WorldWideScience

Sample records for black dwarf stars

  1. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  2. Black Holes, Neutron Stars and White Dwarf Candidates from Microlensing with OGLE-III

    CERN Document Server

    Wyrzykowski, L; Skowron, J; Rybicki, K A; Mroz, P; Kozlowski, S; Udalski, A; Szymanski, M K; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Ulaczyk, K; Pietrukowicz, P; Poleski, R; Pawlak, M; Ilkiewicz, K; Rattenbury, N J

    2015-01-01

    Most stellar remnants so far have been found in binary systems, where they interact with matter from their companions. Isolated neutron stars and black holes are difficult to find as they are dark, yet they are predicted to exist in our Galaxy in vast numbers. We explored the OGLE-III database of 150 million objects observed in years 2001-2009 and found 59 microlensing events exhibiting a parallax effect due to the Earth's motion around the Sun. Combining parallax and brightness measurements from microlensing light curves with expected proper motions in the Milky Way, we identified 15 microlensing events which are consistent with having a white dwarf, neutron star or a black hole lens and we estimated their masses and distances. The most massive of our black hole candidates has 8.3 M_Sun and is at a distance of 2.4 kpc. The distribution of masses of our candidates indicates a continuum in mass distribution with no mass gap between neutron stars and black holes. We also present predictions on how such events w...

  3. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  4. The evolution of iron white dwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Panei

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent measurements by Hipparcos provide strong observational evidence supporting the existence of white dwarf stars with iron-rich core composition. Here we examine the evolution of iron-rich white dwarfs, for which the cooling is substancially accelerated as compared with the standard carbon-oxigen white dwarfs.

  5. Stars at Low Metallicity in Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Cole, Andrew; Hunt, LK; Madden, S; Schneider, R

    2008-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies offer an opportunity to understand the properties of low metallicity star formation both today and at the earliest times at the, epoch of the formation of the first stars. Here we concentrate on two galaxies in the Local Group: the dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A, which has been the rece

  6. A radio pulsing white dwarf binary star

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, T R; Hümmerich, S; Hambsch, F -J; Bernhard, K; Lloyd, C; Breedt, E; Stanway, E R; Steeghs, D T; Parsons, S G; Toloza, O; Schreiber, M R; Jonker, P G; van Roestel, J; Kupfer, T; Pala, A F; Dhillon, V S; Hardy, L K; Littlefair, S P; Aungwerojwit, A; Arjyotha, S; Koester, D; Bochinski, J J; Haswell, C A; Frank, P; Wheatley, P J

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs are compact stars, similar in size to Earth but ~200,000 times more massive. Isolated white dwarfs emit most of their power from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, but when in close orbits with less dense stars, white dwarfs can strip material from their companions, and the resulting mass transfer can generate atomic line and X-ray emission, as well as near- and mid-infrared radiation if the white dwarf is magnetic. However, even in binaries, white dwarfs are rarely detected at far-infrared or radio frequencies. Here we report the discovery of a white dwarf / cool star binary that emits from X-ray to radio wavelengths. The star, AR Scorpii (henceforth AR Sco), was classified in the early 1970s as a delta-Scuti star, a common variety of periodic variable star. Our observations reveal instead a 3.56 hr period close binary, pulsing in brightness on a period of 1.97 min. The pulses are so intense that AR Sco's optical flux can increase by a factor of four within 30 s, and they are detectable a...

  7. New Light on Dark Stars Red Dwarfs, Low-Mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I. Neill

    2005-01-01

    There has been very considerable progress in research into low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets during the past few years, particularly since the fist edtion of this book was published in 2000. In this new edtion the authors present a comprehensive review of both the astrophysical nature of individual red dwarf and brown dwarf stars and their collective statistical properties as an important Galactic stellar population. Chapters dealing with the observational properies of low-mass dwarfs, the stellar mass function and extrasolar planets have been completely revised. Other chapters have been significantly revised and updated as appropriate, including important new material on observational techniques, stellar acivity, the Galactic halo and field star surveys. The authors detail the many discoveries of new brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets made since publication of the first edition of the book and provide a state-of-the-art review of our current knowledge of very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs a...

  8. Blue straggler stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.; Tolstoy, E.; Sigurdsson, S.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.

    2007-01-01

    Blue straggler star (BSS) candidates have been observed in all old dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), however whether or not they are authentic BSSs or young stars has been a point of debate. To both address this issue and obtain a better understanding of the formation of BSSs in different environme

  9. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  10. Pulsating White Dwarf Stars and Precision Asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Winget, D E

    2008-01-01

    Galactic history is written in the white dwarf stars. Their surface properties hint at interiors composed of matter under extreme conditions. In the forty years since their discovery, pulsating white dwarf stars have moved from side-show curiosities to center stage as important tools for unraveling the deep mysteries of the Universe. Innovative observational techniques and theoretical modeling tools have breathed life into precision asteroseismology. We are just learning to use this powerful tool, confronting theoretical models with observed frequencies and their time rate-of-change. With this tool, we calibrate white dwarf cosmochronology; we explore equations of state; we measure stellar masses, rotation rates, and nuclear reaction rates; we explore the physics of interior crystallization; we study the structure of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae, and we test models of dark matter. The white dwarf pulsations are at once the heartbeat of galactic history and a window into unexplored and exotic physics.

  11. Pulsating White Dwarf Stars and Precision Asteroseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, D. E.; Kepler, S. O.

    2008-09-01

    Galactic history is written in the white dwarf stars. Their surface properties hint at interiors composed of matter under extreme conditions. In the forty years since their discovery, pulsating white dwarf stars have moved from side-show curiosities to center stage as important tools for unraveling the deep mysteries of the Universe. Innovative observational techniques and theoretical modeling tools have breathed life into precision asteroseismology. We are just learning to use this powerful tool, confronting theoretical models with observed frequencies and their time rate-of-change. With this tool, we calibrate white dwarf cosmochronology; we explore equations of state; we measure stellar masses, rotation rates, and nuclear reaction rates; we explore the physics of interior crystallization; we study the structure of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae, and we test models of dark matter. The white dwarf pulsations are at once the heartbeat of galactic history and a window into unexplored and exotic physics.

  12. Star formation history in forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczik, P.; Kravchuk, S. G.

    The processes of formation and evolution of isolated dwarf galaxies over the Hubble timescale is followed by means of SPH techniques. As an initial protogalaxy perturbation we consider an isolated, uniform, solid -- body rotated sphere involved into the Hubble flow and made of dark and baryonic matter in a 10:1 ratio. The simulations are carried out for the set of models having spin parameters lambda in the range from 0.01 to 0.08 and the total mass of dark matter 1011 M_odot . Our model includes gasdynamics, radiative processes, star formation, supernova feedback and simplified chemistry. The application of modified star formation criterion which accounts for chaotic motions and the time lag between initial development of suitable conditions for star formation and star formation itself (Berczik P.P, Kravchuk S.G. 1997, Ap.Sp.Sci.) provides the realistic description of the process of galaxy formation and evolution. Two parameters: total mass and initial angular momentum of the dwarf protogalaxy play the crucial role in its star formation activity. After the 15 Gyr of the evolution the rapidly rotated dwarf galaxies manifest themselves as an extremly gasrich, heavy element deficient objects showing the initial burst of star formation activity in several spatially separated regions. Slowly rotating objects manifest themselves finally as typical evolved dwarf galaxies.

  13. Massive Star Clusters in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Soeren S

    2015-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies can have very high globular cluster specific frequencies, and the GCs are in general significantly more metal-poor than the bulk of the field stars. In some dwarfs, such as Fornax, WLM, and IKN, the fraction of metal-poor stars that belong to GCs can be as high as 20%-25%, an order of magnitude higher than the 1%-2% typical of GCs in halos of larger galaxies. Given that chemical abundance anomalies appear to be present also in GCs in dwarf galaxies, this implies severe difficulties for self-enrichment scenarios that require GCs to have lost a large fraction of their initial masses. More generally, the number of metal-poor field stars in these galaxies is today less than what would originally have been present in the form of low-mass clusters if the initial cluster mass function was a power-law extending down to low masses. This may imply that the initial GC mass function in these dwarf galaxies was significantly more top-heavy than typically observed in present-day star forming environments.

  14. Hypervelocity Star Candidates in the SEGUE G & K Dwarf Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Palladino, Lauren E; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Beers, Timothy C; Lee, Young Sun; Schneider, Donald P

    2013-01-01

    We identify 13 candidate hypervelocity stars from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) G and K dwarf samples. Previous searches for hypervelocity stars have only focused on large radial velocities; in this study we also use proper motions to select the candidates. We determine the hypervelocity likelihood of each candidate, considering the significant errors often associated with high proper motion stars via Monte Carlo simulations. We find that more than half of the candidates exceed their escape velocities with at least 90% probability. All of our candidates also have less than a 60% chance of being a high velocity fluke within the SEGUE sample. Based on orbits calculated using the observed 6-d positions and velocities, few, if any, of these candidates originate from the Galactic Center. If these candidates are truly hypervelocity stars, they were not ejected by interactions with the Milky Way's supermassive black hole. This calls for a more serious examination of alternati...

  15. Magnetic White Dwarf Stars in the SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Jordan, Stefan; Kleinman, Scot J; Kulebi, Baybars; Koester, Detlev; Peçanha, Viviane; Castanheira, Bárbara G; Nitta, Atsuko; Costa, José Eduardo da Silveira; Winget, Don Earl; Kanaan, Antonio; Fraga, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    To obtain a better statistics on the occurrence of magnetism among white dwarfs, we searched the spectra of the hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) in the Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for Zeeman splittings and estimated the magnetic fields. We found 521 DAs with detectable Zeeman splittings, with fields in the range from around 1 MG to 733 MG, which amounts to 4% of all DAs observed. As the SDSS spectra have low signal-to-noise ratios, we carefully investigated by simulations with theoretical spectra how reliable our detection of magnetic field was.

  16. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  17. Hunting for Infrared Signatures of Supermassive Black Hole Activity in Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Kevin; Reines, Amy; Greene, Jenny; Stern, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In order to explore the origin of the relationship between the growth of a galaxy and its central supermassive black hole, evidence must be found for black holes in galaxies at a wide range in masses. Searching for supermassive black holes in dwarf galaxies is especially important as these objects have less complicated merger histories, and they may host black holes that are similar to early proposed ``seed'' black holes. However, this selection is complicated by the fact that star formation in these dwarf galaxies can often mask the optical signatures of supermassive black hole growth and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in these objects. The all-sky infrared coverage offered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has been used to great success to select AGNs in more massive galaxies, but great care must be used when using infrared selection techniques on samples of dwarf galaxies. In particular, compact, highly star-forming dwarf galaxies can have infrared colors that may lead them to be erroneously selected as AGNs. In this talk, I will discuss recent work exploring infrared selection of AGN candidates in dwarf galaxies, and present a set of potential IR dwarf-galaxy AGN candidates. I will also outline the importance in these results with respect to future selection of AGNs in low-metallicity galaxies at high-redshift.

  18. Unlocking the secrets of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Van Horn, Hugh M

    2015-01-01

    White dwarfs, each containing about as much mass as our Sun but packed into a volume about the size of Earth, are the endpoints of evolution for most stars. Thousands of these faint objects have now been discovered, though only a century ago only three were known. They are among the most common stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, and they have become important tools in understanding the universe. Yet a century ago only three white dwarfs were known.   The existence of these stars completely baffled the scientists of the day, and solving the mysteries of these strange objects required revolutionary advances in science and technology, including the development of quantum physics, the construction and utilization of large telescopes, the invention of the digital computer, and the ability to make astronomical observations from space.   This book tells the story of the growth in our understanding of white dwarf stars, set within the context of the relevant scientific and technological advances. Part popular science, ...

  19. Charged Condensate and Helium Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gabadadze, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    White dwarf stars composed of carbon, oxygen or heavier elements are expected to crystallize as they cool down below certain temperatures. Yet, simple arguments suggest that the helium white dwarf cores may not solidify, mostly because of zero-point oscillations of the helium ions that would dissolve the crystalline structure. We argue that the interior of the helium dwarfs may instead form a macroscopic quantum state in which the charged helium-4 nuclei are in a Bose-Einstein condensate, while the relativistic electrons form a neutralizing degenerate Fermi liquid. We discuss the electric charge screening, and the spectrum of this substance, showing that the bosonic long-wavelength fluctuations exhibit a mass gap. Hence, there is a suppression at low temperatures of the boson contribution to the specific heat -- the latter being dominated by the specific heat of the electrons near the Fermi surface. This state of matter may have observational signatures.

  20. Lessons for Asteroseismology from White Dwarf Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Travis S. Metcalfe

    2005-06-01

    The interpretation of pulsation data for sun-like stars is currently facing challenges quite similar to those faced by white dwarf modelers ten years ago. The observational requirements for uninterrupted long-term monitoring are beginning to be satisfied by successful multi-site campaigns and dedicated satellite missions. But exploration of the most important physical parameters in theoretical models has been fairly limited, making it difficult to establish a detailed best-fit model for a particular set of oscillation frequencies. I review the past development and the current state of white dwarf asteroseismology, with an emphasis on what this can tell us about the road to success for asteroseismology of other types of stars.

  1. Asteroseismology of DAV White Dwarf Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Paul A.

    1997-12-31

    The author reviews the seismological structural determinations of ZZ Ceti stars done to date, and supplement these with additional preliminary determinations of his own. He compares the constraints on the hydrogen layer mass to see what trends emerge and also determines if the observed hydrogen layer masses are consistent with proposed theories. He then looks ahead to the prospects of further DAV white dwarf seismology.

  2. Star formation in proto dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Bodenheimer, P.; Lin, D. N. C.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of the onset of star formation on the residual gas in primordial low-mass Local-Group dwarf spheroidal galaxies is studied by a series of hydrodynamical simulations. The models have concentrated on the effect of photoionization. The results indicate that photoionization in the presence of a moderate gas density gradient can eject most of the residual gas on a time scale of a few 10 to the 7th power years. High central gas density combined with inefficient star formation, however, may prevent mass ejection. The effect of supernova explosions is discussed briefly.

  3. Gas, Stars and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, S; Giovanelli, R; Brinchmann, J; Stierwalt, S; Neff, S G

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and HI components of 229 low HI mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with HI masses < 10^{7.7} M_sun and HI line widths < 80 km s^{-1}. SDSS data are combined with photometric properties derived from GALEX to derive stellar masses (M_*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs) and estimates of their SFRs and M_* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M_* < 10^8 M_sun is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of t...

  4. M dwarf stars in the light of (future) exoplanet searches

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas-Ayala, B; Mann, A W; Lépine, S; Gaidos, E; Bonfils, X; Helling, Ch; Henry, T J; Rogers, L A; von Braun, K; Youdin, A

    2012-01-01

    We present a brief overview of a splinter session on M dwarf stars as planet hosts that was organized as part of the Cool Stars 17 conference. The session was devoted to reviewing our current knowledge of M dwarf stars and exoplanets in order to prepare for current and future exoplanet searches focusing in low mass stars. We review the observational and theoretical challenges to characterize M dwarf stars and the importance of accurate fundamental parameters for the proper characterization of their exoplanets and our understanding on planet formation.

  5. Evolutionary and pulsational properties of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, Leandro G; Isern, Jordi; a-Berro, Enrique Garcí

    2010-01-01

    Abridged. White dwarf stars are the final evolutionary stage of the vast majority of stars, including our Sun. The study of white dwarfs has potential applications to different fields of astrophysics. In particular, they can be used as independent reliable cosmic clocks, and can also provide valuable information about the fundamental parameters of a wide variety of stellar populations, like our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. In addition, the high densities and temperatures characterizing white dwarfs allow to use these stars as cosmic laboratories for studying physical processes under extreme conditions that cannot be achieved in terrestrial laboratories. They can be used to constrain fundamental properties of elementary particles such as axions and neutrinos, and to study problems related to the variation of fundamental constants. In this work, we review the essentials of the physics of white dwarf stars. Special emphasis is placed on the physical processes that lead to the formation of white dwarfs ...

  6. Accretion phenomena in nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, F.; Tosi, M.; Aloisi, A.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Cignoni, M.; Ciotti, L.; Cusano, F.; Nipoti, C.; Sacchi, E.; Paris, D.; Romano, D.

    2017-03-01

    We present two pilot studies for the search and characterization of accretion events in star-forming dwarf galaxies. Our strategy consists of two complementary approaches: i) the direct search for stellar substructures around dwarf galaxies through deep wide-field imaging, and ii) the characterization of the chemical properties in these systems up to large galacto-centric distances. We show our results for two star-forming dwarf galaxies, the starburst irregular NGC 4449, and the extremely metal-poor dwarf DDO 68.

  7. An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Amy E; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Johnson, Kelsey E; Brogan, Crystal L

    2011-02-03

    Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize 2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize 2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids.

  8. Diffusion of Neon in White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, C J; Schneider, A S; Berry, D K

    2010-01-01

    Sedimentation of the neutron rich isotope $^{22}$Ne may be an important source of gravitational energy during the cooling of white dwarf stars. This depends on the diffusion constant for $^{22}$Ne in strongly coupled plasma mixtures. We calculate self-diffusion constants $D_i$ from molecular dynamics simulations of carbon, oxygen, and neon mixtures. We find that $D_i$ in a mixture does not differ greatly from earlier one component plasma results. For strong coupling (coulomb parameter $\\Gamma>$ few), $D_i$ has a modest dependence on the charge $Z_i$ of the ion species, $D_i \\propto Z_i^{-2/3}$. However $D_i$ depends more strongly on $Z_i$ for weak coupling (smaller $\\Gamma$). We conclude that the self-diffusion constant $D_{\\rm Ne}$ for $^{22}$Ne in carbon, oxygen, and neon plasma mixtures is accurately known so that uncertainties in $D_{\\rm Ne}$ should be unimportant for simulations of white dwarf cooling.

  9. An Extended Star Formation History in an Ultra Compact Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Mark A; Faifer, Favio R; Kannappan, Sheila J; Forte, Juan Carlos; Bosch, Remco C E van den

    2015-01-01

    There has been significant controversy over the mechanisms responsible for forming compact stellar systems like ultra compact dwarfs (UCDs), with suggestions that UCDs are simply the high mass extension of the globular cluster (GC) population, or alternatively, the liberated nuclei of galaxies tidally stripped by larger companions. Definitive examples of UCDs formed by either route have been difficult to find, with only a handful of persuasive examples of stripped-nucleus type UCDs being known. In this paper we present very deep Gemini/GMOS spectroscopic observations of the suspected stripped nucleus UCD NGC 4546-UCD1 taken in good seeing conditions (< 0.7"). With these data we examine the spatially resolved kinematics and star formation history of this unusual object. We find no evidence of a rise in the central velocity dispersion of the UCD, suggesting that this UCD lacks a massive central black hole like those found in some other compact stellar systems, a conclusion confirmed by detailed dynamical mod...

  10. Direct detection of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Ben R.

    This thesis presents the first direct detection of a substellar companion of a star other than the Sun. This object, a brown dwarf called Gliese 229B, presented a unique opportunity to characterize low-temperature brown dwarfs for the first time. The discovery and initial spectrum of Gliese 229B show that the object must be substellar based on its intrinsic luminosity of 6.4×10-6Lsolar and its cool surface temperature, 900 K. Detailed study of Gliese 229B includes extensive photometric measurements from 0.5 to 12 μm, high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopy from 0.84 to 5.0 μm and the detection of 0'' t; yr-1 of orbital motion. These results are presented in Chapters 2 and 3. A detailed review of brown dwarf science leads to a complete and scientifically meaningful definition of the classes ``planet'' and ``brown dwarf''' in Chapter 1. After the discovery of Gliese 229B, which was found in a survey for companions of young stars, we began an extensive search for brown dwarf companions in orbit about all known stars within 8 pc of the Sun and with δ > -35°. The search includes optical coronagraphic and infrared direct imaging of these stars, conducted on the Palomar 60' and 200' telescopes respectively. The search was designed to find companions of each star without color bias. While the search revealed no other brown dwarf companions of these stars, it did uncover 6 new stellar companions. The sensitivity limits of the survey permit the detection of brown dwarfs up to four magnitudes fainter than Gliese 229B around 90% of the stars. The sensitivity is, however, not uniform spatially or from star to star. This limits our ability to make strong statements about the prevalence of brown dwarf companions of nearby stars. The survey does have sensitivity to all stellar companions between 3 and 30' from the survey stars, however. Chapter 5 describes related work on very low-mass stars in the Pleiades star cluster. This optical spectroscopy involved trying to find a

  11. Spectroscopic Analysis of Subluminous B Stars in Binaries - Four Candidate Systems with Neutron Star/Black Hole Companions Discovered

    CERN Document Server

    Geier, S; Edelmann, H; Heber, U; Napiwotzki, R

    2006-01-01

    The masses of compact objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes are fundamental to astrophysics, but very difficult to measure. We present the results of an analysis of subluminous B (sdB) stars in close binary systems with unseen compact companions to derive their masses and clarify their nature. Radial velocity curves were obtained from time resolved spectroscopy. The atmospheric parameters were determined in a quantitative spectral analysis. With high resolution spectra we were able to measure the projected rotational velocity of the stars with high accuracy. The assumption of orbital synchronization made it possible to constrain inclination angle and companion mass of the binaries. Five invisible companions have masses that are compatible with white dwarfs or late type main sequence stars. But four sdBs have very massive companions like heavy white dwarfs, neutron stars or even black holes. Such a high fraction of massive compact companions can not be explained with current models of binary...

  12. Abundances In Very Metal Poor Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, J G; McWilliam, A; Shectman, S; Thompson, I; Wasserburg, G J; Ivans, I I; Dehn, M; Karlsson, T; Melendez, J; Cohen, Judith G.; Christlieb, Norbert; William, Andrew Mc; Shectman, Steve; Thompson, Ian; Ivans, Inese; Dehn, Matthias; Karlsson, Torgny

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the detailed composition of 28 extremely metal-poor dwarfs, 22 of which are from the Hamburg/ESO Survey, based on Keck Echelle spectra. Our sample has a median [Fe/H] of -2.7 dex, extends to -3.5 dex, and is somewhat less metal-poor than was expected from [Fe/H](HK,HES) determined from low resolution spectra. Our analysis supports the existence of a sharp decline in the distribution of halo stars with metallicity below [Fe/H] = -3.0 dex. So far no additional turnoff stars with [Fe/H]}<-3.5 have been identified in our follow up efforts. For the best observed elements between Mg and Ni, we find that the abundance ratios appear to have reached a plateau, i.e. [X/Fe] is approximately constant as a function of [Fe/H], except for Cr, Mn and Co, which show trends of abundance ratios varying with [Fe/H]. These abundance ratios at low metallicity correspond approximately to the yield expected from Type II SN with a narrow range in mass and explosion parameters; high mass Type II SN progenitors are requir...

  13. A radio-pulsing white dwarf binary star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hümmerich, S.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Bernhard, K.; Lloyd, C.; Breedt, E.; Stanway, E. R.; Steeghs, D. T.; Parsons, S. G.; Toloza, O.; Schreiber, M. R.; Jonker, P. G.; van Roestel, J.; Kupfer, T.; Pala, A. F.; Dhillon, V. S.; Hardy, L. K.; Littlefair, S. P.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Arjyotha, S.; Koester, D.; Bochinski, J. J.; Haswell, C. A.; Frank, P.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2016-09-01

    White dwarfs are compact stars, similar in size to Earth but approximately 200,000 times more massive. Isolated white dwarfs emit most of their power from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, but when in close orbits with less dense stars, white dwarfs can strip material from their companions and the resulting mass transfer can generate atomic line and X-ray emission, as well as near- and mid-infrared radiation if the white dwarf is magnetic. However, even in binaries, white dwarfs are rarely detected at far-infrared or radio frequencies. Here we report the discovery of a white dwarf/cool star binary that emits from X-ray to radio wavelengths. The star, AR Scorpii (henceforth AR Sco), was classified in the early 1970s as a δ-Scuti star, a common variety of periodic variable star. Our observations reveal instead a 3.56-hour period close binary, pulsing in brightness on a period of 1.97 minutes. The pulses are so intense that AR Sco’s optical flux can increase by a factor of four within 30 seconds, and they are also detectable at radio frequencies. They reflect the spin of a magnetic white dwarf, which we find to be slowing down on a 107-year timescale. The spin-down power is an order of magnitude larger than that seen in electromagnetic radiation, which, together with an absence of obvious signs of accretion, suggests that AR Sco is primarily spin-powered. Although the pulsations are driven by the white dwarf’s spin, they mainly originate from the cool star. AR Sco’s broadband spectrum is characteristic of synchrotron radiation, requiring relativistic electrons. These must either originate from near the white dwarf or be generated in situ at the M star through direct interaction with the white dwarf’s magnetosphere.

  14. New light on dark stars red dwarfs, low-mass stars, brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I Neill

    2000-01-01

    Perhaps the most common question that a child asks when he or she sees the night sky from a dark site for the first time is: 'How many stars are there?' This happens to be a question which has exercised the intellectual skills of many astronomers over the course of most of the last century, including, for the last two decades, one of the authors of this text. Until recently, the most accurate answer was 'We are not certain, but there is a good chance that almost all of them are M dwarfs. ' Within the last three years, results from new sky-surveys - particularly the first deep surveys at near­ infrared wavelengths - have provided a breakthrough in this subject, solidifying our census of the lowest-mass stars and identifying large numbers of the hitherto almost mythical substellar-mass brown dwarfs. These extremely low-luminosity objects are the central subjects of this book, and the subtitle should be interpreted accordingly. The expression 'low-mass stars' carries a wide range of meanings in the astronomical...

  15. The formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that ~60% of all stars (including brown dwarfs) have masses below 0.2Msun. Currently, there is no consensus on how these objects form. I will briefly review the four main theories for the formation of low-mass objects: turbulent fragmentation, ejection of protostellar embryos, disc fragmentation, and photo-erosion of prestellar cores. I will focus on the disc fragmentation theory and discuss how it addresses critical observational constraints, i.e. the low-mass initial mass function, the brown dwarf desert, and the binary statistics of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. I will examine whether observations may be used to distinguish between different formation mechanisms, and give a few examples of systems that strongly favour a specific formation scenario. Finally, I will argue that it is likely that all mechanisms may play a role in low-mass star and brown dwarf formation.

  16. Bose-Einstein condensation in helium white dwarf stars. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosquera, M.E. [Faculty of Astronomy and Geophysics, University of La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s.n., La Plata (Argentina); Department of Physics, University of La Plata, c.c. 67 1900, La Plata (Argentina); Civitarese, O., E-mail: osvaldo.civitarese@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Department of Physics, University of La Plata, c.c. 67 1900, La Plata (Argentina); Benvenuto, O.G.; De Vito, M.A. [Faculty of Astronomy and Geophysics, University of La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s.n., La Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Astrofisica La Plata, CCT (Argentina)

    2010-01-18

    The formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the interior of helium white dwarfs stars is discussed. Following the proposal made by Gabadadze and Rosen, we have explored the consequences of such a mechanism by calculating the cooling time of the stars. We have found that it is shorter than the value predicted by the standard model.

  17. Central stars of planetary nebulae: The white dwarf connection

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper is focused on the transition phase between central stars and white dwarfs, i.e. objects in the effective temperature range 100,000 - 200,000 K. We confine our review to hydrogen-deficient stars because the common H-rich objects are subject of the paper by Ziegler et al. in these proceedings. We address the claimed iron-deficiency in PG1159 stars and [WC] central stars. The discovery of new Ne VII and Ne VIII lines in PG1159 stars suggests that the identification of O VII and O VIII lines that are used for spectral classification of [WCE] stars is wrong. We then present evidence for two distinct post-AGB evolutionary sequences for H-deficient stars based on abundance analyses of the He-dominated O(He) stars and the hot DO white dwarf KPD0005+5106. Finally, we report on evidence for an H-deficient post-super AGB evolution sequence represented by the hottest known, carbon/oxygen-atmosphere white dwarf H1504+65 and the recently discovered carbon-atmosphere "hot DQ" white dwarfs.

  18. Star Formation and the ISM in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Young, L M; Dohm-Palmer, R C; Lo, K Y

    2000-01-01

    High spatial and spectral resolution observations of the atomic interstellar medium in nearby dwarf galaxies reveal evidence for warm and cold neutral gas, just like the phases in our own Galaxy. The cold or quiescent phase (about 20% of the HI in the galaxies studied, except for LGS 3) seems to be associated with star formation activity--- it may mark the regions where the conditions are right for star formation. These results help to explain the patterns of star formation activity which are seen in color-magnitude data for the dwarf irregulars.

  19. Abundance Survey of M and K Dwarf Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolf, Vincent M. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98133 (United States); Wallerstein, George [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98133 (United States)

    2005-07-25

    We report the measurement of chemical abundances in 35 low-mass main sequence (M and K dwarf) stars. We have measured the abundance of 12 elements in Kapteyn's Star, a nearby halo M subdwarf. The abundances indicate an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.98, which is about 0.5 dex smaller than that measured in the only previous published measurement using atomic absorption lines. We have measured Fe and Ti abundances in 35 M and K dwarfs with -2.39 [Fe/H] +0.21 using atomic absorption lines, mostly in the 8000A <{lambda} < 8850A range. These will be used to calibrate photometric and low-resolution spectrum metallicity indices for low mass dwarfs, which will make metallicity estimates for these stars more certain. We also describe some difficulties encountered which are not normally necessary to consider when studying warmer stars.

  20. Delayed Star Formation in Isolated Dwarf Galaxies: HST Star Formation History of the Aquarius Dwarf Irregular

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Andrew A; Dolphin, Andrew E; Skillman, Evan D; McConnachie, Alan W; Brooks, Alyson M; Leaman, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained deep images of the highly isolated (d = 1 Mpc) Aquarius dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 210) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaches more than a magnitude below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, allowing us to derive the star formation history (SFH) over the entire lifetime of the galaxy with a timing precision of ~10% of the lookback time. Using a maximum likelihood fit to the CMD we find that only ~10% of all star formation in Aquarius took place more than 10 Gyr ago (lookback time equivalent to redshift z ~2). The star formation rate increased dramatically ~6-8 Gyr ago (z ~ 0.7-1.1) and then declined until the present time. The only known galaxy with a more extreme confirmed delay in star formation is Leo A, a galaxy of similar M(HI)/M(stellar), dynamical mass, mean metallicity, and degree of isolation. The delayed stellar mass growth in these galaxies does not track the mean dark matter accretion rate from CD...

  1. Runaway Dwarf Carbon Stars as Candidate Supernova Ejecta

    CERN Document Server

    Plant, Kathryn A; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Cunningham, Emily C; Toloba, Elisa; Munn, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    The dwarf carbon (dC) star SDSS J112801.67+004034.6 has an unusually high radial velocity, 531$\\pm 4$ km s$^{-1}$. We present proper motion and new spectroscopic observations which imply a large Galactic rest frame velocity, 425$\\pm 9$ km s$^{-1}$. Several other SDSS dC stars are also inferred to have very high galactocentric velocities, again each based on both high heliocentric radial velocity and also confidently detected proper motions. Extreme velocities and the presence of $C_2$ bands in the spectra of dwarf stars are both rare. Passage near the Galactic center can accelerate stars to such extreme velocities, but the large orbital angular momentum of SDSS J1128 precludes this explanation. Ejection from a supernova in a binary system or disruption of a binary by other stars are possibilities, particularly as dC stars are thought to obtain their photospheric $C_2$ via mass transfer from an evolved companion.

  2. Star Formation History of Dwarf Galaxies in Cosmological Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Nagamine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the past and current work on the star formation (SF histories of dwarf galaxies in cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. The results obtained from different numerical methods are still somewhat mixed, but the differences are understandable if we consider the numerical and resolution effects. It remains a challenge to simulate the episodic nature of SF history in dwarf galaxies at late times within the cosmological context of a cold dark matter model. More work is needed to solve the mysteries of SF history of dwarf galaxies employing large-scale hydrodynamic simulations on the next generation of supercomputers.

  3. The White Dwarf Binary Pathways Survey I: A sample of FGK stars with white dwarf companions

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, S G; Schreiber, M R; Gansicke, B T; Zorotovic, M; Ren, J J

    2016-01-01

    The number of white dwarf plus main-sequence star binaries has increased rapidly in the last decade, jumping from only ~30 in 2003 to over 3000. However, in the majority of known systems the companion to the white dwarf is a low mass M dwarf, since these are relatively easy to identify from optical colours and spectra. White dwarfs with more massive FGK type companions have remained elusive due to the large difference in optical brightness between the two stars. In this paper we identify 934 main-sequence FGK stars from the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey in the southern hemisphere and the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey in the northern hemisphere, that show excess flux at ultraviolet wavelengths which we interpret as the likely presence of a white dwarf companion. We obtained Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra for nine systems which confirmed that the excess is indeed caused, in all cases, by a hot compact companion, eight being white dwarfs and one ...

  4. M-dwarf binaries as tracers of star and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Marks, Michael; Kroupa, Pavel; Leigh, Nathan; Thies, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The separation distribution for M-dwarf binaries in the ASTRALUX survey is narrower and peaking at smaller separations than the distribution for solar-type binaries. This is often interpreted to mean that M-dwarfs constitute a continuous transition from brown dwarfs (BDs) to stars. Here a prediction for the M-dwarf separation distribution is presented, using a dynamical population synthesis (DPS) model in which "star-like" binaries with late-type primaries ($\\lesssim1.5 M_{\\rm sun}$) follow universal initial distribution functions and are dynamically processed in their birth embedded clusters. A separate "BD-like" population has both its own distribution functions for binaries and initial mass function (IMF), which overlaps in mass with the IMF for stars. Combining these two formation modes results in a peak on top of a wider separation distribution for late M-dwarfs consistent with the late ASTRALUX sample. The DPS separation distribution for early M-dwarfs shows no such peak and is in agreement with the M-d...

  5. Gaia, Non-Single Stars, Brown Dwarfs, and Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Sozzetti, A

    2014-01-01

    In its all-sky survey, Gaia will monitor astrometrically and photometrically millions of main-sequence stars with sufficient sensitivity to brown dwarf companions within a few AUs from their host stars and to transiting brown dwarfs on very short periods, respectively. Furthermore, thousands of detected ultra-cool dwarfs in the backyard of the Sun will have direct (absolute) distance estimates from Gaia, and for these Gaia astrometry will be of sufficient precision to reveal any orbiting companions with masses as low as that of Jupiter. Gaia observations thus bear the potential for critical contributions to many important questions in brown dwarfs astrophysics (how do they form in isolation and as companions to stars? Can planets form around them? What are their fundamental parameters such as ages, masses, and radii? What is their atmospheric physics?), and their connection to stars and planets. The full legacy potential of Gaia in the realm of brown dwarf science will be realized when combined with other det...

  6. The Habitability of Planets Orbiting M-dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Shields, Aomawa L; Johnson, John A

    2016-01-01

    The prospects for the habitability of M-dwarf planets have long been debated, due to key differences between the unique stellar and planetary environments around these low-mass stars, as compared to hotter, more luminous Sun-like stars. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made by both space- and ground-based observatories to measure the likelihood of small planets to orbit in the habitable zones of M-dwarf stars. We now know that most M dwarfs are hosts to closely-packed planetary systems characterized by a paucity of Jupiter-mass planets and the presence of multiple rocky planets, with roughly a third of these rocky M-dwarf planets orbiting within the habitable zone, where they have the potential to support liquid water on their surfaces. Theoretical studies have also quantified the effect on climate and habitability of the interaction between the spectral energy distribution of M-dwarf stars and the atmospheres and surfaces of their planets. These and other recent results fill in knowledge g...

  7. New White Dwarf Stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo; Kleinman, Scot J; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Nitta, Atsuko; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Costa, José Eduardo da Silveira; Külebi, Baybars; Jordan, Stefan; Dufour, Patrick; Giommi, Paolo; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of 9 088 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs and subdwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), and estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon dominated spectra DQs. We found 1 central star of a planetary nebula, 2 new oxygen spectra on helium atmosphere white dwarfs, 71 DQs, 42 hot DO/PG1159s, 171 white dwarf+main sequence star binaries, 206 magnetic DAHs, 327 continuum dominated DCs, 397 metal polluted white dwarfs, 450 helium dominated white dwarfs, 647 subdwarfs and 6887 new hydrogen dominated white dwarf stars.

  8. Circumstellar Debris and Pollution at White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar disks of planetary debris are now known or suspected to closely orbit hundreds of white dwarf stars. To date, both data and theory support disks that are entirely contained within the preceding giant stellar radii, and hence must have been produced during the white dwarf phase. This picture is strengthened by the signature of material falling onto the pristine stellar surfaces; disks are always detected together with atmospheric heavy elements. The physical link between this debris and the white dwarf host abundances enables unique insight into the bulk chemistry of extrasolar planetary systems via their remnants. This review summarizes the body of evidence supporting dynamically active planetary systems at a large fraction of all white dwarfs, the remnants of first generation, main-sequence planetary systems, and hence provide insight into initial conditions as well as long-term dynamics and evolution.

  9. Are Nuclear Star Clusters the Precursors of Massive Black Holes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Neumayer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new upper limits for black hole masses in extremely late type spiral galaxies. We confirm that this class of galaxies has black holes with masses less than 106M⊙, if any. We also derive new upper limits for nuclear star cluster masses in massive galaxies with previously determined black hole masses. We use the newly derived upper limits and a literature compilation to study the low mass end of the global-to-nucleus relations. We find the following. (1 The MBH-σ relation cannot flatten at low masses, but may steepen. (2 The MBH-Mbulge relation may well flatten in contrast. (3 The MBH-Sersic n relation is able to account for the large scatter in black hole masses in low-mass disk galaxies. Outliers in the MBH-Sersic n relation seem to be dwarf elliptical galaxies. When plotting MBH versus MNC we find three different regimes: (a nuclear cluster dominated nuclei, (b a transition region, and (c black hole-dominated nuclei. This is consistent with the picture, in which black holes form inside nuclear clusters with a very low-mass fraction. They subsequently grow much faster than the nuclear cluster, destroying it when the ratio MBH/MNC grows above 100. Nuclear star clusters may thus be the precursors of massive black holes in galaxy nuclei.

  10. Effective Field Theory for Quantum Liquid in Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gabadadze, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    An effective field theory approach is used to describe quantum matter at greater-than-atomic but less-than-nuclear densities which are encountered in white dwarf stars. We focus on the density and temperature regime for which charged spin-0 nuclei form an interacting charged Bose-Einstein condensate, while the neutralizing electrons form a degenerate fermi gas. After a brief introductory review, we summarize distinctive properties of the charged condensate, such as a mass gap in the bosonic sector as well as gapless fermionic excitations. Charged impurities placed in the condensate are screened with great efficiency, greater than in an equivalent uncondensed plasma. We discuss a generalization of the Friedel potential which takes into account bosonic collective excitations in addition to the fermionic excitations. We argue that the charged condensate could exist in helium-core white dwarf stars and discuss the evolution of these dwarfs. Condensation would lead to a significantly faster rate of cooling than th...

