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Sample records for black engineer ethnic

  1. An analysis of stereotype threat in African American engineering students at predominantly White, ethnically diverse, and historically Black colleges and universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, David M.

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments

  2. Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering

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    Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…

  3. Cultural Appropriations; Ethnic-Racial Representations; Black Press

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    Maria Angélica Zubaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the exchange and circulation of ideas in the black diaspora, particularly in the newspaper The Example, mapping and discussing the ethnic-racial and gender representations constructed in the narratives produced by the editors of this newspaper, during the campaign for the construction of a monument to the “Black Mother”. The aim is to analyze how the newspaper’s editors have appropriated texts that circulated in other newspapers about the campaign to the monument of the “Black Mother”, adapted them to their own interests and given them new meanings. From the theoretical approach of Cultural Studies, we understand the black press as a cultural artifact that not only informs but also produces discourses and representations that contribute to the formation of black subjectivities and identities.

  4. Gender and Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Obesity and Depression Among Black Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between obesity and major depression disorder (MDD) in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents in the USA. The study also tested the effects of ethnicity and gender as possible moderators. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL)-Adolescents, a representative household mental health survey of Black adolescents in the USA. Participants consisted of 1170 Black adolescents (810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean Blacks). Obesity was defined determined by the cutoff points based on the body mass index (BMI) appropriate for age and gender. Twelve-month MDD was measured using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). In the first step, the association between obesity and MDD in the pooled sample, controlling for the main effects of gender and ethnicity. In the next steps, two interactions were tested: (1) obesity and ethnicity and (2) obesity and gender. Although any associations between obesity and MDD in the pooled sample of Blacks were not found, there was a significant interaction between ethnicity and obesity on MDD. Upon testing the associations across intersections of ethnicity and gender, a positive association was found among Caribbean Black females but not Caribbean Black males, African American males, or African American female. The link between BMI and MDD among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender, and risk of comorbid depression among Black youth with obesity is highest among Caribbean Black females.

  5. Domestic abuse: Black and minority-ethnic women's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellock, Vanda K

    2010-04-01

    domestic abuse affects one in three women in the UK and can have long-term consequences for those concerned and their families. Guidelines suggest that all women should be asked about domestic abuse, and the Department of Health has suggested ways of supporting this issue. Health-care professionals could find themselves with a woman who cannot speak English, and may require the support of an interpreter. Current guidelines are not suitable for Black and minority-ethnic women, and midwives may not have enough cultural awareness to support these women. to interview bilingual women in the community to explore: (1) how domestic abuse is viewed in their culture; and (2) who should be questioning women about this sensitive issue. a qualitative phenomenological study using semi-structured interviews with non-pregnant bilingual workers within the local community. women's lives were influenced by their in-laws and family, status, attitudes to marriage arrangements and gossiping in the community. All of these factors affected disclosure. health-care professionals must understand that women take serious measures to hide the fact that they are victims of abuse in order to preserve family honour. Divulging information to interpreters or relatives is a problem because of lack of confidentiality and gossiping in the community. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploration of Factors Affecting Success of Undergraduate Engineering Majors at a Historically Black University

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    Igbinoba, Egheosa P.

    Blacks are underrepresented amongst persons who earn college degrees in the United States and Black males attend and complete college at a lower rate than Black females (Toldson, Fry Brown, & Sutton, 2009). According to Toldson et al. (2009), this quandary may be attributed to Black males' apathy toward education in general, waning support and ideological challenges toward Pell Grants and affirmative action, cultural incompetency on the part of the 90% White, ethnic makeup of the U.S. teaching force, and the relatively high numbers of Black males who are held back in school. In spite of the dismal statistics regarding Black male academic achievement and matriculation, there are those Black males who do participate in postsecondary education. While many studies have highlighted reasons that Black males do not achieve success in attending and persisting through college, few have adopted the anti-deficit research framework suggested by Harper (2010), identifying reasons Black males do persist in higher education. Although science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers are identified as those most imperative to the economic competitiveness of the United States, few studies have concentrated solely on engineering majors and fewer, if any, solely on Black male engineering majors at an historically Black college and university. The aim of this study was to address an apparent gap in the literature and invoke theories for recruitment, retention, and success of Black males in engineering degree programs by employing an anti-deficit achievement framework for research of students of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Data garnered from the study included insight into participants' definitions of success, precollege experiences, factors contributing to the persistence during undergraduate study, and perceptions of attending a historically Black college and university versus a primarily White institution.

  7. Within-group Ethnic Differences of Black Male STEM Majors and Factors Affecting Their Persistence in College

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    Shane Y. Williamson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined how familial and institutional factors interact with the academic experiences of a diverse group of Black males enrolled as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM majors at one university. Ogbu’s (1998 Cultural-Ecological Theory of Minority School Performance, a theoretical framework, posits that the manner by which a group achieves minority status, coupled with community and family educational values, impacts academic achievement. Immigrants, voluntary minorities, perform better academically than involuntary minorities (nonimmigrants because they are more accepting of and more likely to adapt to the White middle-class norms upon which schools in the United States are based (Ogbu, 1994, 2004. While the data overall are positive for the sample, when viewed by ethnic group, it was evident the African and Caribbean students are more academically integrated to campus than African American students. The African students, more so than any other ethnic group, are connecting, interacting, and forming relationships with faculty outside of the classroom; conversely, African American students in this study reported having the least amount of effective connections with faculty. This research study found that for the Black male STEM students in this project (a their families are a pivotal force, (b academic experiences vary across ethnicities, (c faculty mediate student success, and (d there is a lack of interactions between ethnic groups (Black Distance on campus.

  8. The Link between Mastery and Depression among Black Adolescents; Ethnic and Gender Differences.

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    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-05-12

    Although the link between depression and lower levels of mastery is well established, limited information exists on ethnic and gender differences in the association between the two. The current study investigated ethnic, gender, and ethnic by gender differences in the link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and low mastery in the United States. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A), 2003-2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African-American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, socioeconomic status (family income), mastery (sense of control over life), and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between mastery and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity and gender. In the pooled sample, a higher sense of mastery was associated with a lower risk of MDD. This association, however, was significant for African Americans but not Caribbean Blacks. Similarly, among African American males and females, higher mastery was associated with lower risk of MDD. Such association could not be found for Caribbean Black males or females. Findings indicate ethnic rather than gender differences in the association between depression and mastery among Black youth. Further research is needed to understand how cultural values and life experiences may alter the link between depression and mastery among ethnically diverse Black youth.

  9. Longitudinal Trajectories of Ethnic Identity among Urban Black and Latino Adolescents

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    Pahl, Kerstin; Way, Niobe

    2006-01-01

    The current study modeled developmental trajectories of ethnic identity exploration and affirmation and belonging from middle to late adolescence (ages 15-18) and examined how these trajectories varied according to ethnicity, gender, immigrant status, and perceived level of discrimination. The sample consisted of 135 urban low-income Black and…

  10. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Black People: Impact of Ethnicity on Survival and Genetic Risk Factors.

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    Suella Martino

    Full Text Available Black people are at increased risk of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP. Whether clinical presentation of TTP in Black patients has specific features is unknown. We assessed here differences in TTP presentation and outcome between Black and White patients. Clinical presentation was comparable between both ethnic groups. However, prognosis differed with a lower death rate in Black patients than in White patients (2.7% versus 11.6%, respectively, P = .04. Ethnicity, increasing age and neurologic involvement were retained as risk factors for death in a multivariable model (P < .05 all. Sixty-day overall survival estimated by the Kaplan-Meier curves and compared with the Log-Rank test confirmed that Black patients had a better survival than White patients (P = .03. Salvage therapies were similarly performed between both groups, suggesting that disease severity was comparable. The comparison of HLA-DRB1*11, -DRB1*04 and -DQB1*03 allele frequencies between Black patients and healthy Black individuals revealed no significant difference. However, the protective allele against TTP, HLA-DRB1*04, was dramatically decreased in Black individuals in comparison with White individuals. Black people with TTP may have a better survival than White patients despite a comparable disease severity. A low natural frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 in Black ethnicity may account for the greater risk of TTP in this population.

  11. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Black People: Impact of Ethnicity on Survival and Genetic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Suella; Jamme, Mathieu; Deligny, Christophe; Busson, Marc; Loiseau, Pascale; Azoulay, Elie; Galicier, Lionel; Pène, Frédéric; Provôt, François; Dossier, Antoine; Saheb, Samir; Veyradier, Agnès; Coppo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Black people are at increased risk of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Whether clinical presentation of TTP in Black patients has specific features is unknown. We assessed here differences in TTP presentation and outcome between Black and White patients. Clinical presentation was comparable between both ethnic groups. However, prognosis differed with a lower death rate in Black patients than in White patients (2.7% versus 11.6%, respectively, P = .04). Ethnicity, increasing age and neurologic involvement were retained as risk factors for death in a multivariable model (P Black patients had a better survival than White patients (P = .03). Salvage therapies were similarly performed between both groups, suggesting that disease severity was comparable. The comparison of HLA-DRB1*11, -DRB1*04 and -DQB1*03 allele frequencies between Black patients and healthy Black individuals revealed no significant difference. However, the protective allele against TTP, HLA-DRB1*04, was dramatically decreased in Black individuals in comparison with White individuals. Black people with TTP may have a better survival than White patients despite a comparable disease severity. A low natural frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 in Black ethnicity may account for the greater risk of TTP in this population.

  12. Ethnic Identity and Body Image among Black and White College Females

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    Baugh, Eboni; Mullis, Ron; Mullis, Ann; Hicks, Mary; Peterson, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines ethnic identity and body image in black and white college females. Participants: Researchers surveyed 118 students at 2 universities, 1 traditionally white and 1 historically black. Methods: Correlations and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between race, ethnic…

  13. Cardiac adaptation in athletes of black ethnicity: differentiating pathology from physiology.

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    Chandra, Navin; Papadakis, Michael; Sharma, Sanjay

    2012-08-01

    Cardiac adaptation to intense physical exercise is determined by factors including age, gender, body size, sporting discipline and ethnicity. Differentiating physiology from pathological conditions such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is challenging, but relevant, as HCM remains the commonest cause of sudden death in young athletes. Marked electrocardiographic repolarisation changes and echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy have been demonstrated in athletes of black ethnicity. Such changes highlight the overlap between 'athlete's heart' and morphologically mild HCM with potential for false-positive diagnoses and disqualification from competitive sport. The focus of this article is to provide practical considerations in differentiating physiological adaptation to exercise from cardiac pathology in athletes of black ethnicity.

  14. Black Hole Astrophysics The Engine Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, David L

    2012-01-01

    As a result of significant research over the past 20 years, black holes are now linked to some of the most spectacular and exciting phenomena in the Universe, ranging in size from those that have the same mass as stars to the super-massive objects that lie at the heart of most galaxies, including our own Milky Way. This book first introduces the properties of simple isolated holes, then adds in complications like rotation, accretion, radiation, and magnetic fields, finally arriving at a basic understanding of how these immense engines work. Black Hole Astrophysics • reviews our current knowledge of cosmic black holes and how they generate the most powerful observed pheonomena in the Universe; • highlights the latest, most up-to-date theories and discoveries in this very active area of astrophysical research; • demonstrates why we believe that black holes are responsible for important phenomena such as quasars, microquasars and gammaray bursts; • explains to the reader the nature of the violent and spe...

  15. Social Determinants of Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: Intersection of Ethnicity and Gender.

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    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2018-02-15

    Most of the existing sociological and epidemiological literature has focused on the protective effects of high socioeconomic status (SES) on population health through reducing exposure to risk factors and increasing human and material resources that can mitigate adversities. Recent studies, however, have documented poor mental health of high SES Blacks, particularly African American males and Caribbean Black females. The literature also shows a link between perceived discrimination and poor mental health. To better understand the extra costs of upward social mobility for minority populations, this study explored ethnic by gender variations in the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination in an ethnically diverse national sample of Black youth. This study included 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth who were sampled in the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A). Three SES indicators (financial hardship, family income, and income to needs ratio) were the independent variables. The dependent variable was perceived (daily) discrimination. Age was the covariate. Ethnicity and gender were the focal moderators. Linear regressions were used for data analysis in the pooled sample and also based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Considerable gender by ethnicity variations were found in the patterns of the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination. Financial hardship was a risk factor for perceived discrimination in African American males only. High family income and income to needs ratio were associated with high (but not low) perceived discrimination in African American males and Caribbean Black females. SES indicators were not associated with perceived discrimination for African American females or Caribbean Black males. When it comes to Black youth, high SES is not always protective. Whether SES reduces or increases perceived discrimination among Black youth depends on the

  16. Social Determinants of Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: Intersection of Ethnicity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing sociological and epidemiological literature has focused on the protective effects of high socioeconomic status (SES on population health through reducing exposure to risk factors and increasing human and material resources that can mitigate adversities. Recent studies, however, have documented poor mental health of high SES Blacks, particularly African American males and Caribbean Black females. The literature also shows a link between perceived discrimination and poor mental health. To better understand the extra costs of upward social mobility for minority populations, this study explored ethnic by gender variations in the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination in an ethnically diverse national sample of Black youth. This study included 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth who were sampled in the National Survey of American Life—Adolescent supplement (NSAL-A. Three SES indicators (financial hardship, family income, and income to needs ratio were the independent variables. The dependent variable was perceived (daily discrimination. Age was the covariate. Ethnicity and gender were the focal moderators. Linear regressions were used for data analysis in the pooled sample and also based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Considerable gender by ethnicity variations were found in the patterns of the associations between SES indicators and perceived discrimination. Financial hardship was a risk factor for perceived discrimination in African American males only. High family income and income to needs ratio were associated with high (but not low perceived discrimination in African American males and Caribbean Black females. SES indicators were not associated with perceived discrimination for African American females or Caribbean Black males. When it comes to Black youth, high SES is not always protective. Whether SES reduces or increases perceived discrimination among Black youth

  17. Evaluating Cohort and Intervention Effects on Black Adolescents' Ethnic-Racial Identity: A Cognitive-Cultural Approach

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    Whaley, Arthur L.; McQueen, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic-racial identity as protective factors in the psychological and social adjustment of Black youth is well established in the literature. Whaley (2003) developed a cognitive-cultural model of identity to explicate the process by which ethnic-racial socialization impacts ethnic-racial identity…

  18. Discrimination Increases Suicidal Ideation in Black Adolescents Regardless of Ethnicity and Gender.

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    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-11-06

    Discrimination is a common experience for Blacks across various developmental periods. Although much is known about the effect of discrimination on suicidal ideation of adults, less is known about the same association in Black youth. We examined the association between discrimination and suicidal ideation in a national sample of Black youth. We also explored gender and ethnic differences in this association. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003-2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (aged 13 to 17 years). Demographic and socioeconomic factors were controls, perceived discrimination was the predictor, and lifetime suicidal ideation was the outcome. Logistic regression was used to test the association between perceived discrimination and suicidal ideation in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity and gender. In the pooled sample of Black youth, higher perceived discrimination was associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02-1.17). This association was significant net of age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. We did not find interactions between perceived discrimination and ethnicity or gender on suicidal ideation. Perceived discrimination was associated with suicidal ideation in African Americans (CI = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.01-1.17) and Caribbean Blacks (CI = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.03-1.32), males (CI = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.00-1.25), and females (CI = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.00-1.16). Discrimination jeopardizes the mental health of Black youth. In a universal pattern, discrimination is associated with suicidal ideation in Black youth. More research is needed on this topic.

  19. Discrimination Increases Suicidal Ideation in Black Adolescents Regardless of Ethnicity and Gender

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    Shervin Assari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discrimination is a common experience for Blacks across various developmental periods. Although much is known about the effect of discrimination on suicidal ideation of adults, less is known about the same association in Black youth. Aim: We examined the association between discrimination and suicidal ideation in a national sample of Black youth. We also explored gender and ethnic differences in this association. Methods: We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents (NSAL-A, 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (aged 13 to 17 years. Demographic and socioeconomic factors were controls, perceived discrimination was the predictor, and lifetime suicidal ideation was the outcome. Logistic regression was used to test the association between perceived discrimination and suicidal ideation in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity and gender. Results: In the pooled sample of Black youth, higher perceived discrimination was associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.02−1.17. This association was significant net of age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. We did not find interactions between perceived discrimination and ethnicity or gender on suicidal ideation. Perceived discrimination was associated with suicidal ideation in African Americans (CI = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.01−1.17 and Caribbean Blacks (CI = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.03−1.32, males (CI = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.00−1.25, and females (CI = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.00−1.16. Conclusion: Discrimination jeopardizes the mental health of Black youth. In a universal pattern, discrimination is associated with suicidal ideation in Black youth. More research is needed on this topic.

  20. Ethnic differences in predictors of hearing protection behavior between Black and White workers.

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    Hong, OiSaeng; Lusk, Sally L; Ronis, David L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine whether there are ethnic differences in predictors of hearing protection behavior between Black and White workers. The Predictors of Use of Hearing Protection Model (PUHPM) derived from Pender's Health Promotion Model (Pender, 1987) was used as a conceptual model. A total of 2,119 (297 Blacks, 1,822 Whites) were included in the analysis. Internal consistency of instrument items was assessed using theta reliability estimates. Significant predictors of the use of hearing protective devices (HPDs) for Black and White workers and differences in predictors between the two groups were examined using multiple regression with interaction terms. Ethnic differences in scale or individual item scores were assessed using chi-square and t-test analyses. Different factors influenced hearing protection behavior among Black and White workers. The model was much less predictive of Blacks' hearing protection behavior than Whites' (R2 = .12 vs. .36). Since the PUHPM was not as effective in predicting hearing protection behavior for Blacks as for Whites, future studies are needed to expand the PUHPM through qualitative study and to develop culturally appropriate models to identify factors that better predict hearing protection behavior as a basis for developing effective interventions.

  1. Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology in Brazilian population with Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity

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    Ana Maria Bettoni Rodrigues da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare facial features related to the nose, lips and face between the Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity in the Brazilian population by means of linear measurements and proportion indices obtained from the analysis of three-dimensional (3D images taken by 3D stereophotogrammetry. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy subjects, being 10 Caucasians, 10 Blacks and 10 Asians had reference points (landmarks demarcated on their faces, 3D images were obtained (Vectra M3 and the following measurements were calculated: Facial proportion indices relative to the nose, lips and face. The statistical analysis was performed comparing the ethnic groups (one-way analysis of variance. Results: The Blacks and Asians showed the greatest difference in the face analysis (width, height of the lower face, upper face index and lower face index – P < 0.05. In the comparisons between groups, differences were verified to the mouth width and lower lip vermilion height. In the nose analysis, the biggest differences were obtained for the proportion indices, being that Caucasians versus Asians and Caucasians versus Blacks have showed the largest differences. Conclusion: This study found the presence of some similarities in the proportion indices of nose, lips and face between the ethnic groups of the Brazilian population, as well as some important differences that should be known to guide surgical and forensics procedures, among others.

  2. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE BARRIERS FACING BLACK AND MINORITY ETHNICS WITHIN THE UK CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

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    Vian Ahmed

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK construction industry is one of the largest employers, positioned as the country’s top employer with over two million employees and projected to continue growth as far as 2011. However, it is facing ongoing skills shortages in a number of professional areas and tends to lack an ethnic diversity of workers compared to the White community of workers across the whole economy. The government’s Ethnic Minority Employment Task Force shows that for any given level of qualification, a Black or ethnic minority person is less likely to be employed, than a similarly qualified White person. Current research into issues surrounding ethnicity, from academia to employment is scarce, particularly in entry and process development within the construction industry. The aim of this paper is to outline the findings from perceptional and experiential barriers of Black and Minority Ethnics (BMEs students and employees, in order to identify perceptional and actual barriers that lead to the under-representation of BMEs within the construction industry; and also to suggest how better knowledge flow mechanisms could lead to a more balanced development, particularly in terms of ethnic diversification in the UK construction industry. The aim was achieved by adopting qualitative and quantitative methods including questionnaire surveys of undergraduate students in a construction related program, employees working within the construction industry and interviews with company directors and human resource managers. The image of the construction industry is found to be one of the major barriers for entry into the industry. Language and cultures form additional barriers for a range of ethnic groupings. Support, in the form of recruitment events, training, mentoring, professional networking, as well as work placement and experience schemes, can smooth entry, retention and progression within the construction industry.

  3. Additive Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Body Mass Index among Blacks: Role of Ethnicity and Gender.

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    Assari, Shervin

    2014-04-01

    Most studies on mental health associates of obesity have focused on depression and less is known about the role of anxiety in obesity. This study compared the additive effects of General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) on Body Mass Index (BMI) across sub-populations of Blacks based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001 - 2003. The participants consisted of 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks. Twelve-month MDD and GAD were determined using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Levels of BMI were categorized based on being equal to or larger than 25, 30, 35, and 40 kg/m(2). We fitted linear regression models specific for our groups, which were defined based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Additionally, age, education, marital status, employment, and region were controlled. Among Caribbean Black men and African American women, lifetime GAD, but not MDD, was associated with high BMI. Among Caribbean Black women, lifetime MDD, but not GAD, was associated with high BMI. Intersection of ethnicity and gender may determine how anxiety and depression are associated with BMI among Blacks. Sub-populations of Blacks (e.g. based on ethnicity and gender) may have specific mental health determinants or consequences of obesity. Future research should investigate how and why the additive effects of anxiety and depression on obesity vary across ethnic and gender groups of Blacks.

  4. Ethnic Differences in Alcohol Use: A Comparison of Black and White College Students in a Small Private University Setting

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    Gover, Kristie S.

    2010-01-01

    An identified gap in the literature associated with college student alcohol use is the exploration of the problem based on ethnicity, specifically possible differences in use between Black and White college students. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in alcohol use for Black and White college students at a small private…

  5. Low Family Support and Risk of Obesity among Black Youth: Role of Gender and Ethnicity.

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    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-05-12

    Most studies on the role of family environment in developing risk of obesity among youth have focused on parenting behaviors that are directly involved in energy balance in regional, non-representative White samples. Using a national sample of ethnically diverse Black youth, the current study tested the association between low family support and risk of obesity. We also tested the heterogeneity of this association based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a national survey of Black adolescents in the United States. The study enrolled 1170 African American and Caribbean Black 13-17 year old youth. Obesity was defined based on the cutoff points of body mass index (BMI) appropriate for age and gender of youth. Family support was measured using a five-item measure that captured emotional and tangible social support. Age, gender, and ethnicity were also measured. Logistic regressions were utilized in the pooled sample, and also based on gender, ethnicity, and their intersection, to test the link between low family support and risk for obesity. In the pooled sample, low family support was not associated with an increased risk of obesity (OR = 1.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.96-1.89). The association between low family support and risk of obesity was, however, significant among African American females (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.01-2.55). There was no association for African American males (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.82-1.92), Caribbean Black males (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.01-54.85), and Caribbean Black females (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.42-1.44). In conclusion, policies and programs that enable African American families to provide additional family support may prevent obesity among African American female youth. Future research should test the efficacy of promoting family support as a tool for preventing obesity among African American female youth.

  6. Perceptions and experiences of epilepsy among patients from black ethnic groups in South London.

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    Sonecha, Shaneil; Noble, Adam J; Morgan, Myfanwy; Ridsdale, Leone

    2015-09-01

    The National Institute of Clinical Excellence suggested black ethnic minorities with epilepsy have different cultural, communicative and health-care needs. However, little is known about these despite increasing migration of black African and Caribbean people to Europe. This study aims to explore perceptions and experiences of epilepsy among black African and Caribbean people in South London. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 participants, to examine their beliefs and perceptions of living with epilepsy. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, codes generated and thematic analysis undertaken. African participants described supernatural causes for epilepsy and experienced considerable stigma whereas Caribbean participants described epilepsy as a 'normal illness'. However, both African and Caribbean participants experienced social restrictions arising from their epilepsy. The findings of higher levels of perceived stigma and social restriction seen in African participants may be a continuation of beliefs reported in participants' country of origin. There is also evidence that views regarding epilepsy transition through generations vary depending on place of birth. Practical Implications Health-care professionals need to be aware of and engage with the particular beliefs and concerns of black African and Caribbean people to achieve equity in health outcomes.

  7. Sociocultural influences on heart failure self-care among an ethnic minority black population.

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    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; McCarthy, Margaret M; Howe, Alexandra; Schipper, Judith; Katz, Stuart M

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) places a disproportionate burden on ethnic minority populations, including blacks, who have the highest risk of developing HF and experience poorer outcomes. Self-care, which encompasses adherence to diet, medication, and symptom management, can significantly improve outcomes. However, HF self-care is notoriously poor in ethnic minority black populations. Because culture is central to the development of self-care, we sought to describe the self-care practices and sociocultural influences of self-care in an ethnic minority black population with HF. In this mixed-methods study, 30 black patients with HF (mean [SD] age, 59.63 [15] years; 67% New York Heart Association class III) participated in interviews about self-care, cultural beliefs, and social support and completed standardized instruments measuring self-care and social support. Thematic content analysis revealed themes about sociocultural influences of self-care. Qualitative and quantitative data were integrated in the final analytic phase. Self-care was very poor (standardized mean [SD] Self-care of Heart Failure Index [SCHFI] maintenance, 60.05 [18.12]; SCHFI management, 51.19 [18.98]; SCHFI confidence, 62.64 [8.16]). The overarching qualitative theme was that self-care is influenced by cultural beliefs, including the meaning ascribed to HF, and by social norms. The common belief that HF was inevitable ("all my people have bad hearts") or attributed to "stress" influenced daily self-care. Spirituality was also linked to self-care ("the doctor may order it but I pray on it"). Cultural beliefs supported some self-care behaviors like medication adherence. Difficulty reconciling cultural preferences (favorite foods) with the salt-restricted diet was evident. The significant relationship of social support and self-care (r = 0.451, P = .01) was explicated by the qualitative data. Social norms interfered with willingness to access social support, and "selectivity" in whom individuals confided led

  8. Additive Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Body Mass Index among Blacks: Role of Ethnicity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:: Most studies on mental health associates of obesity have focused on depression and less is known about the role of anxiety in obesity.. Objectives:: This study compared the additive effects of General Anxiety Disorder (GAD and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD on Body Mass Index (BMI across sub-populations of Blacks based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender.. Methods:: Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001 - 2003. The participants consisted of 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks. Twelve-month MDD and GAD were determined using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Levels of BMI were categorized based on being equal to or larger than 25, 30, 35, and 40 kg/m2. We fitted linear regression models specific for our groups, which were defined based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Additionally, age, education, marital status, employment, and region were controlled.. Results:: Among Caribbean Black men and African American women, lifetime GAD, but not MDD, was associated with high BMI. Among Caribbean Black women, lifetime MDD, but not GAD, was associated with high BMI.. Conclusions:: Intersection of ethnicity and gender may determine how anxiety and depression are associated with BMI among Blacks. Sub-populations of Blacks (e.g. based on ethnicity and gender may have specific mental health determinants or consequences of obesity. Future research should investigate how and why the additive effects of anxiety and depression on obesity vary across ethnic and gender groups of Blacks..

  9. Additive Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Body Mass Index among Blacks: Role of Ethnicity and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most studies on mental health associates of obesity have focused on depression and less is known about the role of anxiety in obesity. Objectives: This study compared the additive effects of General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) on Body Mass Index (BMI) across sub-populations of Blacks based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Methods: Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001 - 2003. The participants consisted of 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks. Twelve-month MDD and GAD were determined using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Levels of BMI were categorized based on being equal to or larger than 25, 30, 35, and 40 kg/m2. We fitted linear regression models specific for our groups, which were defined based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Additionally, age, education, marital status, employment, and region were controlled. Results: Among Caribbean Black men and African American women, lifetime GAD, but not MDD, was associated with high BMI. Among Caribbean Black women, lifetime MDD, but not GAD, was associated with high BMI. Conclusions: Intersection of ethnicity and gender may determine how anxiety and depression are associated with BMI among Blacks. Sub-populations of Blacks (e.g. based on ethnicity and gender) may have specific mental health determinants or consequences of obesity. Future research should investigate how and why the additive effects of anxiety and depression on obesity vary across ethnic and gender groups of Blacks. PMID:24936480

  10. Ethnic Differences in Separate and Additive Effects of Anxiety and Depression on Self-rated Mental Health Among Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Dejman, Masoumeh; Neighbors, Harold W

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore ethnic differences in the separate and additive effects of anxiety and depression on self-rated mental health (SRMH) of Blacks in the USA. With a cross-sectional design, we used data from a national household probability sample of African Americans (n = 3570) and Caribbean Blacks (n = 1621) who participated in the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. Demographic factors, socio-economic factors, 12-month general anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), and current SRMH were measured. In each ethnic group, three logistic regressions were used to assess the effects of GAD, MDD, and their combinations on SRMH. Among African Americans, GAD and MDD had separate effects on SRMH. Among Caribbean Blacks, only MDD but not GAD had separate effect on SRMH. Among African Americans, when the combined effects of GAD and MDD were tested, GAD but not MDD was associated with SRMH. The separate and additive effects of GAD and MDD on SRMH among Blacks depend on ethnicity. Although single-item SRMH measures are easy methods for the screening of mental health need, community-based programs that aim to meet the need for mental health services among Blacks in the USA should consider within-race ethnic differences in the applicability of such instruments.

  11. Perceived ethnic discrimination and cigarette smoking: examining the moderating effects of race/ethnicity and gender in a sample of Black and Latino urban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Monge, Angela; Agosta, John; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Stanton, Cassandra; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently.

  12. Ethnicity-specific factors influencing childhood immunisation decisions among Black and Asian Minority Ethnic groups in the UK: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Alice S; Rockliffe, Lauren; Chorley, Amanda J; Marlow, Laura A V; Bedford, Helen; Smith, Samuel G; Waller, Jo

    2017-06-01

    Uptake of some childhood immunisations in the UK is lower among those from some Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds. This systematic review of qualitative research sought to understand the factors that are associated with ethnicity that influence the immunisation decisions of parents from BAME backgrounds living in the UK. Databases were searched on 2 December 2014 for studies published at any time using the terms 'UK' and 'vaccination' and 'qualitative methods' (and variations of these). Included articles comprised participants who were parents from BAME backgrounds. Thematic synthesis methods were used to develop descriptive and higher order themes. Themes specific to ethnicity and associated factors are reported. Eight papers were included in the review. Most participants were from Black (n=62) or Asian (n=38) backgrounds. Two ethnicity-related factors affected immunisation decisions. First, factors that are related to ethnicity itself (namely religion, upbringing and migration, and language) affected parents' perceived importance of immunisations, whether immunisations were permitted or culturally acceptable and their understanding of immunisation/the immunisation schedule. Second, perceived biological differences affected decision-making and demand for information. Factors related to ethnicity must be considered when seeking to understand immunisation decisions among parents from BAME backgrounds. Where appropriate and feasible, vaccination information should be targeted to address beliefs about ethnic differences held by some individuals from some BAME backgrounds. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Racial/Ethnic Socialization and Identity Development in Black Families: The Role of Parent and Youth Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Stephen C.; Brodish, Amanda B.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Banerjee, Meeta; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic (R/E) socialization is widely practiced in R/E minority families. However, only recently have models been developed to understand how parents' R/E socialization messages influence adolescent development. The primary goal of the present study was to clarify and extend existing work on R/E socialization in African American (Black)…

  14. Evaluating cohort and intervention effects on black adolescents' ethnic-racial identity: a cognitive-cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L; McQueen, John P

    2010-11-01

    The importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic-racial identity as protective factors in the psychological and social adjustment of Black youth is well established in the literature. Whaley (2003) developed a cognitive-cultural model of identity to explicate the process by which ethnic-racial socialization impacts ethnic-racial identity and subsequent social and behavioral outcomes among adolescents of African descent. The present study tests the cognitive-cultural model of identity utilizing pilot data from a modified Africentric intervention program. Both explicit and implicit aspects of ethnic-racial identity were evaluated between two cohorts: one group in 2003, which represented historical controls, and another group in 2008 which received the intervention and has pre-test and post-test data. We hypothesized that the evaluation of underlying implicit or schematic processes would be more sensitive to changes in ethnic-racial identity resulting from cohort and intervention effects. Our results confirmed this hypothesis. Implications of applying mainstream behavioral science research paradigms to issues of special concern to the Black community are discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Heat engines for dilatonic Born-Infeld black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamidipati, Chandrasekhar; Yerra, Pavan Kumar

    2017-08-01

    In the context of dilaton coupled Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant and a Born-Infeld field, we study heat engines where a charged black hole is the working substance. Using the existence of a notion of thermodynamic mass and volume (which depend on the dilaton coupling), the mechanical work takes place via the pdV terms present in the first law of extended gravitational thermodynamics. The efficiency is analyzed as a function of dilaton and Born-Infeld couplings, and the results are compared with analogous computations in the related conformal solutions in the Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld theory and black holes in anti-de Sitter space-time.

  16. Heat engines for dilatonic Born-Infeld black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhamidipati, Chandrasekhar; Yerra, Pavan Kumar [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, School of Basic Sciences, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2017-08-15

    In the context of dilaton coupled Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant and a Born-Infeld field, we study heat engines where a charged black hole is the working substance. Using the existence of a notion of thermodynamic mass and volume (which depend on the dilaton coupling), the mechanical work takes place via the pdV terms present in the first law of extended gravitational thermodynamics. The efficiency is analyzed as a function of dilaton and Born-Infeld couplings, and the results are compared with analogous computations in the related conformal solutions in the Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld theory and black holes in anti-de Sitter space-time. (orig.)

  17. The psychosocial experiences of breast cancer amongst Black, South Asian and White survivors: do differences exist between ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Kerai, Geeta; Harcourt, Diana; Rumsey, Nichola; Naqvi, Habib; White, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Very little UK-based research has examined breast cancer-related experiences of Black and Minority Ethnic populations, and we do not know whether the psychosocial impact of diagnosis and treatment in this group is any different to that of White women. Therefore, this study examined similarities and differences amongst Black, South Asian and White breast cancer survivors. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey was conducted; 173 breast cancer survivors (80 White, 53 South Asian and 40 Black) completed a questionnaire, which assessed psychological functioning, social support, body image and beliefs about cancer. Significant differences (p Asian participants: compared with White women, South Asian participants reported higher levels of anxiety and depression, poorer quality of life and held higher levels of internal and fatalistic beliefs pertaining to cancer. Black and South Asian women reported higher levels of body image concerns than White women, and held stronger beliefs that God was in control of their cancer. South Asian women turned to religion as a source of support more than Black and White women. This study enhances current understanding of the experience and impact of breast cancer amongst Black and South Asian women, and demonstrates similarities and differences between the ethnic groups. The findings highlight implications for healthcare professionals, particularly in relation to providing culturally sensitive care and support to their patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-02-23

    Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD) among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003-2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51). The perception that one's neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03-1.93) but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth.

  19. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD) among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17). Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51). The perception that one’s neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03–1.93) but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth. PMID:28241490

  20. Neighborhood Safety and Major Depressive Disorder in a National Sample of Black Youth; Gender by Ethnic Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among Black youth. In addition to stress related to their developmental transition, social factors such as a perceived unsafe neighborhood impose additional risks. We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between perceived neighborhood safety and major depressive disorder (MDD among a national sample of Black youth. We used data from the National Survey of American Life - Adolescents (NSAL-A, 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (age 13 to 17. Demographic factors, perceived neighborhood safety, and MDD (Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI were measured. Logistic regressions were used to test the association between neighborhood safety and MDD in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity by gender groups. In the pooled sample of Black youth, those who perceived their neighborhoods to be unsafe were at higher risk of MDD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.25; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.02-1.51. The perception that one’s neighborhood is unsafe was associated with a higher risk of MDD among African American males (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.03–1.93 but not African American females or Caribbean Black males and females. In conclusion, perceived neighborhood safety is not a universal psychological determinant of MDD across ethnic by gender groups of Black youth; however, policies and programs that enhance the sense of neighborhood safety may prevent MDD in male African American youth.

  1. Black Engineering Students' Motivation for PhD Attainment: Passion Plus Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ebony O.; White, Devin T.; Jenkins, Akailah T.; Houston, Stacey; Bentley, Lydia C.; Smith, William J.; Robinson, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Much of the extant research, practice and policy in engineering education has focused on the limited persistence, waning interest and lack of preparation among Black students to continue beyond the post-secondary engineering pipeline. However, this research suggests that many Black PhD students persist and succeed in engineering, fueled…

  2. Cultural diversity and the mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities: some implications for service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Alison; Avan, Ghizala; Macintosh, Sherry Bien

    2012-07-01

    Previous research on mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities has identified limited service responses and the need to consider mistreatment as an issue not only for individuals but also for families, communities, and institutions. The impact of cultural factors on understandings, experiences, and remedies for mistreatment has been debated. Drawing on empirical research in the United Kingdom involving service providers and ethnically-diverse community members, the article explores implications of cultural variation for service provision. Clear gaps exist between service provision and people experiencing mistreatment due to structural and contextual factors; cultural factors have a relatively minor impact.

  3. Race Attribution Modifies the Association Between Daily Discrimination and Major Depressive Disorder Among Blacks: the Role of Gender and Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Watkins, Daphne C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2015-06-01

    Although the association between discrimination and depression among Blacks is well-known, we do not know if this effect is influenced by race attribution. In this current study, we investigated the effect modification of race attribution on the association between everyday discrimination and major depressive disorder (MDD) among Blacks in the United States, and whether this effect modification is influenced by the intersection of ethnicity and gender. With a cross-sectional design, this study used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. The study included a nationally representative sample of Blacks (n = 5,008), composed of 3,570 African Americans and 1,438 Caribbean Blacks. Everyday discrimination, two single-item measures of race attribution (race as the major barrier against upward social mobility, and race as the main cause for being discriminated against) and 12-month MDD were measured. In the first step, we fit logistic regressions to the pooled sample. In the next step, we ran regressions specific to the intersections of ethnicity and gender. Interaction between race attribution and discrimination were also entered into the models. Among Caribbean Black men, the belief that race is a major barrier against one's own upward social mobility modified the association between exposure to daily discrimination and MDD. In this group, the association between discrimination and MDD was weaker among those who believed that race is a major barrier against one's own upward social mobility. Race attribution did not modify the association between discrimination and MDD among African American men, African American women, and Caribbean Black women. The other measure of race attribution (race as the main cause of being discriminated against) did not modify the association between discrimination and MDD in any ethnicity by gender subgroups. Among Caribbean Black men, the link between everyday discrimination and depression may depend on seeing

  4. Black, Asian and minority ethnic female nurses: colonialism, power and racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Beverley

    2018-03-08

    The history of black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) women who came to the UK to work as nurses is interwoven with the history of the NHS. The colonial construct of the BAME female nurse is embedded in British society. From the post-second-world-war years to the 1960s, to today, BAME women chose to become nurses and work in the 'motherland', a term regularly used by those immigrating to England from the former colonies. The experiences of the BAME female nurse in the 1970s and early 1980s were of overt racism and lack of advancement. Although racism was less overt in the late 1980s and 1990s, these experiences continued and BAME female nurse advancement levels remained lower than among their white female counterparts. In the 21st century there continues to be significant differences in treatment of BAME female nurses compared with white nursing colleagues, with the enduring effects of the coloniser holding the power to impact on the BAME female nurse who is the colonised, racially stereotyped and less powerful. There are multifaceted reasons for the unequal treatment of BAME female nurses. However, the persistent construct of colonialism and power needs to be recognised if the NHS is to acknowledge ongoing racialised inequalities experienced by BAME female nurses. A recognition of racist and sexist discriminatory actions must occur to permit the development of equal opportunity strategies to address these unacceptable inequalities and generate a real cultural shift.

  5. Gender and Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Body Image Dissatisfaction and Binge Eating Disorder among Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blostein, Freida; Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-08-01

    The research on binge eating has overwhelmingly focused on Whites. We aimed to study gender and ethnic differences in the association between body image dissatisfaction and binge eating in a nationally representative sample of Black adults in the USA. This cross-sectional study used data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2003-2004. Self-identified Caribbean Black (n = 1621) and African American (3570) adults aged 18 and older were enrolled. The independent variable was body dissatisfaction measured with two items. Using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI), outcome was lifetime binge eating without hierarchy according to the DSM-IV criteria. Covariates included age, socioeconomic factors (i.e., education and marital status), and body mass index. Ethnicity and gender were focal moderators. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Despite comparable prevalence of lifetime binge eating (5 vs 4 %, p > 0.05), African Americans reported higher body image dissatisfaction than Caribbean Blacks (36 vs 29 %, p > 0.05). In the pooled sample, body dissatisfaction was a strong predictor of lifetime binge eating disorders. There was a significant interaction (p = 0.039) between ethnicity and body image dissatisfaction on binge eating, suggesting a stronger association between body image dissatisfaction and lifetime binge eating for Caribbean Blacks (OR = 11.65, 95 % 6.89-19.72) than African Americans (OR = 6.72, 95 % CI 3.97-11.37). Gender did not interact with body image dissatisfaction on binge eating. Ethnic variation in the link between body image dissatisfaction and binge eating may be due to within-race cultural differences in body image between African Americans and Caribbean Blacks. This may include different definitions, norms, and expectations regarding the body size. Findings suggest that ethnicity may bias relevance of body image dissatisfaction as a diagnostic criterion for

  6. Examining the relationship between the endorsement of racial/ethnic stereotypes and excess body fat composition in a national sample of African Americans and black Caribbeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lauren J; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2013-01-01

    Using the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative household survey of non-institutionalized US Blacks, our study examined whether the endorsement of racial/ ethnic stereotypes was associated with excess body fat composition among African Americans (n = 3,265) and Black Caribbeans (n = 1,332) living in the United States. We used ordinary least squares and multinomial logistic regression analyses controlling for potential confounders. Results from the linear regression suggested that the endorsement of racial/ethnic stereotypes was associated with increased body mass index and weight among African American males (b = .57, P females (b = .50 P Black Caribbeans. Future studies should examine the relationship between internalized discrimination and endorsements of negative racial/ethnic stereotypes and excess fat accumulation among ethnically heterogeneous samples of Blacks.

  7. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Black American Men: Moderated-Mediation Effects of Ethnicity and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; N'cho, Hammad S; Green, Carlton E; Jernigan, Maryam M; Helms, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n = 1201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n = 545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men.

  8. Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms among Black American Men: Moderated-Mediation Effects of Ethnicity and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    N’cho, Hammad S.; Green, Carlton E.; Jernigan, Maryam M.; Helms, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is related to depression and poor self-esteem among Black men. Poorer self-esteem is also associated with depression. However, there is limited research identifying how self-esteem may mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms for disparate ethnic groups of Black men. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic groups as a moderator of the mediating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms among a nationally representative sample of African American (n=1,201) and Afro-Caribbean American men (n=545) in the National Survey of American Life. Due to cultural socialization differences, we hypothesized that self-esteem would mediate the associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms only for African American men, but not Afro-Caribbean American men. Moderated-mediation regression analyses indicated that the conditional indirect effects of discrimination on depressive symptoms through self-esteem were significant for African American men, but not for Afro-Caribbean men. Our results highlight important ethnic differences among Black men. PMID:27337623

  9. A Cross-Sectional Study of Engineering Students' Self-Efficacy by Gender, Ethnicity, Year, and Transfer Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2009-04-01

    This is a cross-sectional study of 519 undergraduate engineering majors' self-efficacy beliefs at a large, research extensive, Midwestern university. Engineering self-efficacy is an individual's belief in his or her ability to successfully negotiate the academic hurdles of the engineering program. Engineering self-efficacy was obtained from four variables: self-efficacy 1, self-efficacy 2, engineering career outcome expectations, and coping self-efficacy. The four variables were analyzed using a repeated analysis of variance among levels of gender, ethnicity, years students had been enrolled in their engineering program, and transfer status. No significant differences in mean engineering self-efficacy scores were found by gender, ethnicity, and transfer status. However, significant interactions between gender and the subscales, ethnicity and the subscales, and transfer status and the subscales were found. Significant differences in mean engineering self-efficacy scores were found among years students had been enrolled in the program.

  10. A Comparative Perspective on the Ethnic Enclave: Blacks, Italians, and Jews in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, Suzanne

    1985-01-01

    Research among workers and entrepreneurs in three ethnic groups found that (1) ethnic employees in an enclave environment receive rewards in some ways superior to those available to their counterparts in the secondary sectors, and (2) special linkages exist between ethnic businesses that facilitate the prosperity of these companies in the…

  11. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  12. Racial and Ethnic-Related Stressors as Predictors of Perceived Stress and Academic Performance for African American Students at a Historically Black College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among African American students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related stressors…

  13. An Examination of the Impact of Racial and Ethnic Identity, Impostor Feelings, and Minority Status Stress on the Mental Health of Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Shannon; Beasley, Samuel T.; Jones, Bianca; Awosogba, Olufunke; Jackson, Stacey; Cokley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, racial centrality, minority status stress, and impostor feelings as predictors of mental health in a sample of 218 Black college students. Ethnic identity was found to be a significant positive predictor of mental health, whereas minority status stress and impostor feelings were significant negative predictors.…

  14. Why Not Academia?--The Streamlined Career Choice Process of Black African Women Engineers: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlambo, Yeukai Angela

    2017-01-01

    Black African women are grossly underrepresented as academic staff in engineering programs at South African universities. The problem is exacerbated at historically White institutions (HWI) where Black women are simply absent as engineering research and teaching staff. The absence of Black African women in the academy occurs despite Black African…

  15. Examining the relationship of ethnicity, gender and social cognitive factors with the academic achievement of first-year engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Bruce Henry

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified

  16. Improving pathways into mental health care for black and ethnic minority groups: a systematic review of the grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Joanne; Sass, Bernd; McKenzie, Kwame; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2009-01-01

    Black and ethnic minorities show different pathways to care services and different routes out of care. These often involve non-statutory sector services. In order to improve access to services, and to develop appropriate and effective interventions, many innovations are described but the knowledge about how to improve pathways to recovery has not been synthesized. Much of this work is not formally published. Hence, this paper addresses this oversight and undertakes a review of the grey literature. The key components of effective pathway interventions include specialist services for ethnic minority groups, collaboration between sectors, facilitating referral routes between services, outreach and facilitating access into care, and supporting access to rehabilitation and moving out of care. Services that support collaboration, referral between services, and improve access seem effective, but warrant further evaluation. Innovative services must ensure that their evaluation frameworks meet minimum quality standards if the knowledge gained from the service is to be generalized, and if it is to inform policy.

