5% and 54.0% along with the increase of the white and the brown rice flour share, respectively, than in wheat flour, where it was 58.8%. In the dough made from rice flour, a gluten network had thinner filaments, about 2 and 1 μm in width for white and brown rice flour, respectively, compared to those in the dough from wheat flour only, where it was about 7 μm. The dough from rice flour had almost twice higher gelatinization maximum than the gelatinization maximum of the wheat flour only. The energetic values of the dough from rice flour were smaller than the energetic value of the wheat flour, for only 1.32%. Based on Cluster analysis, the white or brown rice flour share of 20% was pointed out.
Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Mastro, Nelida L. del
Wheat is normally used to make bread, pasta, and noodles, because among the cereal flours, only wheat flour has the ability to form cohesive dough upon hydration. For that reason, only partial substitution of wheat flour can be recommended. In this work, pan breads were prepared with 30% content of irradiated whole wheat, whole rye and coarse cornmeal and the influence of blending on bread making capabilities investigated through some technological characteristics. All-brand wheat, rye and cornmeal flours were irradiated with 0, 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a 60 Co and the deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with those blends were then determined. Breads prepared with irradiated whole wheat flour showed an increase in the deformation force with the increase of radiation dose. The bread height presented also an increase for the doses of 1 and 3 kGy. Breads prepared with refined wheat flour blended with irradiated whole rye flour showed an increased deformation force for radiation doses of 1 and 3 kGy and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 1 kGy. Coarse cornmeal blended flour showed a great increase of the deformation force upon irradiation, and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 3 kGy. The results indicate that the addition of irradiated integral flour, whole wheat, whole rye flour and cornmeal to wheat flour may confer changes in physical properties beside an increment in nutritional value. (author)
Johanna Alejandra Aristizabal Galvis
Full Text Available Different studies have developed a variety of breads using cassava flour, with similar characteristics to wheat flour breads. The use of cassava flour in bread making is a convenient alternative for promoting the use of a local crop as well as reducing imports of wheat flour, promoting the production of high quality cassava flour, offering a gluten-free product and developing biofortified and fortified foods. Although the substitution level of cassava flour is limited, in some products, the incorporation of additives or flours from other crops improve the nutritional value and breadmaking quality of the baked foods. Several limitations have hindered the success of initiatives to promote, in some cassava producing countries, the intensive use cassava flour in bread making. Among these include the costs and efficiency of processing technologies, standards of the quality of cassava flour and lack of favorable policies. Further studies about bioavailability and retention of nutrients on baked foods and evaluation on the effects of processing cassava flour in relation to increasing the resistance starch are required to provide scientific evident for the health benefits of this flour.
Langkjær, Michael Alexander
Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses.......Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance...
Full Text Available In order to diversification of tagliatelle pasta and increasing segment of consumers it was intended to improvement of tagliatelle pasta quality by addition of red quinoa flour. The products obtained at Bakery Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of original recipe. To optimize the recipe were made four experimental variants, white flour and red quinoa flour is used in different proportions: Variant 1 – plain tagliatelle pasta (control sample who used white flour WF in 100%, Variant 2 consisting of 15% red quinoa flour (15 QF, Variant 3 consisting of 30 % red quinoa flour (30 QF and Variant 4 consisting of 50 % red quinoa flour (50 RQF. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: moisture content, protein content and acidity. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by using a 9-point Hedonic scale. Present study indicated that the variant 3 were most accepted by consumers.
Matheus Rodrigues Oliveira
Full Text Available In recent years, chia (Salvia hispanica L. has become increasingly more prevalent in the Brazilian diet and has triggered the interests of many researchers due to its functional properties and associated health benefits. The objective of this study was to develop pasta with different percentages of chia flour in lieu of wheat flour, and to evaluate the impact of chia on the nutritional, technological, and sensory properties of pasta. Pastas were prepared by replacing 7.5% (T1, 15% (T2, and 30% (T3 of wheat flour with chia flour relative to the control formulation (C. The quality of the pastas were evaluated through cooking tests (increase in weight and volume, cooking time, and loss of solids in the cooking water, chemical composition (moisture, fat, fiber, protein, ash, and carbohydrates, and color, using a Minolta colorimeter and sensory analysis by means of acceptance testing. Pasta made with chia flour had higher nutritional value and superior technological characteristics than did the control. Sensory analysis results showed that pasta with 7.5% chia flour had higher rates of acceptability in terms of the flavor, while the control pasta prevailed in terms of color and texture.
The amino acid composition as determined using Amino Acid Analyzer show that lily flour lacks two of the sulphur amino acids (cystine and cysteine), and contains low lysine (0.77 g/100 g sample) and methionine (0.10 g/100 g sample) contents. Arginine, a basic amino acid that is nutritionally considered as an essential ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched flour. 137.165 Section 137.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... riboflavin, 24 milligrams of niacin, 0.7 milligrams of folic acid, and 20 milligrams of iron. (b) It may...
Ten species isolated from maize flour with T. castaneum were A. pullulans, Auxarthron spp., C. herbarum, Eurotium sp., Phoma glomerata, Neosauorya spp., Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Rhizopus oryzae, R. stolonifer and Wallemia sebi. These results suggest an association and a synergistic interaction between important ...
Holsten, E.H.; Werner, R.A.
The covering stacks of spruce firewood with either clear or black polyethylene sheeting does not raise log temperatures high enough to kill spruce beetle brood in the logs. Based on the results of the study, the authors do not recommend the use of polyethylene sheeting as a remedial measure for the reduction of spruce beetle brood in infested firewood or log decks in south-central Alaska.
Matthew R. Tarver
Full Text Available The small hive beetle (SHB, Aethina tumida, is a major pest of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera colonies in the United States and Australia, and an emergent threat in Europe. While strong honey bee colonies generally keep SHB populations in check, weak or stressed colonies can succumb to infestations. This parasite has spread from a sub-Saharan Africa to three continents, leading to immense management and regulatory costs. We performed a transcriptomic analysis involving deep sequencing of multiple life stages and both sexes of this species. The assembled transcriptome appears to be nearly complete, as judged by conserved insect orthologs and the ability to find plausible homologs for 11,952 proteins described from the genome of the red flour beetle. Expressed genes include each of the major metabolic, developmental and sensory groups, along with genes for proteins involved with immune defenses and insecticide resistance. We also present a total of 23,085 high-quality SNP's for the assembled contigs. We highlight potential differences between this beetle and its honey bee hosts, and suggest mechanisms of future research into the biology and control of this species. SNP resources will allow functional genetic analyses and analyses of dispersal for this invasive pest. All resources are posted as Supplemental Tables at https://data.nal.usda.gov/dataset/data-transcriptomic-and-functional-resources-small-hive-beetle-aethina-tumida-worldwide, and at NCBI under Bioproject PRJNA256171.
Kaptso, Kuaté Giscard; Njintang, Yanou Nicolas; Nguemtchouin, Mbouga Marie Goletti; Scher, Joël; Hounhouigan, Joseph; Mbofung, Carl Moses
This work is part of a large study aimed to evaluate the potential of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) flour as starting raw material for the preparation of a widely cherished legume-based food product known as koki. Towards this objective, the flours from two varieties of bambara groundnut along with their respective starch and protein isolates were analyzed for some physicochemical and microstructural properties. It was observed that bambara flour contained appreciable amount of proteins (24.0-25.5 g/100 g), carbohydrates (57.9-61.7 g/100 g), fiber (3.45-3.68 g/100 g) and ash (3.65-3.85 g/100 g) with marginal differences between both varieties. The properties of starch and proteins isolated from the flours were different from one variety to another. In particular the starch granules of the white variety were larger (size range 10-35 μm) and polygonal while those from the black variety were smaller (size range 6-15 μm) and spherical in shape. In addition, the peak of gelatinization temperature was higher for white variety (81.7 °C) than for black variety (77.5 °C). The gelatinization temperature and the enthalpy of gelatinization of starch in the flours were systematically lower than for the starch isolates, suggesting an interaction of starch with other components on the gelatinization process.
Kemp, E A; Cottrell, T E
Purposeful attraction and aggregation of adult Coccinellidae at target sites would be useful for sampling purposes and pest suppression. We field-tested 1) lures in yellow and black pyramidal traps and 2) pyramidal traps that had been painted one or two colors (without lures) to determine if lures or trap color affected capture of adult Coccinellidae. In only one experiment with lures did a single rate of limonene increase trap capture, whereas no other lure ever did. Yellow traps, regardless of using a lure, always captured significantly more lady beetles than black traps. When single-color red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, black, and white traps (without lures) were tested, yellow traps captured significantly more lady beetles. Of all species of Coccinellidae captured in these single-color traps, 95% were the exotic species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Coccinella septempunctata L. H. axyridis alone dominated trap capture comprising 74.1% of all lady beetles. Two-color traps (yellow-green, yellow-orange, yellow-white, and yellow-black) never captured more than single-color yellow traps. These results demonstrate that yellow pyramidal traps can be used to purposefully attract, and when used without a collection device, possibly aggregate adult Coccinellidae at targeted field sites. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Adriana Nery de Oliveira
Full Text Available The objective of this study was preparing a product (omega-3 flour to increase the nutritional value of the food for workers concerning the content of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA. The omega-3 flour was prepared using waste (head sardines and leaves of carrot, flaxseed flour, manioc flour and spices. The fatty acids (FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 28 FA were identified in the omega-3 flour. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were 329.23mg EPA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour and 545.35 mg DHA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour. To meet the minimum requirements of omega -3, it is necessary the intake 2.5 to 3 tablespoons (soup of omega-3 flour day-1.There were analyzed two meals (A and B generally consumed by workers without and with the addition of the omega-3 flour (1 and 2 tablespoons to verify if there was an increase of n-3 FA. It was concluded that there was a significant increase of these FA in both meals. It was found that the omega-3 flour is constituted of a good nutritional value, especially the n-3 FA, so the product can be used as a supplement in the feeding of the workers as well as in other segments.
John D. Reeve
Bark beetle populations may undergo dramatic fluctuations and are often important pests in coniferous forests.Their dynamics are thought to be primarily driven by factors affecting the resistance of the host tree to attack, i.e., bottom-up forces, while natural enemies are usually assigned a minor role in these systems.I present behavioral experiments that suggest that...
Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood
Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...
Adetuyi, A.O.; Akpambang, V.O.E.
The black purple sheath (stem) of Sorgum bicolor, used locally as colour additive in cooked meals and infusion drinks taken as beverages, was examined for its nutritive value. The stem made into flour, was found to be rich in energy (1121.3 kJ/100 g), and in some micronutrients (mg/100 g), such as Mg (185.33), Ca (151.70), K (138.87), Na (127.61), and Fe (10.98). High Mg content of stem may be useful for overcoming Mg deficiency. The Fe content was sufficient to meet the daily-required intake (DRI) value for human beings. The presence of Cu, Zn and Mn was also observed. The content of crude fibre (32.0%) and carbohydrates (44.50%) were useful for making the stem a fodder for animal consumption. However, the protein content of the stem was low (3.20%). The functional properties observed for the stem compared favourably with those already reported for some other plants such as pigeon pea flour, African yam bean, and wheat flour. (author)
The book entitled Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler. (246 pages, 324 black and white illustrations, 8.5 “ x 11"; ISBN 0-9753471-8-7. Forty dollars, paperback. Biota of South Carolina. Volume 5. Clemson University, Clemson, S. ...
Erminawati; Sidik, W.; Listanti, R.; Zulfakar, H.
Coconut-pulp flour is coconut flour made from by-product of coconut-milk based food products. The flour contains no gluten and high fibre, which can be considered as functional potential food. Bread made from composite-flour of coconut-pulp flour and wheat flour was studied for its physic-chemical and sensory characteristics. Addition of hydrocolloid, like xanthan-gum, was aimed to provide viscoelasticity for the dough which is essential for baked product. Composite-flour proportion used in this study was; 10CPF/90WF, 15CPF/85WF and 20CPF/80WF; and xanthan gum to total flour of 0,1% and 0,4%. Variable observed were; crumb-texture, crumb-colour, taste of coconut, preference and flavour; moisture, ash, fiber and soluble-protein contents. The research showed that addition of coconut-pulp flour in the composite-flour decreased specific volume value and increased the bread texture produced. It also increased the bread moisture-content, ash-content, fibre-content and soluble protein-content. Moreover, the xanthan-gum addition resulted in decreased specific-volume value and increased texture and fiber-content of the bread produced. Overall, the sensory characteristic of crumb colour, flavour and panellist preference revealed better than control bread made from wheat flour, however its crumb texture harder compare to control bread made from wheat flour. This study showed that coconut-pulp flour potential to be developed for production of functional food.
Hassan, S.A.; Mohamed, S.A.
The effect of the natural chemical compound food flavoring agent, vanillin on the tribolium confusum was examined. The effect of vanillin on tribolium confusum reared as 18-day old larvae decreased the percent adult emergence, it was 32 % and 51.4 % adults at the treatments 2 % and 4 % respectively. The sex ratio was in favour of female at control group (1:1.2 male:female). This ratio reversed at the treatments 2 %, 4 % vanillin was favour of males. When one day old larvae treated with 2 %, 8 % vanillin, the percent pupation was decrease from control group. It was 31.83, 45.0 %, as compared with 53.33 in control group, respectively. At highest treatment 8 %, sex ratio was in favour of males. The mean number of total progenies decrease significantly from control when larvae 18-day old treated with vanillin and stored for two or four months. While when larvae 1-day old treated with vanillin , the decrease in the number of total progenies was insignificant. When one day old adults irradiated at 20, 50 and 70 Gy and reared for two and four months. The mean number of progenies decrease significantly by increasing the radiation dose, when compared with control group
Serrano, J M; Castro, L; Toro, M A; López-Fanjul, C
In Tribolium castaneum (CS) and T. confusum (CF), intra- and interspecific rates of homosexual mounting have been measured. The intraspecific results are compatible with the hypothesis of both species being sexually indiscriminate. However, the CF intraspecific rates were very high (35%-53% of mountings were homosexual), suggesting a lower sexual attractiveness, or a stronger rejection to being mounted, of CF females relative to conspecific males. CS males discriminate between species but, in interspecific contacts, preferentially mounted CF males rather than CF females. CF males do not discriminate between species, but the loss of sexual attractiveness of CF females, or their rejection to being mounted, may act as a precopulatory isolation mechanism.
Research on mutation induction of sweet potato Sari variety has been conducted. Flour mutant lines were obtained from selection of M1V5 tubers irradiated by gamma rays at the dose of 10 Gy. Flour was made by peeling of tubers, then dried, blended and sieved. The quality test of flour have been done by measuring degree of whiteness, proximate, amylose contents, water content, soluble water, swelling power, and flour characteristics. The result of this work showed that flour of C6.26.13 mutant line had higher protein content than the parent plant with concentration of 3.62 % and its amylose content was also higher than the other mutant lines. The soluble water value of mutant lines were significant different compared to the parent plant from 1.82 to 2.25 % and swelling power from 4.28 to 5.55 %. The flour granule of the mutant line was different compared to the parent plant. (author)
Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Muhammad Samudi Yasir; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah
Full-text: The photo-stimulated luminescence technique is recommended by European Committee for standardization for the detection food irradiation (EN 13751:2009). This study shows on luminescence technique to identify gamma irradiated five types of flour (corn flour, tapioca flour, wheat flour, glutinos rice flour and rice flour) at three difference dose levels in the range 0.2 - 1 kGy. The signal level is compare with two thresholds (700 and 5000). The majority of irradiated samples produce a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/ 60 s). All the control samples gave negative screening result while the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/ 60s) suggest that the sample has not been irradiated. A few samples show the signal levels between the two thresholds (intermediate signals) suggest that further investigation. Reported procedure was also tested over 60 days, confirming the applicability and feasibility of proposed methods. (author)
brewers' spent cassava flour blends and that it has a lot of potential in the food industry especially its use as thickener and binding agent in the food systems. Keywords: Brewers' spent cassava flour, wheat flour, proximate, functional properties.
Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan
A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 reg...
Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong
Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour de...
Silva, F S; Lobo, S E P D; Lima, D C B; Brito, J M; Costa-Neta, B M
Despite the medical importance of Paederus beetles, no studies have studied the influence of the abiotic factors on the flight activity and nighttime dispersal of these insects in Brazil. Therefore, the influence of both climatic factors and moon phase on black-light catches of Paederus rove beetles was investigated. Paederus beetles were attracted to a black light source hourly from 1800 to 0600 hours, and data on weather conditions as well as moon phase data were taken for every sampling date. Overall, 543 individuals of Paederus beetles belonging to four species were captured: P. protensus, P. columbinus, P. brasiliensis, and P. mutans. Paederus beetles were mostly active in the warmest parts of the studied nights. Variations in nighttime temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and moon phases appear not to affect Paederus flight. The diurnal temperature was observed to affect the night hourly dispersal of Paederus rove beetles as well as their distribution pattern during the entire period of study. The true environmental condition responsible for Paederus beetles seasonal pattern and daily night dispersal in northeastern Brazil were the annual moisture and drought cycles and the diurnal maximum temperatures, respectively. Significant trap catches were observed in the earliest hours after sunset (1800-2100), and people must be aware of this fact, as it can notably increase the risk of acquiring linearis dermatitis from the contact with large numbers of active Paederus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max used as botanical insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on sorghum grains.
Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan
There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, pflour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus
The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini
The linear and non-linear rheological properties of the suspensions for the hard red spring wheat (HRS) flour, soft wheat (Pastry) flour, barley flour, as well as the remain residues of HRS flour, Pastry flour, and barley flour after fermentation were investigated. The linear and non-linear rheologi...
Kaur, Maninder; Kaushal, Pragati; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh
The physicochemical and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour were investigated and compared with flours from other botanical sources. Proximate composition, color parameters, water and oil absorption, foaming characteristics and pasting properties (measured using Rapid visco analyzer) of flours were related to each other using Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA). Taro flour was significantly (P < 0.05) different from other flours in exhibiting highest carbohydrate, water absorption, and lower protein, foaming capacity and setback viscosity. Peak viscosity of taro flour was lower in comparison to potato flour but higher than that of soya and corn flours. Several significant correlations between functional and pasting properties were revealed both by PCA and Pearson correlation. PCA showed that taro and potato flours were located at the left of the score plot with a negative score, while soybean and corn flours had a large positive score in the first principal component.
Full Text Available The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in bread making. The quality of bread was evaluated by considering the physical and sensorial parameters. When the wheat flour was substituted with malted rice flour, 35% substitution level and the malted rice flour from 3 days of germination was the best according to the physical and sensory qualities of bread. The quality of bread was improved by the addition of 20 g of margarine, 20 g of baking powder and 20 g of yeast in 1 kg of flour. Among different ratios of yeast and baking powder, 2:1 was the best. Bread improver containing amylases and oxidizing agents at the concentration of 40 g/kg was selected as the best concentration. When comparing the final formulation made in the bakery with wheat bread, malted rice-wheat bread contains more soluble dietary fiber (0.62%, insoluble dietary fiber (3.95%, total dietary fiber (4.57% and free amino acid content (0.64 g/kg than those in wheat bread (0.5%, 2.73%, 3.23% and 0.36 g/kg, respectively.
Voigt, Dagmar; Tsipenyuk, Alexey; Varenberg, Michael
Similar to other leaf beetles, rosemary beetles Chrysolina americana exhibit a distinct sexual dimorphism in tarsal attachment setae. Setal discoid terminals occur only in males, and they have been previously associated with a long-term attachment to the female's back (elytra) during copulation and mate guarding. For the first time, we studied living males and females holding to female's elytra. Pull-off force measurements with a custom-made tribometer featuring a self-aligning sample holder confirmed stronger attachment to female elytra compared with glass in both males and females; corresponding to 45 and 30 times the body weight, respectively. In line with previous studies, males generated significantly higher forces than females on convex elytra and flat glass, 1.2 times and 6.8 times, respectively. Convex substrates like elytra seem to improve the attachment ability of rosemary beetles, because they can hold more strongly due to favourable shear angles of legs, tarsi and adhesive setae. A self-aligning sample holder is found to be suitable for running force measurement tests with living biological samples.
Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A
Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close.