  11. Lithium production in the merging of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Longland, Richard; José, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Althaus, Leandro G

    2012-01-01

    The origin of R Coronae Borealis stars has been elusive for over 200 years. Currently, two theories for their formation have been presented. These are the Final Flash scenario, in which a dying asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star throws off its atmosphere to reveal the hydrogen poor, heavily processed material underneath, and the double degenerate scenario, in which two white dwarfs merge to produce a new star with renewed vigour. Some theories predict that the temperatures reached during the latter scenario would destroy any lithium originally present in the white dwarfs. The observed lithium content of some R Coronae Borealis stars, therefore, is often interpreted as an indication that the Final Flash scenario best describes their formation. In this paper, it is shown that lithium production can, indeed, occur in the merging of a helium white dwarf with a carbon-oxygen white dwarf if their chemical composition, particularly that of 3He, is fully considered. The production mechanism is described in detail, an...

  12. MWA targeted campaign of nearby, flaring M dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C.; Murphy, T.; Kaplan, D. L.

    2017-01-01

    Flaring activity is a common characteristic of magnetically active stellar systems. Flare events produce emission throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, implying a range of physical processes. Early 100 - 200 MHz observations of M dwarf flare stars detected bright (>100 mJy) flares with occurrence rates between 0.06 - 0.8 flares per hour. These rates imply that observing 100 - 200 MHz flares from M dwarf stars is fairly easy with many detections expected for modern low-frequency telescopes. However, long observational campaigns using these modern telescopes have not reproduced these early detections. This could be because the rates are over estimated and contaminated by radio frequency interference. Recently Lynch et al. (submitted) detected four flares from UV Ceti at 154 MHz using the Murchison Widefield Array. The flares have flux densities between 10-65 mJy -- a factor of 100 fainter than most flares in the literature at these frequencies -- and are only detected in circular polarization. The flare rates for these newly detected flares are roughly consistent with earlier rates however the uncertainties are large. Building off this result we propose a 102 hour survey of the closet six M dwarf stars with observed magnetic activity traced in X-rays and 100 - 200 MHz emission. The rates measured from this survey would inform the duration required for future blind surveys for flares from M dwarf stars.

  13. High-Frequency Properties of Ultracool Dwarf Star Radio Transients, or The Little Dwarfs that Could

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Vikram; Hobbs, George; Keith, Michael; Champion, David; Ferrario, Lilia; Wickramasinghe, Dayal

    2009-07-01

    Radio transients are among the most intriguing phenomena in astronomy. Numerous flaring events, some periodic, have lately surfaced, with only few identified with known objects such as magnetic stars. Periodic, non-thermal, highly circularly-polarised pulses and unusually strong quiescence have been recently detected from three late-type quickly-rotating (~2hr periods) ultracool dwarf stars (>M7) at centimetric wavelengths. This violates empirical relations and quantifiers of dwarf-star surface activity. Measurements of dwarf-star kiloGauss magnetic fields have led to emission models based on dipole fields and incoherent gyrosynchrotron or coherent electron-cyclotron maser mechanisms. We propose to observe two such similar objects at 1cm and 7mm (LP944-20 and DENIS1048-3956) that are known to flare but without detected periodicities. No observations of high-frequency emission from any magnetic star have been published. The broadband capabilities of CABB will provide extraordinary frequency-synthesised sensitivity in a search for periodicity. The obtained spectral indices, along with possible high-frequency spectral cut-offs, will greatly help constrain emission models of magnetic stars. This is the first attempt to characterise the high-frequency transient radio sky, a key science project for future telescopes such as ASKAP and the SKA.

  14. Discovery of five new massive pulsating white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Kepler, S. O.; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Fraga, L.

    2013-03-01

    Using the SOuthern Astrophysical Research telescope (SOAR) Optical Imager at the SOAR 4.1 m telescope, we report on the discovery of five new massive pulsating white dwarf stars. Our results represent an increase of about 20 per cent in the number of massive pulsators. We have detected both short and long periods, low and high amplitude pulsation modes, covering the whole range of the ZZ Ceti instability strip. In this paper, we present a first seismological study of the new massive pulsators based on the few frequencies detected. Our analysis indicates that these stars have masses higher than average, in agreement with the spectroscopic determinations. In addition, we study for the first time the ensemble properties of the pulsating white dwarf stars with masses above 0.8 M⊙. We found a bimodal distribution of the main pulsation period with the effective temperature for the massive DAVs, which indicates mode selection mechanisms.

  15. Calibrating UV Star Formation Rates for Dwarf Galaxies from STARBIRDS

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dolphin, Andrew E; Mitchell, Noah P

    2015-01-01

    Integrating our knowledge of star formation traced by observations at different wavelengths is essential for correctly interpreting and comparing star formation activity in a variety of systems and environments. This study compares extinction corrected integrated ultraviolet (UV) emission from resolved galaxies with color-magnitude diagram (CMD) based star formation rates (SFRs) derived from resolved stellar populations and CMD fitting techniques in 19 nearby starburst and post-starburst dwarf galaxies. The datasets are from the panchromatic STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey (STARBIRDS) and include deep legacy GALEX UV imaging, HST optical imaging, and Spitzer MIPS imaging. For the majority of the sample, the integrated near UV fluxes predicted from the CMD-based SFRs - using four different models - agree with the measured, extinction corrected, integrated near UV fluxes from GALEX images, but the far UV predicted fluxes do not. Further, we find a systematic deviation between the SFRs based on integrated far U...

  16. Formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Hennebelle, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass f...

  17. NTT Observations Indicate that Brown Dwarfs Form Like Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Dusty Disks Detected around Very Young Substellar Objects in the Orion Nebula Summary An international team of astronomers [2] is announcing today the discovery of dusty disks surrounding numerous very faint objects that are believed to be recently formed Brown Dwarfs in the Orion Nebula [3]. This finding is based on detailed observations with SOFI, a specialised infrared-sensitive instrument at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope at the La Silla Observatory. It is of special interest because it sheds light on the origin and nature of substellar objects, known as "Brown Dwarfs" . In particular, these results suggest that Brown Dwarfs share a common origin with stars and that Brown Dwarfs are more similar in nature to stars than to planets and, like stars, have the potential to form with accompanying systems of planets. Moreover, the presence of dusty protoplanetary disks around the faintest objects in the Orion Nebula cluster confirms both the membership of these faint stars in the cluster and their nature as bona-fide substellar objects, making this the largest population of Brown Dwarf objects yet known . These important results are being reported today to the American Astronomical Society Meeting in Pasadena (California, USA). PR Photo 22a/01 : Infrared picture of the Orion Nebula (NTT + SOFI). PR Photo 22b/01 : "Finding Chart" for Very Young Brown Dwarfs in the Orion Nebula. PR Photo 22c/01 : Animated GIF presentation of PR Photos 22a+b/01. Faint substellar objects in the Milky Way Over the past 5 years, several groups of astronomers have identified a type of very faint, substellar objects within our Milky Way galaxy. These gaseous objects have very low masses and will never shine like normal stars because they cannot achieve central temperatures high enough for sustained thermal nuclear reactions to occur in their cores. Such objects weigh less than about 7% of our Sun and have been variously called "Brown Dwarfs" , "Failed Stars" or "Super Planets

  18. Using Narrow Band Photometry to Classify Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mainzer, A K; Sievers, J L; Young, E T; Lean, Ian S. Mc

    2004-01-01

    We present a new system of narrow band filters in the near infrared that can be used to classify stars and brown dwarfs. This set of four filters, spanning the H band, can be used to identify molecular features unique to brown dwarfs, such as H2O and CH4. The four filters are centered at 1.495 um (H2O), 1.595 um (continuum), 1.66 um (CH4), and 1.75 um (H2O). Using two H2O filters allows us to solve for individual objects' reddenings. This can be accomplished by constructing a color-color-color cube and rotating it until the reddening vector disappears. We created a model of predicted color-color-color values for different spectral types by integrating filter bandpass data with spectra of known stars and brown dwarfs. We validated this model by making photometric measurements of seven known L and T dwarfs, ranging from L1 - T7.5. The photometric measurements agree with the model to within +/-0.1 mag, allowing us to create spectral indices for different spectral types. We can classify A through early M stars to...

  19. About K Dwarfs - Investigating the Goldilocks Stars of Exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuntz, Manfred; Guinan, Edward F.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we argue that stars between spectral type late-G and mid-K (with a maximum at early-K), i.e., orange dwarfs, are expected to provide the best conditions for the development and sustainability of life, including advanced life forms. Though our study is mostly theoretical, observational data are considered as fit. Our analysis considers a variety of stellar properties, including (1) the frequency of the various types of stars, (2) the speed of stellar evolution their lifetimes, (3) the size of the stellar climatological habitable zones (CLI-HZs), (4) the strengths and persistence of their magnetic dynamo generated X-ray--UV emissions, and (5) the frequency and severity of (super-)flares; both (4) and (5) greatly reduce the suitability of M-type dwarfs to host life-bearing planets. M-type dwarfs are numerous, having long lifetimes, but their narrow CLI-HZs and hazards from magnetic activity make them less suitable for hosting exolife. Therefore, we argue that K-dwarfs should be rightfully considered "Goldilocks" stars, thus deserving heightened attention in future observational and theoretical studies.

  20. An Active Black Hole in a Compact Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    A new type of galaxy has just been added to the galaxy zoo: a small, compact, and old elliptical galaxy that shows signs of a monster black hole actively accreting material in its center. What can this unusual discovery tell us about how compact elliptical galaxies form?A New Galactic BeastCompact elliptical galaxies are an extremely rare early-type dwarf galaxy. Consistent with their name, compact ellipticals are small, very compact collections of ancient stars; these galaxies exhibit a high surface brightness and arent actively forming stars.Optical view of the ancient compact elliptical galaxy SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 (center of image) in an SDSS color composite image. [Adapted from Paudel et al. 2016]Most compact ellipticals are found in dense environments, particularly around massive galaxies. This has led astronomers to believe that compact ellipticals might form via the tidal stripping of a once-large galaxy in interactions with another, massive galaxy. In this model, once the original galaxys outer layers are stripped away, the compact inner bulge component would be left behind as a compact elliptical galaxy. Recent discoveries of a few isolated compact ellipticals, however, have strained this model.Now a new galaxy has been found to confuse our classification schemes: the first-ever compact elliptical to also display signs of an active galactic nucleus. Led by Sanjaya Paudel (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute), a team of scientists discovered SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 serendipitously in Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. The team used SDSS images and spectroscopy in combination with data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to learn more about this unique galaxy.Puzzling CharacteristicsSDSS J085431.18+173730.5 presents an interesting conundrum. Ancient compact ellipticals are supposed to be devoid of gas, with no fuel left to trigger nuclear activity. Yet SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 clearly shows the emission lines that indicate active accretion onto

  1. The Chromospheric Activity-Age Relation for M Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, N. M.; Oswalt, T. D.; Hawley, S. L.

    2000-12-01

    We present preliminary results from our study in which we use moderate resolution spectroscopy to determine the correlation between the chromospheric activity and age of M dwarf stars in wide binary systems. We have observed ~50 M dwarf stars from our sample with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. We measure the ratio of Hα luminosity to the bolometric luminosity (LHα /Lbol) of the M dwarf---a measure of activity that is proven to correlate well with age. This project is unique in that it will extend the chromospheric activity-age relation of low-mass main sequence stars beyond the ages provided by cluster methods. The ages so determined are also independent of the uncertainties in cluster age determinations. The technique has the potential to improve by at least a factor of two the precision and the range over which ages can currently be determined for main sequence stars. Work on this project is supported by the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program grant NGT-50290 (N.M.S.).

  2. Formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Hennebelle, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass function paying particular attention to four models, namely the competitive accretion and the theories based respectively on stopped accretion, MHD shocks and turbulent dispersion. As it is yet unsettled whether the brown dwarfs form as low-mass stars, we present the theory of brown dwarfs based on disk fragmentation stressing all the uncertainties due to the radiative feedback and magnetic field. Finally, we describe the results of large scale simulations performed to explain the collapse and fragmentation of molecular cl...

  3. Formation of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, P.

    2012-11-01

    These lectures attempt to expose the most important ideas, which have been proposed to explain the formation of stars with particular emphasis on the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. We first describe the important physical processes which trigger the collapse of a self-gravitating piece of fluid and regulate the star formation rate in molecular clouds. Then we review the various theories which have been proposed along the years to explain the origin of the stellar initial mass function paying particular attention to four models, namely the competitive accretion and the theories based respectively on stopped accretion, MHD shocks and turbulent dispersion. As it is yet unsettled whether the brown dwarfs form as low-mass stars, we present the theory of brown dwarfs based on disk fragmentation stressing all the uncertainties due to the radiative feedback and magnetic field. Finally, we describe the results of large scale simulations performed to explain the collapse and fragmentation of molecular clouds.

  4. Delayed star formation in isolated dwarf galaxies: Hubble space telescope star formation history of the Aquarius dwarf irregular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Andrew A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001 Australia (Australia); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55441 (United States); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 Canada (Canada); Brooks, Alyson M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Leaman, Ryan, E-mail: andrew.cole@utas.edu.au, E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: alan.mcconnachie@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: abrooks@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: rleaman@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    We have obtained deep images of the highly isolated (d = 1 Mpc) Aquarius dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 210) with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaches more than a magnitude below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, allowing us to derive the star formation history (SFH) over the entire lifetime of the galaxy with a timing precision of ≈10% of the lookback time. Using a maximum likelihood fit to the CMD we find that only ≈10% of all star formation in Aquarius took place more than 10 Gyr ago (lookback time equivalent to redshift z ≈ 2). The star formation rate increased dramatically ≈6-8 Gyr ago (z ≈ 0.7-1.1) and then declined until the present time. The only known galaxy with a more extreme confirmed delay in star formation is Leo A, a galaxy of similar M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}, dynamical mass, mean metallicity, and degree of isolation. The delayed stellar mass growth in these galaxies does not track the mean dark matter accretion rate from CDM simulations. The similarities between Leo A and Aquarius suggest that if gas is not removed from dwarf galaxies by interactions or feedback, it can linger for several gigayears without cooling in sufficient quantity to form stars efficiently. We discuss possible causes for the delay in star formation including suppression by reionization and late-time mergers. We find reasonable agreement between our measured SFHs and select cosmological simulations of isolated dwarfs. Because star formation and merger processes are both stochastic in nature, delayed star formation in various degrees is predicted to be a characteristic (but not a universal) feature of isolated small galaxies.

  5. Star formation around supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, I A; Rice, W K M

    2008-08-22

    The presence of young massive stars orbiting on eccentric rings within a few tenths of a parsec of the supermassive black hole in the galactic center is challenging for theories of star formation. The high tidal shear from the black hole should tear apart the molecular clouds that form stars elsewhere in the Galaxy, and transport of stars to the galactic center also appears unlikely during their lifetimes. We conducted numerical simulations of the infall of a giant molecular cloud that interacts with the black hole. The transfer of energy during closest approach allows part of the cloud to become bound to the black hole, forming an eccentric disk that quickly fragments to form stars. Compressional heating due to the black hole raises the temperature of the gas up to several hundred to several thousand kelvin, ensuring that the fragmentation produces relatively high stellar masses. These stars retain the eccentricity of the disk and, for a sufficiently massive initial cloud, produce an extremely top-heavy distribution of stellar masses. This potentially repetitive process may explain the presence of multiple eccentric rings of young stars in the presence of a supermassive black hole.

  6. Axions and the cooling of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Torres, S; Catalan, S

    2008-01-01

    White dwarfs are the end-product of the lifes of intermediate- and low-mass stars and their evolution is described as a simple cooling process. Recently, it has been possible to determine with an unprecedented precision their luminosity function, that is, the number of stars per unit volume and luminosity interval. We show here that the shape of the bright branch of this function is only sensitive to the averaged cooling rate of white dwarfs and we propose to use this property to check the possible existence of axions, a proposed but not yet detected weakly interacting particle. Our results indicate that the inclusion of the emission of axions in the evolutionary models of white dwarfs noticeably improves the agreement between the theoretical calculations and the observational white dwarf luminosity function. The best fit is obtained for m_a cos^2 \\beta ~ 5 meV, where m_a is the mass of the axion and cos^2 \\beta is a free parameter. We also show that values larger than 10 meV are clearly excluded. The existin...

  7. Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational radiation waveforms for black hole-neutron star coalescence calculations. The physical input is Newtonian physics, an ideal gas equation of state with...

  8. On the Metallicity of Star-forming Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Legrand, F; Silich, S A; Kunth, D; Cerviño, M; Legrand, Francois; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Kunth, Daniel; Cervino, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We construct three extreme different scenarios of the star formation histories applicable to a sample of dwarf galaxies, based either on their present metallicity or their luminosity. The three possible scenarios imply different mechanical energy input rates and these we compare with the theoretical lower limits established for the ejection of processed matter out of dwarf galaxies. The comparison strongly points at the existence of extended gaseous haloes in these galaxies, acting as the barrier that allows galaxies to retain their metals and enhance their abundance. At the same time our findings strongly point at a continuous star-forming process, rather than to coeval bursts, as the main contributors to the overall metallicity in our galaxy sample.

  9. Chemical abundances of stars with brown-dwarf companions

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, D Mata; Israelian, G; Santos, N C; Sahlmann, J; Udry, S

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that stars with giant planets are on average more metal-rich than stars without giant planets, whereas stars with detected low-mass planets do not need to be metal-rich. With the aim of studying the weak boundary that separates giant planets and brown dwarfs (BDs) and their formation mechanism, we analyze the spectra of a sample of stars with already confirmed BD companions both by radial velocity and astrometry. We employ standard and automatic tools to perform an EW-based analysis and to derive chemical abundances from CORALIE spectra of stars with BD companions. We compare these abundances with those of stars without detected planets and with low-mass and giant-mass planets. We find that stars with BDs do not have metallicities and chemical abundances similar to those of giant-planet hosts but they resemble the composition of stars with low-mass planets. The distribution of mean abundances of $\\alpha$-elements and iron peak elements of stars with BDs exhibit a peak at about solar abundance...

  10. New white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, I.; Koester, D.; Ourique, G.; Romero, A. D.; Reindl, N.; Kleinman, S. J.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Valois, A. D. M.; Amaral, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of 6576 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon-dominated spectra (DQs). We found one central star of a planetary nebula, one ultracompact helium binary (AM CVn), one oxygen line-dominated white dwarf, 15 hot DO/PG1159s, 12 new cataclysmic variables, 36 magnetic white dwarf stars, 54 DQs, 115 helium-dominated white dwarfs, 148 white dwarf + main-sequence star binaries, 236 metal-polluted white dwarfs, 300 continuum spectra DCs, 230 hot subdwarfs, 2936 new hydrogen-dominated white dwarf stars, and 2675 cool hydrogen-dominated subdwarf stars. We calculate the mass distribution of all 5883 DAs with S/N ≥ 15 in DR12, including the ones in DR7 and DR10, with an average S/N = 26, corrected to the 3D convection scale, and also the distribution after correcting for the observed volume, using 1/Vmax.

  11. New white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Reindl, Nicole; Kleinman, Scot J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Valois, A Dean M; Amaral, Larissa A

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of 6576 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon dominated spectra DQs. We found one central star of a planetary nebula, one ultra-compact helium binary (AM CVn), one oxygen line dominated white dwarf, 15 hot DO/PG1159s, 12 new cataclysmic variables, 36 magnetic white dwarf stars, 54 DQs, 115 helium dominated white dwarfs, 148 white dwarf+main sequence star binaries, 236 metal polluted white dwarfs, 300 continuum spectra DCs, 230 hot subdwarfs, 2936 new hydrogen dominated white dwarf stars, and 2675 cool hydrogen dominated subdwarf stars. We calculate the mass distribution of all 5883 DAs with S/N>15 in DR12, including the ones in DR7 and DR10, with an average S/N=26, correc...

  12. White dwarf stars as strange quark matter detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, O G [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstroFisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y GeoFisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, B1900FWA, La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-11-01

    We show that the presence of a strange matter core inside a white dwarf (WD) star produces a drastic change in the spectrum of non-radial oscillations in the range of periods corresponding to gravity modes. The distinctive, observable signal for such a core is a very short period spacing between consecutive modes, far shorter than in the case of pulsating WDs without any compact core. (letter to the editor)

  13. In what sense a neutron star-black hole binary is the holy grail for testing gravity?

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Pulsars in binary systems have been very successful to test the validity of general relativity in the strong field regime. So far, such binaries include neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) and neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) systems. It is commonly believed that a neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) binary will be much superior for this purpose. But in what sense is this true? Does it apply to all possible deviations?

  14. Luminosity functions for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Bodenheimer, Peter

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the luminosity function for low-mass objects to constrain the stellar initial mass function at the low-mass end is reported. The ways in which luminosity functions for low-mass stars are affected by star formation histories, brown dwarf and premain-sequence cooling rates and main-sequence mass luminosity relations, and the IMF are examined. Cooling rates and the mass-luminosity relation are determined through a new series of evolutionary calculations for very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in the range 0.05-0.50 solar mass. Model luminosity functions are constructed for specific comparison with the results of four recent observational surveys. The likelihood that the stellar mass function in the solar neighborhood is increasing at masses near the bottom of the main sequence and perhaps at lower masses is confirmed. In the most optimistic case, brown dwarfs contribute half of the local missing disk mass. The actual contribution is likely to be considerably less.

  15. Exploration of the brown dwarf regime around solar-like stars by CoRoT

    CERN Document Server

    Csizmadia, Szilárd

    2016-01-01

    Aims. A summary of the CoRoT brown dwarf investigations are presented. Methods. Transiting brown dwarfs around solar like stars were studied by using the photometric time-series of CoRoT, and ground based radial velocity measurements. Results. CoRoT detected three transiting brown dwarfs around F and G dwarf stars. The occurence rate of brown dwarfs was found to be 0.20 +/- 0.15% around solar-like stars which is compatible with the value obtained by Kepler-data.

  16. THE ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ENVIRONMENT AROUND M DWARF EXOPLANET HOST STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Stocke, John T.; Bushinsky, Rachel [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Roberge, Aki [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tian, Feng [Center for Earth System Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Desert, Jean-Michel [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mauas, Pablo; Vieytes, Mariela [Instituto de Astronomsica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), C.C. 67 Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Walkowicz, Lucianne M., E-mail: kevin.france@colorado.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Ultraviolet photons influence the atmospheric temperature profiles and production of potential biomarkers on Earth-like planets around these stars. At present, little observational or theoretical basis exists for understanding the ultraviolet spectra of M dwarfs, despite their critical importance to predicting and interpreting the spectra of potentially habitable planets as they are obtained in the coming decades. Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a study of the UV radiation fields around nearby M dwarf planet hosts that covers both far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) wavelengths. The combined FUV+NUV spectra are publicly available in machine-readable format. We find that all six exoplanet host stars in our sample (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, GJ 832, GJ 667C, and GJ 1214) exhibit some level of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. No 'UV-quiet' M dwarfs are observed. The bright stellar Ly{alpha} emission lines are reconstructed, and we find that the Ly{alpha} line fluxes comprise {approx}37%-75% of the total 1150-3100 A flux from most M dwarfs; {approx}>10{sup 3} times the solar value. We develop an empirical scaling relation between Ly{alpha} and Mg II emission, to be used when interstellar H I attenuation precludes the direct observation of Ly{alpha}. The intrinsic unreddened flux ratio is F(Ly{alpha})/F(Mg II) = 10 {+-} 3. The F(FUV)/F(NUV) flux ratio, a driver for abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O{sub 2} and O{sub 3}, is shown to be {approx}0.5-3 for all M dwarfs in our sample, >10{sup 3} times the solar ratio. For the four stars with moderate signal-to-noise Cosmic Origins Spectrograph time-resolved spectra, we find UV emission line variability with amplitudes of 50%-500% on 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} s timescales. This effect should be taken into account in future UV

  17. The Ultraviolet Radiation Environment around M Dwarf Exoplanet Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Roberge, Aki; Stocke, John T.; Tian, Feng; Bushinsky, Rachel; Desert, Jean-Michel; Mauas, Pablo; Mauas, Pablo; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.

    2013-01-01

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Ultraviolet photons influence the atmospheric temperature profiles and production of potential biomarkers on Earth-like planets around these stars. At present, little observational or theoretical basis exists for understanding the ultraviolet spectra of M dwarfs, despite their critical importance to predicting and interpreting the spectra of potentially habitable planets as they are obtained in the coming decades. Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a study of the UV radiation fields around nearby M dwarf planet hosts that covers both far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) wavelengths. The combined FUV+NUV spectra are publicly available in machine-readable format. We find that all six exoplanet host stars in our sample (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, GJ 832, GJ 667C, and GJ 1214) exhibit some level of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. No "UV-quiet" M dwarfs are observed. The bright stellar Lyman-alpha emission lines are reconstructed, and we find that the Lyman-alpha line fluxes comprise approximately 37%-75% of the total 1150-3100 A flux from most M dwarfs; approximately greater than 10(exp3) times the solar value. We develop an empirical scaling relation between Lyman-alpha and Mg II emission, to be used when interstellar H I attenuation precludes the direct observation of Lyman-alpha. The intrinsic unreddened flux ratio is F(Lyman-alpha)/F(Mg II) = 10(exp3). The F(FUV)/F(NUV) flux ratio, a driver for abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O2 and O3, is shown to be approximately 0.5-3 for all M dwarfs in our sample, greather than 10(exp3) times the solar ratio. For the four stars with moderate signal-to-noise Cosmic Origins Spectrograph time-resolved spectra, we find UV emission line variability with amplitudes of 50%.500% on 10(exp2)-10(exp3) s timescales. This effect should be taken

  18. Bubble-Induced Star Formation in Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Daisuke; Barnes, David J; Grand, Robert J J; Rahimi, Awat

    2013-01-01

    To study the star formation and feedback mechanism, we simulate the evolution of an isolated dwarf irregular galaxy (dIrr) in a fixed dark matter halo, similar in size to WLM. We use the new version of our original N-body/smoothed particle chemodynamics code, GCD+, which adopts improved hydrodynamics, metal diffusion between the gas particles and new modelling of star formation and stellar wind and supernovae (SNe) feedback. Comparing the simulations with and without stellar feedback effects, we demonstrate that the collisions of bubbles produced by strong feedback can induce star formation in a more widely spread area. We also demonstrate that the metallicity in star forming regions is kept low due to the mixing of the metal-rich bubbles and the metal-poor inter-stellar medium. Our simulations also suggest that the bubble-induced star formation leads to many counter-rotating stars. The bubble-induced star formation could be a dominant mechanism to maintain star formation in dIrrs, which is different from lar...

  19. Relativistic effects in the tidal interaction between a white dwarf and a massive black hole in Fermi normal coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Roseanne M

    2013-01-01

    We consider tidal encounters between a white dwarf and an intermediate mass black hole. Both weak encounters and those at the threshold of disruption are modeled. The numerical code combines mesh-based (PPM) hydrodynamics, a spectral method (FFT) solution of the self-gravity, and a general relativistic Fermi normal coordinate (FNC) system that follows the star and debris. FNCs provide an expansion of the black hole tidal field that includes quadrupole and higher multipole moments and relativistic corrections. We compute the mass loss from the white dwarf that occurs in weak tidal encounters. Secondly, we compute carefully the energy deposition onto the star, examining the effects of non-radial and radial mode excitation, surface layer heating, mass loss, and relativistic orbital motion. We find evidence of a slight relativistic suppression in tidal energy transfer. Tidal energy deposition is compared to orbital energy loss due to gravitational bremsstrahlung and the combined losses are used to estimate tidal ...

  20. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XVIII. Star-forming dwarfs in a cluster environment

    CERN Document Server

    Grossi, M; Madden, S C; Hughes, T M; Auld, R; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Bianchi, S; Bizzocchi, L; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Clemens, M; Corbelli, E; Cortese, L; Davies, J; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Fritz, J; Pappalardo, C; Pierini, D; Rémy-Ruyer, A; Smith, M W L; Verstappen, J; Viaene, S; Vlahakis, C

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effects of the cluster environment on the different components of the interstellar medium, we analyse the FIR-submm properties of a sample of star-forming dwarf (SFD) galaxies detected by the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). We determine dust masses and dust temperatures by fitting a modified black body (MBB) function to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Stellar and gas masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and metallicities are obtained from the analysis of a set of ancillary data. Dust is detected in 49 out of 140 optically identified dwarfs covered by the HeViCS field; considering only dwarfs brighter than $m_B$ = 18 mag, this gives a detection rate of 43%. After evaluating different emissivity indices, we find that the FIR-submm SEDs are best-fit by $\\beta$=1.5, with a median dust temperature $T_d$ = 22.4 K. Assuming $\\beta$=1.5, 67% of the 23 galaxies detected in all five Herschel bands show emission at 500 $\\mu$m in excess of the MBB model. The excess is inversely correlated ...

  1. Spherical Boson Stars as Black Hole mimickers

    CERN Document Server

    Guzman, F S; 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084023

    2010-01-01

    We present spherically symmetric boson stars as black hole mimickers based on the power spectrum of a simple accretion disk model. The free parameters of the boson star are the mass of the boson and the fourth order self-interaction coefficient in the scalar field potential. We show that even if the mass of the boson is the only free parameter it is possible to find a configuration that mimics the power spectrum of the disk due to a black hole of the same mass. We also show that for each value of the self-interaction a single boson star configuration can mimic a black hole at very different astrophysical scales in terms of the mass of the object and the accretion rate. In order to show that it is possible to distinguish one of our mimickers from a black hole we also study the deflection of light.

  2. Direct imaging searches for planets around white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Matt; Hogan, Emma; Clarke, Fraser

    White dwarfs are excellent targets for direct imaging searches for extra-solar planets, since they are up to 10^4 times fainter than their main sequence progenitors, providing a huge gain in the contrast problem. In addition, the orbits of planetary companions that lie beyond the maximum extent of the Red Giant envelope are expected to widen considerably, improving resolution and further encouraging direct detection. We discuss current searches for planetary companions to white dwarfs, including our own “DODO” programme. At the time of writing, no planetary companion to a white dwarf has been detected. The most sensitive searches have been capable of detecting companions ≳5M_{Jup}, and their non-detection is consistent with the conclusions of McCarthy & Zuckerman (2004), that no more than 3% of stars harbour 5-10M_{Jup} planets at orbits between 75-300AU. Extremely Large Telescopes are required to enable deeper searches sensitive to lower mass planets, and to provide larger target samples including more distant and older white dwarfs. ELTs will also enable spectroscopic follow-up for any resolved planets, and follow-up of any planetary companions discovered astrometrically by GAIA and SIM.

  3. The Ultraviolet Radiation Environment Around M dwarf Exoplanet Host Stars

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Linsky, Jeffrey L; Roberge, Aki; Stocke, John T; Tian, Feng; Bushinsky, Rachel; Desert, Jean-Michel; Mauas, Pablo; Vieytes, Mariela; Walkowicz, Lucianne M

    2012-01-01

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. At present, little observational or theoretical basis exists for understanding the ultraviolet spectra of M dwarfs, despite their critical importance to predicting and interpreting the spectra of potentially habitable planets as they are obtained in the coming decades. Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a study of the UV radiation fields around nearby M dwarf planet hosts that covers both FUV and NUV wavelengths. The combined FUV+NUV spectra are publically available in machine-readable format. We find that all six exoplanet host stars in our sample (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, GJ 832, GJ 667C, and GJ 1214) exhibit some level of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. No "UV quiet" M dwarfs are observed. The bright stellar Ly-alpha emission lines are reconstructed, and we find that the Ly-alpha line fluxes comprise ~37-75% of the tota...

  4. UVES Abundances of Stars in Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Venn, Kim; Shetrone, Matt; Primas, Francesca; Hill, Vanessa; Kaufer, Andreas; Szeifert, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a galaxy in possession of a good quantity of gas must want to form stars. It is the details of how and why that baffle us all. The simplest theories either would have this process a carefully self-regulated affair, or one that goes completely out of control and is capable of wrecking the galaxy which hosts it. Of course the majority of galaxies seem to amble along somewhere between these two extremes, and the mean properties tend to favour a quiescent self-regulated evolutionary scenario. But there area variety of observations which require us to invoke transitory ‘bursts’ of star-formation at one time or another in most galaxy types. Several nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies have clearly determined star-formation histories with apparent periods of zero star formation followed by periods of fairly active star formation. If we are able to understand what separated these bursts we would understand several important phenomena in galaxy evolution. Were these galaxies able to clear out their gas reservoir in a burst of star formation? How did this gas return? or did it? Have these galaxies receieved gas from the IGM instead? Could stars from these types of galaxy contribute significantly to the halo population in our Galaxy? To answer these questions we need to combine accurate stellar photometry and Colour-Magnitude Diagram interpretation with detailed metal abundances to combine a star-formation rate versus time with a range of element abundances with time. Different elements trace different evolutionary process (e.g., relative contributions of type I and II supernovae). We often aren't even sure of the abundance spread in these galaxies. We have collected detailed high resolution UVES spectra of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (Sculptor, Fornax, Leo I & Carina) to begin to answer these questions. This is a precursor study to a more complete study with FLAMES. We presented at this meeting the initial results for

  5. Black holes and stars in Horndeski theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Lehébel, Antoine

    2016-08-01

    We review black hole and star solutions for Horndeski theory. For non-shift symmetric theories, black holes involve a Kaluza-Klein reduction of higher dimensional Lovelock solutions. On the other hand, for shift symmetric theories of Horndeski and beyond Horndeski, black holes involve two classes of solutions: those that include, at the level of the action, a linear coupling to the Gauss-Bonnet term and those that involve time dependence in the galileon field. We analyze the latter class in detail for a specific subclass of Horndeski theory, discussing the general solution of a static and spherically symmetric spacetime. We then discuss stability issues, slowly rotating solutions as well as black holes coupled to matter. The latter case involves a conformally coupled scalar field as well as an electromagnetic field and the (primary) hair black holes thus obtained. We review and discuss the recent results on neutron stars in Horndeski theories.

  6. Black holes and stars in Horndeski theory

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Lehébel, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    We review black hole and star solutions for Horndeski theory. For non-shift symmetric theories, black holes involve a Kaluza-Klein reduction of higher dimensional Lovelock solutions. On the other hand, for shift symmetric theories of Horndeski and beyond Horndeski, black holes involve two classes of solutions: those that include, at the level of the action, a linear coupling to the Gauss-Bonnet term and those that involve time dependence in the galileon field. We analyze the latter class in detail for a specific subclass of Horndeski theory, discussing the general solution of a static and spherically symmetric spacetime. We then discuss stability issues, slowly rotating solutions as well as black holes coupled to matter. The latter case involves a conformally coupled scalar field as well as an electromagnetic field and the (primary) hair black holes thus obtained. We review and discuss the recent results on neutron stars in Horndeski theories.

  7. Infrared Opacities in Dense Atmospheres of Cool White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, P. M.; Blouin, S.; Dufour, P.

    2017-03-01

    Dense, He-rich atmospheres of cool white dwarfs represent a challenge to the modeling. This is because these atmospheres are constituted of a dense fluid in which strong multi-atomic interactions determine their physics and chemistry. Therefore, the ideal-gas-based description of absorption is no longer adequate, which makes the opacities of these atmospheres difficult to model. This is illustrated with severe problems in fitting the spectra of cool, He-rich stars. Good description of the infrared (IR) opacity is essential for proper assignment of the atmospheric parameters of these stars. Using methods of computational quantum chemistry we simulate the IR absorption of dense He/H media. We found a significant IR absorption from He atoms (He-He-He CIA opacity) and a strong pressure distortion of the H2-He collision-induced absorption (CIA). We discuss the implication of these results for the interpretation of the spectra of cool stars.

  8. Infrared Opacities in Dense Atmospheres of Cool White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, Piotr M; Dufour, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Dense, He-rich atmospheres of cool white dwarfs represent a challenge to the modeling. This is because these atmospheres are constituted of a dense fluid in which strong multi-atomic interactions determine their physics and chemistry. Therefore, the ideal-gas-based description of absorption is no longer adequate, which makes the opacities of these atmospheres difficult to model. This is illustrated with severe problems in fitting the spectra of cool, He-rich stars. Good description of the infrared (IR) opacity is essential for proper assignment of the atmospheric parameters of these stars. Using methods of computational quantum chemistry we simulate the IR absorption of dense He/H media. We found a significant IR absorption from He atoms (He-He-He CIA opacity) and a strong pressure distortion of the H$_2$-He collision-induced absorption (CIA). We discuss the implication of these results for interpretation of the spectra of cool stars.

  9. The influence of binary stars on dwarf spheroidal galaxy kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, J C; Annan, J D

    1995-01-01

    We have completed a Monte-Carlo simulation to estimate the effect of binary star orbits on the measured velocity dispersion in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. This paper analyses previous attempts at this calculation, and explains the simulations which were performed with mass, period and ellipticity distributions similar to that measured for the solar neighbourhood. The conclusion is that with functions such as these, the contribution of binary stars to the velocity dispersion is small. The distributions are consistent with the percentage of binaries detected by observations, although this is quite dependent on the measuring errors and on the number of years over which measurements have been taken. For binaries to be making a significant contribution to the dispersion measured in dSph galaxies, the distributions of the orbital parameters would need to be very different from those of stars in the solar neighbourhood. In particular more smaller period orbits with higher mass secondaries would be required. The shape...

  10. Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S; Barros, Susana C C

    2015-10-01

    The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies.

  11. The star formation history of the Sculptor Dwarf Irregular Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lianou, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    [abridged] We study the resolved stellar populations and derive the SFH of the SDIG, a gas-rich dwarf galaxy member of the NGC7793 subgroup in the Sculptor group. We construct a CMD using archival HST observations and examine its stellar content. We derive its SFH using a maximum-likelihood fit to the CMD. The CMD shows that SDIG contains stars from 10Myr to several Gyr old, as revealed from the MS, BL, luminous AGB, and RGB stars. The young stars with ages less than ~250Myr show a spatial distribution confined to its central regions, and additionally the young MS stars exhibit an off-center density peak. The intermediate-age and older stars are more spatially extended. SDIG is dominated by intermediate-age stars with an average age of 6.4Gyr. The average metallicity inferred is [M/H]\\approx -1.5dex. Its SFH is consistent with a constant SFR, except for ages younger than ~200Myr. The lifetime average SFR is 1.3x10^{-3} Mo/yr. More recently than 100Myr, there has been a burst of SF at a rate ~2-3 times higher ...

  12. An extended star formation history in an ultra-compact dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Mark A.; Escudero, Carlos G.; Faifer, Favio R.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Forte, Juan Carlos; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.

    2015-08-01

    There has been significant controversy over the mechanisms responsible for forming compact stellar systems like ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs), with suggestions that UCDs are simply the high-mass extension of the globular cluster population, or alternatively, the liberated nuclei of galaxies tidally stripped by larger companions. Definitive examples of UCDs formed by either route have been difficult to find, with only a handful of persuasive examples of stripped-nucleus-type UCDs being known. In this paper, we present very deep Gemini/GMOS spectroscopic observations of the suspected stripped-nucleus UCD NGC 4546-UCD1 taken in good seeing conditions (<0.7 arcsec). With these data we examine the spatially resolved kinematics and star formation history of this unusual object. We find no evidence of a rise in the central velocity dispersion of the UCD, suggesting that this UCD lacks a massive central black hole like those found in some other compact stellar systems, a conclusion confirmed by detailed dynamical modelling. Finally, we are able to use our extremely high signal-to-noise spectrum to detect a temporally extended star formation history for this UCD. We find that the UCD was forming stars since the earliest epochs until at least 1-2 Gyr ago. Taken together these observations confirm that NGC 4546-UCD1 is the remnant nucleus of a nucleated dwarf galaxy that was tidally destroyed by NGC 4546 within the last 1-2 Gyr.