  17. THE DISCOURSE OF THE DIVERSITY ETHNIC-RACIAL AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE DIFFERENCES IN THE BLACK SUBJECT FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Inês Weschenfelder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present how the ethnical racial diversity discourse is structured in Venâncio Aires county, RS and in what way it contributes to the formation of the black citizen of Venancio Aires. The analisys of Folha do Mate NewsPaper, the main printed media of the current county, allowed to recognize an ocurred discursive shift, especially, from 1988. As characteristic of Contemporary, the diversity discourse tries to evidence how different cultures live peacefully in the same space, when work around any indication of conflict that may ocurr by the difference, it contributes to the black person formation. From the orientations of the post-structuralist perspectives and from the analitical tools of Michel Foucault, the analises of the discourse intends to enable an important debate in the education field, specially in relation to the forms of governments of the individuals.

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease in young patients: challenges faced by black and minority ethnic communities in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Christopher; Nash, Avril; Lloyd, Michele; Brooks, Fiona; Lindsay, James O; Poullis, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing among black and minority ethnic (BME) communities. Despite this rise in prevalence, there is a paucity of research relating to ethnicity and IBD outside the USA. Furthermore, the symptoms of IBD are reported to start during childhood or adolescence in 20-25% of people with the condition. It is therefore important that young people's experiences of diagnosis, treatment and living with IBD are fully understood to ensure effective services and information provision. The study reported on in this paper was commissioned by a UK charity (Crohn's and Colitis UK) with the aim of increasing understanding of the specific issues and service needs of young people with IBD from BME communities. Empirical research entailed in-depth semi-structured interviews with 20 young people from BME groups accessed through gastroenterology departments at three collaborating NHS hospitals in England serving ethnically diverse populations. Interviews were carried out from June to December 2010 and sought to capture young people's views with IBD. A thematic analysis of their experiences identified many commonalities with other young people with IBD, such as the problematic route to formal diagnosis and the impact of IBD on education. The young people also experienced tensions between effective self-management strategies and cultural norms and practices relating to food. Moreover, the ability of parents to provide support was hampered for some young people by the absence of culturally competent services that were responsive to the families' communication needs. The findings highlight the need for more culturally appropriate information concerning IBD, and improved responsiveness to young people with IBD within primary care and the education system, as well as culturally competent messaging relating to the specific nature of the condition among the wider South Asian and black communities. © 2015 John Wiley

  19. Ethnicity modifies the additive effects of anxiety and drug use disorders on suicidal ideation among black adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to test if ethnicity moderates the additive effects of lifetime psychiatric disorders on serious suicidal thoughts among a nationally representative sample of Black adults in the United States. Methods: For this study, we used data of 5,181 Black adults (3,570 African Americans and 1,621 Caribbean Blacks who participated in the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. Five lifetime psychiatric disorders (i.e., major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol abuse disorder, and drug abuse were considered as the independent variables. Lifetime serious suicidal ideation was considered as the dependent variable. Logistic regressions were used to determine if ethnicity modifies the effects of each psychiatric disorder on serious suicide ideation. Ethnicity was conceptualized as the possible moderator and socio-demographics (i.e., age, gender, education level, employment, marital status and country region were control variables. Results: Among African Americans, major depressive disorder, general anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. Among Caribbean Blacks, major depressive disorder and drug abuse disorder were associated with higher odds of suicidal thoughts. In the pooled sample, there was a significant interaction between ethnicity and anxiety disorder and a marginally significant interaction between ethnicity and drug abuse. Conclusions: Based on our study, suicidality due to psychiatric disorders among Black adults in the United States may depend on ethnicity. General anxiety disorder seems to be a more important risk factor for suicidal ideation among African Americans while drug abuse may contribute more to the risk of suicidal thoughts among Caribbean Blacks.

  20. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Additive Effects of Socio-economics, Psychiatric Disorders, and Subjective Religiosity on Suicidal Ideation among Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the additive effects of socio-economic factors, number of psychiatric disorders, and religiosity on suicidal ideation among Blacks, based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. With a cross-sectional design, data came from the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003, which included 3570 African-American and 1621 Caribbean Black adults. Socio-demographics, perceived religiosity, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders and lifetime suicidal ideation were measured. Logistic regressions were fitted specific to groups based on the intersection of gender and ethnicity, while socioeconomics, number of life time psychiatric disorders, and subjective religiosity were independent variables, and lifetime serious suicidal ideation was the dependent variable. Irrespective of ethnicity and gender, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders was a risk factor for lifetime suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] ranging from 2.4 for Caribbean Black women to 6.0 for Caribbean Black men). Only among African-American men (OR = 0.8, 95% confidence interval = 0.7-0.9), perceived religiosity had a residual protective effect against suicidal ideation above and beyond number of lifetime psychiatric disorders. The direction of the effect of education on suicidal ideating also varied based on the group. Residual protective effect of subjective religiosity in the presence of psychiatric disorders on suicidal ideation among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender. African-American men with multiple psychiatric disorders and low religiosity are at very high risk for suicidal ideation.

  1. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Additive Effects of Socio-economics, Psychiatric Disorders, and Subjective Religiosity on Suicidal Ideation among Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the additive effects of socio-economic factors, number of psychiatric disorders, and religiosity on suicidal ideation among Blacks, based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Methods: With a cross-sectional design, data came from the National Survey of American Life, 2001–2003, which included 3570 African-American and 1621 Caribbean Black adults. Socio-demographics, perceived religiosity, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders and lifetime suicidal ideation were measured. Logistic regressions were fitted specific to groups based on the intersection of gender and ethnicity, while socioeconomics, number of life time psychiatric disorders, and subjective religiosity were independent variables, and lifetime serious suicidal ideation was the dependent variable. Results: Irrespective of ethnicity and gender, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders was a risk factor for lifetime suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] ranging from 2.4 for Caribbean Black women to 6.0 for Caribbean Black men). Only among African-American men (OR = 0.8, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–0.9), perceived religiosity had a residual protective effect against suicidal ideation above and beyond number of lifetime psychiatric disorders. The direction of the effect of education on suicidal ideating also varied based on the group. Conclusions: Residual protective effect of subjective religiosity in the presence of psychiatric disorders on suicidal ideation among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender. African-American men with multiple psychiatric disorders and low religiosity are at very high risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:26180624

  2. Building a more diverse biomedical engineering workforce: Biomedical engineering at the university of the district of Columbia, a historically black college & university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lara A; Adebayo, A Segun; Nian Zhang; Haghani, Sasan; Dowell, Kathleen; Shetty, Devdas

    2016-08-01

    Biomedical Engineering (BME) is a new, multidisciplinary, and rapidly growing field, however, the BME Workforce suffers from limited ethnic and gender diversity. Despite the demand and growth of this new field due to its public health importance, only 4 out of the 107 Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) nationwide offers a Bachelor's of Science (B.S.) in Bio-Engineering related fields. In order to contribute to a growing BME Workforce, HBCUs need to react and offer more degree-programs relevant to BME. At the University of the District of Columbia (UDC), an HBCU and the District's only public institution for higher learning, we have recently established a new, degree program: Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Engineering (B.S. in BME) full-board approved in Fall 2014, with program activities initiated in Fall 2015. The educational goal of this program is to enhance the quality and diversity of the BME Workforce via student professional development, new and relevant BME courses, and BME scholarly activities (e.g., guest lectures and journal club sessions), ultimately to increase the number of ethnic minorities pursuing careers and degrees in BME. Through our program activities, we are aiming to meet the nation's demand to contribute to a diverse BME workforce, directed towards solving problems in human health. A secondary, but related goal, is to increase the diversity of STEM-related fields. This paper summarizes our initial, but encouraging, BME activity-related findings. However, this study will be longitudinal (on a multiple year time period) to observe the true outcomes of our initiative.

  3. "You've Got to Be Tough and I'm Trying": Black and Minority Ethnic Student Teachers' Experiences of Initial Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Chris; Lall, Rajinder

    2011-01-01

    Whilst Black and minority ethnic (BME) recruitment to initial teacher education (ITE) in the UK is increasing, completion rates are lower than for White students, and this study reports the experiences of BME student teachers on a primary postgraduate programme that had been particularly successful in increasing recruitment of BME students.…

  4. Ethnic and gender differences in additive effects of socio-economics, psychiatric disorders, and subjective religiosity on suicidal ideation among blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Residual protective effect of subjective religiosity in the presence of psychiatric disorders on suicidal ideation among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender. African-American men with multiple psychiatric disorders and low religiosity are at very high risk for suicidal ideation.

  5. Promoting the Mental Well-Being of Older People from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in United Kingdom Rural Areas: Findings from an Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthorpe, Jill; Moriarty, Jo; Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Sharif, Nadira

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from 81 interviews with practitioners in social care and housing with care services in the United Kingdom, this paper explores practice issues in rural areas when supporting the mental health and well-being of older people from Black and minority ethnic groups. The paper begins with a review of the literature which provides evidence that…

  6. A unicorn's tale: Examining the experiences of Black women in engineering industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Monique S

    2016-01-01

    Black women have recently been identified as the most educated demographic in the United States, and yet they are grossly underrepresented in engineering. They comprise 6.4 % of the U.S. population and only 0.72 % of engineering industry. Meanwhile, engineers have been identified as the key to the United States’ ability to maintain its prominence and leadership in a competitive global economy due to their contribution to maintaining and improving our infrastructures and standard of living. Th...

  7. Exploring the Impact of Supplementary Schools on Black and Minority Ethnic Pupils’ Mainstream Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Uvanney; Rose, Anthea; Minty, Sarah; Ross, Alistair; Issa, Tozun; Kuyok, Kuyok Abol

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study commissioned by the (then) Department for Children, Schools and Families. The research mapped the provision, and explored the impact, of supplementary schools and aimed specifically to develop further understanding as to how supplementary schools might raise the attainment of Black and Minority Ethnic…

  8. Dual Ethnicity and Depressive Symptoms: Implications of Being Black and Latino in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Blanca; Jaccard, James; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    A study of depression in Afro-Latino adolescents used national longitudinal data on over 12,000 secondary students in 134 schools, with oversamples of Black, Chinese, Cuban, and Puerto Rican adolescents. All groups of adolescent females, especially Afro-Latino females, showed higher levels of depression than adolescent males, and older adolescents…

  9. Ethnicity, Perceived Pubertal Timing, Externalizing Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms among Black Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Antonucci, Toni; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    An accumulation of research evidence suggests that early pubertal timing plays a significant role in girls' behavioral and emotional problems. If early pubertal timing is a problematic event, then early developing Black girls should manifest evidence of this crisis because they tend to be the earliest to develop compared to other girls from…

  10. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

  11. Knowledge Engineering (Or, Catching Black Cats in Dark Rooms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyle, Kim E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses knowledge engineering, its relationship to artificial intelligence, and possible applications to developing expert systems, job aids, and technical training. The educational background of knowledge engineers is considered; the role of subject matter experts is described; and examples of flow charts, lists, and pictorial representations…

  12. Exploring the career choices of White and Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic women pharmacists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Kelly; Bower, Peter; Hassell, Karen

    2017-12-26

    In the UK, a growing number of females entering pharmacy are women from Black, Asian and minority ethnic groups (BAME). Research shows that BAME women are more likely to work in the community sector and be self-employed locums than white women, and Asian women overrepresented in part-time, lower status roles. This study aims to explore the employment choices of white and BAME women pharmacists to see whether their diverse work patterns are the product of individual choices or other organisational factors. This study analyses 28 qualitative interviews conducted with 18 BAME and 10 white women pharmacists. The interview schedule was designed to explore early career choices, future career aspirations and key stages in making their career decisions. The findings show that white and BAME women are influenced by different factors in their early career choices. Cultural preferences for self-employment and business opportunities discourage BAME women from hospital sector jobs early in their careers. Resonating with other studies, the findings show that white and BAME women face similar barriers to career progression if they work part-time. Women working part-time are more likely to face workforce barriers, irrespective of ethnic origin. Cultural preferences may be preventing BAME women from entering the hospital sector. This research is important in the light of current debates about the future shape of pharmacy practice, as well as wider government policy objectives that seek to improve the working lives of health care professionals and promote racial diversity and equality in the workplace. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Perceived barriers to accessing mental health services among black and minority ethnic (BME) communities: a qualitative study in Southeast England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Anjum; Taylor, Katie; Mohebati, Lisa M; Sundin, Josefin; Cooper, Max; Scanlon, Thomas; de Visser, Richard

    2016-11-16

    In most developed countries, substantial disparities exist in access to mental health services for black and minority ethnic (BME) populations. We sought to determine perceived barriers to accessing mental health services among people from these backgrounds to inform the development of effective and culturally acceptable services to improve equity in healthcare. Qualitative study in Southeast England. 26 adults from BME backgrounds (13 men, 13 women; aged >18 years) were recruited to 2 focus groups. Participants were identified through the registers of the Black and Minority Ethnic Community Partnership centre and by visits to local community gatherings and were invited to take part by community development workers. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify key themes about perceived barriers to accessing mental health services. Participants identified 2 broad themes that influenced access to mental health services. First, personal and environmental factors included inability to recognise and accept mental health problems, positive impact of social networks, reluctance to discuss psychological distress and seek help among men, cultural identity, negative perception of and social stigma against mental health and financial factors. Second, factors affecting the relationship between service user and healthcare provider included the impact of long waiting times for initial assessment, language barriers, poor communication between service users and providers, inadequate recognition or response to mental health needs, imbalance of power and authority between service users and providers, cultural naivety, insensitivity and discrimination towards the needs of BME service users and lack of awareness of different services among service users and providers. People from BME backgrounds require considerable mental health literacy and practical support to raise awareness of mental health conditions and combat stigma. There is a need for improving information about services

  14. Chronic fatigue syndrome: comparing outcomes in White British and Black and minority ethnic patients after cognitive-behavioural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingman, Tom; Ali, Sheila; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Chalder, Trudie

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is one of the most promising treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). It is unclear whether CBT is effective for Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups. To assess the effectiveness of CBT in BME patients compared with White British patients presenting to a specialist CFS service. Data from 67 (19.0%) BME participants and 285 (81.0%) White British participants referred to a specialist CFS service in the UK were collected at baseline and after CBT treatment. Pairwise comparisons revealed that both BME participants and White British participants significantly improved on measures of fatigue severity (P<0.001), physical functioning (P<0.001) and work/social adjustment (P<0.001). Independent samples t-tests showed that BME participants improved despite exhibiting significantly higher baseline damage beliefs (P = 0.009), catastrophising (P = 0.024), all-or-nothing behaviour (P = 0.036) and avoidance/resting behaviour (P = 0.001), compared with White British participants. To our knowledge, this study is the first to indicate that CBT is effective for treating CFS in a group of patients from diverse BME backgrounds. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  15. Sexual abuse and HIV-risk behaviour among black and minority ethnic men who have sex with men in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Jaspal, Rusi; Lopes, Barbara; Jamal, Zahra; Paccoud, Ivana; Sekhon, Parminder

    2018-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link (open access) Black and minority ethnic (BME) men who have sex with men (MSM) face a major burden in relation to HIV infection. It was hypothesised that sexual abuse would be a significant predictor of sexual risk-taking, and that the relationship between sexual abuse and sexual risk-taking behavior would be mediated by victimisation variables, ...

  16. Diagnosis and management of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalitis in black and minority ethnic people: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Kerin; Riste, Lisa; Fisher, Louise; Wearden, Alison; Peters, Sarah; Lovell, Karina; Chew-Graham, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to explore the possible reasons for the lower levels of diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalitis (CFS/ME) in the black and minority ethnic (BME) population, and the implications for management. Population studies suggest CFS/ME is more common in people from BME communities compared with the White British population. However, the diagnosis is made less frequently in BME groups. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 35 key stakeholders in NW England. Interviews were analysed using open explorative thematic coding. There are barriers at every stage to the diagnosis and management of CFS/ME in people from BME groups. This begins with a lack of awareness of CFS/ME among BME respondents. Religious beliefs and the expectation of roles in the family and community mean that some people in BME groups may choose to manage their symptoms outside primary care using alternative therapies, prayer or spiritual healing. When accessing primary care, all participants recognised the possible influence of language barriers in reducing the likelihood of a diagnosis of CFS/ME. Stereotypical beliefs, including labels such as 'lazy' or 'work shy' were also believed to act as a barrier to diagnosis. Patients highlighted the importance of an on-going relationship with the general practitioner (GP), but perceived a high turnover of GPs in inner city practices, which undermined the holistic approach necessary to achieve a diagnosis. Training is required for health professionals to challenge inaccurate assumptions about CFS/ME in BME groups. The focus on the individual in UK primary care may not be appropriate for this group due to the role played by the family and community in how symptoms can be presented and managed. Culturally sensitive, educational resources for patients are also needed to explain symptoms and legitimise consultation.

  17. Spotlight on equality of employment opportunities: A qualitative study of job seeking experiences of graduating nurses and physiotherapists from black and minority ethnic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, John; Marshall-Lucette, Sylvie; Davies, Nigel; Ross, Fiona; Harris, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    There is growing attention in the UK and internationally to the representation of black and minority ethnic groups in healthcare education and the workplace. Although the NHS workforce is very diverse, ethnic minorities are unevenly spread across occupations, and considerably underrepresented in senior positions. Previous research has highlighted that this inequality also exists at junior levels with newly qualified nurses from non-White/British ethnic groups being less likely to get a job at graduation than their White/British colleagues. Although there is better national data on the scale of inequalities in the healthcare workforce, there is a gap in our understanding about the experience of job seeking, and the factors that influence disadvantage in nursing and other professions such as physiotherapy. This qualitative study seeks to fill that gap and explores the experience of student nurses (n=12) and physiotherapists (n=6) throughout their education and during the first 6-months post qualification to identify key experiences and milestones relating to successful employment particularly focusing on the perspectives from different ethnic groups. Participants were purposively sampled from one university to ensure diversity in ethnic group, age and gender. Using a phenomenological approach, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted at course completion and 6 months later. Two main themes were identified. The 'proactive self' ('It's up to me') theme included perceptions of employment success being due to student proactivity and resilience; qualities valued by employers. The second theme described the need to 'fit in' with organisational culture. Graduates described accommodating strategies where they modified aspects of their identity (clothing, cultural markers) to fit in. At one extreme, rather than fitting in, participants from minority ethnic backgrounds avoided applying to certain hospitals due to perceptions of discriminatory cultures, 'I wouldn

  18. Ethnicity and skin autofluorescence-based risk-engines for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saeed Ahmad

    Full Text Available Skin auto fluorescence (SAF is used as a proxy for the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs and has been proposed to stratify patients into cardiovascular disease (CVD and diabetes mellitus (DM risk groups. This study evaluates the effects of seven different ethnicities (Arab, Central-East African, Eastern Mediterranean, European, North African, South Asian and Southeast Asian and gender on SAF as well as validating SAF assessment as a risk estimation tool for CVD and DM in an Arabian cohort. SAF data from self-reported healthy 2,780 individuals, collated from three independent studies, has been linear modelled using age and gender as a covariate. A cross-study harmonized effect size (Cohens'd is provided for each ethnicity. Furthermore, new data has been collected from a clinically well-defined patient group of 235 individuals, to evaluate SAF as a clinical tool for DM and CVD-risk estimation in an Arab cohort. In an Arab population, SAF-based CVD and/or DM risk-estimation can be improved by referencing to ethnicity and gender-specific SAF values. Highest SAF values were observed for the North African population, followed by East Mediterranean, Arab, South Asian and European populations. The South Asian population had a slightly steeper slope in SAF values with age compared to other ethnic groups. All ethnic groups except Europeans showed a significant gender effect. When compared with a European group, effect size was highest for Eastern Mediterranean group and lowest for South Asian group. The Central-East African and Southeast Asian ethnicity matched closest to the Arab and Eastern Mediterranean ethnicities, respectively. Ethnic and gender-specific data improves performance in SAF-based CVD and DM risk estimation. The provided harmonized effect size allows a direct comparison of SAF in different ethnicities. For the first time, gender differences in SAF are described for North African and East Mediterranean populations.

  19. Morphology and Optical Properties of Black-Carbon Particles Relevant to Engine Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, H. A.; Bambha, R.; Dansson, M. A.; Schrader, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Black-carbon particles are believed to have a large influence on climate through direct radiative forcing, reduction of surface albedo of snow and ice in the cryosphere, and interaction with clouds. The optical properties and morphology of atmospheric particles containing black carbon are uncertain, and characterization of black carbon resulting from engines emissions is needed. Refractory black-carbon particles found in the atmosphere are often coated with unburned fuel, sulfuric acid, water, ash, and other combustion by-products and atmospheric constituents. Coatings can alter the optical and physical properties of the particles and therefore change their optical properties and cloud interactions. Details of particle morphology and coating state can also have important effects on the interpretation of optical diagnostics. A more complete understanding of how coatings affect extinction, absorption, and incandescence measurements is needed before these techniques can be applied reliably to a wide range of particles. We have investigated the effects of coatings on the optical and physical properties of combustion-generated black-carbon particles using a range of standard particle diagnostics, extinction, and time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements. Particles were generated in a co-flow diffusion flame, extracted, cooled, and coated with oleic acid. The diffusion flame produces highly dendritic soot aggregates with similar properties to those produced in diesel engines, diffusion flames, and most natural combustion processes. A thermodenuder was used to remove the coating. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to monitor aggregate sizes; a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) was used to measure coating mass fractions, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize particle morphologies. The results demonstrate important differences in optical measurements between coated and uncoated particles.

  20. Breaking It Down: Engineering Student STEM Confidence at the Intersection of Race/Ethnicity and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzler, Elizabeth; Samuelson, Cate C.; Lorah, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that engineering requires a strong aptitude for mathematics and science; therefore, students' judgments regarding their competence in these areas as well as engineering likely influence their confidence in engineering. Little is known about how self-confidence in science, mathematics, and engineering courses (STEM…

  1. The contribution of cardiovascular risk factors to peripheral arterial disease in South Asians and Blacks: a sub-study to the Ethnic-Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening (E-ECHOES) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P C; Lip, G Y H; Silverman, S; Blann, A D; Gill, P S

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether differences exist in prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) between South Asians (people originating from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) and Blacks (Black Caribbean and Black African), the two largest minority ethnic groups in the UK. To determine if associations with cardiovascular risk factors and this disease differ between these two ethnic groups. We recruited 572 patients (356 South Asian and 216 Blacks) > or = 45 years as a sub-study to a community screening project, the Ethnic-Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening (E-ECHOES) study. All subjects completed an interviewer-led questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and blood sampling. Ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) was calculated and intermittent claudication was assessed using the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire. The presence of PAD was defined as ABPI South Asians and 10.2% (95% CI 6.2-14.2) in Blacks with no significant difference between the two ethnic groups. The prevalence of PAD was higher in South Asian women than Black women (16.3 vs. 6.1%; P = 0.011). No difference in prevalence was found in men (11 vs. 14% P = 0.47, in South Asians and Blacks, respectively). The prevalence of intermittent claudication was 0.9% (95% CI 0.11-1.63). On multivariate logistic regression, mean systolic blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and male sex were independently associated with PAD in South Asians (P = 0.016, 0.022, 0.037 and 0.008, respectively). In Blacks, only age remained independently associated with PAD on multivariate logistic regression (P = 0.003). The prevalence of PAD is similar in South Asians and Blacks, and similar to levels reported in pre-dominantly White populations. South Asian women had a higher prevalence of PAD than Black women, which is not explained by traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Visible and Invisible Trends in Black Men's Health: Pitfalls and Promises for Addressing Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Inequities in Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Keon L; Ray, Rashawn; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Shetty, Shivan; Baker, Elizabeth A; Elder, Keith; Griffith, Derek M

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been growing interest in improving black men's health and the health disparities affecting them. Yet, the health of black men consistently ranks lowest across nearly all groups in the United States. Evidence on the health and social causes of morbidity and mortality among black men has been narrowly concentrated on public health problems (e.g., violence, prostate cancer, and HIV/AIDS) and determinants of health (e.g., education and male gender socialization). This limited focus omits age-specific leading causes of death and other social determinants of health, such as discrimination, segregation, access to health care, employment, and income. This review discusses the leading causes of death for black men and the associated risk factors, as well as identifies gaps in the literature and presents a racialized and gendered framework to guide efforts to address the persistent inequities in health affecting black men.

  3. Effects of dark energy on the efficiency of charged AdS black holes as heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Meng, Xin-He

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we study the heat engine where a charged AdS black hole surrounded by dark energy is the working substance and the mechanical work is done via the PdV term in the first law of black hole thermodynamics in the extended phase space. We first investigate the effects of a kind of dark energy (quintessence field in this paper) on the efficiency of the RN-AdS black holes as the heat engine defined as a rectangular closed path in the P- V plane. We get the exact efficiency formula and find that the quintessence field can improve the heat engine efficiency, which will increase as the field density ρ _q grows. At some fixed parameters, we find that a larger volume difference between the smaller black holes(V_1) and the bigger black holes(V_2 ) will lead to a lower efficiency, while the bigger pressure difference P_1-P_4 will make the efficiency higher, but it is always smaller than 1 and will never be beyond the Carnot efficiency, which is the maximum value of the efficiency constrained by thermodynamics laws; this is consistent to the heat engine in traditional thermodynamics. After making some special choices for the thermodynamical quantities, we find that the increase of the electric charge Q and the normalization factor a can also promote the heat engine efficiency, which would infinitely approach the Carnot limit when Q or a goes to infinity.

  4. Methodology for Recreation Data Acquisition and Evaluation for Ethnic Minority Visitors to Corps of Engineers Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    dentistry , medicine, optometry, and pharmacy. Health: For all but a few health conditions, Asians fare much better than the average American...Americans want to pass on their language and culture to their children and to familiarize Euro-Americans with their culture as well. Interpretive...of many African Americans. He describes one study in which black focus group participants mentioned security and protection from random violence as

  5. Future Directions in Research on Racism-Related Stress and Racial-Ethnic Protective Factors for Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shawn C T; Neblett, Enrique W

    2017-01-01

    Research on racism-related stress and racial-ethnic protective factors represents an important enterprise for optimizing the mental health of African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth. However, there has been a relative dearth of work on these factors in the clinical psychology research literature, and more work is needed in outlets such as these. To this end, the current article adopts a developmental psychopathology framework and uses recent empirical findings to outline our current understanding of racism-related stress and racial-ethnic protective factors (i.e., racial identity, racial socialization, Africentric worldview) for African American youth. We then provide nine recommendations-across basic, applied, and broader/cross-cutting research lines-that we prioritize as essential to advancing the future scientific investigation of this crucial research agenda. Within and across these recommendations, we issue a charge to researchers and clinicians alike, with the ultimate goal of alleviating the negative mental health impact that racism-related stress can have on the well-being and mental health of African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth.

  6. A differently imagined margin: Initial Teacher Training and Black and Minority Ethnic groups in the Lifelong Learning Sector in the north of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rennie, Sandra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We look at how marginal education spaces are differently imagined and (reproduced. We trace aspects of learners’ journeys and the different pathways into Initial Teacher Training (ITT made available through a university and an Adult Education-based networking organisation in the Lifelong Learning Sector (LLS in England. We focus on urban localities and the venues used to offer and run PTLLS courses aimed at attracting Black and Minority Ethnic (BME recruits to teaching careers. We compare the profiles of these trainee groups and the effect of the different approaches taken by these organisations. We look at organisational and spatial aspects of training ‘offers’ and provision, the impacts of this on the recruitment of learners and how teaching careers are differently imagined within this marginal space. We conclude with suggestions for altering the discourse used to review and plan the recruitment of BME teacher trainees.

  7. Developing leadership interventions for black and minority ethnic staff: A case study of the National Health Service (NHS) in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, V S; Abel, P; Esmail, A

    2009-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is the largest employer in the U.K. but, despite decades of equal opportunities legislation, its senior management workforce does not reflect the diversity of either the wider NHS workforce or the U.K. population. The aim of the paper is to consider the range of management interventions available to organisations like the NHS to deliver change in the area of promotion of Black and minority ethnic staff. Intervention programmes in a range of public and private organisations are reviewed and the nature of barriers to promotion and the range of interventions to overcome these are explored. The paper uses the paradigm of institutional racism to examine the ways in which the NHS discriminates against certain sections of its workforce. The methods used include a literature review combined with key stakeholder interviews. A comparative dimension which involved a review of research on leadership initiatives in the U.S.A. was also undertaken. The literature review found that there were a range of initiatives which could be implemented by public organisations such as the NHS to increase the presence of Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) staff in senior management positions. Most of these interventions were largely focused on the individual. Much more progress on institutional or organisational change needed to be made before the NHS could be perceived as a model employer in this area. The literature review also indicated that there is little published research on such initiatives within other European Union countries. The paper is targeted at both policy makers and human resource officers responsible for equality and diversity issues within large organisations, who have a remit to improve the career pathways of staff. The analysis provided offers a set of critical tools and interventions that have not hitherto been well examined in the U.K. context.

  8. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500. Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z; B: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z; C: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z+weight}. RESULTS: Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A. The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A. Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations

  9. Are Ethnic and Gender Specific Equations Needed to Derive Fat Free Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance in Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin? Results of the Assessment of Body Composition in Children Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Owen, Christopher G.; Donin, Angela S.; Newton, Sian L.; Furness, Cheryl A.; Howard, Emma L.; Gillings, Rachel D.; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. Methods Cross-sectional study of children aged 8–10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500). Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z); B: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z); C: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z+weight)}. Results Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A). The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM) and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A). Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. Conclusions Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations can

  10. Cross-sectional study of ethnic differences in physical fitness among children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Kerry, S R; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Brage, S; Westgate, K L; Ekelund, U; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2016-06-20

    Little is known about levels of physical fitness in children from different ethnic groups in the UK. We therefore studied physical fitness in UK children (aged 9-10 years) of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin. Cross-sectional study. Primary schools in the UK. 1625 children (aged 9-10 years) of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin in the UK studied between 2006 and 2007. A step test assessed submaximal physical fitness from which estimated VO2 max was derived. Ethnic differences in estimated VO2 max were estimated using multilevel linear regression allowing for clustering at school level and adjusting for age, sex and month as fixed effects. The study response rate was 63%. In adjusted analyses, boys had higher levels of estimated VO2 max than girls (mean difference 3.06 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.47, pfitness than white Europeans and black African-Caribbeans in the UK. This ethnic difference in physical fitness is at least partly explained by ethnic differences in physical activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Visual Impairment in White, Chinese, Black and Hispanic Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Diana E.; Shrager, Sandi; Shea, Steven J.; Burke, Gregory L.; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y.; Klein, Barbara E; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the prevalence of visual impairment and examine its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Methods Visual acuity data was obtained from 6134 participants, aged 46 to 87 years old at time of examination between 2002 and 2004 (mean age 64 years, 47.6% male), from six communities in the United States (U.S.). Visual impairment was defined as a presenting visual acuity of 20/50 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Risk factors were included in multivariable logistic regression models to determine their impact on visual impairment for men and women in each racial/ethnic group. Results Among all participants, 6.6% (N=421) had visual impairment, including 5.6% (N=178) of men and 7.5% (N=243) of women. Prevalence of impairment ranged from 4.2% (N=52) and 6.0% (N=77) in White men and women, respectively, to 7.6% (N=37) and 11.6% (N=44) in Chinese men and women, respectively. Older age was significantly associated with visual impairment in both men and women, particularly in those with lower socioeconomic status, but the effects of increasing age were more pronounced in men. Two-thirds of participants already wore distance correction and not unexpectedly, lower prevalence of visual impairment was seen in this group; however, 2.4% of men and 3.5% of women with current distance correction had correctable visual impairment, most notably among seniors. Conclusion Even in the United States where prevalence of refractive correction is high, both visual impairment and uncorrected refractive error represent current public health challenges. PMID:26395659

  12. Visual Impairment in White, Chinese, Black, and Hispanic Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Diana E; Shrager, Sandi; Shea, Steven J; Burke, Gregory L; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y; Klein, Barbara E; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of visual impairment and examine its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Visual acuity data were obtained from 6134 participants, aged 46-87 years at time of examination between 2002 and 2004 (mean age 64 years, 47.6% male), from six communities in the United States. Visual impairment was defined as presenting visual acuity 20/50 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Risk factors were included in multivariable logistic regression models to determine their impact on visual impairment for men and women in each racial/ethnic group. Among all participants, 6.6% (n = 421) had visual impairment, including 5.6% of men (n = 178) and 7.5% of women (n = 243). Prevalence of impairment ranged from 4.2% (n = 52) and 6.0% (n = 77) in white men and women, respectively, to 7.6% (n = 37) and 11.6% (n = 44) in Chinese men and women, respectively. Older age was significantly associated with visual impairment in both men and women, particularly in those with lower socioeconomic status, but the effects of increasing age were more pronounced in men. Two-thirds of participants already wore distance correction, and not unexpectedly, a lower prevalence of visual impairment was seen in this group; however, 2.4% of men and 3.5% of women with current distance correction had correctable visual impairment, most notably among seniors. Even in the U.S. where prevalence of refractive correction is high, both visual impairment and uncorrected refractive error represent current public health challenges.

  13. Interventions designed to improve therapeutic communications between black and minority ethnic people and professionals working in psychiatric services: a systematic review of the evidence for their effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Aslam, Rabbea'h W; Palinski, Andrea; McCabe, Rose; Johnson, Mark R D; Weich, Scott; Singh, Swaran Preet; Knapp, Martin; Ardino, Vittoria; Szczepura, Ala

    2015-04-01

    Black and minority ethnic (BME) people using psychiatric services are at greater risk of non-engagement, dropout from care and not receiving evidence-based interventions than white British people. To identify effective interventions designed to improve therapeutic communications (TCs) for BME patients using psychiatric services in the UK, to identify gaps in the research literature and to recommend future research. Black African, black Caribbean, black British, white British, Pakistani and Bangladeshi patients in psychiatric services in the UK, or recruited from the community to enter psychiatric care. Some studies from the USA included Hispanic, Latino, Chinese, Vietnamese, Cambodian and African American people. Any that improve TCs between BME patients and staff in psychiatric services. The published literature, 'grey' literature, an expert survey, and patients' and carers' perspectives on the evidence base. Databases were searched from their inception to 4 February 2013. Databases included MEDLINE, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, The Cochrane Library, Social Science Citation Index, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, The Campbell Collaboration and ProQuest for dissertations. Studies were included if they reported evaluation data about interventions designed to improve therapeutic outcomes by improving communication between BME patients and psychiatric professionals. Qualitative studies and reports in the grey literature were included only if they gave a critical evaluative statement. Two members of the team selected studies against pre-established criteria and any differences were resolved by consensus or by a third reviewer, if necessary. Data were extracted independently by two people and summarised in tables by specific study designs. Studies were subjected to a narrative synthesis that included a thematic analysis contrasting populations, countries and the

  14. Ethnicity and attitudes to deceased kidney donation: a survey in Barbados and comparison with Black Caribbean people in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seed Paul T

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black minority ethnic groups in the UK have relatively low rates of deceased donation and report a higher prevalence of beliefs that are regarded as barriers to donation. However there is little data from migrants' countries of origin. This paper examines community attitudes to deceased kidney donation in Barbados and compares the findings with a survey conducted in a disadvantaged multi-ethnic area of south London. Methods Questionnaires were administered at four public health centres in Barbados and at three private general practices. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated to compare attitudinal responses with a prior survey of 328 Caribbean and 808 White respondents in south London. Results Questionnaires were completed by 327 respondents in Barbados (93% response; 42% men and 58% women, with a mean age of 40.4 years (SD 12.6. The main religious groups were Anglican (29% and Pentecostal (24%. Educational levels ranged from 18% not completing 5th form to 12% with university education. Attitudes to the notion of organ donation were favourable, with 73% willing to donate their kidneys after their death and only 5% definitely against this. Most preferred an opt-in system of donation. Responses to nine attitudinal questions identified 18% as having no concerns and 9% as having 4 or more concerns. The highest level of concern (43% was for lack of confidence that medical teams would try as hard to save the life of a person who has agreed to donate organs. There was no significant association between age, gender, education or religion and attitudinal barriers, but greater knowledge of donation had some positive effect on attitudes. Comparison of attitudes to donation in south London and Barbados (adjusting for gender, age, level of education, employment status indicated that a significantly higher proportion of the south London Caribbean respondents identified attitudinal barriers to donation. Conclusions Community attitudes in

  15. Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Disciplines: A Cross Institutional Analysis of their Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Tanya

    Considering the importance of a diverse science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) research workforce for our country's future, it is troubling that many underrepresented racial minority (URM) students start graduate STEM programs, but do not finish. However, some institutional contexts better position students for degree completion than others. The purpose of this study was to uncover the academic and social experiences, power dynamics, and programmatic/institutional structures URM students face within their graduate STEM programs that hinder or support degree progression. Using a critical socialization framework applied in a cross-comparative qualitative study, I focused on how issues of race, ethnicity, and underrepresentation within the educational contexts shape students' experiences. Data was collected from focus group interviews involving 53 URM graduate students pursuing STEM disciplines across three institution types -- a Predominately White Institution, a Hispanic-Serving Institution, and a Historically Black University. Results demonstrate that when students' relationships with faculty advisors were characterized by benign neglect, students felt lost, wasted time and energy making avoidable mistakes, had less positive views of their experiences, and had more difficulty progressing through classes or research, which could cause them to delay time to degree completion or to leave with a master's degree. Conversely, faculty empowered students when they helped them navigate difficult processes/milestones with regular check-ins, but also allowed students room to make decisions and solve problems independently. Further, faculty set the tone for the overall interactional culture and helping behavior in the classroom and lab contexts; where faculty modeled collaboration and concern for students, peers were likely to do the same. International peers sometimes excluded domestic students both socially and academically, which had a negative affect on

  16. A systematic literature review of diabetes self-management education features to improve diabetes education in women of Black African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin American ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Enza; Chan, Vivian Wing-Sheung; Manuel, Lisa; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-08-01

    This systematic literature review aims to identify diabetes self-management education (DSME) features to improve diabetes education for Black African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin American women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We conducted a literature search in six health databases for randomized controlled trials and comparative studies. Success rates of intervention features were calculated based on effectiveness in improving glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c), anthropometrics, physical activity, or diet outcomes. Calculations of rate differences assessed whether an intervention feature positively or negatively affected an outcome. From 13 studies included in our analysis, we identified 38 intervention features in relation to their success with an outcome. Five intervention features had positive rate differences across at least three outcomes: hospital-based interventions, group interventions, the use of situational problem-solving, frequent sessions, and incorporating dietitians as interventionists. Six intervention features had high positive rate differences (i.e. ≥50%) on specific outcomes. Different DSME intervention features may influence broad and specific self-management outcomes for women of African/Caribbean and Hispanic/Latin ethnicity. With the emphasis on patient-centered care, patients and care providers can consider options based on DSME intervention features for its broad and specific impact on outcomes to potentially make programming more effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mental health services for black and minority ethnic elders in the United Kingdom: a systematic review of innovative practice with service provision and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Benbow, Susan Mary

    2013-03-01

    The proportion of older people from black and minority ethnic (BME) groups in the United Kingdom (UK) is increasing steadily as the population ages. The numbers with dementia, depression, and other mental health problems are predicted to increase. Government policy documents have highlighted gaps in services for BME elders and/or the need to develop culturally appropriate services, in order to prevent people from BME communities from becoming socially excluded and finding services hard to access. This paper reviews published examples of innovative services and key learning points from them. A search was carried out on Pubmed, Medline, and Google Scholar for service developments aimed at BME elders in the UK. Sixteen relevant papers and reports were identified and were analysed to identify learning points and implications for clinical practice and policy. Commissioning issues included were forward planning for continuing funding and mainstreaming versus specialist services. Provider management issues included were employing staff from the communities of interest, partnership, and removing language barriers. Provider service issues included were education for service provider staff on the needs of BME elders, making available information in relevant languages, building on carers' and users' experiences, and addressing the needs of both groups. A model for structuring understanding of the underutilisation of services by BME elders is suggested. The main emphasis in future should be to ensure that learning is shared, disseminated, and applied to the benefit of all communities across the whole of the UK and elsewhere. Person-centred care is beneficial to all service users.

  18. Laboratory Validation of Four Black Carbon Measurement Methods for Determination of the Nonvolatile Particulate Matter (nvPM) Mass Emissions from Commercial Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four candidate black carbon (BC) measurement techniques have been identified by the SAE International E-31 Committee for possible use in determining nonvolatile particulate matter (nvPM) mass emissions during commercial aircraft engine certification. These techniques are carbon b...

  19. Ethnic Harassment, Ethnic Identity Centrality, and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Hans-Joachim; Linton, Kenisha; McDuff, Nona

    2018-02-12

    In this study, we examined the direct effect of (positive vs. negative) evaluation of potentially harassing experiences due to ethnic background on impaired well-being as well as the moderating effect of ethnic identity centrality on the relationship between (lower vs. higher) frequency of potentially harassing experiences and impaired well-being. Using a gender-balanced sample with equal proportions of black and minority ethnic and white undergraduate students (N = 240), we found that, expectedly, ethnic identity centrality intensified the effects of higher frequency of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. Unexpectedly, however, gender identity centrality buffered the effects of higher frequency as well as more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem, indicating that gender identity centrality may be a protective resource, even though it is not specific to ethnic harassment. Exploratory analyses revealed that for black and minority ethnic respondents with high ethnic identity centrality and for white respondents with low ethnic identity centrality, there were associations between more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences and lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. This finding might indicate that ethnic identity centrality was a risk factor in black and ethnic minority respondents, but a protective factor in white respondents.

  20. Teenage mothers of black and minority ethnic origin want access to a range of mental and physical health support: a participatory research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Maria; Kirk, Rosalind; Alfafara, Emily; Jonika, Jennifer; Waddell, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    In high risk, economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, such as those primarily resident by black and minority ethnic groups (BME), teenage pregnancies are relatively more frequent. Such families often have limited access to and/or knowledge of services, including prenatal and post-partum physical and mental health support. To explore preferences held by vulnerable young mothers of BME origin and those close to them about existing and desired perinatal health services. Drawing on a community-based participatory approach, a community steering committee with local knowledge and experience of teenage parenthood shaped and managed an exploratory qualitative study. In collaboration with a local agency and academic research staff, community research assistants conducted two focus groups with 19 members and 21 individual semi-structured interviews with young mothers of BME origin and their friends or relatives. These were coded, thematically analysed, interpreted and subsequently triangulated through facilitator and participant review and discussion. Despite perceptions of a prevalent local culture of mistrust and suspicion, a number of themes and accompanying recommendations emerged. These included a lack of awareness by mothers of BME origin about current perinatal health services, as well as programme inaccessibility and inadequacy. There was a desire to engage with a continuum of comprehensive and well-publicized, family-focused perinatal health services. Participants wanted inclusion of maternal mental health and parenting support that addressed the whole family. It is both ethical and equitable that comprehensive perinatal services are planned and developed following consultation and participation of knowledgeable community members including young mothers of BME origin, family and friends. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Predictors of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics choice options: A meta-analytic path analysis of the social-cognitive choice model by gender and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Miller, Matthew J; Cusick, Megan E; Penn, Lee T; Truong, Nancy N

    2018-01-01

    We tested the interest and choice portion of social-cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in the context of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains. Data from 143 studies (including 196 independent samples) conducted over a 30-year period (1983 through 2013) were subjected to meta-analytic path analyses. The interest/choice model was found to fit the data well over all samples as well as within samples composed primarily of women and men and racial/ethnic minority and majority persons. The model also accounted for large portions of the variance in interests and choice goals within each path analysis. Despite the general predictive utility of SCCT across gender and racial/ethnic groups, we did find that several parameter estimates differed by group. We present both the group similarities and differences and consider their implications for future research, intervention, and theory refinement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Female African American Undergraduate Engineering Students at a Predominantly White and an Historically Black Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frillman, Sharron Ann

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in…

  3. Black-tailed jack rabbit movements and habitat utilization at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    In June 1982, a study of black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) ecology was initiated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This study will provide data necessary to evaluate the role of jack rabbits in radionuclide transport away from the Subsurface Disposal Area of the RWMC. Primary goals are to document radionuclide concentrations in jack rabbit tissues, and determine population size, movement patterns, habitat use, and food habits of jack rabbits inhabiting the RWMC area. Study design and prelimianry results are discussed

  4. An Evaluation of Social Work Practice in the Northern Ireland Guardian Ad Litem Agency in Working with Children and Families from Black Minority Ethnic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Patricia; Devine, Patricia; Sheldon, John; Best, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Research in the area of working with ethnic minorities in the care system remains limited. The primary objective of this study was to consider the volume of cases referred to the Northern Ireland Guardian Ad Litem Agency (NIGALA) from ethnic minority families in 2013/14 and to generate knowledge from the cases about cultural competency in the…

  5. Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: a multiple-groups analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Estrada, Yannine; Howard, Christina; Davis, Dalelia; Zalapa, Juan

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the academic interests and goals of 223 African American, Latino/a, Southeast Asian, and Native American undergraduate students in two groups: biological science and engineering (S/E) majors. Using social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), we examined the relationships of social cognitive variables (math/science academic self-efficacy, math/science outcome expectations), along with the influence of ethnic variables (ethnic identity, other-group orientation) and perceptions of campus climate to their math/science interests and goal commitment to earn an S/E degree. Path analysis revealed that the hypothesized model provided good overall fit to the data, revealing significant relationships from outcome expectations to interests and to goals. Paths from academic self-efficacy to S/E goals and from interests to S/E goals varied for students in engineering and biological science. For both groups, other-group orientation was positively related to self-efficacy and support was found for an efficacy-mediated relationship between perceived campus climate and goals. Theoretical and practical implications of the study's findings are considered as well as future research directions.