Full Text Available In developing countries like India, with increasing urbanization, the demand for processed food and bakery products particularly cookies command wide popularity in both urban and rural mass. Hence, an attempt was made to develop functionally and nutritionally improved cookies and the influence of the partial replacement of the wheat flour by legume on the quality characteristic of cookies was analyzed. Six blends were prepared by homogenously mixing chickpea flour, pigeon pea, moong bean flour, and cowpea flour with wheat flour in the percentage proportions: 100, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, and 10:10:10:10:60 (CPF:WWF, PF:WWF, MF:WWF, CF:WWF, and CPF:PF:MF:CF:WWF and later used to make cookies. Chemical and functional properties of the composite flours and chemical as well as sensory characteristics of cookies made from the above combinations were determined. The incorporation of legume flour significantly affected the physical, chemical, and phytonutrient parameters of the cookies. The results revealed that functional properties, viz. water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling property, increased with addition of legume flours. The physical analysis revealed that the diameter and height increased with the incorporation of legume flour. The results of the proximate composition showed that the A6 possesses highest percentage of proteins (13.42% and crude fat (22.90%, A5 contains maximum value of crude fiber (2.10% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (55.47%, A1 showed maximum moisture (10.60%, A2 total phenolic content (6.14 TAE mg/100 g, and A3 showed maximum ash (3.66%. Statistical results revealed that the addition of selected pulse flours and a combination of these whole flours do not have a significant effect (p > 0.05 on the sensory characteristics of cookies.
Full Text Available The effect of sunflower seed flour supplementation on the quality characteristics of wheat flour cracker biscuits was studied. For this purpose, four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 15%, 25%, and 35% of sunflower seed flour, were used. The cracker biscuits with sunflower seed flour and the control samples were subjected to physico-chemical and organoleptic analyses. The cracker biscuits, prepared with sunflower seed flour up to a 35% level of supplementation in wheat flour, were found to be acceptable with respect to all sensory attributes. In the present study, significant improvement in the chemical composition (ash, fat, and crude protein of wheat-flour cracker biscuits supplemented with sunflower seed flour was observed. This reflects the potential for use of sunflower seed flour, as a partial replacement for wheat flour, for enhancement of these nutrients/chemical constituents
Richard W. Hofstetter; John Moser; Stacy Blomquist
The role that mites play in many ecosystems is often overlooked or ignored. Within bark beetle habitats, more than 100 mite species exist and they have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity of bark beetle systems. Mites use bark beetles to access and disperse among beetle-infested trees and the associations may range from...
Robert A. Progar; Adris Eglitis; John E. Lundquist
Bark beetles are powerful agents of change in dynamic forest ecosystems. Most assessments of the effects of bark beetle outbreaks have been based on negative impacts on timber production. The positive effects of bark beetle activities are much less well understood. Bark beetles perform vital functions at all levels of scale in forest ecosystems. At the landscape...
Kier D. Klepzig; Richard T. Wilkens
The southern pine beetle, a damaging pest of conifers, is intimately linked to three symbiotic fungi.Two fungi, Ceratocystiopsis ranaculosus and Entomocorticium sp. A, are transported within specialized structures (mycangia) in the beetle exoskeleton and are mutualists of the beetle.A third fungus, Ophiostoma minus, is transported externally on the beetle exoskeleton (...
Sandhu, Harkanwal P S; Manthey, Frank A; Simsek, Senay
Ozone gas could be used as a fumigant during grain and flour storage. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of exposure to ozone and the effects of blending ozone-treated flour with control flour on flour functionality and bread-making quality. Ozone treatment oxidized lipids, increased brightness and reduced the yellow hue of flour, and increased peak viscosity and setback viscosity of flour. Bread made from flour treated with ozone at 1500 mg kg(-1) for 4.5 min and bread made from flour blended with 100 g kg(-1) ozonated flour had good crust color and a whiter crumb and had more crumb cells, which resulted in a greater specific volume of the bread when compared with control flour. Flour functionality declined as ozone exposure increased beyond 9 min and as the concentration of ozonated flour increased beyond 200 g kg(-1) . Bread made from flour exposed to ozone for 4.5 min or flour that contained 100 g kg(-1) fully ozonated flour had greater specific loaf volume and whiter crumb compared to bread made with control flour. Exposure of flour to ozone for longer times (9-45 min) and higher blends (200-1000 g kg(-1) ) deteriorated quality of bread. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong
Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture.
Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong
Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084
A. O. Dauda; T. T. Adebisi; C. D. Alonge; O. A. Abiodun
This work determined the physicochemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of kunu zaki sweetened with black velvet tamarind (Dialium guinnense) flour. The outer covering and seed of black velvet was removed while the pulp was pulverized to obtain the flour. The tamarind pulp was analysed for its proximate and sugar contents. Kunu zaki was prepared according to standard method and 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g of the black velvet pulp was added to 1000 ml each of kunu zaki along with a control...
Aanen, D.K.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.
Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics
George T. Ferrell; J. Richard Parmeter Jr.
Associations between root diseases and bark beetles (Scolytidae) constitute some of the most serious pest complexes affecting forests in North America and elsewhere. The interactive functioning of these pests derives from the following relationships: 1) root diseases predispose trees to bark beetle infestation by lowering resistance, and perhaps...
Paulius Zolubas; Jose Negron; A. Steven Munson
Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) risk model, based on pure Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand characteristics in experimental and control plots was developed using classification and regression tree statistical technique under endemic pest population density. The most significant variable in spruce bark beetle...
John E. Lundquist; Barbara J. Bentz
Over the past decade, native bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have killed billions of trees across millions of hectares of forest from Alaska to Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several current outbreaks occurring simultaneously across western North America are the largest and most...
Maya Nehme; Melody Keena; Aijun Zhang; Alan Sawyer; Kelli. Hoover
An operationally effective trap to monitor the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis or ALB) has been a goal of the ALB eradication program since the first beetle was found in New York in 1996. Ground surveying is only ~20 percent effective at identifying infested trees and, although tree climbing is more effective, it is also...
Beetles are the most speciose animal group and found in virtually all habitats on Earth. Methods for Catching Beetles is a comprehensive general sourcebook about where and how to collect members of this diverse group. The book makes a compelling case in its Introduction about the value of scientif...
Mohamed, H.F.; Mikhaiel, A.A.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of iron fortified non-irradiated and irradiated flour at different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 ppm) on biology and physiology of Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. The results showed that the percent mortality of larvae which reared on both types of flour was increased by increasing the concentration of iron and the larval mortality was 90.09% at the highest concentration of iron (60 ppm) fortified non-irradiated flour than in other treatments. Larval weight was reduced in the first generation only and this decrease was a concentration dependent. Percent pupation among F1 generation was significantly reduced while there was non-significant changed in F2 generation. The percent adult emergence among both generations beside the lifespan of the adults had non-significant difference in non-irradiated flour as compared with control. In contrast, both male and female adults lived longer than the control in irradiated flour fortified with iron. Iron fortified both types of flour had no effect on the sex ratio of adults and it was in favour of male in all treatments as control. Also, the effect of iron fortified on larval development through non-irradiated flour was markedly retarded and it was prolonged to about 38.77 days. The developmental period of pupal stage was not changed in iron fortified non-irradiated flour but it was delayed in irradiated flour. Moreover, the disturbances of main metabolites and vital enzyme activities were determined after feeding newly hatched larvae of E. kuehniella on iron fortified non-irradiated and irradiated wheat flour with iron
Cynthia Gracia C.L1*
Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the formulation of substitute by corn flour. The flour used roasted corn flour and unroasted corn flour. Results showed that biscuit’s made of 80 gr corn flour and 20 gr wheat flour were accepted by panelist’s and the best formulation was 80 gr corn flour, 20 gr wheat flour, 50 gr margarine, 50 gr sugar and 10 gr yellow egg both of two corn flour. Roasting treatment of corn flour significantly affected fat content, carbohydrate content and digestibility of protein of the biskuit.
Germination increased water absorption capacity, bulk density, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity, foaming stability, emulsion activity, nitrogen solubility and decreased gelatin and wetability of the pigeon pea flour. Germinated pigeon pea flour has great potentials in food prperations that require hydration to improve ...
To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...
:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. Also, blends of wheat and sweet potato starch were developed in the ratios 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. Whole sweet potato flour and starch were also included where 100% wheat flour was used as control or ...
Effects of processing methods on the chemical composition of flour, moinmoin and akara from mucuna pruriens. ... that the parboiling and dehulling caused significant increase in the protein content of the bean flours (31.69% – 31.77%) relative to the control (29.87%). The dried akara (MA) balls however had significantly ...
Soya bean (Glycine max) is a leguminous crop that is used as a staple food worldwide. The raw harvest is processed into various food forms like soya bean flour and processing methods increase the chances of bacterial contamination. This research work assessed the bacteria contamination of soya bean flour sold in and ...
l4 days. If preserved colostrum could be supplemented with reconstituted soybean flour and whey powder, the period of colostrum feeding could be extended to 4 weeks. Various researchers reported the successful inclusion of soybean flour and/or soybean protein concentrate in milk replacers (Schmutz, Cravens, Soldner ...
Composite breads of 85% wheat and 15% cassava fermented flour were accepted by a sensory evaluation panellist. Fermented flour has been successfully used in breadmaking and placali preparation. It is a means of diversifying cassava utilization form. Keywords: Gelatinized food, yace cultivar, sensory evaluation, ...
This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...
Jan 7, 2015 ... National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI), Umudike, PMB 7006, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. ..... It is affected by moisture content and particle size ... Tables 3. Sensory evaluation of Bread produced from wheat: sweet potato starch and flour composite. Sample. Starch. Flour. Colour. Taste. Texture.
Bread-making potentials of composite flours containing 90% wheat and 10% acha enriched with 0-15% cowpea flour were investigated. Proximate composition and functional properties of the blends were studied using AOAC standard methods. Bread loaves were prepared from the blends using the straight dough method ...
Rodrigues Ferreira, Sila Mary; Luparelli, Paola Cordeiro; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo; Vilela, Regina Maria
Considering that sorghum is a gluten free flour, it could be proposed as an ingredient to produce alternative bakery products for the subjects with Celiac Disease, since they do not have many food options available in the market. For this reason, the main goal of this study is to develop chocolate cookies with sorghum flour (Sorghum vulgare). The experimental design used was the simplex-lattice factor to compare the following variables: sorghum flour (50-100%), rice flour (0-50%) and corn starch (0-50%), totaling up to ten experiments. The formulations IX and X were selected as the ones with the highest sensorial scores The sorghum flour, regular chocolate cookies and gluten free cookies were submitted to physicochemical analysis. Physical and sensorial analysis using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) and hedonic analysis were performed for the two cookies preparation. Sorghum flour presented characteristics compared with the described by the food regulation laws. The preparations that presented satisfactory sensorial characteristics were the ones that had 58 and 67% of sorghum flour, 8 and 17% of rice flour, 33 and 17% of corn starch, respectively. The performance for both IX and X formulations was 0,92 and the specific volume was 1,54 and 1.46 cm3/g, respectively. When compared with regular cookies, the differences on most of the sensorial attributes evaluated on sorghum cookies were not statistically significant (P cookies.
Charles R. Frihart; James M. Wescott; Amy E. Traska
Higher petroleum prices and greater interest in bio-based adhesives have stimulated a considerable amount of research on incorporating soybean flour into wood adhesives in recent years. In some cases, soy was used at low levels as an extender for phenol-formaldehyde (PF) adhesives; in other cases, highly hydrolyzed soy flour was used. Although progress was made in...
de Jong, N. W.; van Maaren, M. S.; Vlieg-Boersta, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Groot, H.; van Wijk, R. Gerth
Background Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. Objective The aim of our
Gurundi is a popular wheat-based snack among school-age children. An acceptable gurundifrom a blend of wheat flour (WF) and pigeonpea flour (PPF) of 90:10 ratio had been reported in the literature. This study investigated the effects of yellow flesh cassava on pigeon peasupplemented gurundi. Gurundiwas produced ...
Cassava mash was fortified with bambara flour during pupuru production to produce pupuru bambara flour at different percentage combination. Pupuru made from 100% cassava (Sample A) and three blends of cassava mash and bambara in ratios 90:10 (Sample B), 85:15 (Sample C) and 80:20 (Sample D) were produced.
de Jong, N. W.; van Maaren, M. S.; Vlieg-Boersta, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Groot, H.; Gerth van Wijk, R.
Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. The aim of our study was to
Full Text Available The suitability of pea flour for cracker biscuits production was investigated in this study. Pea flour was characterised by high protein (21.46 % and ash (3.11 % content and exhibited relatively high emulsifying (37.50 ml/100 ml and foaming (53.50 ml/100 ml capacity. The effect of pea flour incorporation to wheat dough (substitution levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 % on the rheological properties, physical characteristics and sensory parameters of cracker biscuits were also evaluated. Farinographic measurements showed that pea flour addition resulted in increasing of water absorption (from 58.90 to 61.80 % and dough development time (from 3.55 to 4.50 min, whereas dough stability was decreased (from 6.69 to 3.50 min. It was also found that incorporation of pea flour to cracker biscuits modified physical properties of final products by different ways (decreasing of volume index, width and spread ratio, increasing of thickness. From the sensory evaluation revealed that cracker biscuits prepared from blend flour contained 10 % pea flour showed no significant differences from wheat cracker biscuits. Higher levels of pea flour in the products adversely affected the odour, taste, firmness, colour and overall acceptance of final products.
The introduction of "fufu" flour is an innovative business venture that young entrepreneurs should explore. However, the level of costs and returns as well as institutional support to sustain the industry is not well understood. This study was conducted to determine the profitability of "fufu" flour and the strength of the ...
This study determined the level of soy flour appropriate for hamburger (beef patties) production. They were formulated to contain 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% of soy flour respectively with some flavouring agents. A 5-point hedonic scale was used to investigate the sensory characteristics of products in terms of juiciness, colour, ...
The physico-chemical and sensory properties of fufu flours from three local white yam varieties, Ozibo, Okpebe and Nwopoke were investigated. The tubers were peeled, sliced, blanched and dried in an oven set at 60°C to constant weight. The chips were milled into flour, passed through American Standard sieve number ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is used...
Flour blends were prepared from two cultivars of cocoyam ( and . ), African breadfruit ( ) and wheat ( ) at different proportions and extruded into noodles with a locally fabricated and manually operated singlescrew extruder. Proximate composition and the functional properties of the different flour blends were evaluated. The
properties was determined and X-ray powder starch diffraction was used to examine the crystalline property of flour and starch extract. Gelatinization characteristics and in vitro starch digestibility were also determined, test results were processed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Flour showed higher (P ...
As early as the 1950's, cottonseed flour (i. e. meal) was tested for use as wood adhesives. Recently, renewed interest exists in the use of plant proteins as wood adhesives, as these materials are renewable and biodegradable. In this research, we separated cottonseed flour into several fractions wit...
The flour samples and fresh corms and cormels were analyzed for the proximate composition, ascorbic acid, anthocyanin and oxalic acid contents. The flours were also analyzed for the pH, bulk density, water and oil absorption capacities and the sensory properties of colour and texture. On dry weight basis, the protein, fat, ...
Ely Fernando Sacón-Vera
Full Text Available Evaluate the rheological properties of flour mixes Ipomoea batata and Triticum vulgare for the preparation of bread dough, was the goal of this research for it a completely randomized design, as treatments sweet potato flour was used varieties are used: Toquecita, Guayaco Purple, Purple Ecuador, Brazil and Ina Purple in a 30/70 ratio (sweet potato flour / wheat flour respectively. The rheological variables: water absorption, development time, weakening of the dough stability, water absorption index (C1, mixing rate (C2, gluten strength index (C3, gel viscosity (C4, resistance index amylase (C5 and starch retro gradation index (C6 were evaluated with Mixolab equipment. The results showed that the variety Purple Brazil showed better characteristics of flours recommended premixes for the baking process in response to these indices
Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés
In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.
Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.
Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan
A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Us....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....
This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied
Brady, Parrish; Cummings, Molly
Circularly polarized light is rare in the terrestrial environment, and cuticular reflections from scarab beetles are one of the few natural sources. Chrysina gloriosa LeConte 1854, a scarab beetle found in montane juniper forests of the extreme southwestern United States and northern Mexico, are camouflaged in juniper foliage; however, when viewed with right circularly polarizing filters, the beetles exhibit a stark black contrast. Given the polarization-specific changes in the appearance of C. gloriosa, we hypothesized that C. gloriosa can detect circularly polarized light. We tested for phototactic response and differential flight orientation of C. gloriosa toward different light stimuli. Chrysina gloriosa exhibited (a) positive phototaxis, (b) differential flight orientation between linear and circularly polarized light stimuli of equal intensities, and (c) discrimination between circularly polarized and unpolarized lights of different intensities consistent with a model of circular polarization sensitivity based on a quarter-wave plate. These results demonstrate that C. gloriosa beetles respond differentially to circularly polarized light. In contrast, Chrysina woodi Horn 1885, a close relative with reduced circularly polarized reflection, exhibited no phototactic discrimination between linear and circularly polarized light. Circularly polarized sensitivity may allow C. gloriosa to perceive and communicate with conspecifics that remain cryptic to predators, reducing indirect costs of communication.
Gluten-free flour tortillas were made with five different sorghum flours to evaluate flour quality. Four sorghum varieties were used along with a commercial sorghum flour. The four varieties were: Fontanelle-625 (F-625), Fontanelle-1000 (F-1000), ATx631xRTx2907(NE#20), and 5040C. The tortilla wei...
Effect of partial substitution of dried plantain flour on the sensory and functional properties of maize flour based snack ( Kokoro ) ... It is concluded that plantain flour can be successfully blended with maize flour for the production of good kokoro product. Recommendation is made for the large scale production of fortified ...
Effect of wheat flour (WF) substitution with 'Acha' flour (AF) on the quality attributes in bread making was investigated using the following composite blends ratios 85:15, 80:20, 75:25, 70:30, 100:0 (AF) with 100% wheat flour as control. Proximate analysis on both composite flours and their bread products, as well as sensory ...
Borsuk, Yulia; Arntfield, Susan; Lukow, Odean M; Swallow, Kevin; Malcolmson, Linda
To increase pulse consumption, pita bread was fortified with pulse flours milled from green lentils, navy beans and pinto beans, which were ground to produce fine and coarse flours. Pita breads were prepared using composite flours containing pulse flours (25, 50, 75%) and wheat flour or 100% pulse flours and adjusting the amount of water required for mixing based on farinograph water absorption. Pita bread quality was evaluated according to diameter, pocket height, specific loaf volume, texture and crust colour. Blends made from pulse flours with coarse particle size showed higher rates of water absorption. All composite flours and 100% pulse flours produced pitas with pockets, confirming their suitability for this product. Crust colour of pitas was affected less by navy bean flour than by lentil flour. Pita breads made with pinto bean flour were superior in texture. Overall, navy and pinto bean flours appeared more suitable for pita bread. Flours with coarse particle sizes produced pitas with better colour and texture. Sensory parameters of pitas containing 25% coarse pinto or navy bean flour were as good as or better than those from the wheat control. Acceptable pita breads can be made using pulse flours, although the substitution level is limited to 25%. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM
The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four
Martínez, Mario M; Pico, Joana; Gómez, Manuel
Enzymatic hydrolysis could be an alternative way to modify flour functionality. The effect of two different enzymes, α-amylase and amyloglucosidase, and their combination on microstructure, oligosaccharide content, crystalline order, pasting, gel hydration, and colour properties of native and extruded wheat flours was investigated. Micrographs showed different mechanisms of actuation of the different enzymes on native and extruded flours, achieving greater than 300% and 500% increases of glucose and maltose contents, respectively, in extruded flours compared with their native counterparts. Native flours displayed higher values of water absorption capacity and swelling power than extruded flours. Flours treated by a combination of amylase and amyloglucosidase showed low swelling power. Regarding colour, native flours were darker and more reddish than extruded flours, whereas flours treated by amyloglucosidase, and therefore had a higher glucose content, were darker and more reddish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study aimed to obtain a mechanically loose gluten free pastry (leaf roulade by using gluten-free flour: corn flour and rice flour and cornstarch. The samples obtained were compared with a control sample of only wheat flour. To optimize the recipe were made four experimental variants, flour and starch is used in different proportions. Version 1 (control sample who used wheat flour WF in 100%, Version 2 consisting of 20% maize flour (MF, 16 % rice flour (RF, 64% corn starch (CS; Version 3 consisting of: 10% of maize flour (MF, 10% of rice flour (RF, 80% corn starch (CS. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: length, width, thickness, specific gravity, moisture and carbohydrates. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by a group of un-trained panellists, using a 9-point Hedonic scale.