  13. Tidal disruption of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling ultra-close encounters between a white dwarf and a spinning, intermediate mass black hole requires a full general relativistic treatment of gravity. This paper summarizes results from such a study. Our results show that the disruption process and prompt accretion of the debris strongly depend on the magnitude and orientation of the black hole spin. On the other hand, the late-time accretion onto the black hole follows the same decay, Ṁ ∝  t−5/3, estimated from Newtonian gravity disruption studies. The spectrum of the fallback material peaks in the soft X-rays and sustains Eddington luminosity for 1–3 yrs after the disruption. The orientation of the black hole spin has also a profound effect on how the outflowing debris obscures the central region. The disruption produces a burst of gravitational radiation with characteristic frequencies of ∼3.2 Hz and strain amplitudes of ∼10−18 for galactic intermediate mass black holes.

  14. Crystallization of Carbon Oxygen Mixtures in White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2010-01-01

    We determine the phase diagram for dense carbon/ oxygen mixtures in White Dwarf (WD) star interiors using molecular dynamics simulations involving liquid and solid phases. Our phase diagram agrees well with predictions from Ogata et al. and Medin and Cumming and gives lower melting temperatures than Segretain et al. Observations of WD crystallization in the globular cluster NGC 6397 by Winget et al. suggest that the melting temperature of WD cores is close to that for pure carbon. If this is true, our phase diagram implies that the central oxygen abundance in these stars is less than about 60%. This constraint, along with assumptions about convection in stellar evolution models, limits the effective S factor for the $^{12}$C($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{16}$O reaction to S_{300} <= 170 keV barns.

  15. Giant Black Hole Rips Apart Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Thanks to two orbiting X-ray observatories, astronomers have the first strong evidence of a supermassive black hole ripping apart a star and consuming a portion of it. The event, captured by NASA's Chandra and ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, had long been predicted by theory, but never confirmed. Astronomers believe a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after being thrown off course by a close encounter with another star. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information about how these black holes grow and affect surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, leader of the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighborhood." While other observations have hinted stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as "stellar tidal disruptions"), these new results are the first strong evidence. Evidence already exists for supermassive black holes in many galaxies, but looking for tidal disruptions represents a completely independent way to search for black holes. Observations like these are urgently needed to determine how quickly black holes can grow by swallowing neighboring stars. Animation of Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgen satellite, detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the center of the galaxy RX J1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees Celsius before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in the process

  16. Hypervelocity star candidates in the SEGUE G and K dwarf sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palladino, Lauren E.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Schlesinger, Katharine J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Beers, Timothy C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Lee, Young Sun [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: lauren.e.palladino.1@vanderbilt.edu, E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present 20 candidate hypervelocity stars from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) G and K dwarf samples. Previous searches for hypervelocity stars have only focused on large radial velocities; in this study, we also use proper motions to select the candidates. We determine the hypervelocity likelihood of each candidate by means of Monte Carlo simulations, considering the significant errors often associated with high proper motion stars. We find that nearly half of the candidates exceed their escape velocities with at least 98% probability. Every candidate also has less than a 25% chance of being a high-velocity fluke within the SEGUE sample. Based on orbits calculated using the observed six-dimensional positions and velocities, few, if any, of these candidates originate from the Galactic center. If these candidates are truly hypervelocity stars, they were not ejected by interactions with the Milky Way's supermassive black hole. This calls for a more serious examination of alternative hypervelocity-star ejection scenarios.

  17. ULXs: Neutron Stars vs Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We consider ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) where the accretor is a neutron star rather than a black hole. We show that the recently-discovered example (M82 X-2) fits naturally into the simple picture of ULXs as beamed X-ray sources fed at super-Eddington rates, provided that its magnetic field is weaker ($\\simeq 10^{11}{\\rm G}$) than a new-born X-ray pulsar, as expected if there has been mass gain. Continuing accretion is likely to weaken the field to the point that pulsing stops, and make the system indistinguishable from a ULX containing a black hole. Accordingly we suggest that a significant fraction of all ULXs may actually contain neutron star accretors rather than black holes, reflecting the neutron-star fraction among their X-ray binary progenitors. We emphasize that neutron-star ULXs are likely to have {\\it higher} apparent luminosities than black hole ULXs for a given mass transfer rate, as their tighter beaming outweighs their lower Eddington luminosities. This further increases the likely propo...

  18. About Exobiology: The Case for Dwarf K Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cuntz, M

    2016-01-01

    One of the most fundamental topics of exobiology concerns the identification of stars with environments consistent with life. Although it is believed that most types of main-sequence stars might be able to support life, particularly extremophiles, special requirements appear to be necessary for the development and sustainability of advanced life forms. From our study, orange main-sequence stars, ranging from spectral type late-G to mid-K (with a maximum at early-K), are most promising. Our analysis considers a variety of aspects, including (1) the frequency of the various types of stars, (2) the speed of stellar evolution their lifetimes, (3) the size of the stellar climatological habitable zones (CLI-HZs), (4) the strengths and persistence of their magnetic dynamo generated X-ray - UV emissions, and (5) the frequency and severity of flares, including superflares; both (4) and (5) greatly reduce the suitability of red dwarfs to host life-bearing planets. The various phenomena show pronounced dependencies on t...

  19. First stars VII. Lithium in extremely metal poor dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Sivarani, T; Cayrel, R; Spite, M; Spite, F; Plez, B; Andersen, J; Barbuy, B; Beers, T C; Depagne, E; Hill, V; François, P; Nordström, B; Primas, F

    2006-01-01

    Aims. This study aims to determine the level and constancy of the Spite plateau as definitively as possible from homogeneous high-quality VLT-UVES spectra of 19 of the most metal-poor dwarf stars known. Methods. Our high-resolution (R ~ 43000), high S/N spectra are analysed with OSMARCS 1D LTE model atmospheres and turbospectrum synthetic spectra to determine effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities as well as Li abundances for our stars. Results. Eliminating a cool subgiant and a spectroscopic binary, we find 8 stars to have -3.5 < [Fe/H] < -3.0 and 9 stars with -3.0 < [Fe/H] < -2.5. Our best value for the mean level of the plateau is A(Li) =2.10 +- 0.09. The scatter around the mean is entirely explained by our estimate of the observational error and does not allow for any intrinsic scatter in the Li abundances. In addition, we conclude that a systematic error of the order of 200 K in any of the current temperature scales remains possible. The iron excitation equilibria in our...

  20. Protoplanetary Disk Masses from Stars to Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Mortlock, Daniel; Pascucci, Ilaria; Scholz, Aleks; Thompson, Mark; Apai, Daniel; Lodato, Giuseppe; Looper, Dagny

    2013-01-01

    We present SCUBA-2 850um observations for 7 very low mass stars (VLMS) and brown dwarfs (BDs): 3 in Taurus, 4 in the TWA, and all classical T Tauri (cTT) analogs. We detect 2 of the 3 Taurus disks, but none of the TWA ones. Our 3sigma limits correspond to a dust mass of 1.2 MEarth in Taurus and a mere 0.2 MEarth in the TWA (3--10x deeper than previous work). We combine our data with other sub-mm/mm surveys of Taurus, rho Oph and the TWA to investigate trends in disk mass and grain growth during the cTT phase. We find : (1) The minimum disk outer radius required to explain the upper envelope of sub-mm/mm fluxes is 100 AU for intermediate-mass stars, solar-types and VLMS, and 20 AU for BDs. (2) While the upper envelope of disk masses increases with Mstar from BDs to VLMS to solar-types, no increase is seen from solar-type to intermediate-mass stars. We propose this is due to enhanced photoevaporation around intermediate masses. (3) Many disks around Taurus and rho Oph intermediate-mass and solar-type stars evin...

  1. The Correlation Dimension of Young Stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Odekon, M C

    2006-01-01

    We present the correlation dimension of resolved young stars in four actively star-forming dwarf galaxies that are sufficiently resolved and transparent to be modeled as projections of three-dimensional point distributions. We use data in the Hubble Space Telescope archive; photometry for one of them, UGCA 292, is presented here for the first time. We find that there are statistically distinguishable differences in the nature of stellar clustering among the sample galaxies. The young stars of VII Zw 403, the brightest galaxy in the sample, have the highest value for the correlation dimension and also the most dramatic decrease with logarithmic scale, falling from $1.68\\pm0.14$ to $0.10\\pm0.05$ over less than a factor of ten in $r$. This decrease is consistent with the edge effect produced by a projected Poisson distribution within a 2:2:1 ellipsoid. The young stars in UGC 4483, the faintest galaxy in the sample, exhibit very different behavior, with a constant value of about 0.5 over this same range in $r$, e...

  2. Metallicity measurements using atomic lines in M and K dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Woolf, V M; Woolf, Vincent M.; Wallerstein, George

    2004-01-01

    We report the first survey of chemical abundances in M and K dwarf stars using atomic absorption lines in high resolution spectra. We have measured Fe and Ti abundances in 35 M and K dwarf stars using equivalent widths measured from (lambda / Delta lambda) = 33,000 spectra. Our analysis takes advantage of recent improvements in model atmospheres of low-temperature dwarf stars. The stars have temperatures between 3300 and 4700 K, with most cooler than 4100 K. They cover an iron abundance range of -2.44 < [Fe/H] < +0.16. Our measurements show [Ti/Fe] decreasing with increasing [Fe/H], a trend similar to that measured for warmer stars where abundance analysis techniques have been tested more thoroughly. This study is a step toward the observational calibration of procedures to estimate the metallicity of low-mass dwarf stars using photometric and low-resolution spectral indices.

  3. Kinematics and chemistry of faint high latitude dwarf carbon stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jinmi; Beers, Timothy C.; Dietz, Sarah; Lee, Young Sun; Placco, Vinicius M.

    2017-01-01

    The diffuse halo system of the Milky Way is complex, and has been shown to comprise at least two main components: a near-zero net rotation inner-halo and a more rapidly rotating outer-halo component. Studies of the ancient, very metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo system are crucial for understanding its early formation history. The so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are an important subset of the stars in the halo system, which exhibit distinctive kinematic and chemical signatures that can be used to constrain the star-formation histories and assembly of the various Galactic components.We have examined the sample of main-sequence dwarf and other faint high Galactic latitude carbon-enhanced stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey studied by Green (2013). As noted by Green, many of these starsexhibit high proper motions, which have been later claimed to be related to possible binary ejection models Plant et al. (2016). By use of the CEMP sub-classification approach of Yoon et al. (2016), we investigate whether the kinematics of these stars might instead result from their membership in the inner/outer halo populations of the Galaxy.ReferencesGreen, P. 2013, ApJ, 765, 12Plant, K. et al. 2016, AAS 227.34115Yoon, J. et al. 2016, ApJ, in pressAcknowledgementThis work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1430152 (JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements).

  4. A CANDIDATE MASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE LOW-METALLICITY DWARF GALAXY PAIR MRK 709

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reines, Amy E.; Condon, James J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Plotkin, Richard M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Russell, Thomas D. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Mezcua, Mar [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Sivakoff, Gregory R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-181, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Johnson, Kelsey E., E-mail: areines@nrao.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The incidence and properties of present-day dwarf galaxies hosting massive black holes (BHs) can provide important constraints on the origin of high-redshift BH seeds. Here we present high-resolution X-ray and radio observations of the low-metallicity, star-forming, dwarf-galaxy system Mrk 709 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. These data reveal spatially coincident hard X-ray and radio point sources with luminosities suggesting the presence of an accreting massive BH (M {sub BH} ∼ 10{sup 5-7} M {sub ☉}). Based on imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that Mrk 709 consists of a pair of compact dwarf galaxies that appear to be interacting with one another. The position of the candidate massive BH is consistent with the optical center of the southern galaxy (Mrk 709 S), while no evidence for an active BH is seen in the northern galaxy (Mrk 709 N). We derive stellar masses of M {sub *} ∼ 2.5 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and M {sub *} ∼ 1.1 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} for Mrk 709 S and Mrk 709 N, respectively, and present an analysis of the SDSS spectrum of the BH host Mrk 709 S. At a metallicity of just ∼10% solar, Mrk 709 is among the most metal-poor galaxies with evidence for an active galactic nucleus. Moreover, this discovery adds to the growing body of evidence that massive BHs can form in dwarf galaxies and that deep, high-resolution X-ray and radio observations are ideally suited to reveal accreting massive BHs hidden at optical wavelengths.

  5. Giant black hole rips star apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Astronomers believe that a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after a close encounter with another star threw it off course. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information on how these black holes grow and affect the surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Dr Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, who led the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighbourhood." While other observations have hinted that stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as ‘stellar tidal disruptions’), these new results are the first strong evidence. Observations with XMM-Newton and Chandra, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgensatellite (ROSAT), detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the centre of the galaxy RXJ1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in this process is equivalent to that of a supernova. "Now, with all of the data in hand, we have the smoking gun proof that this spectacular event has occurred," said co-author Prof. Guenther Hasinger, also of MPE. The black hole in the centre of RX J1242-11 is estimated to have a mass about 100 million times that of the Sun. By contrast, the destroyed star probably had a mass about equal to that of the Sun, making it a lopsided battle of gravity. "This is the ultimate ‘David versus Goliath’ battle, but here David loses," said Hasinger. The astronomers estimated that about one hundredth of the mass of the star was ultimately consumed, or accreted, by the black hole. This small

  6. HR2875 Spectroscopic discovery of the first B star + white dwarf binary

    CERN Document Server

    Burleigh, M R; Burleigh, Matt; Barstow, Martin

    1998-01-01

    We report the discovery, in an Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) short wavelength spectrum, of an unresolved hot white dwarf companion to the 5th-magnitude B5Vp star HR2875. This is the first time that a non-interacting white dwarf$+$ B star binary has been discovered; previously, the the earliest type star known with a white dwarf companion was Sirius (A1V). Since the white dwarf must have evolved from a main sequence progenitor with a mass greater than that of a B5V star ($\\geq$6.0M$_\\odot$), this places a lower limit on the maximum mass for white dwarf progenitors, with important implications for our knowledge of the initial-final mass relation. Assuming a pure-hydrogen atmospheric composition, we constrain the temperature of the white dwarf to be between 39,000K and 49,000K. We also argue that this degenerate star is likely to have mass significantly greater than the mean mass for white dwarf stars ($\\approx$0.55M$_\\odot$). Finally, we suggest that other bright B stars (e.g.\\ Field Camera and EUVE may a...

  7. Detailed analysis of Balmer lines in cool dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Barklem, P S; Allende-Prieto, C; Kochukhov, O P; Piskunov, N; O'Mara, B J

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of H alpha and H beta spectra in a sample of 30 cool dwarf and subgiant stars is presented using MARCS model atmospheres based on the most recent calculations of the line opacities. A detailed quantitative comparison of the solar flux spectra with model spectra shows that Balmer line profile shapes, and therefore the temperature structure in the line formation region, are best represented under the mixing length theory by any combination of a low mixing-length parameter alpha and a low convective structure parameter y. A slightly lower effective temperature is obtained for the sun than the accepted value, which we attribute to errors in models and line opacities. The programme stars span temperatures from 4800 to 7100 K and include a small number of population II stars. Effective temperatures have been derived using a quantitative fitting method with a detailed error analysis. Our temperatures find good agreement with those from the Infrared Flux Method (IRFM) near solar metallicity but show diffe...

  8. A Star Formation Law for Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    The radial profiles of gas, stars, and far ultraviolet radiation in 20 dwarf Irregular galaxies are converted to stability parameters and scale heights for a test of the importance of two-dimensional (2D) instabilities in promoting star formation. A detailed model of this instability involving gaseous and stellar fluids with self-consistent thicknesses and energy dissipation on a perturbation crossing time give the unstable growth rates. We find that all locations are effectively stable to 2D perturbations, mostly because the disks are thick. We then consider the average volume densities in the midplanes, evaluated from the observed HI surface densities and calculated scale heights. The radial profiles of the star formation rates are equal to about 1% of the HI surface densities divided by the free fall times at the average midplane densities. This 1% resembles the efficiency per unit free fall time commonly found in other cases. There is a further variation of this efficiency with radius in all of our galaxi...

  9. Dwarf galaxy formation with H2-regulated star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlen, M; Madau, P; Smith, B; Wise, J

    2011-01-01

    We describe cosmological galaxy formation simulations with the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo that incorporate a star formation prescription regulated by the local abundance of molecular hydrogen. We show that this H2-regulated prescription leads to a suppression of star formation in low mass halos (M_h 4, alleviating some of the dwarf galaxy problems faced by theoretical galaxy formation models. H2 regulation modifies the efficiency of star formation of cold gas directly, rather than indirectly reducing the cold gas content with "supernova feedback". We determine the local H2 abundance in our most refined grid cells (76 proper parsec in size at z=4) by applying the model of Krumholz, McKee, & Tumlinson, which is based on idealized 1D radiative transfer calculations of H2 formation-dissociation balance in ~100 pc atomic--molecular complexes. Our H2-regulated simulations are able to reproduce the empirical (albeit lower z) Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, including the low Sigma_gas cutoff due to the transi...

  10. Model Atmospheres From Very Low Mass Stars to Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, F; Freytag, B

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of brown dwarfs in 1994, and the discovery of dust cloud formation in the latest Very Low Mass Stars (VLMs) and Brown Dwarfs (BDs) in 1996, the most important challenge in modeling their atmospheres as become the understanding of cloud formation and advective mixing. For this purpose, we have developed radiation hydrodynamic 2D model atmosphere simulations to study the formation of forsterite dust in presence of advection, condensation, and sedimentation across the M-L-T VLMs to BDs sequence (Teff = 2800 K to 900 K, Freytag et al. 2010). We discovered the formation of gravity waves as a driving mechanism for the formation of clouds in these atmospheres, and derived a rule for the velocity field versus atmospheric depth and Teff , which is relatively insensitive to gravity. This rule has been used in the construction of the new model atmosphere grid, BT-Settl, to determine the microturbulence velocity, the diffusion coefficient, and the advective mixing of molecules as a function of depth. ...

  11. Carbon-to-Oxygen Ratios in M dwarfs and Solar-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Initial C/O ratios of circumstellar disks have been obtained in solar-type stars by differential photospheric abundance analysis with respect to the Sun. We present C/O ratios of M dwarfs obtained by absolute abundance analysis derived from CO and H2O spectra in the K-band. We compare the distributions of C/O ratios in M dwarfs and solar-type stars using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The C/O distribution of M dwarfs is consistent with low frequency of high C/O ratios in solar-type stars.

  12. Synthetic activity indicators for M-type dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wedemeyer, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a set of time-dependent 3D RMHD simulations of a M-dwarf star representative of AD Leo, which extend from the upper convection zone into the chromosphere. The 3D model atmospheres are characterized by a very dynamic and intermittent structure on small spatial and temporal scales and a wealth of physical processes, which by nature cannot be described by means of 1D static model atmospheres. Artificial observations of these models imply that a combination of complementary diagnostics such as Ca II lines and the continuum intensity from UV to millimeter wavelengths, probe various properties of the dynamics, thermal and magnetic structure of the photosphere and the chromosphere and thus provide measures of stellar activity, which can be compared to observations. The complicated magnetic field structure and its imprint in synthetic diagnostics may have important implications for the understanding and characterization of stellar activity and with it possibly for the evaluation of planetary habitabi...

  13. Star formation rate in Holmberg IX dwarf galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use previously determined Hα fluxes for dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX (Arbutina et al. 2009 to calculate star formation rate (SFR in this galaxy. We discuss possible contaminations of Hα flux and, for the first time, we take into account optical emission from supernova remnants (SNRs as a possible source of contamination of Hα flux. Derived SFR for Holmberg IX is 3:4 x 10-4M.yr-1. Our value is lower then in previous studies, due to luminous shock-heated source M&H 9-10, possible hypernova remnant, which we excluded from the total Hα flux in our calculation of SFR.

  14. Superradiant amplification by stars and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Rosa, João Luís de Figueiredo

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we study the phenomenon of superradiance and its implications to the stability of black-holes (BH) and perfect-fluid stars. Superradiance is a radiation enhancement process that involves rotating dissipative systems. In BH spacetimes, superradiance is due to dissipation at the event horizon, with interesting associated phenomena, namely floating orbits and BH-bombs. BH superradiance is a very interdisciplinary topic, and its study allows us to obtain important results in the area of particle physics. The scattering of a scalar field by a rotating BH leads to the formation of quasi-boundstates. In rotational systems, these states can give rise to superradiant instabilities. These results were recently used to impose constraints to the mass of fundamental particles and darkmatter candidates. In this work, it is shown that, when dissipation is properly included, similar results are achievable in self-gravitating systems other than black-holes, such as perfect fluid stars. It is also demonstrated t...

  15. A Second Stellar Color Locus: a Bridge from White Dwarfs to M stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smolcic, V; Knapp, G R; Lupton, R H; Pavlovski, K; Ilijic, S; Schlegel, D J; Smith, J A; McGehee, P M; Silvestri, N M; Hawley, S L; Rockosi, C M; Gunn, J E; Strauss, M A; Fan, X; Eisenstein, D J; Harris, H

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of a locus of stars in the SDSS g-r vs. u-g color-color diagram that connects the colors of white dwarfs and M dwarfs. While its contrast with respect to the main stellar locus is only ~1:2300, this previously unrecognized feature includes 863 stars from the SDSS Data Release 1. The position and shape of the feature are in good agreement with predictions of a simple binary star model that consists of a white dwarf and an M dwarf, with the components' luminosity ratio controlling the position along this binary system locus. SDSS DR1 spectra for 47 of these objects strongly support this model. The absolute magnitude--color distribution inferred for the white dwarf component is in good agreement with the models of Bergeron et al. (1995).

  16. New Pulsating DB White Dwarf Stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Nitta, A; Krzesínski, J; Kepler, S O; Metcalfe, T S; Mukadam, Anjum S; Mullally, Fergal; Nather, R E; Sullivan, Denis J; Thompson, Susan E; Winget, D E

    2008-01-01

    We are searching for new He atmosphere white dwarf pulsators (DBVs) based on the newly found white dwarf stars from the spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. DBVs pulsate at hotter temperature ranges than their better known cousins, the H atmosphere white dwarf pulsators (DAVs or ZZ Ceti stars). Since the evolution of white dwarf stars is characterized by cooling, asteroseismological studies of DBVs give us opportunities to study white dwarf structure at a different evolutionary stage than the DAVs. The hottest DBVs are thought to have neutrino luminosities exceeding their photon luminosities (Winget et al. 2004), a quantity measurable through asteroseismology. Therefore, they can also be used to study neutrino physics in the stellar interior. So far we have discovered nine new DBVs, doubling the number of previously known DBVs. Here we report the new pulsators' lightcurves and power spectra.

  17. Black Holes at the Centers of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, Edward C; Sugarman, Hannah R; Velez, Darik O; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Using a distance-limited portion of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we have identified 28 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby (d < 80 Mpc) low-mass, low-luminosity dwarf galaxies. The accreting objects at the galaxy centers are expected to be intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with M_BH < 1e6 M_sun. The AGNs were selected using several optical emission-line diagnostics after careful modeling of the continuum present in the spectra. We have limited our survey to objects with spectral characteristics similar to those of Seyfert nuclei, excluding emission-line galaxies with ambiguous spectra that could be powered by stellar processes. The host galaxies in our sample are thus the least massive objects in the very local universe certain to contain central black holes. Given our focus on the nearest objects included in the SDSS, our survey is more sensitive to low-luminosity emission than previous optical searches for AGNs in low-mass galaxies. The [O III] lambda5007 luminosities of...

  18. Stellar evolution on the borderline of white dwarf and neutron star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelarends, A.J.T.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is about the evolution of stars, specifically about the final fate of stars at the borderline between the formation of white dwarfs and neutron stars. It is well known that the mass and the metallicity are the two determining factors in stellar evolution, and for a given initial chemical

  19. Neutron Stars and Black Holes in Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Rasio, F A; Corongiu, A; D'Antona, F; Fabbiano, G; Fregeau, J M; Gebhardt, K; Heinke, C O; Hut, P; Ivanova, N; Maccarone, T J; Ransom, S M; Webb, N A

    2006-01-01

    This article was co-authored by all invited speakers at the Joint Discussion on `Neutron Stars and Black Holes in Star Clusters,' which took place during the IAU General Assembly in Prague, Czech Republic, on August 17 and 18, 2006. Each section presents a short summary of recent developments in a key area of research, incorporating the main ideas expressed during the corresponding panel discussion at the meeting. Our meeting, which had close to 300 registered participants, was broadly aimed at the large community of astronomers around the world working on the formation and evolution of compact objects and interacting binary systems in dense star clusters, such as globular clusters and galactic nuclei. Great advances have occurred in this field during the past few years, including the introduction of fundamentally new theoretical paradigms for the formation and evolution of compact objects in binaries as well as countless new discoveries by astronomers that have challenged many accepted models. Some of the hi...

  20. Gravitational Waves, Gamma Ray Bursts, and Black Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2016-01-01

    Stars that are collapsing toward forming a black hole but appear frozen near their Schwarzschild horizon are termed "black stars". The collision of two black stars leads to gravitational radiation during the merging phase followed by a delayed gamma ray burst during coalescence. The recent observation of gravitational waves by LIGO, followed by a possible gamma ray counterpart by Fermi, suggests that the source may have been a merger of two black stars with profound implications for quantum gravity and the nature of black holes.

  1. Granulation in K-type Dwarf Stars. I. Spectroscopic observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ramírez, I; Lambert, D L

    2008-01-01

    Very high resolution (R~160,000-210,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N>300) spectra of nine bright K-dwarfs were obtained with the 2dcoude spectrograph on the 2.7m Telescope at McDonald Observatory to determine wavelength shifts and asymmetries of Fe I lines. The observed shapes and positions of Fe I lines reveal asymmetries and wavelength shifts that indicate the presence of granulation. In particular, line bisectors show characteristic C-shapes while line core wavelengths are blueshifted by an amount that increases with decreasing equivalent width (EW). On average, Fe I line bisectors have a span that ranges from nearly 0 for the weakest lines (residual core flux > 0.7) to about 75 m/s for the strongest lines (residual core flux ~ 0.3) while wavelength shifts range from about -150 m/s in the weakest (EW ~ 10 mA) lines to 0 in the strongest (EW > 100 mA) features. A more detailed inspection of the bisectors and wavelength shifts reveals star-to-star differences that are likely associated with differences ...

  2. Interactions between brown-dwarf binaries and Sun-like stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, M; Whitworth, A P

    2012-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs, but there is as yet no consensus as to which -- if any -- are operative in nature. Any theory of brown dwarf formation must explain the observed statistics of brown dwarfs. These statistics are limited by selection effects, but they are becoming increasingly discriminating. In particular, it appears (a) that brown dwarfs that are secondaries to Sun-like stars tend to be on wide orbits, $a\\ga 100\\,{\\rm AU}$ (the Brown Dwarf Desert), and (b) that these brown dwarfs have a significantly higher chance of being in a close ($a\\la 10\\,{\\rm AU}$) binary system with another brown dwarf than do brown dwarfs in the field. This then raises the issue of whether these brown dwarfs have formed {\\it in situ}, i.e. by fragmentation of a circumstellar disc; or have formed elsewhere and subsequently been captured. We present numerical simulations of the purely gravitational interaction between a close brown-dwarf binary and a Sun-like star. These simulatio...

  3. Strange stars, strange dwarfs, and planetary-like strange-matter objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F.; Schaab, C.; Weigel, M.K. [Ludwig-Maximilians Univ., Munich (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Glendenning, N.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

    1995-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of the properties of all possible equilibrium sequences of compact strange-matter stars with nuclear crusts, which range from strange stars to strange dwarfs. In contrast to their non-strange counterparts--neutron stars and white dwarfs--their properties are determined by two (rather than one) parameters, the central star density and the density at the base of the nuclear crust. This leads to stellar strange-matter configurations whose properties are much more complex than those of the conventional sequence. As an example, two generically different categories of stable strange dwarfs are found, which could be the observed white dwarfs. Furthermore the authors find very-low-mass strange stellar objects, with masses as small as those of Jupiter or even lighter planets. Such objects, if abundant enough, should be seen by the presently performed gravitational microlensing searches.

  4. An upper limit on the mass of the black hole in Ursa Minor dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lora, V; Raga, A; Esquivel, A

    2009-01-01

    The well-established correlations between the mass of massive black holes (BHs) in the nuclei of most studied galaxies and various global properties of their hosting galaxy lend support to the idea that dwarf galaxies and globular clusters could also host a BH in their centers. Direct kinematic detection of BHs in dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are seriously hindered by the small number of stars inside the gravitational influence region of the BH. The aim of this Letter is to establish an upper dynamical limit on the mass of the putative BH in the Ursa Minor (UMi) dSph galaxy. We present direct N-body simulations of the tidal disruption of the dynamical fossil observed in UMi, with and without a massive BH. We find that the observed substructure is incompatible with the presence of a massive BH of (2-3)x10^4 Msun within the core of UMi. These limits are consistent with the extrapolation of the M_{BH}-sigma relation to the M_{BH}<10^6 Msun regime. We also show that the BH may be off-center with respect to...

  5. Low-Metallicity Star Formation: From the First Stars to Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Leslie K.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Schneider, Raffaella

    2008-12-01

    'Shea and Michael L. Norman; 16. Damped Lyα systems as probes of chemical evolution over cosmological timescales Miroslava Dessauges-Zavadsky; 17. Connecting high-redshift galaxy populations through observations of local damped Lyman alpha dwarf galaxies Regina E. Schulte-Ladbeck; 18. Chemical enrichment and feedback in low metallicity environments: constraints on galaxy formation Francesca Matteucci; 19. Effects of reionization on dwarf galaxy formation Massimo Ricotti; 20. The importance of following the evolution of the dust in galaxies on their SEDs A. Schurer, F. Calura, L. Silva, A. Pipino, G. L. Granato, F. Matteucci and R. Maiolino; 21. About the chemical evolution of dSphs (and the peculiar globular cluster ωCen) Andrea Marcolini and Annibale D'Ercole; 22. Young star clusters in the small Magellanic cloud: impact of local and global conditions on star formation Elena Sabbi, Linda J. Smith, Lynn R. Carlson, Antonella Nota, Monca Tosi, Michele Cignoni, Jay S. Gallagher III, Marco Sirianni and Margaret Meixner; 23. Modeling the ISM properties of metal-poor galaxies and gamma-ray burst hosts Emily M. Levesque, Lisa J. Kewley, Kirsten Larson and Leonie Snijders; 24. Dwarf galaxies and the magnetisation of the IGM Uli Klein; Session III. Explosive Events in Low-Metallicity Environments: 25. Supernovae and their evolution in a low metallicity ISM Roger A. Chevalier; 26. First stars - type Ib supernovae connection Ken'ichi Nomoto, Masaomi Tanaka, Yasuomi Kamiya, Nozomu Tominaga and Keiichi Maeda; 27. Supernova nucleosynthesis in the early universe Nozomu Tominaga, Hideyuki Umeda, Keiichi Maeda, Ken'ichi Nomoto and Nobuyuki Iwamoto; 28. Powerful explosions at Z = 0? Sylvia Ekström, Georges Meynet, Raphael Hirschi and André Maeder; 29. Wind anisotropy and stellar evolution Cyril Georgy, Georges Meynet and André Maeder; 30. Low-mass and metal-poor gamma-ray burst

  6. Can Red Dwarf stars support Earth-like vegetation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Joseph; Wandel, Amri

    2016-07-01

    The Kepler mission has shown that Earthlike planets are common. Of particular interest in our search for extra-solar-system, life-clement conditions, are planets orbiting Red Dwarf (RD) stars, the most numerous stellar type in the Milky Way galaxy. Early considerations indicated that conditions on RD planets would be inimical to life, as their Habitable Zones would be so close as to make planets tidally locked to their star. This was expected to engender tempestuous climates and to expose life forms to flares of ionizing electro-magnetic radiation and charged particles. Moreover, the less photon energy of the radiation of the relatively cool RDs would be too low in the 300-700nm waveband required for Oxygenic Photosynthesis (OP). Recent calculations show that these negative factors are less severe than originally estimated. Many authors have suggested that OP may evolve on RP planets to utilize infrared photons in the 700-1000nm waveband. However, projecting from OP and the vegetation in analogous regions on Earth, we argue that the evolutionary pressure to do so would be small. On RD planets there will be regions receiving continuous illumination, of moderate intensity, containing a significant component of photosynthetic 400-700nm radiation. On Earth, OP has been an essential factor in producing the Biosphere environment that enabled the appearance and evolution of complex life. We conclude that the conditions for OP could exist on RD planets and consequently the evolution of vegetation and complex life is possible (albeit not necessary). Furthermore, the huge number of RDs and their long lifetimes, make advanced vegetation, OP and consequently complex life on RD planets probable, and statistically more likely than on planets of solar type stars.

  7. Mt. Suhora M dwarf survey - Detection of eight short-period variable stars

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, L Fox; Winiarski, M; Krzesiński, J; Dróżdz, M

    2011-01-01

    The Mt. Suhora M\\,dwarf survey searching for pulsations in low mass main sequence stars has acquired CCD photometry of 46 M\\,dwarf stars during the first year of the project (Baran et al 2011). As a by-product of this search hundreds field stars have been checked for variability. This paper presents our initial result of a search for periodic variables in field stars observed in the course of the survey. On the basis of the periodicity and the shape of the light curves, eight new variables has been detected, among which five are $\\delta$ Scuti stars and three likely RR Lyrae stars. Although variation in one of the stars has been previously detected, it was classified incorrectly. To support our classification, in August 2010, we performed spectroscopic observations to derive spectral types and luminosity classes for all eight variable stars.

  8. Irreversible gravitational collapse: black stars or black holes?

    CERN Document Server

    Corda, Christian

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the concept of black hole has been considered very fascinating by scientists even before the introduction of Einstein's general relativity. They should be the final result of an irreversible gravitational collapse of very massive bodies. However, an unsolved problem concerning such objects is the presence of a space-time singularity in their core. Such a problem was present starting by the first historical papers concerning black holes. It is a common opinion that this problem could be solved when a correct quantum gravity theory will be, finally, constructed. In this work we review a way to remove black hole singularities at a classical level i.e. without arguments of quantum gravity. By using a particular non-linear electrodynamics Lagrangian, an exact solution of Einstein field equations is shown. The solution prevents the collapsing object to reach the gravitational radius, thus the final result becomes a black star, i.e. an astrophysical object where both of singularities and event ...

  9. M dwarfs and the fraction of high carbon-to-oxygen stars in the solar neighbourhood

    CERN Document Server

    Gizis, John E; Hauschildt, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the frequency of high carbon-to-oxygen (C/O $= 0.9$) M dwarf stars in the solar neighbourhood. Using synthetic spectra, we find that such M dwarfs would have weaker TiO bands relative to hydride features. Similar weakening has already been detected in M-subdwarf (sdM) stars. By comparing to existing spectroscopic surveys of nearby stars, we show that less than one percent of nearby stars have high carbon-to-oxygen ratios. This limit does not include stars with C/O$=0.9$, [m/H]$>0.3$, and [C/Fe]$>0.1$, which we predict to have low-resolution optical spectra similar to solar metallicity M dwarfs.

  10. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Heng-mu; WANG Hua-di; YANG Jian; Michael J. ADAMS; CHEN Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV). Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurrence and spread in the province.

  11. Lack of nuclear clusters in dwarf sferoidal galaxies: implications for massive black holes formation and the cusp/core problem

    CERN Document Server

    Arca-Sedda, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    One of the leading scenarios for the formation of nuclear star clusters in galaxies is related to the orbital decay of globular clusters (GCs) and their subsequent merging, though alternative theories are currently debated. The availability of high-quality data for GCs structural and orbital parameters allow to test different nuclear star cluster formation scenarios. The Fornax dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy is the heaviest satellite of the Milky Way and it is the only known dwarf spheroidal hosting 5 GCs, whereas there are no clear signatures for the presence of a central massive black hole. For this reason, it represents a suited place to study the orbital decay process in dwarf galaxies. In this paper we model the future evolution of the Fornax GCs simulating them and the host galaxy by means of direct $N$-body simulations. Our simulations take in account also the gravitational field generated by the Milky Way. We found that if the Fornax galaxy is embedded in a standard Cold Dark Matter Halo, the nuclear ...

  12. Prompt emission from tidal disruptions of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laguna P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a qualitative picture of prompt emission from tidal disruptions of white dwarfs (WD by intermediate mass black holes (IMBH. The smaller size of an IMBH compared to a supermassive black hole and a smaller tidal radius of a WD disruption lead to a very fast event with high peak luminosity. Magnetic field is generated in situ following the tidal disruption, which leads to effective accretion. Since large-scale magnetic field is also produced, geometrically thick super-Eddington inflow leads to a relativistic jet. The dense jet possesses a photosphere, which emits quasi-thermal radiation in soft X-rays. The source can be classified as a long low-luminosity gamma-ray burst (ll-GRB. Tidal compression of a WD causes nuclear ignition, which is observable as an accompanying supernova. We suggest that GRB060218 and SN2006aj is such a pair of ll-GRB and supernova. We argue that in a flux-limited sample the disruptions of WDs by IMBHs are more frequent then the disruptions of other stars by IMBHs.

  13. PROTOPLANETARY DISK MASSES FROM STARS TO BROWN DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Mortlock, Daniel [Imperial College London, 1010 Blackett Lab, Prince Consort Rd., London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Greaves, Jane [SUPA, Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Scholz, Aleks [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Thompson, Mark [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Lodato, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Looper, Dagny, E-mail: s.mohanty@imperial.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present SCUBA-2 850 {mu}m observations of seven very low mass stars (VLMS) and brown dwarfs (BDs). Three are in Taurus and four in the TW Hydrae Association (TWA), and all are classical T Tauri (cTT) analogs. We detect two of the three Taurus disks (one only marginally), but none of the TWA ones. For standard grains in cTT disks, our 3{sigma} limits correspond to a dust mass of 1.2 M{sub Circled-Plus} in Taurus and a mere 0.2 M{sub Circled-Plus} in the TWA (3-10 Multiplication-Sign deeper than previous work). We combine our data with other submillimeter/millimeter (sub-mm/mm) surveys of Taurus, {rho} Oph, and the TWA to investigate the trends in disk mass and grain growth during the cTT phase. Assuming a gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100:1 and fiducial surface density and temperature profiles guided by current data, we find the following. (1) The minimum disk outer radius required to explain the upper envelope of sub-mm/mm fluxes is {approx}100 AU for intermediate-mass stars, solar types, and VLMS, and {approx}20 AU for BDs. (2) While the upper envelope of apparent disk masses increases with M{sub *} from BDs to VLMS to solar-type stars, no such increase is observed from solar-type to intermediate-mass stars. We propose this is due to enhanced photoevaporation around intermediate stellar masses. (3) Many of the disks around Taurus and {rho} Oph intermediate-mass and solar-type stars evince an opacity index of {beta} {approx} 0-1, indicating significant grain growth. Of the only four VLMS/BDs in these regions with multi-wavelength measurements, three are consistent with considerable grain growth, though optically thick disks are not ruled out. (4) For the TWA VLMS (TWA 30A and B), combining our 850 {mu}m fluxes with the known accretion rates and ages suggests substantial grain growth by 10 Myr, comparable to that in the previously studied TWA cTTs Hen 3-600A and TW Hya. The degree of grain growth in the TWA BDs (2M1207A and SSPM1102) remains largely unknown. (5) A

  14. Stellar populations and star formation histories in late-type dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, M P

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the resolved stellar populations in nearby systems are crucial to understand galaxy evolution. Here, we summarize how the interpretation of the colour-magnitude diagrams of field stars in late-type dwarfs inside and outside the Local Group has allowed us to infer their star formation histories and put useful constraints on the evolution of this type of galaxies.