  6. Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers as Central Engines of Gamma-Ray Bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka; Eberl; Ruffert; Fryer

    1999-12-10

    Hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of stellar mass black hole-neutron star binaries are compared with mergers of binary neutron stars. The simulations are Newtonian but take into account the emission and back-reaction of gravitational waves. The use of a physical nuclear equation of state allows us to include the effects of neutrino emission. For low neutron star-to-black hole mass ratios, the neutron star transfers mass to the black hole during a few cycles of orbital decay and subsequent widening before finally being disrupted, whereas for ratios near unity the neutron star is destroyed during its first approach. A gas mass between approximately 0.3 and approximately 0.7 M middle dot in circle is left in an accretion torus around the black hole and radiates neutrinos at a luminosity of several times 1053 ergs s-1 during an estimated accretion timescale of about 0.1 s. The emitted neutrinos and antineutrinos annihilate into e+/- pairs with efficiencies of 1%-3% and rates of up to approximately 2x1052 ergs s-1, thus depositing an energy Enunu&d1; less, similar1051 ergs above the poles of the black hole in a region that contains less than 10-5 M middle dot in circle of baryonic matter. This could allow for relativistic expansion with Lorentz factors around 100 and is sufficient to explain apparent burst luminosities Lgamma approximately Enunu&d1;&solm0;&parl0;fOmegatgamma&parr0; up to several times 1053 ergs s-1 for burst durations tgamma approximately 0.1-1 s, if the gamma emission is collimated in two moderately focused jets in a fraction fOmega=2deltaOmega&solm0;&parl0;4pi&parr0; approximately 1&solm0;100-(1/10) of the sky.

  7. Between Dark Black and Light Brown. Discourses and Ethnic Identities among Afrodescendant Boys and Girls in School Context in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Soler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a felt need to understand the way ethnic identities are constructed by Afrodescendant boys and girls aged 6-12 in school contextsin Bogotá as there is little research in such specific context and topic in Colombia. This research report proposes a discourse analysis andsocial psychology approach to tackle such problem. Thus this paper seeks to identify the discursive mechanisms that allow us to know howidentity processes emerge from the acceptance or denial of ethnicity; mechanisms that may lead or have an effect on discursive adaptation,resistance or negotiation. Findings suggest that children begin early their ethnic self-identification from the color of the skin, whereby theydifferentiate a wide color range, tending towards whitening. Children have different degrees of ethnic appraisal that go from pride to rejection.In inter-ethnic relations, they tend to deny or minimize the conflict, and there is a tendency to avoid speaking about it. Children identify thecause of the problem as a quantitative issue, as they are minority in Bogotá. In inter-ethnic dynamics, some children accept the stereotypesassigned to them, others reject them, and others scoff at them.

  8. Predicting the Risk to Develop Preeclampsia in the First Trimester Combining Promoter Variant -98A/C of LGALS13 (Placental Protein 13), Black Ethnicity, Previous Preeclampsia, Obesity, and Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar-Shapiro, Liora; Karady, Ido; Trahtenherts, Alla; Syngelaki, Argryo; Akolekar, Ranjit; Poon, Liona; Cohen, Ruth; Sharabi-Nov, Adi; Huppertz, Berthold; Sammar, Marei; Juhasz, Kata; Than, Nandor Gabor; Papp, Zoltan; Romero, Roberto; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Meiri, Hamutal

    2017-07-21

    LGALS13 (placental protein 13 [PP13]) promoter DNA polymorphisms was evaluated in predicting preeclampsia (PE), given PP13's effects on hypotension, angiogenesis, and immune tolerance. First-trimester plasma samples (49 term and 18 intermediate) of PE cases matched with 196 controls were collected from King's College Hospital, London, repository. Cell-free DNA was extracted and the LGALS13 exons were sequenced after PCR amplification. Expression of LGALS13 promoter reporter constructs was determined in BeWo trophoblast-like cells with luciferase assays. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated for the A/A genotype combined with maternal risk factors. The A/A, A/C, and C/C genotypes in the -98 promoter position were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the control but not in the PE group (p 35, black ethnicity, and maternal age >40 were 15.6 and 11.0, respectively (p promoter variant had lower expression than the "-98C" variant in non-differentiated (-13%, p = 0.04) and differentiated (-26%, p promoter region position (compared to "C") and high OR calculated for the A/A genotype in the -98A/C promoter region position, history of previous PE, BMI >35, advanced maternal age >40, and black ethnicity could serve to aid in PE prediction in the first trimester. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. An index-based approach to assessing recalcitrance and soil carbon sequestration potential of engineered black carbons (biochars).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Omar R; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E; Herbert, Bruce E

    2012-02-07

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R(50), for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R(50) is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R(50), with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R(50) and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R(50) is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R(50) ≥ 0.70), Class B (0.50 ≤ R(50) carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, whereas Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R(50), to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  10. Tsonga popular music: negotiating ethnic identity in 'global' music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    identity performance'. Although ethnic identity continues to be performed in contemporary black South African popular music, this article argues for the existence of a performance of, and discourse on, identities that go beyond ethnicity. Here the ...

  11. A predictive model of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in UK white as well as black and Asian minority ethnic population groups for application in food fortification strategy development towards vitamin D deficiency prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Colette M; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Kiely, Mairead; Cox, Lorna; Meadows, Sarah; Goldberg, Gail; Prentice, Ann; Kift, Richard; Webb, Ann R; Cashman, Kevin D

    2017-10-01

    Within Europe, dark-skinned ethnic groups have been shown to be at much increased risk of vitamin D deficiency compared to their white counterparts. Increasing the dietary supply of vitamin D is potentially the only modifiable environmental component that can be used to prevent vitamin D deficiency among dark-skinned ethnic groups living at high latitude. Empirical data to support development of such strategies is largely lacking. This paper presents the development and validation of an integrated model that may be adapted within the UK population to design fortification strategies for vitamin D, for application in both white and black and Asian minority ethnic (BAME) population groups. Using a step-wise approach, models based on available ultraviolet B (UVB) data, hours of sunlight and two key components (the dose-response of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] to UVB in white and BAME persons and the dose-response of 25(OH)D to vitamin D) were used to predict changes population serum 25(OH)D concentrations throughout the year, stratified by ethnicity, 'via increases' in dietary intake arising from food fortification simulations. The integrated model successfully predicted measured average wintertime 25(OH)D concentrations in addition to the prevalence of serum 25(OH)D population-relevant proportions of 97% white and 7% BAME (23.2% predicted versus 23.1% measured). Thus this integrated model presents a viable approach to estimating changes in the population concentrations of 25(OH)D that may arise from various dietary fortification approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanoscale interactions between engineered nanomaterials and black carbon (Biochar) in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials (NMs) enter agricultural soils directly as additives in agrichemical formulations1 and indirectly as contaminants in municipal sewage sludge.2 NIFA has a vested interest in developing predictive models for the fate and nanotoxicity of NMs in agroecosystems. An understanding ...

  13. Do dimensions of ethnic identity mediate the association between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Kim, Su Yeong; Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Schwartz, Seth J; Villalta, Ian K; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Juang, Linda P; Castillo, Linda G; Hudson, Monika L

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. At the intersection of sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, and cervical cancer screening: assessing Pap test use disparities by sex of sexual partners among black, Latina, and white U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Krieger, Nancy; Austin, S Bryn; Haneuse, Sebastien; Gottlieb, Barbara R

    2014-09-01

    Understanding how various dimensions of social inequality shape the health of individuals and populations poses a key challenge for public health. Guided by ecosocial theory and intersectionality, we used data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, a national probability sample, to investigate how one dimension of sexual orientation, sex of sexual partners, and race/ethnicity jointly influence Pap test use among black, Latina and white U.S. women aged 21-44 years (N = 8840). We tested for an interaction between sex of sexual partners and race/ethnicity (p = 0.015) and estimated multivariable logistic regression models for each racial/ethnic group, adjusting for socio-demographic factors. The adjusted odds of Pap test use for women with only female sexual partners in the past year were significantly lower than for women with only male sexual partners in the past year among white women (odds ratio [OR] = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12,0.52) and may be lower among black women (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.07,1.52); no difference was apparent among Latina women (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 0.31,7.73). Further, the adjusted odds of Pap test use for women with no sexual partners in the past year were significantly lower than for women with only male sexual partners in the past year among white (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.22,0.41) and black (OR = 0.23, 95% CI: 0.15,0.37) women and marginally lower among Latina women (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.38,1.03). Adding health care indicators to the models completely explained Pap test use disparities for women with only female vs. only male sexual partners among white women and for women with no vs. only male sexual partners among Latina women. Ecosocial theory and intersectionality can be used in tandem to conceptually and operationally elucidate previously unanalyzed health disparities by multiple dimensions of social inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria as heat engines in the South Andros Black Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Rodney A; Gall, Andrew; Maoka, Takashi; Cogdell, Richard J; Robert, Bruno; Takaichi, Shinichi; Schwabe, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms normally endeavor to optimize the efficiency of their light-harvesting apparatus. However, here we describe two bacterial isolates belonging to the genera Allochromatium and Thiocapsa that demonstrate a novel adaptation by optimizing their external growth conditions at the expense of photosynthetic efficiency. In the South Andros Black Hole, Bahamas, a dense l-m thick layer of these anoxygenic purple sulfur bacteria is present at a depth of 17.8 m. In this layer the water temperature increases sharply to 36 degrees C as a consequence of the low-energy transfer efficiency of their carotenoids (ca. 30%). These include spirilloxanthin, and related polyene molecules and a novel chiral carotenoid identified as spirilloxanthin-2-ol, not previously reported in purple bacteria. To our knowledge, this study presents the first evidence of such a bacterial mass significantly increasing the ambient water temperature. The transduction of light to heat energy to excess heat may provide these anoxygenic phototropic bacteria with a competitive advantage over non-thermotolerant species, which would account for their predominance within the microbial layer.

  16. A Black-box Modelling Engine for Discharge Produced Plasma Radiation Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, S.V.; Choi, P.; Krukovskiy, A.Y.; Zhang, Q.; Novikov, V.G.; Zakharov, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    A Blackbox Modelling Engine (BME), is an instrument based on the adaptation of the RMHD code Z*, integrated into a specific computation environment to provide a turn key simulation instrument and to enable routine plasma modelling without specialist knowledge in numerical computation. Two different operating modes are provided: Detailed Physics mode and Fast Numerics mode. In the Detailed Physics mode, non-stationary, non-equilibrium radiation physics have been introduced to allow the modelling of transient plasmas in experimental geometry. In the Fast Numerics mode, the system architecture and the radiation transport is simplified to significantly accelerate the computation rate. The Fast Numerics mode allows the BME to be used realistically in parametric scanning to explore complex physical set up, before using the Detailed Physics mode. As an example of the results from the BME modelling, the EUV source plasma dynamics in the pulsed capillary discharge are presented

  17. A Multi-Institution Study of Student Demographics and Outcomes in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Susan M.; Layton, Richard A.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Brawner, Catherine E.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Using a large multi-institutional dataset, we describe demographics and outcomes for students starting in and transferring into chemical engineering (ChE). In this dataset, men outnumber women in ChE except among black students. While ChE starters graduate in ChE at rates comparable to or above their racial/ethnic population average for…

  18. An examination of the factors by gender and race/ethnicity influencing science, mathematics, and engineering undergraduate degree recipients to enroll in graduate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasiewski, Doreen Kovacsofsky

    Lack of growth in the science talent pool raises concerns about the ability of colleges and universities to meet the demands of the nation's labor market for scientists and engineers. Previous research has focused on ways to improve the K--16 learning environment and increase retention rates of undergraduate students in the sciences. This study extends previous work by considering the next stage in the educational pipeline---the transition to graduate study. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of factors related to science, mathematics, and engineering (SME) undergraduate degree recipients' subsequent enrollment in graduate study. This research utilizes 1994 data from the first follow-up of the 1993 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study by the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES). Four groups of factors were examined---pre-college characteristics, personal characteristics, institutional characteristics, and the college experience. Analyses were conducted on the overall sample and by gender and race/ethnicity. Male and female subjects were equally likely to enroll in graduate school. White and non-White subjects were equally likely to enroll in graduate school. The best factor to predict enrollment in graduate study for all samples was cumulative grade point average. The models suggested, however, two different journeys taken by SME bachelor's degree recipients. Along one path taken by male and White students, factors associated with graduate school enrollment included having well-educated parents, at least a middle class family background, a good mathematics grade point average, being satisfied with the undergraduate curriculum, being less than twenty-three years old, and having participated in community service. Women and minority students, however, traveled a different path, where marriage negatively influenced enrollment in graduate study. In addition, having children and being over the age of twenty-three were negative factors for

  19. Four Portraits: The Role of Historically Black Colleges and Universities in the Development of Black Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Ph.D. Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    The United States is primed to lose its position as the global leader in technology and science, largely due to the diminishing supply of trained scientists, engineers and mathematicians. This shrinkage cannot be reversed if the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) community continually ignore the untapped talent that exists in…

  20. Left ventricular mass and ventricular remodeling among Hispanic subgroups compared with non-Hispanic blacks and whites: MESA (Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos J; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Moran, Andrew; Jin, Zhezhen; Kronmal, Richard A; Lima, Joao; Homma, Shunichi; Bluemke, David A; Barr, R Graham

    2010-01-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left ventricular (LV) remodeling patterns within Hispanic subgroups compared with non-Hispanic whites in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Hispanics are the largest and fastest-growing ethnic minority in the U.S., but there are no data on LVH and LV geometry among Hispanic subgroups. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 4,309 men and women age 45 to 84 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Hispanics were categorized into subgroups based on self-reported ancestry. LVH was defined as the upper 95th percentile of indexed LV mass in a reference normotensive, nondiabetic, nonobese population, and LV remodeling according to the presence/absence of LVH and abnormal/normal LV mass to LV end-diastolic volume ratio. Among Hispanic participants, 574 were of Mexican origin, 329 were of Caribbean origin, and 161 were of Central/South American origin. On unadjusted analysis, only Caribbean-origin Hispanics (prevalence ratio = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 1.4) had greater prevalence of hypertension than non-Hispanic whites. Hispanic subgroups were more likely to have LVH than non-Hispanic whites after adjustment for hypertension and other covariates (Caribbean-origin Hispanics = odds ratio [OR]: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1 to 3.0; Mexican-origin Hispanics = OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4 to 3.3; Central/South Americans = OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.7 to 3.1). All Hispanic subgroups also had a higher prevalence of concentric and eccentric hypertrophy compared with non-Hispanic whites (p < 0.001). Caribbean-origin Hispanics had a higher prevalence of LVH and abnormal LV remodeling compared with non-Hispanic whites. A higher prevalence of LVH and abnormal LV remodeling was also observed among Mexican-origin Hispanics, despite a lower prevalence of hypertension. Differences among Hispanic subgroups regarding LVH and LV remodeling should be taken into account when

  1. Life satisfaction, ethnicity and neighbourhoods: Is there an effect of neighbourhood ethnic composition on life satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Gundi; Nandi, Alita; Platt, Lucinda

    2016-11-01

    Immigrants and ethnic minorities tend to have lower life satisfaction than majority populations. However, current understanding of the drivers of these gaps is limited. Using a rich, nationally representative data set with a large sample of ethnic minorities and matched neighbourhood characteristics, we test whether first and second generation minorities experience lower life satisfaction once accounting for compositional differences and whether, specifically, neighbourhood deprivation impacts their wellbeing. We further investigate whether a larger proportion of own ethnic group in the neighbourhood improves satisfaction. We find life satisfaction is lower among ethnic minorities, and especially for the second generation, even controlling for individual and area characteristics. Neighbourhood concentration of own ethnic group is, however, associated with higher life satisfaction for Black Africans and UK born Indians and Pakistanis. The effect for Black Africans may stem from selection into areas, but findings for Indians and Pakistanis are robust to sensitivity tests. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Violence and crime among male inpatients with severe mental illness: attempting to explain ethnic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Matt; Cobb, Deborah; Clisby, Holly; Ndegwa, David; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-04-01

    Studies report that in the U.K., among men with severe mental illness (SMI), those of black Caribbean ethnicity display increased risk of aggressive behaviour, criminal convictions, and schizophrenia. The study aimed to compare aggressive behaviour and criminal convictions among men with SMI of white British, black Caribbean and black African ethnicity, and to explore factors associated with differences across ethnicities. Sample 1 included 1,104 male inpatients with SMI. Sample 2 included a representative sub-sample of 165 who completed interviews, and authorized access to medical and criminal files. Ethnicity was self-ascribed. Staff-rated violence prior to admission, self-reported aggressive behaviour, and convictions for non-violent and violent crimes differed among men with SMI of different ethnicities. Relative to men with SMI of white British ethnicity, those of black African ethnicity showed decreased risk of aggressive behaviour, and those of black Caribbean ethnicity showed elevated risk of convictions for non-violent, and marginally, for violent crimes. Relative to men with SMI of black African ethnicity, those of black Caribbean ethnicity showed elevated risk of aggressive behaviour and criminal convictions. Proportionately more of the men of both black African and black Caribbean ethnicity, than those of white British ethnicity, presented schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Multivariate analyses failed to identify factors that would explain differences in aggressive behaviour, and criminal convictions across ethnic groups. Differences in four different measures of aggressive and antisocial behaviour among men with SMI of different ethnicities were observed but factors associated with these differences were not found.

  3. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses.......Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance...

  4. A hermeneutic phenomenological study of the experiences of female African American undergraduate engineering students at a predominantly White and an historically Black institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frillman, Sharron Ann

    2011-12-01

    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, a traditionally White institution. Interviews provided insights into the "lived" experiences of these young women and the factors they believe have contributed to their success in their respective engineering programs. Data analysis involved coding each participant's responses to interview questions using Atlas.ti, a powerful qualitative data analysis tool. This generated 181 codes that were further categorized into nine emergent themes, indicating the potential for extensive associations among the variables. The emergent themes are as follows: (1) Demographic information/special circumstances, (2) Personal attributes and characteristics, (3) Personal insights, (4) Sense of mission, (5) Sources of negative stress, (6) Success strategies, (7) Various forms of support, (8) Would/would not have made it to where she is now, and (9) Being African American and female in engineering. Analysis of these themes and their relationships led to the development of the Frillman Model of Emergent Themes in Female African American Engineering Students. Success. In addressing similarities and differences, three overriding theme categories emerged. These were: (1) Four personhood themes and dual social identity theme; (2) Environmental input and response theme; and (3) Outcome emergent theme of Would/Would not have made it to where she is now. Recommendations were made for future research to expand upon this exploratory study.

  5. BLACK HOLE ATTACK IN AODV & FRIEND FEATURES UNIQUE EXTRACTION TO DESIGN DETECTION ENGINE FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM IN MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUSAIN SHAHNAWAZ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc network is a collection of nodes that are capable to form dynamically a temporary network without the support of any centralized fixed infrastructure. Since there is no central controller to determine the reliable & secure communication paths in Mobile Adhoc Network, each node in the ad hoc network has to rely on each other in order to forward packets, thus highly cooperative nodes are required to ensure that the initiated data transmission process does not fail. In a mobile ad hoc network (MANET where security is a crucial issue and they are forced to rely on the neighbor node, trust plays an important role that could improve the number of successful data transmission. Larger the number of trusted nodes, higher successful data communication process rates could be expected. In this paper, Black Hole attack is applied in the network, statistics are collected to design intrusion detection engine for MANET Intrusion Detection System (IDS. Feature extraction and rule inductions are applied to find out the accuracy of detection engine by using support vector machine. In this paper True Positive generated by the detection engine is very high and this is a novel approach in the area of Mobile Adhoc Intrusion detection system.

  6. Conceptualizing and measuring ethnic discrimination in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A; Corral, Irma; Fernandez, Senaida; Roesch, Scott

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the General Ethnic Discrimination Scale, an 18-item measure of perceived ethnic discrimination that can be used in health research with any ethnic group. The 1569 participants (half college students, half community adults) completed the General Ethnic Discrimination scale and measures of cigarette smoking and of psychiatric symptoms. Results revealed that the General Ethnic Discrimination subscales model the latent construct of perceived ethnic discrimination equally well for Blacks, Latinos, Asians, and Whites. Discrimination was strongly related to psychiatric symptoms and to current cigarette smoking for ethnic minorities and Whites alike, but such relationships were stronger for ethnic minorities. Minorities who experienced frequent discrimination were 2.3 times more likely than their low-discrimination counterparts to be smokers. This 5th grade reading-level scale takes 10 min to complete and has sufficient, initial psychometric integrity for use in clinical and community health studies.

  7. Fatores sociodemográficos associados aos diferentes domínios da atividade física em adultos de etnia negra Sociodemographic factors associated with different domains of physical activity in adults of black ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga

    2012-06-01

    among adults of black ethnicity. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 2,305 black individuals from 20-96 years of age, 902 (39.1% of which men living in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Sociodemographic variables analyzed were: gender, age, schooling, socioeconomic status (SES, marital status, racial discrimination at work/school (RDWE, in public (RDPUP and private (RDPRP places and perception of police (PPN /violence in the neighborhood (PVN, as well as total physical activity (TPA in its different domains: leisure time (LTPA, work (WPA, commuting (CPA and household activity (HPA. Associations were analyzed using chi-square tests, chi-square trend and prevalence ratio (PR. We also used logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratio (OR with a 95%confidence interval. RESULTS: The proportions of active individuals were 39.1% for TPA, 11.2% for LTPA, 9.6% for WPA, 23.7% for CPA and 33.7% for HPA. TPA was positively associated with higher schooling and inversely associated with male gender, age over 60 years and with no PPN. LTPA was positively associated with male gender, higher schooling and higher SES. WPA was inversely associated with age over 60 years and positively associated with male gender, higher schooling and no PPN. CPA was inversely associated with age over 60 years and positively associated with male gender. HPA was inversely associated with male gender, age over 60 years and no PPN and positively associated with higher schooling and SES. CONCLUSION: Socio-demographic factors, particularly gender, age and schooling were associated with different domains of physical activity among adults of black ethnicity.

  8. Possibilities of utilization of fly ash from the black coal Power Engineering of the U. S. Steel Košice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Františka Michalíková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents modes of a direct utilization of the fly ash by-product of the combustion of black power coal in the slag - bottom boilers of the Division Plant Power Engineering ( DP PE of the U. S. Steel Košice ( next USSK . The properties of fly ash limit its use in metallurgy and foundry industry. The fly ash is directly utilizable in the metallurgical industry as a component of powder cover mixtures and insulation inserts, heat insulation parts and exothermical mixtures. The most important components in the mixtures are light micro spheres – cenospheres and heavy micro spheres – plerospheres. The micro spheres significantly improve properties of the powder cover mixtures.

  9. Ethnic rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, R

    2018-01-01

    Rhinoplasty is one of the main facial plastic procedures performed worldwide. Ethnic patients today are mainly mixed-race patients. Diagnosis is based on anatomical findings and surgery should be planned based on patients' needs and what they define as beautiful. Different surgical techniques are presented where a structural approach to rhinoplasty is explained. Very little tissue is resected and support structures of the nose are strengthened with sutures and grafts. A gradual approach to the nasal tip is also presented progressing from simple predictable techniques to more complex unpredictable ones. The final result should be noses with greater definition and refinement that are harmonious and blend in with patients' faces.

  10. Ethnic Minorities in Britain. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about the status of ethnic minorities in Great Britain. At the 1991 census, just over 3 million (5.5%) of the people in Britain did not classify themselves as White. About half were of South Asian descent (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi) and 30% were Black. Nearly 7.3% of the British population had been born…

  11. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...

  12. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...

  13. Breast Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...

  14. Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...

  15. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other race. Data for specified racial or ethnic populations other than white and black should be interpreted with caution. For more information, see the USCS technical notes. § Data are from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Data for death rates cover 100% of the U.S. population. Use ...

  16. An Intersectional Analysis of Gender and Ethnic Stereotypes: Testing Three Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Negin; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2013-01-01

    We compared perceived cultural stereotypes of diverse groups varying by gender and ethnicity. Using a free-response procedure, we asked 627 U.S. undergraduates to generate 10 attributes for 1 of 17 groups: Asian Americans, Blacks, Latinos, Middle Eastern Americans, or Whites; men or women; or 10 gender-by-ethnic groups (e.g., Black men or Latina…

  17. Scholarly Black Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Shahryar

    2017-04-01

    Fake and unethical publishers' activities are known by most of the readers of Science and Engineering Ethics. This letter tries to draw the readers' attention to the hidden side of some of these publishers' business. Here the black market of scholarly articles, which negatively affects the validity and reliability of research in higher education, as well as science and engineering, will be introduced.

  18. Ethnic Differences in Women's Body Satisfaction: An Experimental Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Gregg R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the influence of ethnic differences on women's body satisfaction. Summarizes a study where white and black female undergraduates received bogus positive and negative social feedback. The feedback resulted in corresponding changes in the white females' body satisfaction. Black women were unaffected by the feedback. (MJP)

  19. Pension prospects of minority ethnic groups: inequalities by gender and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, J; Arber, S

    2001-09-01

    Minority ethnic groups have low income in later life from private pensions, partly due to shorter employment records in Britain since migration. Yet disadvantage and discrimination in the labour market, as well as differences in cultural norms concerning women's employment, may lead to persistence of ethnic variation in private pension acquisition. Little is known about the pension arrangements made by men and women in minority ethnic groups during the working life. This paper examines the extent of ethnic disadvantage in private pension scheme arrangements and analyses variation according to gender and specific ethnic group, using three years of the British Family Resources Survey, which provides information on over 97,000 adults aged 20-59, including over 5,700 from ethnic minorities. Both men and women in minority ethnic groups were less likely to have private pension coverage than their white counterparts but the extent of the difference was most marked for Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Ethnicity interacted with gender, so that Blacks showed the least gender inequality in private pension arrangements, reflecting the relatively similar full-time employment rates of Black men and women. A minority ethnic disadvantage in private pension coverage, for both men and women, remained after taking account of age, marital and parental status, years of education, employment variables, class and income. The research suggests that minority ethnic groups - especially women - will be disproportionately dependent on means-tested benefits in later life, due to the combined effects of low private pension coverage and the policy of shifting pension provision towards the private sector.

  20. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as a star or dispersing altogether. Were we engineers with advanced technology, we might attempt to find that critical amount of energy necessary to form a black hole. However, despite some fears to the contrary, such technology does not exist, so instead we investigate this critical regime numerically. The first step is to pick ...

  1. Suicidality, ethnicity and immigration in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, G; Orozco, R; Rafful, C; Miller, E; Breslau, J

    2012-06-01

    Suicide is the 11th leading cause of death in the USA. Suicide rates vary across ethnic groups. Whether suicide behavior differs by ethnic groups in the USA in the same way as observed for suicide death is a matter of current discussion. The aim of this report was to compare the lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt among four main ethnic groups (Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites) in the USA. Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine risk for lifetime suicidality by ethnicity and immigration among 15 180 participants in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys (CPES), a group of cross-sectional surveys. Suicide ideation was most common among Non-Hispanic Whites (16.10%), least common among Asians (9.02%) and intermediate among Hispanics (11.35%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (11.82%). Suicide attempts were equally common among Non-Hispanic Whites (4.69%), Hispanics (5.11%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (4.15%) and less common among Asians (2.55%). These differences in the crude prevalence rates of suicide ideation decreased but persisted after control for psychiatric disorders, but disappeared for suicide attempt. Within ethnic groups, risk for suicidality was low among immigrants prior to migration compared to the US born, but equalized over time after migration. Ethnic differences in suicidal behaviors are explained partly by differences in psychiatric disorders and low risk prior to arrival in the USA. These differences are likely to decrease as the US-born proportion of Hispanics and Asians increases.

  2. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  3. Ethnic Status and Adolescent Self-Evaluations: An Extension of Research on Minority Self Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Gary F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of data from four surveys indicated that neither Black nor Mexican-American students suffered from low self-esteem despite the fact that they perceived mistreatment based on their ethnic status. Whether a school was predominantly Black or predominantly White did not affect Blacks' perceived racial mistreatment. (Author/MJL)

  4. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  5. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  6. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  7. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    The thesis has three aims: The first aim is to review the existing knowledge about ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation in Europe. The second aim is to investigate similarities and differences in outdoor recreation patterns between adolescents with ethnic Danish and ethnic minority background...... of their ethnicity. The implications from the review as well as the empirical study have been used to propose a theoretical framework for future research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation. The thesis consists of four papers: The first paper reviews the European research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation....... An emerging field of research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation was identified, compared to the research in North America. However, the European research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation is growing. The European research has shown differences in outdoor recreation pattern (e.g. the motives for outdoor...

  8. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    knowledge about the similarities and differences in outdoor recreation pattern of ethnic Danish and ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation pattern which can be used in policy making, as well as planning and management of green spaces and other natural areas, to provide the best possibilities for outdoor......The thesis has three aims: The first aim is to review the existing knowledge about ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation in Europe. The second aim is to investigate similarities and differences in outdoor recreation patterns between adolescents with ethnic Danish and ethnic minority background...... of their ethnicity. The implications from the review as well as the empirical study have been used to propose a theoretical framework for future research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation. The thesis consists of four papers: The first paper reviews the European research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation...

  9. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  10. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay; Ramey, Sharon L.; Krohn, Julie; Reed-Vance, Maxine; Raju, Tonse N.K.; Shalowitz, Madeleine U.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Breastfeeding rates differ among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Our aim was to test whether racial/ethnic disparities in demographic characteristics, hospital use of infant formula, and family history of breastfeeding mediated racial/ethnic gaps in breastfeeding outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Community and Child Health Network study (N = 1636). Breastfeeding initiation, postnatal intent to breastfeed, and breastfeeding duration were assessed postpartum. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate relative odds of breastfeeding initiation, postnatal intent, and duration among racial/ethnic groups and to test the candidate mediators of maternal age, income, household composition, employment, marital status, postpartum depression, preterm birth, smoking, belief that “breast is best,” family history of breastfeeding, in-hospital formula introduction, and WIC participation. RESULTS: Spanish-speaking Hispanic mothers were most likely to initiate (91%), intend (92%), and maintain (mean duration, 17.1 weeks) breastfeeding, followed by English-speaking Hispanic mothers (initiation 90%, intent 88%; mean duration, 10.4 weeks) and white mothers (initiation 78%, intent 77%; mean duration, 16.5 weeks); black mothers were least likely to initiate (61%), intend (57%), and maintain breastfeeding (mean duration, 6.4 weeks). Demographic variables fully mediated disparities between black and white mothers in intent and initiation, whereas demographic characteristics and in-hospital formula feeding fully mediated breastfeeding duration. Family breastfeeding history and demographic characteristics helped explain the higher breastfeeding rates of Hispanic mothers relative to white and black mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals and policy makers should limit in-hospital formula feeding and consider family history of breastfeeding and demographic characteristics to reduce racial/ethnic breastfeeding disparities. PMID:27405771

  11. Testicular microlithiasis is associated with ethnicity and socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland Vils; Bartlett, Emily C; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are limited studies about testicular microlithiasis (TML) and background information such as health, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of TML in relation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a database of scrotal...... on the examination report and a representative image obtained and stored. A total of 1105 cases with TML were reviewed and random sample of 1105 controls from the same database was also reviewed. Demographics were recorded including ethnicity (white, black, and others) and socioeconomic groups (IMD Quintile...... group of 1105 men without TML, 560 (50.7%) were white, 171 (15.5%) black, 111 (10.0%) had other specified ethnicities, and 263 (23.8%) had no ethnicity recorded. Men from the most deprived socioeconomic groups had higher prevalence of TML than men in the most affluent groups, with a trend in OR from...

  12. Racial/Ethnic Residential Segregation, Obesity, and Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Kiarri N; Pender, Ashley E

    2016-11-01

    Persistent racial/ethnic disparities in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus seen in the US are likely due to a combination of social, biological, and environmental factors. A growing number of studies have examined the role of racial/ethnic residential segregation with respect to these outcomes because this macro-level process is believed to be a fundamental cause of many of the factors that contribute to these disparities. This review provides an overview of findings from studies of racial/ethnic residential segregation with obesity and diabetes published between 2013 and 2015. Findings for obesity varied by geographic scale of the segregation measure, gender, ethnicity, and racial identity (among Hispanics/Latinos). Recent studies found no association between racial/ethnic residential segregation and diabetes prevalence, but higher segregation of Blacks was related to higher diabetes mortality. Implications of these recent studies are discussed as well as promising areas of future research.

  13. Comparing methodologies for imputing ethnicity in an urban ophthalmology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Philip; Murchison, Ann P; Dai, Yang; Hark, Lisa; Pizzi, Laura T; Leiby, Benjamin E; Haller, Julia A

    2014-04-01

    To compare methodologies for imputing ethnicity in an urban ophthalmology clinic. Using data from 19,165 patients with self-reported ethnicity, surname, and home address, we compared the accuracy of three methodologies for imputing ethnicity: (1) a surname method based on tabulation from the 2000 US Census; (2) a geocoding method based on tract data from the 2010 US Census; and (3) a combined surname geocoding method using Bayes' theorem. The combined surname geocoding model had the highest accuracy of the three methodologies, imputing black ethnicity with a sensitivity of 84% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 94%, white ethnicity with a sensitivity of 92% and PPV of 82%, Hispanic ethnicity with a sensitivity of 77% and PPV of 71%, and Asian ethnicity with a sensitivity of 83% and PPV of 79%. Overall agreement of imputed and self-reported ethnicity was fair for the surname method (κ 0.23), moderate for the geocoding method (κ 0.58), and strong for the combined method (κ 0.76). A methodology combining surname analysis and Census tract data using Bayes' theorem to determine ethnicity is superior to other methods tested and is ideally suited for research purposes of clinical and administrative data.

  14. Disordered eating in ethnic minority adolescents with overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Watts, Allison W; Austin, S Bryn; Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-06-01

    High rates of disordered eating exist among adolescents with overweight and among ethnic/racial minority adolescents. Given the lack of research examining how eating disorder risk is moderated by both overweight and ethnicity/race, this study aimed to explore interactions between ethnicity/race and overweight status on disordered eating behaviors in a population-based adolescent sample. Cross-sectional data from adolescents (n = 2,271; 52% females) of White (23%), Black (34%), Hispanic (20%), and Asian (23%; 82% Hmong) ethnicity/race participating in the EAT 2010 study were used to examine associations between overweight status and disordered eating behaviors across ethnic/racial groups. Disordered eating behaviors occurred more frequently among adolescents with overweight compared with those without overweight across all ethnic/racial groups. Although some differences in the prevalence of disordered eating were found by ethnicity/race, particularly in girls, no consistent patterns of interaction emerged. Overweight White and Hispanic girls reported the highest risk for dieting, while the highest risk for unhealthy weight control behaviors was among overweight Black girls, and for overeating among overweight White and Asian girls. Within a society in which thinness is highly valued and being overweight is stigmatized, across diverse cultural groups, adolescents with overweight are at risk for disordered eating. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    to their ethnic Danish counterparts. The adolescents use different areas for outdoor recreation: the adolescents with ethnic Danish background use sports grounds for outdoor recreation, while adolescents with ethnic minority backgrounds use urban green spaces for outdoor recreation. For activities reported...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through...

  16. Engineering justice transforming engineering education and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leydens, Jon A

    2018-01-01

    Using social justice as a catalyst for curricular transformation, Engineering Justice presents an examination of how politics, culture, and other social issues are inherent in the practice of engineering. It aims to align engineering curricula with socially just outcomes, increase enrollment among underrepresented groups, and lessen lingering gender, class, and ethnicity gaps by showing how the power of engineering knowledge can be explicitly harnessed to serve the underserved and address social inequalities. This book is meant to transform the way educators think about engineering curricula through creating or transforming existing courses to attract, retain, and motivate engineering students to become professionals who enact engineering for social justice. Engineering Justice offers thought-provoking chapters on: why social justice is inherent yet often invisible in engineering education and practice; engineering design for social justice; social justice in the engineering sciences; social justice in human...

  17. Role of ethnicity in human papillomavirus vaccination uptake: a cross-sectional study of girls from ethnic minority groups attending London schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockliffe, Lauren; Waller, Jo; Marlow, Laura A V; Forster, Alice S

    2017-02-23

    Research suggests that girls from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination than white British girls; however, the specific ethnic minority groups that have lower uptake have not been identified. This study aimed to examine the relationship between school-level uptake and ethnicity as well as uptake and other ethnicity-related factors, to understand which specific groups are less likely to receive the vaccination. Aggregated uptake rates from 195 schools were obtained for each of the three recommended vaccine doses from 2008 to 2010. Census data at the lower super output area (LSOA) level for the postcode of each school were also obtained, describing the ethnic breakdown of the resident population (ethnicity, language spoken, religion, proficiency in English and duration of residency in the UK). These were used as proxy measures of the ethnic make-up of the schools. The most prevalent non-majority group for each ethnicity and ethnicity-related factor was assigned to each school. Analyses explored differences in uptake by ethnicity and ethnicity-related factors. No significant differences in vaccination uptake were found by ethnicity or ethnicity-related factors, although descriptive differences were apparent. Schools in areas where black ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently low rates of uptake for all doses. Schools in areas where some Asian ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently high rates of uptake for all doses. There was evidence of variability in mean uptake rates for ethnicities within 'black' and 'Asian' ethnic groups. Future research would benefit from focusing on specific ethnicities rather than broad ethnic categories. Replication of this study with a larger sample and using complete individual-level data, collected on a national level, would provide a clearer indication of where ethnic differences in HPV vaccination

  18. Ethnicity, ethnic identity, self-esteem, and at-risk eating disordered behavior differences of urban adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Deborah J; Thatcher, W Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: to determine the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem as dimensions of one's self-concept; and to determine if differences exist among one's ethnicity, ethnic identity, and/or self-esteem when examining at-risk eating disordered behaviors. A total of 893 urban adolescent females completed three behavioral subscales: the Eating Disorder Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. As hypothesized, ethnic identity was significantly associated with self-esteem to form one's self-concept. When compared to Mexican American and White females, only Black females who were in the higher ethnic identity and self-esteem categories had significantly lower at-risk eating disordered scores. Our findings suggest eating disorder status in Mexican American and White females may not be associated as much with ethnic identity as with other acculturation and self-concept factors. Further, this study demonstrated ethnicity, self-esteem, and ethnic identity play significant roles in eating disorder risks.

  19. Masculinities and ethnicities: Ethnic differences in drive for muscularity in British men and the negotiation of masculinity hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2016-08-01

    Although relatively little is known about ethnic differences in men's drive for muscularity, recent theoretical developments suggest that ethnic minority men may desire greater muscularity to contest their positions of relative subordinate masculinity. This study tested this hypothesis in a sample of 185 White, 180 Black British, and 182 South Asian British men. Participants completed self-report measures of drive for muscularity, need for power, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic group affiliation. Taking into account between-group differences in body mass index, results indicated that White men had significantly lower drive for muscularity than Black and South Asian men, who were not significantly different from each other. In addition, greater need for power was significantly associated with higher drive for muscularity in ethnic minority, but not White, men. Greater adherence to traditional cultural values, but not ethnic group affiliation, was associated with lower drive for muscularity in all ethnic groups. These results suggest that ethnic minority men may desire greater muscularity as a means of negotiating masculinity and attendant ideals of appearance. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Testicular microlithiasis is associated with ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Malene R; Bartlett, Emily C; Rafaelsen, Søren R; Osther, Palle J; Vedsted, Peter; Sellars, Maria E; Sidhu, Paul S; Møller, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    There are limited studies about testicular microlithiasis (TML) and background information such as health, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status. To assess the prevalence of TML in relation to socioeconomic status and ethnicity. From a database of scrotal ultrasound examinations in a single institution, all men who underwent routine ultrasound examinations for a variety of symptoms from 1998 to 2015 were included. Skilled observers performed all examinations, and presence of any form of intra-testicular calcification, including TML, was recorded on the examination report and a representative image obtained and stored. A total of 1105 cases with TML were reviewed and random sample of 1105 controls from the same database was also reviewed. Demographics were recorded including ethnicity (white, black, and others) and socioeconomic groups (IMD Quintile). Black men had increased prevalence of TML (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.72-2.75) compared with white men. Among the 1105 TML cases, 423 (38.3%) were white, 273 (24.7%) black, 152 (13.8%) had other ethnicities, and 257 (23.2%) had no ethnicity recorded. In the control group of 1105 men without TML, 560 (50.7%) were white, 171 (15.5%) black, 111 (10.0%) had other specified ethnicities, and 263 (23.8%) had no ethnicity recorded. Men from the most deprived socioeconomic groups had higher prevalence of TML than men in the most affluent groups, with a trend in OR from the least deprived to the most deprived group. Pathogenesis and clinical relevance of TML is unknown but our results point towards possible ethnic and socioeconomic variation in the underlying causes of TML.

  1. Alcohol use, socioeconomic deprivation and ethnicity in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rahul; Schofield, Peter; Ashworth, Mark

    2015-08-24

    This study explores the relationship between alcohol consumption, health, ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation. 27,991 people aged 65 and over from an inner-city population, using a primary care database. Primary outcome measures were alcohol use and misuse (>21 units per week for men and >14 for units per week women). Older people of black and minority ethnic (BME) origin from four distinct ethnic groups comprised 29% of the sample. A total of 9248 older drinkers were identified, of whom 1980 (21.4%) drank above safe limits. Compared with older drinkers, older unsafe drinkers contained a higher proportion of males, white and Irish ethnic groups and a lower proportion of Caribbean, African and Asian groups. For older drinkers, the strongest independent predictors of higher alcohol consumption were younger age, male gender and Irish ethnicity. Independent predictors of lower alcohol consumption were Asian, black Caribbean and black African ethnicity. Socioeconomic deprivation and comorbidity were not significant predictors of alcohol consumption in older drinkers. For older unsafe drinkers, the strongest predictor variables were younger age, male gender and Irish ethnicity; comorbidity was not a significant predictor. Lower socioeconomic deprivation was a significant predictor of unsafe consumption whereas African, Caribbean and Asian ethnicity were not. Although under-reporting in high-alcohol consumption groups and poor health in older people who have stopped or controlled their drinking may have limited the interpretation of our results, we suggest that closer attention is paid to 'young older' male drinkers, as well as to older drinkers born outside the UK and those with lower levels of socioeconomic deprivation who are drinking above safe limits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Ethnic variations in psychotic disorders in the criminal justice system: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denzel, A.D.; van Esch, A.Y.M.; Harte, J.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between ethnicity, psychotic disorders and criminal behavior by investigating differences in prevalence rates of psychotic disorders between detainees from Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups and non-BME detainees. Method A systematic review of all empirical

  3. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Student-Athletes' Responses to Stressful Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman, Edward; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Explored the role that gender and ethnicity play in athletes' responses to life events that correlate to depression, anxiety, somatic discomfort, and stress. Neither ethnicity or gender influenced the number of experienced stressful life events. However, Black and male athletes reported significantly higher ratings of aversiveness than did White…

  4. Racial/ethnic and immigrant differences in early childhood diet quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Eijsden, Manon; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    To assess racial/ethnic differences in the diet in young children and the explanatory role of maternal BMI, immigrant status and perception of child's weight. Among white, black and Hispanic 3-year-olds, we used negative binomial and linear regression to examine associations of race/ethnicity with

  5. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  6. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  7. Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in School Discipline among U.S. High School Students: 1991-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John M; Goodkind, Sara; Wallace, Cynthia M; Bachman, Jerald G

    2008-01-01

    The present study uses large nationally representative samples of White, Black, Hispanic, Asian American, and American Indian students to examine current patterns and recent trends (1991 to 2005) in racial, ethnic, and gender differences in school discipline. We found that Black, Hispanic, and American Indian youth are slightly more likely than White and Asian American youth to be sent to the office and substantially (two to five times) more likely to be suspended or expelled. Although school discipline rates decreased over time for most ethnic groups, among Black students school discipline rates increased between 1991 and 2005. Logistic regression analyses that controlled for racial and ethnic differences in socio-demographic factors suggest racial and ethnic differences in school discipline do not result from racial and ethnic differences in socioeconomic status. Future research and practice efforts should seek to better understand and to eliminate racial, ethnic and gender disproportionality in school discipline.

  8. Debating the viability of ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilna Bashi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Immigration and the Political Economy of Home: West Indian Brooklyn and American Indian Minneapolis, 1945-1992. RACHEL BUFF. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press, 2001. xv + 240 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 Black Cuban, Black American: A Memoir. EVELIO GRILLO. Houston TX: Arte Püblico Press, 2000. xvi + 134 pp. (Paper US$ 13.95 West Indian in the West: Self Representations in an Immigrant Community. PERCY C. HINTZEN. New York: New York University Press, 2001. x + 200pp. (Paper US$ 18.50 Caribbean Families in Britain and the Transatlantic World. HARRY GOULBOURNE & MARY CHAMBERLAIN (eds.. Oxford UK: Macmillan, 2001. xvi + 270 pp. (Paper £15.50 Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. ALEJANDRO PORTES & RUBÉN G. RUMBAUT. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press/ New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001. xxiv + 406 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 "Ethnicity" and its meaning, both as an identity and as a resilient cultural influence, has dominated late twentieth-century social scientific analyses of the process of immigrant incorporation. Perhaps we may mark the crowning of the term with the publication of Glazer and Moynihan's The Melting Pot, one famous tome that "explained" varying "assimilation" outcomes among the "new" (post-1965 newcomers by examining their ethnic culture for flaws or strengths that justified socioeconomic failure or success. Muddying the ensuing policy debate was the use of buzzwords, like mainstream, deviant, assimilated, minority, black matriarch, absent father, and underclass, that were themselves categorizing and hierarchical. The tautology of hierarchically labeling groups and then asking why groups with different labels have different outcomes seems to be perpetually invisible to the parties in the assimilation debate, but the debate itself rages on. Newer scholarship has added a different voice to that debate, arguing that variance in "assimilation" is instead explained by incorporation into

  9. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  10. White Ethnics, Racial Prejudice, and Labor Market Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Scott

    The contemporary conflict between blacks and selected white ethnic groups (Catholic immigrants, Jews) is the product of competition for jobs in the secondary labor market. Radical economists have described the existence of a dual labor market within the American economy. The idea of this segmented labor market provides a useful way to integrate…

  11. Managing urban parks for a racially and ethnically diverse clientele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2002-01-01

    A major planning effort for Chicago's largest park provided an opprotunity yto examine outdoor recreation use patterns and preferences among a racially and ethnically diverse clientele. Results from on-site surveys of 898 park users (217 Black, 210 Latino, 182 Asian, and 289 White) showed that park users shared a core set of interests, preferences, and concerns...