Andersson, Martin N; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Keeling, Christopher I; Bengtsson, Jonas M; Yuen, Macaire M S; Li, Maria; Hillbur, Ylva; Bohlmann, Jörg; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik
The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, and the North American mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are severe pests of coniferous forests. Both bark beetle species utilize aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass-attacks on host trees, while odorants from host and non-host trees modulate the pheromone response. Thus, the bark beetle olfactory sense is of utmost importance for fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfactory detection has been lacking in bark beetles and is limited in Coleoptera. We assembled antennal transcriptomes from next-generation sequencing of I. typographus and D. ponderosae to identify members of the major chemosensory multi-gene families. Gene ontology (GO) annotation indicated that the relative abundance of transcripts associated with specific GO terms was highly similar in the two species. Transcripts with terms related to olfactory function were found in both species. Focusing on the chemosensory gene families, we identified 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 6 chemosensory proteins (CSP), 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 43 odorant receptors (OR), 6 gustatory receptors (GR), and 7 ionotropic receptors (IR) in I. typographus; and 31 putative OBPs, 11 CSPs, 3 SNMPs, 49 ORs, 2 GRs, and 15 IRs in D. ponderosae. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the cerambycid beetle, Megacyllene caryae, and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The most notable result was found among the ORs, for which large bark beetle-specific expansions were found. However, some clades contained receptors from all four beetle species, indicating a degree of conservation among some coleopteran OR lineages. Putative GRs for carbon dioxide and orthologues for the conserved antennal IRs were included in the identified receptor sets. The protein families important for chemoreception have now been identified in
Sehn, Georgia Ane Raquel; Steel, Caroline Joy
The rheological standards currently used for classifying refined wheat flour for technological quality of bread are also used for whole wheat flours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological and technological behavior of different whole wheat flours, as well as pre-mixes of refined wheat flour with different replacement levels of wheat bran, to develop a dimensionless number that assigns a numerical scale using results of rheological parameters to solve this problem. Through farinograph and extensograph results, most whole wheat flours evaluated presented parameters recommended for bread making, according to the current classification. However, the specific volume of breads elaborated with these flours was not suitable, that is, the rheological analyses were not able to predict the specific volume of pan bread. The development of the Sehn-Steel dimensionless number allowed establishing a classification of whole wheat flours as "suitable" (Sehn-Steel dimensionless number between 62 and 200) or "unsuitable" for the production of pan bread (Sehn-Steel dimensionless number lower than 62). Moreover, an equation that can predict the specific volume of whole pan bread through this dimensionless number was developed.
Hernández, Miguel; Sousa, Virginia; Moreno, Ambar; Villapando, Salvador; López-Alarcón, Mardya
Although iron bioavailability from wheat flour fortified with iron has been widely studied, the bioavailability of lime-treated corn flour has not been evaluated sufficiently. We compared iron bioavailability and utilization of lime-treated corn flour and wheat flour supplemented with various iron sources. Bioavailability and utilization were determined in Sprague-Dawley rats using the iron balance and hemoglobin depletion-repletion methods. Rats were iron depleted by feeding them a low iron, casein diet for 10 d. During the repletion period, the rats were fed diets based on lime-treated corn flour or wheat flour, both supplemented with ferrous fumarate, ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate and reduced iron for 14 d. Hemoglobin was determined at the end of depletion and repletion periods. The phytate concentration was lower in wheat flour (114 mg/100g) than in lime-treated corn flour (501 mg/100g). Iron bioavailability and utilization by rats were higher from fortified and unfortified wheat flour than from the lime-treated corn flour counterparts. Iron utilization was greater in rats fed wheat flour supplemented with ferrous sulfate, followed by fumarate and citrate than in rats fed reduced iron. In lime-treated corn flour, iron utilization by rats fed unfortified flour and flour fortified with reduced iron did not differ, but utilization was higher in rats fed corn flour fortified with iron sulfate, fumarate and citrate than with reduced iron. We conclude that fortification of lime-treated corn flour with reduced iron has no effect on iron bioavailability or utilization, probably due to the high phytate content. Other iron compounds must be selected to fortify lime-treated corn flour when intended for public nutrition programs.
Julianti, Elisa; Rusmarilin, Herla; Ridwansyah; Yusraini, Era
Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours were not significantly different in water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and baking expansion. There was a tendency for the relative viscosities of the composite flours to increase significantly with increasing proportion of the soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. Pasting viscosity measurements of the composite flours gave maximum (peak) viscosity values ranging from 582.00-668.67 cP. The pasting analysis results indicated increased level of setback and final viscosity, pasting temperature, setback and stability ratio while peak viscosity decreased with increasing proportion of soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture.
鈴木, 彩葉; 小池, 恵; Sayaha, Suzuki; Megumi, Koike
Whole wheat flour is rich in dietary fiber and has disease preventive property. However, the flavor of whole wheat flour containing bread has prevented its wide use. We studied that make tasty whole wheat flour bread to take a dietary fiber daily. The blending proportions of whole wheat flour to bread making flour were 0, 20, 40, 60,80 and 100%. We examined their characteristics in weight, height, volume, physical properties and palatability in the sensory evaluation. Weight of the whole whea...
Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt
Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)
Brown, Angela Khristin
The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…
Elizabeth A. Matseur
Natural disturbances, such as wildfire and mountain pine beetle (Dentroctonus ponderosae, hereafter MPB) infestations, are two sources of large-scale disturbance that can significantly alter forest structure in the Black Hills. The Black Hills has recently experienced one of the largest MPB outbreaks in the last 100 years, along with varying levels of wildfires...
Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L.d.
This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it. - Highlights: ► We study the influence of gamma radiation on wheat flour and properties of breads. ► Falling number decreased with radiation remaining almost constant up to one month. ► Ionizing radiation may confer an increase in texture parameters, weight and height on the bread.
Klemm, Rolf D W; West, Keith P; Palmer, Amanda C; Johnson, Quentin; Randall, Philip; Ranum, Peter; Northrop-Clewes, Christine
Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health nutrition problem, affecting an estimated 190 million preschool-aged children and 19 million pregnant and lactating women globally, and 83 million adolescents in Southeast Asia alone. Its consequences (disorders) include xerophthalmia (the leading cause of early childhood blindness), increased severity of infection, anemia, and death. Because vitamin A deficiency is largely due to chronic dietary insufficiency of preformed vitamin A and proactive carotenoids, food fortification can offer an effective approach to prevention. To provide guidance on fortifying wheat and maize flour milled in industrial rollers for national fortification programs in countries where vitamin A deficiency is considered a public health problem. Critical review of the literature on the dietary gap in vitamin A intake and levels of wheat flour intake among risk groups as a basis for determining vitamin A fortificant levels. Additional review of efficacy evidence, safety and cost considerations, and country experiences related to wheat-flour fortification with vitamin A. Mill-rolled wheat flour is a technically fortifiable, centrally processed food vehicle that, where routinely and adequately consumed by target groups, should be considered a candidate for fortification. Vitamin A can be stable in flour under typical, ambient conditions, with processing losses estimated at approximately 30%, depending on source and premix conditions. Factors to guide a decision to fortify flour with vitamin A include the extent of deficiency, availability of other food vehicle options, the centrality of milling, market reach and population intake distributions of the flour products, the dietary vitamin A intake required, and associated costs. Large gaps persist in knowledge of these factors, which are needed to enable evidence-based fortification in most countries, leaving most decisions to fortify guided by assumptions. Where flour can and should be fortified
Bush, R.K.; Schroeckenstein, D.; Meier-Davis, S.; Balmes, J.; Rempel, D.
A 43-year-old woman developed asthma 6 years after beginning work in a food-processing plant in which soybean flour was used as a protein extender. Symptoms of sneezing, coughing, and wheezing would begin within minutes of exposure to soybean flour and resolve 2 hours after exposure ceased. Skin tests were positive to a soy extract prepared from the flour. Airway hyperreactivity was confirmed by a positive bronchial challenge to methacholine. Bronchial challenge with soybean flour produced an immediate increase in specific airway resistance from 5.0 to 22.7 L. cm of H2O/L/sec. There was no response to challenge with lactose. The patient's allergic response to soy-flour extract was further characterized by several immunologic methods. IgE binding to soy-flour protein by direct RAST was 5.98 times that of a normal control serum. The soy-flour extract was separated by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four protein bands were detected in the crude soy-flour extract. After immunoblotting and subsequent autoradiography, nine proteins with molecular weights ranging from 54,500 to 14,875 were found. Cross-reactivity studies with other legumes demonstrated apparent immunologic identity between a component in green pea extract and a soybean protein with a molecular weight of 17,000. The clinical significance of this cross-reactivity is not known. We conclude that in this case of occupational asthma to soybean flour, multiple allergens were involved. Immunoblotting may be useful in identifying the allergens involved in occupational asthma
An indirect behavioural test (test of locomotion as a measure of vigor) to determine whether the insects have been subject to irradiation is proposed. The higher the dose applied, the lesser the locomotor activity of the treated beetles, pests of stored products. For radiation disinfestation, the doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy are suggested. At these doses the walking speed of insects, i.e. ability to disperse, is greatly affected. The various species responded to gamma irradiation in a different way. At the first day after treatment all T. confusum Duv. beetles treated with 0.25 to 0.5 kGy doses showed the reduction of locomotor activity by more than 25%. The walking speed of the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius L. and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, treated with low doses of gamma radiation, was not affected or it was even higher than the control. At the next day after treatment the walking speed of irradiated insects was negatively correlated with the dose applied. Using data on the percentage of the confused flour beetles that moved outside the 20 cm diam. circle during the first minute as well as during the next minutes, it was possible to discriminate the insects irradiated with high doses of gamma radiation from those treated with 0.25 and 0.5 kGy and untreated. The results obtained suggests that the locomotor test may be used as an identification method of irradiated insects, pests or stored products. The specific causes of decreased locomotor activity of irradiated insects and/or ability to disperse have not been yet established. However, muscles controlling locomotion (walking) seem to be damaged by radiation. (author)
Non-rice commodity has been increasingly discussed as food alternative commodity. Type of processing food applied on this research was is noodle making from mixed sago and corn flours. The aim of this research was to investigate the quality of noodle from sago and corn flours, as well as to observe the impact of the addition of preservative materials towards the noodle???s self life. Treatments implemented in the research are the mixture of sago and corn flours with the proportion of 50%...
Montes, Simone de Souza; Rodrigues, Laís Maciel; Cardoso, Ryzia de Cássia Vieira; Camilloto, Geany Peruch; Cruz, Renato Souza
ABSTRACTTapioca flour is derived from the starch extracted from manioc and is a widely used food product in Brazil. Rice flour is produced from grains of rice and is used in the production of bread, porridge, cakes and cookies, which are recommended for people with celiac disease. The goal of this work was to add value to the aforementioned products by developing cookies based on tapioca and rice flours. Five formulations were prepared: A 100:0, B 75:25, C 50:50, D 25:75 and E 0:100 to tapioc...
E. G. Burbano; M.G. Wright; N.E. Gillette; S. Mori; N. Dudley; N. Jones; M. Kaufmann
The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a pest of coffee and many endemic Hawaiian plants. Traps baited with chemical attractants commonly are used to capture ambrosia beetles for purposes of monitoring, studying population dynamics, predicting outbreaks, and mass trapping to reduce damage...
Mortality and reduced brood production in walnut twig beetles, Pityophthorus juglandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), following exposure to commercial strains of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum
Thousand cankers disease (TCD), caused by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis, and its associated fungal symbiont, Geosmithia morbida, is a disease of economic and ecological concern on eastern black walnut, Juglans nigra. Numerous attacks and gallery formation by the WTB and subse...
Leandra Zafalon Jaekel
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme; however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05 among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All formulations made from whole grain wheat flour and added with xylanase also had specific volumes significantly higher than those of the control sample, and the highest value was found for the 8 g xylanase.100 kg-1 flour formulation. With respect to moisture content, the formulations with different enzyme concentrations showed small significant differences when compared to the control samples. In general, breads made with the addition of 8 g enzyme.100 kg-1 flour had the lowest firmness values, thus presenting the best technological characteristics.
Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S
Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition.
Therese M. Poland; John H. Borden
The bark beetle predator Thanasimus undatulus Say was captured in statistically significant numbers (total catch = 470, 713, and 137) in three field experiments using multiple-funnel traps baited with various combinations of pheromones for the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby, and the secondary bark beetles ...
Substitution of wheat flour by mocap flour in biscuit making produced the changes of biscuit characteristics. Protein, moisture, starch, amylose, fat, and reducing sugar content was decreased by increasing substitution of mocap flour. Meanwhile, crude fiber and cyanogenic compounds increased by increasing mocap flour substitution. All biscuits with variation of mocap flour substitution were safe to consume because of low level of cyanides.
Seybold, Steven J; Bentz, Barbara J; Fettig, Christopher J; Lundquist, John E; Progar, Robert A; Gillette, Nancy E
We summarize the status of semiochemical-based management of the major bark beetle species in western North America. The conifer forests of this region have a long history of profound impacts by phloem-feeding bark beetles, and species such as the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the spruce beetle (D. rufipennis) have recently undergone epic outbreaks linked to changing climate. At the same time, great strides are being made in the application of semiochemicals to the integrated pest management of bark beetles. In this review, we synthesize and interpret these recent advances in applied chemical ecology of bark beetles for scientists and land managers.
Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.
Stobnicka, Agata; Górny, Rafał L.
Exposure to flour dust can be found in the food industry and animal feed production. It may result in various adverse health outcomes from conjunctivitis to baker's asthma. In this paper, flour dust exposure in the above-mentioned occupational environments is characterized and its health effects are discussed. A peer-reviewed literature search was carried out and all available published materials were included if they provided information on the above-mentioned elements. The hitherto conducted studies show that different components of flour dust like enzymes, proteins and baker's additives can cause both non-allergic and allergic reactions among exposed workers. Moreover, the problem of exposure to cereal allergens present in flour dust can also be a concern for bakers’ family members. Appreciating the importance of all these issues, the exposure assessment methods, hygienic standards and preventive measures are also addressed in this paper. PMID:26414680
N. S. Rodionova
Full Text Available Possibility of use of a syrup of a clover onions for uluch-shenija indicators of quality and increase in biological value of a biscuit at wasps-nove of a flour confectionery mix is analysed.
Stobnicka, Agata; Górny, Rafał L
Exposure to flour dust can be found in the food industry and animal feed production. It may result in various adverse health outcomes from conjunctivitis to baker's asthma. In this paper, flour dust exposure in the above-mentioned occupational environments is characterized and its health effects are discussed. A peer-reviewed literature search was carried out and all available published materials were included if they provided information on the above-mentioned elements. The hitherto conducted studies show that different components of flour dust like enzymes, proteins and baker's additives can cause both non-allergic and allergic reactions among exposed workers. Moreover, the problem of exposure to cereal allergens present in flour dust can also be a concern for bakers' family members. Appreciating the importance of all these issues, the exposure assessment methods, hygienic standards and preventive measures are also addressed in this paper.
Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves
Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576
Ugwuanyi et al., 2007). Effect of enzymatic treatment on cassava flour. An aliquot of 500 .... depends exclusively on endogenous enzyme level which shows considerable variation. Several microorganisms including Bacillus sp. (Amoa-.
Urban foresters routinely emphasise the importance of taxonomic diversity to reduce the vulnerability of tree assemblages to invasive pests, but it is unclear to what extent diversity reduces vulnerability to polyphagous (i.e. generalist) pests. Drawing on field data from seven communities in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, we tested the hypothesis that communities with higher diversity would exhibit lower vulnerability to the polyphagous Asian longhorned beetle, which currently threatens the region. Based on street tree compositions and the beetle?s host preferences, Asian longhorned beetle threatened up to 35.6% of individual street trees and 47.5% of the total basal area across the study area, but we did not see clear connections between taxonomic diversity and beetle vulnerability among study communities. For example, the city of Fairfield was among the least diverse communities but had the lowest proportion of trees vulnerable to Asian longhorned beetle, whereas the city of Wyoming exhibited high diversity and high vulnerability. On the other hand, Forest Park aligned with our original hypothesis, as it was characterised by low diversity and high vulnerability. Our results demonstrate that relatively high taxonomic diversity in street tree assemblages does not necessarily lead to reduced vulnerability to a polyphagous pest. Considering the threats posed by polyphagous pests, selecting a set of relatively pest resistant trees known to perform well in urb
Miller, Kathryn; McGough, Norma; Urwin, Heidi
A European law on gluten-free (GF) labeling came into force in 2012, covering foods sold prepacked and in food service establishments, and a similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation covers GF labeling from August 2014. Gluten is found in the grains wheat, rye, and barley. A common source of gluten in the kitchen is wheat flour. This research aimed to determine variables that have a significant effect on gluten contamination in commercial kitchens when wheat flour is in use and to establish controls necessary to assure GF production. A pilot study was used to test the following hypotheses: (i) increasing duration of exposure to wheat flour would increase gluten contamination, (ii) increasing distance between the site of preparation and the site of wheat flour would reduce gluten contamination, (iii) the use of a ventilation hood would decrease gluten contamination, and (iv) the use of a barrier segregating the site of preparation of a GF meal and the use of wheat flour would decrease gluten contamination. Petri dishes containing GF rice pudding were placed in three directions at increasing distances (0.5 to 2 m) from a site of wheat flour use. A barrier was in place between a third of samples and the site of wheat flour. After wheat flour was handled for 0.5 and 4.0 h, petri dishes were sealed and the contents were analyzed for gluten. The experiment was duplicated with the ventilation hood on and off. The pilot study revealed that a distance of 2 m from the use of wheat flour was required to control gluten contamination at ≤20 ppm if wheat flour had been in use for 4.0 h. The identified control of distance was tested in five different study sites. In each of the study sites, a test meal was prepared a minimum of 2 m away from the site of wheat flour use. Although kitchens vary and must be considered individually, the established control of a minimum 2 m distance, along with good hygiene practices, was found to be effective in preparing GF meals
Correia, Paula; Gonzaga, Marta; Batista, Luís; Beirão-Costa, Luísa; Guiné, Raquel
The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with good textural and sensorial characteristics. The product, a new type of bread, was prepared with wheat (90%) and lupin (10%) flours, without the addition of any conservatives. Several experiences were also done to find the most appropriate proportion of lupin flour. The optimized product was characterized considering the rheological, physical-che...
Obadi, Mohammed; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Peng, Wei; Sulieman, Abdellatif A; Mahdi, Amer Ali; Mohammed, Khalid; Zhou, Hui-Ming
The objective of this work was to study the effect of ozone treatment on the quality of bread and its shelf life. Flour was treated with ozone gas a rate of 5 L/min for 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 min. Baking studies showed that bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min exhibited improved quality properties (in terms of specific volume, bread color, and crumb cell numbers). Exposure to ozone for shorter times did not cause obvious changes in the major volatile compounds of bread. A shelf life tests showed that ozone gas treatment influenced the extent of starch crystallinity. The relative starch crystallinity of bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min was lower than the control value, as were the hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Microscopic examination of crumb structure revealed remarkable differences between control and treated breads. Although ozone is a naturally occurring substance found in the atmosphere, ozone can also be produced synthetically. Recently, ozone has come to be regarded as a new treatment for flour. Especially in countries where the chlorination is forbidden, ozone treatment may be of a great interest if it were associated with significant and reliable changes in flour. Ozone treatment of wheat flour tends to improve bread shelf life and quality in terms of physiochemical, baking properties, X-ray diffraction data, volatile compound levels, crumb structure, and textural characteristics. Given such findings, desirable shelf life and bread qualities may be achieved when ozone is used as a flour oxidant prior to bread baking. Analyses of the effects of ozone gas on treatment of flour on bread shelf life and quality would aid the production of high quality and extend the shelf life of bread. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera seed flour was studied under various conditions of pH (2-10), time (5-60 minutes), salts (NaCl and CaCl ), salt concentrations (0-2 M) and solvent to flour ratio (10:1-30:1). 2 Results showed that protein extractability was dependent on pH, type of salt, salt concentrations and ...
Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz
While economics dictate that soy-based wood adhesives be made with soy flour, much of the recent literature on soy-based wood adhesives has involved using soy protein isolate. The obvious assumption is that the additional carbohydrates in the flour but not in the isolate only serve as inert diluents. Our studies have shown that the isolate can provide 10 times the wet...
VanCauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F
Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...
Robert C. Thatcher; Jack E. Coster; Thomas L. Payne
Southern pine beetles are compulsive eaters. Each year in the South from Texas to Virginia the voracious insects conduct a movable feast across thousands of acres of pine forests. Most trees die soon after the beetles sink their teeth into them.
Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X
Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Plavšić Dragana V.
Full Text Available According to the nutritive characteristics, whole grain flour is a high quality product, due to its high vitamin, mineral, and dietary fiber content. However, the cereal grains are susceptible to the series of contamination during the ripening, harvesting, processing and storage. The aim of this work was to determine mold presence in grains and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat. The determination of total number and identification of isolated genera and species of molds were the subject of this research. All samples were contaminated with the molds. The total number of molds per 100 cereal grains was between 60 cfu (wheat and 120 cfu (buckwheat. The total number of molds in the samples of flour ranged from 6.0x101 cfu/g in white wheat flour to 5.0 x102 cfu/g in buckwheat whole grain flour (DG18 medium. Eight fungal genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysonilia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Scopulariopsis and fifteen species were isolated. The largest number of species of molds was isolated from the genus Aspergillus. About 66.7% of isolated fungi belonged to potentially toxigenic species. The results pointed out the necessity of grain surface treatment, preceding the milling of grains in wheat, corn and whole grain buckwheat flour production.