  15. Flames High Resolution Spectroscopy of RGB Stars in the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemasle, B.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.; Venn, K.

    2011-01-01

    Carina is a small and faint classical dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the halo of the Milky Way with a highly episodic star formation history (e.g., Hurley-Keller et al. 1998). Using VLT/FLAMES in high resolution mode, we significantly increase the sample of stars with abundance determinations in Carina,

  16. GD1212: Probing deep into the interior of a pulsating white dwarf star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giammichele N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first self-consistent seismic analysis of a white dwarf star, GD 1212, in the Kepler2 field. We precisely establish the fundamental parameters of the star using the forward method based on physically sound models. We unravel the internal structure as well as the rotation profile of GD1212 deeper than in any other ZZCeti stars studied so far. This opens up interesting prospects for future analyses of the white dwarf pulsators monitored in the Kepler and Kepler2 fields.

  17. Local Group Dwarf Galaxies and the Star Formation Law at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, N Yu

    2000-01-01

    I show how the existing observational data on Local Group dwarf galaxies can be used to estimate the average star formation law during the first 3 Gyr of the history of the universe. I find that the observational data are consistent with the orthodox Schmidt law with a star formation efficiency of about 4 percent if the star formation is continuous (during the first 3 Gyr). The efficiency is proportionally higher if most of the gas in the dwarfs was consumed (and never replenished) in a short time interval well before the universe turned 3 Gyr.

  18. Lack of nuclear clusters in dwarf spheroidal galaxies: implications for massive black holes formation and the cusp/core problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca-Sedda, Manuel; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    One of the leading scenarios for the formation of nuclear star clusters in galaxies is related to the orbital decay of globular clusters (GCs) and their subsequent merging, though alternative theories are currently debated. The availability of high-quality data for structural and orbital parameters of GCs allows us to test different nuclear star cluster formation scenarios. The Fornax dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy is the heaviest satellite of the Milky Way and it is the only known dSph hosting five GCs, whereas there are no clear signatures for the presence of a central massive black hole. For this reason, it represents a suited place to study the orbital decay process in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we model the future evolution of the Fornax GCs simulating them and the host galaxy by means of direct N-body simulations. Our simulations also take into account the gravitational field generated by the Milky Way. We found that if the Fornax galaxy is embedded in a standard cold dark matter halo, the nuclear cluster formation would be significantly hampered by the high central galactic mass density. In this context, we discuss the possibility that infalling GCs drive the flattening of the galactic density profile, giving a possible alternative explanation to the so-called cusp/core problem. Moreover, we briefly discuss the link between GC infall process and the absence of massive black holes in the centre of dSphs.

  19. Double white dwarf mergers and elemental surface abundances in extreme helium and R Coronae Borealis stars

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffery, C Simon; Saio, Hideyuki

    2011-01-01

    The surface abundances of extreme helium (EHe) and R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are discussed in terms of the merger of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf with a helium white dwarf. The model is expressed as a linear mixture of the individual layers of both constituent white dwarfs, taking account of the specific evolution of each star. In developing this recipe from previous versions, particular attention has been given to the inter-shell abundances of the asymptotic giant branch star which evolved to become the carbon-oxygen white dwarf. Thus the surface composition of the merged star is estimated as a function of the initial mass and metallicity of its progenitor. The question of whether additional nucleosynthesis occurs during the white dwarf merger has been examined. The high observed abundances of carbon and oxygen must either originate by dredge-up from the core of the carbon-oxygen white dwarf during a cold merger or be generated directly by alpha-burning during a hot merger. The presence of large quantiti...

  20. An r-process Enhanced Star in the Dwarf Galaxy Tucana III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, T. T.; Simon, J. D.; Marshall, J. L.; Li, T. S.; Carollo, D.; DePoy, D. L.; Nagasawa, D. Q.; Bernstein, R. A.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    Chemically peculiar stars in dwarf galaxies provide a window for exploring the birth environment of stars with varying chemical enrichment. We present a chemical abundance analysis of the brightest star in the newly discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxy candidate Tucana III. Because it is particularly bright for a star in an ultra-faint Milky Way (MW) satellite, we are able to measure the abundance of 28 elements, including 13 neutron-capture species. This star, DES J235532.66‑593114.9 (DES J235532), shows a mild enhancement in neutron-capture elements associated with the r-process and can be classified as an r-I star. DES J235532 is the first r-I star to be discovered in an ultra-faint satellite, and Tuc III is the second extremely low-luminosity system found to contain r-process enriched material, after Reticulum II. Comparison of the abundance pattern of DES J235532 with r-I and r-II stars found in other dwarf galaxies and in the MW halo suggests a common astrophysical origin for the neutron-capture elements seen in all r-process enhanced stars. We explore both internal and external scenarios for the r-process enrichment of Tuc III and show that with abundance patterns for additional stars, it should be possible to distinguish between them. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 meter Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  1. Toward restrictions on boson stars as black hole mimickers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, F S, E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edificio C3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-09-22

    The status of boson stars as black hole mimickers is presented among other mimickers. We focus on the analysis of the emission spectrum of a simple accretion disk model. We describe the free parameters that allow a boson star to become a black hole mimicker and present an example of a particular astrophysical case.

  2. Star Cluster Luminosity Functions and Cluster Formation Efficiencies in LEGUS Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David O.; Lee, Janice C.; Adamo, Angela; Kim, Hwiyun; Ryon, Jenna E.; LEGUS Team

    2017-01-01

    We present preliminary results of star cluster luminosity functions (LFs) and cluster formation efficiencies (Γ) in the LEGUS dwarf galaxy sub-sample. We have used a combination of automated and visual identification techniques to allow us to construct a more complete sample of clusters in these low-mass, low-SFR environments compared to previous studies of dwarf galaxies. Cluster properties are derived from fitting UV and optical (NUV-I) HST photometry to both deterministic and stochastic single-aged stellar populations models. We compare the cluster formation efficiencies and LF slopes to those of previous studies in both dwarf and massive spiral galaxy environments. Recent studies have found that both the LF slope and Γ form trends with galaxy environment. Our LF slope and Γ measurements in the LEGUS dwarfs will allow us to test these trends in the extreme, low-SFR regime and provide a better understanding of the star formation process.

  3. The evolution of white dwarfs resulting from helium-enhanced, low-metallicity progenitor stars

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, Leandro G; Córsico, Alejandro H; Torres, Santiago; García--Berro, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Some globular clusters host multiple stellar populations with different chemical abundance patterns. This is particularly true for $\\omega$ Centauri, which shows clear evidence of a helium- enriched sub-population characterized by a helium abundance as high as $Y= 0.4$. We present a whole and consistent set of evolutionary tracks from the ZAMS to the white dwarf stage appropriate for the study of the formation and evolution of white dwarfs resulting from the evolution of helium-rich progenitors. Different issues of the white dwarf evolution and their helium-rich progenitors have been explored. In particular, the final mass of the remnants, the role of overshooting during the thermally-pulsing phase, and the cooling of the resulting white dwarfs differ markedly from the evolutionary predictions of progenitor stars with standard initial helium abundance. Finally, the pulsational properties of the resulting white dwarfs are also explored. We find that, for the range of initial masses explored in this paper, the ...

  4. ALFALFA HI Content and Star Formation in Virgo Cluster Early-Type Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Koopmann, R A; Haynes, M P; Brosch, N

    2009-01-01

    The ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) blind survey is providing a census of HI in galaxies of all types in a range of environments. Here we report on ALFALFA results for Virgo Cluster early-type dwarfs between declinations of 4 and 16 degrees. Less than 2% of the Virgo early-type dwarf population is detected, compared to 70-80% of the Im/BCD dwarf population. Most of the dwarfs detected in HI show evidence for ongoing or recent star formation. Early-type galaxies with HI tend to be located in the outer regions of the cluster and to be brighter. Early-type dwarfs with HI may be undergoing morphological transition due to cluster environmental effects.

  5. K-band spectroscopic metallicities and temperatures of M-dwarf stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Ayala Bárbara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available I present the metallicity and effective temperature techniques developed for M dwarf stars by Rojas-Ayala et al. (2010, 2012. These techniques are based on absorption features present in the modest resolution K-band spectra (R∼2700 of M dwarfs and have been calibrated using FGK+M dwarf pairs and synthetic atmosphere models. The H2O-K2 index seems to overestimate the effective temperatures of M dwarfs when compared to interferometric measurements. The metallicity distribution of the M dwarf host candidates by the Kepler Mission hints that jovian-size planets form preferentially around solar and super-solar metallicity environments, while small rocky planet host exhibit a wide range of metallicities, just like in their solar-type counterparts.

  6. Black holes, pregalactic stars, and the dark matter problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, B.J.

    1985-06-01

    We review the different ways in which black holes might form and discuss their various astrophysical and cosmological consequences. We then consider the various constraints on the form of the dark matter and conclude that black holes could have a significant cosmological density only if they are of primordial origin or remnants of a population of pregalactic stars. This leads us to discuss the other cosmological effects of primordial black holes and pregalactic stars. 239 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. How Dry is the Brown Dwarf Desert?: Quantifying the Relative Number of Planets, Brown Dwarfs and Stellar Companions around Nearby Sun-like Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Grether, D; Grether, Daniel; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    Sun-like stars have stellar, brown dwarf and planetary companions. To help constrain their formation and migration scenarios, we analyse the close companions (orbital period 2 M_Solar respectively. However, we find no evidence that companion mass scales with host mass in general. Approximately 16% of Sun-like stars have close (P < 5 years) companions more massive than Jupiter: 11% are stellar, 1% are brown dwarf and 4% are giant planets. The companion mass function in the brown dwarf and stellar mass range, has a different shape than the initial mass function of individual stars and free-floating brown dwarfs. This suggests either a different spectrum of gravitational fragmentation in the formation environment or post-formation migratory processes disinclined to leave brown dwarfs in close orbits.

  8. White dwarf mergers and the origin of R Coronae Borealis stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lorén-Aguilar, P; José, J; García-Berro, E; Althaus, L G; Isern, J

    2011-01-01

    We present a nucleosynthesis study of the merger of a 0.4 solar masses helium white dwarf with a 0.8 solar masses carbon-oxygen white dwarf, coupling the thermodynamic history of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics particles with a post-processing code. The resulting chemical abundance pattern, particularly for oxygen and fluorine, is in qualitative agreement with the observed abundances in R Coronae Borealis stars.

  9. On stars, galaxies and black holes in massive bigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Enander, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the phenomenology of stars and galaxies in massive bigravity. We give parameter conditions for the existence of viable star solutions when the radius of the star is much smaller than the Compton wavelength of the graviton. If these parameter conditions are not met, we constrain the ratio between the coupling constants of the two metrics, in order to give viable conditions for e.g. neutron stars. For galaxies, we put constraints on both the Compton wavelength of the graviton and the conformal factor and coupling constants of the two metrics. The relationship between black holes and stars, and whether the former can be formed from the latter, is discussed. We argue that the different asymptotic structure of stars and black holes makes it unlikely that black holes form from the gravitational collapse of stars in massive bigravity.

  10. Episodic model for star formation history and chemical abundances in giant and dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debsarma, Suma; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Das, Sukanta; Pfenniger, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    In search for a synthetic understanding, a scenario for the evolution of the star formation rate and the chemical abundances in galaxies is proposed, combining gas infall from galactic haloes, outflow of gas by supernova explosions, and an oscillatory star formation process. The oscillatory star formation model is a consequence of the modelling of the fractional masses changes of the hot, warm and cold components of the interstellar medium. The derived periods of oscillation vary in the range (0.1-3.0) × 107 yr depending on various parameters existing from giant to dwarf galaxies. The evolution of metallicity varies in giant and dwarf galaxies and depends on the outflow process. Observed abundances in dwarf galaxies can be reproduced under fast outflow together with slow evaporation of cold gases into hot gas whereas slow outflow and fast evaporation is preferred for giant galaxies. The variation of metallicities in dwarf galaxies supports the fact that low rate of SNII production in dwarf galaxies is responsible for variation in metallicity in dwarf galaxies of similar masses as suggested by various authors.

  11. Milky Way red dwarfs in the BoRG survey; galactic scale-height and the distribution of dwarf stars in WFC3 imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Trenti, M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Clarkson, W. [Department of Natural Sciences College of Arts, Sciences and Letters, University of Michigan-Dearborn 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Sahu, K.; Bradley, L.; Stiavelli, M.; Pirzkal, N.; Ryan, R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); De Marchi, G. [European Space Agency, ESA-ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Andersen, M., E-mail: holwerda@strw.leidenuniv.nl [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-06-10

    We present a tally of Milky Way late-type dwarf stars in 68 Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) pure-parallel fields (227 arcmin{sup 2}) from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies survey for high-redshift galaxies. Using spectroscopically identified M-dwarfs in two public surveys, the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey and the Early Release Science mosaics, we identify a morphological selection criterion using the half-light radius (r {sub 50}), a near-infrared J – H, G – J color region where M-dwarfs are found, and a V – J relation with M-dwarf subtype. We apply this morphological selection of stellar objects, color-color selection of M-dwarfs, and optical-near-infrared color subtyping to compile a catalog of 274 M-dwarfs belonging to the disk of the Milky Way with a limiting magnitude of m {sub F125W} < 24(AB). Based on the M-dwarf statistics, we conclude that (1) the previously identified north-south discrepancy in M-dwarf numbers persists in our sample; there are more M-dwarfs in the northern fields on average than in southern ones, (2) the Milky Way's single disk scale-height for M-dwarfs is 0.3-4 kpc, depending on subtype, (3) the scale-height depends on M-dwarf subtype with early types (M0-4) high scale-height (z {sub 0} = 3-4 kpc) and later types M5 and above in the thin disk (z {sub 0} = 0.3-0.5 kpc), (4) a second component is visible in the vertical distribution, with a different, much higher scale-height in the southern fields compared to the northern ones. We report the M-dwarf component of the Sagittarius stream in one of our fields with 11 confirmed M-dwarfs, seven of which are at the stream's distance. In addition to the M-dwarf catalog, we report the discovery of 1 T-dwarfs and 30 L-dwarfs from their near-infrared colors. The dwarf scale-height and the relative low incidence in our fields of L- and T-dwarfs in these fields makes it unlikely that these stars will be interlopers in great numbers in color-selected samples of

  12. The Evolutionary Status of Isolated Dwarf Irregular Galaxies II. Star Formation Histories and Gas Depletion

    CERN Document Server

    Van Zee, L

    2001-01-01

    The results of UBV and H alpha imaging of a large sample of isolated dwarf irregular galaxies are interpreted in the context of composite stellar population models. The observed optical colors are best fit by composite stellar populations which have had approximately constant star formation rates for at least 10 Gyr. The galaxies span a range of central surface brightness, from 20.5 to 25.0 mag arcsec^{-2}; there is no correlation between surface brightness and star formation history. Although the current star formation rates are low, it is possible to reproduce the observed luminosities without a major starburst episode. The derived gas depletion timescales are long, typically ~20 Gyr. These results indicate that dwarf irregular galaxies will be able to continue with their slow, but constant, star formation activity for at least another Hubble time. The sample of isolated dIs is compared to a sample of star bursting dwarf galaxies taken from the literature. The star bursting dwarf galaxies have many similar ...

  13. Star Formation in NGC4532/DDO 137'S Tidal Dwarf Galaxies and 500 KPC HI Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Sarah

    Mergers and close-passages between gas rich galaxies can result in the formation of long HI/stellar streams. The tidally induced star formation and gas concentrations can result in the creation of tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs). TDGs may contribute significantly to the dwarf galaxy population, by far the most common galaxy type in the current epoch. We have discovered one of the longest known tidal streams (500 kpc) in the NGC 4535/DDO 137 system. We propose 3 ksec FUV/NUV images centered on the stream and its five TDGs. We will readily detect faint/low mass star forming regions (~2E-17 erg s-1 cm-2 A-1) to 5-sigma. The GALEX observations are a unique opportunity to undertake a sensitive and comprehensive study of tidally induced star formation, dwarf galaxy formation and inter-galactic enrichment in this system.

  14. Environmental effects on stellar populations of star clusters and dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Stefano; Cropper, Mark; Fujita, Yutaka; Chiosi, Cesare; Grebel, Eva K.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the competitive role of the different dissipative phenomena acting on the onset of star formation of gravitationally bound systems in an external environment. Ram pressure, Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, and tidal forces are accounted for separately in an analytical framework and compared in their role in influencing the star forming regions. We present an analytical criterion to elucidate the dependence of star formation in a spherical stellar system on its surrounding environment. We consider the different signatures of these phenomena in synthetically realized colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of the orbiting system thus investigating the detectability limits of these different effects for future observational projects and their relevance. The developed theoretical framework has direct applications to the cases of massive star clusters, dwarf galaxies in galaxy clusters and dwarf galaxies orbiting our Milky Way system, as well as any primordial gas-rich cluster of stars orbiting within its host galaxy.

  15. Oscillations of red dwarfs in evolved low-mass binaries with neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Marek J.; Lee, Umin; Muslimov, Alexander G.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate a novel aspect of a problem related to the properties of low-mass binaries (LMBs) with millisecond pulsars: the pulsations of the red dwarf (donor) companion of the neutron star (NS). The illumination of the donor star by the pulsar's high-energy nonthermal radiation and relativistic wind may substantially affect its structure. We present a quantitative analysis of the oscillation spectrum of a red dwarf which has evolved in an LMB and has undergone the stage of evaporation. We calculate the p- and g-modes for red dwarfs with masses in the interval (0.2-0.6) stellar mass. For comparison, similar calculations are presented for zero age main-sequence (ZAMS) stars of the same masses. For less massive donor stars (approximately 0.2 stellar mass) the oscillation spectrum becomes quantitatively different from that of their ZAMS counterparts. The differnce is due to the fact that a ZAMS star of 0.2 stellar mass is fully convective, while the donor star in an LMB is expected to be far from thermal equilibrium and not fully convective. As a result, in contrast to a low-mass ZAMS star, a red dwarf of the same mass in an LMB allows the existence of g-modes. We also consider tidally forced g-modes, and perform a linear analysis of these oscillations for different degrees of nonsynchronism between the orbital and spin rotation of the red dwarf component. We demonstrate the existence of a series of reasonances for the low-order g-modes which may occur in LMBs at a late stage of their evolution. We discuss the possibility that these oscillations may trigger Roche lobe overflow and sudden mass loss by the donor star. Further implications of this effect for gamma- and X-ray burst phenomena are outlined.

  16. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna; Simon, Joshua D

    2009-01-01

    Current cosmological models indicate that the Milky Way's stellar halo was assembled from many smaller systems. Based on the apparent absence of the most metal-poor stars in present-day dwarf galaxies, recent studies claimed that the true Galactic building blocks must have been vastly different from the surviving dwarfs. The discovery of an extremely iron-poor star (S1020549) in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy based on a medium-resolution spectrum cast some doubt on this conclusion. However, verification of the iron-deficiency and measurements of additional elements, such as the alpha-element Mg, are mandatory for demonstrating that the same type of stars produced the metals found in dwarf galaxies and the Galactic halo. Only then can dwarf galaxy stars be conclusively linked to early stellar halo assembly. Here we report high-resolution spectroscopic abundances for 11 elements in S1020549, confirming the iron abundance of less than 1/4000th that of the Sun, and showing that the overall abundance pattern mirrors th...

  17. Brane-world stars and (microscopic) black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Casadio, R

    2012-01-01

    We study stars in the brane-world by employing the principle of minimal geometric deformation and find that brane-world black hole metrics with a tidal charge are consistently recovered in a suitable limit. This procedure allows us to determine the tidal charge as a function of the black hole ADM mass (and brane tension). A minimum mass for semiclassical microscopic black holes can then be derived, with a relevant impact for the description of black hole events at the LHC.

  18. Properties and Star Formation Histories of Intermediate Redshift Dwarf Low-Mass Star-Forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Gallego, J.; Pacifici, C.; Tresse, L.; Charlot, S.; Gil de Paz, A.; Barro, G.; Villar, V.

    2017-03-01

    The epoch when low-mass star-forming galaxies (LMSFGs) form the bulk of their stellar mass is uncertain. While some models predict an early formation, others favor a delayed scenario until later ages of the Universe. We present improved constraints on the physical properties and star formation histories (SFHs) of a sample of intermediate redshift LMSFGs selected by their stellar mass or blue-compact-dwarf-like properties. Our work takes advantage of the deep UV-to-FIR photometric coverage available on the Extended-Chandra Deep Field South and our own dedicated deep VLT/VIMOS optical spectroscopy programs. On the one hand, we estimate the stellar mass (M_{*}), star formation rate (SFR), and SFH of each galaxy modeling its spectral energy distribution. We use a novel approach by Pacifici et al. 2012, that (1) consistently combines photometric (broad-band) and spectroscopic (emission line fluxes and equivalent widths) data, and (2) uses physically-motivated SFHs with non-uniform variations of the SFR as a function of time. On the other hand, we characterize the properties of their interstellar medium by analyzing the emission line features visible in the VIMOS spectroscopy. The final sample includes 91 spectroscopically confirmed LMSFGs (7.3 ≤ logM_{*}/M_{⊙} ≤ 9.5) at 0.3 star forming galaxies over 2 dex in stellar mass, and high specific-SFR. Furthermore, they are characterized by strong emission lines, low metallicity, and an enhanced level of excitation. Our selection criterion based on mass gathers galaxies within a wide range of properties, and possibly, different evolutionary stages. Despite the individual differences, the average SFH that we obtain suggests a late and fast (˜2 Gyr prior their observation) assembly scenario for this type of system.

  19. The Imprint of Reionization on the Star Formation Histories of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Benitez-Llambay, Alejandro; Abadi, Mario G; Gottloeber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    We explore the impact of cosmic reionization on nearby isolated dwarf galaxies using a compilation of SFHs estimated from deep HST data and a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation of the Local Group. The nearby dwarfs show a wide diversity of star formation histories; from ancient systems that have largely completed their star formation $\\sim 10$ Gyr ago to young dwarfs that have formed the majority of their stars in the past $\\sim 5$ Gyr to two-component systems characterized by the overlap of comparable numbers of old and young stars. Taken as an ensemble, star formation in nearby dwarfs dips to lower-than-average rates at intermediate times ($4

  20. Temperate Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuël; Lederer, Susan M; Delrez, Laetitia; de Wit, Julien; Burdanov, Artem; Van Grootel, Valérie; Burgasser, Adam J; Triaud, Amaury H M J; Opitom, Cyrielle; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Sahu, Devendra K; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Magain, Pierre; Queloz, Didier

    2016-05-12

    Star-like objects with effective temperatures of less than 2,700 kelvin are referred to as 'ultracool dwarfs'. This heterogeneous group includes stars of extremely low mass as well as brown dwarfs (substellar objects not massive enough to sustain hydrogen fusion), and represents about 15 per cent of the population of astronomical objects near the Sun. Core-accretion theory predicts that, given the small masses of these ultracool dwarfs, and the small sizes of their protoplanetary disks, there should be a large but hitherto undetected population of terrestrial planets orbiting them--ranging from metal-rich Mercury-sized planets to more hospitable volatile-rich Earth-sized planets. Here we report observations of three short-period Earth-sized planets transiting an ultracool dwarf star only 12 parsecs away. The inner two planets receive four times and two times the irradiation of Earth, respectively, placing them close to the inner edge of the habitable zone of the star. Our data suggest that 11 orbits remain possible for the third planet, the most likely resulting in irradiation significantly less than that received by Earth. The infrared brightness of the host star, combined with its Jupiter-like size, offers the possibility of thoroughly characterizing the components of this nearby planetary system.

  1. Supernova SN 2011fe from an exploding carbon-oxygen white dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Peter E; Sullivan, Mark; Cenko, S Bradley; Thomas, Rollin C; Kasen, Daniel; Howell, D Andrew; Bersier, David; Bloom, Joshua S; Kulkarni, S R; Kandrashoff, Michael T; Filippenko, Alexei V; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Maguire, Kate; Suzuki, Nao; Tarlton, James E; Pan, Yen-Chen; Bildsten, Lars; Fulton, Benjamin J; Parrent, Jerod T; Sand, David; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Bianco, Federica B; Dilday, Benjamin; Graham, Melissa L; Lyman, Joe; James, Phil; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Law, Nicholas M; Quimby, Robert M; Hook, Isobel M; Walker, Emma S; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Ofek, Eran O; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi

    2011-12-14

    Type Ia supernovae have been used empirically as 'standard candles' to demonstrate the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe even though fundamental details, such as the nature of their progenitor systems and how the stars explode, remain a mystery. There is consensus that a white dwarf star explodes after accreting matter in a binary system, but the secondary body could be anything from a main-sequence star to a red giant, or even another white dwarf. This uncertainty stems from the fact that no recent type Ia supernova has been discovered close enough to Earth to detect the stars before explosion. Here we report early observations of supernova SN 2011fe in the galaxy M101 at a distance from Earth of 6.4 megaparsecs. We find that the exploding star was probably a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, and from the lack of an early shock we conclude that the companion was probably a main-sequence star. Early spectroscopy shows high-velocity oxygen that slows rapidly, on a timescale of hours, and extensive mixing of newly synthesized intermediate-mass elements in the outermost layers of the supernova. A companion paper uses pre-explosion images to rule out luminous red giants and most helium stars as companions to the progenitor.

  2. Lifestyles of the Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  3. Star Formation at Low Rates: How a Lack of Massive Stars Impacts the Evolution of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    In recent years dedicated observations have uncovered star formation at extremely low rates in dwarf galaxies, tidal tails, ram-pressure stripped gas clouds, and the outskirts of galactic disks. At the same time, numerical simulations of galaxy evolution have advanced to higher spatial and mass resolutions, but have yet to account for the underfilling of the uppermost mass bins of stellar initial mass function (IMF) at low star-formation rates. In such situations, simulations may simply scale down the IMF, without realizing that this unrealistically results infractions of massive stars, along with fractions of massive star feedback energy (e.g., radiation and SNII explosions). Not properlyaccounting for such parameters has consequences for the self-regulation of star formation, the energetics of galaxies, as well as for the evolution of chemical abundances.Here we present numerical simulations of dwarf galaxies with low star-formation rates allowing for two extreme cases of the IMF: a "filled" case with fractional massive stars vs. a truncated IMF, at which the IMF is built bottom-up until the gas reservoir allows the formation of a last single star at an uppermost mass. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the different effects on galaxy evolution with respect to self-regulation, feedback, and chemistry. The case of a stochastic sampled IMF is situated somewhere in between these extremes.

  4. Atmospheric Chemistry in Giant Planets, Brown Dwarfs, and Low-Mass Dwarf Stars II. Sulfur and Phosphorus

    CERN Document Server

    Visscher, C

    2005-01-01

    We use thermochemical equilibrium and kinetic calculations to model sulfur and phosphorus chemistry in the atmospheres of giant planets, brown dwarfs, low-mass stars, and extrasolar giant planets (EGPs). The chemical behavior of individual S- and P-bearing gases and condensates is determined as a function of pressure, temperature, and metallicity. Our results are independent of any particular model atmosphere and the behavior of different gases can be used to constrain atmospheric structure and metallicity. Hydrogen sulfide is the dominant sulfur gas in substellar atmospheres and approximately represents the atmospheric sulfur inventory. Depending on the prevailing S and C chemistry, the abundance of minor sulfur gases may constrain atmospheric temperatures or metallicity. Disequilibrium abundances of PH3 are expected in the observable atmospheres of substellar objects, and PH3 is representative of the total P abundance in giant planets and T dwarfs. A number of other phosphorus gases become relatively abunda...

  5. Tidal disruption rate of stars by spinning supermassive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kesden, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A supermassive black hole can disrupt a star when its tidal field exceeds the star's self-gravity, and can directly capture stars that cross its event horizon. For black holes with mass M > 10^7 solar masses, tidal disruption of main-sequence stars occurs close enough to the event horizon that a Newtonian treatment of the tidal field is no longer valid. The fraction of stars that are directly captured is also no longer negligible. We calculate generically oriented stellar orbits in the Kerr metric, and evaluate the relativistic tidal tensor at pericenter for those stars not directly captured by the black hole. We combine this relativistic analysis with previous calculations of how these orbits are populated to determine tidal-disruption rates for spinning black holes. We find, consistent with previous results, that black-hole spin increases the upper limit on the mass of a black hole capable of tidally disrupting solar-like stars to ~7 x 10^8 solar masses. More quantitatively, we find that direct stellar capt...

  6. Episodic Model For Star Formation History and Chemical Abundances in Giant and Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Debsarma, Suma; Das, Sukanta; Pfenniger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In search for a synthetic understanding, a scenario for the evolution of the star formation rate and the chemical abundances in galaxies is proposed, combining gas infall from galactic halos, outflow of gas by supernova explosions, and an oscillatory star formation process. The oscillatory star formation model is a consequence of the modelling of the fractional masses changes of the hot, warm and cold components of the interstellar medium. The observed periods of oscillation vary in the range $(0.1-3.0)\\times10^{7}$\\,yr depending on various parameters existing from giant to dwarf galaxies. The evolution of metallicity varies in giant and dwarf galaxies and depends on the outflow process. Observed abundances in dwarf galaxies can be reproduced under fast outflow together with slow evaporation of cold gases into hot gas whereas slow outflow and fast evaporation is preferred for giant galaxies. The variation of metallicities in dwarf galaxies supports the fact that low rate of SNII production in dwarf galaxies i...

  7. A VLT/FORS2 spectroscopic survey of individual stars in a transforming dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, G; Rejkuba, M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the properties of dwarf galaxies is important not only to put them in their proper cosmological context, but also to understand the formation and evolution of the most common type of galaxies. Dwarf galaxies are divided into two main classes, dwarf irregulars (dIrrs) and dwarf spheroidals (dSphs), which differ from each other mainly because the former are gas-rich objects currently forming stars, while the latter are gas-deficient with no on-going star formation. Transition types (dT) are thought to represent dIs in the process of losing their gas, and can therefore shed light into the possible process of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs) becoming gas-deficient, passively evolving galaxies. Here we present preliminary results from our wide-area VLT/FORS2 MXU spectroscopic survey of the Phoenix dT, from which we obtained line-of-sight velocities and metallicities from the nIR Ca II triplet lines for a large sample of individual Red Giant Branch stars.

  8. A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil C; van den Bosch, Remco; Mieske, Steffen; Baumgardt, Holger; den Brok, Mark; Strader, Jay; Neumayer, Nadine; Chilingarian, Igor; Hilker, Michael; McDermid, Richard; Spitler, Lee; Brodie, Jean; Frank, Matthias J; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2014-09-18

    Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies are among the densest stellar systems in the Universe. These systems have masses of up to 2 × 10(8) solar masses, but half-light radii of just 3-50 parsecs. Dynamical mass estimates show that many such dwarfs are more massive than expected from their luminosity. It remains unclear whether these high dynamical mass estimates arise because of the presence of supermassive black holes or result from a non-standard stellar initial mass function that causes the average stellar mass to be higher than expected. Here we report adaptive optics kinematic data of the ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 that show a central velocity dispersion peak exceeding 100 kilometres per second and modest rotation. Dynamical modelling of these data reveals the presence of a supermassive black hole with a mass of 2.1 × 10(7) solar masses. This is 15 per cent of the object's total mass. The high black hole mass and mass fraction suggest that M60-UCD1 is the stripped nucleus of a galaxy. Our analysis also shows that M60-UCD1's stellar mass is consistent with its luminosity, implying a large population of previously unrecognized supermassive black holes in other ultra-compact dwarf galaxies.

  9. V and K-band Mass-Luminosity Relations for M Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, George Frederick; Henry, Todd J.; McArthur, Barbara E.; Franz, Otto; Wasserman, Larry H.; Dieterich, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    Applying Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor astrometric techniques developed to establish relative orbits for binary stars (Franz et al. 1998, AJ, 116, 1432), determine masses of binary components (Benedict et al. 2001, AJ, 121, 1607), and measure companion masses of exoplanet host stars (McArthur et al. 2010, ApJ, 715, 1203), we derive masses with an average 2% error for 28 components of 14 M dwarf binary star systems. With these and other published masses we update the lower Main Sequence V-band Mass-Luminosity Relation first shown in Henry et al. 1999, ApJ, 512, 864. We demonstrate that a Mass-Luminosity Relation in the K-band has far less scatter. These relations can be used to estimate the masses of the ubiquitous red dwarfs (75% of all stars) to an accuracy of better than 5%.

  10. Suppression of star formation in dwarf galaxies by grain photoelectric feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, John C; Goldbaum, Nathan J; Dekel, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectric heating has long been recognized as the primary source of heating for the neutral interstellar medium. Simulations of spiral galaxies found some indication that photoelectric heating could suppress star formation. However, simulations that include photoelectric heating have typically found that it has little effect on the rate of star formation in either spiral galaxies or dwarfs suggesting that supernovae and not photoelectric heating are responsible for setting the star formation law in galaxies. This result is in tension with recent work indicating that a star formation law that depends on galaxy metallicity, as expected for photoelectric heating but not for supernovae, reproduces the present-day galaxy population better than a metallicity-independent one. Here we report a series of simulations of dwarf galaxies, where the effects of both photoelectric heating and supernovae are expected to be strongest. We simultaneously include space- and time-dependent photoelectric heating, and we resolve...

  11. Short duration high amplitude flares detected on the M dwarf star KIC 5474065

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, Gavin; Hakala, Pasi; Garcia-Alvarez, David; Brooks, Adam; Barclay, Thomas; Still, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Using data obtained during the RATS-Kepler project we identified one short duration flare in a 1 hour sequence of ground based photometry of the dwarf star KIC 5474065. Observations made using GTC show it is a star with a M4 V spectral type. Kepler observations made using 1 min sampling show that KIC 5474065 exhibits large amplitude (deltaF/F>0.4) optical flares which have a duration as short as 10 mins. We compare the energy distribution of flares from KIC 5474065 with that of KIC 9726699, which has also been observed using 1 min sampling, and ground based observations of other M dwarf stars in the literature. We discuss the possible implications of these short duration, relatively low energy flares would have on the atmosphere of exo-planets orbiting in the habitable zone of these flare stars.

  12. The nature of the F str lambda 4077 stars. 3: Spectroscopy of the barium dwarfs and other CP stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, P.; Berthet, S.; Lanz, T.

    1994-01-01

    The abundances of C, O, Al, Ca, iron-peak and s-process elements have been derived from high-resolution spectra for a sample of stars classified as F str lambda 4077 by Bidelman. Among the 20 stars mentioned by Bidelman, we have discovered 8 barium dwarfs (or CH subgiants, according to Bond's terminology), while a 9th star, HD 182274, was already known as a CH subgiant. In addition, we have analyzed three barium stars taken from the list of Lu et al. (1983) which are probably dwarfs rather than giants, and three CH subgiants. The other 11 F str lambda 4077 stars resemble either the delta Delphini stars, since their iron abundance is enhanced while Ca is normal, or are probably spectrum composites. A few Am, Ap, lambda Bootis and normal stars have been analyzed for comparison. In particular, we have included three lambda Boo candidates, selected from their photometric properties, and their iron deficiency is confirmed. The spectroscopic, photometric and statistical evidences concerning the Ba dwarfs, support the idea that these stars may be the main sequence counterparts, and possibly the progenitors of the Ba giants. The C/O ratio varies in these stars from normal values to a maximum of 1.5, but mostly within 0.6 and 1.2. Some of these objects may therefore be considered, in this sense, as carbon stars. On the other hand, the abundances of carbon and s-process elements relative to iron are inversely correlated with metallicity, and may even exceed significantly those of typical, solar-metallicity carbon stars. Metal-deficient C stars must therefore have (C/Fe) greater than or approximately equal to 1 and (s/Fe) greater than or approximately equal to 1.5 as soon as (Fe/H) less than or approximately equal to -1. The neutron exposure is shown to increase when the metallicity decreases, which is compatible with the C-13 (alpha, n) O-16 neutron source, but not with the Ne-22 (alpha, n) Mg-25 one. The evolutionary state (within the main sequence) of the Ba dwarfs, is

  13. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  14. CHARACTERIZING THE BROWN DWARF FORMATION CHANNELS FROM THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND BINARY-STAR DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thies, Ingo; Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel; Marks, Michael [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (HISKP), Universität Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-02-10

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a key property of stellar populations. There is growing evidence that the classical star-formation mechanism by the direct cloud fragmentation process has difficulties reproducing the observed abundance and binary properties of brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars. In particular, recent analytical derivations of the stellar IMF exhibit a deficit of brown dwarfs compared to observational data. Here we derive the residual mass function of brown dwarfs as an empirical measure of the brown dwarf deficiency in recent star-formation models with respect to observations and show that it is compatible with the substellar part of the Thies-Kroupa IMF and the mass function obtained by numerical simulations. We conclude that the existing models may be further improved by including a substellar correction term that accounts for additional formation channels like disk or filament fragmentation. The term ''peripheral fragmentation'' is introduced here for such additional formation channels. In addition, we present an updated analytical model of stellar and substellar binarity. The resulting binary fraction and the dynamically evolved companion mass-ratio distribution are in good agreement with observational data on stellar and very-low-mass binaries in the Galactic field, in clusters, and in dynamically unprocessed groups of stars if all stars form as binaries with stellar companions. Cautionary notes are given on the proper analysis of mass functions and the companion mass-ratio distribution and the interpretation of the results. The existence of accretion disks around young brown dwarfs does not imply that these form just like stars in direct fragmentation.

  15. Sensitivity of Biosignatures on Earth-like Planets orbiting in the Habitable Zone of Cool M-Dwarf Stars to varying Stellar UV Radiation and Surface Biomass Emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Grenfell, John Lee; von Paris, Philip; Godolt, Mareike; Rauer, Heike

    2015-01-01

    We find that variations in the UV emissions of cool M-dwarf stars have a potentially large impact upon atmospheric biosignatures in simulations of Earth-like exoplanets i.e. planets with Earths development, and biomass and a molecular nitrogen-oxygen dominated atmosphere. Starting with an assumed black-body stellar emission for an M7 class dwarf star, the stellar UV irradiation was increased stepwise and the resulting climate-photochemical response of the planetary atmosphere was calculated. Results suggest a Goldilocks effect with respect to the spectral detection of ozone. At weak UV levels, the ozone column was weak (due to weaker production from the Chapman mechanism) hence its spectral detection was challenging. At strong UV levels, ozone formation is stronger but its associated stratospheric heating leads to a weakening in temperature gradients between the stratosphere and troposphere, which results in weakened spectral bands. Also, increased UV levels can lead to enhanced abundances of hydrogen oxides ...

  16. I -Love- Q relations for white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkayev, K.; Quevedo, H.; Zhami, B.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the equilibrium configurations of uniformly rotating white dwarfs, using Chandrasekhar and Salpeter equations of state in the framework of Newtonian physics. The Hartle formalism is applied to integrate the field equation together with the hydrostatic equilibrium condition. We consider the equations of structure up to the second order in the angular velocity, and compute all basic parameters of rotating white dwarfs to test the so-called moment of inertia, rotational Love number, and quadrupole moment (I-Love-Q) relations. We found that the I-Love-Q relations are also valid for white dwarfs regardless of the equation of state and nuclear composition. In addition, we show that the moment of inertia, quadrupole moment, and eccentricity (I-Q-e) relations are valid as well.