  12. University Offer Rates for Candidates from Different Ethnic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Philip; Shiner, Michael; Modood, Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggested that candidates from some black and minority ethnic groups were less likely to receive an offer of a place from an "old" university. These findings were disputed in a re-analysis carried out for HEFCE which found that only Pakistani candidates were significantly less likely to receive offers (from both…

  13. Postcoloniality and Ethnography: Negotiating Gender, Ethnicity and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws on black and postcolonial feminist theory in problematizing the interplay of difference and power within the identity practices of Malaysian women. I examine strategic essentialism and cultural difference in ways of being Malay-Muslim, Chinese and Indian women. I highlight the ways in which ethnic and gender politics privileges…

  14. Ethnicity and Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Jerome M.; Gwynne, John

    1982-01-01

    Compared differences in the Bender-Gestalt mean error scores of 1,938 Black, Hispanic, and White children. Performed a two-way between groups' unweighted means ANOVA on the error scores for the seven age groups and for the three ethnic groups. Significant differences were found for both main effects. (Author)

  15. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  16. Ethnic Identity and Perceived Stress Among Ethnically Diverse Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren M; Kern, David M; Lui, Florence; Anglin, Deidre

    2018-02-01

    Recent empirical research suggests that having a strong ethnic identity may be associated with reduced perceived stress. However, the relationship between perceived stress and ethnic identity has not been tested in a large and ethnically diverse sample of immigrants. This study utilized a multi-group latent class analysis of ethnic identity on a sample of first and second generation immigrants (N = 1603), to determine ethnic identity classifications, and their relation to perceived stress. A 4-class ethnic identity structure best fit the data for this immigrant sample, and the proportion within each class varied by ethnicity, but not immigrant generation. High ethnic identity was found to be protective against perceived stress, and this finding was invariant across ethnicity. This study extends the findings of previous research on the protective effect of ethnic identity against perceived stress to immigrant populations of diverse ethnic origins.

  17. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  18. The multi-ethnic global lung initiative 2012 and Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reference values do not reflect spirometric measurements in Black boys and men from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rębacz-Maron, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    The interpretation of spirometric results of Black Africans according to reference standards based on data from outside their native environment may lead to the wrong conclusions. This article aims to characterize the ventilatory capacity of boys and men from Tanzania according to forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow (PEF) and FEV 1 /FVC based on the collected anthropological material and to compare them to NHANES III, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) African American predicted values and GLI2012 equations. The analysis included spirometric measurements of n = 295 participants from Tanzania. Pearson's correlation analysis and the backward stepwise multiple regression analysis were performed. FEV 1 , FVC, PEF and FEV 1 /FVC results were compared to the NHANES III African American predicted values as well as to the GLI2012 equations. FEV 1 measurements are lower than the reference values according to NHANES III and GLI2012 equations by 22·1% and 25·8%. FVC results fell short of the NHANES III predicted by 29·5% and of GLI2012 by 32·5%. The average %FEV 1 /FVC scores for the boys and men exceeded the recommended GLI2012 predicted by 10·5-15·2%. All the spirometric measurements included in the analysis were statistically significantly correlated with age, body height, sitting height, trunk length and body weight. The application of prediction formulae developed for non-African populations overestimates the values for Black Africans. The results of spirometric measurements are ecosensitive and dependent on various external (environmental) factors. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in HPV Vaccination Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otanez, Staci; Torr, Berna M

    2017-12-20

    There are substantial racial and ethnic disparities in the vaccination rate for human papillomavirus (HPV), which helps protect against cervical cancer. Using data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, we explore differences between Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in attitudes toward vaccinating adolescent girls for HPV. We use logistic regression models to explore whether racial/ethnic differences in attitudes toward HPV vaccinations are explained by HPV knowledge, demographic and socioeconomic status, and/or general distrust of the healthcare system. We include interactions to explore whether the effects of HPV knowledge and doctor distrust vary by racial/ethnic group. We find that greater HPV knowledge increases general willingness to vaccinate for all groups except Blacks. Our findings point to a need for additional research and design of culturally appropriate interventions that address barriers to vaccination.

  20. Racial/ethnic residential segregation and cardiovascular disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Albrecht, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined whether racial/ethnic residential segregation contributes to health disparities, but recent findings in the literature, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, have not been summarized. This review provides an overview of findings from studies of racial/ethnic residential segregation of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with CVD risk published between January 2011 and July 2014. The majority of studies of black segregation showed higher segregation was related to higher CVD risk, although relationships were less clear for certain outcomes. Relationships among Hispanics were more mixed and appeared to vary widely by factors such as gender, country of origin, racial identity, and acculturation. Implications for research on racial/ethnic disparities in CVD and lingering gaps in the literature are discussed as well. PMID:25893031

  1. "Black gold" grade12-learners: relationship between leisure/sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There tends to be an increase in scholarly literature regarding the leisure and sport participation of high school learners. However, in the South African context there are many black high school learners within townships who might not have access to leisure/recreation and sport facilities. "Black gold" (based on ethnicity and ...

  2. Ethics and engineering design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poel, I.R.; van der Poel, Ibo; Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Engineering ethics and science and technology studies (STS) have until now developed as separate enterprises. The authors argue that they can learn a lot from each other. STS insights can help make engineering ethics open the black box of technology and help discern ethical issues in engineering

  3. Occupational injuries in workers from different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkodathil, Ahammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Occupational injuries remain an important unresolved issue in many of the developing and developed countries. We aimed to outline the causes, characteristics, measures and impact of occupational injuries among different ethnicities. We reviewed the literatures using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE search engine using words: "Occupational injuries" and "workplace" between 1984 and 2014. Incidence of fatal occupational injuries decreased over time in many countries. However, it increased in the migrant, foreign born and ethnic minority workers in certain high risk industries. Disproportionate representations of those groups in different industries resulted in wide range of fatality rates. Overrepresentation of migrant workers, foreign born and ethnic minorities in high risk and unskilled occupations warrants effective safety training programs and enforcement of laws to assure safe workplaces. The burden of occupational injuries at the individual and community levels urges the development and implementation of effective preventive programs.

  4. Open the "Black Box" Creativity and Innovation: A Study of Activities in R&D Departments. Some Prospects for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Charlyne; Oget, David; Cavallucci, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Innovation is a key component to the success and longevity of companies. Our research opens the "black box" of creativity and innovation in R&D teams. We argue that understanding the nature of R&D projects in terms of creativity/innovation, efficiency/inefficiency, is important for designing education policies and improving…

  5. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Norredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how everyday school life interacts with students’ practices of ‘becoming teenagers’ at a Danish school, analysing how age and ethnicity intersect with emotional well-being. The article builds on an ethnographic study at a public sports school following ethnic minority...... and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  6. Preventable risk factors for coronary heart disease and stroke amongst ethnic groups in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemic-Stojcevic, N; Dundas, R; Jenkins, S; Rudd, A; Wolfe, C

    2001-05-01

    People of African Caribbean descent have higher mortality rates from stroke than other ethnic groups. However, little is known about the prevalence of stroke risk factors in UK ethnic minority groups. We investigated the prevalence of these risk factors amongst African Caribbeans, black Africans and whites. A random sample of patients aged 45-74 registered with 16 general practices in south London was surveyed in 1995. Main outcome measures were: prevalence of hypertension, mean serum cholesterol, serum fibrinogen and glycosylated haemoglobin AIC. Logistic and linear regressions were used to determine ethnic differences in these measures. Hypertension was more prevalent in black Caribbeans (79.4%) and black Africans (71.6%) than in whites (54.3%) (p Africans had similar rates to black Caribbeans for these risk factors apart from lower triglvceride levels. These differences in risk factors may partially explain the high stroke mortality rates in black Caribbeans and black Africans compared to whites. There was little difference in prevalence of these risk factors between black Caribbean and black African groups. Specific strategies targeted to each ethnic group need to be developed to reduce risk factors.

  7. Generic Tobacco Use among Four Ethnic Groups in a School Age Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Carl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…

  8. Subjective social status and intergroup attitudes among ethnic majority and minority children in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddes, A.R.; Monteiro, M.B.; Justo, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    A measure of subjective social status (SSS) was examined among high (White), and low (Black and Roma) ethnic status children in Portugal within a developmental design including 6-8-year-old and 9-12-year-old children. White children favoured their ingroup over the Black and Roma out-groups on the

  9. Ethnicity and prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure among 10

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population studies have repeatedly found that black populations have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure in comparison with other ethnic groups. Blacks, coloured and Indians in South Africa are currently in a process of urbanization, which may lead to chronic diseases of lifestyle like hypertension. The purpose of ...

  10. Black Cohosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have had hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer or for pregnant women or nursing mothers. Black cohosh should not be confused with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) , which has different effects and may not be safe. Black cohosh has ...

  11. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  12. The Thermodynamic Efficiency in Static and Dynamic Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzade, Kh.; Sadeghi, J.

    2017-11-01

    We note that, in extended phase space the cosmological constant is a thermodynamic variable. In this paper, this cosmological constant lead us to consider a black hole as a heat engine. So, here we take advantage from holographic heat engine and study two kind of different black holes. We first investigate a static black hole (Dyonic BH) and consider the necessary condition to have high efficiency. Also we continue our investigation for dynamic black hole (rotating charged black hole) and study the effect of rotating parameter on the thermodynamic efficiency of holographic heat engine. We show that the rotating parameter has a more effective role than electric charge in thermodynamic efficiency.

  13. Effects of manifest ethnic identification on employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Laura G; Hebl, Michelle; King, Eden B

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from recent laboratory experiments suggests that ethnic identification can lead to negative evaluations of ethnic minorities (Kaiser & Pratt-Hyatt, 2009). The current research considers the generalizability of these findings to face-to-face interactions in contexts wherein impression management concerns are salient: the workplace hiring process. In a field experiment, Black, Hispanic, and Irish individuals applied for retail jobs with or without visible display of their ethnic identification. Analysis of indicators of formal (e.g., application offering, interview scheduling) and interpersonal discrimination (e.g., interaction length, nonverbal negativity) suggest store personnel interacting with other-race applicants exhibited greater positivity and longer interactions when applicants displayed ethnic identification than when they did not. The findings suggest that psychologists need to understand not only attitudes or intentions expressed in the lab, but also the behavioral consequences of manifest group identity as they unfold in natural environments.

  14. Discrimination and common mental disorder among migrant and ethnic groups: findings from a South East London Community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, S L; Gazard, B; Williams, D R; Frissa, S; Goodwin, L; Hotopf, M

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have examined discrimination and mental health in the UK, particularly by migrant status and in urban contexts with greater demographic diversity. This study aims to (1) describe the prevalence of discrimination experiences across multiple life domains; (2) to describe associations between discrimination experiences and common mental disorder (CMD); (3) to determine whether or not the relationship between discrimination and CMD varies by migrant status and ethnicity. Data on major, anticipated and everyday discrimination and CMD symptoms were collected from an ethnically diverse prospective sample of 1052 participants followed up from 2008 to 2013 in the South East London Community Health study, a population-based household survey. With few exceptions, discrimination was most prevalent among those in the Black Caribbean group. However, those in the White Other ethnic group had similar or greater reporting major and anticipated discrimination to Black or mixed ethnic minority groups. The effects of discrimination on CMD were most pronounced for individuals who had recently migrated to the UK, an ethnically heterogeneous group, and for Black and Mixed ethnic minority groups in partially adjusted models. Prior CMD accounted for differences between the Mixed and White British ethnic groups, but the strength of the association for the most recent migrant group and the Black ethnic groups remained two or more times greater than the reference groups. The strength of the relationship suggests a need for more consideration of migration status along with ethnicity in examining the impact of discrimination on mental disorder in community and clinical samples.

  15. RACE, ETHNICITY, AND NIH RESEARCH AWARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, Donna K.; Schaffer, Walter T.; Schnell, Joshua; Masimore, Beth; Liu, Faye; Haak, Laurel L.; Kington, Raynard

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the association between a U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 applicant’s self-identified race or ethnicity and the probability of receiving an award by using data from the NIH IMPAC II grant database, the Thomson Reuters Web of Science, and other sources. Although proposals with strong priority scores were equally likely to be funded regardless of race, we find that Asians are 4 percentage points and black or African-American applicants are 13 percentage points less likely to receive NIH investigator-initiated research funding compared with whites. After controlling for the applicant’s educational background, country of origin, training, previous research awards, publication record, and employer characteristics, we find that black or African-American applicants remain 10 percentage points less likely than whites to be awarded NIH research funding. Our results suggest some leverage points for policy intervention. PMID:21852498

  16. Understanding Socioenvironmental Contributors to Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Disability Among Older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Allison B; Clarke, Philippa J

    2018-02-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms through which racial/ethnic disparities in disability in older adults develop and are maintained is limited. We examined the role of physical impairment, socioeconomic factors and health for racial/ethnic disparities in activities of daily living (ADL), and the modifying role of the indoor home environment. Data come from the National Health and Aging Trends Study ( N = 5,640), and negative binomial regression models were specified separately for men and women. Blacks and Hispanics reported more ADL difficulty than Whites. Living in homes with clutter was associated with higher rates of ADL difficulty, but it was not related to racial/ethnic disparities. Racial/ethnic differences were explained by physical impairment for men, but not for women. Socioeconomic factors and health accounted for remaining disparities for Black, but not for Hispanic women. Attention to individual and environmental factors is necessary to fully understand and address race/ethnic disparities in disability in older Americans.

  17. Eating pathology among Black and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A P; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Spring, Bonnie J

    2005-02-01

    Among White smokers, many females use smoking as a weight control strategy. Little is known about the relationship between eating pathology and smoking among Black females, and whether smokers who enroll in treatment differ in eating pathology from smokers who decline treatment. We examined eating pathology among Black and White smokers who enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment and those who declined treatment. Participants were 100 Black and 100 White female smokers (ages 18-65) who completed three measures of eating pathology. After controlling for BMI, Whites reported greater levels of overall eating pathology than Blacks [F(1,195)=4.1; pWhite than Black smokers. However, once females seek smoking cessation treatment, these ethnic differences are not apparent.

  18. Malabsorption of carbohydrate foods by urban blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, I; Walker, A R; Naik, I; Riedel, L; Daya, B; de Beer, M

    1991-12-07

    Prevalences of non-infective bowel diseases are very low in South African urban blacks compared with the white population. In seeking elucidation, using breath hydrogen measurements in series of black and white subjects, small-bowel transit time was determined, and the malabsorption of maize, wheat, and rice investigated. Median transit times in both ethnic groups were similar. Rice was fully, but wheat incompletely absorbed by both groups. Maize, the staple food of blacks, was incompletely absorbed by them, although completely absorbed by the white subjects. Carbohydrate consumption is high in the black population (60-65% of total energy intake). It is probable that in blacks, despite their now eating a low-fibre diet, an expected increase in large-bowel diseases has been inhibited in part by the protective mechanism of fermentation of malabsorbed maize and wheat.

  19. Does COPD risk vary by ethnicity? A retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkes, Alexander; Ashworth, Mark; Schofield, Peter; Harries, Timothy H; Durbaba, Stevo; Weston, Charlotte; White, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Lower risk of COPD has been reported in black and Asian people, raising questions of poorer recognition or reduced susceptibility. We assessed prevalence and severity of COPD in ethnic groups, controlling for smoking. A retrospective cross-sectional study using routinely collected primary care data in London. COPD prevalence, severity (% predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]), smoking status, and treatment were compared between ethnic groups, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, deprivation, and practice clustering. Among 358,614 patients in 47 general practices, 47.6% were white, 20% black, and 5% Asian. Prevalence of COPD was 1.01% overall, 1.55% in whites, 0.58% in blacks, and 0.78% in Asians. COPD was less likely in blacks (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.51) and Asians (0.82; CI, 0.68-0.98) than whites. Black COPD patients were less likely to be current smokers (OR, 0.56; CI, 0.44-0.71) and more likely to be never-smokers (OR, 4.9; CI, 3.4-7.1). Treatment of patients with similar disease severity was similar irrespective of ethnic origin, except that long-acting muscarinic antagonists were prescribed less in black COPD patients (OR, 0.53; CI, 0.42-0.68). Black ethnicity was a predictor of poorer lung function (% predicted FEV1: B coefficient, -7.6; Pwhites to have COPD after adjusting for lower smoking rates in blacks. It seems likely that the differences observed were due either to ethnic differences in the way cigarettes were smoked or to ethnic differences in susceptibility to COPD.

  20. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...

  1. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Vishnu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We examined the association between insufficient rest/sleep and cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus separately among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanic Americans, and other races in a contemporary sample of US adults. Methods. Multiethnic, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (2008 BRFSS participants who were >20 years of age (n=369, 217; 50% women. Self-reported insufficient rest/sleep in the previous month was categorized into: zero, 1–13, 14–29, and all 30 days. Outcomes were: (1 any CVD, (2 coronary artery disease (CHD, (3 stroke, and (4 diabetes mellitus. Results. Insufficient rest/sleep was found to be positively associated with (1 any CVD, (2 CHD, and (3 stroke among all race-ethnicities. In contrast, insufficient rest/sleep was positively associated with diabetes mellitus in all race-ethnicities except non-Hispanic blacks. The odds ratio of diabetes association with insufficient rest/sleep for all 30 days was 1.37 (1.26–1.48 among non-Hispanic whites, 1.11 (0.90–1.36 among non-Hispanic blacks, 1.88 (1.46–2.42 among Hispanic Americans, and 1.48 (1.10–2.00 among other race/ethnicities. Conclusion. In a multiethnic sample of US adults, perceived insufficient rest/sleep was associated with CVD, among all race-ethnicities. However, the association between insufficient rest/sleep and diabetes mellitus was present among all race-ethnicities except non-Hispanic blacks.

  2. Racial and ethnic disparities in contraceptive method choice in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Grace; Vittinghoff, Eric; Steinauer, Jody; Dehlendorf, Christine

    2011-09-01

    Unintended pregnancy, an important public health issue, disproportionately affects minority populations. Yet, the independent associations of race, ethnicity and other characteristics with contraceptive choice have not been well studied. Racial and ethnic disparities in contraceptive use among 3,277 women aged 18-44 and at risk for unintended pregnancy were assessed using 2006-2008 data from of the California Women's Health Survey. Sequential logistic regression analyses were used to examine the independent and cumulative associations of racial, ethnic, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics with method choice. Differences in contraceptive use persisted in analyses controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Blacks and foreign-born Asians were less likely than whites to use high-efficacy reversible methods-that is, hormonals or IUDs (odds ratio, 0.5 for each). No differences by race or ethnicity were found specifically for IUD use in the full model. Blacks and U.S.-born Hispanics were more likely than whites to choose female sterilization (1.9 and 1.7, respectively), while foreign-born Asians had reduced odds of such use (0.4). Finally, blacks and foreign-born Asians were less likely than whites to rely on male sterilization (0.3 and 0.1, respectively). Socioeconomic factors did not explain the disparities in method choice among racial and ethnic groups. Intervention programs that focus on improving contraceptive choice among black and, particularly, Asian populations need to be developed, as such programs have the potential to reduce the number of unintended pregnancies that occur among these high-risk groups. Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  3. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cancer Risk After Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, EC; Segev, DL; Engels, EA

    2014-01-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk, but it is unknown if cancer risk differs across race and ethnicity as in the general population. U.S. kidney recipients (N=87,895) in the Transplant Cancer Match Study between 1992 and 2008 were evaluated for racial/ethnic differences in risk for six common cancers after transplantation. Compared to white recipients, black recipients had lower incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.60, pkidney (aIRR 2.09, pcancer (aIRR 2.14, pcancer (aIRR 0.72, p=0.05). Colorectal cancer incidence was similar across groups. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) measured the effect of transplantation on cancer risk and were similar for most cancers (p≥0.1). However, black and Hispanic recipients had larger increases in kidney cancer risk with transplantation (SIRs: 8.96 in blacks, 5.95 in Hispanics vs. 4.44 in whites), and only blacks had elevated prostate cancer risk following transplantation (SIR: 1.21). Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after transplantation mirror general population patterns, except for kidney and prostate cancers where differences reflect the effects of end-stage renal disease or transplantation. PMID:23331953

  4. Suicidality, ethnicity and immigration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Orozco, Ricardo; Rafful, Claudia; Miller, Elizabeth; Breslau, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide is the eleventh cause of death in the US. This rate varies across ethnic groups. Whether suicide behavior differs by ethnic groups in the US in the same way as observed for suicide death is a matter of current discussion. The goal of this report is to compare the lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt among four main ethnic groups (Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites) in the US. Methods Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine risk for life-time suicidality by ethnicity and immigration among 15,180 participants in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys, a group of cross-sectional surveys. Results Suicide ideation was most common among Non-Hispanic Whites (16.10%), least common among Asians (9.02%), and intermediate among Hispanics (11.35%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (11.82%). Suicide attempts were equally common among Non-Hispanic Whites (4.69%), Hispanics (5.11%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (4.15%) and slightly less common among Asians (2.55%). These differences in the crude prevalence rates of suicide ideation decreased but persisted after control for psychiatric disorders, but disappeared for suicide attempt. Within ethnic groups, risk for suicidality was low among immigrants prior to migration compared to the US-born, but equalized over time after migration. Conclusions Ethnic differences in suicidal behaviors are partly explained by differences in psychiatric disorders and low risk prior to arrival in the US. These differences are likely to decrease as the US-born proportion of Hispanics and Asians increases. PMID:22030006

  5. Ethnic Identities of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Özdikmenli-Demir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the relationship between ethnic identity, victimization/witnessing community violence, ethnic discrimination, and aggression in a sample of university students living in the South East Region of Turkey. The participants were 263 university students of predominantly Kurdish ethnic origin. The results showed that males had higher levels of ethnic identity in the dimensions of exploration and commitment. Males also presented higher scores for witnessing community violence and lifetime exposure to ethnic discrimination. The most important predictor of participants’ ethnic identity was witnessing community violence. Participants who witnessed violent acts in their social environment had higher ethnic identity levels. Although the predictor variables could not explain an important part of the participants’ aggression levels, only perceived ethnic discrimination was positively related to aggressive behavior. The role of native language efficiency in ethnic identity is also discussed.

  6. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers...... of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  7. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  8. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  9. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Self-Reported Periodontal Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherspoon, Darien J; Borrell, Luisa N; Johnson, Craig W; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Neighbors, Harold W; Adar, Sara D

    2016-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in periodontal disease exist in the United States. This study examined the prevalence of self-reported periodontal disease, and the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in the reported disease were reduced or eliminated after controlling for various risk factors in a multi-ethnic study population of older adults. Information from the baseline examination (July 2000-August 2002) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) was used. Study participants (N = 6256) were age 45-84 years and identified themselves as either: white, black, Hispanic or Chinese. Periodontal disease was assessed by self-report; demographic and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators, biomedical risk factors and psychosocial stress factors were used as predictors of self-reported periodontal disease. Chinese displayed the highest prevalence of self-reported periodontal disease (39.8%), followed by blacks (32.0%) and whites (26.0%), with Hispanics displaying the lowest prevalence (17.4%). Chinese and black participants had a significantly higher prevalence of disease compared to whites that persisted after adjusting for demographic and SES indicators, biomedical risk factors and psychosocial stress factors. After such adjustment, Hispanics did not differ significantly from whites in their reporting of disease. Racial/ethnic disparities in self-reported periodontal disease persisted after adjusting for all study covariates. This study highlights the need for continued research into the determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in periodontal disease in order to better target interventions aimed at reducing the burden of disease in all segments of the U.S. population.

  10. Race/ethnicity and workplace discrimination: results of a national survey of physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Wynia, Matthew; Desai, Mayur M; Jones, Beth A; Bright, Cedric; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-11-01

    Promoting racial/ethnic diversity within the physician workforce is a national priority. However, the extent of racial/ethnic discrimination reported by physicians from diverse backgrounds in today's health-care workplace is unknown. To determine the prevalence of physician experiences of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination at work and to explore physician views about race and discussions regarding race/ethnicity in the workplace. Cross-sectional, national survey conducted in 2006-2007. Practicing physicians (total n = 529) from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds in the United States. We examined physicians' experience of racial/ethnic discrimination over their career course, their experience of discrimination in their current work setting, and their views about race/ethnicity and discrimination at work. The proportion of physicians who reported that they had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination "sometimes, often, or very often" during their medical career was substantial among non-majority physicians (71% of black physicians, 45% of Asian physicians, 63% of "other" race physicians, and 27% of Hispanic/Latino(a) physicians, compared with 7% of white physicians, all p ethnicity at work varied significantly by respondent race/ethnicity. Many non-majority physicians report experiencing racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace. Opportunities exist for health-care organizations and diverse physicians to work together to improve the climate of perceived discrimination where they work.

  11. Ethnic and racial disparities in the risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, Jelle M.; Liem, Sophie M. S.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a systematic review of available literature on the effect of maternal ethnicity (Africans/blacks, Asians, Hispanics, others) on the risk of preterm birth (PTB). Studies investigating ethnicity (or race) as a risk factor for PTB were included if performing

  12. Attitudes about high school physics in relationship to gender and ethnicity: A mixed method analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafza, Rabieh Jamal

    There is an achievement gap and lack of participation in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) by minority females. The number of minority females majoring in STEM related fields and earning advanced degrees in these fields has not significantly increased over the past 40 years. Previous research has evaluated the relationship between self-identity concept and factors that promote the academic achievement as well the motivation of students to study different subject areas. This study examined the interaction between gender and ethnicity in terms of physics attitudes in the context of real world connections, personal interest, sense making/effort, problem solving confidence, and problem solving sophistication. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) was given to 131 students enrolled in physics classes. There was a statistically significant Gender*Ethnicity interaction for attitude in the context of Real World Connections, Personal Interest, Sense Making/Effort, Problem Solving Confidence, and Problem Solving Sophistication as a whole. There was also a statistically significant Gender*Ethnicity interaction for attitude in the context of Real World Connections, Personal Interest, and Sense Making/Effort individually. Five Black females were interviewed to triangulate the quantitative results and to describe the experiences of minority females taking physics classes. There were four themes that emerged from the interviews and supported the findings from the quantitative results. The data supported previous research done on attitudes about STEM. The results reported that Real World Connections and Personal Interest could be possible factors that explain the lack of participation and achievement gaps that exists among minority females.

  13. Doing race and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses race and ethnicity as social practices among young students at a Danish public sports school and explores how these practices engage with emotional well-being in the institutional context. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in two school classes in 2012...

  14. The renaissance of black phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Wang, Han; Huang, Shengxi; Xia, Fengnian; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-04-14

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from condensed matter physicists, chemists, semiconductor device engineers, and material scientists. Similar to graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), black P has a layered structure but with a unique puckered single-layer geometry. Because the direct electronic band gap of thin film black P can be varied from 0.3 eV to around 2 eV, depending on its film thickness, and because of its high carrier mobility and anisotropic in-plane properties, black P is promising for novel applications in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics different from graphene and TMDs. Black P as a nanomaterial has already attracted much attention from researchers within the past year. Here, we offer our opinions on this emerging material with the goal of motivating and inspiring fellow researchers in the 2D materials community and the broad readership of PNAS to discuss and contribute to this exciting new field. We also give our perspectives on future 2D and thin film black P research directions, aiming to assist researchers coming from a variety of disciplines who are desirous of working in this exciting research field.

  15. Ethnic differences in the health of women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S; Plugge, E H; Douglas, N

    2011-06-01

    The numbers of female and ethnic minority prisoners in the UK are increasing. Despite recent policy initiatives to improve both prison healthcare and the status of women and ethnic minority groups, there are few data with which to inform service development. This is the first study in the UK to examine differences in subjective health status and health behaviours between Black and White female prisoners. Retrospective secondary analysis of data from the Health of Women in Prison Study by the University of Oxford. The latter was a longitudinal survey. Participants were given a questionnaire containing the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and questions about cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, physical exercise, diet, imprisonment history and ethnicity. Data from Black and White participants were compared. Physical and mental component summary scores from the SF-36 were assessed using the independent t-test for means. Differences in health behaviours between the Black and White women were assessed using a paired samples t-test for continuous variables or Chi-squared test for categorical data. Black women were more likely to have stayed in full-time education for longer and to have been legally employed prior to imprisonment. The average length of their current sentence was significantly higher than that for White women. Black women scored higher in general health perception, but there were no other significant differences in subjective health status. Significantly fewer Black women smoked or drank to excess, or had used drugs in the 6 months prior to imprisonment. Black women ate more healthily, but were more likely to be overweight and to have higher blood pressure than their White counterparts. Both groups, however, demonstrated poor health and health behaviours overall. Black women entering prison are more likely to be educated, employed, drug free and, in some ways, healthier than White women. However, all the prisoners, regardless of ethnicity, had

  16. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Racial and ethnic disparities in vaccination coverage among adult populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-jun; O’Halloran, Alissa; Williams, Walter W.; Lindley, Megan C.; Farrall, Susan; Bridges, Carolyn B.

    2018-01-01

    Background Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in immunization rates is a compelling public health goal. Disparities in childhood vaccination rates have been absent in recent years for most vaccines. Purpose The objective of this study is to assess adult vaccination by race/ethnicity in the United States. Methods The 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) was analyzed in 2014 to assess adult vaccination by race/ethnicity for six vaccines routinely recommended for adults: The vaccines are: influenza, Tetanus, pneumococcal, human papilloma virus, and zoster vaccines. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with all adult vaccinations. Results Vaccination coverage was significantly lower among non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Asians compared with non-Hispanic whites, with only a few exceptions. Age, sex, education, health insurance, usual place of care, number of physician visits in the past 12 months, and health insurance were independently associated with receipt of most of the vaccines examined. Racial/ethnic differences narrowed, but gaps remained after taking these factors into account. Conclusions Racial and ethnic differences in vaccination levels narrow when adjusting for socioeconomic factors analyzed in this survey, but are not eliminated, suggesting that other factors that associated with vaccination disparities were not measured by the NHIS and could also contribute to the differences in coverage. Additional efforts including systems changes to ensure routine assessment and recommendations for needed vaccination among adults for all racial/ethnic groups are essential for improving vaccine coverage. PMID:26297451

  18. Black lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramani, R.V.; Frantz, R.L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal workers` pneumoconiosis (CWP), often called Black Lung Disease is a occupational disease which results from inhalation of coal mine dust which usually contains small amounts of free crystalline silica. This chapter reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and clinical aspects of CWP and how it has been controlled in the USA through the 1969 Coal Mine Act and dust level standards. It describes the sampling methods used. Medical control methods and engineering control of the disease is discussed. Work of the Generic Mineral Technology Center for Respirable Dust is described. 28 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Does COPD risk vary by ethnicity? A retrospective cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilkes A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alexander Gilkes, Mark Ashworth, Peter Schofield, Timothy H Harries, Stevo Durbaba, Charlotte Weston, Patrick White Department of Primary Care and Public Health Sciences, Division of Health and Social Care Research, Kings College London, London, UK Background: Lower risk of COPD has been reported in black and Asian people, raising questions of poorer recognition or reduced susceptibility. We assessed prevalence and severity of COPD in ethnic groups, controlling for smoking. Method: A retrospective cross-sectional study using routinely collected primary care data in London. COPD prevalence, severity (% predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], smoking status, and treatment were compared between ethnic groups, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, deprivation, and practice clustering. Results: Among 358,614 patients in 47 general practices, 47.6% were white, 20% black, and 5% Asian. Prevalence of COPD was 1.01% overall, 1.55% in whites, 0.58% in blacks, and 0.78% in Asians. COPD was less likely in blacks (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39–0.51 and Asians (0.82; CI, 0.68–0.98 than whites. Black COPD patients were less likely to be current smokers (OR, 0.56; CI, 0.44–0.71 and more likely to be never-smokers (OR, 4.9; CI, 3.4–7.1. Treatment of patients with similar disease severity was similar irrespective of ethnic origin, except that long-acting muscarinic antagonists were prescribed less in black COPD patients (OR, 0.53; CI, 0.42–0.68. Black ethnicity was a predictor of poorer lung function (% predicted FEV1: B coefficient, -7.6; P<0.0001, an effect not seen when ethnic-specific predicted FEV1 values were used. Conclusion: Black people in London were half as likely as whites to have COPD after adjusting for lower smoking rates in blacks. It seems likely that the differences observed were due either to ethnic differences in the way cigarettes were smoked or to ethnic differences in susceptibility to

  20. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  1. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  2. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  3. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination among fifth-grade students and its association with mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Tumaini R; Elliott, Marc N; Kanouse, David E; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Schwebel, David C; Gilliland, M Janice; Tortolero, Susan R; Peskin, Melissa F; Schuster, Mark A

    2009-05-01

    We sought to describe the prevalence, characteristics, and mental health problems of children who experience perceived racial/ethnic discrimination. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a study of 5147 fifth-grade students and their parents from public schools in 3 US metropolitan areas. We used multivariate logistic regression (overall and stratified by race/ethnicity) to examine the associations of sociodemographic factors and mental health problems with perceived racial/ethnic discrimination. Fifteen percent of children reported perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, with 80% reporting that discrimination occurred at school. A greater percentage of Black (20%), Hispanic (15%), and other (16%) children reported perceived racial/ethnic discrimination compared with White (7%) children. Children who reported perceived racial/ethnic discrimination were more likely to have symptoms of each of the 4 mental health conditions included in the analysis: depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. An association between perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms was found for Black, Hispanic, and other children but not for White children. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination is not an uncommon experience among fifth-grade students and may be associated with a variety of mental health disorders.

  4. Theoretical Perspectives of Ethnicity and Outdoor Recreation: A Review and Synthesis of African-American and European-American Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Dreamal Worthen

    1997-01-01

    For over three decades, research has shown differences in recreation participation by ethnic group membership, particularly for African Americans and European Americans. This paper is the first of a two-part publication series that examines black/white recreation. In this first part, the literature and empirical findings on black/white leisure participation are...

  5. Adolescent alcohol use in the Netherlands : the role of ethnicity, ethnic intermarriage, and ethnic school composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, F.A. van; Poortman, A.-R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between ethnicity, ethnic intermarriage, ethnic composition of schools and adolescent alcohol use. Design. Data were derived from the National Survey of Students in the Netherlands, a repeated, nationally representative, cross-sectional study of students aged

  6. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  7. Quantum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.

  8. A Two Decade Examination of Historical Race/Ethnicity Disparities in Academic Achievement by Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Katherine W; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Kuhfeld, Megan

    2018-01-08

    Research on achievement gaps by race/ethnicity and poverty status typically focuses on each gap separately, and recent syntheses suggest the poverty gap is growing while racial/ethnic gaps are narrowing. In this study, we used time-varying effect modeling to examine the interaction of race/ethnicity and poverty gaps in math and reading achievement from 1986-2005 for poor and non-poor White, Black, and Hispanic students in three age groups (5-6, 9-10, and 13-14). We found that across this twenty-year period, the gaps between poor White students and their poor Black and Hispanic peers grew, while the gap between non-poor Whites and Hispanics narrowed. We conclude that understanding the nature of achievement gaps requires simultaneous examination of race/ethnicity and income.

  9. Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E C; Segev, D L; Engels, E A

    2013-03-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk, but it is unknown if cancer risk differs across race and ethnicity as in the general population. US kidney recipients (N = 87,895) in the Transplant Cancer Match Study between 1992 and 2008 were evaluated for racial/ethnic differences in risk for six common cancers after transplantation. Compared to white recipients, black recipients had lower incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.60, pblack and Hispanic recipients had larger increases in kidney cancer risk with transplantation (SIRs: 8.96 in blacks, 5.95 in Hispanics vs. 4.44 in whites), and only blacks had elevated prostate cancer risk following transplantation (SIR: 1.21). Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after transplantation mirror general population patterns, except for kidney and prostate cancers where differences reflect the effects of end-stage renal disease or transplantation. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. Reversible Carnot cycle outside a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Hao, Deng; Si-Jie, Gao

    2009-01-01

    A Carnot cycle outside a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated in detail. We propose a reversible Carnot cycle with a black hole being the cold reservoir. In our model, a Carnot engine operates between a hot reservoir with temperature T 1 and a black hole with Hawking temperature T H . By naturally extending the ordinary Carnot cycle to the black hole system, we show that the thermal efficiency for a reversible process can reach the maximal efficiency 1 – T H /T 1 . Consequently, black holes can be used to determine the thermodynamic temperature by means of the Carnot cycle. The role of the atmosphere around the black hole is discussed. We show that the thermal atmosphere provides a necessary mechanism to make the process reversible. (general)

  11. Racial and ethnic disparities in use of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate for prevention of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Lynn M; Liu, Lilly Y; Sakowicz, Allie; Bolden, Janelle R; Miller, Emily S

    2016-03-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth remain a major public health challenge in the United States. While 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHP-C) is recommended for preterm birth prevention in women with a prior preterm birth, non-Hispanic black women continue to experience higher rates of recurrent preterm birth than white women receiving the same treatment. Further investigation of disparities in 17OHP-C use and adherence is warranted. We sought to evaluate whether racial and ethnic disparities exist in the use of and adherence to 17OHP-C within a population of eligible women. This was a retrospective cohort study of women with a prior spontaneous, singleton preterm birth who were eligible for 17OHP-C for preterm birth prevention and received care at a single institution from 2010 through 2014. Associations between self-identified race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic black vs women in all other racial/ethnic groups) and documented counseling about 17OHP-C, receipt of any 17OHP-C, and adherence to 17OHP-C administration were each estimated by bivariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression. Adherence to 17OHP-C was defined as not >1 missed dose, initiation racial/ethnic groups. After adjustment for potential confounders, non-Hispanic black women were significantly less likely to be adherent to 17OHP-C (adjusted odds ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.65). A significant interaction between non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity and public insurance was identified (adjusted odds ratio, 0.16; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.52). In a diverse cohort of women eligible for preterm birth prevention, non-Hispanic black women are at an increased risk of nonadherence to 17OHP-C. Non-Hispanic black women with public insurance are at a particularly increased risk of nonadherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Problems in Interethnic and Intra-ethnic Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing number of interethnic marriages in the U.S., few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in interethnic couples. This article examined past-year occurrences of IPV across interethnic and intra-ethnic couples and tested correlates of IPV specifically in interethnic couples. Data were from a national survey of couples 18 years of age and older from the 48 contiguous states. Interethnic couples (n = 116) included partners from different ethnic backgrounds, including black-white, Hispanic-white, and black-Hispanic couples. White (n = 555), black (n = 358), and Hispanic (n = 527) intra-ethnic couples included partners with the same ethnicity. Data analyses were prevalence rates and logistic regressions. The analyses showed that interethnic couples were comparatively younger and had shorter relationships than intra-ethnic white, black, and Hispanic couples. Male partners in interethnic couples had higher rates of binge drinking and alcohol problems compared to male partners in intra-ethnic couples. Past year prevalence rates for any occurrence of IPV and acts of severe IPV were higher for interethnic couples relative to intra-ethnic couples. Most occurrences of IPV for interethnic couples were mutual. Factors predicting IPV among interethnic couples included marital status, couples’ age, male alcohol problems, and female impulsivity. Mounting evidence points to interethnic couples as a high risk group for IPV. Interethnic couples may be at greater risk for IPV because of their younger age, binge drinking and alcohol problems. Future research could build on this study by examining cohort effects and regional differences in IPV for interethnic couples, and the risk for IPV across interethnic couples of different ethnic compositions. PMID:22203625

  13. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Survival: The Contribution of Tumor, Sociodemographic, Institutional, and Neighborhood Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Libby; Canchola, Alison J; Spiegel, David; Ladabaum, Uri; Haile, Robert; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Racial/ethnic disparities in cancer survival in the United States are well documented, but the underlying causes are not well understood. We quantified the contribution of tumor, treatment, hospital, sociodemographic, and neighborhood factors to racial/ethnic survival disparities in California. Materials and Methods California Cancer Registry data were used to estimate population-based cancer-specific survival for patients diagnosed with breast, prostate, colorectal, or lung cancer between 2000 and 2013 for each racial/ethnic group (non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Asian American and Pacific Islander, and separately each for Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino) compared with non-Hispanic whites. The percentage contribution of factors to overall racial/ethnic survival disparities was estimated from a sequence of multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results In baseline models, black patients had the lowest survival for all cancer sites, and Asian American and Pacific Islander patients had the highest, compared with whites. Mediation analyses suggested that stage at diagnosis had the greatest influence on overall racial/ethnic survival disparities accounting for 24% of disparities in breast cancer, 24% in prostate cancer, and 16% to 30% in colorectal cancer. Neighborhood socioeconomic status was an important factor in all cancers, but only for black and Hispanic patients. The influence of marital status on racial/ethnic disparities was stronger in men than in women. Adjustment for all covariables explained approximately half of the overall survival disparities in breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer, but it explained only 15% to 40% of disparities in lung cancer. Conclusion Overall reductions in racial/ethnic survival disparities were driven largely by reductions for black compared with white patients. Stage at diagnosis had the largest effect on racial/ethnic survival disparities, but earlier detection would not entirely eliminate them. The influences

  14. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Ashley; Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice; Lawson, Shari; Polk, Sarah; Levine, David; Bennett, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%), Hispanic (31%), and White (25%) women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospi...

  15. Decolonizing Higher Education: Black Feminism and the Intersectionality of Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Safia Mirza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on black feminist theory, this paper examines the professional experiences of postcolonial diasporic black and ethnicized female academics in higher education. The paper explores the embodiment of gendered and racialized difference and reflects on the power of whiteness to shape everyday experiences in such places of privilege. The powerful yet hidden histories of women of color in higher education, such as the Indian women suffragettes and Cornelia Sorabji in late nineteenth century, are symbolic of the erasure of an ethnicized black feminist/womanist presence in mainstream (white educational establishments. The paper concludes that an understanding of black and ethnicized female agency and desire for education and learning is at the heart of a black feminist analysis that reclaims higher education as a radical site of resistance and refutation.

  16. Ethnic differences in parental feeding behaviors in UK parents of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cihang; Warkentin, Sarah; Mais, Laís Amaral; Carnell, Susan

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity is prevalent among ethnic minorities in the UK but little is known about parent feeding practices in these populations. We administered questionnaires assessing parental feeding behaviors and perceptions and concerns relating to child weight to White British (n = 271), South Asian (n = 59), and Black Afro-Caribbean (n = 42) parents of UK 3-5 year-olds. Child BMI z-scores were determined from measured heights and weights. South Asian and Black Afro-Caribbean parents exhibited greater pressure to eat than White British parents. Black Afro-Caribbean parents additionally scored higher on instrumental feeding and lower on monitoring, while South Asian parents scored higher on emotional feeding. Black Afro-Caribbean parents reported the greatest concern about both child overweight and underweight. Ethnic differences were unchanged by controlling for perceptions and concerns relating to child weight, or for actual BMI z, parent education, or household income. Exploratory analyses suggested some evidence for sex differences within ethnic groups. For example, South Asian parents of daughters scored higher than White British parents of daughters on emotional feeding, with no ethnic differences apparent for parents of sons. Our findings support considering variation in parent feeding behaviors and weight-related attitudes by parental ethnicity and child sex when developing obesity interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of ethnic identity and perceived ethnic norms in the purchase of ethnical food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrus, Giuseppe; Nenci, Anna Maria; Caddeo, Pierluigi

    2009-02-01

    The role of group and individual variables in the purchasing of ethnical food products was tested through an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) model. A total of 100 Indian female immigrants, living in Rome, Italy, were administered a self-reported questionnaire measuring the classical TPB variables (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intentions and self-reported behaviors) plus 3 additional variables: identification with the Indian ethnic group, perceived norms of the Indian ethnic group, and past behavior. Results confirmed that the new variables introduced are distinct from the original TPB components. As expected, variables at both the individual and group level play a role in predicting purchasing of ethnical foods products. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that past behavior, ethnical identification, and perceived group norms explain an additional proportion of variance in intentions and self-reported behaviors, independently of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control. A significant 2-way interaction between ethnical identification and perceived group norms was also detected: as predicted, the highest levels of ethnical food purchasing behavior were reported by high ethnical identifiers with stronger ethnical group norms, while the lowest levels were reported by low ethnical identifiers with weaker ethnical group norms. Theoretical and practical implications of results are discussed.

  18. Sex ratio at birth and racial differences: Why do Black women give ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two important questions that this paper will attempt to answer are: (1) why is it that regardless of race/ethnicity or geographic location, the sex ratio data at birth show more males than females?; and (2) Why is it that regardless of geographic location compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Black women or Women of ...

  19. Problem drinking's associations with social structure and mental health care: race/ethnicity differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C; Howell, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    This research used a nationally representative sample of 12,756 respondents self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, or Asian to examine problem drinking in relationship to social structure and mental healthcare factors. Associations between problem drinking and particular factors varied by racial/ethnic group. Results also indicated that Whites' problem-drinking rates were higher than those of Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Americans sometimes use alcohol to manage stress stemming from social disadvantage and inadequate material resources. Across racial/ethnic groups, drinking level was associated with the type and degree of such disadvantage. Additionally, the presence of a mental health problem was associated with problem drinking.

  20. Substance Abuse Among Blacks Across the Diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K; Mouzon, Dawne M; Govia, Ishtar O; Matusko, Niki; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S

    2016-07-28

    Lower rates of substance abuse are found among Black Americans compared to Whites, but little is known about differences in substance abuse across ethnic groups within the black population. We examined prevalence rates of substance abuse among Blacks across three geographic regions (US, Jamaica, Guyana). The study also sought to ascertain whether length of time, national context and major depressive episodes (MDE) were associated with substance abuse. We utilized three different data sources based upon probability samples collected in three different countries. The samples included 3,570 African Americans and 1,621 US Caribbean Black adults from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Life (NSAL). An additional 1,142 Guyanese Blacks and 1,176 Jamaican Blacks living in the Caribbean region were included from the 2005 NSAL replication extension study, Family Connections Across Generations and Nations (FCGN). Mental disorders were based upon DSM-IV criteria. For the analysis, we used descriptive statistics, chi-square, and multivariate logistic regression analytic procedures. Prevalence of substance abuse varied by national context, with higher rates among Blacks within the United States compared to the Caribbean region. Rates of substance abuse were lower overall for women, but differ across cohorts by nativity and length of time in the United States, and in association with major depressive episode. The study highlights the need for further examination of how substance abuse disparities between US-based and Caribbean-based populations may become manifested.