Catarina Sri Budiyati
Full Text Available Colocasia esculentum (L Schott known as “Talas bogor” in Indonesian language is easily grown in every island in Indonesia. It proved to have high content of carbohydrate as it can be utilize for wheat flour replacement in addition to prior modification using hydrogen peroxide. The objective of this research was to improve the quality of taro flour by assessing the effect of several parameter such as ratio of slurry, oxidation agent concentration, oxidation time and temperature. The result shows that using ratio of slurry 20% with 2% of H2O2 concentration in temperature of oxidation process 30oC and 60 min operation time can produced good quality of modified taro tube flour in terms of swelling power and water solubility with 7.2 g/g and 6.93% respectively. This condition has chosen by taking the technical and economic feasibility as consideration. This result also can be used as proof of evidence that using H2O2 as an oxidizing agent in the process of taro tube flour modification can improve the functional properties of the flour. As the swelling power and water solubility of original taro tube flour were 3.7 g/g and 1.8% respectively.
Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia
The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Lady M. Salas-Valero
Full Text Available This work aims to (1 produce and characterize the flour obtained from two varieties of canihua, cupi and illpa-inia, and (2 evaluate the ability of these flours to form biofilms. The flours produced contain proteins, starches, lipids, organic substances containing phenol groups, and high percentages of unsaturated fatty acids. Films produced from the illpa variety presented lower water vapor permeability and larger Young’s modulus values than the films formed from the cupi variety. Both films were yellowish and displayed a high light blocking ability (as compared with polyethylene films, which can be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, they showed lesser solubility and water permeability than other polysaccharide ﬁlms, which may be the result of the higher protein (12%–13.8% and lipid (11% contents in canihua flours, as well as the formation of a larger number of S–S bonds. On the other hand, these films presented a single vitreous transition temperature at low temperatures (< 0 °C, crystallization of the A and Vh types, and an additional diffraction peak at 2 = 7.5º, ascribed to the presence of essential fatty acids in canihua flour. Canihua flour can form films with adequate properties and shows promise for potential applications in food packaging, because it acts as a good barrier to incident ultraviolet light.
Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J
Pine bark beetles rely on aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass attacks and thus reproduce in host trees. The structural similarity between many pheromone components and those of defensive tree resin led to early suggestions that pheromone components are metabolic derivatives of ingested precursors. This model has given way to our current understanding that most pheromone components are synthesized de novo. Their synthesis involves enzymes that modify products from endogenous metabolic pathways; some of these enzymes have been identified and characterized. Pheromone production is regulated in a complex way involving multiple signals, including JH III. This brief review summarizes progress in our understanding of this highly specialized metabolic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus. Organoleptic assesment was performed by 15 skilled pearson‘s panel. Moreover both in flours and breads protein, lipids, mineral compounds, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble fraction and β-glucans content were analyzed by AOAC methods.
Full Text Available A new aleocharine rove beetle, Pella glooscapi Klimaszewski & Majka, sp. n., from Nova Scotia, Canada, is described and illustrated. Data on bionomics and distribution are provided. A short diagnosis, description, colour body image, and black and white genital images are also provided. It appears to be closely related to P. criddlei (Casey. Pella loricata (Casey, Zyras obliquus (Casey, and Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz are newly recorded from Nova Scotia, and for Atlantic Canada as a whole.
Schachermayer, Walter; Talagrand, Michel; Bernard, Pierre
In World Mathematical Year 2000 the traditional St. Flour Summer School was hosted jointly with the European Mathematical Society. Sergio Albeverio reviews the theory of Dirichlet forms, and gives applications including partial differential equations, stochastic dynamics of quantum systems, quantum fields and the geometry of loop spaces. The second text, by Walter Schachermayer, is an introduction to the basic concepts of mathematical finance, including the Bachelier and Black-Scholes models. The fundamental theorem of asset pricing is discussed in detail. Finally Michel Talagrand, gives an overview of the mean field models for spin glasses. This text is a major contribution towards the proof of certain results from physics, and includes a discussion of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick and the p-spin interaction models.
Soybean flour,chick peas flour and lupines were irradiated at 0,5 and 10 kGy and individually used to replace 5,10 or 15% of wheat flour in shamy bread. The effect of supplementation of wheat flour with these legume flours on the major, chemical composition and nutritional quality of bread was studied. Results indicated that protein, ash and fiber contents of supplemented shamy bread were higher than the control. On the other hand, the amino acids of the shamy wheat bread supplemented irradiated legumes flour, improved the quality (water retention capacity, stailing rate and bread freshness) of bread
Nurharyati, Lisa; ', Suparmi; Sari, N Ira
This study aimed to determine the squid nugget formulation with the addition of pumpkin flour. It was evaluated for the organoleptic value and the proximate composition. The method used was an experimental method and designed as non-factorial completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments were addition of pumpkin flour into the mix, consisting of four levels, namely: N0 (without the addition of pumpkin flour), N1 (pumpkin flour 50 g), N2 (pumpkin flour 75 g) and N3 (pumpkin flour 100 g).B...
Yadav, Ritika B.; Yadav, Baljeet S.; Dhull, Nisha
Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144....
Full Text Available Noodle is one of the staple foods that are widely consumed and preferred by the Asian. However, wet noodles with modified cassava flour (mocaf substitution resulted in lower quality compared to 100% wheat noodle. Addition of a certain amount of konjac glucomannan (Amorphophallus oncophyllus flour to wet noodle is strongly recommended due to the fact that the food additive has a health benefit. Porang or konjac flour, which was used in the research, has soluble fiber properties, low calorie content, and highly viscous. It forms a heat stable gel with a mild alkali, interacts with starch, and has a synergistic interaction with kappa carrageenan. In this research, konjac flour was added to study the optimum combination between konjac and water. As much as 2, 4 and 6% (w/w of konjac flour were combined with 35, 40, 45% (v/w of water. The results showed that treatments with combinations of konjac flour and water were significantly contributing to characteristics of cooking time, cooking loss, color brightness index, tensile strength, swelling volume and water absorption. The best treatment was at a combination of 4% konjac (w/w and 35% water (v/w. The best porang noodles have the characteristics of cooking time at 2.13 minutes, cooking loss of 35%, tensile strength of 0.14 N, water absorption of 201.58%, color brightness index of 51.41, swelling volume of 103.63%, moisture content of 31.77%, protein content of 5.87%, fat content of 2.13%, ash content of 0.85% and crude dietary fiber of 4.58%.
Yao Chen; Jianmin Gao; Yongming Fan; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Nicole M. Stark
To investigate chemical and color changes of the polymeric constituents of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood during heat treatment, extractive-free wood flour was conditioned to 30% initial moisture content (MC) and heated for 24 h at 120 Â°C in either an oxygen or nitrogen atmosphere. The color change was measured using the CIELAB color system. Chemical changes...
Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J
Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.
Farzana, Tasnim; Mohajan, Suman
The research study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of soy-mushroom-enriched biscuits which could be used as a protein supplemented cereal snack food. In this study, wheat flour was replaced with soy flour at different levels that is 20% (T3), 15% (T2), and 10% (T1) and without soy flour was kept as control (To). Mushroom was added in both biscuits. Biscuits were analyzed for chemical and sensory parameters. Protein content of soy flour-supplemented biscuits increased from 11.07% to 17.86% as compared to control along with a significant increased in fat (17.36-20.89%), fiber (0.48-0.92%), iron (1.56-1.99 mg/100 g), and energy value (463-485 Kcal/g). Ash content also increased but not significantly. Results from chemical analyses and organoleptic evaluation indicate that good quality biscuits can be prepared by substituting wheat flour with 15% soy flour and addition of mushroom powders may affect the backing quality. Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) of the Bangladeshi population can be reduced through the development of biscuits in this way.
Full Text Available Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.
Javier E. Mercado; Richard W. Hofstetter; Danielle M. Reboletti; Jose F. Negron
During its life cycle, the tree-killing mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins interacts with phoretic organisms such as mites, nematodes, fungi, and bacteria. The types of associations these organisms establish with the mountain pine beetle (MPB) vary from mutualistic to antagonistic. The most studied of these interactions are those between beetle and...
Report of two trials conducted this summer for flea beetle management. The first one, conducted in the greenhouse, compares efficacy of native WI nematodes to chemical insecticides for flea beetle control. In this trial, nematodes provided similar control for flea beetles as both insecticides (Belay...
USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Northeastern Area; Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) has been discovered attacking trees in the United States. Tunneling by beetle larvae girdles tree stems and branches. Repeated attacks lead to dieback of the tree crown and, eventually, death of the tree. ALB probably traveled to the United States inside solid wood packing material from China. The beetle has been intercepted at ports...
G. M. Nahibasheva; Sh. M. Imanaliev
The article is devoted to studying of ground-beetles fauna of Nukatlinskiy watershed of Republic Dagestan. For the first time the specific structure of ground-beetles this area, the numbering 109 kinds concerning 31 sort is resulted. The analysis of sexual structure of populations and seasonal dynamics of activity ground-beetles is lead.
Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum
Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...
El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M
The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.
Full Text Available In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour. The nutrient content increased significantly (P≤0.05, protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P≤0.05 as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P≤0.05 from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P≤0.05 (10 to 20. The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.
Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of nineteen species of Long-horned Beetles (Cerambycidae and eleven species of Tortoise Beetles (Cassidinae from Tripura state, northeastern India. These include 11 species of Cerambycidae and seven species of Cassidinae, respectively, as new records from the state. Distribution of these beetles in different parts of the state are provided.
Coorey, Ranil; Tjoe, Audrey; Jayasena, Vijay
Healthy oil profile of chia has been well established. Chia could also be a good source of gel. The characteristics of chia gel were studied and compared to guar gum and gelatin which are commonly used in the food industry. The properties tested were water and oil holding capacities, viscosity, line-spread; emulsification activity and freeze-thaw stability. The extracted chia gels from seeds and flour were analyzed for moisture, ash, protein, crude fiber, oil, and fatty acid profile. Water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, viscosity, emulsion activity, and freeze-thaw stability of the extracted chia seed gel were similar to guar gum, and gelatin. Chia gel is a polysaccharide based gel mainly consists of crude fiber (58%) and carbohydrate (34%). Extracted chia seed gel has a great potential in food formulations as thickening agent, emulsifying agent, and as a stabilizer. Extracted chia seed gel has good water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity, viscosity, emulsion activity, and freeze-thaw ability. Chia seed gel has potential application in food formulation as a thickening agent, emulsifying agent, and as a stabilizer in frozen food product. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Full Text Available In the milling process a large number of milling streams are obtained. These fractions are usually combined into a single composite product, but it is possible to select for blending certain fractions to obtaining different types of flours. In this work the rheological behavior, of the industrial flours obtained in different extraction levels was analyzed using Mixolab and Alveograph devices. Our results showed that the flour extraction rate is an important factor influencing rheological behavior. When by the milling process were obtained two types of flour, the flour with high ash content presented higher values of C3, C4 and C5 torques compared to flour with lower ash content. Therefore, the quality of the white flour obtained from wheat milling at different extraction levels highly depends on the flour fractions that are selected for blending.
Awolu Olugbenga Olufemi
Full Text Available Composite flour comprising cocoyam (Colocassia esculenta, bambara groundnut and cassava starch was produced. The proximate and minerals compositions and functional properties were optimized using optimal mixture design of response surface methodology. The antinutritional, pasting and farinograph analyses of the optimum blends were evaluated. Bambara groundnut improved protein, fibre, ash and minerals contents; cassava starch improved swelling capacity, least gelation and pasting characteristics. The optimum blends CBC1 (70% cocoyam flour, 18.33% bambara groundnut flour, 11.67% cassava starch and CBC2 (69.17% cocoyam flour, 16.67% bambara groundnut flour, 14.17% cassava starch. were comparable to wheat–based flour samples (60% wheat, 30% cocoyam, 10% bambara groundnut flours and (72% wheat, 19% cocoyam, 9% bambara groundnut flours in terms of pasting and farinograph analyses.
Abiodun Adekunle Olapade
Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were processed into flours and used to substitute wheat flour for preparation of cookies. The chemical, including proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors, and functional and pasting properties of the blends were determined. Cookies were produced from the blends with 100% wheat flour as a control. The anti-nutritional factors, physical properties and organoleptic attributes of the cookies were evaluated. An increase in the level of cassava flour substitution resulted in a decrease in the protein content of the composite flour. However, addition of cowpea flour resulted in an increase in the protein content. There were significant (p<0.05 reductions in the studied anti-nutritional factors after baking. Cookies from composite flours were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the control in overall acceptability. This indicates the feasibility of producing nutritious cookies with desirable organoleptic qualities from cassava, wheat and cowpea composite flour.
Rai, Sweta; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Baljit; Minhas, K S
Rice (Oryza sativa) flour and maize (Zea mays) meal substitution in wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour, from 0 to 100% each, for the production of bread was investigated. The proximate analysis, pasting properties, bread making qualities of raw materials and sensory evaluation of the bread samples were determined. The pasting temperature increased with increased percentage of rice flour and maize meal. But the other pasting characters decreased with the higher proportion of rice flour. The baking absorption was observed to increase with higher level of maize meal but it decreased when level of rice flour was increased. Loaf weight (g) decreased with progressive increase in the proportion of maize meal but increased when rice flour incorporation was increased. Loaf volume, loaf height and specific volume decreased for progressively higher level of maize meal and rice flour. The sensory evaluation revealed that 25% replacement of wheat flour was found to be more acceptable than control sample.
Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.
Rosado, Jorge L; Cassís, Lorena; Solano, Lourdes; Duarte-Vázquez, Miguel A
Iron, zinc, and vitamin B complex are among the most prevalent nutritional deficiencies in Mexico, with iron deficiency being the leading cause of anemia. Mexico has the highest per capita consumption of corn in the world, consumed mainly as tortilla. Thus, corn flour for making tortillas has been suggested as an effective strategy to overcome malnutrition in developing countries such as Mexico where corn is a staple food. The stability of micronutrients added to food is an important factor for the success of fortification programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of corn flour fortified with micronutrients, and to measure the effect of micronutrient fortification on the sensory quality and stability of the fortificants in fresh and stored tortilla. A commercially homogenized nonfortified corn flour (NCFC) produced from degermed white corn was fortified with a premix containing iron, zinc, thiamin, and riboflavin. Changes in thiamin, riboflavin, iron, and zinc content in fortified corn flour (FCF) and nonfortified corn flour (NFCF) during storage were investigated. Vitamin B1 and B2 content was determined by fluorescence spectroscopy while iron and zinc content was analyzed by atomic absorption. Thiamin content in FCF and NFCF showed a significant (p flour into tortillas. Storage time slightly affected the stability of riboflavin and thiamin in FCF while the cooking process produced considerable losses of both vitamins. Tortillas made from FCF were well accepted by Mexican adults. We conclude that the addition of vitamins and minerals in the forms and quantities used in this study do not modify the shelf-life of corn flour, and neither do they cause sensorial changes in tortillas made from FCF.
E. I. Ponomareva
Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people
Khouryieh, Hanna; Aramouni, Fadi
Flaxseed has many health benefits and is considered a functional food ingredient. Flaxseed flour (0-18%) was used to partially replace wheat flour in cookies and its effects on the physical and sensory characteristics of the cookies were investigated. A correlation analysis was conducted between the instrumental and sensory data. The cookie dough stickiness significantly (P cookies had the firmest texture, darkest color and lowest water activity. The 18% flaxseed cookies had the greatest spread ratio. However, this resulted in cookies of unacceptable quality properties. In consumer acceptance tests, cookies made with 6% and 12% flaxseed flour had the highest rating among all sensory attributes, while the 18% flaxseed cookies had the lowest sensory scores. The flavor attribute was most highly correlated with the overall acceptability (r = 0.90). Results indicated that flaxseed flour can be incorporated in cookies as a partial replacement up to 12% of wheat flour without negatively affecting the physical and sensory quality. The correlation results suggest that the flaxseed flavor attributes best predict consumer preference for overall acceptability, though texture and color attributes also contribute. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipmoea batatas I. is one the carbohydrate sources in indonesia that can be used both for food and industry purposes. To support the utilization of sweet potato as flour, it is imperative to develop a drying system that can improve its quality. A preliminary study using an improved variety, namely Sari, was conducted to determine its floure thermal diffusivity ( , an imprortant parameter in developing drying process. The experiment was run according to Dickerson method using sweet potato flour at different levels of moisture content (5.05-5.97% wet basis and temperatures (23.7 -40.9 oC this method used an apparatus based on transient heat transfer condition requiring only a time- temperature data. At the levels of moisture and temperature studied, the thermal diffusivity of sweet potato flour could be expressed using a linear regression model, = 10-9 M.T + 9X 10-9( R2=0.9779. the average value of the thermal diffusivity sweet potato flour was 1.72 x 10-7 m2/s at a moisture level of 5.51 % wet basis and temperature of 29.58 oC. Similar studies are needed for different varieties or cultivars of sweet potato as well at a wide range of moisture content and temperature content and temperature levels.
Ana Vânia Carvalho
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a pre-gelatinized flour using a mixture of broken rice and split beans by thermoplastic extrusion, and to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and technological quality of the final product. The extrusion parameters were maintained using three heating zones with temperatures of 30 ºC, 40 ºC, and 70 ºC; screw speed of 177 rpm; feed rate of 257 g/m, and circular matrix of 3.85 mm. The following characterization analyses were performed: physicochemical, nutritional, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI, and paste viscosity. The pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour had an intermediate value of WAI, 7.51 g/g, and high WSI value, 24.61%. Regarding proteins, it was verified an average content of 12.9% in the final product. The amino acid contents found in the pre-gelatinized flour indicate that the mixture has the essential amino acids. It was also found that the pre-gelatinized flour supplies more than 60% of the essential amino acids recommended for children aged one to three years old. The gelatinized flour composed of broken rice and split beans is an alternative to the use of these by-products of the manufacture process of rice and beans to obtain a product with viable technological characteristics and high nutritional value.
Cody, T L; Olabi, A; Pettingell, A G; Tong, P S; Walker, J H
The effects of varying concentrations (2, 4, and 6%) of 2 types of rice flours (RF 1 and RF 2) on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of vanilla ice cream samples were assessed at different fat levels (0, 4, and 10%) and storage conditions (control vs. heat-shocked). Fat and total solids were measured as well as hardness, viscosity, and melting rate. Eight trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0 and 7 wk. The 2% rice flour level and to a certain extent the 4% usage level generally improved texture while affecting to a lesser extent the flavor characteristics of the samples compared with the control. The RF 2 generally had a more significant effect than RF 1, especially on the texture attributes. Although the rice flour reduced the negative impact of temperature abuse on textural properties, the samples still deteriorated in textural properties (more icy) under temperature abuse conditions. In addition, rice starch does lower perceived sweetness and can have a "flour flavor" at high usage levels. The use of rice flour appears to be most advantageous for low fat ice cream samples.
A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.
Full Text Available A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes, situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.
Alfani, NNA; Ishartani, D.; Anam, C.; Praseptiangga, D.; Manuhara, G. J.
The objective of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of seasoning composite flour that made from white sweet potato, rice, and tapioca flours, and determined the best formula of seasoning composite flour. A completely randomized design (CRD) with formula as the single factor was used. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA method and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance 5% if there was a significant difference. The best formula of seasoning composite flour was 30% tapioca flour, 30% rice flour, and 40% white sweet potato flour. The physical characteristics of the best formula were 5.689 ml/g of swelling power, 2.681 g/g of water absorption capacity, 0.887 ml/g of oil absorption capacity, and 22.03% cooking loss. Physical characteristics of the best seasoning composite flour were significantly different from the commercial seasoning flour and showed a better cooking loss, oil absorption capacity, and swelling power than commercial seasoning flour.
... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.30 Section 406.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.30 Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling...
... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.40 Section 406.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.40 Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling...
and height and analysis of variance was performed. Number of shoots proliferating and shoot height from cultures on medium gelled with cassava flour was the lowest. This was attributed to the degradation of the cassava flour gel after two weeks. Performance of the cassava flour mixed with 3.5 g/L agar gel was better than ...
The potential of a tissue culture medium gelled with cassava flour to support shoot proliferation of stem nodal sections of Uapaca kirkiana and Faidherbia albida was studied. A two factorial experiment was conducted with the first factor as type of gelling agent (80 g/L cassava flour; 80 g/L cassava flour mixed with 3.5 g/L ...
Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit
Grain activation is a natural processing technique that can be used to produce modified flours without chemical modification. Functional characteristics of brown rice flour as influenced by grain activation time and temperatures were investigated. Germination temperatures at 25 ℃, 30 ℃ and 35 ℃ and time for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h significantly influenced the functional properties of flour with modification of starch, protein and high enzymatic activity. Significant decrease in the bulk density, water absorption and swelling power of brown rice flour was observed in comparison to non-germinated flour. Gel consistency and oil absorption capacity of brown rice flour increased as the grain activation time and temperature were increased. Native flour had lowest emulsion and foaming properties, while increase in grain activation time and temperature enhanced the emulsifying and foaming properties of flour. Paste clarity of native flour was 54% which was reduced to 25.17%; however, increase in germination time and temperature increased the % synersis values of germinated flour. Native flour had least gelation concentration of 12% which increased to 25% after 48 h of germination at 35 ℃. Overall, germination can be used as a natural way to modify the functional properties of brown rice flours for their utilization in variety food products.
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour... defatted cooked cottonseed flour. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour is a product prepared as follows: Food quality cottonseed is delinted and decorticated; the...
Kim, Mi Jeong; Kim, Sang Sook
The purpose of this study was to investigate the utilisation of immature wheat flour (IWF) as an alternative flour with antioxidant activity. Antioxidant properties and phenolic acid compositions of IWF and IWF madeleine were compared with those of commercial wheat flour (WF) and WF madeleine. Consumer perception of madeleine was studied using a blind test followed by an informed test, which provided information on antioxidant properties of flours. The bound ferulic acid in IWF (5.54mg/100g) was seven times higher than that in WF (0.74mg/100g). Oxygen radical absorbance capacity of IWF (34.47µmol TE/g) and IWF madeleine (14.63µmol TE/g) were higher than those of WF. The results of blind test showed that consumer acceptability and willingness to pay (WTP) of IWF madeleine were lower than those of WF madeleine. However, about 25% of consumers preferred IWF madeleine, implying small niche market for IWF as alternative flour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.
Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.
the aim this work is to study the effectiveness of radio treatment and its effect on the conservation of flour and their various parameters (physico-chemical and rheological). The flour has been treated with different doses (0, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 kGy), physico-chemical, rheological, microbiological and sensory analyses were made.The results show that the irradiation as a treatment for decontamination gave a highly effective. Indeed, a dose of 1.5 kGy allows a total destruction of yeasts and molds. Thus, from the point of view physico-chemical, increasing the dose of radiation causes a change in physical and chemical properties and rheological of flour. for the characteristics of bread, increasing the dose of radiation affects the quality of bread. (Author). 38 refs
Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria
Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. PMID:24329609
Salazar, D. M.; Naranjo, M.; Pérez, L. V.; Valencia, A. F.; Acurio, L. P.; Gallegos, L. M.; Alvarez, F. C.; Amancha, P. I.; Valencia, M. P.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Arancibia, M. Y.
Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru are countries with the highest amount of quinoa production in the world due to the proximity to the Andes. Further, Ecuador has a high production of dairy products, particularly fresh cheese of which production gives a high volume of whey, without further use, with the consequent loss of their nutritional value. The present study was performed to develop a new fortified bread through the incorporation of quinoa flour and whey at three different concentrations. The use of quinoa and whey improved the texture, shelf life and sensory characteristics of bread, compared to those prepared with wheat flour. This study shows the potential of quinoa flour and whey as ingredients in the development of baked products.
Distributional new data are provided for several interesting or poorly known tiger beetle species from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The generic attribution of Wallacedela brendelli Cassola, 1991, is confirmed, and moreover two new species, Wallacedela? problematica spec. nov. and Wallacedela butonensis
Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth
Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Many of these compounds already have been shown to elicit behavioral responses from bark beetles, functioning as attractants or repellents, often as synergists to compounds currently used in bark beetle control. Thus, these compounds could serve as valuable new agents for bark beetle management. However, bark beetle associations with fungi are very complex. Beetle behavior varies with the species of fungus, the stage of the beetle life cycle, the host tree quality, and probably with changes in the emission rate of fungal volatiles. Additional research on bark beetles and their symbiotic associates is necessary before the basic significance of ophiostomatoid fungal volatiles can be understood and their applied potential realized.
Angela Khristin Brown
Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.
Grimm, Kirsten A; Sullivan, Kevin M; Alasfoor, Deena; Parvanta, Ibrahim; Suleiman, Ali Jaffer Mohammed; Kaur, Meenu; Al-Hatmi, Fatima Obaid; Ruth, Laird J
Iron deficiency is estimated to impact more than 1.6 billion individuals worldwide, affecting child, maternal, and perinatal mortality. Iron supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are strategies to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency. However, there are relatively few studies demonstrating the effectiveness of iron-fortified wheat flour as an intervention. To assess the relationship between average monthly per capita household consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour and iron deficiency among women of childbearing age in Oman. Data were obtained from the National Micronutrient Status and Fortified Food Coverage Survey, 2004. Iron deficiency status was compared between women living in households with a monthly per capita consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour of 1 kg or more and women living in households with a monthly per capita consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour of less than 1 kg. The analyses excluded women with elevated or unknown levels of C-reactive protein and controlled for characteristics of the women and household demographics. Consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour was associated with a lower prevalence of iron deficiency among women in our sample (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60), after controlling for age, employment status, marital status, intake of iron or multivitamin supplements, self-reported presence of a blood disorder, household income, educational level of head of household, and family size. These results suggest that women in our study living in households with a greater consumption of iron-fortified wheat flour have a lower prevalence of iron deficiency; however, additional study is needed.
Crowe, Samuel J; Bottichio, Lyndsay; Shade, Lauren N; Whitney, Brooke M; Corral, Nereida; Melius, Beth; Arends, Katherine D; Donovan, Danielle; Stone, Jolianne; Allen, Krisandra; Rosner, Jessica; Beal, Jennifer; Whitlock, Laura; Blackstock, Anna; Wetherington, June; Newberry, Lisa A; Schroeder, Morgan N; Wagner, Darlene; Trees, Eija; Viazis, Stelios; Wise, Matthew E; Neil, Karen P
In 2016, a multijurisdictional team investigated an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroup O121 and O26 infections linked to contaminated flour from a large domestic producer. A case was defined as infection with an outbreak strain in which illness onset was between December 21, 2015, and September 5, 2016. To identify exposures associated with the outbreak, outbreak cases were compared with non-STEC enteric illness cases, matched according to age group, sex, and state of residence. Products suspected to be related to the outbreak were collected for STEC testing, and a common point of contamination was sought. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on isolates from clinical and food samples. A total of 56 cases were identified in 24 states. Univariable exact conditional logistic-regression models of 22 matched sets showed that infection was significantly associated with the use of one brand of flour (odds ratio, 21.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.69 to 94.37) and with tasting unbaked homemade dough or batter (odds ratio, 36.02; 95% CI, 4.63 to 280.17). Laboratory testing isolated the outbreak strains from flour samples, and whole-genome sequencing revealed that the isolates from clinical and food samples were closely related to one another genetically. Trace-back investigation identified a common flour-production facility. This investigation implicated raw flour as the source of an outbreak of STEC infections. Although it is a low-moisture food, raw flour can be a vehicle for foodborne pathogens.
Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas
Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this
Full Text Available This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera belonging to 92 families found and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monograic treatment (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997. The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of territory of the Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are also mentioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this
Burying beetles are carrion beetles and utilize dead animal carcasses for feeding : and reproductive efforts. They assist with decomposition, prevent the spread of disease, : and reduce the number of pest species. The largest species of carrion beetl...
Ciprian Nicolae POPA
Full Text Available This paper examined the effect of the addition of whole oat flour on dough farinographical parameters. In this regard, the successive amounts of 10 to 50% of whole oat flour were added to wheat flour type 550. For each experimental variants were performed farinographical analyzes. According to our results, the optimal proportion of whole oat flour that can be added to wheat flour, without adversely affecting technological parameters of dough, was 20%. At this amount, dough parameters: Development time (DT, Stability (ST and Farinograph Quality Number registered the best values.
Zulistiara, Juanidia; ', Syahrul; ', Sumarto
This research aimed to study the effect of Chlorella sp.different weight and to find out the optimum weigth of Chlorella sp. flour fortified into the nata. The method used was experimental, that was fortification of Chlorella sp. flour in the processing of nata. The design used was a non-factorial completely randomized design, consisted of 4 weigth levels, namely: no Chlorella sp. flour added (N1), added with 2 gs Chlorella sp. Flour (N2), 4 gs Chlorella sp. flour (N3) and 6 gs Chlorella sp. ...
奥田,弘枝; PONTE Jr.,J. G.
The first report was an examination of the effects on baking quality for bread when glutinous rice flour was added to the ingredients. It was possible to make bread with a good flavor and a glutinous rice flour-oriented texture by adding glutinous rice flour. But when the effects on bread with the proportion of glutinous rice flour increased from 5% to 20% were examined, the loaf volume and loaf specific volume decreased markedly as the added volume of glutinous rice flour increased. So in or...
Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Akanbi, Charles T
The effect of gamma irradiation at various doses (5, 10, 15, 20 kGy) was observed on pigeon pea flour stored for 3 months on proximate composition, functional properties, and peroxide value. Sensory evaluation was also carried out on bean cake (moinmoin) made from nonirradiated and irradiated pigeon pea flour. The results showed that stored gamma-irradiated samples had significantly lower (P pigeon pea flour showed no significant difference from the moinmoin sample prepared from nonirradiated flour. It can be concluded that gamma irradiation can extend the shelf life of pigeon pea flour.
Bouza, R.; Barral, L.; Abad, M. J.; Montero, B.
The effects of Pinus Sylvestris wood flour as filler in polypropylene matrix was evaluated. The mechanical properties and the morphology of different wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPC) were studied. The composites materials were prepared with several amounts of wood flour from 10 to 30% wt. Mechanical properties show that the wood flour incorporation increases the rigidity of the composites. Morphological analysis indicates that agglomerates are formed, with amounts exceeding 30% of wood flour. For the silane--treated composites, the dispersion of the filler into the polypropylene (PP) matrix improved. Shore D hardness of the composites is decreased with the addition of the coupling agent.
... who have had hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer or for pregnant women or nursing mothers. Black cohosh should not be confused with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) , which has different effects and may not be safe. Black cohosh has ...
Smith, Dena M; Marcot, Jonathan D
Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Michael E. Montgomery; Melody A. Keena
In 1995, we found our first Scymnus (Neopullus) lady beetle in China (Neopullus is a subgenus of Scymnus, the largest genus in the family Coccinellidae). At that time there were just a few known species in the subgenus and very little was known of their biology. By the end of the project, 14...
Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, M.; Bentz, B. J.; Bewick, S.; Lenhart, S. M.; Liebhold, A.
Roč. 407, OCT 21 (2016), s. 25-37 ISSN 0022-5193 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bistability * bark beetle * Dendroctonus ponderosae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519316301928
Joel D. McMillin; Christopher J. Fettig
Native tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are a natural component of forest ecosystems. Eradication is neither possible nor desirable and periodic outbreaks will occur as long as susceptible forests and favorable climatic conditions co-exist. Recent changes in forest structure and tree composition by natural processes and management...
The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...
John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear
This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...
C. Wayne Berisford
Hymenopterous parasitoids make up a significant portion of the natural enemy complex associated with the southern pine beetle (SPB). Collectively, parasitoids can affect the growth of individual SPB infestations and area populations by reducing the survival rates of developing SPB larval/pupal broods. A substantial body of information on parasitoids has been...
The dung beetle fauna of the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) occurring in the Laikipia District of Kenya was surveyed. A total of 79 species were found which are diagnosed, keyed, and known dung preferences discussed. Seven species are new records for Kenya, namely Allogymnopleurus ...
Jongsutjarittam, Ornpicha; Charoenrein, Sanguansri
The properties of waxy rice flour (WRF) and non-waxy rice flour (RF) were modified using an extrusion process with different feeding material moisture contents. WRF was more affected by the thermomechanical stress from extrusion; consequently, it had a lower glass transition temperature but higher water solubility index (WSI) indicating higher molecular degradation than extruded RF. The lower moisture content of the feeding flour caused more severe flour damage (coarser surface of the extruded flour) and lowered relative crystallinity compared to higher moisture content processing. Moreover, low moisture content processing led to complete gelatinization, whereas, partial gelatinization occurred in the higher moisture content extrusion. Consequently, the extruded flours had a lower peak viscosity and gelatinization enthalpy but a higher water absorption index and WSI than native flour. In conclusion, the rice flour type and the moisture content of the extrusion feeding flour affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded flour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A.; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; Zhong, Qixin; González-Soto, Rosalía A.
Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films
Saleh, Mohammed; Lee, Youngseung; Obeidat, Hayat
The effects of substituting wheat flour using fractions of blanched or nonblanched sweet potato flour on produced pasta functional characteristics were investigated. The use of sweet potato flour to replace fractions of wheat flour, regardless of blanching treatment, resulted in significant (p sweet potato flour and held at 55C resulted in 27% point increase in WHC compared to the control. Sweet potato flour was also contributed to the decrease in treatments pasting viscosities and in cooked pasta hardness. Cooked pasta hardness was significantly (p sweet potato flour replacements, respectively. Flow behavior index of wheat flour treatments containing fractions of sweet potato flour were fitted in a shear thinning model. Quality indices of pasta made using fractions of sweet potato were equivalent to or sometimes superior to that of the control sample. Results indicated the possible enhancement of pasta nutritional quality including firmness, cooking loss, and water uptake without impairing consumer acceptability. The use of sweet potato flour in pasta would enhance the nutritional and physicochemical properties of developed pasta and pasta products. Furthermore, since sweet potato is not cultivated most of the year; sweet potato flour pasta would be better utilized in food processing and is expected to enhance sweet potato consumption year around. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Yee-Madeira, Hernani [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-IPN, Edificio 9, U.P., ‘Adolfo López Mateos’ Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México, D. F. (Mexico); Zhong, Qixin [Department of Food science and Technology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); González-Soto, Rosalía A., E-mail: email@example.com [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)
Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films.
Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.
The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.
Yuliana, Neti; Nurdjanah, Siti; Setyani, Sri; Novianti, Dini
The use of locally grown crops such as sweet potato as raw material for composite flour is considered advantageous as it reduces the importation of wheat flour. However the use of native sweetpotato flour has drawback properties when applied in the food. This study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour through six methods of lactic fermentation (spontaneous, pickle brine, Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides, a mixed of Lb plantarum and Lc mesentereoides, and mixed of Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides and yeast) to increase its properties in composite flour. Composite flours were obtained after fermentation of sweet potato slices for 48h in the proportion of 50% sweet potatoes flour and 50% wheat flour. pH, moisture content, swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that the composite fermented flours had better properties than those of non fermented flour. Fermentation increased swelling power, moisture content, meanwhile, solubility, and pH, deacresed. Amylose leaching, however, was not significantly affected by the fermentation process.
Yao Chen; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Nicole M. Stark
To investigate the role of extractives on heat-induced discoloration of wood, samples of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) wood flour were extracted with various solvents prior to heat-treatment. Analysis of their color parameters and chromophoric structures showed that the chroma value of the unextracted sample decreased while that of the...
Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz
The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses
Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae).
Steinkraus, Donald C; Hajek, Ann E; Liebherr, Jim K
Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence. Of the beetles collected, 281 (63%) were males and 165 (37%) were females. A total of 90 beetles were infected with E. lampyridarum, an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Prevalence in males was 19.6% (n=55 infected/281 males total) and prevalence in females was 21.2% (n=35 infected /165 females total). Conidia were produced from 57% of the infected beetles, 23% of the infected beetles produced resting spores, and 20% contained the hyphal body stage. Infected beetles produced either conidia or resting spores but never both in the same host. Post-mortem morphological changes in the hosts due to E. lampyridarum were observed periodically for 24h. Shortly before death, by unknown mechanisms, dying infected beetles tightly clamped their mandibles into flower heads and ca. 15-22h later (between 2400 and 0700h) the fungus caused dead beetles to raise their elytra and expand their metathoracic wings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The possibility of using NIR spectroscopy technology to detect kojic acid (KA) added in wheat flour was studied. Three common types of white flour samples, i.e. high-gluten flour, plain flour and low-gluten flour were added with different contents of KA (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0%, 5.0%, and 10.0%) resp...
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination. Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination.
Simons, Courtney W; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Mendis, Mihiri; Heck, Taylor; Ogunyemi, Samuel
Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. In this study, pinto, navy and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The compositions of raw flours and extrudates were characterized. Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different, while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198-217 g kg(-1)) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg(-1) and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipid and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs support using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
nutritional quality of tapioca meal and thus a complete meal was obtained from this fortification. Such meal can be ... industrial use, mostly as starch(6%) or animal feed (19%) and 10% lost as waste (Fish and Trim, 1993). ... be processed to a variety of products such as soy flour, soy milk, soy yoghurt, soy cake, soy meal, etc.
Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...
The crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract and ash contents of the soy supplemented breads (SSBs) increased with progressive increase in the proportion of soy flour, with the 15% SSB having highest values of 8.39, 0.14, 2.46 and 1.17%, respectively, while lowest values were recorded for the whole wheat bread (WWB).
This paper is a review of how consumption of bread, other leavened products and unleavened products made from wheat flour has increased rapidly in Nigeria and other developing countries. It examines how this has resulted in large scale importation of wheat and the consequent drain on the nation's foreign currency ...
SUMMARY: The object of the study was to determine diet combinations consisting of soybean flour, whey powder and colostrum that can be em- ... of the liquid diets varied from l0 to 2A9;, the whey powder content from 40 to 609oand the colostrum content from 20 to 509e, on a dry mass ..... Although pancreatic iuice flow.
The composite flours were used to bake breads. The quality of the bread samples evaluated were loaf volume, specific volume, crumb moisture and moisture retention, external and internal appearance, and sensory properties. In wheat bread, the control had 458cm3 and 2.81cm3g-1 loaf and specific volumes respectively ...
Grain protein content (GPC) and flour whiteness degree (FWD) are important qualitative traits in common wheat. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for GPC and FWD was conducted using a set of ... The objectives of present study were to identify QTLs con- ... their parents were planted in a randomized block design in.
The results showed that water binding capacity, solubility and swelling power affect the overall quality of pasta. Pasta made from sweetpotato composite flour was too brittle and crumbled easily when pressed between the fingers. Pasta made from 50% cassava (Abasafita)/50% hard wheat performed better and showed no ...
Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological and sensory ...
Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves
Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.
Background: Gurundi is a popular snack among the school-age children in Oyo town and it is produced by mixing wheat flour with coconut water, grated coconut and sugar. However, gurundi is a carbohydrate food which will be more beneficial to the consumers if its protein content is improved with locally available and ...
Using an LC-MS method in conjunction with two complementary types of chromatographic retention modes—namely reversed phase and aqueous normal phase (ANP)—various compounds present in mesquite flour extracts were identified. Because of the diverse types of chemical constituents found in such natural ...
The study focused on the level of adoption of high quality bambara flour (HQBF) processing technology and its impact on end-users. A random sample of 100 women, mainly bambara processors, was selected from Gushiegu/Karaga, Tolon Kumbungu, Savelugu-Nanton, and Tamale districts of the Northern Region of ...
Sousa, Sérgio; Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, César; Gião, Maria; Pereira, Claúdia; Tavaria, Freni; Malcata, F Xavier; Gomes, Ana; Bertoldo Pacheco, M T; Pintado, Manuela
The objective of this research work was to investigate the antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon tuber flour. The results revealed for the first time the high antioxidant activity of sterilized yacon flour. The best extract obtained by boiling 8.9% (w/v) of yacon flour in deionised water for 10 min exhibited a total antioxidant capacity of 222±2 mg (ascorbic acid equivalent)/100 g DW and a total polyphenol content of 275±3 mg (gallic acid equivalent)/100 g DW associated to the presence of four main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid, as well as the amino acid tryptophan. The most abundant was chlorogenic acid, followed by caffeic acid. Biological assays revealed that the extract had indeed antioxidant protection, and no pro-oxidant activity. In conclusion, sterilized yacon tuber flour has the potential to be used in the food industry as a food ingredient to produce functional food products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fermented cassava flour was obtained from Yace variety. Cassava roots were washed, peeled and ground. After adding cassava inoculums at 8% (m/m), the pulp was allowed to ferment for 72 hours at ambient temperature. The fermented dough was removed, squeezed and oven-dried for 48 hours at 55 °C. The dried ...
produce bread. This study was carried out to assess the effect of using two differently processed cassava flour (fermented and unfermented) and substitution level on proximate ... to improve the bread characteristics from different cassava processing methods and assessing ..... Tobago. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching.