  17. Relating Follicly-Challenged Compact Stars to Bald Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Compact stars satisfy certain no-hair relations through which their multipole moments are given by their mass, spin and quadrupole moment. These relations are approximately independent of their equation of state, relating pressure to density. Such relations are similar to the black hole no-hair theorems, but these possess event horizons inside which information that led to their formation can hide. Compact stars do not possess horizons, so whether their no-hair relations are related to the black hole ones is unclear. We here show numerically that the compact star no-hair relations approach the black hole ones as the compactness approaches that of a black hole. We moreover show that compact stars become progressively oblate in this limit, even if prolate at low compactness due to strong anisotropies.

  18. Spectroscopic Reductions of White Dwarf Stars to Support Dark Energy Survey Calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Deborah Jean; Robertson, Jacob M.; Tucker, Douglas Lee; Smith, J. Allyn; Wester, William; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Fix, Mees B.

    2017-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey is an imaging survey that covers 5000 square degrees in the Southern hemisphere to map galaxies and gather information on dark energy. Science requirements for the survey require a 0.5% uncertainty in color, driven by supernova science. The Dark Energy Survey relies a calibration technique that uses white dwarf stars to set zero points. These white dwarf spectra are fit to models which are used to generate synthetic photometry. These values are compared to the measured values from the survey to verify that the zero points are correct. We present results to date of the spectroscopic reductions of these white dwarf stars in support of the calibrations for the Dark Energy Survey.

  19. Nucleosynthesis during the Merger of White Dwarfs and the Origin of R Coronae Borealis Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Longland, R; José, J; García-Berro, E; Althaus, L G; Isern, J

    2011-01-01

    Many hydrogen deficient stars are characterised by surface abundance patterns that are hard to reconcile with conventional stellar evolution. Instead, it has been suggested that they may represent the result of a merger episode between a helium and a carbon-oxygen white dwarf. In this Letter, we present a nucleosynthesis study of the merger of a 0.4 M_sol helium white dwarf with a 0.8 M_sol carbon-oxygen white dwarf, by coupling the thermodynamic history of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics particles with a post-processing code. The resulting chemical abundance pattern, particularly for oxygen and fluorine, is in qualitative agreement with the observed abundances in R Coronae Borealis stars.

  20. Field #3 of the Palomar-Groningen Survey; 1, Variable stars at the edge of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y K

    1996-01-01

    A catalogue is presented with variable (RR Lyrae, semiregular and Mira) stars located inside field #3 of the Palomar-Groningen Survey, at the outer edge of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. One of the semiregular variables is a carbon star, comparable with those found by Azzopardi et al. (1991). Serendipity provides the suggestion, that their carbon stars might not be located inside, but behind the bulge in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy.

  1. Supernova 2011fe from an Exploding Carbon-Oxygen White Dwarf Star

    CERN Document Server

    Nugent, Peter E; Cenko, S Bradley; Thomas, Rollin C; Kasen, Daniel; Howell, D Andrew; Bersier, David; Bloom, Joshua S; Kulkarni, S R; Kandrashoff, Michael T; Filippenko, Alexei V; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Maguire, Kate; Suzuki, Nao; Tarlton, James E; Pan, Yen-Chen; Bildsten, Lars; Fulton, Benjamin J; Parrent, Jerod T; Sand, David; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Bianco, Federica B; Dilday, Benjamin; Graham, Melissa L; Lyman, Joe; James, Phil; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Law, Nicholas M; Quimby, Robert M; Hook, Isobel M; Walker, Emma S; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Ofek, Eran O; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi

    2011-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been used empirically as standardized candles to reveal the accelerating universe even though fundamental details, such as the nature of the progenitor system and how the star explodes, remained a mystery. There is consensus that a white dwarf star explodes after accreting matter in a binary system, but the secondary could be anything from a main sequence star to a red giant, or even another white dwarf. The uncertainty stems from the fact that no recent SN Ia has been discovered close enough to detect the stars before explosion. Here we report early observations of SN 2011fe (PTF11kly) in M101 at a distance of 6.4 Mpc, the closest SN Ia in the past 25 years. We find that the exploding star was likely a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, and from the lack of an early shock we conclude that the companion was most likely a main sequence star. Early spectroscopy shows high-velocity oxygen that varies on a time scale of hours and extensive mixing of newly synthesized intermediate mass ele...

  2. Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies Structure, Star Formation, and Color-Magnitude Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, G; Girardi, L; Lia, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to cast light on the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies by means of N-body/hydro-dynamical simulations that include star formation, feed-back and chemical evolution. Particular attention is paid to the case of dwarf spheroidals of the Local Group which, thanks to their proximity and modern ground-based and space instrumentation, can be resolved into single stars so that independent determinations of their age and star formation history can be derived. Dwarf galaxies are known to exhibit complicated histories of star formation ranging from a single very old episode to a series of bursts over most of the Hubble time. We start from virialized haloes of dark matter, and follow the infall of gas into the potential wells and the formation of stars. We find that in objects of the same total mass, different star formation histories are possible, if the collapse phase started at different initial densities. We predict the final structure of dwarf spheroidal galaxies, their kinemati...

  3. VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy of red giant branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemasle, B; Hill, V; Tolstoy, E; Irwin, M; Jablonka, P; Venn, K; Battaglia, G; Starkenburg, E; Shetrone, M; Letarte, B; Francois, P; Helmi, A; Primas, F; Kaufer, A; Szeifert, T

    2014-01-01

    Fornax is one of the most massive dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. The Fornax field star population is dominated by intermediate age stars but star formation was going on over almost its entire history. It has been proposed that Fornax experienced a minor merger event. Despite recent progress, only the high metallicity end of Fornax field stars ([Fe/H]>-1.2 dex) has been sampled in larger number via high resolution spectroscopy. We want to better understand the full chemical evolution of this galaxy by better sampling the whole metallicity range, including more metal poor stars. We use the VLT-FLAMES multi-fibre spectrograph in high-resolution mode to determine the abundances of several alpha, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements in a sample of 47 individual Red Giant Branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We combine these abundances with accurate age estimates derived from the age probability distribution from the colour-magnitude diagram of Fornax. Similar to other dwarf spheroid...

  4. The Dwarf Spheroidal Companions to M31: Variable Stars in Andromeda II

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzl, B J; Jacoby, G H; Costa, G S D; Pritzl, Barton J.; Armandroff, Taft E.; Jacoby, George H.

    2004-01-01

    (abridged) We present the results of a variable star search in Andromeda II, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy companion to M31, using HST/WFPC2 observations. Seventy-three variables were found, one of which is an anomalous Cepheid while the others are RR Lyrae stars. The anomalous Cepheid has properties consistent with those found in other dwarf spheroidal galaxies. For the RR Lyrae stars, the mean periods are 0.571 day and 0.363 day for the fundamental mode and first-overtone mode stars, respectively. With this fundamental mode mean period and the mean metallicity determined from the red giant branch (=-1.49), Andromeda II follows the period-metallicity relation defined by the Galactic globular clusters and other dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We also find that the properties of the RR Lyrae stars themselves indicate a mean abundance that is consistent with that determined from the red giants. There is, however, a significant spread among the RR Lyrae stars in the period-amplitude diagram, which is possibly related to ...

  5. They are Small Worlds After All: Revised Properties of Kepler M Dwarf Stars and their Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Gaidos, E; Kraus, A L; Ireland, M

    2015-01-01

    We classified the reddest (r-J> 2.2) stars observed by the NASA Kepler mission into main sequence dwarf or evolved giant stars and determined the properties of 4216 M dwarfs based on a comparison of available photometry with that of nearby calibrator stars, as well as available proper motions and spectra. We then revised the properties of candidate transiting planets using the stellar parameters, high-resolution imaging and aperture masking to identify companion stars, and refitting of the light curves to identify the component most likely to host the planet. We inferred the intrinsic distribution of M dwarf planets using the method of iterative Monte Carlo simulation. We compared several models of planet orbital geometry and clustering and found that one where planets are exponentially distributed and almost precisely coplanar best describes the distribution of multi-planet systems. We determined that Kepler M dwarfs host an average of 1.9+/-0.3 planets with radii of 1-4Re and orbital periods of 1.5-180d. Th...

  6. Metallicity and the spectral energy distribution and spectral types of dwarf O-stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, MR; Martin-Hernandez, NL; Lenorzer, A; de Koter, A; Tielens, AGGA

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the effect of metallicity on the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) of 0 main sequence (dwarf) stars, focussing on the hydrogen and helium ionizing continua, and on the optical and near-IR lines used for spectral classification. The spectra are based on non-L

  7. Temperate Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star

    CERN Document Server

    Gillon, Michael; Lederer, Susan M; Delrez, Laetitia; de Wit, Julien; Burdanov, Artem; Van Grootel, Valerie; Burgasser, Adam J; Triaud, Amaury H M J; Opitom, Cyrielle; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Sahu, Devendra K; Gagliuffi, Daniella Bardalez; Magain, Pierre; Queloz, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Star-like objects with effective temperatures of less than 2,700 kelvin are referred to as ultracool dwarfs. This heterogeneous group includes stars of extremely low mass as well as brown dwarfs (substellar objects not massive enough to sustain hydrogen fusion), and represents about 15 per cent of the population of astronomical objects near the Sun. Core-accretion theory predicts that, given the small masses of these ultracool dwarfs, and the small sizes of their protoplanetary disk, there should be a large but hitherto undetected population of terrestrial planets orbiting them - ranging from metal-rich Mercury-sized planets to more hospitable volatile-rich Earth-sized planets. Here we report observations of three short-period Earth-sized planets transiting an ultracool dwarf star only 12 parsecs away. The inner two planets receive four times and two times the irradiation of Earth, respectively, placing them close to the inner edge of the habitable zone of the star. Our data suggest that 11 orbits remain poss...

  8. Milky Way Red Dwarfs in the BoRG Survey; Galactic scale-height and the distribution of dwarfs stars in WFC3 imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Holwerda, B W; Clarkson, W; Sahu, K; Bradley, L; Stiavelli, M; Pirzkal, N; De Marchi, G; Andersen, M; Bouwens, R; Ryan, R

    2014-01-01

    We present a tally of Milky Way late-type dwarf stars in 68 WFC3 pure-parallel fields (227 arcmin^2) from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey for high-redshift galaxies. Using spectroscopically identified M-dwarfs in two public surveys, the CANDELS and the ERS mosaics, we identify a morphological selection criterion using the half-light radius (r50), a near-infrared J-H, G-J color region where M-dwarfs are found, and a V-J relation with M-dwarf subtype. We apply this morphological selection of stellar objects, color-color selection of M-dwarfs and optical-near-infrared color subtyping to compile a catalog of 274 M-dwarfs belonging to the disk of the Milky Way with a limiting magnitude of m_F125W < 24. Based on the M-dwarfs statistics, we conclude that (a) the previously identified North/South discrepancy in M-dwarf numbers persists in our sample; there are more M-dwarfs in the Northern fields on average than in Southern ones, (b) the Milky Way's single disk scale-height for M-dwarfs is 0.3-4...

  9. Cool carbon stars in the halo and in dwarf galaxies: Hα, colours, and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauron, N.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Berlioz-Arthaud, P.; Klotz, A.

    2014-02-01

    The population of cool carbon (C) stars located far from the galactic plane is probably made of debris of small galaxies such as the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr), which are disrupted by the gravitational field of the Galaxy. We aim to know this population better through spectroscopy, 2MASS photometric colours, and variability data. When possible, we compared the halo results to C star populations in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, Sgr, and the solar neighbourhood. We first present a few new discoveries of C stars in the halo and in Fornax. The number of spectra of halo C stars is now 125. Forty percent show Hα in emission. The narrow location in the JHK diagram of the halo C stars is found to differ from that of similar C stars in the above galaxies. The light curves of the Catalina and LINEAR variability databases were exploited to derive the pulsation periods of 66 halo C stars. A few supplementary periods were obtained with the TAROT telescopes. We confirm that the period distribution of the halo strongly resembles that of Fornax, and we found that it is very different from the C stars in the solar neighbourhood. There is a larger proportion of short-period Mira/SRa variables in the halo than in Sgr, but the survey for C stars in this dwarf galaxy is not complete, and the study of their variability needs to be continued to investigate the link between Sgr and the cool halo C stars. Based on observations made with the NTT and 3.6 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile; programs 084.D-0302 and 070.D-0203), with the TAROT telescopes at La Silla and at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur (France), and on the exploitation of the Catalina Sky Survey and the LINEAR variability databases.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. The Life Cycles of Stars: An Information and Activity Booklet, Grades 9-12, 1997-1998. Imagine the Universe! Probing the Structure & Evaluation of the Cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Laura A.; Granger, Kara C.

    This booklet contains information and activities on the life cycle of stars. Materials can be adapted for grade 9 through grade 12 classrooms. Background information about star birth and life, black dwarfs, supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, and the electromagnetic spectrum is included. The seven activities focus on star mass,…

  11. Gravitational and Electromagnetic Signatures from the Tidal Disruption of a White Dwarf by an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Roland; Bode, Tanja; Laguna, Pablo

    2010-02-01

    Observations of the gravitational and electromagnetic radiation from the tidal disruption of a white dwarf by an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) could provide evidence for the existence of IMBHs. During the inspiral and violent disruption of the star, the system will emit both gravitational waves and possibly X-ray radiation from the remnant accretion disk around the IMBH, which together will allow both the system's location and internal parameters to be measured. We present results for the first fully general relativistic hydrodynamics simulations of these encounters focusing not only on the gravitational wave emission not but also the electromagnetic signatures during the disruption and subsequent accretion. Our code uses the successful puncture recipe as implemented in an enhanced version our vacuum MayaKranc code coupled to the hydrodynamics code Whisky. )

  12. The first carbon-enhanced metal-poor star found in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal

    CERN Document Server

    Skuladottir, Asa; Salvadori, Stefania; Hill, Vanessa; Pettini, Max; Shetrone, Matthew D; Starkenburg, Else

    2014-01-01

    The origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and their possible connection with the chemical elements produced by the first stellar generation is still highly debated. In contrast to the Galactic halo, not many CEMP stars have been found in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies around the Milky Way. Here we present detailed abundances from ESO VLT/UVES high-resolution spectroscopy for ET0097, the first CEMP star found in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal. This star has $\\text{[Fe/H]}=-2.03\\pm0.10$, $\\text{[C/Fe]}=0.51\\pm0.10$ and $\\text{[N/Fe]}=1.18\\pm0.20$. The traditional definition of CEMP stars is $\\text{[C/Fe]}\\geq0.70$, but taking into account that this luminous red giant branch star has undergone mixing, it was intrinsically less nitrogen enhanced and more carbon-rich when it was formed, and so it falls under the definition of CEMP stars, as proposed by Aoki et al. (2007) to account for this effect. By making corrections for this mixing, we conclude that the star had $\\text{[C/Fe]}\\approx0.8$ during its e...

  13. Kelu-1 is a Binary L Dwarf: First Brown Dwarf Science from Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, M C; Liu, Michael C.; Leggett, Sandy K.

    2005-01-01

    (Abridged) We present near-IR imaging of the nearby L dwarf Kelu-1 obtained with the Keck sodium laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO) system as part of a high angular resolution survey for substellar binaries. Kelu-1 was one of the first free-floating L dwarfs identified, and the origin of its overluminosity compared to other similar objects has been a long-standing question. Our images clearly resolve Kelu-1 into a 0.29'' (5.4 AU) binary, and a previous non-detection by HST demonstrates that the system is a true physical pair. Binarity explains the properties of Kelu-1 that were previously noted to be anomalous compared to other early-L dwarfs. We estimate spectral types of L1.5-L3 and L3-L4.5 for the two components, giving model-derived masses of 0.05-0.07 Msun and 0.045-0.065 Msun for an estimated age of 0.3-0.8 Gyr. More distant companions are not detected to a limit of 5-9 Mjup. The presence of lithium absorption indicates that both components are substellar, but the weakness of this feature relativ...

  14. A search for mass segregation of stars and brown dwarfs in \\rho\\ Ophiuchi

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Richard J; de Oliveira, Catarina Alves

    2012-01-01

    We apply two different algorithms to search for mass segregation to a recent observational census of the rho Ophiuchi star forming region. Firstly, we apply the Lambda_MSR method, which compares the minimum spanning tree (MST) of a chosen subset of stars to MSTs of random subsets of stars in the cluster, and determine the mass segregation ratio, Lambda_MSR. Secondly, we apply the m-Sigma method, which calculates the local stellar surface density around each star and determines the statistical significance of the average surface density for a chosen mass bin, compared to the average surface density in the whole cluster. Using both methods, we find no indication of mass segregation (normal or inverse) in the spatial distribution of stars and brown dwarfs in rho Ophiuchi. Although rho Ophiuchi suffers from high visual extinction, we show that a significant mass segregation signature would be detectable, albeit slightly diluted, despite dust obscuration of centrally located massive stars.

  15. Habitable Worlds Around M Dwarf Stars: The CAPSCam Astrometric Planet Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Alan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Thompson, Ian B.; Brahm, Rafael

    2014-04-01

    M dwarf stars are attractive targets in the search for habitable worlds as a result of their relative abundance and proximity, making them likely targets for future direct detection efforts. Hot super-Earths as well as gas giants have already been detected around a number of early M dwarfs, and the former appear to be the high-mass end of the population of rocky, terrestrial exoplanets. The Carnegie Astrometric Planet Search (CAPS) program has been underway since March 2007, searching ~ 100 nearby late M, L, and T dwarfs for gas giant planets on orbits wide enough for habitable worlds to orbit interior to them. The CAPSCam-N camera on the 2.5-m du Pont telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory has demonstrated the ability to detect planets as low in mass as Saturn orbiting at several AU around late M dwarfs within 15 pc. Over the next decade, the CAPS program will provide new constraints on the planetary census around late M dwarf stars, and hence on the suitability of these nearby planetary systems for supporting life.

  16. A Re-appraisal of the Habitability of Planets Around M Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tarter, J C; Mancinelli, R L; Aurnou, J M; Backman, D E; Basri, G S; Boss, A P; Clarke, A; Deming, D; Doyle, L R; Feigelson, E D; Freund, F; Grinspoon, D H; Haberle, R M; Hauck, S A; Heath, M J; Henry, T J; Hollingsworth, J L; Joshi, M M; Kilston, S; Liu, M C; Meikle, E; Reid, I N; Rothschild, L J; Scalo, J M; Segura, A; Tang, C M; Tiedje, J M; Turnbull, M C; Walkowicz, L M; Weber, A L; Young, R E; Tarter, Jill C.; Backus, Peter R.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.; Backman, Dana E.; Basri, Gibor S.; Boss, Alan P.; Clarke, Andrew; Deming, Drake; Doyle, Laurance R.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Freund, Friedmann; Grinspoon, David H.; Haberle, Robert M.; II, Steven A. Hauck; Heath, Martin J.; Henry, Todd J.; Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Joshi, Manoj M.; Kilston, Steven; Liu, Michael C.; Meikle, Eric; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Scalo, John M.; Segura, Antigona; Tang, Carol M.; Tiedje, James M.; Turnbull, Margaret C.; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Weber, Arthur L.; Young, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Stable, hydrogen-burning, M dwarf stars comprise about 75% of all stars in the Galaxy. They are extremely long-lived and because they are much smaller in mass than the Sun (between 0.5 and 0.08 MSun), their temperature and stellar luminosity are low and peaked in the red. We have re-examined what is known at present about the potential for a terrestrial planet forming within, or migrating into, the classic liquid-surface-water habitable zone close to an M dwarf star. Observations of protoplanetary disks suggest that planet-building materials are common around M dwarfs, but N-body simulations differ in their estimations of the likelihood of potentially-habitable, wet planets residing within their habitable zones, which are only ~ 1/5 to 1/50 of the width of that for a G star. Particularly in light of the claimed detection of the planets with masses as small as 5.5 and 7.5 MEarth orbiting M stars, there seems no reason to exclude the possibility of terrestrial planets. Tidally locked synchronous rotation within...

  17. Young star clusters in the outer disks of LITTLE THINGS dwarf irregular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Deidre A; Gehret, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    We examine FUV images of the LITTLE THINGS sample of nearby dwarf irregular (dIrr) and Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxies to identify distinct young regions in their far outer disks. We use these data, obtained with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite, to determine the furthest radius at which in situ star formation can currently be identified. The FUV knots are found at distances from the center of the galaxies of 1 to 8 disk scale lengths and have ages of <20 Myrs and masses of 20 to 1E5 Msolar. The presence of young clusters and OB associations in the outer disks of dwarf galaxies shows that dIrrs do have star formation taking place there in spite of the extreme nature of the environment. Most regions are found where the HI surface density is ~1 Msolar per pc2, although both the HI and dispersed old stars go out much further. This limiting density suggests a cutoff in the ability to form distinct OB associations and perhaps even stars. We compare the star formation rates in the FUV regions to the ave...

  18. The potential of asteroseismology for probing the core chemical stratification in white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Giammichele, N; Brassard, P; G.,; Fontaine,

    2016-01-01

    Context. The details of the C/O core structure in white dwarf stars has mostly remained inaccessible to the technique of asteroseismology, despite several attempts carried out in the past. Aims. We re-assess the potential of asteroseismology for probing the chemical stratification in white dwarf cores, in light of new highly efficient tools recently developed for that purpose. Methods. Using the forward modeling approach and a new parameterization for the core chemical stratification in ZZ Ceti stars, we test several situations typical of the usually limited constraints available, such as small numbers of observed independent modes, to carry out asteroseismology of these stars. Results. We find that, even with a limited number of modes, the core chemical stratification (in particular, the location of the steep chemical transitions expected in the oxygen profile) can be determined quite precisely due to the significant sensitivity of some confined modes to partial reflexion (trapping) effects. These effects ar...

  19. Discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the A3V star β Circini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. C.; Lucas, P. W.; Contreras Peña, C.; Kurtev, R.; Marocco, F.; Jones, H. R. A.; Beamin, J. C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Borissova, J.; Burningham, B.; Faherty, J.; Pinfield, D. J.; Gromadzki, M.; Ivanov, V. D.; Minniti, D.; Stimson, W.; Villanueva, V.

    2015-12-01

    We report the discovery of an L dwarf companion to the A3V star β Circini. VVV J151721.49-585131.5, or β Cir B, was identified in a proper motion and parallax catalogue of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea survey as having near-infrared luminosity and colour indicative of an early L dwarf, and a proper motion and parallax consistent with that of β Cir. The projected separation of ˜3.6 arcmin corresponds to 6656 au, which is unusually wide. The most recent published estimate of the age of the primary combined with our own estimate based on newer isochrones yields an age of 370-500 Myr. The system therefore serves as a useful benchmark at an age greater than that of the Pleiades brown dwarfs and most other young L dwarf benchmarks. We have obtained a medium resolution echelle spectrum of the companion which indicates a spectral type of L1.0 ± 0.5 and lacks the typical signatures of low-surface gravity seen in younger brown dwarfs. This suggests that signs of low-surface gravity disappear from the spectra of early L dwarfs by an age of ˜370-500 Myr, as expected from theoretical isochrones. The mass of β Cir B is estimated from the BHAC15 isochrones as 0.056 ± 0.007 M⊙.

  20. Evolution and colors of helium-core white dwarf stars with high-metallicity progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, L G; Romero, A D; Rohrmann, R D; Córsico, A H; García-Berro, E; Bertolami, M M Miller

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the recent detection of single and binary He-core white dwarfs in metal-rich clusters, we present a full set of evolutionary calculations and colors appropriate for the study of such white dwarfs. The paper is also aimed at investigating whether stable hydrogen burning may constitute a main source of energy for massive He-core white dwarfs resulting from high-metallicity progenitors. White dwarf sequences are derived by taking into account the evolutionary history of progenitor stars with supersolar metallicities. We also incorporate a self-consistent, time-dependent treatment of gravitational settling and chemical diffusion, as well as of the residual nuclear burning. We find that the influence of residual nuclear burning during the late stages of white dwarf evolution is strongly dependent on the occurrence of chemical diffusion at the base of the hydrogen-rich envelope. When no diffusion is considered, residual hydrogen burning strongly influences the advanced stages of white dwarf cooling, in...

  1. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  2. Stabilization of CO2 Atmospheres on Exoplanets around M Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Peter; Robinson, Tyler D; Li, Cheng; Yung, Yuk L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the chemical stability of CO2-dominated atmospheres of M dwarf terrestrial exoplanets using a 1-dimensional photochemical model. On planets orbiting Sun-like stars, the photolysis of CO2 by Far-UV (FUV) radiation is balanced by the reaction between CO and OH, the rate of which depends on H2O abundance. By comparison, planets orbiting M dwarf stars experience higher FUV radiation compared to planets orbiting Sun-like stars, and they are also likely to have low H2O abundance due to M dwarfs having a prolonged, high-luminosity pre-main sequence (Luger & Barnes 2015). We show that, for H2O-depleted planets around M dwarfs, a CO2-dominated atmosphere is stable to conversion to CO and O2 by relying on a catalytic cycle involving H2O2 photolysis. However, this cycle breaks down for planets with atmospheric hydrogen mixing ratios below ~1 ppm, resulting in ~40% of the atmospheric CO2 being converted to CO and O2 on a time scale of 1 Myr. The increased abundance of O2 also results in high O3 concent...

  3. THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF YOUNG, EARLY M-TYPE DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansdell, Megan; Baranec, Christoph [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Mann, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lépine, Sebastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); James, David [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603 La Serena (Chile); Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Riddle, Reed [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magnetohydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lépine and Gaidos catalog of bright M dwarfs with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) catalog of NUV (1771-2831 Å) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (>2.5σ) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated the overall occurrence of these ''false positives'' (FPs) as ∼16%. We constructed an NUV luminosity function that accounted for FPs, detection biases of the source catalogs, and GALEX upper limits. We found the NUV luminosity function to be inconsistent with predictions from a constant star-formation rate and simplified age-activity relation defined by a two-parameter power law.

  4. HOW THE FIRST STARS SHAPED THE FAINTEST GAS-DOMINATED DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeke, R.; Vandenbroucke, B.; Rijcke, S. De, E-mail: robbert.verbeke@UGent.be [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S9, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2015-12-20

    Low-mass dwarf galaxies are very sensitive test-beds for theories of cosmic structure formation since their weak gravitational fields allow the effects of the relevant physical processes to clearly stand out. Up to now, no unified account has existed of the sometimes seemingly conflicting properties of the faintest isolated dwarfs in and around the Local Group, such as Leo T and the recently discovered Leo P and Pisces A systems. Using new numerical simulations, we show that this serious challenge to our understanding of galaxy formation can be effectively resolved by taking into account the regulating influence of the ultraviolet radiation of the first population of stars on a dwarf’s star formation rate while otherwise staying within the standard cosmological paradigm for structure formation. These simulations produce faint, gas-dominated, star-forming dwarf galaxies that lie on the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation and that successfully reproduce a broad range of chemical, kinematical, and structural observables of real late-type dwarf galaxies. Furthermore, we stress the importance of obtaining properties of simulated galaxies in a manner as close as possible to the typically employed observational techniques.

  5. On mode trapping in pulsating DA white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuto, O G; Althaus, L G; Serenelli, A M

    2002-01-01

    The present work is designed to explore the effects of the time-dependent element diffusion on the mode trapping properties of DA white dwarf models with various thickness of the hydrogen envelope. Our predictions are compared with the standard assumption of diffusive equilibrium in the trace element approximation. We find that element diffusion markedly weakens the presence of mode trapping originated in the outer layers of the models, even for the case of thin hydrogen envelopes.

  6. Cool carbon stars in the halo and in dwarf galaxies: Halpha, colours, and variabiity

    CERN Document Server

    Mauron, Nicolas; Berlioz-Arthaud, Paul; Klotz, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The population of cool carbon (C) stars located far from the galactic plane is probably made of debris of small galaxies such as the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr), which are disrupted by the gravitational field of the Galaxy. We aim to know this population better through spectroscopy, 2MASS photometric colours, and variability data. When possible, we compared the halo results to C star populations in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, Sgr, and the solar neighbourhood. We first present a few new discoveries of C stars in the halo and in Fornax. The number of spectra of halo C stars is now 125. Forty percent show Halpha in emission. The narrow location in the JHK diagram of the halo C stars is found to differ from that of similar C stars in the above galaxies. The light curves of the Catalina and LINEAR variability databases were exploited to derive the pulsation periods of 66 halo C stars. A few supplementary periods were obtained with the TAROT telescopes. We confirm that the period distribution ...

  7. Bursts of star formation in computer simulations of dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comins, N.F.

    1984-09-01

    A three-dimensional Stochastic Self-Propagating Star Formation (SSPSF) model of compact galacies is presented. Two phases of gas, active and inactive, are present, and permanent depletion of gas in the form of long lived, low mass stars and remnants occurs. Similarly, global infall of gas from a galactic halo or through galactic cannibalism is permitted. We base our parameters on the observed properties of the compact blue galaxy I Zw 36. Our results are that bursts of star formation occur much more frequently in these runs than continuous nonbursting star formation, suggesting that the blue compact galaxies are probably undergoing bursts rather than continuous, nonbursting low-level star formation activity.

  8. Detailed Abundances of Two Very Metal-Poor Stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kirby, Evan N

    2012-01-01

    The most metal-poor stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) can show the nucleosynthetic patterns of one or a few supernovae. These supernovae could have zero metallicity, making metal-poor dSph stars the closest surviving links to Population III stars. Metal-poor dSph stars also help to reveal the formation mechanism of the Milky Way halo. We present the detailed abundances from Keck/HIRES spectroscopy for two very metal-poor stars in two Milky Way dSphs. One star, in the Sculptor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -2.40. The other star, in the Ursa Minor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -3.16. Both stars fall in the previously discovered low-metallicity, high-[alpha/Fe] plateau. Most abundance ratios of very metal-poor stars in these two dSphs are largely consistent with very metal-poor halo stars. However, the abundances of Na and some r-process elements lie at the lower end of the envelope defined by inner halo stars of similar metallicity. We propose that the metallicity dependence of supernova yields is the cause. The earlies...

  9. Infrared Signature of Active Massive Black Holes in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Marleau, Francine R; Bianconi, Matteo; Habas, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We have identified 314 nearby galaxies that display the infrared signature of black hole activity. Of these, twelve lie within a distance of 11 Mpc, the nearest being EW Eri located only 50 kpc away. Using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) All-Sky Release Source Catalog, we examine the IR colors of a sample of known nearby dwarf galaxies in order to identify both unobscured (type 1) and obscured (type 2) active galactic nuclei in these low-mass systems. We estimate the stellar and black hole masses for our nearby dwarf galaxy sample and find that activity is detected in galaxies with stellar masses from 10^5 to 10^9 M_sun and that this activity is due to black holes with masses in the range 10^2-10^6 M_sun. The black hole masses probed here are several orders of magnitude smaller than previously reported for centrally located massive black holes. We examine the stellar mass versus black hole mass relationship in this low galaxy mass regime, and find that the existing relation extends to these low...

  10. Initial data for black hole–neutron star binaries, with rotating stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacik, Nick; Foucart, Francois; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Muhlberger, Curran; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilágyi, Béla

    2016-11-01

    The coalescence of a neutron star with a black hole is a primary science target of ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Constraining or measuring the neutron star spin directly from gravitational wave observations requires knowledge of the dependence of the emission properties of these systems on the neutron star spin. This paper lays foundations for this task, by developing a numerical method to construct initial data for black hole–neutron star binaries with arbitrary spin on the neutron star. We demonstrate the robustness of the code by constructing initial-data sets in large regions of the parameter space. In addition to varying the neutron star spin-magnitude and spin-direction, we also explore neutron star compactness, mass-ratio, black hole spin, and black hole spin-direction. Specifically, we are able to construct initial data sets with neutron stars spinning near centrifugal break-up, and with black hole spins as large as {S}{BH}/{M}{BH}2=0.99.

  11. Initial data for black hole-neutron star binaries, with rotating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Tacik, Nick; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Muhlberger, Curran; Kidder, Lawrence E; Scheel, Mark A; Szilagyi, Bela

    2016-01-01

    The coalescence of a neutron star with a black hole is a primary science target of ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Constraining or measuring the neutron star spin directly from gravitational wave observations requires knowledge of the dependence of the emission properties of these systems on the neutron star spin. This paper lays foundations for this task, by developing a numerical method to construct initial data for black hole--neutron star binaries with arbitrary spin on the neutron star. We demonstrate the robustness of the code by constructing initial-data sets in large regions of the parameter space. In addition to varying the neutron star spin-magnitude and spin-direction, we also explore neutron star compactness, mass-ratio, black hole spin, and black hole spin-direction. Specifically, we are able to construct initial data sets with neutron stars spinning near centrifugal break-up, and with black hole spins as large as $S_{\\rm BH}/M_{\\rm BH}^2=0.99$.

  12. Temperate Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Michaël; Jehin, Emmanuël; Lederer, Susan M.; Delrez, Laetitia; de Wit, Julien; Burdanov, Artem; Van Grootel, Valérie; Burgasser, Adam; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Opitom, Cyrielle; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Sahu, Devendra K.; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Magain, Pierre; Queloz, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Stellar-like objects with effective temperatures of 2700K and below are referred to as “ultracool dwarfs”1. This heterogeneous group includes both extremely low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (substellar objects not massive enough to sustain hydrogen fusion), and represents about 15% of the stellar-like objects in the vicinity of the Sun2. Based on the small masses and sizes of their protoplanetary disks3,4, core-accretion theory for ultracool dwarfs predicts a large, but heretofore undetected population of close-in terrestrial planets5, ranging from metal-rich Mercury-sized planets6 to more hospitable volatile-rich Earth-sized planets7. Here we report the discovery of three short-period Earth-sized planets transiting an ultracool dwarf star 12 parsecs away using data collected by the TRAPPIST8 telescope as part of an ongoing prototype transit survey9. The inner two planets receive four and two times the irradiation of Earth, respectively, placing them close to the inner edge of the habitable zone of the star10. Eleven orbits remain possible for the third planet based on our data, the most likely resulting in an irradiation significantly smaller than Earth's. The infrared brightness of the host star combined with its Jupiter-like size offer the possibility of thoroughly characterizing the components of this nearby planetary system. PMID:27135924

  13. Kepler-445, Kepler-446 and the Occurrence of Compact Multiples Orbiting Mid-M Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Muirhead, Philip S; Vanderburg, Andrew; Morton, Timothy D; Kraus, Adam; Ireland, Michael; Swift, Jonathan J; Feiden, Gregory A; Gaidos, Eric; Gazak, J Zachary

    2015-01-01

    We confirm and characterize the exoplanetary systems Kepler-445 and Kepler-446: two mid-M dwarf stars, each with multiple, small, short-period transiting planets. Kepler-445 is a metal-rich ([Fe/H]=+0.25 $\\pm$ 0.10) M4 dwarf with three transiting planets, and Kepler-446 is a metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-0.30 $\\pm$ 0.10) M4 dwarf also with three transiting planets. Kepler-445c is similar to GJ 1214b: both in planetary radius and the properties of the host star. The Kepler-446 system is similar to the Kepler-42 system: both are metal-poor with large galactic space velocities and three short-period, likely-rocky transiting planets that were initially assigned erroneously large planet-to-star radius ratios. We independently determined stellar parameters from spectroscopy and searched for and fitted the transit light curves for the planets, imposing a strict prior on stellar density in order to remove correlations between the fitted impact parameter and planet-to-star radius ratio for short-duration transits. Combining Kep...

  14. Brane-world stars and (microscopic) black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, R.; Ovalle, J.

    2012-08-01

    We study stars in the brane-world by employing the principle of minimal geometric deformation and find that brane-world black hole metrics with a tidal charge can be consistently recovered in a suitable limit. This procedure allows us to determine the tidal charge as a function of the ADM mass of the black hole (and brane tension). A minimum mass for semiclassical microscopic black holes can then be derived, with a relevant impact for the description of black hole events at the LHC.

  15. Brane-world stars and (microscopic) black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadio, R., E-mail: casadio@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Ovalle, J., E-mail: jovalle@usb.ve [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2012-08-29

    We study stars in the brane-world by employing the principle of minimal geometric deformation and find that brane-world black hole metrics with a tidal charge can be consistently recovered in a suitable limit. This procedure allows us to determine the tidal charge as a function of the ADM mass of the black hole (and brane tension). A minimum mass for semiclassical microscopic black holes can then be derived, with a relevant impact for the description of black hole events at the LHC.

  16. Two new pulsating low-mass pre-white dwarfs or SX Phoenicis stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, M. A.; Kanaan, A.; Córsico, A. H.; Kepler, S. O.; Althaus, L. G.; Koester, D.; Sánchez Arias, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The discovery of pulsations in low-mass stars opens an opportunity to probe their interiors and determine their evolution by employing the tools of asteroseismology. Aims: We aim to analyse high-speed photometry of SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25 and discover brightness variabilities. In order to locate these stars in the Teff - log g diagram, we fit optical spectra (SDSS) with synthetic non-magnetic spectra derived from model atmospheres. Methods: To carry out this study, we used the photometric data we obtained for these stars with the 2.15 m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. We analysed their light curves and applied the discrete Fourier transform (FT) to determine the pulsation frequencies. Finally, we compare both stars in the Teff - log g diagram, with two known pre-white dwarfs and seven pulsating pre-ELM white dwarf stars, δ Scuti, and SX Phe stars Results: We report the discovery of pulsations in SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. We determine their effective temperature and surface gravity to be Teff = 7972 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5 and Teff = 7925 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5, respectively. With these parameters, these new pulsating low-mass stars can be identified with either ELM white dwarfs (with ~0.17 M⊙) or more massive SX Phe stars. We identified pulsation periods of 3278.7 and 1633.9 s for SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and a pulsation period of 3367.1 s for SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. These two new objects, together with those of Maxted et al. (2013, 2014), indicate the possible existence of a new instability domain towards the late stages of evolution of low-mass white dwarf stars, although their identification with SX Phe stars cannot be discarded. Visiting Astronomer, Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  17. They are small worlds after all: revised properties of Kepler M dwarf stars and their planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, E.; Mann, A. W.; Kraus, A. L.; Ireland, M.

    2016-04-01

    We classified the reddest (r - J > 2.2) stars observed by the NASA Kepler mission into main-sequence dwarf or evolved giant stars and determined the properties of 4216 M dwarfs based on a comparison of available photometry with that of nearby calibrator stars, as well as available proper motions and spectra. We revised the properties of candidate transiting planets using the stellar parameters, high-resolution imaging to identify companion stars, and, in the case of binaries, fitting light curves to identify the likely planet host. In 49 of 54 systems, we validated the primary as the host star. We inferred the intrinsic distribution of M dwarf planets using the method of iterative Monte Carlo simulation. We compared several models of planet orbital geometry and clustering and found that one where planets are exponentially distributed and almost precisely coplanar best describes the distribution of multiplanet systems. We determined that Kepler M dwarfs host an average of 2.2 ± 0.3 planets with radii of 1-4 R⊕ and orbital periods of 1.5-180 d. The radius distribution peaks at ˜1.2 R⊕ and is essentially zero at 4 R⊕, although we identify three giant planet candidates other than the previously confirmed Kepler-45b. There is suggestive but not significant evidence that the radius distribution varies with orbital period. The distribution with logarithmic orbital period is flat except for a decline for orbits less than a few days. 12 candidate planets, including two Jupiter-size objects, experience an irradiance below the threshold level for a runaway greenhouse on an Earth-like planet and are thus in a `habitable zone'.