  1. A systematic review of personality disorder, race and ethnicity: prevalence, aetiology and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tennyson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although psychoses and ethnicity are well researched, the importance of culture, race and ethnicity has been overlooked in Personality Disorders (PD research. This study aimed to review the published literature on ethnic variations of prevalence, aetiology and treatment of PD. Method A systematic review of studies of PD and race, culture and ethnicity including a narrative synthesis of observational data and meta-analyses of prevalence data with tests for heterogeneity. Results There were few studies with original data on personality disorder and ethnicity. Studies varied in their classification of ethnic group, and few studies defined a specific type of personality disorder. Overall, meta-analyses revealed significant differences in prevalence between black and white groups (OR 0.476, CIs 0.248 - 0.915, p = 0.026 but no differences between Asian or Hispanic groups compared with white groups. Meta-regression analyses found that heterogeneity was explained by some study characteristics: a lower prevalence of PD was reported among black compared with white patients in UK studies, studies using case-note diagnoses rather than structured diagnostic interviews, studies of borderline PD compared with the other PD, studies in secure and inpatient compared with community settings, and among subjects with co-morbid disorders compared to the rest. The evidence base on aetiology and treatment was small. Conclusion There is some evidence of ethnic variations in prevalence of personality disorder but methodological characteristics are likely to account for some of the variation. The findings may indicate neglect of PD diagnosis among ethnic groups, or a true lower prevalence amongst black patients. Further studies are required using more precise cultural and ethnic groups.

  2. A Differential Item Functional Analysis by Age of Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination in a Multi-racial/ethnic Sample of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Sherry; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2015-11-05

    We investigated whether individual items on the nine item William's Perceived Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) functioned differently by age (ethnic group. Overall, Asian and Hispanic respondents reported less discrimination than Whites; on the other hand, African Americans and Black Caribbeans reported more discrimination than Whites. Regardless of race/ethnicity, the younger respondents (aged ethnicity, the results were mixed for 19 out of 45 tests of DIF (40%). No differences in item function were observed among Black Caribbeans. "Being called names or insulted" and others acting as "if they are afraid" of the respondents were the only two items that did not exhibit differential item functioning by age across all racial/ethnic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that the EDS scale should be used with caution in multi-age multi-racial/ethnic samples.

  3. Emergence of ethnic differences in blood pressure in adolescence: the determinants of adolescent social well-being and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Seeromanie; Whitrow, Melissa; Lenguerrand, Erik; Maynard, Maria; Teyhan, Alison; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Der, Geoff

    2010-04-01

    The cause of ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease remains a scientific challenge. Blood pressure tracks from late childhood to adulthood. We examined ethnic differences in changes in blood pressure between early and late adolescence in the United Kingdom. Longitudinal measures of blood pressure, height, weight, leg length, smoking, and socioeconomic circumstances were obtained from London, United Kingdom, schoolchildren of White British (n=692), Black Caribbean (n=670), Black African (n=772), Indian (n=384), and Pakistani and Bangladeshi (n=402) ethnicity at 11 to 13 years and 14 to 16 years. Predicted age- and ethnic-specific means of blood pressure, adjusted for anthropometry and social exposures, were derived using mixed models. Among boys, systolic blood pressure did not differ by ethnicity at 12 years, but the greater increase among Black Africans than Whites led to higher systolic blood pressure at 16 years (+2.9 mm Hg). Among girls, ethnic differences in mean systolic blood pressure were not significant at any age, but while systolic blood pressure hardly changed with age among White girls, it increased among Black Caribbeans and Black Africans. Ethnic differences in diastolic blood pressure were more marked than those for systolic blood pressure. Body mass index, height, and leg length were independent predictors of blood pressure, with few ethnic-specific effects. Socioeconomic disadvantage had a disproportionate effect on blood pressure for girls in minority groups. The findings suggest that ethnic divergences in blood pressure begin in adolescence and are particularly striking for boys. They signal the need for early prevention of adverse cardiovascular disease risks in later life.

  4. Unveiling what is said in the colombian public health journals about race and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Mosquera Becerra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how in published studies (1994-2011 in the three main public health journals of Colombia are conceptualized, operationalized and interpreted racial and ethnic categories in relation to the black population. It was identified that are limited the number of published articles that address race or ethnicity; in addition, those notions are used interchangeably, and; it is not showed how is conceptualized and collected those social categories. Under the existence of structural racism, including ethno-racial categories in health research could help to identify processes and dynamics that create and recreate health disparities based on race and ethnicity.

  5. Race-ethnicity and poverty after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, J S; Dismuke, C E; Acuna, J; Sligh-Conway, C; Walker, E; Washington, K; Reed, K S

    2014-02-01

    Secondary analysis of existing data. Our objective was to examine the relationship between race-ethnicity and poverty status after spinal cord injury (SCI). A large specialty hospital in the southeastern United States. Participants were 2043 adults with traumatic SCI in the US. Poverty status was measured using criteria from the US Census Bureau. Whereas only 14% of non-Hispanic White participants were below the poverty level, 41.3% of non-Hispanic Blacks were in poverty. Logistic regression with three different models identified several significant predictors of poverty, including marital status, years of education, level of education, age and employment status. Non-Hispanic Blacks had 2.75 greater odds of living in poverty after controlling for other factors, including education and employment. We may need to consider quality of education and employment to better understand the elevated risk of poverty among non-Hispanic Blacks in the US.

  6. Drawing on healthcare professionals' ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Methods: Data sources include 1) reflection notes from an introduc......Aims: To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Methods: Data sources include 1) reflection notes from...... an introductory seminar with pharmacists and the cross-disciplinary research team and 2) five individual interviews and one focus group interview with pharmacists. Data were thematically coded and synthesised to identify underlying rationales and challenges encountered when involving professionals with ethnic...... created challenges, because the professional identity of the pharmacists reduced their options for serving as peers with the same ethnic background. Furthermore, issues related to organisational difficulties and overcoming language barriers in the intervention impacted on the potential of involving...

  7. The role of ethnicity in clinical psychopathology and care pathways of adults with intellectual disabilities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tsakanikos, Elias

    2011-04-27

    The objective of this study was to explore whether people with intellectual disability from ethnic minority groups have higher rates of mental health problems and access different care pathways than their White counterparts. Clinical and socio-demographic data were collected for 806 consecutive new referrals to a specialist mental health service for people with intellectual disabilities in South London. Referrals were grouped according to their ethnic origin. The analyses showed that there was an over-representation of referrals from ethnic minority groups with diagnoses of schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In addition, Black participants were more likely to have an autistic spectrum disorder. Referrals of ethnic minority groups were considerably younger than White referrals, and less likely to be in supported residences. The results are discussed in the context of cultural and familial factors in particular ethnic groups that may play an important role in accessing and using mental health services.

  8. Racial/ethnic differences in serum sex steroid hormone concentrations in US adolescent males

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, David S; Peskoe, Sarah B; Joshu, Corinne E; Dobs, Adrian; Feinleib, Manning; Kanarek, Norma; Nelson, William G; Selvin, Elizabeth; Rohrmann, Sabine; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Contrary to the hypothesis that the racial/ethnic disparity in prostate cancer has a hormonal basis, we did not observe a difference in serum testosterone concentration between non-Hispanic black and white men in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), although non-Hispanic black men had a higher estradiol level. Unexpectedly, Mexican-American men had the highest testosterone level. Next, we evaluated whether the same patterns are observed during ad...

  9. Racial-ethnic Related Clinical and Neurocognitive Differences in Adults with Gambling Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Leppink, Eric; Redden, Sarah A.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Grant, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggest that the lifetime prevalence of gambling problems differs depending on race-ethnicity. Understanding variations in disease presentation in blacks and whites, and relationships with biological and sociocultural factors, may have implications for selecting appropriate prevention strategies. 62 non-treatment seeking volunteers (18-29 years, n=18 [29.0%] female) with gambling disorder were recruited from the general community. Black (n=36) and White (n=26) part...

  10. Racial-ethnic related clinical and neurocognitive differences in adults with gambling disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Sam; Leppink, Eric; Redden, Sarah A; Odlaug, Brian L; Grant, Jon E

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggest that the lifetime prevalence of gambling problems differs depending on race-ethnicity. Understanding variations in disease presentation in blacks and whites, and relationships with biological and sociocultural factors, may have implications for selecting appropriate prevention strategies. 62 non-treatment seeking volunteers (18–29 years, n=18 [29.0%] female) with gambling disorder were recruited from the general community. Black (n=36) and White (n=26) part...

  11. Ser y Tener: Engendering Development and Ethnicity in the Pacific Lowlands of Colômbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Asher

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore how Afro-Colombian women’s organizations and networks shape and are shaped by state initiatives to develop and modernize the Pacific region. I argue that in doing so these mobilize and go beyond the developmentalist rhetoric of the state and the discourse of gendered black ethnicity and tradition of black political organizations in the region.

  12. A Review of Our Roots: Blacks in Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Candace S.; Baker, Tamara A.; Mingo, Chivon A.; Harden, J. Taylor; Whitfield, Keith; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T.; Phillips, Karon L.; Washington, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    The historical underpinnings in the field of gerontology rest on the contributions of scholars across a myriad of racial and ethnic backgrounds. With the increasing diversity of the adult population, there is a need to increase the number of researchers who study older adults from diverse racial and ethnic populations in general and Black elderly people in particular. Furthermore, it is important to document the participation of Black older adults in our earliest and continuing research efforts. Understanding the historical context and the foundational influence of Black scholars in this field is critical. To realize its humble beginnings, one must become aware of the contributions by Black scholars who have a vested interest in the aging process. With universal similarities and unique differences among older adults, there is a need to acknowledge the past and current scholarship of those who study the aging processes of Blacks while marveling over the future possibilities. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the legacy and current contributions, philosophies, and research of Black scholars in the field of gerontology. In addition, exploration of the theoretical and conceptual frameworks used to establish national and organizational initiatives is reviewed. The impetus in initiating and continuing this work requires a “knowledge of our roots” while moving into the future. It is important to learn the history and significance of Black scholars in gerontology, the contributions of older Blacks, and appreciate the resiliency and marveled life course of this unique population. PMID:24022695

  13. Ethnic pluralism, immigration and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Mickiewicz, T; Hart, M; Nyakudya, FW; Theodorakopoulos, N

    2017-01-01

    We consider the effects of immigration and ethnicity on entrepreneurship, distinguishing between the individual traits and the environmental characteristics. We look beyond the resource-opportunity framework and occupational choice: culture and values matter. Yet, instead of assigning the latter to specific ethnic features, we relate them to both immigration, and to the social environment defined by the share of immigrants, and by ethnic diversity. Empirical evidence we provide is based on Gl...

  14. Discrimination attributed to mental illness or race-ethnicity by users of community psychiatric services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbidon, Jheanell; Farrelly, Simone; Hatch, Stephani L; Henderson, Claire; Williams, Paul; Bhugra, Dinesh; Dockery, Lisa; Lassman, Francesca; Thornicroft, Graham; Clement, Sarah

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed participants' experienced discrimination and their causal attributions, particularly to mental illness or race-ethnicity. In a cross-sectional study, 202 service users with severe mental illnesses were interviewed to assess their reported experiences of discrimination. The Major Experiences of Discrimination Scale assessed major experiences of discrimination and their recency and frequency across 12 life domains and perceived reasons (attributions). The Everyday Experiences of Discrimination Scale assessed ten types of everyday discrimination and attributions for these experiences. Most participants (88%) reported discrimination in at least one life domain, and 94% reported ever experiencing everyday discrimination. The most common areas of major discrimination were mental health care (44%), neighbors (42%), police (33%), employment (31%), and general medical care (31%). The most common attributions for major discrimination were mental illness (57%), race-ethnicity (24%), education or income (20%), or appearance (19%). Almost half (47%) attributed experiences of major discrimination to two or more causes. No differences were found between racial-ethnic groups in overall experienced discrimination or in main attributions to mental illness. However, compared with the mixed and white groups, participants in the black group were most likely to endorse race-ethnicity as a main attribution (pethnic groups, and discrimination based on race-ethnicity was prevalent for the mixed and black groups. There is a need for antidiscrimination strategies that combine efforts to reduce the experience of discrimination attributed to mental illness and to race-ethnicity for racial-ethnic minority groups.

  15. Acculturation, ethnicity, and air pollution perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B

    2011-06-01

    A globalizing world increases immigration between nations, raising the question of how acculturation (or its lack) of immigrants and their descendants to host societies affects risk perceptions. A survey of Paterson, New Jersey, residents tested acculturation's associations with attitudes to air pollution and its management, and knowledge of and self-reported behaviors concerning air pollution. Linguistic and temporal proxy measures for acculturation were independent variables along with ethnicity, plus controls for gender, age, education, and income in multivariate analyses. About one-fifth of contrasts between non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics were statistically significant (Bonferroni-corrected) and of medium or higher affect size, with most featuring the Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. Knowledge variables featured the most significant differences. Specifically, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics reported less concern, familiarity with pollution, recognition of high pollution, and vigorous outdoor activity, and greater belief that government overregulates pollution than English-interviewed Hispanics (and than the other two groups on most of these variables too). English-interviewed Hispanics did not differ from non-Hispanic whites, but did on several variables from non-Hispanic blacks. Temporal proxies of acculturation among the foreign-born were far less significant, but concern and familiarity with air pollution increased with time spent in the United States, while belief in overregulation and a positive trend in New Jersey pollution increased with time in the nation of origin. Implications of these acculturation and ethnicity findings for risk perception/communication research and practice are discussed. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Outcomes for Female Students within a Summer Engineering Program: Single-Sex versus Coeducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Trina Lolita

    2017-01-01

    African American and Black women are twice as likely to enroll in higher education in comparison to Black men. However, when it comes to engineering degrees awarded in 2015, only 24% of the Black recipients were women. A potential solution may be to introduce engineering to pre-college Black female students through extracurricular program. Being…

  17. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    In recent decades, so-called universal welfare states have experienced considerable immigration from non-Western countries and, accordingly, rising levels of ethnic diversity. On that basis, scholars have debated how ethnic diversity affects public opinion in recipient societies. The debate...... that ethnicization is at once more limited (in that it is unlikely for the most widely discussed issue, welfare) and more pervasive (in that it can arise from local contexts as well as from media). Ethnicization of attitudes is one way in which immigration can influence political life, even when the political agenda...

  18. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1980-01-01

    In years 1920 as a result of quantum mechanics principles governing the structure of ordinary matter, a sudden importance for a problem raised a long time ago by Laplace: what happens when a massive body becomes so dense that even light cannot escape from its gravitational field. It is difficult to conceive how could be avoided in the actual universe the accumulation of important masses of cold matter having been submitted to gravitational breaking down followed by the formation of what is called to day a black hole [fr

  19. Association between perceived discrimination and racial/ethnic disparities in problem behaviors among preadolescent youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Elliott, Marc N; Kanouse, David E; Klein, David J; Davies, Susan L; Cuccaro, Paula M; Banspach, Stephen W; Peskin, Melissa F; Schuster, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    We examined the contribution of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination to disparities in problem behaviors among preadolescent Black, Latino, and White youths. We used cross-sectional data from Healthy Passages, a 3-community study of 5119 fifth graders and their parents from August 2004 through September 2006 in Birmingham, Alabama; Los Angeles County, California; and Houston, Texas. We used multivariate regressions to examine the relationships of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and race/ethnicity to problem behaviors. We used values from these regressions to calculate the percentage of disparities in problem behaviors associated with the discrimination effect. In multivariate models, perceived discrimination was associated with greater problem behaviors among Black and Latino youths. Compared with Whites, Blacks were significantly more likely to report problem behaviors, whereas Latinos were significantly less likely (a "reverse disparity"). When we set Blacks' and Latinos' discrimination experiences to zero, the adjusted disparity between Blacks and Whites was reduced by an estimated one third to two thirds; the reverse adjusted disparity favoring Latinos widened by about one fifth to one half. Eliminating discrimination could considerably reduce mental health issues, including problem behaviors, among Black and Latino youths.

  20. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  1. The Evolution of the Term Mulatto: A Chapter in Black-Native American Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Jack O.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the different social, ethnic, and racial connotations of the word "mulatto" since the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Stresses the fact that in Spanish America, the word more often referred to individuals of Black and American Indian admixture than to those of Black and White (Spanish) admixture. (GC)

  2. Selective moving behaviour in ethnic neighbourhoods: white flight, white avoidance, ethnic attraction or ethnic retention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2017-01-01

    Spatial concentrations of ethnic minorities might in principle be created and maintained by four different kinds of moving behaviour stemming from special housing preferences and options among either ethnic minorities or the native population. Inclination among natives to move away from neighbour......Spatial concentrations of ethnic minorities might in principle be created and maintained by four different kinds of moving behaviour stemming from special housing preferences and options among either ethnic minorities or the native population. Inclination among natives to move away from...... called ‘Ethnic Attraction’, or to remain there, called ‘Ethnic Retention’. This paper estimates the importance and size of these four kinds of behaviour based on an extensive database from Denmark using new statistical methods. It is concluded that white avoidance is the strongest reason for spatial...

  3. On Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflict Management in Nigeria by Rian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper it is attempted to discuss the concept of ethnic conflict by using Nigeria as a specific case study, while some ... Ethnicity, however, focuses more on sentiments of origin and decent, rather than the geographical considerations of a state ... When the struggle is over money, taxes, wage levels, business regulations ...

  4. From Immigrants to Ethnics: Toward a New Theory of "Ethnicization."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Jonathan D.

    1978-01-01

    The author contrasts the fragmented nature of immigrant groups upon their arrival in America with the social and cultural unities found among ethnic groups years later. He explains this change--the process of "ethnicization"--as a consequence of two factors: ascription and adversity. (Author)

  5. Ethnic stereotypes and the ideological manifestations of ethnicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is informed by a series of Internet texts that were collected in the months leading to the 2007 general elections in Kenya. It explores the ethnic stereotype, linking it to ideas of ethnicity and power, 'othering' and the constructed nature of stereotypes. It asks a number of questions, including: Is there signifi cance to ...

  6. Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of North American Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasevic, Danijela; Ross, Emily S; Lear, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    Canada is often referred to as a 'land of immigrants,' and the high level of immigration has resulted in significant ethnic diversity in Canada. We performed a systematic review of the literature published from 2000 onward to summarize the evidence on ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; by comparing the presence of CVD risk factors of Arab, black, Chinese, Hispanic, indigenous, and Filipino ethnic groups with that of CVD risk factors in the white ethnic group. One hundred ten studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Evidence consistently reported greater prevalence of hypertension in black individuals, greater prevalence of diabetes, overall and abdominal obesity and smoking in indigenous people, greater prevalence of diabetes in Hispanic individuals, and lower prevalence of overall obesity and smoking in Chinese individuals compared with their white counterparts. Although inconsistent, most evidence also indicated higher diastolic blood pressure in black individuals, higher hypertension prevalence in indigenous people, higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes in black individuals, and lower prevalence of smoking in Filipino and Hispanic individuals compared with white individuals. The evidence on ethnic differences in CVD risk factors in Arab, Chinese, and Filipino individuals compared with white individuals is limited. We observed significant ethnic differences in CVD risk factors. However, because most studies were of cross-sectional design and many of them explored the ethnic differences in CVD risk factors without adjustment for potential confounders, more robust designs are needed to get a better insight into where the true differences lie, what factors they are attributed to, and whether they persist or change over time. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood weight status and timing of first substance use in an ethnically diverse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Jennifer C; Doran, Kelly A; Waldron, Mary

    2016-07-01

    We examined associations between weight status during childhood and timing of first cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use in an ethnically diverse sample. Data were drawn from child respondents of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, including 1448 Hispanic, 2126 non-Hispanic Black, and 3304 non-Hispanic, non-Black (White) respondents aged 10 years and older as of last assessment. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted predicting age at first use from weight status (obese, overweight, and underweight relative to healthy weight) assessed at ages 7/8, separately by substance class, sex, and race/ethnicity. Tests of interactions between weight status and respondent sex and race/ethnicity were also conducted. Compared to healthy-weight females of the same race/ethnicity, overweight Hispanic females were at increased likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use and overweight White females were at increased likelihood of cigarette and marijuana use. Compared to healthy-weight males of the same race/ethnicity, obese White males were at decreased likelihood of cigarette and alcohol use and underweight Hispanic and Black males were at decreased likelihood of alcohol and marijuana use. Significant differences in associations by sex and race/ethnicity were observed in tests of interactions. Findings highlight childhood weight status as a predictor of timing of first substance use among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black and White female and male youth. Results suggest that collapsing across sex and race/ethnicity, a common practice in prior research, may obscure important within-group patterns of associations and thus may be of limited utility for informing preventive and early intervention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of ethnic group composition on focus group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nan; Ellmers, Theresa; Holley, Jess

    2014-09-20

    Focus groups are commonly used to explore participants' experiences in health and social care research. Although it is suggested that having demographically homogenous groups may help put participants at ease, the evidence is sparse.The aims of the paper are to: explore the impact of relative ethnic homogeneity and heterogeneity of focus group participants on the group discussions; improve understanding of homogeneity and heterogeneity in focus groups; suggest ways to operationalise concepts such as being 'more comfortable' with other focus group participants. Digitally recorded focus groups were undertaken with family carers of stroke survivors and were later transcribed and analysed using framework analysis. Groups were designated as more or less ethnically homogenous. More homogenous groups included, for example, only White British or Asian Indian participants whilst more heterogeneous groups comprised a mixture of, for example, Asian, White British and Black Caribbean participants. Forty-one carers participated in seven focus groups. Analysis revealed differences in discussions around ethnicity between the more or less ethnically homogenous groups. For example, participants in more ethnically homogenous focus groups were more likely to say ethnicity might influence perceptions of social care services. On the other hand, more heterogeneous groups emphasised similarity in carers' experiences, irrespective of ethnicity. Participants in the more homogenous groups were also more likely to make potentially controversial comments relating to ethnic differences. Additionally they appeared to be more at ease with each other discussing the topic. For example, they spontaneously mentioned ethnic differences earlier in these groups.In contrast, analysis of topics not specifically related to ethnicity, such as the difficult experiences of being a carer, produced no discernible patterns when comparing more and less homogenous focus groups. Considerations around focus group

  9. Racial and ethnic differences in reproductive potential across the life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Samantha F; Seifer, David B

    2010-02-01

    To review variations in specific reproductive health outcomes by race and ethnicity. A growing number of reports have explored potential gaps in the quality of reproductive health and healthcare across racial and ethnic groups. Diverse results from numerous investigations have made it challenging for practitioners to confirm the significance of these disparities. Three specific areas of the reproductive life cycle were examined: pubertal onset, outcomes from treatment with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and the menopausal transition. These areas were selected as they encompass a continuum of events across the reproductive life span of women. Outcomes were compared in black, white, Asian, and Hispanic women. Medline searches querying on keywords puberty, IVF, ART, menopause, menopausal symptoms, racial disparity, race, Asian, Japanese, Chinese, African American, black, Hispanic, and Latino were performed to isolate relevant publications for review. Differences across race and ethnicity were noted in each clinical endpoint. The most notable findings included earlier puberty in blacks and Hispanics compared with whites, significantly lower live birth rates after ART in all racial and ethnic groups compared with whites, and differences in perimenopausal symptomatology and possibly timing in various racial/ethnic groups compared with whites. Additional research is needed to completely unravel the full significance and basic underpinnings of these disparities. Some of the limitations of the current state of the literature in drawing conclusions about the independent effect of race/ethnicity on reproductive disparities include small samples sizes in some studies, inconsistencies in the characterization of racial/ethnic groups, and incomplete control of potential confounding. Race and ethnicity appear to be important correlates of outcomes from the initiation of reproduction functioning through to its conclusion. The ultimate goal of identifying racial

  10. The Case Against Romantic Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrdal, Gunnar

    1974-01-01

    Characterizes the new ethnic movement as an upper-class intellectual romanticism, which has focused on an abstract craving for historical identity. Criticizes it for avoiding the principal problems of poverty and possivity of the poor, among whom the ethnics are so prominent. (EH)

  11. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living...... speakers. Taken together, the results suggest that humans utilize ethnic markers of unfamiliar individuals to coordinate behavior rather than to cooperate....

  12. Ethnicity identification from face images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.

    2004-08-01

    Human facial images provide the demographic information, such as ethnicity and gender. Conversely, ethnicity and gender also play an important role in face-related applications. Image-based ethnicity identification problem is addressed in a machine learning framework. The Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based scheme is presented for the two-class (Asian vs. non-Asian) ethnicity classification task. Multiscale analysis is applied to the input facial images. An ensemble framework, which integrates the LDA analysis for the input face images at different scales, is proposed to further improve the classification performance. The product rule is used as the combination strategy in the ensemble. Experimental results based on a face database containing 263 subjects (2,630 face images, with equal balance between the two classes) are promising, indicating that LDA and the proposed ensemble framework have sufficient discriminative power for the ethnicity classification problem. The normalized ethnicity classification scores can be helpful in the facial identity recognition. Useful as a "soft" biometric, face matching scores can be updated based on the output of ethnicity classification module. In other words, ethnicity classifier does not have to be perfect to be useful in practice.

  13. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different ...

  14. Ethnicity: Implications for Curriculum Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    1979-01-01

    Many recently-developed ethnic studies programs in public schools and colleges lack clear objectives. Also, they offer guidelines which do not reflect current research and learning theory. Reviews theories of acculturation and ethnic cultural components in terms of their relevance to program content and goals. (Author/AV)

  15. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    adults’ life trajectories including ethnic minority and ethnic majority young adults (n= 9) in Denmark; the first wave conducted in the mid-nineties and the second wave 10 years later. In addition, some issues are taken up from a research project about youth intimate partnership formation patterns...

  16. Tribal Hands and Ethnic Votes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic politics is a serious domestic challenge in Iran. Non-Persian communities are mobilizing to claim their rights and to demand representation in a system that activists claim is biased against minorities and the peripheral regions. Yet the inner workings of contemporary Iranian ethnic politics...

  17. Making Blackness, Making Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Too often the acknowledgment that race is a social construction ignores exactly how this construction occurs. By illuminating the way in which the category of blackness and black individuals are made, we can better see how race matters in America. Antidiscrimination policy, social science research, and the state's support of its citizens can all be improved by an accurate and concrete definition of blackness. Making Blackness, Making Policy argues that blackness and black people are literally...

  18. Photoprotection in ethnic skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Al-Jamal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although cutaneous photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, sun-induced aging, dyspigmentation, sunburns, and skin cancers are reported worldwide in all skin types and races. The severity of photodamage varies from individual to individual, and is predominantly based upon genetic differences altering the body's response or susceptibility to sun damage. In addition, non-Caucasian patients are less likely to perform skin self-examinations, attend dermatologic follow-ups, and seven times less likely to apply sunscreen than Caucasian patients. Therefore, the remainder of this article will discuss the categories of photoprotective agent [environmental, biologic, physical, and UV filters, i.e., sunscreens] as well as the topics of photoaging, dyspigmentation, photocarcinogenesis, and the controversy surrounding vitamin D deficiency from photoprotection in the context of ethnic skin.

  19. Minority Concentration and Earnings Inequality: Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienda, Marta; Lii, Ding-Tzann

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the influence of racial and ethnic composition of labor markets on earnings inequalities among Black, Hispanic, and Asian males of differing levels of education. Results showed a loss of income for all groups with greater proportional losses among workers with more education. (JDH)

  20. The Rhetorical Dimensions of Black Music Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David N.

    Examination of lyrics of the blues and jazz forms of black music indicates their importance as communication. Contemporary styles can be divided into five overlapping categories: (1) "mainstream," the post-"bebop" style and soul jazz; (2) jazz influenced by other ethnic music; (3) the avant-garde jazz, which is often…

  1. Black Grade 9 learners in historically white suburban schools and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    This article investigates, from an educational psychological frame of reference, the situation of black1 Grade 9 learners in ... to solve deep-seated social problems. Klein. (1993:21) says that some ethnic minority parents respect education as .... participation in sport and cultural activities. • any current adjustment problems.

  2. a photoreceptor gene mutation in an indigenous black african family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mutations known to create or destroy a DdeI or MspI restriction enzyme site, respectively. Of the patients studied, 45 were from ADRP families and 19 were classified as simplex cases. Of these southern African families with a history of RD,. 14 were of ethnic black African origin, 5 of Asian origin and 26 of mixed ancestry ...

  3. Cultural Fields, Communication and Ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This article is a cultural analysis conducted in a neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Indre Nørrebro, where approximately 20 percent of the population is of other than Danish ethnic origin. It sheds light on the structural characteristics of two strategic sites, or cultural fields, within which everyda...... these cultural fields play significant roles as social and cultural mediators in the production of locality.......This article is a cultural analysis conducted in a neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Indre Nørrebro, where approximately 20 percent of the population is of other than Danish ethnic origin. It sheds light on the structural characteristics of two strategic sites, or cultural fields, within which everyday...... life and identity formation of ethnic minorities take place. We deliberately explore how ethnicity works or does not work as a marker in the configuration of the two chosen cultural fields: public libraries and ethnic media. We analyse the role of these two cultural fields in the social formation...

  4. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  5. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black holes; numerical relativity; nonlinear sigma. Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. ... Theoretical and Computational Studies Group, Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA ...

  6. Race/Ethnic Differences in the Associations of the Framingham Risk Factors with Carotid IMT and Cardiovascular Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystel M Gijsberts

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations and outcomes of atherosclerotic disease differ between ethnic groups. In addition, the prevalence of risk factors is substantially different. Primary prevention programs are based on data derived from almost exclusively White people. We investigated how race/ethnic differences modify the associations of established risk factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.We used data from an ongoing individual participant meta-analysis involving 17 population-based cohorts worldwide. We selected 60,211 participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline with available data on ethnicity (White, Black, Asian or Hispanic. We generated a multivariable linear regression model containing risk factors and ethnicity predicting mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and a multivariable Cox regression model predicting myocardial infarction or stroke. For each risk factor we assessed how the association with the preclinical and clinical measures of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease was affected by ethnicity.Ethnicity appeared to significantly modify the associations between risk factors and CIMT and cardiovascular events. The association between age and CIMT was weaker in Blacks and Hispanics. Systolic blood pressure associated more strongly with CIMT in Asians. HDL cholesterol and smoking associated less with CIMT in Blacks. Furthermore, the association of age and total cholesterol levels with the occurrence of cardiovascular events differed between Blacks and Whites.The magnitude of associations between risk factors and the presence of atherosclerotic disease differs between race/ethnic groups. These subtle, yet significant differences provide insight in the etiology of cardiovascular disease among race/ethnic groups. These insights aid the race/ethnic-specific implementation of primary prevention.

  7. Different yet similar: Examining race and ethnicity in treatment-seeking adults with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined racial/ethnic differences in demographic variables and the clinical presentation of treatment-seeking adults with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in treatment research at a medical school-based program. Participants were 775 (n = 195 men, n = 560 women) treatment-seeking adults with DSM-IV-defined BED who self-identified as Black (n = 121), Hispanic (n = 54), or White (n = 580). Doctoral-level research clinicians assessed participants for BED and for eating disorder psychopathology using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders and the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview, and measured height and weight. Participants also completed established self-report measures. Black participants had a greater proportion of women than White participants and White participants had higher education than Black and Hispanic participants. Black participants had higher body mass index (BMI) and reported more frequent binge eating episodes than White participants but eating-disorder psychopathology (EDE scales and Global Severity) did not significantly differ across racial/ethnic groups. Black participants had lower levels of depression than Hispanic and White participants. These differences in clinical presentation remained unchanged after adjusting for age, education, sex, and BMI. White participants had younger ages of onset for dieting, binge eating, and obesity, but not BED, than Black and Hispanic participants. There are some racial/ethnic differences in the developmental trajectories and clinical presentation of treatment-seeking adults with BED that remain unchanged after adjusting for demographic differences. Black participants presented for treatment with higher BMI and binge eating frequency than White participants and with lower depression than White and Hispanic groups, but associated eating disorder psychopathology levels were similar across racial/ethnic groups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  9. Adolescent individuation and alcohol use in multi-ethnic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, J H; Getz, J G; Baer, P E

    2000-07-01

    A structural equation modeling approach is used to assess adolescent alcohol use as a function of two measures of individuation in the context of other family and peer psychosocial factors for adolescents in three ethnic groups. The separation measure captures aspects of individuation related to detachment or rebelliousness. Intergenerational individuation measures increasing self-reliance and control with maintenance of supportive family bonds. A sample of 1,200 sixth through eighth grade black, Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white adolescents participated. A structural equation model describing adolescent alcohol use as a function of two measures of individuation, family conflict, communication with mother, stress and peer use of alcohol was tested and compared for the three ethnic groups. Significant direct and indirect paths to adolescent alcohol use were indicated for individuation measures and family use, peer use and stress variables. The proposed model fit for each of the groups, although the way in which separation related to stress was different in the black group. The findings support the role of individuation as a contributing factor in adolescent alcohol use for each ethnic group. They indicate the importance of family and parent-adolescent relationships in adolescent alcohol use and suggest directions for both family-based and school-based preventive interventions.

  10. Race/Ethnicity and Measurement Equivalence of the Everyday Discrimination Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giyeon; Sellbom, Martin; Ford, Katy-Lauren

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of race/ethnicity on measurement equivalence of the Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS). Drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), adults aged 18 and older from four racial/ethnic groups were selected for analyses: 884 non-Hispanic Whites, 4,950 Blacks, 2,733 Hispanics/Latinos, and 2,089 Asians. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. After adjusting for age and gender, the underlying construct of the EDS was invariant across four racial/ethnic groups, with Item 7 (“People act as if they’re better than you are”) associated with lower intercepts for the Hispanic/Latino and Asian groups relative to the non-Hispanic White and Black groups. In terms of latent factor differences, Blacks tended to score higher on the latent construct compared to other racial/ethnic groups, whereas Asians tended to score lower on the latent construct compared to Whites and Hispanics/Latinos. Findings suggest that although the EDS in general assesses the underlying construct of perceived discrimination equivalently across diverse racial/ethnic groups, caution is needed when Item 7 is used among Hispanics/Latinos or Asians. Implications are discussed in cultural and methodological contexts. PMID:24708076

  11. Race/ethnicity and measurement equivalence of the Everyday Discrimination Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giyeon; Sellbom, Martin; Ford, Katy-Lauren

    2014-09-01

    The present study examines the effect of race/ethnicity on measurement equivalence of the Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS; Williams, Yu, Jackson, & Anderson, 1997). Drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES; Alegría, Jackson, Kessler, & Takeuchi, 2008), adults aged 18 and older from four racial/ethnic groups were selected for analyses: 884 non-Hispanic Whites, 4,950 Blacks, 2,733 Hispanics/Latinos, and 2,089 Asians. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. After adjusting for age and gender, the underlying construct of the EDS was invariant across four racial/ethnic groups, with Item 7 ("People act as if they're better than you are") associated with lower intercepts for the Hispanic/Latino and Asian groups relative to the non-Hispanic White and Black groups. In terms of latent factor differences, Blacks tended to score higher on the latent construct compared to other racial/ethnic groups, whereas Asians tended to score lower on the latent construct compared to Whites and Hispanics/Latinos. Findings suggest that although the EDS in general assesses the underlying construct of perceived discrimination equivalently across diverse racial/ethnic groups, caution is needed when Item 7 is used among Hispanics/Latinos or Asians. Implications are discussed in cultural and methodological contexts. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. An analysis of household energy use by racial/ethnic composition: Consumption, efficiency, and lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos

    The goal of this dissertation is to provide the most recent household energy consumption analysis by racial/ethnic household composition. This dissertation found that significant differences in behavior, energy consumption, and energy efficiency exist by racial/ethnic household composition. The models suggest that behavioral energy intensity is lower among households led by racial/ethnic minorities. Energy consumption and efficiency models suggest that Hispanic households consume less energy and are more efficient, while Black households consume more energy and are less efficient, than White households. However, when stratifying the models by housing vintage, the differences between Hispanic and White households are not consistent. Differences between Black and White households are evident only among those in housing units built before 1980, indicating that Black households in older vintages live in less efficient housing units and could be at a disadvantage that could result in having to pay a higher share of household income on energy use. Results also point towards evidence that energy efficiency standards since the late 1970s could have actually mitigated potential inequality associated with excess energy use by race/ethnicity. Improving energy efficiency of housing units may be beneficial not only to reduce total energy consumption levels, but also have the potential to lessen the burden of energy costs that lower income households (irrespective of race/ethnicity) might experience otherwise.

  13. Attitudes to HPV vaccination among ethnic minority mothers in the UK: an exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane; Waller, Jo

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore attitudes to HPV vaccination among black and Asian mothers living in Britain. Five major themes emerged from the data: (1) Experience of vaccination, (2) Awareness of HPV vaccination and reactions to the information, (3) reasons for giving vaccination, (4) concerns about vaccination and (5) social influences. Visits to family abroad meant additional experience with vaccinations. There were concerns about how vaccine effects could vary by ethnicity as a result of physical differences (e.g., sickle-cell anaemia), and mothers wanted to know whether the HPV vaccine had been tested fully in their ethnic group. Most mothers struggled to understand why their daughter could not have the vaccination when she was older and some felt that 12/13 years was too young. Religious beliefs meant that mothers thought the vaccine would be less acceptable to other family members or would be perceived as unnecessary because of their low risk of HPV. This study used qualitative methodology. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with Black/Black British (n = 10) and Asian/Asian British mothers (n = 10). Interviews lasted approximately 40 minutes, were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Framework Analysis. It is important to include ethnic minority parents in psychosocial research surrounding HPV vaccination to ensure that culturally specific barriers are identified and targeted, limiting ethnic inequalities in cancer risk. Ethnically dense areas of Britain may benefit from tailoring HPV information to the local population, reflecting differences in cultural beliefs.

  14. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels.

  15. Structure of Black Male Students Academic Achievement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascoe, Barbara

    Educational policies and practices have been largely unsuccessful in closing the achievement gap between Black and White students "Schwartz, 2001". This achievement gap is especially problematic for Black students in science "Maton, Hrabrowski, - Schmitt, 2000. Given the fact that the Black-White achievement gap is still an enigma, the purpose of this article is to address the Black female-Black male academic achievement gap in science majors. Addressing barriers that Black male students may experience as college science and engineering majors, this article presents marketing strategies relative to politics, emotional intelligence, and issues with respect to how science teaching, and Black male students' responses to it, are different. Many Black male students may need to experience a paradigm shift, which structures and enhances their science achievement. Paradigm shifts are necessary because exceptional academic ability and motivation are not enough to get Black males from their first year in a science, technology, education, and mathematics "STEM" major to a bachelor's degree in science and engineering. The conclusions focus on the balance of truth-slippery slopes concerning the confluence of science teachers' further ado and Black male students' theories, methods, and values that position their academic achievement in science and engineering majors.

  16. Participation in Black Lives Matter and Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals: Modern Activism among Black and Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Elan C.; Keels, Micere; Durkee, Myles I.

    2016-01-01

    Political activism is one way racially/ethnically marginalized youth can combat institutional discrimination and seek legislative change toward equality and justice. In the current study, we examine participation in #BlackLivesMatter (BLM) and advocacy for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) as political activism popular among youth.…

  17. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  18. HIV Infection among People Who Inject Drugs: The Challenge of Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; McCarty, Dennis; Vega, William A.; Bramson, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection, with minority groups typically having higher rates of infection, are a formidable public health challenge. In the United States, among both men and women who inject drugs, HIV infection rates are elevated among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks. A meta-analysis of international research concluded that…

  19. Representation and Salary Gaps by Race-Ethnicity and Gender at Selective Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diyi; Koedel, Cory

    2017-01-01

    We use data from 2015-2016 to document faculty representation and wage gaps by race-ethnicity and gender in six fields at selective public universities. Consistent with widely available information, Black, Hispanic, and female professors are underrepresented and White and Asian professors are overrepresented in our data. Disadvantaged minority and…

  20. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  1. Latino Access to Higher Education: Ethnic Realities and New Directions for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Martin Guevara; Wright, Claudia Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    While the black and white racial experience has been delineated over the years, the ethnic realities of Latinos have received minimal attention. Therefore, with Latinos projected as the upcoming U.S. population majority, the central goal of this book is to document the Latino experience in the world of academia, focusing primarily, but not…

  2. Toward a Demographic Understanding of Incarceration Disparities : Race, Ethnicity, and Age Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, M.S.; Porter, L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present

  3. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Alcohol and Other Drug Use. Infofacts/Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Contrary to stereotypes seen in the media, several studies have found use of alcohol and other substances among racial and ethnic minority college students to be lower than among white students. At historically black colleges, for instance, about half the percentage of students report using tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine compared with students at…

  4. The Growing Racial and Ethnic Divide in U.S. Marriage Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, R. Kelly; Sweeney, Megan M.; Wondra, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The United States shows striking racial and ethnic differences in marriage patterns. Compared to both white and Hispanic women, black women marry later in life, are less likely to marry at all, and have higher rates of marital instability. Kelly Raley, Megan Sweeney, and Danielle Wondra begin by reviewing common explanations for these differences,…

  5. Race/Ethnicity and Early Mathematics Skills: Relations between Home, Classroom, and Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Susan; Galindo, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study used Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort data to examine influences of the home and classroom learning environments on kindergarten mathematics achievement of Black, Latino, and White children. Regardless of race/ethnicity, children who started kindergarten proficient in mathematics earned spring scores about 7-8…

  6. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Weight Perceptions and Weight Control Behaviors among Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, Darlene R.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, this study examined select sociodemographic and psychosocial correlates of weight perceptions and weight control behaviors among Black, Hispanic and White females (n = 6,089). Results showed little difference across ethnic groups for perceptions of body weight with slightly over…

  7. Wildland recreation in the rural South: an examination of marginality and ethnicity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Dreamal Worthen

    1998-01-01

    The ethnicity and marginality explanations of minority recreation participation provide the conceptual basis for the authors’ inquiry. These theories are examined for a sample of rural African-Americans and whites. Using logistic regression, the researchers test for black and while differences in: 1) visitation to wildland areas in general; 2) visitation to national...

  8. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%, Hispanic (31%, and White (25% women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy.

  9. Problematizing Social Justice in Health Pedagogy and Youth Sport: Intersectionality of Race, Ethnicity, and Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagkas, Symeon

    2016-01-01

    Social justice education recognizes the discrepancies in opportunities among disadvantaged groups in society. The purpose of the articles in this special topic on social justice is to (a) provide a critical reflection on issues of social justice within health pedagogy and youth sport of Black and ethnic-minority (BME) young people; (b) provide a…

  10. Selective moving behaviour in ethnic neighbourhoods: white flight, white avoidance, ethnic attraction or ethnic retention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2017-01-01

    called ‘Ethnic Attraction’, or to remain there, called ‘Ethnic Retention’. This paper estimates the importance and size of these four kinds of behaviour based on an extensive database from Denmark using new statistical methods. It is concluded that white avoidance is the strongest reason for spatial...

  11. Early Adolescents' Peer Experiences with Ethnic Diversity in Middle School: Implications for Academic Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jakeem Amir; Nishina, Adrienne; Ramirez Hall, Alysha; Cain, Shannon; Bellmore, Amy; Witkow, Melissa R

    2018-01-01

    As the U.S. becomes increasingly ethnically diverse, opportunities for cross-ethnic interaction at school may be increasing, and these interactions may have implications for academic outcomes for both ethnic minority and White youth. The current study examines how cross-ethnic peer relationships, measured using peer nominations for acceptance and daily lunchtime interactions, relate to academic outcomes for an ethnically diverse sample of 823 (45% boys and 55% girls; M age  = 11.69) public middle school sixth graders across one Midwestern and two Western states. For White, Black, Asian, Latino/a, and Multiethnic students, self-reported daily cross-ethnic peer interactions were associated with higher end-of-year GPAs in core academic courses and teachers' expectations for educational attainment, but not self-reported school aversion. Making cross-ethnic acceptance nominations was not associated with any academic outcomes. Thus, daily opportunities for cross-ethnic interactions may be important school experiences for early adolescents.

  12. Does Ethnicity Matter? Social Workers’ Personal Attitudes and Professional Behaviors in Reporting Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Ashton

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in the attitudes of professional social workers regarding corporal punishment and the perception and reporting of child maltreatment, according to the worker’s ethnic group membership (Asian, Black American, Black Caribbean, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White. Data were obtained by mailed questionnaires from 808 members of the New York City chapter of NASW. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Results indicate that approval of corporal punishment and perception of maltreatment differed according to ethnic group membership. However, ethnicity had no effect on the likelihood of reporting maltreatment. Findings suggest that social work values override personal-culture values in the execution of job-related responsibilities. Implications for education and practice are discussed.

  13. Dental Caries: Racial and Ethnic Disparities Among North Carolina Kindergarten Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, R. Gary; Kranz, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined racial/ethnic disparities in dental caries among kindergarten students in North Carolina and the cross-level effects between students’ race/ethnicity and school poverty status. Methods. We adjusted the analysis of oral health surveillance information (2009–2010) for individual-, school-, and county-level variables. We included a cross-level interaction of student’s race/ethnicity (White, Black, Hispanic) and school National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participation (oral health disparities exist among kindergarten students in North Carolina as a whole and regardless of school’s poverty status. Furthermore, disparities between White and Black students are larger in nonpoor schools than in poor schools. Further studies are needed to explore causal pathways that might lead to these disparities. PMID:26469649

  14. Neighborhood Foreclosures, Racial/Ethnic Transitions, and Residential Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew; Crowder, Kyle; Spring, Amy

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we use data on virtually all foreclosure events between 2005 and 2009 to calculate neighborhood foreclosure rates for nearly all block groups in the United States to assess the impact of housing foreclosures on neighborhood racial/ethnic change and on broader patterns of racial residential segregation. We find that the foreclosure crisis was patterned strongly along racial lines: black, Latino, and racially integrated neighborhoods had exceptionally high foreclosure rates. Multilevel models of racial/ethnic change reveal that foreclosure concentrations were linked to declining shares of whites and expanding shares of black and Latino residents. Results further suggest that these compositional shifts were driven by both white population loss and minority growth, especially from racially mixed settings with high foreclosure rates. To explore the impact of these racially selective migration streams on patterns of residential segregation, we simulate racial segregation assuming that foreclosure rates remained at their 2005 levels throughout the crisis period. Our simulations suggest that the foreclosure crisis increased racial segregation between blacks and whites by 1.1 dissimilarity points, and between Latinos and whites by 2.2 dissimilarity points.