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
Oct 2, 2013 ... using 60 g L-1 of glucose as the carbon source and 34 gL-1 of earthworm flour as the nitrogen source. Weissella confusa ... the EF and EF + YE substrates, and final concentrations of 1.36 and 1.47 g L-1 were obtained, respectively. ..... on growth of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri. Biochem.
Ogungbenle, H N
The proximate analysis, evaluation of nutritionally valuable minerals, sugars, chemical properties of the oil and functional properties of the seed flour of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) were studied. The results showed that the quinoa flour contained 11.2% moisture, 13.5% crude protein, 6.3% ether extract, 9.5% crude fibre, 1.2% total ash and 58.3% carbohydrate. The quinoa has a high proportion of D-xylose (120.0 mg in 100 g sample) and maltose (101.0 mg in 100 g sample), and a low content of glucose (19.0 mg in 100 g sample) and fructose (19.6 mg in 100 g sample), suggesting that it would be useful in malted drink formulations. The values for the chemical properties of the oil extracted were: acid value, 0.50%; iodine value, 54.0%; peroxide value, 2.44%; and saponification value, 192.0%. Quinoa has a high water absorption capacity (147.0%) and low foaming capacity and stability (9.0%, 2.0%). The flour has a least gelation concentration of 16% w/v. Protein solubility of the flour was also evaluated and found to be pH dependent, with minimum solubility at about pH 6.0.
Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 95; Issue 2. Molecular genetic analysis of grain protein content and flour whiteness degree using RILs in common wheat. XIANYIN SUN KE WU YAN ZHAO ZHAOGUO QIAN FANMEI KONG YING GUO YINGYING WANG SISHEN LI. RESEARCH ARTICLE Volume 95 Issue 2 ...
Proanthocyanidins (PA) crosslink proteins and could expand wheat gluten functionality. Effect PA MW profile (sorghum versus grape seed PA) on rheology of flours with different gluten composition (high versus low insoluble polymeric protein, IPP) was evaluated using mixograph, large (TA.XT2i) and sm...
A study was conducted in Imo and Ebonyi states to determine the influence of cultural factors in the utilization of the sweet potato flour for confectionery. Imo and Ebonyi States were purposively selected. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit data from respondents. Data collected were analyzed and presented using ...
Yao Chen; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark; Yongming Fan; Rebecca E. Ibach
To investigate the effect of extractives and lignin on the thermal stability of wood flour (WF), thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine thermal degradation behavior of extracted and delignified mixed pine WF. The contribution of lignin to thermal stability was greater than that of extractives. Removing extractives resulted in improved thermal stability by...
Grain protein content (GPC) and flour whiteness degree (FWD) are important qualitative traits in common wheat. Quantitativetrait locus (QTL) mapping for GPC and FWD was conducted using a set of 131 recombinant-inbred lines derived fromthe cross 'Chuan 35050. ×Shannong 483' in six environmental conditions. A total ...
Full Text Available Mass outbreaks of the black fir sawyer M. urussovi regularly occur in forest stands dominated by Siberian fir Abies sibirica; outbreaks have been observed only on fir and exclusively in Siberia, although the beetle is also found in the vast territory including Finland, Poland, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, China, Russian Far East and Japan. A closely related common species M. sutor has never produced outbreaks; its larvae have been registered only in Scots pine. Feeding preferences of the two species were compared under experimental conditions; total numbers of tested specimens were 132 (M. urussovi and 40 (M. sutor. M. sutor beetles were caught in nature, M. urussovi pupas and young adults were collected from fir trunks; pupas were reared to beetles. Each beetle was placed into a covered plastic enclosure for 24 hours and offered cut shoots of fir, spruce, Siberian pine, Scots pine, larch, birch and willow; all cuts were of the same length and diameter, needles and leaves had been previously removed. Beetles of the two species showed different feeding preference. M. sutor imagoes completely ignored fir shoots, definitely preferring Scots pine. M. urussovi feeding behavior was different: beetles did consume bark, bast and cambium of fir. However, they were mainly fed on Scots pine shoots. Feeding preference given to Scots pine by beetles grown in fir trunks can be explained by the hypothesis that this species originated on pine. Mass outbreaks of M. urussovi in Siberian fir-dominated forest ecosystems occur, because these plant communities are historically young (evidently much less than 10 000 years and yet unbalanced, transitional sort of ecosystems, so fir did not have enough evolutionary time to get adapted to injure by the sawyer and Ophiostoma fungi carried by beetles.
Page, Elena H; Dowell, Chad H; Mueller, Charles A; Biagini, Raymond E; Heederik, Dick
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a study to determine prevalences of sensitization to bakery-associated antigens (BAAs) and work-related respiratory symptoms at a large commercial bakery. The following measurements were carried out: personal breathing zone (PBZ) and general area (GA) monitoring for inhalable flour dust, α-amylase and wheat, a questionnaire, and blood tests for IgE specific to flour dust, wheat, α-amylase, and common aeroallergens. Of 186 bakery employees present during our site visit, 161 completed the questionnaire and 96 allowed their blood to be drawn. The geometric mean PBZ and GA inhalable flour dust concentrations for the lower-exposure group was 0.235 mg/m(3), and for the higher-exposure group was 3.01 mg/m(3). Employees in the higher-exposure group had significantly higher prevalences of work-related wheezing, runny nose, stuffy nose, and frequent sneezing than the lower-exposure group. The prevalence of IgE specific to wheat was significantly higher among employees who ever had a job in the higher-exposure group or in production at another bakery at both the ≥ 0.10 kU/L and the ≥ 0.35 kU/L cutoffs, and to flour dust and α-amylase at the ≥ 0.10 kU/L cutoff, compared to the lower-exposure group. Despite knowledge of the risks of exposure to flour being available for centuries, U.S. employees are still at risk of sensitization and respiratory symptoms from exposure to high levels of BAA.
Barkley, Jonathan S; Wheeler, Kathleen S; Pachón, Helena
The effectiveness of flour fortification in reducing anaemia prevalence is equivocal. The goal was to utilise the existing national-level data to assess whether anaemia in non-pregnant women was reduced after countries began fortifying wheat flour, alone or in combination with maize flour, with at least Fe, folic acid, vitamin A or vitamin B12. Nationally representative anaemia data were identified through Demographic and Health Survey reports, the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System database and other national-level nutrition surveys. Countries with at least two anaemia surveys were considered for inclusion. Within countries, surveys were excluded if altitude was not consistently adjusted for, or if the blood-draw site (e.g. capillary or venous) or Hb quantification method (e.g. HemoCue or Cyanmethaemoglobin) differed. Anaemia prevalence was modelled for countries that had pre- and post-fortification data (n 12) and for countries that never fortified flour (n 20) using logistic regression models that controlled for time effects, human development index (HDI) and endemic malaria. After adjusting for HDI and malaria, each year of fortification was associated with a 2.4% reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence (PR 0.976, 95% CI 0.975, 0.978). Among countries that never fortified, no reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence over time was observed (PR 0.999, 95% CI 0.997, 1.002). Among both fortification and non-fortification countries, HDI and malaria were significantly associated with anaemia (P,0.001). Although this type of evidence precludes a definitive conclusion, results suggest that after controlling for time effects, HDI and endemic malaria, anaemia prevalence has decreased significantly in countries that fortify flour with micronutrients, while remaining unchanged in countries that do not.
Full Text Available Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared by supplementing different proportions of cassava flour (CF and water chestnut flour (WCF blends (0–100% to wheat flour (WF were studied. Seven formulations of cookies were prepared from (a Control (100% WF, (b 30% WF, 35% WCF and 35% CF, (c 27% WF, 37.5% WCF and 37.5% CF, (d 20% WF, 40% WCF and 40% CF, (e 15% WF, 42.5% WCF and 42.5% CF, (f 10% WF, 45% WCF and 45% CF, and (g 0% WF, 50% WCF and 50% CF. Cookies were subjected to physical analysis (cookie diameter, cookie thickness, spread ratio, bulk volume, bulk density, breaking strength, and color analysis and evaluated for consumer acceptance by descriptive sensory analysis. Cookies prepared from water chestnut and cassava flour had low moisture content (5.63%, low fat (24.87%, higher spread ratio (8.148, decreased L, a and b values (dark color, and low breaking strength than control ones. Sensory evaluation established that cookies prepared from 50% WCF and 50% CF were more acceptable than cookies prepared from other formulations.
Clarissa Reschke Da Cunha
Full Text Available The mixture of Brazil nut flour and green banana flour can improve the nutritional value of school meals, allowing for the use of regional ingredients derived from family agriculture. This study aimed to assess the stability of porridge pre-mixtures made with Brazil nut flour and green banana flour during six months of storage. Two types of pre-mixture were evaluated: with and without milk powder. These mixtures were packed in polyethylene/metallized polyester film, vacuum-sealed, and stored at room temperature. The products were evaluated for physicochemical composition, and every 30 days for moisture content, water activity, titratable acidity, pH, peroxide value and acidity of the lipid phase, total and thermotolerant coliforms, yeasts and molds, and sensory acceptance. There was no difference between the mixtures for the parameters evaluated. Moisture content, water activity, acidity of the lipid phase, and the yeast and mold count increased with storage time. The growth of yeasts and molds was more pronounced after 90 days of storage, when water activity reached the limit of 0.60. Although both products had good sensory acceptance throughout the period of study, it is recommended that the shelf life does not exceed 90 days.
Full Text Available Food waste produced from fruits and vegetables processing plants possesses an important natural and valuable material in producing less expensive functional food due to the presence of several bioactive substances. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the nutritional composition, physical properties, and sensory quality of the control, wheat flour cookies substituted with 5, 10, and 15% pitaya peel flour (PPF. The proximate analyses results demonstrated that PPF-containing cookies had significantly higher ash, fiber, and carbohydrate content but lower moisture and protein than the control. Physical analyses results showed that cookies incorporated with PPF had higher diameter and spread ratio but lower crumb height than the control. Sensory evaluation results indicated that wheat flour partially substituted with PPF up to 15% level did not affect to the overall acceptability ratings of cookies by panelists. Thus it can be concluded that PPF can be partially substituted for wheat flour in cookies to improve the nutritional quality without affecting the sensory acceptability of composite cookies.
... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...
Cassidy R Gedling
Full Text Available For nearly 400 million years, insects and plants have been embattled in an evolutionary arms race. Insects have developed diverse feeding strategies and behaviors in an effort to circumvent and overcome an extensive collection of plant defense tactics. Sap-sucking insects often inject saliva into hosts plants, which contains a suite of effector proteins and even microbial communities that can alter the plant's defenses. Lacking salivary glands, leaf-feeding beetles represent an interesting group of phytophagous insects. Feeding beetles regurgitate onto leaf surfaces and it is thought that these oral secretions influence insect-plant interactions and even play a role in virus-vector specificity. Since the molecular and biological makeup of the regurgitant is virtually unknown, we carried out RNA sequencing and 16S rDNA analysis on a major soybean pest, Epilachna varivestis, to generate the first ever beetle "regurgitome" and characterize its microbiome. Interestingly, the regurgitant is comprised of a rich molecular assortment of genes encoding putative extracellular proteins involved in digestion, molting, immune defense, and detoxification. By carrying out plant inoculation assays, we reinforced the fundamental role of the regurgitant in beetle-borne virus specificity. Ultimately, these studies begin to characterize the importance of regurgitant in virus transmission and beetle-plant interactions.
Ellis, J D; Hepburn, H R; Ellis, A M; Elzen, P J
Increasing small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) density changes prison construction and guarding behaviour in European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). These changes include more guard bees per imprisoned beetle and the construction of more beetle prisons at the higher beetle density. Despite this, the number of beetles per prison (inmate density) did not change. Beetles solicited food more actively at the higher density and at night. In response, guard bees increased their aggressive behaviour towards beetle prisoners but did not feed beetles more at the higher density. Only 5% of all beetles were found among the combs at the low density but this percentage increased five-fold at the higher one. Successful comb infiltration (and thus reproduction) by beetles is a possible explanation for the significant damage beetles cause to European honeybee colonies in the USA.
Moustafa, M.A.M.; Vlasák, Josef; Sehnal, František
Roč. 140, č. 4 (2016), s. 277-286 ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa * biocontrol * toxicity modulation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016
Mostafa, Moataz; Vlasák, Josef; Sehnal, František
Roč. 137, č. 9 (2013), s. 684-692 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI91A229; GA MZe QH71290 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringensis * biocontrol * Cry3Aa Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.701, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jen.12054/pdf
Yamauchi, Hiromasa; Harada, Masami; Miyanoshita, Akihiro
Tribolium castaneum, a pest of stored grain, has a uniform morphology, preventing the visual identification of strains from different areas. Polymorphisms in the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genes of this species were examined, and combined into seven haplotypes among the test insect specimens originating from Japan, Thailand, and Canada. These results suggested the potential for geographical differentiation.
Olugbenga Olufemi Awolu
Full Text Available Optimisation of composite flour comprising pearl millet, kidney beans and tigernut with xanthan gum was evaluated for rheological evaluations. The functional properties of the composite flour were optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology. The optimum blends, defined as blends with overall best functional characteristics were run 3 (75.956% pearl millet, 17.692% kidney beans, 6.352% tigernut flours, run 7 (85.000% pearl millet, 10.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours and run 13 (75.000% pearl millet, 20.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours. The pasting characteristics and rheological evaluation of the optimized blends were further evaluated in rapid visco units (RVU. Run 7 had the overall best pasting characteristics; peak viscosity (462 RVU, trough (442 RVU, breakdown viscosity (20 RVU, final viscosity (975 RVU, setback (533 RVU, peak time (5.47 min and pasting temperature (89.60 °C. These values were found to be better than several composite flours consisting mixture of wheat and non-wheat crops. In addition, the rheological characteristics (measured by Mixolab showed that run 7 is the best in terms of dough stability, swelling, water absorption and shelf stability. Composite flour with 85% pearl millet flour in addition to kidney beans and tigernut flours could therefore serve as a viable alternative to 100% wheat flour in bread production.
Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like В1, С1 and С4.
Vu, Thanh-Hien; Bean, Scott; Hsieh, Chao-Feng; Shi, Yong-Cheng
Heat-moisture treatment (HMT) has been used to modify properties of sorghum starches. However, information is limited on the effects of HMT on the digestibility of starch and the concurrent changes in protein in sorghum flour. The objectives of this research were to identify heat-moisture conditions to increase the resistant starch (RS) content of sorghum flour and investigate changes in sorghum proteins and starch structure. Sorghum flours with different moisture contents (0, 125, 200, and 300 g kg -1 w.b.) were heated at three temperatures (100, 120 and 140 °C) and times (1, 2 and 4 h). HMT of sorghum flour increased its RS level. The flour treated at 200 g kg -1 moisture and 100 °C for 4 h had a high RS content (221 g kg -1 vs. 56 g kg -1 for the untreated flour). Starch was not gelatinized when sorghum flours heated at moisture content of 200 g kg -1 or below. Sorghum protein digestibility and solubility decreased during HMT. The increase in RS of sorghum flour upon HMT was attributed to enhanced amylose-lipid complexes and heat induced structural changes in its protein fraction. HMT can be used to increase RS content in sorghum flour without gelatinizing its starch, thereby providing sorghum flour with unique food applications. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Marraccini, P; Brass, D M; Hollingsworth, J W; Maruoka, S; Garantziotis, S; Schwartz, D A
Baker's asthma is one of the most commonly reported occupational lung diseases in countries where fresh bread is baked daily in large quantities, and is characterized by rhinitis, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reversible airflow obstruction. Epidemiological studies have identified pre-existing atopy as an important risk factor for developing baker's asthma, yet the aetiology and pathogenesis of baker's asthma remain poorly understood. We sought to develop a mouse model of baker's asthma that could be used to characterize the development and progression of baker's asthma. We were unable to sensitize mice to bakery flour dust or flour dust extract. We assessed total inflammatory cells, cellular differential, total serum IgE and the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to oropharyngeally instilled bakery flour dust or flour dust extract by itself or in the context of ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge. Both bakery flour dust and flour dust extract consistently elicited a neutrophilic inflammation in a Toll-like receptor 4-independent manner; suggesting that endotoxin is not playing a role in the inflammatory response to flour dust. Moreover, bakery flour dust and dust extract significantly enhance the inflammatory response in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. Bakery flour dust and flour dust extract are strongly pro-inflammatory and can cause non-allergic airway inflammation and can enhance allergen-mediated airway inflammation.
Marina Leopoldina Lamounier
Full Text Available The aim was to perform the physicochemical characterization of the flour from the bark of jabuticaba, as well as developing three ice cream formulations (enriched with 0, 5 and 10% of this flour and evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were pulped, the peels were dehydrated, dried, crushed and sieved to obtain the flour that was analyzed for physicochemical levels. Then, three ice cream formulations were developed (with 0%, 5% and 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, considering the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that the flour from the bark of jabuticaba showed high ash and fiber. The ice creams showed differences (p < 0.05 for pH, titratable acidity, moisture and ash due to the incorporation of flour from the bark of jabuticaba. The only attribute that did not differ (p > 0.05 was soluble solid. The overrun was ecreasing with increasing addition of flour. In the sensory evaluation, only attributes that differ (p < 0.05 were flavor, texture and overall appearance of the formulation with 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, which represents that incorporation of 5% flour from the bark of jabuticaba did not affect the cceptability of ice creams. It can be concluded that the enrichment of blemish bark flour provides edible ice increase in nutritional value without affecting the sensory characteristics at the level of 5% added.
Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Yoshimitsu, Masato; Kiyota, Kyohei
Since wheat flour, a cause of food allergy, tends to disperse rapidly in air, it can unintentionally mix other foods during the sieving process. Our aim was to analyze the dispersal of wheat flour dust in air in order to prevent unintentional mixing. We measured particle size distribution of wheat flour, photographed the scattered flour for 60 seconds every 10 seconds after sieving through three types of flour sifter, constructed a velocity vector diagram of flour dust dispersal by each type of sifter, and measured the distance of wheat allergen dispersal over 20 minutes using a petri dish and immunochromatographic test. The particles were mainly 14.2μm and 60.4μm in diameter and settled at terminal velocities of about 8mm/s and 150mm/s, respectively. Wheat flour particles of more than 60μm (released in air by sifting) dropped mainly in the perpendicular direction, while particles of less than 30μm remained suspended and traveled 5m after sifting by all flour sifters. Our results suggested that wheat flour dust dispersed by sifting (regardless of sifter) could unintentionally mix other foods. To prevent contamination, it is necessary to control the flow of air or sift flour in a separate room.
Quiros Alpizar, Silvia Maria
The effect of taro flour, xanthosoma, cassava and rice, their possible mixtures and two different percentages of egg protein in cupcakes with total substitution of wheat flour are studied. Flours of xanthosoma and taro were elaborated and have utilized flours of cassava and rice existing in market. The moisture was evaluated and found that taro flour presents a lower water content compared to rice flour, xanthosoma and cassava in all flours. 22 formulations of cupcakes were elaborated using the flours (100% substitutions), flour mixture (substitution 50:50 of each flour) and wheat as control, also the egg content (standard content to egg and lower content to egg), to analyze their sensory characteristics and consumer preferences. The study data was carried out with two independents groups of people, a trained panel that has conducted the descriptive analysis and a consumer group that has made the study of acceptance. An analysis of variance was applied to data, test Fisher LSD and external preference mapping, an analysis of ''cluster '' for proof of acceptance, with witch were identified the three consumer groups, composed by 19, 51, 35 people. All three groups have preferred the control samples with wheat in groups 2 and 3 cupcakes with rice-cassava with content standard and less content of egg, and cassava with less egg, have showed without significant differences in preference (p [es
Vitória Regina Takeuchi FERNANDES
Full Text Available AbstractFlour prepared via current assay methodologies from the carcasses of the Pantanal alligator (Caiman crocodilus yacare was analyzed for its chemical composition, minerals, fatty acids, and sensorial profile. Carcasses of the Pantanal alligator, originating from the Coocrijapan scientific zoo, Cáceres MT Brazil, were utilized. The carcasses were cooked for 60 minutes in a pressure cooker with water containing 2% salt and 5% chimichurri. The cooked carcasses were then ground and the mass was used for the manufacture of flour via three techniques: non-smoked, hot-smoked, and liquid-smoked. After each technique, the carcasses were dehydrated at 60ºC for 3h and were ground. Alligator flour was then produced. The moisture of liquid-smoked flour (10.97% was higher than that of non-smoked flour (3.78% and hot-smoked flour (4.43%. The flours provided high protein (57.11% - 58.27% and ash (23.45 – 26.42% rates, and were predominantly calcium (6.77% - 7.69%, phosphorus (3.67% - 4.05%, and iron (73.13 – 273.73 ppm/100 mg. Smoked-flour had a better acceptance rate by tasters when compared to non-smoked flour. Results show that flours produced from alligator carcasses had high protein, ash, and mineral rates and a reasonable acceptability by most tasters.