  18. Suppression of star formation in dwarf galaxies by photoelectric grain heating feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, John C.; Krumholz, Mark R.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Dekel, Avishai

    2016-07-01

    Photoelectric heating—heating of dust grains by far-ultraviolet photons—has long been recognized as the primary source of heating for the neutral interstellar medium. Simulations of spiral galaxies have shown some indication that photoelectric heating could suppress star formation; however, simulations that include photoelectric heating have typically shown that it has little effect on the rate of star formation in either spiral galaxies or dwarf galaxies, which suggests that supernovae are responsible for setting the gas depletion time in galaxies. This result is in contrast with recent work indicating that a star formation law that depends on galaxy metallicity—as is expected with photoelectric heating, but not with supernovae—reproduces the present-day galaxy population better than does a metallicity-independent one. Here we report a series of simulations of dwarf galaxies, the class of galaxy in which the effects of both photoelectric heating and supernovae are expected to be strongest. We simultaneously include space- and time-dependent photoelectric heating in our simulations, and we resolve the energy-conserving phase of every supernova blast wave, which allows us to directly measure the relative importance of feedback by supernovae and photoelectric heating in suppressing star formation. We find that supernovae are unable to account for the observed large gas depletion times in dwarf galaxies. Instead, photoelectric heating is the dominant means by which dwarf galaxies regulate their star formation rate at any given time, suppressing the rate by more than an order of magnitude relative to simulations with only supernovae.

  19. Suppression of star formation in dwarf galaxies by photoelectric grain heating feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, John C; Krumholz, Mark R; Goldbaum, Nathan J; Dekel, Avishai

    2016-07-28

    Photoelectric heating--heating of dust grains by far-ultraviolet photons--has long been recognized as the primary source of heating for the neutral interstellar medium. Simulations of spiral galaxies have shown some indication that photoelectric heating could suppress star formation; however, simulations that include photoelectric heating have typically shown that it has little effect on the rate of star formation in either spiral galaxies or dwarf galaxies, which suggests that supernovae are responsible for setting the gas depletion time in galaxies. This result is in contrast with recent work indicating that a star formation law that depends on galaxy metallicity--as is expected with photoelectric heating,but not with supernovae--reproduces the present-day galaxy population better than does a metallicity-independent one. Here we report a series of simulations of dwarf galaxies, the class of galaxy in which the effects of both photoelectric heating and supernovae are expected to be strongest. We simultaneously include space and time-dependent photoelectric heating in our simulations, and we resolve the energy-conserving phase of every supernova blast wave, which allows us to directly measure the relative importance of feedback by supernovae and photoelectric heating in suppressing star formation. We find that supernovae are unable to account for the observed large gas depletion times in dwarf galaxies. Instead, photoelectric heating is the dominant means by which dwarf galaxies regulate their star formation rate at any given time,suppressing the rate by more than an order of magnitude relative to simulations with only supernovae.

  20. A Very High Proper Motion Star and the First L dwarf in the Kepler Field

    CERN Document Server

    Gizis, John E; Burgasser, Adam J

    2011-01-01

    We report two nearby high proper motion dwarfs of special interest identified using the Preliminary Data Release of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). WISEP J191239.91-361516.4 has a motion of 2.1 arcseconds per year. Photometry identifies it as a mid-M dwarf. WISEP J190648.47+401106.8 is a spectroscopically confirmed L1 dwarf in the Kepler Mission field with a motion of 0.48 arcseconds per year. The estimated distance is 17 parsecs. Both lie at relatively low galactic latitudes and demonstrate the possibility of discovering proper motion stars independently of the historic photographic sky surveys.

  1. CHANDRA DETECTION OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM ULTRACOMPACT DWARF GALAXIES AND EXTENDED STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Meicun; Li, Zhiyuan, E-mail: lizy@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2016-03-10

    We have conducted a systematic study of X-ray emission from ultracompact dwarf (UCD) galaxies and extended star clusters (ESCs), based on archival Chandra observations. Among a sample of 511 UCDs and ESCs complied from the literature, 17 X-ray counterparts with 0.5–8 keV luminosities above ∼5 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1} are identified, which are distributed in eight early-type host galaxies. To facilitate comparison, we also identify X-ray counterparts of 360 globular clusters (GCs) distributed in four of the eight galaxies. The X-ray properties of the UCDs and ESCs are found to be broadly similar to those of the GCs. The incidence rate of X-ray-detected UCDs and ESCs, 3.3% ± 0.8%, while lower than that of the X-ray-detected GCs (7.0% ± 0.4%), is substantially higher than expected from the field populations of external galaxies. A stacking analysis of the individually undetected UCDs/ESCs further reveals significant X-ray signals, which corresponds to an equivalent 0.5–8 keV luminosity of ∼4 × 10{sup 35} erg s{sup −1} per source. Taken together, these provide strong evidence that the X-ray emission from UCDs and ESCs is dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries having formed from stellar dynamical interactions, consistent with the stellar populations in these dense systems being predominantly old. For the most massive UCDs, there remains the possibility that a putative central massive black hole gives rise to the observed X-ray emission.

  2. Star Clusters and Super Massive Black Holes: High Velocity Stars Production

    CERN Document Server

    Fragione, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    One possible origin of high velocity stars in the Galaxy is that they are the product of the interaction of binary systems and supermassive black holes. We investigate a new production channel of high velocity stars as due to the close interaction between a star cluster and supermassive black holes in galactic centres. The high velocity acquired by some stars of the cluster comes from combined effect of extraction of their gravitational binding energy and from the slingshot due to the interaction with the black holes. Stars could reach a velocity sufficient to travel in the halo and even overcome the galactic potential well, while some of them are just stripped from the cluster and start orbiting around the galactic centre.

  3. Scl-1013644: a CEMP-s star in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, C.; Da Costa, G. S.; Yong, D.; Norris, J. E.

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies of the Milky Way and its satellites have paid special attention to the importance of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars due to their involvement in Galactic formation history and their possible connection with the chemical elements originating in the first stellar generation. In an ongoing study of red giants in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy, we have discovered a star with extremely strong CN and CH molecular bands. This star, Scl-1013644, has previously been identified by Geisler et al. as a star with an enrichment in the heavy elements. Spectrum synthesis has been used to derive the carbon, nitrogen and barium abundances for Scl-1013644. Our findings are [C/Fe] = +0.8, [N/Fe] = -0.3 and [Ba/Fe] = +2.1 with the latter result consistent with the value found by Geisler et al. These results reveal Scl-1013644 as a CEMP-s star, the third such star discovered in this dwarf galaxy.

  4. Lattice Structure in Astrophysics: A reconsideration of White Dwarfs, Variables, and Wolf-Rayet Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2016-03-01

    Stars of the main sequence display a mass-luminosity relation which indicates that they share a common building block (hydrogen) and lattice structure (hexagonal planar) with the solar photosphere. White dwarfs however display very low luminosity in spite of their elevated color temperature. Rather than postulate that these stars represent degenerate matter, as Eddington and Chandrasekhar were forced to assume given their gaseous models, within the context of a Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model white dwarfs might simply be thought as possessing a different lattice structure (e.g. body centered cubic) and hence a lowered emissivity. They do not need to possess exceeding densities, reduced radii, and degeneracy in order to account for their lowered emissivity. Similarly, variable stars might well be oscillating between lattices types wherein the energy differences involved in the transformations are small. Other stars, such as Wolf-Rayet stars, which lack photospheric emission, might be too hot to enable a discrete lattice to form. Though condensed, the photosphere in that case would have a lattice which is so poorly organized that its emissivity is trivial. Nonetheless, the broad emission lines of Wolf-Rayet stars indicates that these objects are not breaking apart but rather, are important sites of condensation.

  5. Investigation of the Puzzling Abundance Pattern in the Stars of the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongjie; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Many works have found unusual characteristics of elemental abundances in nearby dwarf galaxies. This implies that there is a key factor of galactic evolution that is different from that of the Milky Way (MW). The chemical abundances of the stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Fornax dSph) provide excellent information for setting constraints on the models of the galactic chemical evolution. In this work, adopting the five-component approach, we fit the abundances of the Fornax dSph stars, including $\\alpha$ elements, iron group elements and neutron-capture elements. For most sample stars, the relative contributions from the various processes to the elemental abundances are not usually in the MW proportions. We find that the contributions from massive stars to the primary $\\alpha$ elements and iron group elements increase monotonously with increasing [Fe/H]. This means that the effect of the galactic wind is not strong enough to halt star formation and the contributions from massive stars to $\\alpha$ e...

  6. Two new pulsating low-mass pre-white dwarfs or SX Phenix stars?*

    CERN Document Server

    Corti, M A; Córsico, A H; Kepler, S O; Althaus, L G; Koester, D; Arias, J P Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Context. The discovery of pulsations in low-mass stars opens an opportunity for probing their interiors and to determine their evolution, by employing the tools of asteroseismology. Aims. We aim to analyze high-speed photometry of SDSSJ145847.02$+$070754.46 and SDSSJ173001.94$+$070600.25 and discover brightness variabilities. In order to locate these stars in the $T_{\\rm eff} - \\log g$ diagram we fit optical spectra (SDSS) with synthetic non-magnetic spectra derived from model atmospheres. Methods. To carry out this study, we used the photometric data obtained by us for these stars with the 2.15m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. We analyzed their light curves and we apply the Discrete Fourier Transform to determine the pulsation frequencies. Finally, we compare both stars in the $T_{\\rm eff} - \\log g$ diagram, with known two pre-white dwarfs, seven pulsating pre-ELM white dwarf stars, $\\delta$ Scuti and SX Phe stars. Results. We report the discovery of pulsations in SDSSJ145847.02$+$070754.46 and SDSSJ173001.9...

  7. Star formation history of And XVIII: a dwarf spheroidal galaxy in isolation

    CERN Document Server

    Makarova, L N; Karachentsev, I D; Tully, R B; Rizzi, L

    2016-01-01

    We present a photometric study of the Andromeda XVIII dwarf spheroidal galaxy associated with M31, and situated well outside of the virial radius of the M31 halo. The galaxy was resolved into stars with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys revealing the old red giant branch and red clump. With the new observational data we determined the Andromeda XVIII distance to be D = 1.33+-0.08 Mpc using the tip of red giant branch method. Thus, the dwarf is situated at the distance of 579 kpc from M31. We model the star formation history of Andromeda XVIII from the stellar photometry and Padova theoretical stellar isochrones. An ancient burst of star formation occurred 12-14 Gyr ago. There is no sign of recent/ongoing star formation in the last 1.5 Gyr. The mass fractions of the ancient and intermediate age stars are 34 and 66 per cent, respectively, and the total stellar mass is 4.2x10^6 Msun. It is probable that the galaxy has not experienced an interaction with M31 in the past. We also discuss star form...

  8. Extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs around AF-type stars. IX. The HARPS southern sample

    CERN Document Server

    Borgniet, Simon; Meunier, Nadège; Galland, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Massive, Main-Sequence AF-type stars have so far remained unexplored in past radial velocity surveys, due to their small number of spectral lines and their high rotational velocities that prevent the classic RV computation method. Our aim was to search for giant planets around AF MS stars, to get first statistical information on their occurrence rate and to compare the results with evolved stars and lower-mass MS stars. We used the HARPS spectrograph located on the 3.6m telescope at ESO La Silla Observatory to observe 108 AF MS stars with B-V in the -0.04 to 0.58 range and masses in the range 1.1-3.6 Msun. We used our SAFIR software specifically developed to compute the radial velocities of these early-type stars. We report the new detection of a mpsini = 4.51 Mjup companion with a ~826-day period to the F6V dwarf HD111998. We present new data on the 2-planet system around the F6IV-V dwarf HD60532. We also report the detection of 14 binaries with long-term RV trends. 70% of our targets show detection limits b...

  9. A Photometric Variability Survey of Field K and M Dwarf Stars with HATNet

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, J D; Noyes, R W; Sipöcz, B; Kovács, G; Mazeh, T; Shporer, A; Pál, A

    2009-01-01

    Using light curves from the HATNet survey for transiting extrasolar planets we investigate the optical broad-band photometric variability of a sample of 27,560 field K and M dwarfs selected by color and proper-motion. A total of 3496 stars exhibit potential variability, including 95 stars with eclipses and 60 stars with flares. Based on a visual inspection of these light curves and an automated blending classification, we select 1928 stars, including 79 eclipsing binaries, as secure variable star detections that are not high probability blends. We find that only 43 of these stars, including 7 of the eclipsing binaries, have previously been identified as variables or are blended with previously identified variables. One of the newly identified eclipsing binaries is 1RXS J154727.5+450803, a known P = 3.55 day, late M-dwarf SB2 system, for which we derive preliminary estimates for the component masses and radii of M_1 = M_2 = 0.258 +- 0.008 M_Sun and R_1 = R_2 = 0.289 +- 0.007 R_Sun. The radii of the component s...

  10. Scl-1013644: a CEMP-s star in the Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Salgado, C; Yong, D; Norris, J E

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of the Milky Way and its satellites have paid special attention to the importance of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars due to their involvement in Galactic formation history and their possible connection with the chemical elements originating in the first stellar generation. In an ongoing study of red giants in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy we have discovered a star with extremely strong CN and CH molecular bands. This star, Scl-1013644, has previously been identified by Geisler et al. (2005) as a star with an enrichment in the heavy elements. Spectrum synthesis has been used to derive the carbon, nitrogen and barium abundances for Scl-1013644. Our findings are [C/Fe] = +0.8, [N/Fe] = -0.3 and [Ba/Fe] = +2.1 with the latter result consistent with the value found by Geisler et al. (2005). These results reveal Scl-1013644 as a CEMP-s star, the third such star discovered in this dwarf galaxy.

  11. RED DWARF DYNAMO RAISES PUZZLE OVER INTERIORS OF LOWEST-MASS STARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered surprising evidence that powerful magnetic fields might exist around the lowest mass stars in the universe, which are near the threshold of stellar burning processes. 'New theories will have to be developed to explain how these strong fields are produced, since conventional models predict that these low mass red dwarfs should have very weak or no magnetic fields,' says Dr. Jeffrey Linsky of the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA) in Boulder, Colorado. 'The Hubble observations provide clear evidence that very low mass red dwarf stars must have some form of dynamo to amplify their magnetic fields.' His conclusions are based upon Hubble's detection of a high-temperature outburst, called a flare, on the surface of the extremely small, cool red dwarf star Van Biesbroeck 10 (VB10) also known as Gliese 752B. Stellar flares are caused by intense, twisted magnetic fields that accelerate and contain gasses which are much hotter than a star's surface. Explosive flares are common on the Sun and expected for stars that have internal structures similar to our Sun's. Stars as small as VB10 are predicted to have a simpler internal structure than that of the Sun and so are not expected to generate the electric currents required for magnetic fields that drive flares. Besides leading to a clearer understanding of the interior structure of the smallest red dwarf stars known, these unexpected results might possibly shed light on brown dwarf stars. A brown dwarf is a long-sought class of astronomical object that is too small to shine like a star through nuclear fusion processes, but is too large to be considered a planet. 'Since VB10 is nearly a brown dwarf, it is likely brown dwarfs also have strong magnetic fields,' says Linsky. 'Additional Hubble searches for flares are needed to confirm this prediction.' A QUARTER-MILLION DEGREE TORCH The star VB10 and its companion star Gliese 752A make up a binary system located 19 light

  12. Elucidating the True Binary Fraction of VLM Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Spectral Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Burgasser, Adam J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; SAHLMANN, JOHANNES; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Gagne, Jonathan; Skrzypek, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The very lowest-mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs are found in abundance in nearly all Galactic environments, yet their formation mechanism(s) remain an open question. One means of testing current formation theories is to use multiplicity statistics. The majority of VLM binaries have been discovered through direct imaging, and current angular resolution limits (0.05”-0.1") are coincident with the 1-4 AU peak in the projected separation distribution of known systems, suggesting an observational bias. I have developed a separation-independent method to detect T dwarf companions to late-M/early-L dwarfs by identifying methane absorption in their unresolved, low-resolution, near-infrared spectra using spectral indices and template fitting. Over 60 spectral binary candidates have been identified with this and comparable methods. I discuss follow-up observations, including laser-guide star adaptive optics imaging with Keck/NIRC2, which have confirmed 9 systems; and radial velocity and astrometric monitoring observations that have confirmed 7 others. The direct imaging results indicate a resolved binary fraction of 18%, coincident with current estimates of the VLM binary fraction; however, our sample contained 5 previously confirmed binaries, raising its true binary fraction to 47%. To more accurately measure the true VLM binary fraction, I describe the construction of an unbiased, volume-limited, near-infrared spectral sample of M7-L5 dwarfs within 25 pc, of which 4 (1%) are found to be spectral binary candidates. I model the complex selection biases of this method through a population simulation, set constraints on the true binary fraction as traced by these systems, and compare to the predictions of current formation theories. I also describe how this method may be applied to conduct a separation-unbiased search for giant exoplanets orbiting young VLM stars and brown dwarfs.

  13. Improved synthetic spectra of helium-core white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rohrmann, R D; Althaus, L G; Benvenuto, O G

    2002-01-01

    We examine the emergent fluxes from helium-core white dwarfs following their evolution from the end of pre-white dwarf stages down to advanced cooling stages. For this purpose, we include a detailed treatment of the physics of the atmosphere, particularly an improved representation of the state of the gas by taking into account non-ideal effects according to the so-called occupation probability formalism. The present calculations also incorporate hydrogen line opacity from Lyman, Balmer and Paschen series, pseudo-continuum absorptions and new updated induced-dipole absorption from H$_2$-H$_2$, H$_2$-He and H-He pairs. We find that the non-ideal effects and line absorption alter the appearance of the stellar spectrum and have a significant influence upon the photometric colours in the UBVRI-JHKL system. This occurs specially for hot models $T_{\\rm eff}\\ga 8000$ due to line and pseudo-continuum opacities, and for cool models $T_{\\rm eff}\\la 4000$ where the perturbation of atoms and molecules by neighbour partic...

  14. Star formation history and evolution of gas-rich dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group

    CERN Document Server

    Grossi, M; Pritzl, B J; Knezek, P M; Gallagher, J S; Minchin, R F; Freeman, K C

    2006-01-01

    We analyse the properties of three unusual dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group discovered with the HIPASS survey. From their optical morphology they appear to be low surface brightness dwarf spheroidals, yet they are gas-rich (M_{HI}/L_{B} > 1) with gas-mass-to-stellar light ratios larger than typical dwarf irregular galaxies. Therefore these systems appear different from any dwarfs of the Local Group. They should be favoured hosts for starburst, whereas we find a faint star formation region in only one object. We have obtained 21-cm data and Hubble Space Telescope photometry in V and I bands, and have constructed Colour Magnitude Diagrams (CMDs) to investigate their stellar populations and to set a constraint on their age. From the comparison of the observed and model CMDs we infer that all three galaxies are at least older than 2 Gyr (possibly even as old as 10 Gyr) and remain gas-rich because their star formation rates (SFRs) have been very low (< 10^{-3} M_{sun}/yr) throughout. In such systems, sta...

  15. The ages and colours of cool helium-core white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Serenelli, A M; Rohrmann, R D; Benvenuto, O G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the evolution of helium-core white dwarf stars in a self-consistent way with the predictions of detailed non-gray model atmospheres and element diffusion. To this end, we consider helium-core white dwarf models with stellar masses of 0.406, 0.360, 0.327, 0.292, 0.242, 0.196 and 0.169 solar masses and follow their evolution from the end of mass loss episodes during their pre-white dwarf evolution down to very low surface luminosities. We find that when the effective temperature decreases below 4000K, the emergent spectrum of these stars becomes bluer within time-scales of astrophysical interest. In particular, we analyse the evolution of our models in the colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams and we find that helium-core white dwarfs with masses ranging from approx. 0.18 to 0.3 solar masses can reach the turn-off in their colours and become blue again within cooling times much less than 15 Gyr and then remain brighter than M_V approx. 16.5. In view of these results,...

  16. The Near-Ultraviolet Luminosity Function of Young, Early M-Type Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ansdell, Megan; Mann, Andrew W; Lepine, Sebastien; James, David; Buccino, Andrea; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M; Riddle, Reed; Mauas, Pablo; Petrucci, Romina

    2014-01-01

    Planets orbiting within the close-in habitable zones of M dwarf stars will be exposed to elevated high-energy radiation driven by strong magneto-hydrodynamic dynamos during stellar youth. Near-ultraviolet (NUV) irradiation can erode and alter the chemistry of planetary atmospheres, and a quantitative description of the evolution of NUV emission from M dwarfs is needed when modeling these effects. We investigated the NUV luminosity evolution of early M-type dwarfs by cross-correlating the Lepine & Gaidos (2011) catalog of bright M dwarfs with the GALEX catalog of NUV (1771-2831A) sources. Of the 4805 sources with GALEX counterparts, 797 have NUV emission significantly (> 2.5 sigma) in excess of an empirical basal level. We inspected these candidate active stars using visible-wavelength spectra, high-resolution adaptive optics imaging, time-series photometry, and literature searches to identify cases where the elevated NUV emission is due to unresolved background sources or stellar companions; we estimated ...

  17. Dark influences II: gas and star formation in minor mergers of dwarf galaxies with dark satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Starkenburg, Tjitske K; Sales, Laura V

    2015-01-01

    Mergers have been proposed to induce starbursts and to lead to important morphological changes in galaxies. Most studies so far have focused on large galaxies, but dwarfs might also experience such events, since the halo mass function is scale-free in the concordance cosmological model. Notably, because of their low mass, most of their interactions will be with dark satellites. In this paper we follow the evolution of gas-rich disky dwarf galaxies as they experience a minor merger with a dark satellite. We aim to characterize the effects of such an interaction on the dwarf's star formation, morphology and kinematical properties. We perform a suite of carefully set-up hydrodynamical simulations of dwarf galaxies that include dark matter, gas, and stars, merging with a satellite consisting solely of dark matter. For the host system we vary the gas fraction, disk size and thickness, halo mass and concentration, while for the satellite we explore different masses, concentrations and orbits. We find that the inter...

  18. Ancient planetary systems are orbiting a large fraction of white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zuckerman, B; Klein, B; Koester, D; Jura, M

    2010-01-01

    Infrared studies have revealed debris likely related to planet formation in orbit around ~30% of youthful, intermediate mass, main sequence stars. We present evidence, based on atmospheric pollution by various elements heavier than helium, that a comparable fraction of the white dwarf descendants of such main sequence stars are orbited by planetary systems. These systems have survived, at least in part, through all stages of stellar evolution that precede the white dwarf. During the time interval (~200 million years) that a typical polluted white dwarf in our sample has been cooling it has accreted from its planetary system the mass of one of the largest asteroids in our solar system (e.g., Vesta or Ceres). Usually, this accreted mass will be only a fraction of the total mass of rocky material that orbits these white dwarfs; for plausible planetary system configurations we estimate that this total mass is likely to be at least equal to that of the Sun's asteroid belt, and perhaps much larger. We report abunda...

  19. A Be-type star with a black hole companion

    CERN Document Server

    Casares, J; Ribo, M; Ribas, I; Paredes, J M; Herrero, A; Simon-Diaz, S

    2014-01-01

    Stellar-mass black holes have all been discovered through X-ray emission, which arises from the accretion of gas from their binary companions (this gas is either stripped from low-mass stars or supplied as winds from massive ones). Binary evolution models also predict the existence of black holes accreting from the equatorial envelope of rapidly spinning Be-type stars (stars of the Be type are hot blue irregular variables showing characteristic spectral emission lines of hydrogen). Of the ~80 Be X-ray binaries known in the Galaxy, however, only pulsating neutron stars have been found as companions. A black hole was formally allowed as a solution for the companion to the Be star MWC 656 (also known as HD 215227), although that was based on a single radial velocity curve of the Be star, a mistaken spectral classification and rough estimates of the inclination angle. Here we report observations of an accretion disk line mirroring the orbit of the Be star. This, together with an improved radial velocity curve of ...

  20. Neutral interstellar medium phases and star formation tracers in dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigan, Phillip Johnathan

    Dwarf galaxies present interesting observational challenges for the studies of various galaxy properties: despite their abundance and proximity to the Milky Way, they typically have very low surface brightnesses and small physical sizes. Until now, only the extreme variety of dwarfs --- those undergoing strong bouts of star formation --- have been observed in the FIR, due to observational difficulties. However, this population does not represent the majority of dwarfs, which have only moderate star formation rates and extremely low metallicity (the fraction of heavy elements to hydrogen). The advent of the Herschel Space Telescope, with its superior resolution and sensitivity over previous generations of telescopes, has made it possible to measure FIR spectral lines and broadband continuum in normal dwarf galaxies, expanding the scope of studies beyond the brighter, but more extreme, varieties. The general goal of my research was to study the conditions in the interstellar media (ISM) of typical dwarf galaxies. The LITTLE THINGS (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, TheHI Nearby Galaxy Survey) project aims to unravel many mysteries of nearby dwarfs using a suite of multi-wavelength data, and the new additions from Herschel help provide insight into the physics of these systems. I reduced and analyzed FIR fine-structure spectral line data for the LITTLE THINGS sample to study the different phases of the ISM, as well as FIR photometry data to access the dust properties and infrared continuum emission in these systems. The FIR spectral lines are diagnostics for the conditions in the ISM of galaxies, telling us about heating efficiency, the fraction of gas that resides in photodissociation regions (PDRs), abundance of highly ionized gas from massive stars, and other physical descriptions. The photometric continuum observations enable the modeling of interstellar dust properties -- dust plays an important role in shielding and cooling molecular clouds which

  1. Discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the A3V star \\beta{} Circini

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, L C; Peña, C Contreras; Kurtev, R; Marocco, F; Jones, H R A; Beamin, J C; Napiwotzki, R; Borissova, J; Burningham, B; Faherty, J; Pinfield, D J; Gromadzki, M; Ivanov, V D; Minniti, D; Stimson, W; Villanueva, V

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of an L dwarf companion to the A3V star \\beta{} Circini. VVV J151721.49-585131.5, or \\beta{} Cir B, was identified in a proper motion and parallax catalogue of the Vista Variables in the V\\'{i}a L\\'{a}ctea survey as having near infrared luminosity and colour indicative of an early L dwarf, and a proper motion and parallax consistent with that of \\beta{} Cir. The projected separation of $\\sim$3.6' corresponds to $6656$ au, which is unusually wide. The most recent published estimate of the age of the primary combined with our own estimate based on newer isochrones yields an age of $370-500$ Myr. The system therefore serves as a useful benchmark at an age greater than that of the Pleiades brown dwarfs and most other young L dwarf benchmarks. We have obtained a medium resolution echelle spectrum of the companion which indicates a spectral type of L1.0$\\pm$0.5 and lacks the typical signatures of low surface gravity seen in younger brown dwarfs. This suggests that signs of low surface gravit...

  2. Weak Galactic halo--dwarf spheroidal connection from RR Lyrae stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorentino, Giuliana; Monelli, Matteo; Stetson, Peter B; Tolstoy, Eline; Gallart, Carme; Salaris, Maurizio; Martinez, Clara; Bernard, Edouard J

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the role that dwarf galaxies may have played in the formation of the Galactic halo (Halo) using RR Lyrae stars (RRL) as tracers of their ancient stellar component. The comparison is performed using two observables (periods, luminosity amplitudes) that are reddening and distance independent. Fundamental mode RRL in six dwarf spheroidals and eleven ultra faint dwarf galaxies (1,300) show a Gaussian period distribution well peaked around a mean period of =0.610+-0.001 days (sigma=0.03). The Halo RRL (15,000) are characterized by a broader period distribution. The fundamental mode RRL in all the dwarf spheroidals apart from Sagittarius are completely lacking in High Amplitude Short Period (HASP) variables, defined as those having P 0.75mag. Such variables are not uncommon in the Halo and among the globular clusters and massive dwarf irregulars. To further interpret this evidence, we considered eighteen globulars covering a broad range in metallicity (-2.3< [Fe/H]< -1.1) and hosting more than 35 R...

  3. Black Holes and Pulsars in the Introductory Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orear, Jay; Salpeter, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the phenomenon of formation of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes from dying stars for the purpose of providing college teachers with materials usable in the introductory physics course. (CC)

  4. Simulating the photometric study of pulsating white dwarf stars in the physics laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Chote, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a realistic simulation of astronomical observing using a relatively low-cost commercial CCD camera and a microcontroller-based circuit that drives LEDs inside a light-tight box with time-varying intensities. As part of a laboratory experiment, students can acquire sequences of images using the camera, and then perform data analysis using a language such as MATLAB or Python to: (a) extract the intensity of the imaged LEDs, (b) perform basic calibrations on the time-series data, and (c) convert their data into the frequency domain where they can then identify the frequency structure. The primary focus is on studying light curves produced by the pulsating white dwarf stars. The exercise provides an introduction to CCD observing, a framework for teaching concepts in numerical data analysis and Fourier techniques, and connections with the physics of white dwarf stars.

  5. How the first stars shaped the faintest gas-dominated dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Robbert; Vandenbroucke, Bert; de Rijcke, Sven

    2016-08-01

    Cosmological simulations predict that dark matter halos with circular velocities lower than 30 km/s should have lost most of their neutral gas by heating of the ultra-violet background. This is in stark contrast with gas-rich galaxies such as e.g. Leo T, Leo P and Pisces A, which all have circular velocities of ~15 km/s (Ryan-Weber et al. 2008, Bernstein-Cooper et al. 2014, Tollerud et al. 2015). We show that when we include feedback from the first stars into our models, simulated dwarfs have very different properties at redshift 0 than when this form of feedback is not included. Including this Population-III feedback leads to galaxies that lie on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation over the entire mass range of star forming dwarf galaxies, as well as reproducing a broad range of other observational properties.

  6. Metallicity Distribution Functions of Dwarf Galaxies: A Probe of Star Formation History and Baryonic Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Ivanna; Kirby, Evan N.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2016-06-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) of simulated, isolated dwarf galaxies (M_{star} = 4 × 10^{4} - 3 × 10^{8} M_{⊙}) from the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project to quantify the impact of star formation history (SFH) and baryonic physics. These high-resolution cosmological simulations include realistic treatments of stellar evolution and complex gas dynamics and do not require the usual approximations (e.g., instantaneous recycling and instantaneous mixing) of analytic chemical evolution models. The evolution of the MDF with redshift informs which processes drive the dominant contributions to the distribution at z = 0, thus enabling a reconstruction of the SFH and gas loss/accretion history. We then compare the theoretical MDFs to the observed MDFs of Local Group dwarf galaxies to infer plausible SFHs for each matched galaxy.

  7. Measuring the Initial Mass Function of Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffries, R D

    2012-01-01

    I review efforts to determine the form and any lower limit to the initial mass function in the Galactic disk, using observations of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the field, young clusters and star forming regions. I focus on the methodologies that have been used and the uncertainties that exist due to observational limitations and to systematic uncertainties in calibrations and theoretical models. I conclude that whilst it is possible that the low-mass IMFs deduced from the field and most young clusters are similar, there are too many problems to be sure; there are examples of low-mass cluster IMFs that appear to be very discrepant and the IMFs for brown dwarfs in the field and young clusters have yet to be reconciled convincingly.

  8. Chromospherically Active Stars in the RAVE Survey. II. Young Dwarfs in the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žerjal, M.; Zwitter, T.; Matijevič, G.; Grebel, E. K.; Kordopatis, G.; Munari, U.; Seabroke, G.; Steinmetz, M.; Wojno, J.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Conrad, C.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Kunder, A.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Siviero, A.; Watson, F. G.; Wyse, R. F. G.

    2017-01-01

    A large sample of over 38,000 chromospherically active candidate solar-like stars and cooler dwarfs from the RAVE survey is addressed in this paper. An improved activity identification with respect to the previous study was introduced to build a catalog of field stars in the solar neighborhood with an excess emission flux in the calcium infrared triplet wavelength region. The central result of this work is the calibration of the age–activity relation for main-sequence dwarfs in a range from a few 10 {Myr} up to a few Gyr. It enabled an order of magnitude age estimation of the entire active sample. Almost 15,000 stars are shown to be younger than 1 {Gyr} and ∼2000 younger than 100 {Myr}. The young age of the most active stars is confirmed by their position off the main sequence in the J ‑ K versus {N}{UV}-V diagram showing strong ultraviolet excess, mid-infrared excess in the J ‑ K versus {W}1-{W}2 diagram, and very cool temperatures (J-K> 0.7). They overlap with the reference pre-main-sequence RAVE stars often displaying X-ray emission. The activity level increasing with the color reveals their different nature from the solar-like stars and probably represents an underlying dynamo-generating magnetic fields in cool stars. Of the RAVE objects from DR5, 50% are found in the TGAS catalog and supplemented with accurate parallaxes and proper motions by Gaia. This makes the database of a large number of young stars in a combination with RAVE’s radial velocities directly useful as a tracer of the very recent large-scale star formation history in the solar neighborhood. The data are available online in the Vizier database.

  9. Self-consistent photometric and spectroscopic Star Formation Histories in Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Benito, R.; Pérez, E.; Pérez-Montero, E.; González Delgado, R.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    This project aims to unify the spectroscopic and stellar photometric views by performing a comprehensive study of a sample of the nearest Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDs). We plan to derive Star Formation Histories (SFH) both by means of Color-Magnitude Diagrams (CMDs) from extant Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical imaging and with spectral fitting methods techniques using MUSE, allowing us to obtain state-of-the-art 2D stellar properties and abundances of the gas in BCDs.

  10. The merging of white dwarf and neutron star systems: gravitational radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Berro, Enrique [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Politecnica Superior de Castelldefels, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. del Canal OlImpic s/n, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Pedemonte, Alba G [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Politecnica Superior de Castelldefels, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Avda. del Canal OlImpic s/n, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); GarcIa-Senz, Domingo [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Facultat de Informatica de Barcelona, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, c/ Jordi Girona Salgado, s/n, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Loren-Aguilar, Pablo [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Facultat de Ciencies, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Isern, Jordi [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Facultat de Ciencies, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Lobo, Jose A [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Facultat de Ciencies, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    We have computed the gravitational wave emission arising from the coalescence of binary systems composed of a white dwarf and a neutron star. In order to do so, we have followed the evolution of such systems using a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code. Here we present some of the results obtained so far, paying special attention to the detectability of the emitted gravitational waves. Within this context, we show which could be the impact of individual merging episodes for LISA.

  11. A Comprehensive, Wide-Field Study of Pulsating Stars in the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Vivas, A. Katherina; Mateo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection of 388 pulsating variable stars (and some additional miscellaneous variables) in the Carina dSph galaxy over an area covering the full visible extent of the galaxy and extending a few times beyond its photometric (King) tidal radius along the direction of its major axis. Included in this total are 340 newly discovered dwarf Cepheids which are mostly located ~2.5 magnitudes below the horizontal branch and have very short periods (

  12. Continuum and line emission of flares on red dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Morchenko, Egor; Livshits, Moisey

    2015-01-01

    The emission spectrum has been calculated of a homogeneous pure hydrogen layer, which parameters are typical for a flare on a red dwarf. The ionization and excitation states were determined by the solution of steady-state equations taking into account the continuum and all discrete hydrogen levels. We consider the following elementary processes: electron-impact transitions, spontaneous and induced radiative transitions, and ionization by the bremsstrahlung and recombination radiation of the layer itself. The Biberman--Holstein approximation was used to calculate the scattering of line radiation. Asymptotic formulae for the escape probability are obtained for a symmetric line profile taking into account the Stark and Doppler effects. The approximation for the core of the H$-\\alpha$ line by a gaussian curve has been substantiated. The spectral intensity of the continuous spectrum, the intensity of the lines of the Balmer series and the magnitude of the Balmer jump have been calculated. The conditions have been ...

  13. DETAILED ABUNDANCES OF TWO VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The most metal-poor stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) can show the nucleosynthetic patterns of one or a few supernovae (SNe). These SNe could have zero metallicity, making metal-poor dSph stars the closest surviving links to Population III stars. Metal-poor dSph stars also help to reveal the formation mechanism of the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present the detailed abundances from Keck/HIRES spectroscopy for two very metal-poor stars in two MW dSphs. One star, in the Sculptor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -2.40. The other star, in the Ursa Minor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -3.16. Both stars fall in the previously discovered low-metallicity, high-[{alpha}/Fe] plateau. Most abundance ratios of very metal-poor stars in these two dSphs are largely consistent with very metal-poor halo stars. However, the abundances of Na and some r-process elements lie at the lower end of the envelope defined by inner halo stars of similar metallicity. We propose that the metallicity dependence of SN yields is the cause. The earliest SNe in low-mass dSphs have less gas to pollute than the earliest SNe in massive halo progenitors. As a result, dSph stars at -3 < [Fe/H] < -2 sample SNe with [Fe/H] << -3, whereas halo stars in the same metallicity range sample SNe with [Fe/H] {approx} -3. Consequently, enhancements in [Na/Fe] and [r/Fe] were deferred to higher metallicity in dSphs than in the progenitors of the inner halo.

  14. Detailed Abundances of Two Very Metal-poor Stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.

    2012-12-01

    The most metal-poor stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) can show the nucleosynthetic patterns of one or a few supernovae (SNe). These SNe could have zero metallicity, making metal-poor dSph stars the closest surviving links to Population III stars. Metal-poor dSph stars also help to reveal the formation mechanism of the Milky Way (MW) halo. We present the detailed abundances from Keck/HIRES spectroscopy for two very metal-poor stars in two MW dSphs. One star, in the Sculptor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -2.40. The other star, in the Ursa Minor dSph, has [Fe I/H] = -3.16. Both stars fall in the previously discovered low-metallicity, high-[α/Fe] plateau. Most abundance ratios of very metal-poor stars in these two dSphs are largely consistent with very metal-poor halo stars. However, the abundances of Na and some r-process elements lie at the lower end of the envelope defined by inner halo stars of similar metallicity. We propose that the metallicity dependence of SN yields is the cause. The earliest SNe in low-mass dSphs have less gas to pollute than the earliest SNe in massive halo progenitors. As a result, dSph stars at -3 < [Fe/H] < -2 sample SNe with [Fe/H] Lt -3, whereas halo stars in the same metallicity range sample SNe with [Fe/H] ~ -3. Consequently, enhancements in [Na/Fe] and [r/Fe] were deferred to higher metallicity in dSphs than in the progenitors of the inner halo. Data herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  15. UVES abundances of stars in nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E; Venn, K; Shetrone, M; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A; Szeifert, T

    2002-01-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a galaxy in possession of a good quantity of gas must want to form stars. It is the details of how and why that baffle us all. The simplest theories either would have this process a carefully self-regulated affair, or one that goes completely out of contr

  16. Discovery of Temperate Earth-Sized Planets Transiting a Nearby Ultracool Dwarf Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehin, Emmanuel; Gillon, Michael; Lederer, Susan M.; Delrez, Laetitia; De Wit, Julien; Burdanov, Artem; Van Grootel, Valerie; Burgasser, Adam; Triaud, Amaury; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Queloz, Didier

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of three short-period Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star using data collected by the Liège TRAPPIST telescope, located in la Silla (Chile). TRAPPIST-1 is an isolated M8.0+/-0.5-type dwarf star at a distance of 12.0+/-0.4 parsecs as measured by its trigonometric parallax, with an age constrained to be > 500 Myr, and with a luminosity, mass, and radius of 0.05%, 8% and 11.5% those of the Sun, respectively. The small size of the host star, only slightly larger than Jupiter, translates into Earth-like radii for the three discovered planets, as deduced from their transit depths. The inner two planets receive four and two times the irradiation of Earth, respectively, placing them close to the inner edge of the habitable zone of the star. Several orbits remain possible for the third planet based on our current data. The infrared brightness of the host star combined with its Jupiter-like size offer the possibility of thoroughly characterizing the components of this nearby planetary system.