  15. Effect of saline iontophoresis on skin barrier function and cutaneous irritation in four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Gross, M; Sage, B; Davis, H T; Maibach, H I

    2000-08-01

    The effect of saline iontophoresis on skin barrier function and irritation was investigated in four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Hispanics, Blacks and Asians). Forty healthy human volunteers were recruited according to specific entry criteria. Ten subjects, five males and five females, were assigned to each ethnic group. Skin barrier function was examined after 4 hours of saline iontophoresis at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm(2) on a 6.5 cm(2) area in terms of the measured responses: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, skin temperature and visual scores. There were significant differences in TEWL among the ethnic groups prior to patch application. TEWL at baseline in ethnic groups was in the rank order: Caucasian>Asian>Hispanic>Black. Iontophoresis was generally well tolerated, and skin barrier function was not irreversibly affected by iontophoresis in any group. There was no significant skin temperature change, compared to baseline, in any ethnic groups at any observation point. Edema was not observed. At patch removal, the erythema score was elevated in comparison to baseline in all ethnic groups; erythema resolved within 24 hours. Thus, saline iontophoresis produced reversible changes in skin barrier function and irritation in healthy human subjects.

  16. Geographic and racial-ethnic differences in satisfaction with and perceived benefits of mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Giyeon; Parton, Jason M; Ford, Katy-Lauren; Bryant, Ami N; Shim, Ruth S; Parmelee, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    This study examined whether racial-ethnic differences in satisfaction with and perceived benefits from mental health services vary by geographic region among U.S. adults. Drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), selected samples consisted of 2,160 adults age 18 and older from diverse racial-ethnic groups (Asian, black, Hispanic/Latino, and white) who had used mental health services in the past 12 months. Generalized linear model analysis was conducted for the United States as a whole and separately by geographic region (Northeast, South, Midwest, and West) after adjustment for covariates. In the national sample, no significant main effects of race-ethnicity and geographic region were found in either satisfaction with or perceived benefits from mental health services. In the stratified analyses for geographic regions, however, significant racial-ethnic differences were observed in the West; blacks in the West were significantly more likely to report higher satisfaction and perceived benefits, whereas Hispanics/Latinos in the West were significantly less likely to do so. The findings suggest that there are regional variations of racial-ethnic differences in satisfaction with and perceived benefits from mental health services among U.S. adults and that addressing needs of Hispanics/Latinos in the West may help reduce racial-ethnic disparities in mental health care. Clinical and policy implications are discussed.

  17. Race-Ethnicity and Health Trajectories: Tests of Three Hypotheses across Multiple Groups and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tyson H.; O’Rand, Angela M.; Adkins, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, and multilevel growth curve models to investigate racial-ethnic differences in the trajectories of serious conditions and functional limitations among blacks, Mexican Americans, and whites. We test three hypotheses on the nature of racial-ethnic disparities in health across the life course (aging-as-leveler, persistent inequality, and cumulative disadvantage). Results controlling for mortality selection reveal that support for the hypotheses varies by health outcome, racial-ethnic group, and life stage. Controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, adult social and economic resources, and health behaviors reduces but does not eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in health trajectories. PMID:22940814

  18. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  19. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  20. Breast cancer incidence, stage, treatment and survival in ethnic groups in South East England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, R H; Davies, E A; Møller, H

    2009-01-01

    Studies from the US have shown variations in breast cancer incidence, stage distribution, treatment and survival between ethnic groups. Data on 35 631 women diagnosed with breast cancer in South East England between 1998 and 2003 with self-assigned ethnicity information available were analysed. Results are reported for White, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African and Chinese women. Age-standardised breast cancer incidence rate ratios, patterns of stage of disease at diagnosis, treatment, overall and breast cancer-specific survival were examined. All ethnic groups studied had lower age-standardised breast cancer incidence rates than White women, with Bangladeshi women having the lowest rate ratio (0.23, 95% CI: 0.20–0.26). White women were the most likely to have a stage recorded at diagnosis (adjusted proportion 75%), and least likely to be diagnosed with metastatic disease (7%). Black African women were the least likely to have a record of cancer surgery (63%) or hormone therapy (32%), and most likely to receive chemotherapy (38%). After fully adjusting for age, socioeconomic deprivation, stage of disease and treatment received, there was no significant variation in breast cancer-specific survival. However, Black African women had significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio 1.24, P=0.025). These findings suggest that a strategy of earlier detection should be pursued in Black and South Asian women. PMID:19127253

  1. Race, Ethnicity, and Self-Rated Health Among Immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alang, Sirry M; McCreedy, Ellen M; McAlpine, Donna D

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has not fully explored the role of race in the health of immigrants. We investigate race and ethnic differences in self-rated health (SRH) among immigrants, assess the degree to which socio-economic characteristics explain race and ethnic differences, and examine whether time in the USA affects racial and ethnic patterning of SRH among immigrants. Data came from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (N = 16, 288). Using logistic regression, we examine race and ethnic differences in SRH controlling for socio-economic differences and length of time in the country. Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black immigrants were the most socio-economically disadvantaged. Asian immigrants were socio-economically similar to non-Hispanic White immigrants. Contrary to U.S. racial patterning, Black immigrants had lower odds of poor SRH than did non-Hispanic White immigrants when socio-demographic factors were controlled. When length of stay in the USA was included in the model, there were no racial or ethnic differences in SRH. However, living in the USA for 15 years and longer was associated with increased odds of poor SRH for all immigrants. Findings have implications for research on racial and ethnic disparities in health. Black-White disparities that have received much policy attention do not play out when we examine self-assessed health among immigrants. The reasons why non-Hispanic Black immigrants have similar self-rated health than non-Hispanic White immigrants even though they face greater socio-economic disadvantage warrant further attention.

  2. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Black Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-black-eye/basics/ART-20056675 . Mayo ...

  4. Improving Occupational Health Disparity Research: Testing a method to estimate race and ethnicity in a working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline K; Bonauto, David K

    2018-04-02

    Race and ethnicity data are often absent from administrative and health insurance databases. Indirect estimation methods to assign probability scores for race and ethnicity to insurance records may help identify occupational health inequities. We compared race and ethnicity estimates from the Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding (BISG) formula to self-reported race and ethnicity from 1132 workers. The accuracy of the BISG using gender stratified regression models adjusted for worker age and industry were excellent for White and Latino males and Latino females, good for Black and Asian Pacific Islander males and White and Asian Pacific Islander females. American Indian/Alaskan Native and those who indicated they were "Other" or "More than one race" were poorly identified. The BISG estimation method was accurate for White, Black, Latino, and Asian Pacific Islanders in a sample of workers. Using the BISG in administrative datasets will expand research into occupational health disparities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Racial-ethnic Related Clinical and Neurocognitive Differences in Adults with Gambling Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Leppink, Eric; Redden, Sarah A.; Odlaug, Brian L.; Grant, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggest that the lifetime prevalence of gambling problems differs depending on race-ethnicity. Understanding variations in disease presentation in blacks and whites, and relationships with biological and sociocultural factors, may have implications for selecting appropriate prevention strategies. 62 non-treatment seeking volunteers (18-29 years, n=18 [29.0%] female) with gambling disorder were recruited from the general community. Black (n=36) and White (n=26) participants were compared on demographic, clinical and cognitive measures. Young black adults with gambling disorder reported more symptoms of gambling disorder and greater scores on a measure of compulsivity. In addition they exhibited significantly higher total errors on a set-shifting task, less risk adjustment on a gambling task, greater delay aversion on a gambling task, and more total errors on a working memory task. These findings suggest that the clinical and neurocognitive presentation of gambling disorder different between racial-ethnic groups. PMID:27262266

  7. Perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms: the buffering effects of ethnic identity, religion and ethnic social network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, Umar Z.; Snijder, Marieke B.; de Wit, Matty A. S.; Schene, Aart H.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) is positively associated with depressive symptoms in ethnic minority groups in Western countries. Psychosocial factors may buffer against the health impact of PED, but evidence is lacking from Europe. We assessed whether ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic

  8. Examining the Relationship between Technology & Engineering Instruction and Technology & Engineering Literacy in K-8 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tamarra L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between technology and engineering instruction and technology and engineering literacy in grades K-8. The factors identified and used for the purpose of this study were gender, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and important modes of technology and engineering instruction. These factors…

  9. The Few, the Changing, the Different: Pubertal Onset, Perceived School Climate and Body Image in Ethnically Diverse Sixth Grade Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of pubertal onset, race/ethnicity, and school racial/ethnic composition on girls' body image and perceived school climate (school safety, school liking, and loneliness in school) during the middle school transition. The sample (N = 1,626) included 6th grade Black, Mexican American, White, and Asian girls from 20 diverse middle schools. Hierarchical analyses supported both the early-timing and stressful change hypothesis. That is, experiencing pubertal ons...

  10. Factors Associated With Volunteering Among Racial/Ethnic Groups: Findings From the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Lee, S Hannah

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated how volunteering was influenced by individual resources and social capital among four racial/ethnic groups of adults aged 50 and older. The data came from the California Health Interview Survey, a statewide sample that includes non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 18,927), non-Hispanic Asians ( n = 2,428), non-Hispanic Blacks ( n = 1,265), and Hispanics ( n = 3,799). Logistic regression models of volunteering were estimated to explore the effects of human and social capital within and across the racial/ethnic groups. Compared to Whites, racial/ethnic minority adults volunteered less. Although education was a significant predictor of volunteering across all groups, the findings indicated group-specific factors related to human and social capital. Results showed similarities and differences associated with volunteer participation among diverse racial/ethnic groups. The findings underscore the importance of understanding ways of creating inclusive opportunities for civic engagement among an increasingly diverse population.

  11. Alcohol consumption in relation to residence status and ethnicity in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Eleanora E T; Nevid, Jeffrey S

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined the roles of gender, ethnicity, and residence status in an ethnically diverse sample of undergraduate students who completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. Gender, ethnicity, and residential status were associated with likelihood of binge drinking among students who reported consuming alcohol (non-Hispanic). White students were more likely to report using alcohol than Black students and Asian students. Ethnicity moderated the effects of both residence status and gender on alcohol consumption. Living with one's parents was associated with a lower likelihood of reported alcohol use among Hispanic students, but not among (non-Hispanic) White students. Hispanic women were more likely to report using alcohol than were Hispanic men, but no gender difference in likelihood of alcohol consumption was found among (non-Hispanic) White students.

  12. Ethnicity and Politics. IRSS Research Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Mark

    This research report examines the role of ethnicity in politics. The concept of ethnicity encompasses at least four distinct dimensions: nationality identification, religious identification, old vs. new ethnic stock, and racial membership. In the national sample analyzed, several interesting patterns of ethnic differentiation emerged. First, none…

  13. Stereotype Threat Among Black and White Women in Health Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Fingerhut, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat—the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes—to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one’s ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women. PMID:25045944

  14. Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the emotions and behaviours of adult men from three ethnic groups in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jennifer Shepard; Galvan, Frank H; Williams, John K; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E; Myers, Hector F

    2014-01-06

    Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 US men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing healthcare to men with CSA histories.

  15. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Women's Experiences of Reproductive Coercion, Intimate Partner Violence, and Unintended Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Charvonne N; McCauley, Heather L; Silverman, Jay G; Ricci, Edmund; Decker, Michele R; Tancredi, Daniel J; Burke, Jessica G; Documét, Patricia; Borrero, Sonya; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    To explore racial/ethnic differences in reproductive coercion (RC), intimate partner violence (IPV), and unintended pregnancy (UIP). We analyzed cross-sectional, baseline data from an intervention that was conducted between August 2008 and March 2009 in five family planning clinics in the San Francisco, California area, to examine the association of race/ethnicity with RC, IPV, and UIP among female patients aged 16-29 (n = 1234). RC was significantly associated with race/ethnicity, p < 0.001, [prevalence estimates: Black (37.1%), multiracial (29.2%), White (18.0%), Hispanic/Latina (24.0%), and Asian/Pacific Islander/other (API/other) (18.4%)]. Race/ethnicity was not associated with IPV. UIP was more prevalent among Black (50.3%) and multiracial (47.2%) women, with an overall range of 37.1%-50.3% among all racial/ethnic groups (p < 0.001). In adjusted analyses, factors associated with UIP were RC [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.59, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.26-2.01] and Black (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.02-2.60) and API/other (AOR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.15-1.73) race/ethnicity, which remained significant in the presence of RC. Race-stratified models revealed that RC increased odds of UIP for White (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.45-2.93) and Black women (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.14-2.60). Black and multiracial women seeking care in family planning clinics have a disproportionately high prevalence of RC and UIP. RC may partially explain differences in UIP prevalence, with the effect of race/ethnicity slightly attenuated in RC-adjusted models. However, the impact of RC on risk for UIP was similar for White and Black women. Findings from this study support the need to understand and prevent RC, particularly among women of color. Results are foundational in understanding disparities in RC and UIP that may have implications for refinement of clinical care.

  16. Ethnic density effects on health and experienced racism among Caribbean people in the US and England: A cross-national comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Nazroo, James; Jackson, James; Heuvelman, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate an ethnic density effect, whereby an increase in the proportion of racial/ethnic minority people in an area is associated with reduced morbidity among its residents, though evidence is varied. Discrepancies may arise due to differences in the reasons for and periods of migration, and socioeconomic profiles of the racial/ethnic groups and the places where they live. It is important to increase our understanding of how these factors might promote or mitigate ethnic density effects. Cross-national comparative analyses might help in this respect, as they provide greater heterogeneity in historical and contemporary characteristics in the populations of interest, and it is when we consider this heterogeneity in the contexts of peoples’ lives that we can more fully understand how social conditions and neighbourhood environments influence the health of migrant and racial/ethnic minority populations. This study analysed two cross-sectional nationally representative surveys, in the US and in England, to explore and contrast the association between two ethnic density measures (black and Caribbean ethnic density) and health and experienced racism among Caribbean people. Results of multilevel logistic regressions show that nominally similar measures of ethnic density perform differently across health outcomes and measures of experienced racism in the two countries. In the US, increased Caribbean ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism, but the opposite was observed in England. On the other hand, increased black ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism of Caribbean English (results not statistically significant), but not of Caribbean Americans. By comparing mutually adjusted Caribbean and black ethnic density effects in the US and England, this study examined the social construction of race and ethnicity as it depends on the racialised and stigmatised meaning attributed to

  17. Ethnic density effects on health and experienced racism among Caribbean people in the US and England: a cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Nazroo, James; Jackson, James; Heuvelman, Hein

    2012-12-01

    Studies indicate an ethnic density effect, whereby an increase in the proportion of racial/ethnic minority people in an area is associated with reduced morbidity among its residents, though evidence is varied. Discrepancies may arise due to differences in the reasons for and periods of migration, and socioeconomic profiles of the racial/ethnic groups and the places where they live. It is important to increase our understanding of how these factors might promote or mitigate ethnic density effects. Cross-national comparative analyses might help in this respect, as they provide greater heterogeneity in historical and contemporary characteristics in the populations of interest, and it is when we consider this heterogeneity in the contexts of peoples' lives that we can more fully understand how social conditions and neighbourhood environments influence the health of migrant and racial/ethnic minority populations. This study analysed two cross-sectional nationally representative surveys, in the US and in England, to explore and contrast the association between two ethnic density measures (black and Caribbean ethnic density) and health and experienced racism among Caribbean people. Results of multilevel logistic regressions show that nominally similar measures of ethnic density perform differently across health outcomes and measures of experienced racism in the two countries. In the US, increased Caribbean ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism, but the opposite was observed in England. On the other hand, increased black ethnic density was associated with improved health and decreased experienced racism of Caribbean English (results not statistically significant), but not of Caribbean Americans. By comparing mutually adjusted Caribbean and black ethnic density effects in the US and England, this study examined the social construction of race and ethnicity as it depends on the racialised and stigmatised meaning attributed to it

  18. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  19. The Effect of Ethnic Variation on the Success of Induced Labour in Nulliparous Women with Postdates Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papoutsis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the potential effect of ethnic variation on the success of induction of labour in nulliparous women with postdates pregnancies. Study Design. This was an observational cohort study of women being induced for postdates pregnancies (≥41 weeks between 2007 and 2013. Women induced for stillbirths and with multiple pregnancies were excluded. The primary objective was to identify the effect of ethnicity on the caesarean section (CS delivery rates in this cohort of women. Results. 1,636 nulliparous women were identified with a mean age of 27.2 years. 95.8% of the women were of White ethnic origin, 2.6% were Asian, and 1.6% were of Black ethnic origin. The CS delivery rate was 24.4% in the total sample. Women of Black ethnic origin had a 3.26 times greater likelihood for CS in comparison to White women, after adjusting for maternal age, BMI, smoking, presence of meconium, use of epidural analgesia, fetal gender, birth weight, and head circumference (adjusted OR = 3.26; 95% CI: 1.31–8.08, p = 0.011. Conclusion. We have found that nulliparous women of Black ethnicity demonstrate an almost threefold increased risk of caesarean section delivery when induced for postdates pregnancy.

  20. Community Social Psychology dimensions facing ethnic and racial issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Olivatto Da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic and racial issues lead to new forms to the Brazilian psychological praxis. Psychological suffering from racists’ relations resulted from psychosocial dynamics of long-term. On the opposite, social behavior of black people overcomes that by perpetuating meaningful and symbolical process through the whole Colonial and Republic Brazilian lifespan. We will demonstrate that psychological contingency can help to understand psychosocial process related to a long-term period. Maritza Montero’s psychological dimensions and Social Sciences interface will explain contingency approach. Thus, we conclude that psychological dimensions show a new way of observing social behavior of Brazilian black people, whom promoted identity links in daily relationships, through collective and affectional recognition, whereas social asymmetry perpetuated itself in Brazilian Social History.

  1. Brane world black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, Anurag; Sengupta, Gautam

    2007-01-01

    Five dimensional neutral rotating black rings are described from a Randall-Sundrum brane world perspective in the bulk black string framework. To this end we consider a rotating black string extension of a five dimensional black ring into the bulk of a six dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world with a single four brane. The bulk solution intercepts the four brane in a five dimensional black ring with the usual curvature singularity on the brane. The bulk geodesics restricted to the plane of rotation of the black ring are constructed and their projections on the four brane match with the usual black ring geodesics restricted to the same plane. The asymptotic nature of the bulk geodesics are elucidated with reference to a bulk singularity at the AdS horizon. We further discuss the description of a brane world black ring as a limit of a boosted bulk black 2 brane with periodic identification

  2. The relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and ethnic identity exploration as mediated by ethnic identity crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Adubofour, Millicent

    2010-01-01

    In the adolescent identity formation literature, negative experiences of stress in particular, gender discrimination, and difficulties with work, relationships, finances, health, and experiences with death have been associated with increased identity exploration (Anthis, 2002a,b). Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to examine the relationship between ethnic identity discrimination and ethnic identity exploration. Some 106 males, now 18-28 years of age who entered Norwa...

  3. Gender, ethnicity, self-esteem and disordered eating among college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig; Crosby, Ross; Engel, Scott; Mitchell, James; Powers, Pauline; Wittrock, David; Wonderlich, Stephen

    2004-05-01

    This study was undertaken to compare ethnic and gender differences regarding self-esteem and various disordered eating attitudes and behaviors among elite college athletes. A total of 1445 student athletes from 11 Division I schools were surveyed using a 133-item questionnaire. White female athletes reported significantly lower self-esteem than Black female, Black male and White male athletes. Black female athletes' self-esteem was equal to both Black and White male athletes. White female athletes reported significantly higher drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and more disturbed eating behaviors than Black female and both groups of male athletes. The current study demonstrates that White female athletes appear to be most at risk for having difficulty with eating disorders. Their reporting of significantly lower self-esteem indicates that this may be a risk factor that is more characteristic of this ethnic group. Questions are raised about what factors exist in the Black female culture that protect them from low self-esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors.

  4. Conceptions of learning and approaches to studying among White and ethnic minority students in distance education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John T E

    2010-12-01

    The attainment of White students at UK institutions of higher education tends to be higher than that of students from other ethnic groups, but the causes of this are unclear. This study compared White students and students from other ethnic groups in their conceptions of learning, their approaches to studying, and their academic attainment. A stratified sample of 1,146 White students and 1,146 students from other ethnic groups taking courses by distance learning with the UK Open University. The Mental Models section of the Inventory of Learning Styles and the Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory were administered in a postal survey. The students' questionnaire scores were contaminated by response bias, which varied across different ethnic groups. When adjusted to control for response bias, the scores on the two questionnaires shared 37.2% of their variance and made a significant contribution to predicting the students' attainment. White students were more likely to exhibit a meaning-directed learning pattern, whereas Asian and Black students were more likely to exhibit a reproduction-directed learning pattern. However, the variation in attainment across different ethnic groups remained significant when their questionnaire scores and prior qualifications were taken into account. There is a strong relationship between students' conceptions of learning and their approaches to studying, and variations in conceptions of learning in different ethnic groups give rise to variations in approaches to studying. However, factors other than prior qualifications and conceptions of learning are responsible for variation in attainment across different ethnic groups.

  5. Black Families' Lay Views on Health and the Implications for Health Promotion: A Community-Based Study in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Bertha

    2012-01-01

    Many studies focusing on beliefs about health and health promotion have paid little attention to the life experiences of Black and other visible minority ethnic families in western societies. This paper is a report of a study exploring Black families' beliefs about health and the implications of such beliefs for health promotion. Ten Black…

  6. Ethnic Variation in the Cross-sectional Association between Domains of Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe degree by which depressive symptoms and clinical depression reflect each other may vary across populations. The present study compared Blacks and Whites for the magnitude of the cross-sectional associations between various domains of depressive symptoms and endorsement of clinical disorders of depression. MethodsData came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001–2003. We included 3,570 Black (African Americans, and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Predictors were positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Outcomes were lifetime MDD, lifetime MDE, 12 month MDE, 30 days MDE, and 30 days MDDH based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Logistic regression models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as Blacks and Whites.ResultsRegarding CES-D, Blacks had lower total scores, positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems compared to Whites (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. Blacks also had lower odds of meeting criteria for lifetime MDD and MDE, 12 month MDE, and 30 days MDE and MDDH (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. For most depressive diagnoses, ethnicity showed a positive and significant interaction with the negative affect and interpersonal domains, suggesting stronger associations for Blacks compared to Whites. CES-D total and CES-D positive affect did not interact with ethnicity on CIDI based diagnoses.ConclusionStronger associations between multiple domains of depressive symptoms and clinical MDD may be due to higher severity of depression among Blacks, when they endorse the disorder. This finding may explain some of previously observed ethnic differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and clinical depression in the general population as well as clinical settings.

  7. Ethnic Variation in the Cross-sectional Association between Domains of Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    The degree by which depressive symptoms and clinical depression reflect each other may vary across populations. The present study compared Blacks and Whites for the magnitude of the cross-sectional associations between various domains of depressive symptoms and endorsement of clinical disorders of depression. Data came from the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. We included 3570 Black (African-Americans) and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Predictors were positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Outcomes were lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD), lifetime major depressive episode (MDE), 12-month MDE, 30-day MDE, and 30-day major depressive disorder with hierarchy (MDDH) based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Logistic regression models were applied in the pooled sample as well as Blacks and Whites. Regarding CES-D, Blacks had lower total scores, positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems compared to Whites (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Blacks also had lower odds of meeting criteria for lifetime MDD and MDE, 12-month MDE, and 30-day MDE and MDDH (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). For most depressive diagnoses, ethnicity showed a positive and significant interaction with the negative affect and interpersonal problems domains, suggesting stronger associations for Blacks compared to Whites. The CES-D total score and CES-D positive affect domain did not interact with ethnicity on CIDI-based depressive diagnoses. Stronger associations between multiple domains of depressive symptoms and clinical depression may be due to higher severity of depression among Blacks, when they endorse the CIDI criteria for the disorder. This finding may explain some of previously observed ethnic differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and clinical depression in the general population as

  8. Mental health in senior housing: racial/ethnic patterns and correlates of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Julie; Schensul, Jean J; Coman, Emil; Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Radda, Kim E; Gaztambide, Sonia; Disch, William B

    2009-09-01

    Mental health problems are associated with disability, overuse of medical care, higher rates of mortality and suicide as well as personal suffering for older adults. Residents of urban, low-income senior housing may face increased risk of a variety of mental health problems, including depression. This study identified the prevalence of multiple mental health problems in older residents of low-income senior housing and explored correlates of major depressive disorder for the two largest ethnic groups: black and Latino. In-person diagnostic interviews identified rates of mental illness in a sample of 635 residents of 13 low-income senior housing buildings in a medium-sized northeastern city. Applying George's Social Antecedent Model of Depression, logistic regression analyses identified shared and unique correlates of depression for Latino and black participants. This population had high rates of major depressive disorder (26%), generalized anxiety disorder (12%) and other mental health problems that varied significantly by ethnic and racial group. Separate multivariate models for Latino and black people showed that younger age, more chronic conditions and social distress were related to major depressive disorder for both ethnic groups. Perceived environmental stress, shorter tenure in the building, poorer perceived health, higher life stress and fewer leisure activities were associated with depression for Latinos only. Mental health screening and treatment services are needed in senior housing to address these high rates of mental illness. Unique constellations of correlates of depression for different ethnic groups underscore a need for culturally competent approaches to identification and treatment.

  9. Race/ethnicity is associated with ABO-nonidentical liver transplantation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jin; Roberts, John P; Lai, Jennifer C

    2017-08-01

    United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) policies allow for ABO-nonidentical liver transplantation (LT) in candidates with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores greater than 30. Previous studies showed ABO-nonidentical LT resulted in an 18% and 55% net gain in livers for B and AB candidates. These results suggested that the current liver ABO allocation policies may need refinement. There are, however, strong associations between ABO blood groups and race/ethnicity. We hypothesized that race/ethnicity is associated with ABO-nonidentical LT and that this is primarily influenced by recipient ABO status. We examined non-status 1 adult candidates registered between July 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. There were 27 835 candidates (70% non-Hispanic White, 15% Hispanic, 9% Black, 4% Asian, 1% Other/Multiracial). A total of 11 369 underwent deceased donor LT: 93% ABO identical, 6% ABO compatible, and 1% ABO incompatible. Black and Asian race/ethnicity were associated with increased likelihoods of ABO-nonidentical LT. Adjustment for disease etiology, listing MELD, transplant center volume, and UNOS region did not alter this association. Stepwise inclusion of recipient ABO status did eliminate this significant association of race/ethnicity with ABO-nonidentical LT. Blacks and Asians may be advantaged by ABO-nonidentical LT, and we suspect that changes to the existing policies may disproportionately impact these groups. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Toward a Demographic Understanding of Incarceration Disparities: Race, Ethnicity, and Age Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Matt; Porter, Lauren C

    2016-01-01

    Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics in the United States are more likely to be incarcerated than non-Hispanic whites. The risk of incarceration also varies with age, and there are striking differences in age distributions across racial/ethnic groups. Guided by these trends, the present study examines the extent to which differences in age structure account for incarceration disparities across racial and ethnic groups. We apply two techniques commonly employed in the field of demography, age-standardization and decomposition, to data provided by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the 2010 decennial census to assess the contribution of age structure to racial and ethnic disparities in incarceration. The non-Hispanic black and Hispanic incarceration rates in 2010 would have been 13-20 % lower if these groups had age structures identical to that of the non-Hispanic white population. Moreover, age structure accounts for 20 % of the Hispanic/white disparity and 8 % of the black/white disparity. The comparison of crude incarceration rates across racial/ethnic groups may not be ideal because these groups boast strikingly different age structures. Since the risk of imprisonment is tied to age, criminologists should consider adjusting for age structure when comparing rates of incarceration across groups.

  11. Ethnic differences in children's socioemotional difficulties: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilanawala, Afshin; Sacker, Amanda; Nazroo, James; Kelly, Yvonne

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates ethnic differences in children's socioemotional difficulties and possible explanations for any observed inequalities. We used data collected from the fourth sweep of the Millennium Cohort Study when children were aged 7 years. We found that Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Black Caribbean children had significantly more socioemotional difficulties than White children. These differences were partially explained by the relative socioeconomic disadvantage of their families. After accounting for maternal and family environment factors, the differences for Pakistani children remained unexplained. In contrast, Black African children were the only ethnic minority group to have significantly fewer socioemotional difficulties. We investigated the role of four indicators of socioeconomic position in explaining these differences and found equivalised household income had the strongest influence on socioemotional difficulties, and that socioeconomic position associations with socioemotional difficulties were less apparent among Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. The association between adverse economic conditions and socioemotional difficulties was partially mediated by maternal psychological distress. In conclusion, unexplained ethnic differences in socioemotional difficulties were seen, with a disadvantage among Pakistani children and an advantage among Black African children. Our results point to the need to address economic deprivation among ethnic minority groups to reduce children's socioemotional difficulties. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Living together apart? Ethnic concentration in the neighbourhood and ethnic minorities' social contacts and language practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, M.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Together with the rise in ethnic residential concentration, attention for the potential negative consequences of ethnic concentration in the neighbourhood for ethnic minorities’ integration has also increased in recent years. And although many neighbourhood interventions have been implemented, there

  13. EthniCity of Leisure : A Domains Approach to Ethnic Integration During Free Time Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenik, K.; Tammaru, T.; van Ham, M.

    This paper takes a domains approach to understanding ethnic segregation; ethnic segregation occurs in different ways in different domains (such as the residential neighbourhood, workplaces, leisure, etc.). Where most studies focus on residential segregation, this study focusses on ethnic segregation

  14. Racial and ethnic differences in the association between obesity and depression in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Margaret T; Lee, Hedwig; Mezuk, Briana; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Rafferty, Jane; Jackson, James S

    2013-05-01

    It is generally accepted that obesity and depression are positively related in women. Very little prior research, however, has examined potential variation in this relationship across different racial/ethnic groups. This paper examines the association between obesity and depression in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Mexican American women. The sample included women aged 20 years and older in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (n=3666). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between obesity and depression syndrome (assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9), after adjusting for covariates. We then investigated whether this association varied by race/ethnicity. Overall, obese women showed a 73% greater odds of depression (odds ratio [OR]=1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.19, 2.53) compared with normal weight women. This association varied significantly, however, by race/ethnicity. The obesity-depression associations for both Black and Mexican American women were different from the positive association found for White women (ORBlack*obese=0.24; 95% CI=0.10,0.54; ORMexican American*obese=0.42; 95% CI=1.04). Among White women, obesity was associated with significantly greater likelihood of depression (OR=2.37; 95% CI=1.41, 4.00) compared to normal weight. Among Black women, although not statistically significant, results are suggestive that obesity was inversely associated with depression (OR=0.56; 95% CI=0.28, 1.12) relative to normal weight. Among Mexican American women, obesity was not associated with depression (OR=1.01; 95% CI=0.59, 1.72). The results reveal that the association between obesity and depression varies by racial/ethnic categorization. White, but not Black or Mexican American women showed a positive association. Next research steps could include examination of factors that vary by race/ethnicity that may link obesity to depression.

  15. Black women and breast health: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Maggi

    2011-02-01

    In the UK, it is known that screening inequalities exist involving ethnic minority groups such as Black women (Patnick, 2009). To date, there is limited UK data on Black British women and breast health awareness. Black British women appear to be an underrepresented group in breast cancer studies (Breast Cancer Care, 2004, 2005). This literature review aimed to explore Black women's perceptions of breast health and factors that influence breast cancer screening practices. A literature search for the period 1994 to September 2009 was undertaken using BNI, CINAHL, PubMed, OSH-ROM, PsyInfo, Google scholar, and Scopus databases. Key words used included: breast cancer, breast health, African American women, Black British women, black women, breast cancer screening, qualitative studies. Hand-searching was also done, and reference lists of papers were examined for relevant studies. Black women hold a variety of views and perceptions on the risk that breast cancer poses. These perceptions are strongly related to existing knowledge, related stigmatization, spiritual and religious beliefs, all of which can adversely influence motivation to engage in self-breast examination and breast cancer screening. US based studies identified several influential factors: religion, educational awareness of breast cancer screening, breast health awareness. Breast health interventions and research are needed to increase breast health awareness in Black British women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Race, history, and black British jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Toynbee, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the history of black British jazz across five moments from 1920 to the present. It also makes a theoretical argument about the nature of race and its connection both with music and belonging to the nation. Race is indeed a musical-discursive construction, as has been argued in the literature about culture and ethnicity over the last thirty years or so. But it is a social structure too, and the contradictions that result are key to understanding the race-music relationship.

  17. Interactions Between Race/Ethnicity and Anthropometry in Risk of Incident Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsey, Pamela L.; Pereira, Mark A.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Kandula, Namratha R.; Jacobs, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how adiposity influences racial/ethnic differences in diabetes incidence by exploring whether relations between anthropometric measures and incident diabetes vary by race/ethnicity. Data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis initiated in 2000 (n = 5,446 US men and women aged 45–84 years) were analyzed by using proportional hazards and Poisson regression. The diabetes incidence rate was 2/100 person-years (n = 479 cases). Interactions were present between race and anthropometry (P-interaction(race × body mass index) = 0.002). The slope of incident diabetes per anthropometric unit was greatest for Chinese, less for whites and Hispanics, and still less for blacks. For small waist, risk of incident diabetes was <1/100 person-years for all racial/ethnic groups. At intermediate waist levels, Chinese had the highest and whites the lowest rates of incident diabetes. At the respective 95th percentiles of waist circumference, risk of incident diabetes per 100 person-years was 3.9 for Chinese (104 cm), 3.5 for whites (121 cm), 5.0 for blacks (125 cm), and 5.3 for Hispanics (121 cm). Adiposity influenced relative diabetes occurrence across racial/ethnic groups, in that Chinese had a steeper diabetes risk per unit of adiposity. However, the generally low level of adiposity in Chinese led to a relatively low diabetes occurrence. PMID:20570825

  18. Racial and ethnic differences in men's knowledge and attitudes about contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Sonya; Farkas, Amy; Dehlendorf, Christine; Rocca, Corinne H

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in men's contraceptive knowledge and attitudes. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine racial/ethnic differences in contraceptive knowledge and attitudes among 903 men aged 18-29 in the 2009 National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge. Black and Hispanic men were less likely than Whites to have heard of most contraceptive methods, including female and male sterilization, and also had lower knowledge about hormonal and long-acting reversible methods. They were less likely to know that pills are ineffective when 2-3 pills are missed [Blacks: adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.42; Hispanics: aOR=0.53] and that fertility was not delayed after stopping the pill (Blacks: aOR=0.52; Hispanics: aOR=0.27). Hispanics were less likely to know that nulliparous women can use the intrauterine device (aOR=0.47). Condom knowledge was similar by race/ethnicity, but Blacks were less likely to view condoms as a hassle than Whites (aOR=0.46). Efforts to educate men, especially men of color, about contraceptive methods are needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Ethnic disparities in access to care in post-apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Zeida R; Lackan, Nuha

    2008-12-01

    We investigated ethnic disparities in obtaining medical care among the 4 major ethnic groups (Blacks, Whites, Coloreds [i.e., those of mixed race], and Asians) in post-apartheid South Africa. Data for the study came from the 2002 Afrobarometer: Round II Survey of South Africa. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine differences across racial and ethnic groups in how often respondents went without medical care. A total of 40.8% of Blacks and 22.9% of Coloreds reported going without medical care at some point in the past year, compared with 10.9% of Whites and 6.9% of Asians. Disparities were found not only in health but in education, income, and basic public health infrastructures. Sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions regarding democracy, markets, and civil society were similar for Blacks and Coloreds and for Whites and Asians. Fourteen years after the end of apartheid, Blacks and Coloreds in South Africa are still underserved and disadvantaged compared with their White and Asian counterparts, especially regarding health care.

  20. Racial/Ethnic differences among smokers: revisited and expanded to help seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Baker, Elizabeth A; McNutt, Marcia D

    2014-05-01

    Most research on racial/ethnic differences among smokers is outdated and does not focus on help seekers. The purpose of this study was to revisit racial/ethnic differences in variables related to cessation in a sample of smokers enrolled in a randomized trial. Adult smokers (N = 417; n = 126 White; n = 123 Hispanic; n = 168 Black) completed measures of demographics, smoking history, alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and readiness to quit. We found significant differences in these factors across groups. Blacks were more likely to be older, less educated, single, low income, smoke menthol cigarettes, and report greater nicotine dependence. Hispanics were younger, reported fewer years smoking and cigarettes per day, lower nicotine dependence, preferred mentholated cigarettes, and reported greater alcohol use intensity. After controlling for demographics and smoking history, Blacks reported greater depressive symptoms and lower readiness to quit compared with Whites and Hispanics. Help-seeking Blacks may exhibit more risk factors for difficulty quitting compared with other groups. Hispanics may have some protective factors, such as lower dependence, but require attention to alcohol use and menthol smoking. Identifying preintervention racial/ethnic differences in characteristics related to cessation is important for developing evidence-based and culturally specific interventions and for reducing tobacco-related health disparities.

  1. Historicizing the ‘ethnic’ in ethnic entrepreneurship: The case of the ethnic Chinese in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, J.B.M.; Verver, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to come to a better understanding of the meaning of 'ethnic' in ethnic entrepreneurship for second- and third-generation ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs in Bangkok, Thailand. Research on ethnic Chinese entrepreneurship in Southeast Asia typically investigates the dominance, attributed to specific 'Chinese' cultural values and strong intra-ethnic networks, of the ethnic Chinese in business and entrepreneurship. Our research among second- and third-generations shows an inclination ...

  2. Trends in Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cardiovascular Health Among US Adults From 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Lindsay R; Ning, Hongyan; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Allen, Norrina B

    2017-09-22

    In the United States, there are persistent racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. National efforts have focused on reducing these disparities; however, little is known about the long-term trends in racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular health (CVH). We included 11 285 adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys survey cycles 1999/2000 through 2011/2012. CVH includes 7 health factors and behaviors-diet, physical activity, smoking status, body mass index, blood pressure, blood glucose, and total cholesterol-each scored as ideal (2 points), intermediate (1 point), or poor (0 points). Overall CVH is a summation of these scores (range, 0-14) points. Age-adjusted mean CVH scores were calculated by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, or Mexican American) and sex for each survey cycle. Non-Hispanic black women had significantly lower mean CVH scores as compared with non-Hispanic white women at each survey cycle (difference=0.93; P =0.001 in 2011/2012) and Mexican-American women had significantly lower mean score as compared with non-Hispanic white women at almost all survey cycles (difference=0.71; P =0.02 in 2011/2012). Differences between racial/ethnic groups were smaller for men and were mostly nonsignificant. From 1999/2000 to 2011/2012, there were enduring disparities in CVH for non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American women as compared with non-Hispanic white women. Disparities that were present in 1999/2000 were present in 2011/2012, though no racial/ethnic differences became more pronounced over time. These findings provide US nationally representative data to evaluate health factors and behaviors of particular concern regarding racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular health. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Racial/ethnic differences in the rates and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Audrey J; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Meade, Christina S; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Calsyn, Donald A; Greenfield, Shelly F

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection disproportionately impacts minorities; yet research on racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors is limited. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the rates of HIV risk behaviors and whether the relationship between HIV risk factors and HIV risk behaviors varies by race/ethnicity in clients participating in NIDA Clinical Trials Network trials. The sample was 41% non-Hispanic White, 32% non-Hispanic Black, and 27% Hispanic (N = 2,063). HIV risk behaviors and measures of substance and psychosocial HIV risk factors in the past month were obtained. Non-Hispanic Blacks engaged in less HIV sexual risk behaviors overall than non-Hispanic Whites. While non-Hispanic Whites were the most likely to report any injection drug use, Hispanics engaged in the most HIV drug risk behaviors. Specific risk factors were differentially predictive of HIV risk behavior by race/ethnicity. Alcohol use severity was related to engaging in higher sex risk behaviors for non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites. Greater psychiatric severity was related to engaging in higher sex risk behaviors for non-Hispanic Whites. Drug use severity was associated with engaging in higher risk drug behaviors for non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics with the magnitude of the relationship stronger for Hispanics. These findings highlight the need for further research testing HIV risk prevention interventions within racial/ethnic groups to identify target behaviors or risk factors that are salient to inform HIV interventions. The present study provides a systematic examination of race/ethnicity differences in the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and HIV risk behaviors. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. Dietary and physical activity behaviors of New York City children from different ethnic minority subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Mervish, Nancy; Galvez, Maida P; Brenner, Barbara; Wolff, Mary S

    2012-01-01

    To examine racial/ethnic differences in diet and physical activity behaviors in ethnic minority New York City children. Cross-sectional data from a community-based study of 486 6- to 8-year-old children were used. Race/ethnicity was derived using a caregiver's report of child's race and Hispanic ancestry. Dietary intake was obtained by 24-hour diet recalls using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers and caregiver interviews. We compared diet and activity measures across racial/ethnic subgroups using chi-square and analysis of variance tests. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and caregiver education (with breastfeeding history and total energy intake included in diet models). Participants (N = 486) were categorized as Mexican (29.4%), Dominican (8.4%), Puerto Rican (20.6%), other/mixed Hispanic (14.0%), or non-Hispanic black (27.6%). Obesity rates were lower in non-Hispanic blacks (18%) than in Hispanics (31%). Mexicans had the lowest obesity rates among Hispanic subgroups (25%), and Dominicans had the highest (39%). There were differences in mean daily servings of food groups, with Mexicans having healthier diets and Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks having less healthy diets. Sedentary time was lower in Mexicans than in other groups in adjusted models. Examination of additional models, including home language, did not show significant differences in the estimates. Diet and activity behaviors varied across racial/ethnic subgroups. Specifically, Mexican children had healthier diets, the least amount of sedentary time, and the lowest rates of obesity among the Hispanic subgroups examined. Targeted interventions in ethnic subgroups may be warranted to address specific behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  6. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  7. Black-Body Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Black-body radiation; thermal radiation; heat; electromagnetic radiation; Stefan's Law; Stefan–Boltzmann Law; Wien's Law; Rayleigh–Jeans Law; black-body spectrum; ultraviolet catastrophe; zero point energy; photon.

  8. Rates of hip and knee joint replacement amongst different ethnic groups in England: an analysis of National Joint Registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M C; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Dieppe, P; Beswick, A D; Adebajo, A O; Wilkinson, J M; Blom, A W

    2017-04-01

    Despite a health care system that is free at the point of delivery, ethnic minorities may not always get care equitable to that of White patients in England. We examined whether ethnic differences exist in joint replacement rates and surgical practice in England. 373,613 hip and 428,936 knee National Joint Registry (NJR) primary replacement patients had coded ethnicity in Hospital Episode Statistics (HES). Age and gender adjusted observed/expected ratios of hip and knee replacements amongst ethnic groups were compared using indirect standardisation. Associations between ethnic group and type of procedure were explored and effects of demographic, clinical and hospital-related factors examined using multivariable logistic regression. Adjusted standardised observed/expected ratios were substantially lower in Blacks and Asians than Whites for hip replacement (Blacks 0.33 [95% CI, 0.31-0.35], Asians 0.20 [CI, 0.19-0.21]) and knee replacement (Blacks 0.64 [CI, 0.61-0.67], Asians 0.86 % [CI, 0.84-0.88]). Blacks were more likely to receive uncemented hip replacements (Blacks 52%, Whites 37%, Asians 44%; P replacements than Whites (men 10% vs 15%, P = 0.001; women 6% vs 14%, P replacement (OR 1.43 [CI, 1.11-1.84]). In England, hip and knee replacement rates and prosthesis type given differ amongst ethnic groups. Whether these reflect differences in clinical need or differential access to treatment requires urgent investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Racial/ethnic and gender differences in the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation in the CARDIA cohort of 4 US communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Seeman, Teresa E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gortmaker, Steven L; Jacobs, David R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Berkman, Lisa F

    2012-09-01

    Inflammation is etiologically implicated in cardiometabolic diseases for which there are known racial/ethnic disparities. Prior studies suggest there may be an association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP). It is not known whether that association is influenced by race/ethnicity and gender. In separate hierarchical linear models with time-varying covariates, we examined that association among 901 Black women, 614 Black men, 958 White women, and 863 White men in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study in four US communities. Self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination were ascertained in 1992-93 and 2000-01. Inflammation was measured as log-transformed CRP in those years and 2005-06. All analyses were adjusted for blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), age, education, and community. Our findings extend prior research by suggesting that, broadly speaking, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination are associated with inflammation; however, this association is complex and varies for Black and White women and men. Black women reporting 1 or 2 experiences of discrimination had higher levels of CRP compared to Black women reporting no experiences of discrimination (β = 0.141, SE = 0.062, P discrimination and not independent of modifiable risks (smoking and obesity) in the final model. White women reporting 3 or more experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of CRP compared to White women reporting no experiences of discrimination independent of modifiable risks in the final model (β = 0.300, SE = 0.113, P discrimination and CRP was not statistically significant among Black and White men reporting 1 or 2 experiences of discrimination. Further research in other populations is needed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Ethnicity and self-reported experiences of stigma in adults with intellectual disability in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Kock, E; Molteno, C; Mfiki, N; King, M; Strydom, A

    2015-06-01

    Studies have shown that individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are aware of stigma and are able to describe experiences of being treated negatively. However, there have been no cross-cultural studies examining whether self-reported experiences of stigma vary between ethnic groups. Participants with mild and moderate ID were recruited from a number of different settings in Cape Town, South Africa. Self-reported experiences of stigma in three ethnic groups were measured using the South African version of the Perceived Stigma of Intellectual Disability tool, developed by the authors. One-way anova was used to test whether there were differences in the total stigma score between the ethnic groups. Regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with stigma. A total of 191 participants agreed to take part; 53 were Black, 70 were of mixed ethnicity and 68 were Caucasian. There were no differences in the levels of stigma reported by the three groups but the Black African ethnic group were more likely to report being physically attacked and being stared at, but were also more likely to report that they thought they were 'the same as other people'. There was an interaction effect between ethnicity and level of ID, with participants with mild ID from the Black African group reporting higher levels of stigma compared with those with moderate ID. Younger age was the only factor that was associated with stigma but there was a trend towards ethnicity, additional disability and socio-economic status being related to stigma. Interventions should target the Black African community in South Africa and should include the reduction of both public stigma and self-reported stigma. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  12. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  13. Effects of pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, B E; Paul, D A; Hoffman, M; Locke, R

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Retrospective cohort study of maternal deliveries at a single regional center from 2009 to 2010 time period (n = 11,711). Generalized linear models were used for the analysis to estimate an adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Analysis controlled for diabetes, chronic hypertension, previous preterm birth, smoking and insurance status. The demographics of the study population were as follows, race/ethnicity had predominance in the White/Non-Hispanic population with 60.1%, followed by the Black/Non-Hispanic population 24.2%, the Hispanic population with 10.3% and the Asian population with 5.4%. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight showed that the population with a normal body mass index (BMI) was 49.4%, followed by the population being overweight with 26.2%, and last, the population which was obese with 24.4%. Maternal obesity increased the odds of prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian population (aOR 1.40, CI 1.12-1.75; aOR 2.20, CI 1.23-3.95; aOR 3.07, CI 1.16-8.13, respectively). Although the Black/Non-Hispanic population prematurity rate remains higher than the other race/ethnicity populations, the Black/Non-Hispanic population did not have an increased odds of prematurity in obese mothers (OR 0.87; CI 0.68-1.19). Unlike White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic mothers, normal pre-pregnancy BMI in Black/Non-Hispanic mothers was not associated with lower odds for prematurity. The odds for mothers of the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian populations, for delivering a premature infant, were significantly increased when obese. Analysis controlled for chronic hypertension, diabetes, insurance status, prior preterm birth and smoking. Obesity is a risk factor for prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic population, but not for the

  14. School racial composition and race/ethnic differences in early adulthood health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosby, Bridget J; Walsemann, Katrina M

    2012-03-01

    We investigate whether school racial composition is associated with racial and ethnic differences in early adult health. We then examine whether perceived discrimination, social connectedness, and parent support attenuates this relationship. Using U.S. data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, we found that black adolescents attending predominantly white schools reported poorer adult health while Asians reported better health. Further research is warranted to understand whether there are qualitative differences in the treatment of racial and ethnic minorities within certain school contexts and how that differential treatment is related to adult health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identity Development in a Transracial Environment: Racial/Ethnic Minority Adoptees in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Emma R; Samek, Diana R; Keyes, Margaret; McGue, Matthew K; Iacono, William G

    It has been argued that transracial adopted children have increased risk for problems related to self-esteem and ethnic identity development. We evaluated this hypothesis across four groups of transracial adoptees: Asian ( N = 427), Latino ( N = 28), Black ( N = 6), Mixed/Other ( N = 20), and same-race white adoptees ( N = 126) from 357 adoptive families. No mean differences were found in adoptee's ratings of affect about adoption, or of curiosity about birthparents. Some differences were found in general identity development and adjustment. There were notable differences in communication about race/ethnicity across groups and between parent and child report.