Full Text Available Wheat grain and its products are widely consumed as fodder and basic daily food stuffs in Kyrgyzstan. Mycobiota is known to produce hazardous effects to a consumer since it produces mycotoxins. Henceforth, mycobiota starting from the field stage to flour, grain and flour samples were selected for mycological analysis from eight sites of flour manufacture: grain stored in storehouses before milling, mechanically cleaned grain, washed grain, grain dried and prepared for mill, roughly-milled flour, first grade flour and high grade flour. The samples were analyzed using classical mycological and immunoassay methods in order to detect mycotoxins producing fungi species. We isolated overall 27 species belonging to 7 genera. Mycotoxins producing species like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Penicillium cyclopium were detected in the stored grains and in mechanically-cleaned grains. The species of Penicillium, Alternaria and Fusarium genera dominated in roughly-milled flour samples, so this site of flour manufacture still has a risk and danger of contamination with mycotoxins producing fungus. Only the final product i.e. the high grade flour lacked any fungal contamination. We recommend to scrutinize flour samples at the last stages of processing, particularly in the mills like B1, C1 and C4.
Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana
Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste. © The Author(s) 2014.
Shafi, Musarat; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Bazaz, Rafiya
Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415-0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.
Gujral, H Singh; Sharma, P; Bajaj, R; Solah, V
Brown rice after germinating for 24 and 48 h was milled into flour and incorporated in whole wheat flour at a level of 10% to prepare chapattis. The objective was to use chapatti as a delivery vehicle for germinated brown rice. The flour blends and chapattis made from the flour blends were evaluated for their antioxidant properties. Incorporating germinated brown rice flour increased the total phenolic content of the flour blend from 1897 to 2144 µg FAE/g. The total flavonoids content increased significantly from 632.3 to1770.9 µg CAE/g and metal chelating activity significantly increased by 71.62%. Antioxidant activity increased significantly by the addition of brown rice flour and addition of 24- and 48-h germinated brown rice flour further increased the antioxidant activity significantly. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids content decrease significantly in all the blends after baking the flour into chapatti. A decrease of 3% to 29% was observed in the total phenolic content and a decrease of 25% to 42% was observed in the total flavonoids content. However, baking of the flour blends into chapatti increased the reducing power, metal chelating activity by three folds and antioxidant activity from 64% to 104%.
Seyed Mehdi Hashemi
Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.
Bennett, R. L.; Abbott, M. K.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)
Many of the traditional experimental advantages of insects recommend their use in studies of gravitational and space biology. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an obvious choice for studies of the developmental significance of gravity vectors because of the unparalleled description of regulatory mechanisms controlling oogenesis and embryogenesis. However, we demonstrate that Drosophila could not survive the conditions mandated for particular flight opportunities on the Space Shuttle. With the exception of Drosophila, the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is the insect best characterized with respect to molecular embryology and most frequently utilized for past space flights. We show that Tribolium is dramatically more resistant to confinement in small sealed volumes. In preparation for flight experiments we characterize the course and timing of the onset of oogenesis in newly eclosed adult females. Finally, we present results from two shuttle flights which indicate that a number of aspects of the development and function of the female reproductive system are not demonstrably sensitive to microgravity. Available information supports the utility of this insect for future studies of gravitational biology.
Chan, Hing Wan; Burgess Champoux, Teri; Reicks, Marla; Vickers, Zata; Marquart, Len
Objectives: Recent dietary guidance recommends that children consume at least three servings of whole-grains daily. This study examined whether white whole-wheat (WWW) flour can be partially substituted for refined-wheat (RW) flour in pizza crust without affecting consumption by children in a school cafeteria. Methods: Subjects included first to…
Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...
Zhao, Tao; Axelsson, Karolin; Krokene, Paal; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
Tree-killing bark beetles depend on aggregation pheromones to mass-attack their host trees and overwhelm their resistance. The beetles are always associated with phytopathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi that probably assist in breaking down tree resistance, but little is known about if or how much these fungal symbionts contribute to the beetles' aggregation behavior. In this study, we determined the ability of four major fungal symbionts of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus to produce beetle aggregation pheromones. The fungi were incubated on Norway spruce Picea abies bark, malt agar, or malt agar amended with 0.5% (13)C glucose. Volatiles present in the headspace of each fungus were analyzed for 7 days after incubation using a SPME autosampler coupled to a GC/MS. Two Grosmannia species (G. penicillata and G. europhioides) produced large amounts of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB), the major component in the beetles' aggregation pheromone blend, when growing on spruce bark or malt agar. Grosmannia europhioides also incorporated (13)C glucose into MB, demonstrating that the fungi can synthesize MB de novo using glucose as a carbon source. This is the first clear evidence that fungal symbionts of bark beetles can produce components in the aggregation pheromone blend of their beetle vectors. This provides new insight into the possible ecological roles of fungal symbionts in bark beetle systems and may deepen our understanding of species interactions and coevolution in these important biological systems.
Hamner, Heather C; Tinker, Sarah C; Flores, Alina L; Mulinare, Joe; Weakland, Aliki P; Dowling, Nicole F
Hispanics with lower acculturation may be at higher risk for neural tube defects compared with those with higher acculturation due to lower total folic acid intake or other undetermined factors. Modelling has indicated that fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid could selectively target Mexican Americans more than other race/ethnicities. We assessed whether fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid could selectively increase folic acid intake among Mexican-American women with lower acculturation, as indicated by specific factors (language preference, country of origin, time living in the USA). We used dietary intake and dietary supplement data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008, to estimate the amount of additional total folic acid that could be consumed if products considered to contain corn masa flour were fortified at 140 μg of folic acid per 100 g of corn masa flour. USA. Non-pregnant women aged 15-44 years (n 5369). Mexican-American women who reported speaking Spanish had a relative percentage change in usual daily total folic acid intake of 30·5 (95 % CI 27·8, 33·4) %, compared with 8·3 (95 % CI 7·3, 9·4) % for Mexican-American women who reported speaking English. We observed similar results for other acculturation factors. An increase of 6·0 percentage points in the number of Mexican-American women who would achieve the recommended intake of ≥400 μg folic acid/d occurred with fortification of corn masa flour; compared with increases of 1·1 percentage points for non-Hispanic whites and 1·3 percentage points for non-Hispanic blacks. An even greater percentage point increase was observed among Mexican-American women who reported speaking Spanish (8·2). Fortification of corn masa flour could selectively increase total folic acid intake among Mexican-American women, especially targeting Mexican-American women with lower acculturation, and result in a decrease in the number of pregnancies affected by
Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K
Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.
Li, You; Ruan, Yong-Ying; Stanley, Edward L; Skelton, James; Hulcr, Jiri
Insects that depend on microbial mutualists evolved a variety of organs to transport the microsymbionts while dispersing. The ontogeny and variability of such organs is rarely studied, and the microsymbiont's effects on the animal tissue development remain unknown in most cases. Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae or Platypodinae) and their mutualistic fungi are an ideal system to study the animal-fungus interactions. While the inter-specific diversity of their fungus transport organ-mycangia-is well-known, their developmental plasticity has been poorly described. To determine the ontogeny of the mycangium and the influence of the symbiotic fungus on the tissue development, we dissected by hand or scanned with micro-CT the mycangia in various developmental stages in five Xylosandrus ambrosia beetle species that possess a large, mesonotal mycangium: Xylosandrus amputatus, Xylosandrus compactus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, Xylosandrus discolor and Xylosandrus germanus. We processed 181 beetle samples from the USA and China. All five species displayed three stages of the mycangium development: (1) Young teneral adults had an empty, deflated and cryptic mycangium without fungal mass; (2) In fully mature adults during dispersal, the pro-mesonotal membrane was inflated, and most individuals developed a mycangium mostly filled with the symbiont, though size and symmetry varied; (3) After successful establishment of their new galleries, most females discharged the bulk of the fungal inoculum and deflated the mycangium. Experimental aposymbiotic individuals demonstrated that the pronotal membrane invaginated independently of the presence of the fungus, but the fungus was required for inflation. Mycangia are more dynamic than previously thought, and their morphological changes correspond to the phases of the symbiosis. Importantly, studies of the fungal symbionts or plant pathogen transmission in ambrosia beetles need to consider which developmental stage
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the impact of adding 30% of flour from soya bean to the wheat flour T 650 on the quality of immediately baked products and products stored one, three and six months in a freezer at the temperature of -18° and then baked. Rheological properties of wheat and composite flour by means of Farinograph, Extensograph, and Amylograph were also evaluated. Based on the farinograph evaluation of composite flour (70% of wheat flour + 30% soybean flour it was found that the formed mixture was hydrated more slowly than the pure wheat flour, time of dough development was about 6.5 minutes longer than that for pure wheat flour, and a value of water binding was higher by 12.4% compared with wheat flour. Created dough could be characterized as strong, holding long enough optimum of its rheological properties. By means of extensographic evaluation of composite flour it was found that it has lower extensographic energy, less resistance and lower tensibility compared to wheat dough, which led to insufficient volume of products. By amylogram it was found that composite flour has higher enzymatic activity compared to wheat flour, nevertheless both flours could be characterized as suitable for leavened bakery products. Addition of gross non-defatted soy flour at 30% had a significant impact on technological quality of loaves baked during the baking experiments. Compared with loaves of wheat flour, the lower bread volume, specific volume and volume yield, and less satisfactory cambering was found. The effect of freezing on dough in the case of wheat flour showed the gradual reduction of the quality parameters of the loaves baked from such dough after freezing time lasting for 1, 3 and 6 months. In the case of the composite flour, the decrease of quality was found only after freezing lasting 3 and 6 months. One-month freeze did not cause the declination of quality, to the contrary, even a slight increase of loaf volume was observed.
A. E. Mayfield; S. W. Fraedrich; A. Taylor; P. Merten; S. W. Myers
Thousand cankers disease, caused by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) and an associated fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida M. KolarÃµÂ´k, E. Freeland, C. Utley, and N. Tisserat), threatens the health and commercial use of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), one of the most economically...
Kaprelyants, Leonid; Fedosov, Sergey; Zhygunov, Dmytro
Bran, being a by-product of grain grinding, is characterised by a high biological value and is thus widely used in food production. In this study, different streams of bran and shorts from the wheat graded milling process were incorporated into wheat flour at levels of 5, 11, 17 and 23% (w/w) to investigate their influence on the nutritional and baking properties of flour. Bran and shorts streams improved the baking properties of flour blends. The best result in the case of graded flour blends with different bran products was obtained at the 95:5 ratio. The products containing peripheral parts of grain had higher proteolytic enzyme and superoxide dismutase activities and lower trypsin inhibitor content and β-amylase activity compared with graded flour. Streams of wheat milled fractions including peripheral parts of grain increase the content of bioactive substances and dietary fibre in blends with wheat graded flour. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Sonia Hernandez Garcia
Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.
Padalino, Lucia; Mastromatteo, Marcella; Lecce, Lucia; Spinelli, Sara; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, M Alessandro
This work was focused on the optimization and characterization of maize-based spaghetti fortified with chickpea flour. To the aim, the study has been organized in two subsequent trials. In the first one, the chickpea flour amount added to the spaghetti was continuously increased until the overall sensory quality of pasta reached its sensory threshold. Spaghetti samples loaded with 15% chickpea flour showed poor elasticity and increased firmness, so this concentration represented the highest chickpea flour concentration to be used. The second experimental step was aimed to improve the overall sensory quality of the enriched spaghetti by means of hydrocolloids as pectin, guar flour and agar. Final pasta was characterized for the nutritional composition, the glycemic response and the main quality attributes. The best results were obtained by the addition of guar flour.
Mirić Katarina V.
Full Text Available This work in concerned with the interdependence between technological quality of mill stream flours and fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each mill stream flour has its own specific properties, determined by the particle size, technological phase of its formation and part of the wheat kernel it consists of. Biochemical complexity of dough during examination of fermentative activity of baker's yeast confirmed the influence of a number of physical and biochemical flour properties, such as ash content, wet gluten content, rheological flour properties, phytic acid content and amylograph peak viscosity. Abudance of significant flour characteristic, their interaction and different behavior in the presence of the yeast, showed diversity and variation of result within the same category of the mill stream flour.
Gambus, H.; Zamrozniak-Rys, I.; Achremowicz, B.
In this study some physico-chemical properties of separated wheat starch from flour type 500 and 850, rye starch from flour type 720 and triticale starch from flour type 680 were compared. All starches were irradiated with medium doses of gamma rays: 2,3 and 5 kGy directly (after their separation from flour) and in flour. The water binding capacity of starches, their solubility in water and reduction capacity were found to depend on the dose applied and the method of irradiation, individually for each starch. Additional direct irradiation of all starches caused a smaller decrease in the viscosity of starch pastes and a stronger inhibition of the retrogradation process, in comparison to the starches separated from the irradiated flours. (author)
Ding, Zhigang; Gao, Hongmei; Du, Chuanlai; Zheng, Yimei; Guo, Yuanxin; Pan, Dongmei
To study the hypoglycemic effect of composite rice flour, the diabetic mouse model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan saline (twice, 200 mg/kg bw). The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: negative control, positive control, metformin medication group, and composite rice flour feed group. After 21 days, the fasting blood glucose levels were determined by glucose oxidase method and followed with a glucose tolerance test. The results show that the body weight growth rate of mice in the rice flour group was significantly higher than that of the medication group (P flour group were significantly lower, and the glucose tolerance was significantly increased in rice flour group (P flour has obvious hypoglycemic and protective effect for diabetic mouse model.
Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.
Kikkawa, Hitomi S; Tahara, Makoto; Sugita, Ritsuko
In the wake of terrorist attacks using anthrax and ricin, white powder is often encountered in cases of malicious mischief and terrorist threats. Wheat flour is a common white powder encountered in such criminal investigations. We used DNA analysis to investigate wheat flour samples for identification and discrimination as trace evidence. Species identification of commercially available wheat flour was carried out by sequencing a partial region of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit gene (rbcL). Samples were discriminated using short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. The rbcL sequences of all wheat flour samples were identical and showed a high level of similarity to known wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) sequences. Furthermore, flours had characteristic patterns in STR analyses, with specific cultivars showing distinctive patterns. These results suggested that the identification of wheat flour species is possible using rbcL sequencing, and that STR analysis is useful for discriminating between samples. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E
The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.
Wang, Youyong; Song, Yongming; Du, Jun; Xi, Zhenhao; Wang, Qingwen
Polylactide (PLA)/wood flour composite foam were prepared through a batch foaming process. The effect of the chain extender on the crystallization behavior and dynamic rheological properties of the PLA/wood flour composites were investigated as well as the crystal structure and cell morphology of the composite foams. The incorporation of the chain extender enhanced the complex viscosity and storage modulus of PLA/wood flour composites, indicating the improved melt elasticity. The chain extender also led to a decreased crystallization rate and final crystallinity of PLA/wood flour composites. With an increasing chain extender content, a finer and more uniform cell structure was formed, and the expansion ratio of PLA/wood flour composite foams was much higher than without the chain extender. Compared to the unfoamed composites, the crystallinity of the foamed PLA/wood flour composites was improved and the crystal was loosely packed. However, the new crystalline form was not evident.
Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.
The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.
Full Text Available Wheat bread constitutes the most regularly consumed food in the World, the international market for wheat undergoes strong pressure and prices are unceasingly increasing. The aim of this study is to substitute wheat flour by potato starch in bread preparation. Mixtures flours were characterized for composition, damaged starch, and Alveograph properties. According to the results of alveograph parameters, they decrease with the rate of incorporation of potato starch. This decrease can be corrected by adding vital gluten. The results of physicochemical analysis showed a decrease in protein levels, an increase in moisture content (about 2% and carbohydrates levels due to the composition of potato starch. However, sensory analysis (p ≤ 0.05 showed that the addition 80% of potato starch leads to bread with better characteristics: taste, colour and odour, based on that, it is highly advisable as an ingredient in the standard preparation of wheat bread.
Vujić Đura N.
Full Text Available Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for performing a qualitative analysis of the hexane flour extract of three samples of spelt. All the three samples were first treated with hexane and the obtained extracts were used for the analysis of the fatty acid lipid components. The transesterification reaction was performed using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide, 0.2M in methanol, and the fatty acids were esterified from acylglycerol to methyl-esters. In all analyzed extracts, the predominant component was methyl linoleate, followed by methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. The subsequent tests, performed by cluster analysis, were used to compare the hexane flour extracts of different types of spelt. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46005 i br. TR 31066
Full Text Available One characteristic of the Romanian wheat flour in the recent years consists of high values of the falling number. The aim of the present study was to explore the Mixolab device to characterize the thermo-mechanical behaviour of flour supplemented with different additives that contain α-amylase. Mixolab parameters C4 and C5 were found to be lower in samples with high doses of additives containing α-amylases. The increase of the α-amylase dose reduces the dough stability. The samples that contain higher doses of additives presented low values of the β slope, which gives indications about starch gelatinization. The samples with reduced α-amylases activity showed high values of the γ slope.
Amer, H.H.; Attia, A. A.; Elsayed, A.A.; Ali, M.A.
Physical, rheological and baking properties of bread Shamy, prepared from gamma-irradiated Egyptian wheat flour up to 25 KGy as one of common types of bread in Egypt, were studied and the acceptability of bread was evaluated by sensory tests. All amylo-, farino-, and extensograph characteristics and also sample ph showed significant decrease as irradiation dose increased. Such results could be explained in terms of loss of unique elastic and cohesive properties of wheat gluten and starch damage upon increment of radiation dose. The improvement in properties of bread, baked from flour irradiated up to 7.5 KGy, could be explained on the basis of a simulation in gas production during dough fermentation due to increase in starch degradation products. However, bread, prepared from wheat samples irradiated above 7.5 KGy, exhibited significantly lower values of acceptance because of physico-chemical changes in both starch and gluten
Vanasse, C.; Lemonnier, J.P.; Eugene, D.; Chornet, E.
As a part of a solvolytic approach to wood fractionation and liquefaction known as UDES-S, a pretreatment stage has been developed using a fed batch technique to produce high solids content slurries. By using a combination of temperature and shear stress across homogenizing valves, wood flour slurries of poplar or aspen having concentrations of 20-32% by weight in both paraffin oil and ethylene glycol have been produced. Optical and scanning electron microscopy have shown that the recirculation loop and homogenizing valve cause structural degradation, defibration and defibrillation of the original particles as well as partial solubilization of the wood components. The maximum wood flour concentration, attainable before plugging was observed in the small scale system used, was just below 36% by weight. High concentration slurries are a prerequisite in order to obtain realistic reactor space velocities in biomass liquefaction processes. 12 refs., 9 figs.
Full Text Available Dietary fibers are often characterized by high nutritional quality, as they are able to cure many chronic diseases and improve texture, sensory characteristics, and shelf life of foods. Here, the following aspects of dietary fibers have been reviewed: nutritional properties, including the ability to regulate blood sugar levels, effects on microorganisms, antioxidant effect, potential role in losing weight, ability to regulate blood lipids, application in flour products such as bread and Chinese noodles, challenges such as dark color, rough texture, and poor solubility, and potential solutions that include modification methods. The primary purpose of this review is to comprehensively evaluate potential applications of dietary fibers in flour products, addressing common problems and reviewing potential solutions to promote further study and applications of dietary fibers.
León, A E; Ribotta, P D; Ausar, S F; Fernández, C; Lanada, C A; Beltramo, D M
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of carrageenans with different sulfate contents on bread volume and dough rheological properties. Results showed that only lambda carrageenan, the most sulfated isoform, produced a significant increase in bread volume. In contrast, the different carrageenans induced a negative effect on the cookie factor. Alveographic and farinographic analyses indicated that dough rheological properties were differentially modified depending on whether lambda carrageenan was added to flour and then hydrated or vice versa. Analysis of the interaction between lambda carrageenan and flour components by infrared spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE indicated that a pool of low molecular weight hydrophobic gluten proteins interact with carrageenan. This interaction drastically changes their physicochemical properties since carrageenan-gluten protein complexes show a hydrophilic behavior. In addition, the results indicate that carrageenan sulfate groups and probably the amino groups of glutamines present in the primary structure of gluten proteins are involved in the interaction.
Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Heederik, D.; Doekes, G.; Venables, K. M.; Newman, T
OBJECTIVES: To describe the levels of exposure to fungal alpha-amylase in British bakeries and flour mills, and to describe the relation between exposure to alpha-amylase and sensitisation to fungal alpha- amylase. METHODS: 495 personal flour dust samples were taken in seven British bakeries and flour mills and analysed for alpha-amylase with an immunoassay. Workers at the sites were asked to fill out questionnaires on work related symptoms, smoking history, and work history, and they w...
Rai, Sweta; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Baljit
The present investigation was undertaken on the utilization of alternate flours/meals (rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) for the preparation of gluten free cookies as compared to conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour cookies. The physicochemical parameters, sensory qualities and functional properties of flours/cookies were studied and compared with control cookies. The blend of maize and pearl millet had best pasting ...
Yi, S.D.; Chang, K.S.; Oh, M.J.
This study was carried out to establish methods for irradiation detection of irradiation in Korean wheat flour by pulsed photostimulated luminescence (PPSL) and viscometric methods. The photon counts of the irradiated Korean wheat flour measured by PPSL immediately after irradiation increased with increasing irradiation dose. The photon counts in the irradiated Korean wheat flour almost disappeared with lapse of time after storage in normal room conditions, but irradiation detection was still possible after 6 months in darkroom conditions
Linda Lorenz; Michael Birkeland; Chera Daurio; Charles R. Frihart
Except for the substitution of soy flour in phenolic resins (Frihart et al. 2013) and the use of soy flour at high pHs (Lambuth 2003), the literature on soy protein properties for adhesives has mainly focused on soy protein isolate and specific protein fractions (Sun 2005b). The assumption is that proteins are the main portion of soy flour giving bond strength and the...
Maria S. Blanco Canalis
Full Text Available One of the methods of improving the nutritional profile of baked-goods is the incorporation of dietary fibre (DF to the formulation. However, DF retains more water than wheat flour, which affects dough rheological properties and thus the final product quality. Flour is the main ingredient in biscuits and contributes to the baked texture and shape of biscuits. There are large differences in quality among the flours from wheat cultivars and among non-wheat flours used for biscuit production. In previous works, different dietary fibres were tested and inulin was found to have a positive quality effect on biscuits made from an all-purpose wheat flour without the need of introducing significant changes in dough properties. To know whether these results are extended to different types of flours that can be used for biscuit production, this paper aimed to analyse the effects of different levels of inulin incorporation on dough and biscuits quality made from three different wheat flours and one triticale flour. Chemical and physic-chemical characterization of the flour samples was performed and compared (moisture, ashes, gluten, solvent retention capacity (SRC and protein content. Inulin was incorporated to biscuits formulation in two levels: 6 and 12% (wheat replacement. Dough and biscuits quality was measured by spread rate during baking and biscuit factor, texture and surface colour. Inulin incorporation increased dough spreading and biscuit factor and decreased biscuit hardness. The enhancing effect of inulin was observed in all flour. The results confirmed the effect of inulin on biscuits obtained with all flour assayed, despite the differences in flour quality that was tested.
Sanz Penella, Juan Mario; Wronkowska, Małgorzata; Soral-Śmietana, Maria; Haros, Monika
This study investigated the effect of replacing wheat flour by whole. Amaranthus cruentus flour (up to 40 g/100 g) to evaluate its potential utility as a nutritious breadmaking ingredient. The incorporation of amaranth flour significantly increased protein, lipid, ash, dietary fibre and mineral contents. Breads with amaranth have significantly higher amounts of phytates and lower. myo-inositol phosphates, which could predict low mineral bioavailability at high levels of substitution (30-40 g/...
Certain species of bark beetles in the insect order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae (formerly Scolytidae) are keystone species in forest ecosystems. However, the tree-killing and woodboring bark and ambrosia beetles are also among the most damaging insects of forest products including lumber, paper...
Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.
Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle.
Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...
Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David
Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.
Kier D. Klepzig; D.L. Six
Recent thinking in symbiosis research has emphasized a holistic consideration of these complex interactions. Bark beetles and their associated microbes are one group which has previously not been addressed in this manner. We review the study of symbiotic interactions among bark beetles and microbes in light of this thinking. We describe the considerable progress...
Kier D. Klepzig; J.C. Moser; F.J. Lombardero; R.W. Hofstetter; M.P. Ayres
Symbioses among bark beetles and their fungal and mite associates involve complex, multi-level interactions. Dendroctonus frontalis attacks and kills southern pines, introducing fungi into the tree. Ophiostoma minus may initially aid beetles in killing trees, but later this "bluestain" fungus becomes an antagonist,...
If not the most destructive forest pest, bark beetles are probably a close second in their culpability for killing millions of trees in the Northern Hemisphere. This volume provides an aptly-timed interdisciplinary review on aspects of bark beetle physiology, especially how it relates to selecting, ...
Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman
Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...
Jeffrey A Hicke; Morris C. Johnson; Jane L. Hayes; Haiganoush K. Preisler
Millions of trees killed by bark beetles in western North America have raised concerns about subsequent wildfire, but studies have reported a range of conclusions, often seemingly contradictory, about effects on fuels and wildfire. In this study, we reviewed and synthesized the published literature on modifications to fuels and fire characteristics following beetle-...
ground beetles. The number of samples, total number of individual carabid beetles, total number of species and species complementality for the six replicates are shown in Table 1. The total number of individuals caught using the two methods was 3025 for ground-searching methods. (mean of 4.97 individuals per one-hour.
The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...
Blanching had a significant effect on the nutrients as protein in control (4.61%) differed significantly (p<0.05) from treated fingers. Cold-water treatment (73.29%) and fingers blanched at 100oC for 10 min (73.15%) had a significant (p<0.05) effect on the starch content of new Musa flour. Cold-water treatment also had ...
E. I. Ponomareva; A. V. Odintsova; V. Yu. Kustov
Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour a...
Rosmeri, Vinsensia Iva; Monica, Bella Nina; Budiyati, Catarina Sri
Flour from gadung tubers (Dioscorea hispida Dennst) and modified cassava flour or MOCAF are types of non-wheat flour that have high carbohydrate content that could potentially be used to make noodles. However, due to low protein content and therudimentary physicochemical properties, it needs to be done mixing with wheat flour to get noodles with goodquality. This study aimed to obtain an optimum comparison between wheat flour and gadung flour/mocaf in making noodles. The results showed the be...
Aringoli, E.E.; Cambiagno, D.E.; Chiericatti, C.A.; Basilico, J.C.; Basilico, M.L.Z.
The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5–7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1) and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3) or per gram of sample (CFU g-1), respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively. PMID:24031975
J. Howard Bradbury
Full Text Available Many people, particularly in Africa, suffer various conditions from eating bitter cassava which contains poisonous cyanogens. As well as poisoning, which sometimes causes death, these conditions include konzo, an irreversible paralysis of the legs, which affects mainly children and young women, impaired neurocognition in children, tropical ataxic neuropathy in older people, and aggravation of iodine deficiency disorders (such as goitre and cretinism in iodine deficient areas. The wetting method removes residual cyanogens, and is an additional method of processing cassava flour after its preparation by one of the traditional methods. The wetting method is simple and easy to use, the traditional thick porridge (fufu or ugali made from the treated flour tastes very good, and the method is readily accepted by rural women in East and Central Africa. Regular use of the wetting method by rural women in 13 villages in the Democratic Republic of Congo has prevented konzo amongst more than 9,000 people. We recommend that the wetting method be used as an additional method to traditional methods to remove cyanogens from cassava flour in tropical Africa.
Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria
Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences. The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.
Hallberg, L.; Rossander-Hulthen, L.; Gramatkovski, E.
The unexpectedly low bioavailability in humans of elemental iron powder prompted us to search for other Fe compounds suitable for Fe fortification of flour that fulfill the two requirements of insolubility in water (due to high water content of flour) and good bioavailability in humans. Systematic studies of compatibility, solubility, and bioavailability led to this study of a microcrystalline complex ferric orthophosphate (CFOP), Fe 3 H 8 (NH 4 )-(PO 4 )6.6H 2 O, a well-defined compound. This compound was labeled with 59 Fe, and the native Fe in meals was labeled with 55 FeCl3. The ratio of absorbed 59 Fe to absorbed 55 Fe is a direct measure of the fraction of CFOP that joins the nonheme Fe pool and that is made potentially available for absorption. The relative bioavailability of CFOP varied from 30% to 60% when labeled wheat rolls were served with different meals. The CFOP meets practical requirements of an Fe fortificant for flour well, with regard to both compatibility and bioavailability in humans
Román, Laura; González, Ana; Espina, Teresa; Gómez, Manuel
Carob flour is a product rich in fibre obtained from by-products of the locust bean gum extraction processing. The flour is commercialised with different degrees of roasting in order to improve its organoleptic characteristics. In this study, carob flour with three different roasting degrees was used to replace rice flour (15%) in gluten-free cakes and cookies. The influence of this replacement was studied on the psychochemical characteristics and acceptability of the final products. The incorporation of carob flour increased the viscosity of cake batters and increased the solid elastic-like behaviour of the cookie doughs, indicating a stronger interaction among the formula ingredients. The inclusion of carob flour, with a low time of roasting, did not lead to any significant differences in the specific volume and hardness of the cakes, but reduced cake staling and the thickness and width of the cookies. Darker colours were obtained when carob flour was incorporated into the product. The acceptability of cakes was only reduced with the addition of highly roasted carob flour, while in the case of cookies there was a decline in the acceptability of all carob flour cookies, which was mostly perceived with the highest roasting degree, something mainly attributed to the bitter taste of the products.
Suesirisawad, Sasikarn; Malainual, Nat; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Chatchatee, Pantipa; Suratannon, Narissara; Ngamphaiboon, Jarungchit
The first documented case of oral mite anaphylaxis has recently been reported in Thailand, with mites possibly originating from cooking flour. Our study was designed to assess the effects of cooking flours enhancement and storage conditions on mite proliferation and to provide practical recommendations to prevent mite anaphylaxis. In a factorial experiment, six commercial brands of cooking flours were selected and either inoculated or set free of mites and stored in one of the four containers chosen for the study: original package, plastic bag, plastic box and glass bottle. The resulting experimental units where then stored at either room temperature or in a refrigerator (+4C). In order to determine levels of Der f 1 allergen, 0.1 gram of flour was sampled from each experimental unit and tested by ELISA. Sampling was carried out immediately after inoculation and subsequently at week 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 20. Levels of Der f 1 allergen in the inoculated samples increased significantly in all conditions 6 weeks after inoculation (p flour, corn flour, wheat flour and tapioca starch, respectively (p flours containing high amounts of wheat at room temperature, particularly after 8 week of storage. According to our results, we thus advise to keep household cooking flour refrigerated and while the type of container does not matter, storage should not exceed 20 weeks.
Haslinda, W H; Cheng, L H; Chong, L C; Noor Aziah, A A
Flour was prepared from peeled and unpeeled banana Awak ABB. Samples prepared were subjected to analysis for determination of chemical composition, mineral, dietary fibre, starch and total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and pasting properties. In general, flour prepared from unpeeled banana was found to show enhanced nutrition values with higher contents of mineral, dietary fibre and total phenolics. Hence, flour fortified with peel showed relatively higher antioxidant activity. On the other hand, better pasting properties were shown when banana flour was blended with peel. It was found that a relatively lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback were evident in a sample blended with peel.
Apriany, Rafika; Sari, N Ira; ', Dahlia
The research was intended to evaluate the characteristic of hakau dim sum fell quality witch was fortified with seaweed flour. 10 kg of seaweed was obtained from one of market in pekanbaru was processed to seaweed flour. Hacau dim sum fell was made from tang mine flour, wheat flour, egg, cooking oil, hot water and it was fortified with 0g, 30g, 50g, and 70g of seaweed. Then, for making the contain of dim sum; shrimp, pepper, sugar and salt were prepared. Parameter of this research was observe...
Tripathi, Bhumika; Chetana; Platel, Kalpana
Deficiency of zinc is believed to be as widespread as that of iron, with equally serious consequences. Fortification of staple foods with this mineral is a cost-effective method that can be used to combat this deficiency. In the present study, flours of pearl millet and sorghum were evaluated as vehicles for fortification with zinc. Zinc stearate was used as the fortificant, and added at a level that provided 5mg Zn/100g flour. The metal chelator EDTA was used as a co-fortificant, the molar ratio of exogenous Zn:EDTA being 1:1. Bioaccessibility of zinc from the fortified flours, both raw and cooked, was determined by an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion procedure. The results of the study revealed that there were differences among these two flours with respect to the feasibility of fortification with zinc. Although fortified pearl millet flour provided a higher amount of bioaccessible zinc, this was attributable to the presence of EDTA, rather than to the fortified zinc. The benefit of fortification with zinc was more evident in sorghum flour, compared to that in pearl millet flour, the increase in bioaccessible zinc content being more than 1.5 times higher as a result of fortification. Fortified sorghum and pearl millet flours were stable during storage for a period of up to 60 days. Thus, millet flours seem to be satisfactory candidates for fortification with zinc, and can be exploited to address zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
El-Beltagi, Hossam S; El-Senousi, Naglaa A; Ali, Zeinab A; Omran, Azza A
Pizza being the most popular food worldwide, quality and sensory appeal are important considerations during its modification effort. This study was aimed to evaluate the quality of pizza made using two different sources of proteins, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour and dried carp fish powder (Cyprinus carpio). Analysis indicated nutrients richness specificity of chickpea flour (higher fiber, energy, iron, zinc, linoleic acid and total nonessential amino acids) and dried carp fish powder (higher contents of protein, fats, ash, oleic acid and total essential amino acids) complementing wheat flour to enhance nutritional value of pizza. Total plate count and thiobarbituric acid were increased (Pchickpea flour or dried carp fish powder and chemical, textural, sensory and storage evaluation parameters of in pizza were investigated. Dried carp fish powder increased (Pprotein, ash, fats, zinc and protein digestibility of pizza. Chickpea flour increased iron and zinc contents of the pizza. Water activity (aw) was decreased in fish powder and chickpea pizza. Pizza firmness and gumminess were significantly (pprotein source, but cohesiveness was decreased with 10% chickpea flour. Pizza chewiness was the same (P>0.05) across the levels of two protein sources. Springiness was decreased (Pchickpea flour. Chickpea and dried carp fish incorporation up to 7.50% in pizza at the expense of wheat flour had no effect (P>0.05) on all sensorial parameters except for odor values. The results could be useful in utilization of chickpea flour and carp fish powder in designing nutritious pizza for consumers.
Full Text Available Wholegrain buckwheat flour was used to substitute 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wheat flour to make buckwheat enriched wheat bread. Proximate composition, sensory evaluation, total phenols content and antioxidant activity of buckwheat enriched wheat breads were analysed and compared with wheat bread. Wholegrain buckwheat flour contained higher total phenols than wheat flour. The incorporation of buckwheat flour from 15 % to 40 % in bread samples increased the total phenols content from 0.25 (mg GA/g d.m. sample to 0.65 (mg GA/g d.m. sample, and antioxidant activity from 208.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract to 354.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract. Total phenols content decreased during the baking process, while the antioxidant activity increased. Bread samples with 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wholegrain buckwheat flour showed lower lightness (L and whiteness index (WI values of crust and crumb colour compared to the wheat bread. Addition of buckwheat flour increased redness (a and yellowness (b colour values for crumb. Sensory results indicating that three breads with buckwheat flour were moderately acceptable. No differences were found in overall sensory attributes between buckwheat flour enriched bread samples with 15 % and wheat bread (control sample.
Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Soares, Manoel S; Magalhães, Amanda O; Canto, Anna Carolina V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Alvares, Thiago S; Conte, Carlos A
Physicochemical parameters of pasta enriched with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) flour were investigated. Five formulations were prepared with different concentrations of tilapia flour as partial substitute of wheat flour: pasta without tilapia flour (PTF0%), pasta with 6% (PTF6%), 12% (PTF12%), 17% (PTF17%), and 23% (PTF23%) of tilapia flour. The formulations were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile on day 1 whereas, instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b* values), pH, water activity (aw), and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage at 25°C. Fortification with tilapia flour increased (p tilapia flour decreased (p tilapia flour than their counterparts, and the storage promoted an increase (p tilapia flour has the potential to be a technological alternative to food industry for the nutritional enrichment of traditional pasta with negligible negative effects on the chemical stability of the final product during 21 days at 25°C.
Sandri, Luciana T B; Santos, Fernanda G; Fratelli, Camilly; Capriles, Vanessa D
Increasing the variety of better-tasting and healthier gluten-free products is important for consumers with gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to develop a gluten-free bread formulation containing whole chia flour with acceptable sensory properties. A mixture design for three ingredients and response surface methodology were used to identify the proportions of potato starch, rice flour and whole chia flour to achieve the best physical properties and result in sensory-accepted products. The physical properties and visual appearance showed that whole chia flour alone is not suitable for bread production. Nevertheless, it is possible to add up to 14% whole chia flour to a rice flour-based gluten-free bread formulation while negligibly diminishing the loaf volume, crumb firmness and crumb moisture. The best formulations were prepared from rice flour blends with 5, 10, and 14% whole chia flour, which received overall acceptability scores of 8.7, 8.1 and 7.9 on a 10-cm scale, respectively, similar to those of their white gluten-free bread and wheat bread counterparts. Incorporating 5%-14% whole chia flour in the formulation increased the levels of ash, lipid, protein and dietary fiber compared to those of the white gluten-free bread.
Yamasaki, Masayuki; Murata, Susumu; Ishihara, Mariko; Katsube, Takuya; Li, Wang; Iwamoto, Mamiko; Ikenishi, Rumi; Shiwaku, Kuninori
Nutritional characteristics of buckwheat flour and fiber were studied for their effects on obesity and metabolic parameters in mice. Three types of diet with differing fiber content were used for the study. The Gozenko diet consisted of buckwheat flour with 3.3 wt% fiber. The lzumo Soba diet consisted of buckwheat flour with chaff and contained 6.0 wt% fiber. The third dict was the Cornstarch diet, consisting of cornstarch flour with 3.1 wt% fiber. After the mice were fed their respective die...
Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M
The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423
Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco
In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230
Beetles in the genus Delphastus Casey are small whitefly-specific predatory ladybird beetles belonging to the coccinellid tribe Serangiini. They feed on all immature stages of whitefly and are reared and sold commercially all over the world for this purpose. They are compatible with the application ...
Jayasinghe, M A; Ekanayake, S; Nugegoda, D B
Compare glycaemic response of foods prepared with finger millet flour, using traditional stone grinding and industrial milling. Crossover study. Healthy volunteers (n=11) consisting of five males and six females), aged between 20 and 30 years, with a body mass index of 18.5-23.5 Kgm-2. Blood glucose concentration was measured at fasting and 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 minutes after ingestion of roti and pittu made with stone ground or industrially milled finger millet flour, containing 50 g of available carbohydrates. Glycaemic Index (GI) values were expressed as the average value of the 11 subjects. Significant differences (pindustrially milled flour was 59±7. Pittu made of stone ground flour had a GI of 67±5 and GI of pittu made of industrially milled flour was 79±5. Microscopic analysis of flour samples and a sieving process using different sieve sizes showed larger particle size distribution in stone ground flour compared to industrially milled flour. Larger particle sizes in the stone ground flour compared with industrially milled flour was established as the only factor affecting the difference in GI of same type of food prepared with flour milled using different methods. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in proximate compositions of the different foods or raw flours. Foods prepared with finger millet (kurakkan) flour with a larger particle size distribution resulted in a lower glycaemic response.
Full Text Available Old-growth forests are terrestrial ecosystems with the highest level of biodiversity and the main environments for the study of conservation and dynamics of the forest system. In Mediterranean Europe, two millennia of human exploitation deeply altered the structural complexity of the native forests. Some animal groups, including insects, may be used as a proxy of such changes. In this paper we explored the possible effects of forest management on the functional diversity (species traits of carabid beetle communities. Three old-growth forests of the Sila National Park were sampled by pitfall traps set up in pure beech, beech-silver fir and Calabrian black pine forests. In each forest, five managed vs. five unmanaged stands were considered. Managed sites were exploited until the sixties of the past century and then left unmanaged. More than 6000 carabid specimens belonging to 23 species were collected. The functional diversity in carabid groups is influenced by forest management especially in beech and beech-silver fir stands. Body size, specialized predators, endemic species and forest species were negatively affected by stand management. On the contrary, omnivorous ground beetles populations (or species with a high dispersal power (macropterous and large geographic distribution were positively influenced by stand management. In pine forests the old-growth community seems less sensitive to past management and more affected by soil evolution. Soil erosion and disturbance may reduce species diversity of ground beetles. Anyway, the composition of the carabid community shows that 50-60 years of forest restoration are enough for the reconstruction of a fairly diverse assemblage reflecting a “subclimax” situation.