  17. Discovery of temperate Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehin, Emmanuel; Gillon, Michael; Lederer, Susan M.; Delrez, Laetitia; de Wit, Julien; Burdanov, Artem; Van Grootel, Valérie; Burgasser, Adam; Triaud, Amaury; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Queloz, Didier

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery of three short-period Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star using data collected by the Liège TRAPPIST telescope, located in la Silla (Chile). TRAPPIST-1 is an isolated M8.0±0.5-type dwarf star at a distance of 12.0±0.4 parsecs as measured by its trigonometric parallax, with an age constrained to be > 500 Myr, and with a luminosity, mass, and radius of 0.05%, 8% and 11.5% those of the Sun, respectively. The small size of the host star, only slightly larger than Jupiter, translates into Earth-like radii for the three discovered planets, as deduced from their transit depths. The inner two planets receive four and two times the irradiation of Earth, respectively, placing them close to the inner edge of the habitable zone of the star. Several orbits remain possible for the third planet based on our current data. The infrared brightness of the host star combined with its Jupiter-like size offer the possibility of thoroughly characterizing the components of this nearby planetary system.

  18. A Study of the Star-forming Dwarf Galaxy NGC 855 with Spitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 855 using the narrow-band Ha and Spitzer data. Both the Ha and Spitzer IRAC images confirm star-forming activity in the center of NGC 855. We obtained a star formation rate (SFR) of 0.022 and 0.025 M☉yr-1, respectively, from the Spitzer IRAC 8.0 μm and MIPS 24 μm emission data. The HI observa tion suggests that the star-forming activity might be triggered by a minor merger. We also find that there is a distinct IR emission region in 5.8 and 8.0μm bands, located at about 10 "away from the nucleus of NGC 855. Given the strong 8.0μm but faint Hα emission, we expect that it is a heavily obscured star-forming region, which needs to be confirmed by further optical spectroscopic observations.

  19. Mass modelling of dwarf spheroidal galaxies: the effect of unbound stars from tidal tails and the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentowski, J; Kazantzidis, S; Prada, F; Mayer, L; Mamon, G A; Klimentowski, Jaroslaw; Lokas, Ewa L.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Prada, Francisco; Mayer, Lucio; Mamon, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    We study the origin and properties of the population of unbound stars in the kinematic samples of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. For this purpose we have run a high resolution N-body simulation of a two-component dwarf galaxy orbiting in a Milky Way potential. In agreement with the tidal stirring scenario of Mayer et al., the dwarf is placed on a highly eccentric orbit, its initial stellar component is in the form of an exponential disk and it has a NFW-like dark matter halo. After 10 Gyrs of evolution the dwarf produces a spheroidal stellar component and is strongly tidally stripped so that mass follows light and the stars are on almost isotropic orbits. From this final state, we create mock kinematic data sets for 200 stars by observing the dwarf in different directions. We find that when the dwarf is observed along the tidal tails the kinematic samples are strongly contaminated by unbound stars from the tails. We also study another source of possible contamination by adding stars from the Milky Way. We demonst...

  20. Probability of CME Impact on Exoplanets Orbiting M Dwarfs and Solar-like Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, C.; Opher, M.; Kornbleuth, M.

    2016-08-01

    Solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) produce adverse space weather effects at Earth. Planets in the close habitable zone of magnetically active M dwarfs may experience more extreme space weather than at Earth, including frequent CME impacts leading to atmospheric erosion and leaving the surface exposed to extreme flare activity. Similar erosion may occur for hot Jupiters with close orbits around solar-like stars. We have developed a model, Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT), which predicts a CME's deflection. We adapt ForeCAT to simulate CME deflections for the mid-type M dwarf V374 Peg and hot Jupiters with solar-type hosts. V374 Peg's strong magnetic fields can trap CMEs at the M dwarfs's Astrospheric Current Sheet, that is, the location of the minimum in the background magnetic field. Solar-type CMEs behave similarly, but have much smaller deflections and do not become trapped at the Astrospheric Current Sheet. The probability of planetary impact decreases with increasing inclination of the planetary orbit with respect to the Astrospheric Current Sheet: 0.5-5 CME impacts per day for M dwarf exoplanets, 0.05-0.5 CME impacts per day for solar-type hot Jupiters. We determine the minimum planetary magnetic field necessary to shield a planet's atmosphere from CME impacts. M dwarf exoplanets require values between tens and hundreds of Gauss. Hot Jupiters around a solar-type star, however, require a more reasonable <30 G. These values exceed the magnitude required to shield a planet from the stellar wind, suggesting that CMEs may be the key driver of atmospheric losses.

  1. Accretion-disc model spectra for dwarf-nova stars

    OpenAIRE

    Idan, Irit; Lasota, Jean-Pierre; Hameury, Jean-Marie; Shaviv, Giora

    2008-01-01

    Radiation from accretion discs in cataclysmic variable stars (CVs) provides fundamental information about the properties of these close binary systems and about the physics of accretion in general. The detailed diagnostics of accretion disc structure can be achieved by including in its description all the relevant heating and cooling physical mechanism, in particular the convective energy transport that, although dominant at temperatures less than about 10 000 K, is usually not taken into acc...

  2. Searching For Infrared Excesses Around White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb Wilson, Elin; Rebull, Luisa M.; Debes, John H.; Stark, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Many WDs have been found to be “polluted,” meaning they contain heavier elements in their atmospheres. Either an active process that counters gravitational settling is taking place, or an external mechanism is the cause. One proposed external mechanism for atmospheric pollution of WDs is the disintegration and accretion of rocky bodies, which would result in a circumstellar (CS) disk. As CS disks are heated, they emit excess infrared (IR) emission. WDs with IR excesses indicative of a CS disk are known as dusty WDs. Statistical studies are still needed to determine how numerous dusty, polluted WDs are, along with trends and correlations regarding rate of planetary accretion, the lifetimes of CS disks, and the structure and evolution of CS disks. These findings will allow for a better understanding of the fates of planets along with potential habitability of surviving planets.In this work, we are trying to confirm IR excesses around a sample of 69 WD stars selected as part of the WISE InfraRed Excesses around Degenerates (WIRED) Survey (Debes et al. 2011). We have archival data from WISE, Spitzer, 2MASS, DENIS, and SDSS. The targets were initially selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and identified as containing IR excesses based on WISE data. We also have data from the Four Star Infrared Camera array, which is part of Carnegie Institution’s Magellan 6.5 meter Baade Telescope located at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. These Four Star data are much higher spatial resolution than the WISE data that were used to determine if each WD has an IR excess. There are often not many bands delineating the IR excess portion of the SED; therefore, we are using the Four Star data to check if there is another source in the WISE beam affecting the IR excess.

  3. Visual distortions near a neutron star and black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Nemiroff, R J

    1993-01-01

    The visual distortion effects visible to an observer traveling around and descending to the surface of an extremely compact star are described. Specifically, trips to a "normal" neutron star, a black hole, and an ultracompact neutron star with extremely high surface gravity, are described. Concepts such as multiple imaging, red- and blue-shifting, conservation of surface brightness, the photon sphere, and the existence of multiple Einstein rings are discussed in terms of what the viewer would see. Computer generated, general relativistically accurate illustrations highlighting the distortion effects are presented and discussed. A short movie (VHS) depicting many of these effects is available to those interested free of charge.

  4. First axion bounds from a pulsating helium-rich white dwarf star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battich, T.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The Peccei-Quinn mechanism proposed to solve the CP problem of Quantum Chromodynamics has as consequence the existence of axions, hypothetical weakly interacting particles whose mass is constrained to be on the sub-eV range. If these particles exist and interact with electrons, they would be emitted from the dense interior of white dwarfs, becoming an important energy sink for the star. Due to their well known physics, white dwarfs are good laboratories to study the properties of fundamental particles such as the axions. We study the general effect of axion emission on the evolution of helium-rich white dwarfs and on their pulsational properties. To this aim, we calculate evolutionary helium-rich white dwarf models with axion emission, and assess the pulsational properties of this models. Our results indicate that the rates of change of pulsation periods are significantly affected by the existence of axions. We are able for the first time to independently constrain the mass of the axion from the study of pulsating helium-rich white dwarfs. To do this, we use an estimation of the rate of change of period of the pulsating white dwarf PG 1351+489 corresponding to the dominant pulsation period. From an asteroseismological model of PG 1351+489 we obtain gae < 3.3 × 10-13 for the axion-electron coupling constant, or macos2β lesssim 11.5 meV for the axion mass. This constraint is relaxed to gae < 5.5 × 10-13 (macos2β lesssim 19.5 meV), when no detailed asteroseismological model is adopted for the comparison with observations.

  5. Inclusion of Horizontal Branch stars in the derivation of star formation histories of dwarf galaxies: the Carina dSph

    CERN Document Server

    Savino, Alessandro; Tolstoy, Eline

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the Horizontal Branch of the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques, taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from main sequence and red giant branch spectroscopic observations. We found that a range of integrated red giant branch mass loss values of 0.1-0.14 M, increasing with metallicity, is able to reproduce the colour extension of the old Horizontal Branch. However, leaving the mass loss as the only free parameter is not enough to match the detailed morphology of Carina Horizontal Branch. We explored the role played by the star formation history on the discrepancies between synthetic and observed Horizontal Branches. We derived a toy bursty star formation history that reproduces the horizontal branch star counts, and also matches qualitatively the red giant and the turn off regions. This star formation history is made of a subset of age and [M/H] components of the star formation ...

  6. The Effect of Black Holes in Local Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies on Gamma-Ray Constraints on Dark Matter Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Morales, Alma X; Queiroz, Farinaldo S

    2014-01-01

    The recent evidence for black holes of intermediate mass in dwarf galaxies motivates the assessment of the resulting effect on the host dark matter density profile, and the consequences for the constraints on the plane of the dark matter annihilation cross section versus mass, stemming from the non-observation of gamma rays from local dwarf spheroidals with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We compute the density profile using three different prescriptions for the black hole mass associated with a given dwarf galaxy, and taking into account the cutoff to the density from dark matter pair-annihilation. We find that the limits on the dark matter annihilation rate from observations of individual dwarfs are enhanced by factors of a few up to $10^6$, depending on the specific galaxy, on the black hole mass prescription, and on the dark matter particle mass. We estimate limits from combined observations of a sample of 15 dwarfs, for a variety of assumptions on the dwarf black hole mass and on the dark matter density ...

  7. Star formation history of And XVIII: a dwarf spheroidal galaxy in isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L. N.; Makarov, D. I.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Tully, R. B.; Rizzi, L.

    2016-10-01

    We present a photometric study of the Andromeda XVIII dwarf spheroidal galaxy associated with M31, and situated well outside of the virial radius of the M31 halo. The galaxy was resolved into stars with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys revealing the old red giant branch and red clump. With the new observational data we determined the Andromeda XVIII distance to be D = 1.33_{-0.09}^{+0.06} Mpc using the tip of red giant branch method. Thus, the dwarf is situated at the distance of 579 kpc from M31. We model the star formation history of Andromeda XVIII from the stellar photometry and Padova theoretical stellar isochrones. An ancient burst of star formation occurred 12-14 Gyr ago. There is no sign of recent/ongoing star formation in the last 1.5 Gyr. The mass fractions of the ancient and intermediate age stars are 34 and 66 per cent, respectively, and the total stellar mass is 4.2 × 106 M⊙. It is probable that the galaxy has not experienced an interaction with M31 in the past. We also discuss star formation processes of dSphs KKR 25, KKs 03, as well as dTr KK 258. Their star formation histories were uniformly measured by us from HST/ACS observations. All the galaxies are situated well beyond the Local Group and the two dSphs KKR 25 and KKs 03 are extremely isolated. Evidently, the evolution of these objects has proceeded without influence of neighbours.

  8. Variable Stars in the Field of the Hydra II Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, A. Katherina; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert; Nidever, David L.; Walker, Alistair R.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Besla, Gurtina; Gallart, Carme; van der Marel, Roeland P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Saha, Abhijit; Conn, Blair C.; Jin, Shoko

    2016-05-01

    We report the discovery of one RR Lyrae star in the ultra-faint satellite galaxy Hydra II based on time series photometry in the g, r and i bands obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile. The association of the RR Lyrae star discovered here with Hydra II is clear because is located at 42\\prime\\prime from the center of the dwarf, well within its half-light radius of 102\\prime\\prime . The RR Lyrae star has a mean magnitude of i=21.30+/- 0.04 which is too faint to be a field halo star. This magnitude translates to a heliocentric distance of 151 ± 8 kpc for Hydra II; this value is ∼ 13% larger than the estimate from the discovery paper based on the average magnitude of several blue horizontal branch star candidates. The new distance implies a slightly larger half-light radius of {76}-10+12 pc and a brighter absolute magnitude of {M}V=-5.1+/- 0.3, which keeps this object within the realm of the dwarf galaxies. A comparison with other RR Lyrae stars in ultra-faint systems indicates similar pulsational properties among them, which are different to those found among halo field stars and those in the largest of the Milky Way satellites. We also report the discovery of 31 additional short period variables in the field of view (RR Lyrae, SX Phe, eclipsing binaries, and a likely anomalous cepheid) which are likely not related with Hydra II.

  9. Star formation history of And XVIII: a dwarf spheroidal galaxy in isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L. N.; Makarov, D. I.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Tully, R. B.; Rizzi, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a photometric study of the Andromeda XVIII dwarf spheroidal galaxy associated with M31, and situated well outside of the virial radius of the M31 halo. The galaxy was resolved into stars with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) revealing the old red giant branch and red clump. With the new observational data, we determined the Andromeda XVIII distance to be D = 1.33_{-0.09}^{+0.06} Mpc using the tip of red giant branch method. Thus, the dwarf is situated at the distance of 579 kpc from M31. We model the star formation history of Andromeda XVIII from the stellar photometry and Padova theoretical stellar isochrones. An ancient burst of star formation occurred 12-14 Gyr ago. There is no sign of recent/ongoing star formation in the last 1.5 Gyr. The mass fractions of the ancient and intermediate age stars are 34 and 66 per cent, respectively, and the total stellar mass is 4.2 × 106 M⊙. It is probable that the galaxy has not experienced an interaction with M31 in the past. We also discuss star formation processes of dSphs KKR 25, KKs 03, as well as dTr KK 258. Their star formation histories were uniformly measured by us from HST/ACS observations. All the galaxies are situated well beyond the Local Group, and the two dSphs KKR 25 and KKs 03 are extremely isolated. Evidently, the evolution of these objects has proceeded without influence of neighbours.

  10. Insights into Pre-Enrichment of Star Clusters and Self-Enrichment of Dwarf Galaxies from their Intrinsic Metallicity Dispersions

    CERN Document Server

    Leaman, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Star clusters are known to have smaller intrinsic metallicity spreads than dwarf galaxies due to their shorter star formation timescales. Here we use individual spectroscopic [Fe/H] measurements of stars in 19 Local Group dwarf galaxies, 13 Galactic open clusters, and 49 globular clusters to show that star cluster and dwarf galaxy linear metallicity distributions are binomial in form, with all objects showing strong correlations between their mean linear metallicity $\\bar{Z}$ and intrinsic spread in metallicity $\\sigma(Z)^{2}$. A plot of $\\sigma(Z)^{2}$ versus $\\bar{Z}$ shows that the correlated relationships are offset for the dwarf galaxies from the star clusters. The common binomial nature of these linear metallicity distributions can be explained with a simple inhomogeneous chemical evolution model (e.g., Oey 2000), where the star cluster and dwarf galaxy behaviour in the $\\sigma(Z)^{2}-\\bar{Z}$ diagram is reproduced in terms of the number of enrichment events, covering fraction, and intrinsic size of the...

  11. The NIR Ca II triplet at low metallicity : Searching for extremely low-metallicity stars in classical dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starkenburg, E.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.; Gonzalez Hernandez, J.I.; Irwin, M.; Helmi, A.; Battaglia, G.; Jablonka, P.; Tafelmeyer, M.; Shetrone, M.; Venn, K.; de Boer, T.

    2010-01-01

    The NIR Ca II triplet absorption lines have proven to be an important tool for quantitative spectroscopy of individual red giant branch stars in the Local Group, providing a better understanding of metallicities of stars in the Milky Way and dwarf galaxies and thereby an opportunity to constrain the

  12. Hubble Space Telescope observations of cool white dwarf stars: Detection of new species of heavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Harry; Barnhill, Maurice; Provencal, Judi; Roby, Scott; Bues, Irmela; Cordova, France; Hammond, Gordon; Hintzen, Paul; Koester, Detlev; Liebert, James

    1995-01-01

    Observations of cool white dwarf stars with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has uncovered a number of spectral features from previouslly unobserved species. In this paper we present the data on four cool white dwarfs. We present identifications, equivalent width measurements, and brief summaries of the significance of our findings. The four stars observed are GD 40 (DBZ3, G 74-7 (DAZ), L 745-46A (DZ), and LDS 749B (DBA). Many additional species of heavey elements were detected in GD 40 and G 74-7. In L 745-46A, while the detections are limited to Fe 1, Fe II, and Mg II, the quality of the Mg II h and K line profiles should permit a test of the line broadening theories, which are so crucial to abundance determinations. The clear detection of Mg II h and k in LDS 749 B should, once an abundance determination is made, provide a clear test of the hypothesis that the DBA stars are the result of accretion from the interstellar medium. This star contains no other clear features other than a tantalizing hint of C II 1335 with a P Cygni profile, and some expected He 1 lines.

  13. Star formation and molecular hydrogen in dwarf galaxies: a non-equilibrium view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Naab, Thorsten; Walch, Stefanie; Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.

    2016-06-01

    We study the connection of star formation to atomic (H I) and molecular hydrogen (H2) in isolated, low-metallicity dwarf galaxies with high-resolution (mgas = 4 M⊙, Nngb = 100) smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. The model includes self-gravity, non-equilibrium cooling, shielding from a uniform and constant interstellar radiation field, the chemistry of H2 formation, H2-independent star formation, supernova feedback and metal enrichment. We find that the H2 mass fraction is sensitive to the adopted dust-to-gas ratio and the strength of the interstellar radiation field, while the star formation rate is not. Star formation is regulated by stellar feedback, keeping the gas out of thermal equilibrium for densities n feedback at small radii and by the assumed radiation field at large radii. The decreasing cold gas fractions result in a rapid increase in depletion time (up to 100 Gyr) for total gas surface densities Σ _{H I+H_2} ≲ 10 M⊙ pc-2, in agreement with observations of dwarf galaxies in the Kennicutt-Schmidt plane.

  14. First axion bounds from a pulsating helium-rich white dwarf star

    CERN Document Server

    Battich, Tiara; Althaus, Leandro Gabriel; Bertolami, Marcelo Miguel Miller

    2016-01-01

    The Peccei-Quinn mechanism proposed to solve the CP problem of Quantum Chromodynamics has as consequence the existence of axions, hypothetical weakly interacting particles whose mass is constrained to be on the sub-eV range. If these particles exist and interact with electrons, they would be emitted from the dense interior of white dwarfs, becoming an important energy sink for the star. Due to their well known physics, white dwarfs are good laboratories to study the properties of fundamental particles such as the axions. We study the general effect of axion emission on the evolution of helium-rich white dwarfs and on their pulsational properties. To this aim, we calculate evolutionary helium-rich white dwarf models with axion emission, and asses the pulsational properties of this models. Our results indicate that the rates of change of pulsation periods are significantly affected by the existence of axions. We are able for the first time to independently constrain the mass of the axion from the study of pulsa...

  15. VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy of Red Giant Branch stars in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemasle, B; Tolstoy, E; Venn, K A; Shetrone, M D; Irwin, M J; de Boer, T J L; Starkenburg, E; Salvadori, S

    2011-01-01

    The ages of individual Red Giant Branch stars (RGB) can range from 1 Gyr old to the age of the Universe, and it is believed that the abundances of most chemical elements in their photospheres remain unchanged with time (those that are not affected by the 1st dredge-up). This means that they trace the ISM in the galaxy at the time the star formed, and hence the chemical enrichment history of the galaxy. CMD analysis has shown the Carina dwarf spheroidal (dSph) to have had an unusually episodic star formation history (SFH) which is expected to be reflected in the abundances of different chemical elements. We use the VLT-FLAMES spectrograph in HR mode (R~20000) to measure the abundances of several chemical elements in a sample of 35 RGB stars in Carina. We also combine these abundances with photometry to derive age estimates for these stars. This allows us to determine which of two distinct star formation (SF) episodes the stars in our sample belong to, and thus to define the relationship between SF and chemical...

  16. Subaru/HDS Abundances in Three Giant Stars in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Sadakane, K; Ikuta, C; Aoki, W; Jablonka, P; Tajitsu, A

    2004-01-01

    With the HDS (High Dispersion Spectrograph) on the Subaru telescope, we obtained high resolution optical region spectra of three red giant stars (cos 4, cos 82, and cos 347) in the Ursa Minor dwarf spheriodal galaxy. Chemical abundances in these stars have been analysed for 26 elements including alpha-, iron-peak, and neutron capture elements. All three stars show low abundances of alpha-elements (Mg, Si, and Ca) and two stars (cos 82 and cos 347) show high abundance of Mn compared to Galactic halo stars of similar metallicity. One star (cos 4) has been confirmed to be very metal deficient ([Fe/H]=-2.7) and found to show anomalously low abundances of Mn, Cu, and Ba. In another star cos 82 ([Fe/H]=-1.5), we have found large excess of heavy neutron-capture elements with the general abundance pattern similar to the scaled solar system r-process abundance curve. These observational results are rather puzzling: low abundances of alpha-elements and high abundance of Mn seem to sugggest a significant contribution of...

  17. Metal-rich carbon stars in the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lagadec, Eric; Sloan, G C; Wood, Peter R; Matsuura, Mikako; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Blommaert, J A D L; Cioni, M -R L; Feast, M W; Groenewegen, M A T; Hony, Sacha; Menzies, J W; van Loon, J Th; Whitelock, P A

    2009-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations from the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope} of six carbon-rich AGB stars in the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy (Sgr dSph) and two foreground Galactic carbon stars. The band strengths of the observed C$_2$H$_2$ and SiC features are very similar to those observed in Galactic AGB stars. The metallicities are estimated from an empirical relation between the acetylene optical depth and the strength of the SiC feature. The metallicities are higher than those of the LMC, and close to Galactic values. While the high metallicity could imply an age of around 1 Gyr, for the dusty AGB stars, the pulsation periods suggest ages in excess of 2 or 3 Gyr. We fit the spectra of the observed stars using the DUSTY radiative transfer model and determine their dust mass-loss rates to be in the range 1.0--3.3$\\times 10^{-8} $M$_{\\odot}$yr$^{-1}$. The two Galactic foreground carbon-rich AGB stars are located at the far side of the solar circle, beyond the Galactic Centre. One of these two stars ...

  18. The chemical compositions of two nitrogen-rich, metal-poor, halo dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Renee C.; Sneden, Cristopher

    1994-07-01

    New high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra have been obtained for HD 25329 and HD 74000, dwarf stars that are metal-poor but nitrogen-rich members of the galactic halo. An atmosphere parameter and chemical composition analysis confirms earlier assertions of both their metal poverty, (Fe/H) approximately equals -2, and their high gravity, log g greater than 4. The relative abundances of the alpha-capture and iron-peak elements are normal for metal-poor stars. Overabundances of sodium, and possibly aluminum as well, are derived, but there are no pronounced depletions of oxygen; thus these stars do not show the sodium/oxygen or nitrogen/oxygen anticorrelations seen in globular cluster giants. All very heavy elements synthesized through s-process neutron-capture nucleosynthesis are enhanced in these stars. It is likely that the enrichments of nitrogen, sodium, aluminum, and the very heavy elements in these stars originated in material dredged up from the helium-burning shells of former AGB stars, but there is no direct evidence for binary companions for these stars.

  19. Shock formation around planets orbiting M-dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Jardine, M; Helling, Ch; Wood, K

    2011-01-01

    Bow shocks can be formed around planets due to their interaction with the coronal medium of the host stars. The net velocity of the particles impacting on the planet determines the orientation of the shock. At the Earth's orbit, the (mainly radial) solar wind is primarily responsible for the formation of a shock facing towards the Sun. However, for close-in planets that possess high Keplerian velocities and are frequently located at regions where the host star's wind is still accelerating, a shock may develop ahead of the planet. If the compressed material is able to absorb stellar radiation, then the signature of bow shocks may be observed during transits. Bow-shock models have been investigated in a series of papers (Vidotto et al. 2010, 2011,a,b; Llama et al. 2011) for known transiting systems. Once the signature of a bow-shock is observed, one can infer the magnetic field intensity of the transiting planet. Here, we investigate the potential to use this model to detect magnetic fields of (hypothetical) pl...

  20. The effect of feedback and reionization on star formation in low-mass dwarf galaxy haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Christine M; Johnston, Kathryn V; Smith, Britton D; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Sharma, Sanjib; Tumlinson, Jason

    2012-01-01

    We simulate the evolution of a 10^9 Msun dark matter halo in a cosmological setting with an adaptive-mesh refinement code as an analogue to local low luminosity dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The primary goal of our study is to investigate the roles of reionization and supernova feedback in determining the star formation histories of low mass dwarf galaxies. We include a wide range of physical effects, including metal cooling, molecular hydrogen formation and cooling, photoionization and photodissociation from a metagalactic background, a simple prescription for self-shielding, star formation, and a simple model for supernova driven energetic feedback. We carry out simulations excluding each major effect in turn. We find that reionization is primarily responsible for expelling most of the gas in our simulations, but that supernova feedback is required to disperse the dense, cold gas in the core of the halo. Moreover, we show that the timing of reionization can produce an order of magnitude dif...

  1. A Comprehensive, Wide-Field Study of Pulsating Stars in the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Vivas, A Katherina

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection of 388 pulsating variable stars (and some additional miscellaneous variables) in the Carina dSph galaxy over an area covering the full visible extent of the galaxy and extending a few times beyond its photometric (King) tidal radius along the direction of its major axis. Included in this total are 340 newly discovered dwarf Cepheids which are mostly located ~2.5 magnitudes below the horizontal branch and have very short periods (<0.1 days) typical of their class and consistent with their location on the upper part of the extended main sequence of the younger populations of the galaxy. Several extra-tidal dwarf cepheids were found in our survey up to a distance of ~1 degree from the center of Carina. Our sample also includes RR Lyrae stars and anomalous Cepheids some of which were found outside the galaxy's tidal radius as well. This supports past works that suggests Carina is undergoing tidal disruption. We use the period-luminosity relationship for dwarf Cepheids to estimate a dist...

  2. Formation and evolution of black holes in dense star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sanghamitra

    Using supercomputer simulations combining stellar dynamics and stellar evolution, we have studied various problems related to the existence of black holes in dense star clusters. We consider both stellar and intermediate-mass black holes, and we focus on massive, dense star clusters, such as old globular clusters and young, so called "super star clusters." The first problem concerns the formation of intermediate-mass black holes in young clusters through the runaway collision instability. A promising mechanism to form intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is runaway mergers in dense star clusters, where main-sequence stars collide re- peatedly and form a very massive star (VMS), which then collapses to a black hole (BH). Here we study the effects of primordial mass segregation and the importance of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) on the runaway growth of VMSs using a dynamical Monte Carlo code to model systems with N as high as 10^6 stars. Our Monte Carlo code includes an explicittreatment of all stellar collisions. We place special emphasis on the possibility of top-heavy IMFs, as observed in some very young massive clusters. We find that both primordial mass segregation and the shape of the IMF affect the rate of core collapse of star clusters and thus the time of the runaway. When we include primordial mass segregation we generally see a decrease in core collapse time (tcc). Although for smaller degrees of primordial mass segregation this decrease in tcc is mostly due to the change in the density profile of the cluster, for highly mass-segregated (primordial) clusters, it is the increase in the average mass in the core which reduces the central relaxation time, decreasing tcc. Finally, flatter IMFs generally increase the average mass in the whole cluster, which increases tcc. For the range of IMFs investigated in this thesis, this increase in tcc is to some degree balanced by stellar collisions, which accelerate core collapse. Thus there is no

  3. Black hole formation from axion stars

    CERN Document Server

    Helfer, Thomas; Clough, Katy; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Lim, Eugene A; Becerril, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The classical equations of motion for an axion with potential $V(\\phi)=m_a^2f_a^2 [1-\\cos (\\phi/f_a)]$ possess quasi-stable, localized, oscillating solutions, which we refer to as "axion stars". We study, for the first time, collapse of axion stars numerically using the full non-linear Einstein equations of general relativity and the full non-perturbative cosine potential. We map regions on an "axion star stability diagram", parameterized by the initial ADM mass, $M_{\\rm ADM}$, and axion decay constant, $f_a$. We identify three regions of the parameter space: i) long-lived oscillating axion star solutions, with a base frequency, $m_a$, modulated by self-interactions, ii) collapse to a BH and iii) complete dispersal due to gravitational cooling and interactions. We locate the boundaries of these three regions and an approximate "triple point" $(M_{\\rm TP},f_{\\rm TP})\\sim (2.4 M_{pl}^2/m_a,0.3 M_{pl})$. For $f_a$ below the triple point BH formation proceeds during winding (in the complex $U(1)$ picture) of the ...

  4. A Survey of Local Group Galaxies Currently Forming Stars: \\\\II. UBVRI Photometry of Stars in Seven Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, P; Hodge, P W; Jacoby, G H; McNeill, R T; Smith, R C; Strong, S B; Massey, Philip; Hodge, Paul W.; Jacoby, George H.; Neill, Reagin T. Mc; Strong, Shay B.

    2007-01-01

    We have obtained UBVRI images with the Kitt Peak and Cerro Tololo 4-m telescopes and Mosaic cameras of seven dwarfs in (or near) the Local Group, all of which have known evidence of recent star formation: IC10, NGC 6822, WLM, Sextans B, Sextans A, Pegasus,and Phoenix. We construct color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of these systems, as well as neighboring regions that can be used to evaluate the degree of foreground contamination by stars in the Milky Way. Inter-comparison of these CMDs with those of M31, M33, the LMC, and the SMC permits us to determine improved reddening values for a typical OB star found within these galaxies. All of the CMDs reveal a strong or modest number of blue supergiants. All but Pegasus and Phoenix also show the clear presence of red supergiants in the CMD, although IC10 appears to be deficient in these objects given its large WR population. The bright stars of intermediate color in the CMD are badly contaminated by foreground stars (30-100%), and considerable spectroscopy is needed b...

  5. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). IV. THE OUTER ARCHITECTURE OF M DWARF PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@caltech.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets and brown dwarfs (≳1 M {sub Jup}) around 122 newly identified nearby (≲40 pc) young M dwarfs. Half of our targets are younger than 135 Myr and 90% are younger than the Hyades (620 Myr). After removing 44 close stellar binaries (implying a stellar companion fraction of >35.4% ± 4.3% within 100 AU), 27 of which are new or spatially resolved for the first time, our remaining sample of 78 single M dwarfs makes this the largest imaging search for planets around young low-mass stars (0.1-0.6 M {sub ☉}) to date. Our H- and K-band coronagraphic observations with Keck/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO achieve typical contrasts of 12-14 mag and 9-13 mag at 1'', respectively, which correspond to limiting planet masses of 0.5-10 M {sub Jup} at 5-33 AU for 85% of our sample. We discovered four young brown dwarf companions: 1RXS J235133.3+312720 B (32 ± 6 M {sub Jup}; L0{sub −1}{sup +2}; 120 ± 20 AU), GJ 3629 B (64{sub −23}{sup +30} M {sub Jup}; M7.5 ± 0.5; 6.5 ± 0.5 AU), 1RXS J034231.8+121622 B (35 ± 8 M {sub Jup}; L0 ± 1; 19.8 ± 0.9 AU), and 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B (43 ± 9 M {sub Jup}; M8.0 ± 0.5; 190 ± 20 AU). Over 150 candidate planets were identified; we obtained follow-up imaging for 56% of these but all are consistent with background stars. Our null detection of planets enables strong statistical constraints on the occurrence rate of long-period giant planets around single M dwarfs. We infer an upper limit (at the 95% confidence level) of 10.3% and 16.0% for 1-13 M {sub Jup} planets between 10-100 AU for hot-start and cold-start (Fortney) evolutionary models, respectively. Fewer than 6.0% (9.9%) of M dwarfs harbor massive gas giants in the 5-13 M {sub Jup} range like those orbiting HR 8799 and β Pictoris between 10-100 AU for a hot-start (cold-start) formation scenario. The frequency of brown dwarf (13-75 M {sub Jup}) companions

  6. Planets around Low-mass Stars (PALMS). IV. The Outer Architecture of M Dwarf Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Liu, Michael C.; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Tamura, Motohide

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets and brown dwarfs (gsim1 M Jup) around 122 newly identified nearby (lsim40 pc) young M dwarfs. Half of our targets are younger than 135 Myr and 90% are younger than the Hyades (620 Myr). After removing 44 close stellar binaries (implying a stellar companion fraction of >35.4% ± 4.3% within 100 AU), 27 of which are new or spatially resolved for the first time, our remaining sample of 78 single M dwarfs makes this the largest imaging search for planets around young low-mass stars (0.1-0.6 M ⊙) to date. Our H- and K-band coronagraphic observations with Keck/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO achieve typical contrasts of 12-14 mag and 9-13 mag at 1'', respectively, which correspond to limiting planet masses of 0.5-10 M Jup at 5-33 AU for 85% of our sample. We discovered four young brown dwarf companions: 1RXS J235133.3+312720 B (32 ± 6 M Jup; L0+2-1; 120 ± 20 AU), GJ 3629 B (64+30-23 M Jup; M7.5 ± 0.5; 6.5 ± 0.5 AU), 1RXS J034231.8+121622 B (35 ± 8 M Jup; L0 ± 1; 19.8 ± 0.9 AU), and 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B (43 ± 9 M Jup; M8.0 ± 0.5; 190 ± 20 AU). Over 150 candidate planets were identified; we obtained follow-up imaging for 56% of these but all are consistent with background stars. Our null detection of planets enables strong statistical constraints on the occurrence rate of long-period giant planets around single M dwarfs. We infer an upper limit (at the 95% confidence level) of 10.3% and 16.0% for 1-13 M Jup planets between 10-100 AU for hot-start and cold-start (Fortney) evolutionary models, respectively. Fewer than 6.0% (9.9%) of M dwarfs harbor massive gas giants in the 5-13 M Jup range like those orbiting HR 8799 and β Pictoris between 10-100 AU for a hot-start (cold-start) formation scenario. The frequency of brown dwarf (13-75 M Jup) companions to single M dwarfs between 10-100 AU is 2.8+2.4-1.5%. Altogether we find that giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare

  7. Twins: The Two Shortest Period Non-Interacting Double Degenerate White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mullally, F; Thompson, Susan E; Lupton, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We report on the detection of the two shortest period non-interacting white dwarf binary systems. These systems, SDSS J143633.29+501026.8 and SDSS J105353.89+520031.0, were identified by searching for radial velocity variations in the individual exposures that make up the published spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We followed up these systems with time series spectroscopy to measure the period and mass ratios of these systems. Although we only place a lower bound on the companion masses, we argue that they must also be white dwarf stars. With periods of approximately 1 hour, we estimate that the systems will merge in less than 100 Myr, but the merger product will likely not be massive enough to result in a Type 1a supernova.

  8. Quantifying the Coexistence of Massive Black Holes and Dense Nuclear Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Alister W

    2009-01-01

    In large spheroidal stellar systems, such as elliptical galaxies, one invariably finds a 10^6-10^9 M_Sun supermassive black hole at their centre. In contrast, within dwarf elliptical galaxies one predominantly observes a 10^5-10^7 M_Sun nuclear star cluster. To date, few galaxies have been found with both type of nuclei coexisting and even less have had the masses determined for both central components. Here we identify one dozen galaxies housing nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes whose masses have been measured. This doubles the known number of such hermaphrodite nuclei - which are expected to be fruitful sources of gravitational radiation. Over the host spheroid (stellar) mass range from 10^8 to 10^11 M_Sun, we find that a galaxy's nucleus-to-spheroid (baryon) mass ratio is not a constant value but decreases from a few percent to ~0.3 percent such that log[(M_BH+M_NC)/M_sph] = -(0.39+/-0.07)log[M_sph/10^10 M_Sun] -(2.18+/-0.07). Once dry merging has commenced by M_sph ~ 10^11 M_Sun and the n...

  9. WEAK GALACTIC HALO-DWARF SPHEROIDAL CONNECTION FROM RR LYRAE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorentino, Giuliana [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Bono, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Martínez-Vásquez, Clara E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Calle Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Stetson, Peter B. [National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Tolstoy, Eline [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Salaris, Maurizio [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L35RF (United Kingdom); Bernard, Edouard J., E-mail: giuliana.fiorentino@oabo.inaf.it [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the role that dwarf galaxies may have played in the formation of the Galactic halo (Halo) using RR Lyrae stars (RRL) as tracers of their ancient stellar component. The comparison is performed using two observables (periods, luminosity amplitudes) that are reddening and distance independent. Fundamental mode RRL in 6 dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) and 11 ultra faint dwarf galaxies (∼1300) show a Gaussian period distribution well peaked around a mean period of (Pab) = 0.610 ± 0.001 days (σ = 0.03). The Halo RRL (∼15,000) are characterized by a broader period distribution. The fundamental mode RRL in all the dSphs apart from Sagittarius are completely lacking in High Amplitude Short Period (HASP) variables, defined as those having P ≲ 0.48 days and A{sub V} ≥ 0.75 mag. Such variables are not uncommon in the Halo and among the globular clusters and massive dwarf irregulars. To further interpret this evidence, we considered 18 globulars covering a broad range in metallicity (–2.3 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.1) and hosting more than 35 RRL each. The metallicity turns out to be the main parameter, since only globulars more metal-rich than [Fe/H] ∼ –1.5 host RRL in the HASP region. This finding suggests that dSphs similar to the surviving ones do not appear to be the major building-blocks of the Halo. Leading physical arguments suggest an extreme upper limit of ∼50% to their contribution. On the other hand, massive dwarfs hosting an old population with a broad metallicity distribution (Large Magellanic Cloud, Sagittarius) may have played a primary role in the formation of the Halo.