  16. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Body Weight Perception Among U.S. College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Sa, Jaesin; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Seo, Dong-Chul; Samuel, Tonya

    2018-02-28

    To examine racial/ethnic differences in weight perception by sex among U.S. college students. A nationally representative sample (N = 70,267) of college students randomly selected from two- and four-year postsecondary institutions (N = 62) during the fall semester from 2011 to 2014. This is a secondary data analysis using four years of American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment IIb data. Sex-stratified multinomial logistic regression was performed to investigate racial/ethnic differences in body weight perception. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic black men and women were more likely to underestimate their body weight (p perception.

  17. Identity Development in a Transracial Environment: Racial/Ethnic Minority Adoptees in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Emma R.; Samek, Diana R.; Keyes, Margaret; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that transracial adopted children have increased risk for problems related to self-esteem and ethnic identity development. We evaluated this hypothesis across four groups of transracial adoptees: Asian (N = 427), Latino (N = 28), Black (N = 6), Mixed/Other (N = 20), and same-race white adoptees (N = 126) from 357 adoptive families. No mean differences were found in adoptee’s ratings of affect about adoption, or of curiosity about birthparents. Some differences were found in general identity development and adjustment. There were notable differences in communication about race/ethnicity across groups and between parent and child report. PMID:26300622

  18. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I.G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  19. Alcoholism and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bertha; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Notes that in America, knowledge base concerning alcoholism is concentrated on drinking patterns of Whites, and that Black Americans often differ in their drinking behavior, resulting in a need to clarify issues regarding alcoholism and Blacks. Provides theoretical information useful in better discerning drinking behavior of Blacks. (Author/NB)

  20. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  1. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  2. Heterogeneous ethnic distribution of the factor v leiden mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rendrik F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Inherited resistance to activated protein C caused by the factor V Leiden (FVL mutation is the most common genetic cause of venous thrombosis yet described, being found in 20-60% of patients with venous thrombophilia. A relationship between the FVL mutation and an increased predisposition to arterial thrombosis in young women was recently reported. We assessed the prevalence of the FVL mutation in 440 individuals (880 chromosomes belonging to four different ethnic groups: Caucasians, African Blacks, Asians and Amerindians. PCR amplification followed by MnlI digestion was employed to define the genotype. The FVL mutation was found in a heterozygous state in four out of 152 Whites (2.6%, one out of 151 Amerindians (0.6%, and was absent among 97 African Blacks and 40 Asians. Our results confirm that FVL has a heterogeneous distribution in different human populations, a fact that may contribute to geographic and ethnic differences in the prevalence of thrombotic diseases. In addition, these data may be helpful in decisions regarding the usefulness of screening for the FVL mutation in subjects at risk for thrombosis.

  3. Racial and Ethnic Gaps in Postsecondary Aspirations and Enrollment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Schneider

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One major finding of the Equality of Educational Opportunity (EEO report was that a smaller proportion of African Americans than whites reported “wanting to go no further than high school in each region of the country.” Blacks in the 1960s had high college aspirations, and those aspirations have continued, but today, as then, fewer blacks than whites attend four-year colleges. Since the EEO report, the U.S. population has become increasingly diverse, and postsecondary aspirations and enrollment now vary considerably among racial and ethnic groups. Whereas the EEO report focused on the significant role of students’ concrete knowledge about college in postsecondary attendance, it paid limited attention to variation in postsecondary preparation activities. This study contrasts earlier indicators of student college knowledge with college preparation activities to understand variations in college enrollment among different racial and ethnic groups. Results indicate that concrete knowledge has less impact on minority postsecondary enrollment than taking more-advanced academic courses.

  4. Black- White Differences in Predictive Validity of Depressive Symptoms for Subsequent Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan eMoazen Zadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBlack- White differences are shown in psychosocial and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD. The current longitudinal study compared Blacks and Whites for the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent risk of MDD 15 years later. MethodsData came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL Study that followed 3,361 individuals (2,205 Whites and 1,156 Blacks from 1986 to 2001. Predictor was baseline depressive symptoms measured using an 11-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D in 1986. Outcome was 12 month MDD measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI at 2001. Covariates included baseline socio-demographics, financial difficulty, chronic medical conditions, and self-rated health (SRH measured at 1986. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between baseline CES-D score and CIDI-based MDD 15 years later net of demographics, SES, CMCs and SRH. The models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as Blacks and Whites. We also reported data on reliability and factor structure of CES-D based on ethnicity. ResultsAccording to the logistic regression models, baseline CES-D scores were predictive of subsequent CIDI- based 12 month MDD 15 years later among Whites but not Blacks. Ethnic differences in predictive validity of CES-D scores on MDD could not be attributed to the ethnic differences in reliability of the CES-D which was even higher for Blacks than Whites. ConclusionBlack–White differences exist in the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent risk of MDD over 15 years. Ethnic differences in the longitudinal link between baseline CES-D and subsequent risk of MDD among Blacks may explain some of the Black - White differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and depression. Future research is still needed to compare Blacks and Whites for confirmatory

  5. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  6. Can the Medical Home eliminate racial and ethnic disparities for transition services among Youth with Special Health Care Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Nicole E; Tran, Tri; Berry, Susan

    2012-05-01

    The Medical Home (MH) is shown to improve health outcomes for Youth with Special Health Care Needs (YSHCN). Some MH services involve Transition from pediatric to adult providers to ensure YSHCN have continuous care. Studies indicate racial/ethnic disparities for Transition, whereas the MH is shown to reduce health disparities. This study aims to (1) Determine the Transition rate for YSHCN with a MH (MH Transition) nationally, and by race/ethnicity (2) Identify which characteristics are associated with MH Transition (3) Determine if racial/ethnic disparities exist after controlling for associated characteristics, and (4) Identify which characteristics are uniquely associated with each race/ethnic group. National survey data were used. YSCHN with a MH were grouped as receiving Transition or not. Characteristics included race, ethnicity (Non-Hispanic (NH), Hispanic), sex, health condition effect, five special health care need categories, education, poverty, adequate insurance, and urban/rural residence. Frequencies, chi-square, and logistic regression were used to calculate rates and define associations. Alpha was set to 0.05. About 57.0% of YSHCN received MH Transition. Rates by race/ethnicity were 59.0, 45.5, 60.2, 41.9, and 44.6% for NH-White, NH-Black, NH-Multiple race, NH-Other, and Hispanic YSHCN, respectively. Disparities remained between NH-White and NH-Black YSHCN. All characteristics except urban/rural status were associated. Adequate insurance was associated for all race/ethnic groups, except NH-Black YSHCN. Almost 57.0% of YSHCN received MH Transition. Disparities remained. Rates and associated characteristics differed by race/ethnic group. Culturally tailored interventions incorporating universal factors to improve MH Transition outcomes are warranted.

  7. Mental Health Service Utilization among Black Youth; Psychosocial Determinants in a National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-05-17

    Racial disparity in mental health service utilization (MHSU) persists, and youths are not an exception to the underutilization of services. Very limited research has been conducted on the determinants of MHSU among Black youth. Using a national sample of American Black youth, the current study investigated the association between demographic factors, socioeconomic status, psychiatric disorders, and self-rated health (SRH) on MHSU. We also tested the heterogeneity of the effects of SRH and psychiatric disorders based on ethnicity, gender, and their intersection. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents supplement (NSAL-A), 2003-2004. The study enrolled 1170 Black youth between 13 and 17 years old including 810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean Blacks. Age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, SRH, 12-month psychiatric disorders (Composite International Diagnostic Interview modified version), and MHSU (last year) were measured. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) = 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.17-0.65), subjective socioeconomic status (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09-1.88), SRH (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.00-6.37), and psychiatric disorders (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.05-4.48) were associated with MHSU. Age, gender, and objective socioeconomic status were not associated with MHSU. Gender and ethnicity did not interact with SRH and psychiatric disorders on MHSU. Actual and perceived need both universally influence Black youths' likelihood of MHSU, regardless of their ethnicity and gender. Ethnicity and perceived socioeconomic status also play unique roles in MHSU. Future research is needed to understand pathways to MHSU for Black youth who both have and perceive mental health needs. There is also a need to find ways to promote MHSU for those with a need for mental health services.

  8. Mental Health Service Utilization among Black Youth; Psychosocial Determinants in a National Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in mental health service utilization (MHSU persists, and youths are not an exception to the underutilization of services. Very limited research has been conducted on the determinants of MHSU among Black youth. Using a national sample of American Black youth, the current study investigated the association between demographic factors, socioeconomic status, psychiatric disorders, and self-rated health (SRH on MHSU. We also tested the heterogeneity of the effects of SRH and psychiatric disorders based on ethnicity, gender, and their intersection. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents supplement (NSAL-A, 2003–2004. The study enrolled 1170 Black youth between 13 and 17 years old including 810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean Blacks. Age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, SRH, 12-month psychiatric disorders (Composite International Diagnostic Interview modified version, and MHSU (last year were measured. Logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Ethnicity (odds ratio (OR = 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.17–0.65, subjective socioeconomic status (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.09–1.88, SRH (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.00–6.37, and psychiatric disorders (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.05–4.48 were associated with MHSU. Age, gender, and objective socioeconomic status were not associated with MHSU. Gender and ethnicity did not interact with SRH and psychiatric disorders on MHSU. Actual and perceived need both universally influence Black youths’ likelihood of MHSU, regardless of their ethnicity and gender. Ethnicity and perceived socioeconomic status also play unique roles in MHSU. Future research is needed to understand pathways to MHSU for Black youth who both have and perceive mental health needs. There is also a need to find ways to promote MHSU for those with a need for mental health services.

  9. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  10. Effect of ethnicity on weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorgami, Zhamak; Arheart, Kristopher L; Zhang, Chi; Messiah, Sarah E; de la Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported better weight loss after bariatric surgery among non-Hispanic whites (NHW) versus non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) and Hispanics. The majority of these studies took place in areas where NHW are the majority. This study aimed to compare post-surgery weight outcomes by ethnicity in a geographic area where Hispanics are the majority. A retrospective medical chart review of 3268 patients (1561 Hispanic, 660 NHB, and 1047 NHW) who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or Adjustable Gastric Band (AGB) placement from 2002 to 2012 were analyzed. Percentages of excess weight loss (EWL) and body mass index (BMI) changes at 6, 12, and 24 months post-surgery were compared by ethnic group. At 6 months, EWL was significantly different by ethnicity (52.7 ± 15.9 Hispanics, 49.7 ± 15.7 NHW, 43.0 ± 17.3 NHB, P surgery, and BMI category (40 kg/m(2). Up to 2 years after RYGB, mean EWL and BMI reduction patterns are similar among NHW and Hispanics and significantly better than NHB. These patterns were comparable but not as pronounced among patients with AGB surgery. Our findings suggest that social factors may contribute to successful weight loss after bariatric surgery.

  11. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: fixed-effects associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Berkman, Lisa F; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (β=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (β=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time.

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors in ethnic populations within Canada: results from national cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard; So, Lawrence; Mohan, Sailesh; Khan, Nadia; King, Kathryn; Quan, Hude

    2010-01-01

    Latin ethnicity; and were less likely to be obese, with the exception of people of black, Latin, Arab or West Asian ethnicity. However, relative to white people, hypertension was more prevalent among those of Filipino or South East Asian background (odds ratio [OR] 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-1.93) and those of black ancestry (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.43-2.00). Cardiovascular risk factors vary dramatically by ethnic group. Health professionals should increase their promotion of physical activity among visible minorities and should prioritize the detection and control of diabetes and hypertension during routine contact with patients of visible minorities, particularly those of South Asian, Filipino and black ethnicity.

  13. Perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms: the buffering effects of ethnic identity, religion and ethnic social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; de Wit, Matty A S; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-05-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) is positively associated with depressive symptoms in ethnic minority groups in Western countries. Psychosocial factors may buffer against the health impact of PED, but evidence is lacking from Europe. We assessed whether ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network act as buffers in different ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Baseline data were used from the HEalthy Living In a Urban Setting study collected from January 2011 to June 2014. The random sample included 2501 South-Asian Surinamese, 2292 African Surinamese, 1877 Ghanaians, 2626 Turks, and 2484 Moroccans aged 18-70 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. PED was measured with the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Ethnic identity was assessed using the Psychological Acculturation Scale. Practicing religion was determined. Ethnic social network was assessed with the number of same-ethnic friends and amount of leisure time spent with same-ethnic people. PED was positively associated with depressive symptoms in all groups. The association was weaker among (a) those with strong ethnic identity in African Surinamese and Ghanaians, (b) those practicing religion among African Surinamese and Moroccans, (c) those with many same-ethnic friends in South-Asian Surinamese, Ghanaians, and Turks, and (d) those who spend leisure time with same-ethnic people among African Surinamese and Turks. Ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network weakened the association between PED and depressive symptoms, but the effects differed by ethnic minority group. These findings suggest that ethnic minority groups employ different resources to cope with PED.

  14. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  15. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Pregnancies of Women With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowse, Megan E B; Grotegut, Chad

    2016-10-01

    Both systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; lupus) and pregnancy individually have significant racial disparities, with black women experiencing higher rates of complications, yet no large studies have focused on the impact of race/ethnicity on pregnancy outcomes among women with lupus. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) for 2008-2010, pregnancy delivery discharges were identified and pregnancy outcomes were compared for women with lupus by maternal race/ethnicity. Adjusted odds ratios were used to compare pregnancy outcomes between black and white or Hispanic and white women with lupus. In this period, the NIS included 13,553 deliveries with lupus and 12,510,565 deliveries without lupus. Compared to white women with lupus, black and Hispanic women had higher rates of chronic hypertension, chronic renal failure, pneumonia, and acute renal failure. There was a high degree of pregnancy complication in all women with lupus, but especially in black and Hispanic women, with more than 40% cesarean-section delivery; preterm labor in 14.3% of white, 24.7% of black (odds ratio [OR] 1.97), and 20.6% of Hispanic (OR 1.56) deliveries; and preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in almost 20% of black and Hispanic pregnancies. After adjustment for predictors of pregnancy outcomes and racial differences in nonlupus pregnancy, black and Hispanic women with lupus had higher than expected rates of preeclampsia, preterm labor, and fetal growth restriction. Black and Hispanic women with lupus have disproportionately poor pregnancy outcomes. This study suggests that identifying the key causes of these differences and targeting interventions to the women of greatest need is an essential next step. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. A Preliminary Analysis of Associations among Ethnic-Racial Socialization, Ethnic Discrimination, and Ethnic Identity among Urban Sixth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from cultural ecological models of adolescent development, the present research investigates how early adolescents received ethnic-racial socialization from parents as well as how experiences of ethnic and racial discrimination are associated with their ethnic identity (i.e., centrality, private regard, and public regard). Data for this…

  17. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in

  18. [Ethnic Arts Program at UCLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Allegra Fuller

    The ethnic arts major at the University of California, Los Angeles--an interdisciplinary undergraduate program of courses in anthropology, art, dance, folklore and mythology, music, and theater arts--is described. The program objectives are to facilitate cultural and cross-cultural investigation of human artistic expression, and to provide an…

  19. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2018-01-01

    Due to its wide-ranging implications for social cohesion in diversifying Western countries, the question of the potential negative consequences of ethnic diversity for social trust is arguably the most contentious question in the literature on social trust. In this chapter we critically review th...

  20. Socialization and Ethnic Identity Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Peter

    A study of identity development was carried out in Bristol, England, with Asian, West Indian, and indigenous British adolescents. Ethnic and gender differences in patterns of identification conflict with others were found between minority group boys and girls. Both sexes from both minority groups, however, had substantial identification conflicts…

  1. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Sheen S; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L; Zajac, Edward J; Stark, David

    2014-12-30

    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others' decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity.

  2. Ethnicity and Education in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. L.

    With over 95 percent of the people professing Buddhism, about 90 percent having a common or related racial origin, and almost 85 percent speaking the Thai language, the Thai society is fairly homogeneous. There are, however, a few ethnic minorities of which the significant ones are the Chinese (12 percent of the population), the Malays (2…

  3. Young ethnic minorities in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2007-01-01

    and transcend negative social categories about a ‘Muslim school girl' as ‘isolated and oppressed' and ‘too studios'. [1] I use the term ethnic minority, not as a distinction with numerical proportions, but rather related to societal power relations (Phoenix, 2001). In that way the Danish Palestinian pupils...

  4. Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Wie Davis, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    .... Two justifications ethnic separatism and religious rhetoric are given. The Uyghurs, who reside throughout the immediate region, are the largest Turkic ethnic group living in Xinjiang as well as being overwhelmingly Muslim...

  5. Cross-cultural agreement in facial attractiveness preferences: the role of ethnicity and gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinet Coetzee

    Full Text Available Previous work showed high agreement in facial attractiveness preferences within and across cultures. The aims of the current study were twofold. First, we tested cross-cultural agreement in the attractiveness judgements of White Scottish and Black South African students for own- and other-ethnicity faces. Results showed significant agreement between White Scottish and Black South African observers' attractiveness judgements, providing further evidence of strong cross-cultural agreement in facial attractiveness preferences. Second, we tested whether cross-cultural agreement is influenced by the ethnicity and/or the gender of the target group. White Scottish and Black South African observers showed significantly higher agreement for Scottish than for African faces, presumably because both groups are familiar with White European facial features, but the Scottish group are less familiar with Black African facial features. Further work investigating this discordance in cross-cultural attractiveness preferences for African faces show that Black South African observers rely more heavily on colour cues when judging African female faces for attractiveness, while White Scottish observers rely more heavily on shape cues. Results also show higher cross-cultural agreement for female, compared to male faces, albeit not significantly higher. The findings shed new light on the factors that influence cross-cultural agreement in attractiveness preferences.

  6. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Design In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. Participants 94 women aged 33–91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Setting Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012–2013. Results There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Conclusions Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma

  7. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%).

  8. Science Achievement Gaps by Gender and Race/Ethnicity in Elementary and Middle School: Trends and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David M.; Cooc, North

    2015-01-01

    Research on science achievement disparities by gender and race/ethnicity often neglects the beginning of the pipeline in the early grades. We address this limitation using nationally representative data following students from Grades 3 to 8. We find that the Black-White science test score gap (-1.07 SD in Grade 3) remains stable over these years,…

  9. Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastic, Billie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…

  10. Ethnic variation in environmental belief and behavior: An examination of the new ecological paradigm in a social psychological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; H. Ken Cordell

    2004-01-01

    We use national-level data to test a modified version of Stern, Dietz, & Guagnano's causal model of environmental belief and behavior. We focus on ethnic variation for four environmental behaviors: environmental reading, household recycling, environmental group joining, and participation in nature-based outdoor recreation. Blacks and foreign-born Latinos were...

  11. Are RGS2 Gene Polymorphisms Associated With High Blood Pressure in an Ethnicity- and Gender-Specific Manner?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahntow, Ines N.; Mairuhu, Gideon; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Baas, Frank; Alewijnse, Astrid E.; Koopmans, Richard P.; Michel, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundPolymorphisms in the Regulator of G-protein Signaling 2 (RGS2) gene have been reported to be associated with hypertension (HT) in Japanese women and black Americans of either gender but not in white Americans or Japanese men. We have tested whether these proposed ethnicity- and

  12. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with More Hopelessness among White than Black Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani

    2016-01-01

    Hopelessness is a core component of depression. Our information is, however, very limited on ethnic variations in the magnitude of the link between depression and hopelessness. Using a national sample of older adults in United States, we compared Blacks and Whites for the magnitude of the association between depressive symptoms and hopelessness. With a cross-sectional design, we used baseline data of the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001. Linear regression models were used for data analysis. Depressive symptoms (CES-D) and hopelessness were conceptualized as independent and dependent variables in different models, respectively. Demographic factors (age and gender), socioeconomic status (education and marital status), and health (self-rated health) were covariates. Ethnicity was the moderator. In the pooled sample, higher depressive symptoms were predictive of hopelessness, above and beyond all covariates. We also found significant interactions suggesting that the association between depressive symptoms and hopelessness is weaker among Blacks compared to Whites. In ethnic-specific models, there were significant associations between depressive symptoms and hopelessness among Whites but not Blacks. Depressive symptoms accompany more hopelessness among Whites than Blacks. This finding may explain why Blacks with depression have a lower tendency to commit suicide. Future research should test whether or not Whites with depression better respond to psychotherapies and cognitive behavioral therapies that focus on hope enhancement. This finding may explain differential correlates of depression based on race and ethnicity.

  13. Political ethnicity: a new paradigm of analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Coffman, James H.

    1994-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Ethnic conflict is a contemporary issue plaguing many states as the international system moves towards a New World Order. However, despite the importance of ethnic-based violence and nationalistic social revolutions, current conflict theories do not adequately explain the fundamental dynamics of ethnic conflict or provide clear prescriptive policy guidance. This thesis articulates a model that describes and explains ethnic conflict. Th...

  14. Factors Influencing Depression and Anxiety among Black Sexual Minority Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis F. Graham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationships between depression and anxiety, and ethnic and sexual identity development, and discrimination and harassment (DH among Black sexual minority men. Additional aims were to determine whether an interaction effect existed between ethnic and sexual identity and whether coping skills level moderated these relationships. Using an observational cross-sectional design, 54 participants recruited through snowball sampling completed self-administered online surveys. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used. Sixty-four percent of the variance in depression scores and 53% of the variance in anxiety scores were explained by DH and internalized homonegativity together. Thirty percent of the sample had scale scores indicating likelihood of depression and anxiety. Experience of DH and internalized homonegativity explained a large portion of the variability in depression and anxiety among Black sexual minority men. The study showed high prevalence of mental distress among this sample.

  15. Factors Influencing Depression and Anxiety among Black Sexual Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Louis F; Aronson, Robert E; Nichols, Tracy; Stephens, Charles F; Rhodes, Scott D

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationships between depression and anxiety, and ethnic and sexual identity development, and discrimination and harassment (DH) among Black sexual minority men. Additional aims were to determine whether an interaction effect existed between ethnic and sexual identity and whether coping skills level moderated these relationships. Using an observational cross-sectional design, 54 participants recruited through snowball sampling completed self-administered online surveys. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used. Sixty-four percent of the variance in depression scores and 53% of the variance in anxiety scores were explained by DH and internalized homonegativity together. Thirty percent of the sample had scale scores indicating likelihood of depression and anxiety. Experience of DH and internalized homonegativity explained a large portion of the variability in depression and anxiety among Black sexual minority men. The study showed high prevalence of mental distress among this sample.

  16. Racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-08-01

    Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by this very early time period. Secondary analysis of data from children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a large, nationally representative cohort of U.S. children born in 2001. Data include information from birth certificates, parent and teacher questionnaires, and in-person developmental assessments conducted with children at intervals from 9 months through kindergarten entry. The analytic sample included children enrolled in the ECLS-B at the 60-month assessment (N = 6,550). Black children in the United States were 70% (1 - OR of .30) less likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis than otherwise similar White children. Hispanic children initially appeared to be underdiagnosed for ADHD. However, their disparity with Whites became statistically nonsignificant after controlling for whether a language other than English was primarily spoken in the home. Analyses of kindergarten teacher-reported classroom behavior indicated that neither Black nor Hispanic children displayed less frequent ADHD-related behaviors than Whites. Although they are not less likely to display ADHD-related behaviors, children who are Black or being raised in households where non-English is primarily spoken are less likely than otherwise similar White children to be diagnosed with ADHD in the US. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Problem Gambling among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Krieger, Heather; Tackett, Jennifer L; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-06-01

    The college years are a formative period where the risk for development of problematic gambling is high. Research examining racial and ethnic differences in gambling behaviors has been limited and inconsistent. The aims of this study were to examine racial and ethnic differences in problem gambling among a large sample of college students. Undergraduates (N = 3058) from a large southern university completed an online screening questionnaire which included demographics, gambling frequency, gambling expenditure (i.e. money lost) in the previous 6 months, and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Negative binomial regression results indicated that Asian participants gambled less frequently than participants who were Caucasian or Hispanic/Latino(a), but spent more money than participants who were African-American (AA)/Black or Hispanic/Latino(a). A significantly larger proportion of Asian students met probable pathological gambling criteria (SOGS 5+; 7.8 %) and at-risk gambling criteria (SOGS 3+; 16.3 %)) than Caucasian (5.2; 10.1 %), AA/Black (3.9; 10.2 %), or Hispanic/Latino(a) (3.6; 9.4 %) students. Additionally, a significantly larger proportion of Asian students endorsed problematic gambling indicators such as lying about losses, feeling guilty about gambling, feeling like they had a gambling problem, being criticized for their gambling, feeling like they couldn't stop gambling, losing time from school or work due to gambling, having a family history of problem gambling, and arguing with close others about their gambling than Caucasian, AA/Black or Hispanic/Latino(a) students. Results suggest that Asian students may be a high-risk sub-group of college gamblers, and that there is a critical need for targeted interventions for this population.

  18. Racial and Ethnic Difference in Falls Among Older Adults: Results from the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Simona C; Han, Benjamin H; Kranick, Julie A; Wyatt, Laura C; Blaum, Caroline S; Yi, Stella S; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2018-04-01

    Research suggests that fall risk among older adults varies by racial/ethnic groups; however, few studies have examined fall risk among Hispanics and Asian American older adults. Using 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey data, this study examines falling ≥2 times in the past year by racial/ethnic groups (Asian Americans, Hispanics, and Blacks) aged ≥65, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index, co-morbidities, and functional limitations. A secondary analysis examines differences in fall risk by English language proficiency and race/ethnicity among Asian Americans and Hispanics. Asian Americans were significantly less likely to fall compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals with ≥2 chronic diseases were significantly more likely to fall than individuals with fall risk, when adjusting for all factors. African Americans and Hispanics did not differ significantly from non-Hispanic whites. Analysis adjusting for race/ethnicity and English language proficiency found that limited English proficient Asian Americans were significantly less likely to fall compared to non-Hispanic whites, individuals with ≥2 chronic diseases were significantly more likely to fall than individuals with fall risk, when adjusting for all factors. No differences were found when examining by racial/ethnic and English proficient/limited English proficient groups. Further research is needed to explore factors associated with fall risks across racial/ethnic groups. Culturally relevant and targeted interventions are needed to prevent falls and subsequent injuries in the increasingly diverse aging population in the USA.

  19. What turns migrants into ethnic minorities at work? : Factors Erecting Ethnic Boundaries among Dutch Police Officers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, Hans

    Transnational migration flows have revitalised the interest in ethnicity in social sciences. The ethnic boundary approach (Barth, Wimmer) argues for a non-essentialist understanding of ethnicity and calls for detecting the factors that turn migrants into ethnic minorities. Based on ethnographic

  20. Ethnic segregation in context : Social discrimination among native Dutch pupils and their ethnic minority classmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, L.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Baerveldt, C.

    2009-01-01

    Social discrimination, defined as the relative preference for intra-ethnic over inter-ethnic relationships, was studied in pupils' networks in Dutch secondary school classes. While native Dutch pupils (ethnic majority members) mainly named fellow majority members, ethnic minority members reported

  1. Historicizing the ‘ethnic’ in ethnic entrepreneurship: The case of the ethnic Chinese in Bangkok

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.B.M.; Verver, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to come to a better understanding of the meaning of 'ethnic' in ethnic entrepreneurship for second- and third-generation ethnic Chinese entrepreneurs in Bangkok, Thailand. Research on ethnic Chinese entrepreneurship in Southeast Asia typically investigates the dominance, attributed

  2. Ethnic Dilemmas in Comparative Perspective: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James H. Jr.; Oliver, Melvin L.

    1988-01-01

    The papers which comprise this volume were produced by a group of these nationally known scholars who are engaged in research on comparative aspects of ethnicity and ethnic group behavior. Organized around a series of themes which run through the extant comparative ethnicity literature and which reflect the expertise and current research foci of the conference presenters, the volume i...

  3. Democratisation and Conflict in Ethnically Divided Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrath, Judith; Krebs, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews three important factors in the academic debate on ethnic civil wars: the role of ethnicity in causing and structuring violence, the spread of ethnic civil wars once they have started, and the influence of democratic transitions in divided societies. The review displays the range

  4. Bibliography of Ethnic Heritage Studies Program Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Greta; And Others

    The Ethnic Heritage Studies Program was designed to teach students about the nature of their heritage and to study the contributions of the cultural heritage of other ethnic groups. This is a bibliography of materials developed by projects which received Federal Ethnic Heritage Studies Program grants during fiscal year 1974-75 and 1975-76.…

  5. Views of Black nurses toward genetic research and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M; Spruill, Ida J

    2013-06-01

    To describe views and beliefs that Black nurses hold regarding several conceptual areas of genetic research and testing. Data were generated using a descriptive, cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 384 Black nurses attending the 2009 annual conference of the National Black Nurses Association in Las Vegas, Nevada. The chi-squared test was used to evaluate group differences by education level, functional area, age, and gender. One half of the Black nurses surveyed believed the potential for the discriminative misuse of genetic information against minority populations exists. However, 84% of these nurses believed the possibility of information misuse should not be used as a barrier to participation in genetic research and testing by the Black populace. Black nurses expressed concerns about the potential for discriminatory use of genetic information gleaned from research and testing. Yet, Black nurses recognize the importance of racial-ethnic minority participation in genetic research and testing. Participation in genetic research and testing by diverse populations will provide opportunities to improve the healthcare delivery system and aid the eradication of health disparities. More research is needed to clarify factors that contribute to the bifurcation of importance for participation, reluctance to participate, and what interventions might reduce reluctance. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  6. The relationships between major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination, and mental health in three racial and ethnic groups of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat; Gum, Amber M

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the relationships between perceived exposure to major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination, and mental health in three racial/ethnic groups of older adults. The Health and Retirement Study is a nationally representative sample of individuals 50 years and older living in the United States. A total of 6455 Whites, 716 Latinos, and 1214 Blacks were eligible to complete a self-report psychosocial questionnaire in the year 2006. Whereas 30% of the general population reported at least one type of major lifetime discrimination, almost 45% of Black older adults reported such discrimination. Relative to the other two racial/ethnic groups (82% Whites, 82.6% Blacks), Latinos were significantly less likely to report any everyday discrimination (64.2%), whereas Blacks reported the greatest frequency of everyday discrimination. Whites reported the highest levels of life satisfaction and the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. Relative to major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination had a somewhat stronger correlation with mental health indicators. The relationships between discrimination and mental health outcomes were stronger for White compared to Black older adults, although everyday discrimination was still significantly associated with outcomes for Black older adults. Black older adults experience the greatest number of discriminative events, but weaker associated mental health outcomes. This could be because they have become accustomed to these experiences, benefit from social or cultural resources that serve as buffers, or selective survival, with the present sample capturing only the most resilient older adults who have learned to cope with the deleterious effects of discrimination.

  7. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Relationship between Obesity and Depression Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdus, Salam; Zuvekas, Samuel H

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), this study examined the relationship between obesity and the treatment of depression across racial/ethnic subgroups, controlling for depressive symptoms, self-rated mental health, health status, and socioeconomic characteristics. The association between obesity and depression-related medication was significant for white women but not for black or Hispanic women. Similarly, the association between obesity and depression-related ambulatory visits was significant for white women but not for black or Hispanic women. The results for men were, in general, mixed and inconsistent. The significant racial/ethnic differences found in the relationship between obesity and depression treatment among women suggest that social and cultural factors might play important roles in depression treatment among women.

  8. Individual, family background, and contextual explanations of racial and ethnic disparities in youths' exposure to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

    2013-03-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic-White gap (33%) and the Black-White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences.

  9. Family Ethnic Socialization and Ethnic Identity: A Family-Driven, Youth-Driven, or Reciprocal Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal associations between family ethnic socialization and youths’ ethnic identity among a sample of Mexican-origin youth (N = 178, Mage = 18.17, SD = .46). Findings from multiple-group cross lagged panel models over a two year period indicated that for U.S.-born youth with immigrant parents, the process appeared to be family-driven: Youths’ perceptions of family ethnic socialization in late adolescence were associated with significantly greater ethnic identity exploration and resolution in emerging adulthood, while youths’ ethnic identity during late adolescence did not significantly predict youths’ future perceptions of family ethnic socialization. Conversely, for U.S.-born youth with U.S. born parents, youths’ ethnic identity significantly predicted their future perceptions of family ethnic socialization but perceptions of family ethnic socialization did not predict future levels of youths’ ethnic identity, suggesting a youth-driven process. Findings were consistent for males and females. PMID:23421841

  10. Association between body size and blood pressure in children from different ethnic origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA de Hoog Marieke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess associations between body size and blood pressure in children (5-6 years from different ethnic origins. Method Five ethnic groups of the ABCD cohort were examined: Dutch (n=1 923, Turkish (n=99, Moroccan (n=187, Black-African (n=67 and Black-Caribbean (n=121. Data on body-mass-index (BMI, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, fat-mass-index (FMI, and systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, were collected. Linear regression analysis with restricted cubic splines was used to examine non-linear associations between body size and blood pressure, adjusted for age, sex, height and birth weight. Results Ethnic differences were found in associations of BMI with SBP and DBP (SBP: p=0.001 and DBP: p=0.01 and FMI with SBP (p=0.03. BMI and FMI had a relatively large positive association with SBP in Turkish children (BMI: β=2.46mmHg; 95%CI:1.20-3.72; FMI: β=2.41mmHg; 95%CI:1.09-3.73 compared to Dutch (BMI: β=1.31mmHg; 95%CI:0.71-1.92; FMI: β=0.84mmHg; 95%CI:0.23-1.45. Black-Caribbean and Moroccan children showed high blood pressure with low BMI and FMI. Moroccan children showed higher SBP with high BMI and FMI. WHtR was positively associated with SBP and DBP, similar in all ethnic groups. Generally, strongest associations with blood pressure were found for BMI in all ethnic groups. Conclusion Ethnic-specific associations between BMI, and FMI and blood pressure are present at young age, with Turkish children showing the highest increase in blood pressure with increasing body size. The higher blood pressure in the Black-Caribbean and Moroccan children with low BMI needs further research. WHtR or FMI do not seem to be associated more strongly to blood pressure than BMI in any ethnic group.

  11. Racial variation in sex steroid hormone concentration in black and white men: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, A.; Rohrmann, S.; Zhang, L.; Eichholzer, M.; Basaria, S.; Selvin, E.; Dobs, A. S.; Kanarek, N.; Menke, A.; Nelson, W. G.; Platz, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones are associated with chronic diseases and mortality with risk associations that differ between racial and ethnic groups. However, it is currently unclear whether sex steroid hormone levels differ between black and white men. The aim of this study was to assess racial variation in circulating testosterone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol levels in men. We searched PubMed for articles comparing circulating hormones in black and white men....

  12. Black men in the medical education pipeline: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, T; Nickens, H W

    1991-04-01

    The authors discuss the decline in the numbers of black men enrolling in medical school over the last two decades and assess possible reasons for it, including the smaller numbers of men from nearly all races and ethnic groups now applying to medical school, the declining popularity of the undergraduate biology degree among men in general, the falling number of black students who go on to college, and, underlying all these, the pervasive effects of poverty on educational achievement, the dwindling employment opportunities for black men of limited education (brought on by dramatic changes in the American economy), and the rising indices of stress and alienation among black men. The authors review the larger social implications of the growing educational gap between black men and other segments of society, pose questions about some of the trends that have been mentioned, indicate lines for further research, and propose potential solutions to the problem of the deepening underrepresentation of black men in medical schools.

  13. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Hypertensive US-Born Blacks and Foreign-Born Blacks: Analysis of the CAATCH Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence shows that blacks exhibit greater daytime sleepiness compared with whites, based on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. In addition, sleep complaints might differ based on individuals’ country of origin. However, it is not clear whether individuals’ country of origin has any influence on excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS. Study Objectives. We tested the hypothesis that US-born blacks would show a greater level of EDS compared with foreign-born blacks. The potential effects of sociodemographic and medical risk were also determined. Design. We used the Counseling African-Americans to Control Hypertension (CAATCH data. CAATCH is a group randomized clinical trial that was conducted among 30 community healthcare centers in New York, yielding baseline data for 1,058 hypertensive black patients. Results. Results of univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that US-born blacks were nearly twice as likely as their foreign-born black counterparts to exhibit EDS (OR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.30–2.68, P<0.001. After adjusting for effects of age, sex, education, employment, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and smoking habit, US-born blacks were 69% more likely than their counterparts to exhibit EDS (OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.11–2.57, P<0.01. Conclusion. Findings demonstrate the importance of considering individuals’ country of origin, in addition to their race and ethnicity, when analyzing epidemiologic sleep data.

  14. Internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans, US-born Caribbean Blacks, and foreign-born Caribbean Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzon, Dawne M; McLean, Jamila S

    2017-02-01

    The tripartite model of racism includes personally mediated racism, institutionalized racism, and the less-oft studied internalized racism. Internalized racism - or negative beliefs about one's racial group - results from cultural racism that is endemic in American society. In this project, we studied whether these negative stereotypes are associated with mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Using secondary data from the National Survey of American Life, we investigated the association between internalized racism and mental health (measured by depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress (SPD)) among these two groups. We also explored whether ethnicity/nativity and mastery moderate the association between internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Internalized racism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and SPD among all Black subgroups. However, internalized racism was a weaker predictor of SPD among foreign-born Caribbean Blacks than US-born Caribbean Blacks and US-born African-Americans. Additionally, higher mastery was protective against distress associated with internalized racism. Internalized racism is an important yet understudied determinant of mental health among Blacks. Future studies should take into account additional heterogeneity within the Black population (e.g. African-born individuals) and other potential protective mechanisms in addition to mastery (e.g. self-esteem and racial identity).

  15. Host country employees’ ethnic identity confirmation: evidence from interactions with ethnically similar expatriates

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Shea; Harzing, Anne-Wil

    2017-01-01

    Employing expatriates who share an ethnicity with host country employees (HCEs) is a widespread expatriate selection strategy. However, little research has compared how expatriates and HCEs perceive this shared ethnicity. Drawing upon an identity perspective, we propose HCEs’ ethnic identity confirmation, the level of agreement between how an HCE views the importance of his/her own ethnic identity and how expatriates view the importance of the HCE’s ethnic identity, affects HCEs’ attitudes to...

  16. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Antibiotic Use for Viral Illness in Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Monika K; Johnson, Tiffani J; Chamberlain, James M; Casper, T Charles; Simmons, Timothy; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Bajaj, Lalit; Grundmeier, Robert W; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Lorch, Scott A; Alpern, Elizabeth R

    2017-10-01

    In the primary care setting, there are racial and ethnic differences in antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs). Viral ARTIs are commonly diagnosed in the pediatric emergency department (PED), in which racial and ethnic differences in antibiotic prescribing have not been previously reported. We sought to investigate whether patient race and ethnicity was associated with differences in antibiotic prescribing for viral ARTIs in the PED. This is a retrospective cohort study of encounters at 7 PEDs in 2013, in which we used electronic health data from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network Registry. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between patient race and ethnicity and antibiotics administered or prescribed among children discharged from the hospital with viral ARTI. Children with bacterial codiagnoses, chronic disease, or who were immunocompromised were excluded. Covariates included age, sex, insurance, triage level, provider type, emergency department type, and emergency department site. Of 39 445 PED encounters for viral ARTIs that met inclusion criteria, 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4%-2.8%) received antibiotics, including 4.3% of non-Hispanic (NH) white, 1.9% of NH black, 2.6% of Hispanic, and 2.9% of other NH children. In multivariable analyses, NH black (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.44; CI 0.36-0.53), Hispanic (aOR 0.65; CI 0.53-0.81), and other NH (aOR 0.68; CI 0.52-0.87) children remained less likely to receive antibiotics for viral ARTIs. Compared with NH white children, NH black and Hispanic children were less likely to receive antibiotics for viral ARTIs in the PED. Future research should seek to understand why racial and ethnic differences in overprescribing exist, including parental expectations, provider perceptions of parental expectations, and implicit provider bias. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Ethnic Disparities in Oral Health Related Quality of Life among Adults in London, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim, R; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Gallagher, J E; Bernabé, E

    2017-06-01

    To explore ethnic disparities in oral health related quality of life (OHQoL) among adults, and the role that socioeconomic factors play in that association. Data from 705 adults from a socially deprived, ethnically diverse metropolitan area of London (England) were analysed for this study. Ethnicity was self-assigned based on the 2001 UK Census categories. OHQoL was measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which provides information on the prevalence, extent and intensity of oral impacts on quality of life in the previous 12 months. Ethnic disparities were assessed in logistic regression models for prevalence of oral impacts and negative binomial regression models for extent and intensity of oral impacts. The prevalence of oral impacts was 12.7% (95% CI: 10.2-15.1) and the mean OHIP-14 extent and severity scores were 0.27 (95% CI: 0.20-0.34) and 4.19 (95% CI: 3.74-4.64), respectively. Black adults showed greater and Asian adults lower prevalence, extent and severity of oral impacts than White adults. However, significant differences were only found for the extent of oral impacts; Black adults reporting more and Asian adults fewer OHIP-14 items affected than their White counterparts. After adjustments for socioeconomic factors, Asian adults had significantly fewer OHIP-14 items affected than White adults (rate ratio: 0.28; 95%CI: 0.08-0.94). This study found disparities in OHQoL between the three main ethnic groups in South East London. Asian adults had better and Black adults had similar OHQoL than White adults after accounting for demographic and social factors. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  18. Life-course events and experiences: association with fruit and vegetable consumption in 3 ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, C M; Wolfe, W S; Frongillo, E A; Bisogni, C A

    1999-03-01

    To examine how life-course experiences and events are associated with current fruit and vegetable consumption in 3 ethnic groups. A theoretic model developed from previous qualitative research guided the development of a telephone survey. Data were collected on fruit and vegetable consumption, sociodemographic characteristics, ethnic identity, and life-course events and experiences, including food upbringing, social roles, food skills, dietary changes for health, and practice of food traditions. Low- to moderate-income adults living in a northeastern US city were selected randomly from 3 ethnic groups: black (n = 201), Hispanic (n = 191), and white (n = 200). Bivariate and multiple linear regression analysis of associations between life-course variables and fruit and vegetable consumption. Black, Hispanic, and white respondents differed significantly in life-course experiences, family roles, socio-demographic characteristics, and place of birth. Explanatory models for fruit and vegetable consumption differed among ethnic groups and between fruits and vegetables. Among black respondents, a college education was positively associated with fruit consumption; education and family roles contributed most to differences in fruit (R2 = .16) and vegetable (R2 = .09) consumption. Among Hispanic respondents, life-course experiences such as liking fruits and vegetables in youth, making dietary changes for health, and food skills were positively associated with fruit (R2 = .25) and vegetable (R2 = .35) consumption. Among white respondents, socio-demographic characteristics, such as being married with a young child or single with no child and having a garden as an adult, were positively associated with fruit (R2 = .20) and vegetable (R2 = .22) consumption. An understanding of the determinants of food choice in different subcultural groups can be used to design effective nutrition interventions to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Experiences such as eating fresh

  19. Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Factors, and Smoking among Early Adolescent Girls in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John M.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study uses large nationally representative samples of White, Black, Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Other Latina, Asian American, and American Indian 8th-grade girls to examine racial/ethnic differences and similarities in patterns, trends, and socioeconomic correlates of cigarette use. Methods The data are drawn from the University of Michigan’s Monitoring the Future study. Prevalence and trend data (from 1991 to 2007) in girls’ cigarette use were examined by racial/ethnic subgroup. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the extent to which socioeconomic factors predict girls’ cigarette use, and whether the relationships between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking differed across racial/ethnic subgroup. Results Cigarette use was highest among American Indian girls; at an intermediate level among Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Other Latinas, and White girls; and lowest among Black and Asian American girls. Trend data show that cigarette use has declined for all racial/ethnic subgroups, and that small but consistent racial/ethnic differences in girls’ cigarette use have persisted. Generally, girls who did not live in two-parent households, whose parents had lower levels of educational attainment, who attended lower SES schools, and who had more disposable income were more likely than their peers to smoke. That said, however, the relationships between smoking and parental education and school SES were, on average, stronger for White girls than for Black or Hispanic (Mexican American, Other Latina, Puerto Rican) girls. Conclusions Future research should seek to understand the mechanisms by which low SES impacts smoking. PMID:19628345

  20. Effect of donor ethnicity on kidney survival in different recipient pairs: an analysis of the OPTN/UNOS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, C O; Cherikh, W S; Traverso, P; Hernandez, A; Oyetunji, T; Chang, D

    2009-12-01

    Previous multivariate analysis performed between April 1, 1994, and December 31, 2000 from the Organ Procurement Transplant Network/United Network for Organ Sharing (OPTN/UNOS) database has shown that kidneys from black donors were associated with lower graft survival. We compared graft and patient survival of different kidney donor-to-recipient ethnic combinations to see if this result still holds on a recent cohort of US kidney transplants. We included 72,495 recipients of deceased and living donor kidney alone transplants from 2001 to 2005. A multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze the effect of donor-recipient ethnicity on graft and patient survival within 5 years of transplant, and to adjust for the effect of other donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics. Results are presented as hazard ratios (HR) with the 95% confidence limit (CL) and P values. Adjusted HRs of donor-recipient patient survival were: white to white (1); and white to black (1.22; P = .001). Graft survival HRs were black to black (1.40; P recipients. The graft and patient survival rates for Asian and Latino/Hispanic recipients, however, were not affected by donor ethnicity. This analysis underscores the need for research to better understand the reasons for these disparities and how to improve the posttransplant graft survival rates of black kidney recipients.

  1. Race/ethnicity moderates the relationship between chronic life stress and quality of life in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Amanda J; Ojie, Mary-Jane; Chaplin, William; Levy, Natalie; Odedosu, Taiye; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Spruill, Tanya M

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether chronic life stress is differentially associated with quality of life (QoL) for Blacks vs. Hispanics with type 2 diabetes. We assessed self-reported chronic stress and QoL in 125 patients with type 2 diabetes who self-identified as either non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic. Separate cross-sectional two-way interaction models (stress × race/ethnicity) with physical and mental health as outcomes were examined. The two-way interaction predicted mental (b=3.12, P=.04) but not physical health. Simple slopes analyses indicated that under conditions of high stress, Blacks (b=-4.4, Pstress × race/ethnicity × social support) with physical and mental health as outcomes. Results indicated the three-way interaction predicted mental (b=.62, P=.01) but not physical health. Simple slopes analyses indicated that under conditions of high stress, high levels of social support improved mental health for Hispanics (b=1.2, Pstress. Social support buffers effects of stress on mental health in Hispanics but not Blacks, which suggests differences in the use and/or quality of social support between Hispanics and Blacks. Longitudinal investigations that examine race/ethnicity, stress, social support, and QoL should help clarify the processes that underlie these observed relations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends in Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Antiretroviral Therapy Prescription and Viral Suppression in the United States, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Linda; Bradley, Heather; Mattson, Christine L; Johnson, Christopher H; Hoots, Brooke; Shouse, Roy L

    2016-12-01

    To examine trends in racial/ethnic disparities in antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescription and viral suppression among HIV-infected persons in care, overall and among men who have sex with men (MSM), from 2009 to 2013. The Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) is a complex sample survey of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States. We used weighted interview and medical record data collected June 2009-May 2014 to estimate the prevalence of ART prescription and viral suppression among racial/ethnic groups overall and among MSM. We found significant increases in ART prescription and viral suppression among all racial/ethnic groups from 2009 to 2013, both overall and among MSM. By 2013, overall and among MSM, the Hispanic-white disparity in ART prescription was nonexistent, and the black-white disparity was not significant after accounting for differences between blacks and whites in age and length of HIV diagnosis. Despite reductions in racial/ethnic disparities in viral suppression over the time period, significant disparities remained among the total population, even after adjusting for differences in racial/ethnic group characteristics. Encouragingly, however, there was no significant Hispanic-white disparity in viral suppression among MSM by 2013. Despite significant improvements in ART prescription and viral suppression in recent years, racial and ethnic disparities persist, particularly for black persons. If the United States is to achieve the National HIV/AIDS Strategy goal of reducing HIV-related health disparities, continued efforts to accelerate the rate of improvement in ART prescription and viral suppression among Hispanic and black persons may need to be prioritized.

  3. Validation of an Albuminuria Self-assessment Tool in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Rikki M; Woodward, Mark; Peralta, Carmen; Warnock, David G; Gutiérrez, Orlando; Shimbo, Daichi; Kramer, Holly; Katz, Ronit; Muntner, Paul

    2015-11-05

    We previously developed an 8-item self-assessment tool to identify individuals with a high probability of having albuminuria. This tool was developed and externally validated among non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks. We sought to validate it in a multi-ethnic cohort that also included Hispanics and Chinese Americans. This is a cross-sectional study. Data were collected using standardized questionnaires and spot urine samples at a baseline examination in 2000-2002. The 8 items in the self-assessment tool include age, race, gender, current cigarette smoking, history of diabetes, hypertension, or stroke, and self-rated health. Of 6,814 community-dwelling adults aged 45-84 years participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), 6,542 were included in the primary analysis. Albuminuria was defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g at baseline. Among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans, the prevalence of albuminuria was 6.0%, 11.3%, 11.6%, and 10.8%, respectively. The c-statistic for discriminating participants with and without albuminuria was .731 (95% CI: .692, .771), .728 (95% CI: .687, .761), .747 (95% CI: .709, .784), and .761 (95% CI: .699, .814) for non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans, respectively. The self-assessment tool over-estimated the probability of albuminuria for non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but was well-calibrated for Hispanics and Chinese Americans. The albuminuria self-assessment tool maintained good test characteristics in this large multi-ethnic cohort, suggesting it may be helpful for increasing awareness of albuminuria in an ethnically diverse population.

  4. Identity Development in a Transracial Environment: Racial/Ethnic Minority Adoptees in Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Emma R.; Samek, Diana R.; Keyes, Margaret; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that transracial adopted children have increased risk for problems related to self-esteem and ethnic identity development. We evaluated this hypothesis across four groups of transracial adoptees: Asian (N = 427), Latino (N = 28), Black (N = 6), Mixed/Other (N = 20), and same-race white adoptees (N = 126) from 357 adoptive families. No mean differences were found in adoptee’s ratings of affect about adoption, or of curiosity about birthparents. Some differences were found in...

  5. Racial, Ethnic, and Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guibo; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Danielson, Beate; Smith, Lloyd H.; Gilbert, William M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Racial and ethnic disparities in cerebral palsy have been documented, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We determined whether low birth weight accounts for ethnic disparities in the prevalence of cerebral palsy and whether socioeconomic factors impact cerebral palsy within racial and ethnic groups. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort of 6.2 million births in California between 1991 and 2001, we compared maternal and infant characteristics among 8397 infants with cerebral palsy who qualified for services from the California Department of Health Services and unaffected infants. RESULTS: Overall, black infants were 29% more likely to have cerebral palsy than white infants (relative risk: 1.29 [95% confidence interval: 1.19–1.39]). However, black infants who were very low or moderately low birth weight were 21% to 29% less likely to have cerebral palsy than white infants of comparable birth weight. After we adjusted for birth weight, there was no difference in the risk of cerebral palsy between black and white infants. In multivariate analyses, women of all ethnicities who did not receive any prenatal care were twice as likely to have infants with cerebral palsy relative to women with an early onset of prenatal care. Maternal education was associated with cerebral palsy in a dose-response fashion among white and Hispanic women. Hispanic adolescent mothers (aged cerebral palsy. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of cerebral palsy among black infants is primarily related to their higher risk of low birth weight. Understanding how educational attainment and use of prenatal care impact the risk of cerebral palsy may inform new prevention strategies. PMID:21339278

  6. Is individual smoking behaviour influenced by area-level ethnic density? A cross-sectional electronic health database study of inner south-east London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Mathur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking remains one of the greatest public health problems facing the UK today. It varies significantly by ethnic group. This study aimed to determine whether ethnic differences in smoking behaviour are related to neighbourhood-level, own-group ethnic density across south and east London. The association between ethnic density and individual smoking behaviour was assessed by multilevel logistic regression using the electronic health records of 688 397 general practitioner-registered patients. Restricted cubic splines were created to explore whether the effect of ethnic density on smoking behaviour was nonlinear. Increasing own-group ethnic density was found to be associated with a significant reduction in the odds of being a current smoker in all ethnic groups, except for Black Caribbean women. The relationship between ethnic density and current smoking was found to be nonlinear, with the strength of association varying significantly by sex and ethnic group. These novel findings point to a complex relationship between culture, neighbourhood-level experience of adversity or social support and smoking behaviour, and will allow us to target smoking cessation services differentially to individuals/groups living in relative ethnic isolation, who do not benefit from the potential cultural/social factors associated with reduced tobacco consumption.

  7. Adolescent bullying involvement and perceived family, peer and school relations: commonalities and differences across race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Aubrey L; Iannotti, Ronald J; Nansel, Tonja R; Haynie, Denise L

    2007-09-01

    Although bullying is recognized as a serious problem in the United States, little is known about racial/ethnic differences in bullying risk. This study examined associations between bullying and family, peer, and school relations for white, black and Hispanic adolescents. A nationally representative sample (n = 11,033) of adolescents in grades six to ten participated in the 2001 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey, self-reporting bullying involvement and information on family, peer and school relations. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression analyses controlling for gender, age and affluence were stratified by race/ethnicity. Nine percent of respondents were victims of bullying, 9% were bullies, and 3% were bully-victims. Black adolescents reported a significantly lower prevalence of victimization than white and Hispanic students. Multivariate results indicated modest racial/ethnic variation in associations between bullying and family, peer, and school factors. Parental communication, social isolation, and classmate relationships were similarly related to bullying across racial/ethnic groups. Living with two biological parents was protective against bullying involvement for white students only. Furthermore, although school satisfaction and performance were negatively associated with bullying involvement for white and Hispanic students, school factors were largely unrelated to bullying among black students. Although school attachment and performance were inconsistently related to bullying behavior across race/ethnicity, bullying behaviors are consistently related to peer relationships across black, white, and Hispanic adolescents. Negative associations between family communication and bullying behaviors for white, black, and Hispanic adolescents suggest the importance of addressing family interactions in future bullying prevention efforts.

  8. Racial/ethnic disparities in US college students' experience: Discrimination as an impediment to academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney; Liu, Cindy H; Chen, Justin A

    2018-03-22

    Using data from 69,722 US undergraduates participating in the spring 2015 National College Health Assessment, we examine racial/ethnic differences in students' experience of discrimination. Logistic regression predicted the experience of discrimination and its reported negative effect on academics. Additional models examined the effect of attending a Minority Serving Institution (MSI). Discrimination was experienced by 5-15% of students, with all racial/ethnic minority groups examined- including Black, Hispanic, Asian, AI/NA/NA, and Multiracial students- more likely to report discrimination relative to White students. Of students who experienced discrimination, 15-25% reported it had negatively impacted their academic performance, with Hispanic and Asian students more likely to report negative impacts relative to White students. Attending an MSI was associated with decreased experiences of discrimination. Students from racial/ethnic minority backgrounds are disproportionately affected by discrimination, with negative impacts for academic performance that are particularly marked for Hispanic and Asian students.

  9. Interacting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2000-01-01

    We revisit the geometry representing l collinear Schwarzschild black holes. It is seen that the black holes' horizons are deformed by their mutual gravitational attraction. The geometry has a string like conical singularity that connects the holes but has nevertheless a well defined action. Using standard gravitational thermodynamics techniques we determine the free energy for two black holes at fixed temperature and distance, their entropy and mutual force. When the black holes are far apart the results agree with Newtonian gravity expectations. This analyses is generalized to the case of charged black holes. Then we consider black holes embedded in string/M-theory as bound states of branes. Using the effective string description of these bound states and for large separation we reproduce exactly the semi-classical result for the entropy, including the correction associated with the interaction between the holes

  10. Black silicon integrated aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Dickensheets, David L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the incorporation of nanotextured black silicon as an optical absorbing material into silicon-based micro-optoelectromechanical systems devices to reduce stray light and increase optical contrast during imaging. Black silicon is created through a maskless dry etch process and characterized for two different etch conditions, a cold etch performed at 0°C and a cryogenic etch performed at -110°C. We measure specular reflection at visible wavelengths to be black velvet paint used to coat optical baffles and compare favorably with other methods to produce black surfaces from nanotextured silicon or using carbon nanotubes. We illustrate the use of this material by integrating a black silicon aperture around the perimeter of a deformable focus-control mirror. Imaging results show a significant improvement in contrast and image fidelity due to the effective reduction in stray light achieved with the self-aligned black aperture.

  11. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  12. Television viewing is not predictive of BMI in Black and Hispanic young adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Walls, Courtney E; Gooding, Holly C; Field, Alison E

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies have observed that television (TV) viewing is predictive of obesity and weight gain. We examined whether the cross-sectional association between TV viewing and BMI varied by racial/ethnic subgroups among young women in Wave III (collected in 2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We used multivariate linear regression to examine the relationship between TV viewing and BMI among 6,049 females while controlling for sociodemographic and health attributes. We stratified the sample by race/ethnicity to better understand the association between TV viewing and BMI across different groups. Black and Hispanic females had higher BMIs (black: 28.5 kg/m(2), Hispanic: 27.3 kg/m(2), white: 26.0 kg/m(2)) than white females, while black females reported higher numbers of hours spent watching TV (black: 14.7 h/week, Hispanic: 10.6 h/week, white: 11.2 h/week) when compared to their white and Hispanic peers. TV viewing was positively associated with BMI (beta = 0.79, P = 0.003 for 8-14 vs. 14 vs. obesity, and household income. However, in models stratified by race/ethnicity, increased TV viewing was associated with increased BMI only among white females; TV viewing was not predictive of higher BMI in black or Hispanic young adult females. Among black and Hispanic females, counseling to decrease TV viewing may be important but insufficient for promoting weight loss.

  13. Variation in Vaginal Birth After Cesarean by Maternal Race and Detailed Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Cohen, Bruce B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to examine the likelihood of vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) for women in Massachusetts. Methods We used birth certificate data among term, singleton, vertex presentation births by repeat cesarean or VBAC to conduct logistic regression models to examine the likelihood of VBAC for women categorized into standard classifications of race and ethnicity and into 31 detailed ethnicities. Data were analyzed for the entire study period (1996–2010, N = 119,752) and for the last 5 years (2006–2010, N = 46,081). Results The adjusted odds of VBAC were lowest for non-Hispanic Black mothers (0.91, CI [0.85, 0.98]) and highest for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers (1.41, CI [1.31, 1.53]) relative to non-Hispanic White women. VBAC rates ranged from 5.8 % among Brazilians to 29.3 % among Cambodians. The adjusted odds of VBAC were lower for 7 of the 30 ethnic groups (range of AORs 0.40–0.89) and higher for 8 of the 30 ethnic groups (range of AORs 1.18–2.11) relative to self-identified American mothers. For the last 5 years, Asian/Pacific Islander mothers had a higher adjusted VBAC rate (1.39, CI [1.21, 1.60]), as did 9 of the 30 ethnic groups (range of 1.25–1.84). Only Brazilian mothers had lower rates (0.37, CI [0.27, 0.50]), relative to self-identified American mothers. Conclusions Detailed maternal ethnicity explains the variation in VBAC rates more precisely than broad race/ethnicity categories. Improvements in our public health data infrastructure to capture detailed ethnicity are recommended to identify and address disparities and improve the quality of maternity care. PMID:26699791

  14. Socioeconomic Factors at the Intersection of Race and Ethnicity Influencing Health Risks for People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Romano, Sebastian D; Carroll, Dianna D; Fox, Michael H

    2017-04-01

    People with disabilities are known to experience disparities in behavioral health risk factors including smoking and obesity. What is unknown is how disability, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status combine to affect prevalence of these health behaviors. We assessed the association between race/ethnicity, socioeconomic factors (income and education), and disability on two behavioral health risk factors. Data from the 2007-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to determine prevalence of cigarette smoking and obesity by disability status, further stratified by race and ethnicity as well as income and education. Logistic regression was used to determine associations of income and education with the two behavioral health risk factors, stratified by race and ethnicity. Prevalence of disability by race and ethnicity ranged from 10.1 % of Asian adults to 31.0 % of American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) adults. Smoking prevalence increased with decreasing levels of income and education for most racial and ethnic groups, with over half of white (52.4 %) and AIAN adults (59.3 %) with less than a high school education reporting current smoking. Education was inversely associated with obesity among white, black, and Hispanic adults with a disability. Smoking and obesity varied by race and ethnicity and socioeconomic factors (income and education) among people with disabilities. Our findings suggest that disparities experienced by adults with disabilities may be compounded by disparities associated with race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic factors. This knowledge may help programs in formulating health promotion strategies targeting people at increased risk for smoking and obesity, inclusive of those with disabilities.

  15. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  16. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Social Networks, Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, William R.; Mandorff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We study the relationship between ethnicity, occupational choice, and entrepreneurship. Immigrant groups in the United States cluster in specific business sectors. For example, the concentration of Korean self-employment in dry cleaners is 34 times greater than other immigrant groups, and Gujarati-speaking Indians are similarly 108 times more concentrated in managing motels. We develop a model of social interactions where non-work relationships facilitate the acquisition of sector-specific sk...

  19. EDUCATION, COMMUNITY AND RACIAL-ETHNIC RELATIONS: EXPERIENCES IN THE UNITED STATES AND MALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce E. King

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Black students, as a group, are underserved by neoliberal policies and poorly resourced urban schools and Black Americans are over-represented in privatized prisons. This article challenges cultural deficit thinking and theorizing about Black children’s language and culture, which have been so pervasive in the U.S.Research discussed in this article interrupts this discourse of Black inferiority and highlights the importance of students developing a critical Black consciousness,which can contribute to their academic and cultural excellence. Emancipatory pedagogy for human freedom, which supports students’ positive sense of themselves and their racial-ethnic group, is also discussed. Emancipatory teachingfor critical Black consciousness and human freedom means recovering history, memory and identity, so students understand the state of Black America from a critical,historical perspective. Education for this kind of consciousness requires connecting students to their family, community history and to their ancestors. Five principles ofemancipatory pedagogy are presented that can guide teacher preparation, curriculum, text development, and standards-based instruction and support positive racial-ethnic relationships. These are: conscientization, critique of ideology/critique of racism as ideology, cultural agency/resistance to oppression, dialecticalepistemology and teaching through cultural arts. The example of the Songhoy Club, a pedagogical laboratory for heritage teaching for students and doctoral students and engaging parents, demonstrates how teaching Songhoy language and culture connects students with their African heritage, “from the Nile to the Niger to the Neighborhood.” Teaching this heritage is very important given that northern Mali is occupied by Islamic extremists who have destroyed historiccultural artifacts in Timbuktu.

  20. Racial and ethnic differences in young men's sex and contraceptive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Amy H; Vanderberg, Rachel; Sucato, Gina S; Miller, Elizabeth; Akers, Aletha Y; Borrero, Sonya

    2015-04-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities exist in young men's contraceptive knowledge. This study examines whether the likelihood of receiving sexual health education varies by race/ethnicity. We examined racial/ethnic differences in sex and contraceptive education both in school and from parents with multivariable logistic regression models among 4,104 men aged 15-24 years using data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Nearly all respondents (96.6%) reported formal sex education. Fewer reported formal birth control education (66.6%), parental sex discussions (66.8%), and parental discussions specifically about birth control (49.2%). In multivariable analysis, black men were less likely than white men to report receiving formal contraceptive education (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], .70; 95% CI, .51-.96). Both black and U.S.-born Hispanic men reported more parental sex discussions than white men (aOR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.07-1.94, aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.09-1.99, respectively). Nearly all respondents reported having received formal sexual health education. Fewer reported receiving education about birth control either at school or at home. Black men were less likely to report receiving formal contraceptive education. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Maternal Parenting Stress: The Role of Structural Disadvantages and Parenting Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers’ higher stress than white mothers’ persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress. PMID:24026535

  2. Racial-ethnic disparities in maternal parenting stress: the role of structural disadvantages and parenting values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei; House, Amanda N

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers contend that racial-ethnic minorities experience more stress than whites, knowledge of racial-ethnic disparities in parenting stress is limited. Using a pooled time-series analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (n = 11,324), we examine racial-ethnic differences in maternal parenting stress, with a focus on structural and cultural explanations and variations by nativity and child age. In kindergarten, black mothers, albeit U.S.-born only, report more parenting stress than white mothers due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian parenting values. The black-white gap increases from kindergarten to third grade, and in third grade, U.S.-born black mothers' higher stress than white mothers' persists after controlling for structural and parenting factors. Hispanic and Asian mothers, albeit foreign-born only, report more stress than white mothers at both ages due to structural disadvantages and authoritarian values. Despite structural disadvantages, American Indian mothers report less stress.

  3. Black Sea Energy Security - Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinel Iftode

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We chose this theme to highlight the need for continuous and sustained human society to secure energy resources needed to survive, needs reflected in an increasingly in recent years in the strategies adopted at both states, as at the level of international organizations. Achieving security and stability in the wider Black Sea area has been among the priorities of each country's interests in this region. In this context, state and non-state actors were being called to come up with new solutions to achieve those interests. Certainly not in all cases the negotiations were completed or not yet found a generally accepted formula for others to apply, but most of them show off their values. The main environmental threats to security environment in the Black Sea region are represented by ethnic conflicts and territorial secessionism. A significant contribution to the security environment of the Black Sea region has the phenomenon of globalization, which in this region is manifested by a steady increase in traffic and volume of shipping passage of communication, which largely affects the security in the region. Globalization and the need for energy resources in the Black Sea was an important area not only as energy transport route, but as a potential supplier of material energy (oil and natural gas. Black Sea Basin can be stabilized and secured only by the will and input from all States and interested international organizations in pragmatic and effective institutional frameworks, meant to promote and protect the common interests of countries decided to participate in actions aimed at ensuring a stable environment security.

  4. Racial And Ethnic Disparities Persist At Veterans Health Administration Patient-Centered Medical Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Donna L; Steers, W Neil; Huynh, Alexis K; Frayne, Susan M; Uchendu, Uchenna S; Riopelle, Deborah; Yano, Elizabeth M; Saechao, Fay S; Hoggatt, Katherine J

    2017-06-01

    Patient-centered medical homes are widely promoted as a primary care delivery model that achieves better patient outcomes. It is unknown if their benefits extend equally to all racial/ethnic groups. In 2010 the Veterans Health Administration, part of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), began implementing patient-centered medical homes nationwide. In 2009 significant disparities in hypertension or diabetes control were present for most racial/ethnic groups, compared with whites. In 2014 hypertension disparities were similar for blacks, had become smaller but remained significant for Hispanics, and were no longer significant for multiracial veterans, whereas disparities had become significant for American Indians/Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders. By contrast, in 2014 diabetes disparities were similar for American Indians/Alaska Natives, blacks, and Hispanics, and were no longer significant for Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders. We found that the modest benefits of the VA's implementation of patient-centered medical homes were offset by competing multifactorial external, health system, provider, and patient factors, such as increased patient volume. To promote health equity, health care innovations such as patient-centered medical homes should incorporate tailored strategies that account for determinants of racial/ethnic variations. Evaluations of patient-centered medical homes should monitor outcomes for racial/ethnic groups. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Institutional Variation in the Promotion of Racial/Ethnic Minority Faculty at US Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarleglio, Maria M.; Sandoval-Schaefer, Teresa; Elumn, Johanna; Castillo-Page, Laura; Peduzzi, Peter; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We compared faculty promotion rates by race/ethnicity across US academic medical centers. Methods. We used the Association of American Medical College's 1983 through 2000 faculty roster data to estimate median institution-specific promotion rates for assistant professor to associate professor and for associate professor to full professor. In unadjusted analyses, we compared medians for Hispanic and Black with White faculty using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. We compared institution-specific promotion rates between racial/ethnic groups with data stratified by institutional characteristic (institution size, proportion racial/ethnic minority faculty, and proportion women faculty) using the χ2 test. Our sample included 128 academic medical centers and 88 432 unique faculty. Results. The median institution-specific promotion rates for White, Hispanic, and Black faculty, respectively, were 30.2%, 23.5%, and 18.8% (P climates that support the successful development of racial/ethnic minority trainees, ultimately improving healthcare access and quality for all patients. PMID:22420820

  6. Racial and Ethnic Composition of Cancer Clinical Drug Trials: How Diverse Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Leslie J; Schutzman, Jennifer L

    2018-02-01

    Many approved drugs demonstrate different pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and/or safety across racial and ethnic groups. The primary objective of the current study was to summarize the racial and ethnic makeup of cancer clinical drug trials using cancer drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) between January 1, 2010, and July 31, 2016. In clinical studies used for FDA approvals, 82.3% of participants identified as white, 10.2% as Asian, 2.3% as black, and 4.7% as Hispanic. Black participants made up 7.7% of U.S. and Canadian cancer clinical drug trials and 2.6% of global cancer clinical drug trials while Asian participants made up 13.5% of global cancer clinical drug trials but only 1.8% of U.S. and Canadian cancer clinical drug trials. The current study indicates that although cancer clinical drug trials have become more inclusive of Asian participants, other racial and ethnic minority groups remain under-represented. This may result in an inadequate understanding of drug safety and efficacy in many racial and ethnic populations. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  7. Racial and ethnic disparities in children's oral health: the National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Thomas; Culler, Corinna; Garcia, Raul I; Henshaw, Michelle M

    2008-11-01

    The authors evaluated racial/ethnic differences and their socioeconomic determinants in the oral health status of U.S. children, as reported by parents. The authors used interview data from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, a large representative survey of U.S. children. They calculated weighted, nationally representative prevalence estimates for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, and they used logistic regression to explore the association between parents' reports of fair or poor oral health and various socioeconomic determinants of oral health. The results showed significant racial/ethnic differences in parental reports of fair or poor oral health, with prevalences of 6.5 percent for non-Hispanic whites, 12.0 percent for non-Hispanic blacks and 23.4 percent for Hispanics. Although adjustments for family socioeconomic status (poverty level and education) partially explained these racial/ethnic disparities, Hispanics still were twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to report their children's oral health as fair or poor, independent of socioeconomic status. The authors did find differences in preventive-care attitudes among groups. However, in multivariate models, such differences did not explain the disparities. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in parental reports of their children's oral health, with Hispanics being the most disadvantaged group. Disparities appear to exist independent of preventive-care attitudes and socioeconomic status.

  8. Race/ethnicity, substance abuse, and mental illness among suicide victims in 13 US states: 2004 data from the National Violent Death Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, D L; Barker, L; Strine, T W

    2006-12-01

    To calculate the prevalence of substance abuse and mental illness among suicide victims of different racial/ethnic groups and to identify race/ethnicity trends in mental health and substance abuse that may be used to improve suicide prevention. Data are from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based data integration system that, for 2004, includes data from 13 US states. The NVDRS integrates medical examiner, toxicology, death certificate, and law enforcement data. Within participating states, for data year 2004, 6865 suicide incidents in which race/ethnicity are known were identified. This included 5797 (84.4%) non-Hispanic whites, 501 (7.3%) non-Hispanic blacks, 257 (3.7%) Hispanics, and 310 (4.5%) persons from other racial/ethnic groups. At the time of the suicide event, non-Hispanic blacks had lower blood alcohol contents than other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had less cocaine but more antidepressants and opiates. There were no differences in the levels of amphetamines or marijuana by race/ethnicity. Hispanics were less likely to have been diagnosed with a mental illness or to have received treatment, although family reports of depression were comparable to non-Hispanic whites and other racial/ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to be diagnosed with depression or bipolar disorder and non-Hispanic blacks with schizophrenia. Comorbid substance abuse and mental health problems were more likely among non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks, while Hispanics were more likely to have a substance abuse problem without comorbid mental health problems. The results support earlier research documenting differences in race/ethnicity, substance abuse, and mental health problems as they relate to completed suicide. The data suggest that suicide prevention efforts must address not only substance abuse and mental health problems in general, but the unique personal, family, and social characteristics of different racial/ethnic groups.

  9. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  10. Food insecurity and adult overweight/obesity: Gender and race/ethnic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C; Reesor, Layton M; Murillo, Rosenda

    2017-10-01

    The majority of the food insecurity-obesity research has indicated a positive association among women, especially minority women. Less research has been conducted on men, and the findings are inconsistent. The aim was to assess whether gender and race/ethnic disparities exists between the food insecurity and overweight/obesity relationship among adults ages 18-59. We used the cross-sectional 2011 and 2012 National Health Interview Survey data (N = 19,990). Three or more affirmative responses on the 10-item USDA Food Security Scale indicated food insecure experiences. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate body mass index according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression models were stratified by gender and race/ethnicity to estimate the association between food insecurity and overweight/obesity controlling for several demographic characteristics. Adults on average were 36 years of age (51% female; 56% white, 27% Hispanic, and 17% black), 27% were food insecure, and 65% were overweight/obese. Food insecurity was most prevalent among blacks and Hispanics, regardless of gender. A greater percentage of food insecure women were overweight/obese compared to food secure women among all race/ethnicity groups; while similar proportions of white, black, and Hispanic men were overweight/obese irrespective of their food security status. In covariate-adjusted models, food insecurity was associated with a 41% and 29% higher odds of being overweight/obese among white and Hispanic women, respectively. Food insecurity was not related to overweight/obesity among black women nor among white, black, and Hispanic men. The complex relationship between food insecurity and obesity suggests a need to investigate potential behavioral and physiological mechanisms, and moderators of this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Insurance status and cancer treatment mediate the association between race/ethnicity and cervical cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C; Tang, Tianyu; Cronin, Angel M; Katz, Ingrid T; Howitt, Brooke E; Horowitz, Neil S; Lee, Larissa J; Wright, Alexi A

    2018-01-01

    Cervical cancer outcomes remain poor among disadvantaged populations, including ethnic minorities, low-income, and underinsured women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms that underlie the observed association between race/ethnicity and cervical cancer survival. We identified 13,698 women, ages 21 to 64 years, diagnosed with stages I-III primary cervical cancer between 2007-2013 in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models evaluated associations between race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Other) and cervical cancer-specific mortality. We conducted mediation analysis to calculate the mediation proportion and its 95% confidence interval. Non-Hispanic black women had an increased risk of cervical cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.39), and Hispanic women a decreased risk of dying from their disease (HR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.93), compared with non-Hispanic white. The estimated proportion of excess cervical cancer mortality for non-Hispanic black women relative to non-Hispanic white women that was mediated by insurance was 18.6% and by treatment was 47.2%. Furthermore, non-Hispanic black women were more likely to receive radiation and less likely to receive surgery for early-stage disease. In this population-based study we found that some of the excess cervical cancer-specific mortality for non-Hispanic black women is mediated by factors such as insurance status and treatment. These findings suggest that enhancing existing insurance coverage and ensuring equal and adequate treatment in all women may be a key strategy for improving cervical cancer outcomes.

  12. Autism spectrum disorders and race, ethnicity, and nativity: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Tracy A; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Heck, Julia E; Olsen, Jorn; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Jeste, Shafali S; Rodriguez, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2014-07-01

    Our understanding of the influence of maternal race/ethnicity and nativity and childhood autistic disorder (AD) in African Americans/blacks, Asians, and Hispanics in the United States is limited. Phenotypic differences in the presentation of childhood AD in minority groups may indicate etiologic heterogeneity or different thresholds for diagnosis. We investigated whether the risk of developing AD and AD phenotypes differed according to maternal race/ethnicity and nativity. Children born in Los Angeles County with a primary AD diagnosis at ages 3 to 5 years during 1998-2009 were identified and linked to 1995-2006 California birth certificates (7540 children with AD from a cohort of 1,626,354 births). We identified a subgroup of children with AD and a secondary diagnosis of mental retardation and investigated heterogeneity in language and behavior. We found increased risks of being diagnosed with AD overall and specifically with comorbid mental retardation in children of foreign-born mothers who were black, Central/South American, Filipino, and Vietnamese, as well as among US-born Hispanic and African American/black mothers, compared with US-born whites. Children of US African American/black and foreign-born black, foreign-born Central/South American, and US-born Hispanic mothers were at higher risk of exhibiting an AD phenotype with both severe emotional outbursts and impaired expressive language than children of US-born whites. Maternal race/ethnicity and nativity are associated with offspring's AD diagnosis and severity. Future studies need to examine factors related to nativity and migration that may play a role in the etiology as well as identification and diagnosis of AD in children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Focusing "down low": bisexual black men, HIV risk and heterosexual transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Gregorio; Malebranche, David; Mason, Byron; Spikes, Pilgrim

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Black men who have sex with men (MSM) and women but who do not identify as gay or disclose their bisexual activities to main female partners, also known as men "on the down-low," have been cited as the main reason for the increase in HIV infections in black women. METHODS: Three online databases (PsychInfo, MEDLINE and AIDSLINE) were searched for scientific articles related to men on the down-low. A total of 24 articles and two conference abstracts were selected for review. RESULTS: Data from existing studies of MSM reveal low agreement between professed sexual identity and corresponding sexual behavior among black and other MSM; show that black MSM are more likely than MSM of other racial or ethnic groups to be bisexually active or identified; and, compared with white MSM, are less likely to disclose their bisexual or homosexual activities to others. However, black MSM who do not disclose their homosexual or bisexual activities engage in a lower prevalence of HIV risks than black MSM who do disclose; and black men who are currently bisexually active account for a very small proportion of the overall population of black men (2%). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of HIV in the black community and the greater likelihood of bisexuality among black men place heterosexual black women at risk for HIV infection. However, the contribution of high-risk heterosexual black men to the rising HIV caseload among black women has been largely ignored. Future research must evaluate the relative contributions of bisexual men and exclusively heterosexual black men to HIV cases among black women. PMID:16080458

  14. Measuring eating concerns in Black and White adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Barton, Bruce A; Schumann, Barbara C; Garner, David M; Daniels, Stephen R; Schreiber, George B; Crawford, Patricia B

    2004-03-01

    Few instruments exist to measure eating concerns in adolescent girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds. A Children's version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-C) has been under development for several years and was designed to be more appropriate for younger children with lower reading levels. However, little is known about the validity of this instrument. The current study reports on the factor structure of an early version of the EDI-C using nonclinical samples of 1,073 White and 1,155 Black girls (ages 11-12). Factor analysis resulted in an eight-factor solution for each group that included a weight concerns factor and an emotional distress factor. For Black girls only, the positively worded items from the Body Dissatisfaction subscale loaded on a separate factor. Four of five factors were similar to the original EDI subscales (Bulimia, Interpersonal Distrust, Maturity Fears, and Perfectionism), although the latter was unique to White girls. The factor structure was generally similar for Black and White girls, although the separate body satisfaction factor and lack of shared variance for the perfectionism factor for Black girls suggest that EDI data obtained from ethnic minority samples may need to be interpreted cautiously. Copyright 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 35: 179-189, 2004.

  15. Race and Ethnicity, Religion Involvement, Church-based Social Support and Subjective Health in United States: A Case of Moderated Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2013-01-01

    Background: To test if social support and ethnicity mediate/moderate the association between religion involvement and subjective health in the United States. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of National Survey of American Life, 2003. Hierarchical regression was fit to a national household probability sample of adult African Americans (n = 3570), Caribbean Blacks (n = 1621), and Whites (n = 891). Frequency of church attendance, positive/negative church-based social support, ethnicity, and subjective health (overall life satisfaction and self-rated mental health) were considered as predictor, mediator, moderator and outcome, respectively. Results: Frequency of church attendance had a significant and positive association with mental health and life satisfaction among all ethnic groups. Frequency of church attendance was also correlated with positive and negative social support among all ethnic groups. Church-based social support fully mediated the association between frequency of church attendance and overall life satisfaction among African Americans but not among Caribbean Blacks, or Whites. Church-based social support, however, partially mediated the association between frequency of church attendance and overall mental health among African Americans but not among Caribbean Blacks or Whites. Conclusion: Ethnicity shapes how church-based social support mediates the association between religious involvement and subjective health. Our results showed a moderating mediation effect of ethnicity and social support on the religious involvement-subjective health linkage, in a way that it is only among African Americans that social support is a pathway for the beneficial health effect of religious involvement. PMID:23543791

  16. Race and Ethnicity, Religion Involvement, Church-based Social Support and Subjective Health in United States: A Case of Moderated Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2013-02-01

    To test if social support and ethnicity mediate/moderate the association between religion involvement and subjective health in the United States. This is a secondary analysis of National Survey of American Life, 2003. Hierarchical regression was fit to a national household probability sample of adult African Americans (n = 3570), Caribbean Blacks (n = 1621), and Whites (n = 891). Frequency of church attendance, positive/negative church-based social support, ethnicity, and subjective health (overall life satisfaction and self-rated mental health) were considered as predictor, mediator, moderator and outcome, respectively. Frequency of church attendance had a significant and positive association with mental health and life satisfaction among all ethnic groups. Frequency of church attendance was also correlated with positive and negative social support among all ethnic groups. Church-based social support fully mediated the association between frequency of church attendance and overall life satisfaction among African Americans but not among Caribbean Blacks, or Whites. Church-based social support, however, partially mediated the association between frequency of church attendance and overall mental health among African Americans but not among Caribbean Blacks or Whites. Ethnicity shapes how church-based social support mediates the association between religious involvement and subjective health. Our results showed a moderating mediation effect of ethnicity and social support on the religious involvement-subjective health linkage, in a way that it is only among African Americans that social support is a pathway for the beneficial health effect of religious involvement.

  17. Ethnic Diversity in Materials Science and Engineering. A report on the workshop on ethnic diversity in materials science and engineering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Justin

    2014-06-30

    The immediate goal of the workshop was to elevate and identify issues and challenges that have impeded participation of diverse individuals in MSE. The longerterm goals are to continue forward by gathering and disseminating data, launching and tracking initiatives to mitigate the impediments, and increase the number of diverse individuals pursuing degrees and careers in MSE. The larger goal, however, is to create over time an ever-increasing number of role models in science fields who will, in turn, draw others in to contribute to the workforce of the future.

  18. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Equity Patterns in Illinois High School Career and Technical Education Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Asia Fuller; Malin, Joel; Hackmann, Donald

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed high school Career and Technical Education (CTE) enrollments in Illinois, with comparisons to national data when possible, by career cluster and pathway and with respect to gender and racial/ethnic makeup of students. Enrollment patterns in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) CTE programming were emphasized.…

  19. Choosing the Geoscience Major: Important Factors, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Philip J.; Levine, Roger; Flessa, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    Geoscience faces dual recruiting challenges: a pending workforce shortage and a lack of diversity. Already suffering from low visibility, geoscience does not resemble the makeup of the general population in terms of either race/ethnicity or gender and is among the least diverse of all science, technology, engineering, and math fields in the U.S.…

  20. Black Hole Accretion in Gamma Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Janiuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure and evolution of the hyperaccreting disks and outflows in the gamma ray bursts central engines. The torus around a stellar mass black hole is composed of free nucleons, Helium, electron-positron pairs, and is cooled by neutrino emission. Accretion of matter powers the relativistic jets, responsible for the gamma ray prompt emission. The significant number density of neutrons in the disk and outflowing material will cause subsequent formation of heavier nuclei. We study the process of nucleosynthesis and its possible observational consequences. We also apply our scenario to the recent observation of the gravitational wave signal, detected on 14 September 2015 by the two Advanced LIGO detectors, and related to an inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. A gamma ray burst that could possibly be related with the GW150914 event was observed by the Fermi satellite. It had a duration of about 1 s and appeared about 0.4 s after the gravitational-wave signal. We propose that a collapsing massive star and a black hole in a close binary could lead to the event. The gamma ray burst was powered by a weak neutrino flux produced in the star remnant’s matter. Low spin and kick velocity of the merged black hole are reproduced in our simulations. Coincident gravitational-wave emission originates from the merger of the collapsed core and the companion black hole.

  1. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  2. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  3. Black hole candidates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Black hole candidates. In the case of X-ray sources such as Cyg X-1, the mass of the compact object inferred from combined optical and X-ray data, suggest M_compact object > 3.4 M_sun => Black Hole! A remarkable discovery!! Thus X-ray emitting binary systems ...

  4. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  5. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  6. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  7. Protecting Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  8. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of ...

  9. Black Boycott: Gainsville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arthur O.

    1975-01-01

    A case study of the events precipitating a black student boycott in 1969 in Gainesville, Flordia, when school board manuevering to avoid school integration led to the threatened closing of Lincoln High School, a reputable black community school. Also described are the subsequent transformations of Lincoln into a vocational-technical school and…

  10. Neoliberalism and Black Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, John Martin

    1986-01-01

    In contrast to traditional liberals, neoliberals share a commitment to greater economic risk-taking, support for entrepreneurism, a new industrial policy, and a different Federal Role. While New Deal and Great Society liberalism may have been more favorable to blacks, perhaps more balanced and equitable policies for blacks could be developed if…

  11. Satisfaction with inpatient treatment for first-episode psychosis among different ethnic groups: A report from the UK AeSOP study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boydell, Jane

    2010-09-17

    BACKGROUND: There is concern about the level of satisfaction with mental healthcare among minority ethnic patients in the UK, particularly as black patients have more compulsory admissions to hospital. AIMS: To determine and compare levels of satisfaction with mental healthcare between patients from different ethnic groups in a three-centre study of first-onset psychosis. METHOD: Data were collected from 216 patients with first-episode psychosis and 101 caregivers from South London, Nottingham and Bristol, using the Acute Services Study Questionnaire (Patient and Relative Version) and measures of sociodemographic variables and insight. RESULTS: No differences were found between ethnic groups in most domains of satisfaction tested individually, including items relating to treatment by ward staff and number of domains rated as satisfactory. However, logistic regression modelling (adjusting for age, gender, social class, diagnostic category and compulsion) showed that black Caribbean patients did not believe that they were receiving the right treatment and were less satisfied with medication than white patients. Black African patients were less satisfied with non-pharmacological treatments than white patients. These findings were not explained by lack of insight or compulsory treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that black patients were less satisfied with specific aspects of treatment, particularly medication, but were equally satisfied with nursing and social care. Understanding the reasons behind this may improve the acceptability of psychiatric care to black minority ethnic groups.

  12. Black Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials in Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanomaterials are widely considered to be state-of-the-art photocatalysts for environmental protection and energy conversion. However, the low photocatalytic efficiency caused by large bandgap and rapid recombination of photo-excited electrons and holes is a challenging issue that needs to be settled for their practical applications. Structure engineering has been demonstrated to be a highly promising approach to engineer the optical and electronic properties of the existing materials or even endow them with unexpected properties. Surface structure engineering has witnessed the breakthrough in increasing the photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 nanomaterials by creating a defect-rich or amorphous surface layer with black color and extension of optical absorption to the whole visible spectrum, along with markedly enhanced photocatalytic activities. In this review, the recent progress in the development of black TiO2 nanomaterials is reviewed to gain a better understanding of the structure-property relationship with the consideration of preparation methods and to project new insights into the future development of black TiO2 nanomaterials in photocatalytic applications.

  13. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. © 2013.

  14. Depressive Symptoms Predict Major Depressive Disorder after 15 Years among Whites but Not Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Black-White differences are shown in psychosocial and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD). The current longitudinal study compared Blacks and Whites for the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent risk of MDD after 15 years. Data were obtained from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study that included 3,361 individuals (2,205 Whites and 1,156 Blacks) from 1986 to 2001. Baseline depressive symptoms measured using an 11-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) in 1986 were predictors. The outcome of 12-month MDD was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in 2001. Covariates such as baseline socio-demographics (SES), financial difficulty, chronic medical conditions (CMC), and self-rated health (SRH) were measured in 1986. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between baseline CES-D score and CIDI-based MDD after 15 years net of demographics, SES, CMC, and SRH. The models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as in Blacks and Whites. Data on reliability and factor structure of CES-D based on ethnicity were also reported. In the pooled sample, we found an interaction between race and baseline depressive symptoms, suggesting a stronger effect of baseline depressive symptoms on the subsequent risk of MDD for Whites compared with that of Blacks. Such an interaction was significant net of socioeconomic and health status. Based on our ethnic-specific models, among Whites but not Blacks, baseline CES-D score was predictive of the subsequent risk of MDD after 15 years, net of SES and health at baseline. Black-White differences in the predictive role of CES-D scores on MDD could not be attributed to the ethnic differences in the reliability of the CES-D, which was even higher for Blacks compared with those of Whites. Loadings of the CES-D positive affect items were reverse among Blacks compared to Whites. Black

  15. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  16. Legitimizing Blacks in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameliah Shorter-Bourhanou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.

  17. Comparing Black, Hispanic, and White Mothers with a National Standard of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Robert D.; Strom, Paris S.; Beckert, Troy E.

    2008-01-01

    Black, Hispanic, and White mothers (N = 739) and adolescents (N = 806) completed a Parent Success Indicator to assess maternal behavior related to Communication, Use of Time, Teaching, Frustration, Satisfaction, and Information Needs. Comparisons between each ethnic group and a previously established national parenting standard revealed that both…

  18. Variant Branching of the Common Femoral Artery in a Black Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Branching pattern of common femoral artery is important during artery catheterization, orthopaedic, plastic and general surgery in the proximal thigh. Frequency of variant branching shows ethnic variation but there are no data for black African populations. Since atherosclerotic diseases are increasing and femoral artery ...

  19. Job Attitudes of Black and White Workers: Male Blue-Collar Workers in Six Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzell, Raymond A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A 74-item attitude questionnaire was administered in six companies to 101 black and 87 white male blue-collar employees holding similar jobs in the same company. Differences between the two ethnic groups were not marked, both in terms of job satisfaction and in other respects. (Author)

  20. Are Black-White Differences in Females' Body Dissatisfaction Decreasing? A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Alan; Cash, Thomas F.; Feingold, Alan; Johnson, Blair T.

    2006-01-01

    Proponents of the sociocultural model of eating disorders have suggested that ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction may be diminishing as the thin ideal of beauty becomes more widely disseminated among minority women. In a meta-analysis, the authors examined temporal trends in Black-White differences and also examined whether these…