  10. Stellar populations and Star Formation History of the Metal-Poor Dwarf Galaxy DDO 68

    CERN Document Server

    Sacchi, E; Cignoni, M; Aloisi, A; Sohn, T; Tosi, M; van der Marel, R P; Grocholski, A J; James, B

    2016-01-01

    We present the star formation history of the extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxy DDO~68, based on our $V-$ and $I-$ band photometry with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board of the Hubble Space Telescope. With a metallicity of only $12+\\log(O/H)=7.15$ and an isolated location in the periphery of the nearby Lynx-Cancer void, DDO~68 is one of the most metal poor galaxies known. It has been argued in the past that DDO~68 is a young system that started forming stars only $\\sim 0.15$~Gyr ago. Our data provide a deep and uncontaminated optical color-magnitude diagram that now allows us to disprove this hypothesis, since we find a population of at least $\\sim 1$~Gyr old stars. The star formation activity has been fairly continuous over all the look-back time. The current rate is quite low, and the highest activity occurred between 10 and 100 Myr ago. The average star formation rate over the whole Hubble time is \\mbox{$\\simeq 0.01$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$}, providing a total mass of formed stars of \\mbox{$\\simeq 1.3 ...

  11. Star formation and molecular hydrogen in dwarf galaxies: a non-equilibrium view

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Walch, Stefanie; Glover, Simon C O; Clark, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    We study the connection of star formation to atomic (HI) and molecular hydrogen (H$_2$) in isolated, low metallicity dwarf galaxies with high-resolution ($m_{\\rm gas}$ = 4 M$_\\odot$, $N_{\\rm ngb}$ = 100) SPH simulations. The model includes self-gravity, non-equilibrium cooling, shielding from an interstellar radiation field, the chemistry of H$_2$ formation, H$_2$-independent star formation, supernova feedback and metal enrichment. We find that the H$_2$ mass fraction is sensitive to the adopted dust-to-gas ratio and the strength of the interstellar radiation field, while the star formation rate is not. Star formation is regulated by stellar feedback, keeping the gas out of thermal equilibrium for densities $n <$ 1 cm$^{-3}$. Because of the long chemical timescales, the H$_2$ mass remains out of chemical equilibrium throughout the simulation. Star formation is well-correlated with cold ( T $\\leqslant$ 100 K ) gas, but this dense and cold gas - the reservoir for star formation - is dominated by HI, not H$_2...

  12. Extremely metal-poor stars in classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Fornax, Sculptor and Sextans

    CERN Document Server

    Tafelmeyer, M; Hill, V; Shetrone, M; Tolstoy, E; Irwin, M J; Battaglia, G; Helmi, A; Starkenburg, E; Venn, K A; Abel, T; Francois, P; Kaufer, A; North, P; Primas, F; Szeifert, T

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a dedicated search for extremely metal-poor stars in the Fornax, Sculptor and Sextans dSphs. Five stars were selected from two earlier VLT/Giraffe and HET/HRS surveys and subsequently followed up at high spectroscopic resolution with VLT/UVES. All of them turned out to have [Fe/H] <= -3 and three stars are below [Fe/H]~-3.5. This constitutes the first evidence that the classical dSphs Fornax and Sextans join Sculptor in containing extremely metal-poor stars and suggests that all of the classical dSphs contain extremely metal-poor stars. One giant in Sculptor at [Fe/H]=-3.96 +- 0.10 is the most metal-poor star ever observed in an external galaxy. We carried out a detailed analysis of the chemical abundances of the alpha, iron peak, and the heavy elements, and we performed a comparison with the Milky Way halo and the ultra faint dwarf stellar populations. Carbon, barium and strontium show distinct features characterized by the early stages of galaxy formation and can constrain the o...

  13. Dynamical mass ejection from black hole-neutron star binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Okawa, Hirotada; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    We investigate properties of material ejected dynamically in the merger of black hole-neutron star binaries by numerical-relativity simulations. We systematically study dependence of ejecta properties on the mass ratio of the binary, spin of the black hole, and equation of state of the neutron-star matter. Dynamical mass ejection is driven primarily by tidal torque, and the ejecta is much more anisotropic than that from binary neutron star mergers. In particular, the dynamical ejecta is concentrated around the orbital plane with a half opening angle of 10deg--20deg and often sweeps only a half of the plane. The ejecta mass can be as large as ~0.1M_sun, and the velocity is subrelativistic with ~0.2--0.3c for typical cases. The ratio of the ejecta mass to the bound mass (disk and fallback components) becomes high and the ejecta velocity is large when the binary mass ratio is large, i.e., the black hole is massive. The remnant black hole-disk system receives a kick velocity of O(100)km/s due to the ejecta linear...

  14. Dwarf galaxies in voids: Suppressing star formation with photo-heating

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeft, M; Gottlöber, S; Springel, V; Hoeft, Matthias; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottloeber, Stefan; Springel, Volker

    2005-01-01

    We study structure formation in cosmological void regions using high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. Despite being significantly underdense, voids are populated abundantly with small dark matter halos which should appear as dwarf galaxies if their star formation is not suppressed significantly. We here investigate to which extent the cosmological UV-background photo-evaporates baryons out of halos of dwarf galaxies, and thereby limits their cooling and star formation rates. Assuming a Haardt & Madau UV-background with reionisation at redshift z=6, our samples of simulated galaxies show that halos with masses below a characteristic mass of M_c(z=0) = 6.5 x 10^9 h^{-1} M_sun are baryon-poor, but in general not completely empty, because baryons that are in the condensed cold phase or are already locked up in stars resist evaporation. In halos with mass M < M_c, we find that photo-heating suppresses further cooling of gas. The redshift and UV-background dependent characteristic mass M_c(z) can be un...

  15. Carbon and nitrogen abundances of individual stars in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lardo, C; Pancino, E; Romano, D; de Boer, T J L; Starkenburg, E; Tolstoy, E; Irwin, M J; Jablonka, P; Tosi, M

    2015-01-01

    We present [C/Fe] and [N/Fe] abundance ratios and CH({\\lambda}4300) and S({\\lambda}3883) index measurements for 94 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy from VLT/VIMOS MOS observations at a resolving power R= 1150 at 4020 {\\AA}. This is the first time that [N/Fe] abundances are derived for a large number of stars in a dwarf spheroidal. We found a trend for the [C/Fe] abundance to decrease with increasing luminosity on the RGB across the whole metallicity range, a phenomenon observed in both field and globular cluster giants, which can be interpreted in the framework of evolutionary mixing of partially processed CNO material. Both our measurements of [C/Fe] and [N/Fe] are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions for stars at similar luminosity and metallicity. We detected a dispersion in the carbon abundance at a given [Fe/H], which cannot be ascribed to measurement uncertainties alone. We interpret this observational evidence as the result of the contribution of differ...

  16. A Strange Star Scenario for the Formation of Eccentric Millisecond Pulsar/Helium White Dwarf Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Long; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira

    2015-01-01

    According to the recycling scenario, millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have evolved from low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Their orbits are expected to be circular due to tidal interactions during the binary evolution, as observed in most of the binary MSPs. There are some peculiar systems that do not fit this picture. Three recent examples are PSRs J2234$+$06, J1946$+$3417 and J1950$+$2414, all of which are MSPs in eccentric orbits but with mass functions compatible with expected He white dwarf companions. It has been suggested these MSPs may have formed from delayed accretion-induced collapse of massive white dwarfs, or the eccentricity may be induced by dynamical interaction between the binary and a circumbinary disk. Assuming that the core density of accreting neutron stars in LMXBs may reach the density of quark deconfinement, which can lead to phase transition from neutron stars to strange quark stars, we show that the resultant MSPs are likely to have an eccentric orbit, due to the sudden loss of the gravitati...

  17. Multi-fibre optical spectroscopy of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in Upper Sco

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Hambly, N C

    2011-01-01

    We have obtained multi-fibre intermediate-resolution optical spectroscopy of 94 photometric and proper motion selected low-mass star and brown dwarf candidates in Upper Sco with AAT/AAOmega. We have estimated the spectral types and measured the equivalent widths of youth and gravity diagnostic features to confirm the spectroscopic membership of about 95% of the candidates extracted from 6.5 square degrees in Upper Sco. We also detect lithium in the spectra with the highest signal-to-noise, consolidating our conclusions about their youth. Furthermore, we derive an estimate of our selections using spectroscopic data obtained for a large number of stars falling into the instrument's field-of-view. We have estimated the effective temperatures and masses for each new spectroscopic member using the latest evolutionary models available for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Combining the current optical spectroscopy presented here with near-infrared spectroscopy obtained for the faintest photometric candidates, we con...

  18. Constraints on MACHO Dark Matter from the Star Cluster in the Dwarf Galaxy Eridanus II

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    I show that a recently discovered star cluster near the center of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Eridanus II provides strong constraints on massive compact halo objects (MACHOs) of >~5 M_sun as the main component of dark matter. MACHO dark matter will dynamically heat the cluster, driving it to larger sizes and higher velocity dispersions until it dissolves into its host galaxy. The star cluster has a luminosity of just ~2000 L_sun and is relatively puffy, with a half-light radius of 13 pc, making it much more fragile than other known clusters in dwarf galaxies. For a wide range of plausible dark matter halo properties, Eri II's star cluster combines with existing constraints from microlensing, wide binaries, and disk kinematics to rule out dark matter composed entirely of MACHOs from ~10$^{-7}$ M_sun up to arbitrarily high masses. The cluster in Eri II closes the ~20--100 M_sun window of allowed MACHO dark matter and provides much stronger constraints than wide Galactic binaries for MACHOs of up to thousands o...

  19. Two candidate brown dwarf companions around core helium-burning stars

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffenroth, V; Nagel, K; Geier, S; Koen, C; Heber, U; Edelmann, H

    2014-01-01

    Hot subdwarf stars of spectral type B (sdBs) are evolved, core helium-burning objects. The formation of those objects is puzzling, because the progenitor star has to lose almost its entire hydrogen envelope in the red-giant phase. Binary interactions have been invoked, but single sdBs exist as well. We report the discovery of two close hot subdwarf binaries with small radial velocity amplitudes. Follow-up photometry revealed reflection effects originating from cool irradiated companions, but no eclipses. The lower mass limits for the companions of CPD-64$^{\\circ}$481 ($0.048\\,M_{\\rm \\odot}$) and PHL\\,457 ($0.027\\,M_{\\rm \\odot}$) are significantly below the stellar mass limit. Hence they could be brown dwarfs unless the inclination is unfavourable. Two very similar systems have already been reported. The probability that none of them is a brown dwarf is very small, 0.02%. Hence we provide further evidence that substellar companions with masses that low are able to eject a common envelope and form an sdB star. ...

  20. Implications of primordial black holes on the first stars and the origin of the super--massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bambi, Cosimo; Spolyar, Douglas; Dolgov, Alexander D.; Freese, Katherine; Volonteri, Marta

    2008-01-01

    If the cosmological dark matter has a component made of small primordial black holes, they may have a significant impact on the physics of the first stars and on the subsequent formation of massive black holes. Primordial black holes would be adiabatically contracted into these stars and then would sink to the stellar center by dynamical friction, creating a larger black hole which may quickly swallow the whole star. If these primordial black holes are heavier than $\\sim 10^{22} {\\rm g}$, the...

  1. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, Exploding Stars, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Since August, 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been scanning the sky, producing a full-sky image every three hours. These cosmic gamma-rays come from extreme astrophysical phenomena, many related to exploding stars (supernovae) or what these explosions leave behind: supernova remnants, neutron stars, and black holes. This talk uses sample Fermi results, plus simple demonstrations, to illustrate the exotic properties of these endpoints of stellar evolution.

  2. An independent limit on the axion mass from the variable white dwarf star R548

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córsico, A.H.; Althaus, L.G. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Romero, A.D.; Kepler, S.O. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil); Mukadam, A.S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); García-Berro, E. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades 5, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Isern, J. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Corti, M.A., E-mail: acorsico@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: aromero@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: anjum@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: enrique.garcia-berro@upc.edu, E-mail: isern@ice.cat, E-mail: kepler@if.ufrgs.br, E-mail: mariela@fcaglp.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía (CCT-La Plata, CONICET), C.C. No. 5, 1894 Villa Elisa (Argentina)

    2012-12-01

    Pulsating white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich atmospheres, also known as DAV stars, can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of fundamental particles like axions. Comparing the measured cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for sources of additional cooling due to the emission of weakly interacting particles. In this paper, we present an independent inference of the mass of the axion using the recent determination of the evolutionary cooling rate of R548, the DAV class prototype. We employ a state-of-the-art code which allows us to perform a detailed asteroseismological fit based on fully evolutionary sequences. Stellar cooling is the solely responsible of the rates of change of period with time (.Π)) for the DAV class. Thus, the inclusion of axion emission in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DAV stars. This allows us to compare the theoretical .Π) values to the corresponding empirical rate of change of period with time of R548 to discern the presence of axion cooling. We found that if the dominant period at 213.13 s in R548 is associated with a pulsation mode trapped in the hydrogen envelope, our models indicate the existence of additional cooling in this pulsating white dwarf, consistent with axions of mass m{sub a}cos {sup 2}β ∼ 17.1 meV at a 2σ confidence level. This determination is in agreement with the value inferred from another well-studied DAV, G117-B15A. We now have two independent and consistent estimates of the mass of the axion obtained from DAVs, although additional studies of other pulsating white dwarfs are needed to confirm this value of the axion mass.

  3. GIANO Y-band spectroscopy of dwarf stars: Phosphorus, sulphur, and strontium abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffau, E.; Andrievsky, S.; Korotin, S.; Origlia, L.; Oliva, E.; Sanna, N.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Bonifacio, P.

    2016-01-01

    Context. In recent years a number of poorly studied chemical elements, such as phosphorus, sulphur, and strontium, have received special attention as important tracers of the Galactic chemical evolution. Aims: By exploiting the capabilities of the infrared echelle spectrograph GIANO mounted at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, we acquired high resolution spectra of four Galactic dwarf stars spanning the metallicity range between about one-third and twice the solar value. We performed a detailed feasibility study about the effectiveness of the P, S, and Sr line diagnostics in the Y band between 1.03 and 1.10 μm. Methods: Accurate chemical abundances have been derived using one-dimensional model atmospheres computed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We computed the line formation assuming LTE for P, while we performed non-LTE analysis to derive S and Sr abundances. Results: We were able to derive phosphorus abundance for three stars and an upper limit for one star, while we obtained the abundance of sulphur and strontium for all of the stars. We find [P/Fe] and [S/Fe] abundance ratios consistent with solar-scaled or slightly depleted values, while the [Sr/Fe] abundance ratios are more scattered (by ±0.2 dex) around the solar-scaled value. This is fully consistent with previous studies using both optical and infrared spectroscopy. Conclusions: We verified that high-resolution, Y-band spectroscopy as provided by GIANO is a powerful tool to study the chemical evolution of P, S, and Sr in dwarf stars. Based on observations obtained with GIANO.

  4. Color, Structure, and Star Formation History of Dwarf Galaxies over the last ~3 Gyr with GEMS and SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Barazza, F D; Bell, E F; Caldwell, J A R; Jogee, S; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Rix, H W; Wolf, C; Barazza, Fabio D.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Caldwell, John A. R.; Intosh, Daniel H. Mc; Jogee, Shardha; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Peng, Chien Y.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Wolf, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of the colors, structural properties, and star formation histories for a sample of ~1600 dwarfs over look-back times of ~3 Gyr (z=0.002-0.25). The sample consists of 401 distant dwarfs drawn from the Galaxy Evolution from Morphologies and SEDs (GEMS) survey, which provides high resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images and accurate redshifts, and of 1291 dwarfs at 10-90 Mpc compiled from the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey (SDSS). The sample is complete down to an effective surface brightness of 22 mag arcsec^-2 in z and includes dwarfs with M_g=-18.5 to -14 mag. Rest-frame luminosities in Johnson UBV and SDSS ugr filters are provided by the COMBO-17 survey and structural parameters have been determined by S\\'ersic fits. We find that the GEMS dwarfs are bluer than the SDSS dwarfs by ~0.13 mag in g-r, which is consistent with the color evolution over ~2 Gyr of star formation histories involving moderate starbursts and long periods of continuous star formatio...

  5. Bright Transients from Black Hole - Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    D'Orazio, Daniel J; Murray, Norman W; Price, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Direct detection of black hole-neutron star (BHNS) pairs is anticipated with the advent of aLIGO. Electromagnetic counterparts may be crucial for a confident gravitational-wave detection as well as for extraction of astronomical information. Yet BHNS star pairs are notoriously dark and so inaccessible to telescopes. Contrary to this expectation, a bright electromagnetic transient can occur in the final moments before merger as long as the neutron star is highly magnetized. The orbital motion of the neutron star magnet creates a Faraday flux and corresponding power available for luminosity. A spectrum of curvature radiation ramps up until the rapid injection of energy ignites a fireball, which would appear as an energetic blackbody peaking in the X-ray to gamma-rays for neutron star field strengths ranging from $10^{12}$G to $10^{16}$G respectively and a $10M_{\\odot}$ black hole. The fireball event may last from a few milliseconds to a few seconds depending on the NS magnetic field strength, and may be observa...

  6. An X-ray Selected Sample of Candidate Black Holes in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lemons, Sean; Plotkin, Richard; Gallo, Elena; Greene, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of hard X-ray selected candidate black holes (BHs) in 19 dwarf galaxies. BH candidates are identified by cross-matching a parent sample of ~44,000 local dwarf galaxies (M_stellar < 3 x 10^9 Msun, z<0.055) with the Chandra Source Catalog, and subsequently analyzing the original X-ray data products for matched sources. Of the 19 dwarf galaxies in our sample, 8 have X-ray detections reported here for the first time. We find a total of 43 point-like hard X-ray sources with individual luminosities L(2-10 keV) ~ 10^37 - 10^40 erg/s. Hard X-ray luminosities in this range can be attained by stellar-mass X-ray binaries (XRBs), and by massive BHs accreting at low Eddington ratio. We place an upper limit of 53% (10/19) on the fraction of galaxies in our sample hosting a detectable hard X-ray source consistent with the optical nucleus, although the galaxy center is poorly defined in many of our objects. We also find that 42% (8/19) of the galaxies in our sample exhibit statistically significant ...

  7. Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Simulations at Georgia Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Roland

    2009-05-01

    Mixed compact object binaries consisting of a black hole and a neutron star are expected to be not only one of the primary sources of gravitational radiation to be observed by interferometric detectors but also the central engine of short gamma-ray bursts. We report on the status of our effort at Georgia Tech to model these mixed binary systems using the moving puncture method. The results are obtained with an enhanced version our vacuum MayaKranc code coupled to the hydrodynamics Whisky code. We present preliminary results of gravitational waveforms and the disruption of the neutron star for simple polytropic equations of state.

  8. Asteroseismology of DAV white dwarf stars and G29-38

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yan-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool to detect the inner structure of stars. It is also widely used to study white dwarfs. In this paper, we discuss the asteroseismology work of DAV stars. The detailed period to period fitting method is fully discussed, including the reliability to detect the inner structure of DAV stars. If we assume that all observed modes of some DAV star are the $l$ = 1 ones, the errors of model fitting will be always great. If we assume that the observed modes are composed of $l$ = 1 and 2 modes, the errors of model fitting will be small. However, there will be modes identified as $l$ = 2 without quintuplets observed. G29-38 has been observed spectroscopically and photometrically for many years. Thompson et al. (2008) made $l$ identifications for the star through limb darkening effect. With eleven known $l$ modes, we also do the asteroseismology work for G29-38, which reduces the blind $l$ fittings and is a fair choice. Unfortunately, our two best-fitting models are not in line with the p...

  9. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies II. Searching For Signatures of Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2014-01-01

    We search for signatures of reionization in the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies (10$^4$ $<$ M$_{\\star}$ $<$ 10$^9$ M$_{\\odot}$). The SFHs are derived from color-magnitude diagrams using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. Only five quenched galaxies (And V, And VI, And XIII, Leo IV, Hercules) are consistent with forming the bulk of their stars before reionization, when full uncertainties are considered. Observations of 13 of the predicted `true fossils' identified by Bovill & Ricotti show that only two (Hercules and Leo IV) indicate star formation quenched by reionization. However, both are within the virial radius of the Milky Way and evidence of tidal disturbance complicates this interpretation. We argue that the late-time gas capture scenario posited by Ricotti for the low mass, gas-rich, and star-forming fossil candidate Leo T is observationally indistinguishable from simple gas retention. Given the ambiguity between environment...

  10. Variable stars in the field of the Hydra II ultra-faint dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Vivas, A Katherina; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert; Walker, Alistair; Martin, Nicolas; Besla, Gurtina; Gallart, Carme; van der Marel, Roeland; Majewski, Steven; Kaleida, Catherine; Muñoz, Ricardo; Conn, Blair; Jin, Shoko

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of one RR Lyrae star in the ultra--faint satellite galaxy Hydra II based on time series photometry in the g, r and i bands obtained with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Chile. The RR Lyrae star has a mean magnitude of $i = 21.30\\pm 0.04$ which translates to a heliocentric distance of $151\\pm 8$ kpc for Hydra II; this value is $\\sim 13\\%$ larger than the estimate from the discovery paper based on the average magnitude of several blue horizontal branch star candidates. The new distance implies a slightly larger half-light radius of $76^{+12}_{-10}$ pc and a brighter absolute magnitude of $M_V = -5.1 \\pm 0.3$, which keeps this object within the realm of the dwarf galaxies. The pulsational properties of the RR Lyrae star ($P=0.645$ d, $\\Delta g = 0.68$ mag) suggest Hydra II may be a member of the intermediate Oosterhoff or Oosterhoff II group. A comparison with other RR Lyrae stars in ultra--faint systems indicates similar pulsational properties among them...

  11. Variable stars in the ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxy Ursa Major I

    CERN Document Server

    Garofalo, Alessia; Clementini, Gisella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Moretti, Maria Ida; Coppola, Giuseppina; Musella, Ilaria; Marconi, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first study of the variable star population of Ursa Major I (UMa I), an ultra-faint dwarf satellite recently discovered around the Milky Way by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Combining time series observations in the B and V bands from four different telescopes, we have identified seven RR Lyrae stars in UMa I, of which five are fundamental-mode (RRab) and two are first-overtone pulsators (RRc). Our V, B-V color-magnitude diagram of UMa I reaches V~23 mag (at a signal-to-noise ratio of ~ 6) and shows features typical of a single old stellar population. The mean pulsation period of the RRab stars = 0.628, {\\sigma} = 0.071 days (or = 0.599, {\\sigma} = 0.032 days, if V4, the longest period and brightest variable, is discarded) and the position on the period-amplitude diagram suggest an Oosterhoff-intermediate classification for the galaxy. The RR Lyrae stars trace the galaxy horizontal branch at an average apparent magnitude of = 20.43 +/- 0.02 mag (average on 6 stars and discarding V4), ...

  12. Quasi-Normal Modes of Stars and Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokkotas Kostas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Perturbations of stars and black holes have been one of the main topics of relativistic astrophysics for the last few decades. They are of particular importance today, because of their relevance to gravitational wave astronomy. In this review we present the theory of quasi-normal modes of compact objects from both the mathematical and astrophysical points of view. The discussion includes perturbations of black holes (Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, Kerr and Kerr-Newman and relativistic stars (non-rotating and slowly-rotating. The properties of the various families of quasi-normal modes are described, and numerical techniques for calculating quasi-normal modes reviewed. The successes, as well as the limits, of perturbation theory are presented, and its role in the emerging era of numerical relativity and supercomputers is discussed.

  13. Probability of CME Impact on Exoplanets Orbiting M Dwarfs and Solar-Like Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, C; Kornbleuth, M

    2016-01-01

    Solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) produce adverse space weather effects at Earth. Planets in the close habitable zone of magnetically active M dwarfs may experience more extreme space weather than at Earth, including frequent CME impacts leading to atmospheric erosion and leaving the surface exposed to extreme flare activity. Similar erosion may occur for hot Jupiters with close orbits around solar-like stars. We have developed a model, Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT), which predicts a CME's deflection. We adapt ForeCAT to simulate CME deflections for the mid-type M dwarf V374 Peg and hot Jupiters with solar-type hosts. V374 Peg's strong magnetic fields can trap CMEs at the M dwarfs's Astrospheric Current Sheet, the location of the minimum in the background magnetic field. Solar-type CMEs behave similarly, but have much smaller deflections and do not get trapped at the Astrospheric Current Sheet. The probability of planetary impact decreases with increasing inclination of the planetary orbi...

  14. Planets Around Low-Mass Stars (PALMS). IV. The Outer Architecture of M Dwarf Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, Brendan P; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; Tamura, Motohide

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a high-contrast adaptive optics imaging search for giant planets and brown dwarfs (>1 MJup) around 122 newly identified nearby (<40 pc) young M dwarfs. Half of our targets are younger than 135 Myr and 90% are younger than the Hyades (620 Myr). Our H- and K-band coronagraphic observations with Keck/NIRC2 and Subaru/HiCIAO achieve typical contrasts of 12-14 mag and 9-13 mag at 1", respectively, which corresponds to limiting planet masses of 0.5-10 MJup at 5-33 AU for 85% of our sample. We discovered four young brown dwarf companions: 1RXS J235133.3+312720 B (32 $\\pm$ 6 MJup; L0$^{+2}_{-1}$; 120 $\\pm$ 20 AU), GJ 3629 B (64$^{+30}_{-23}$ MJup; M7.5 $\\pm$ 0.5; 6.5 $\\pm$ 0.5 AU), 1RXS J034231.8+121622 B (35 $\\pm$ 8 MJup; L0 $\\pm$ 1; 19.8 $\\pm$ 0.9 AU), and 2MASS J15594729+4403595 B (43 $\\pm$ 9 MJup; M8.0 $\\pm$ 0.5; 190 $\\pm$ 20 AU). Over 150 candidate planets were identified; we obtained follow-up imaging for 56% of these but all are consistent with background stars. Our null detection of...

  15. Boson Stars Alternatives to primordial black holes?

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, E W; Mielke, Eckehard W.; Schunck, Franz E.

    2000-01-01

    The present surge for the astrophysical relevance of boson stars stems from the speculative possibility that these compact objects could provide a considerable fraction of the non-baryonic part of dark matter within the halo of galaxies. For a very light `universal' axion of effective string models, their total gravitational mass will be in the most likely range of \\sim 0.5 M_ødot of MACHOs. According to this framework, gravitational microlensing is indirectly ``weighing" the axion mass, resulting in \\sim 10^{-10} eV/c^2. This conclusion is not changing much, if we use a dilaton type self-interaction for the bosons. Moreover, we review their formation, rotation and stability as likely candidates of astrophysical importance.

  16. Flare Activity and Polarization States of White Dwarfs in Binary Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva, D.; Filipov, L.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate flare activity and emission properties of white dwarf binary stars. We apply the polarization as a mechanism to probe the flares and the released resulting radiation. The polarization could appear as patterns in these cases, as it depends mainly on the properties of radiation and geometry of the source. The observational data of MV Lyr and CH Cyg are analysed. A repeated variability in the brightness could affect the degree of polarization. Detectable variations in the polarization parameters of selected binaries for the flares activity period are shown in the result. The analysis may help us to establish more evidence of the close correlation between flares, flow structure transformation around the primary star and polarization parameter variability.

  17. Hypervelocity intracluster stars ejected by supermassive black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Holley-Bockelmann, K; Mihos, J C; Feldmeier, J J; Ciardullo, R; McBride, C; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Feldmeier, John J.; Ciardullo, Robin; Bride, Cameron Mc

    2005-01-01

    Hypervelocity stars have been recently discovered in the outskirts of galaxies, such as the unbound star in the Milky Way halo, or the three anomalously fast intracluster planetary nebulae (ICPNe) in the Virgo Cluster. These may have been ejected by close 3-body interactions with a binary supermassive black hole (SMBBH), where a star which passes within the semimajor axis of the SMBBH can receive enough energy to eject it from the system. Stars ejected by SMBBHs may form a significant sub-population with very different kinematics and mean metallicity than the bulk of the intracluster stars. The number, kinematics, and orientation of the ejected stars may constrain the mass ratio, semimajor axis, and even the orbital plane of the SMBBH. We investigate the evolution of the ejected debris from a SMBBH within a clumpy and time-dependent cluster potential using a high resolution, self-consistent cosmological N-body simulation of a galaxy cluster. We show that the predicted number and kinematic signature of the fas...

  18. Jets from Tidal Disruptions of Stars by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Krolik, Julian H

    2011-01-01

    Tidal disruption of main sequence stars by black holes has generally been thought to lead to a signal dominated by UV emission. If, however, the black hole spins rapidly and the poloidal magnetic field intensity on the black hole horizon is comparable to the inner accretion disk pressure, a powerful jet may form whose luminosity can easily exceed the thermal UV luminosity. When the jet beam points at Earth, its non-thermal luminosity can dominate the emitted spectrum. The thermal and non-thermal components decay differently with time. In particular, the thermal emission should remain roughly constant for a significant time after the period of maximum accretion, beginning to diminish only after a delay, whereas after the peak accretion rate, the non-thermal jet emission decays, but then reaches a plateau. When the newly-found flare source Swift J2058 is analyzed in terms of this model, it is found to be consistent with an event in which a main sequence solar-type star is disrupted by a black hole of mass at le...

  19. AN M DWARF COMPANION TO AN F-TYPE STAR IN A YOUNG MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigmüller, Ph.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Erikson, A.; Fridlund, M.; Pasternacki, Th.; Rauer, H. [Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center Rutherfordstr. 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Eislöffel, J.; Lehmann, H.; Hartmann, M.; Hatzes, A. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Tkachenko, A. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Voss, H., E-mail: philipp.eigmueller@dlr.de [Universitat de Barcelona, Department of Astronomy and Meteorology Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Only a few well characterized very low-mass M dwarfs are known today. Our understanding of M dwarfs is vital as these are the most common stars in our solar neighborhood. We aim to characterize the properties of a rare F+dM stellar system for a better understanding of the low-mass end of the Hertzsprung–Russel diagram. We used photometric light curves and radial velocity follow-up measurements to study the binary. Spectroscopic analysis was used in combination with isochrone fitting to characterize the primary star. The primary star is an early F-type main-sequence star with a mass of (1.493 ± 0.073) M{sub ⊙} and a radius of (1.474 ± 0.040) R{sub ⊙}. The companion is an M dwarf with a mass of (0.188 ± 0.014) M{sub ⊙} and a radius of (0.234 ± 0.009) R{sub ⊙}. The orbital period is (1.35121 ± 0.00001) days. The secondary star is among the lowest-mass M dwarfs known to date. The binary has not reached a 1:1 spin–orbit synchronization. This indicates a young main-sequence binary with an age below ∼250 Myr. The mass–radius relation of both components are in agreement with this finding.

  20. An M Dwarf Companion to an F-type Star in a Young Main-sequence Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigmüller, Ph.; Eislöffel, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Lehmann, H.; Erikson, A.; Fridlund, M.; Hartmann, M.; Hatzes, A.; Pasternacki, Th.; Rauer, H.; Tkachenko, A.; Voss, H.

    2016-03-01

    Only a few well characterized very low-mass M dwarfs are known today. Our understanding of M dwarfs is vital as these are the most common stars in our solar neighborhood. We aim to characterize the properties of a rare F+dM stellar system for a better understanding of the low-mass end of the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram. We used photometric light curves and radial velocity follow-up measurements to study the binary. Spectroscopic analysis was used in combination with isochrone fitting to characterize the primary star. The primary star is an early F-type main-sequence star with a mass of (1.493 ± 0.073) M⊙ and a radius of (1.474 ± 0.040) R⊙. The companion is an M dwarf with a mass of (0.188 ± 0.014) M⊙ and a radius of (0.234 ± 0.009) R⊙. The orbital period is (1.35121 ± 0.00001) days. The secondary star is among the lowest-mass M dwarfs known to date. The binary has not reached a 1:1 spin-orbit synchronization. This indicates a young main-sequence binary with an age below ˜250 Myr. The mass-radius relation of both components are in agreement with this finding.

  1. Living with a Red Dwarf: Rotation and X-ray and Ultraviolet Properties of the Halo Population Kapteyn's Star

    CERN Document Server

    Guinan, Edward F; Durbin, Allyn

    2016-01-01

    As part of Villanova's Living with a Red Dwarf program, we have obtained UV, X-ray and optical data of the Population II red dwarf -- Kapteyn's Star. Kapteyn's Star is noteworthy for its large proper motions and high RV of ~+245 km s^-1. As the nearest Pop II red dwarf, it serves as an old age anchor for calibrating Activity/Irradiance-Rotation-Age relations, and an important test bed for stellar dynamos and the resulting X-ray -- UV emissions of slowly rotating, near-fully convective red dwarf stars. Adding to the notoriety, Kapteyn's Star has recently been reported to host two super-Earth candidates, one of which (Kapteyn b) is orbiting within the habitable zone (Anglada-Escude et al. 2014a, 2015). However, Robertson et al. (2015) questioned the planet's existence since its orbital period may be an artifact of activity, related to the star's rotation period. Because of its large Doppler-shift, measures of the important, chromospheric H I Lyman-alpha 1215.67A emission line can be reliably made, because it is...

  2. An M dwarf Companion to an F-type Star in a young main-sequence binary

    CERN Document Server

    Eigmüller, Ph; Csizmadia, Sz; Lehmann, H; Erikson, A; Fridlund, M; Hartmann, M; Hatzes, A; Pasternacki, Th; Rauer, H; Tkachenko, A; Voss, H

    2016-01-01

    Only a few well characterized very low-mass M dwarfs are known today. Our understanding of M dwarfs is vital as these are the most common stars in our solar neighborhood. We aim to characterize the properties of a rare F+dM stellar system for a better understanding of the low-mass end of the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram. We used photometric light curves and radial velocity follow-up measurements to study the binary. Spectro- scopic analysis was used in combination with isochrone fitting to characterize the primary star. The primary star is an early F-type main-sequence star with a mass of (1.493 +- 0.073) Msun and a radius of (1.474 +- 0.040) Rsun. The companion is an M dwarf with a mass of (0.188 +- 0.014) Msun and a radius of (0.234 +- 0.009) Rsun. The orbital period is (1.35121 +- 0:00001)d. The secondary star is among the lowest-mass M dwarfs known to date. The binary has not reached a 1:1 spin-orbit synchronization. This indicates a young main-sequence binary with an age below ~250 Myrs. The mass-radius re...

  3. The minimum mass for star formation, and the origin of binary brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, A P W D

    2006-01-01

    Our first aim is to calculate the minimum mass for Primary Fragmentation in a variety of potential star-formation scenarios, i.e. (i) hierarchical fragmentation of a 3-D medium; (ii) one-shot, 2-D fragmentation of a shock-compressed layer; (iii) fragmentation of a circumstellar disc. Our second aim is to evaluate the role of H2 dissociation in facilitating Secondary Fragmentation and thereby producing close, low-mass binaries. Results: (i)For contemporary, local star formation, the minimum mass for Primary Fragmentation is in the range 0.001-0.004Msun, irrespective of the scenario considered. (ii)Circumstellar discs are only able to radiate fast enough to undergo Primary Fragmentation in their cool outer parts (R>100AU). Therefore brown dwarfs (BDs) should have difficulty forming by Primary Fragmentation at R100AU could be the source of brown dwarfs in wide orbits, and could explain why massive discs with Rd>100AU are rarely seen.(iii)H2 dissociation can lead to collapse and Secondary Fragmentation, thereby c...

  4. N-body simulations of planetary accretion around M dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ogihara, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated planetary accretion from planetesimals in terrestrial planet regions inside the ice line around M dwarf stars through N-body simulations including tidal interactions with disk gas. Because of low luminosity of M dwarfs, habitable zones (HZs) are located in inner regions. In the close-in HZ, type-I migration and the orbital decay induced by eccentricity damping are efficient according to the high disk gas density in the small orbital radii. In the case of full efficiency of type-I migration predicted by the linear theory, we found that protoplanets that migrate to the vicinity of the host star undergo close scatterings and collisions, and 4 to 6 planets eventually remain in mutual mean motion resonances and their orbits have small eccentricities and they are stable both before and after disk gas decays. In the case of slow migration, the resonant capture is so efficient that densely-packed ~ 40 small protoplanets remain in mutual mean motion resonances. In this case, they start orbit cross...

  5. Implications of primordial black holes on the first stars and the origin of the super--massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo; Dolgov, Alexander D; Freese, Katherine; Volonteri, Marta

    2008-01-01

    If the cosmological dark matter has a component made of small primordial black holes, they may have a significant impact on the physics of the first stars and on the subsequent formation of massive black holes. Primordial black holes would be adiabatically contracted into these stars and then would sink to the stellar center by dynamical friction, creating a larger black hole which may quickly swallow the whole star. The first stars would thus live only for a very short time and would not contribute much to reionization of the universe. They would instead become $10 - 10^3 M_\\odot$ black holes which (depending on subsequent accretion) could serve as seeds for the super--massive black holes seen at high redshifts as well as those inside galaxies today.

  6. Extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs around AF-type stars. IX. The HARPS southern sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgniet, S.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Meunier, N.; Galland, F.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Massive, main-sequence (MS) AF-type stars have so far remained unexplored in past radial velocities (RV) surveys due to their small number of spectral lines and high rotational velocities that prevent the classic RV computation method. Aims: Our aim is to search for giant planets (GPs) around AF MS stars, to get primary statistical information on their occurrence rate and to compare the results with evolved stars and lower-mass MS stars. Methods: We used the HARPS spectrograph located on the 3.6 m telescope at ESO La Silla Observatory to observe 108 AF MS stars with B-V in the range -0.04 to 0.58 and masses in the range 1.1 to 3.6 M⊙. We used our SAFIR software developed to compute the RV and other spectroscopic observables of these early-type stars. We characterized the detected companions as well as the intrinsic stellar variability. We computed the detection limits and used them as well as the detected companions to derive the first estimates of the close-in brown dwarf (BD) and GP frequencies around AF stars. Results: We report the detection of a mpsini = 4.51MJup planetary companion with an 826-day period to the F6V dwarf HD 111998. We also present new data on the two-planet system around the F6IV-V dwarf HD 60532. We also report the detections of 14 binaries with long-term RV trends and/or high-amplitude RV variations combined to a flat RV-bisector span diagram. We constrain the minimal masses and semi-major axes of these companions and check that these constraints are compatible with the stellar companions previously detected by direct imaging or astrometry for six of these targets. We get detection limits deep into the planetary domain with 70% of our targets showing detection limits between 0.1 and 10 MJup at all orbital periods in the 1- to 103-day range. We derive BD (13 ≤mpsini ≤ 80 MJup) occurrence rates in the 1- to 103-day period range of 2-2+5% and 2.6-2.6+6.7% for stars with M⋆ in the ranges 1.1 to 1.5 and 1.5 to 3 M

  7. Delving Deeper into the Tumultuous Lives of Galactic Dwarfs: Modeling Star Formation Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Chris; Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Dolphin, Andrew E; Holtzman, John A

    2008-01-01

    The paucity of observed dwarf galaxies in the Local Group and the relative overabundance of predicted dark matter halos remains one of the greatest puzzles of the LCDM paradigm. Solving this puzzle now requires not only matching the numbers of objects but also understanding the details of their star formation histories. We present a summary of such histories derived from HST data using the color-magnitude diagram fitting method. We interpret the new data by using and extending the phenomenological model of Kravtsov, Gnedin & Klypin (2004), which is based on the mass assembly histories of dark matter halos and the Kennicutt-Schmidt law of star formation. The model correctly predicts the radial distributions of dIrr and, separately, dSph galaxy types as well as the mean age of the stellar populations. However, in order to be consistent with the observations, the model needs a significant amount of recent star formation in the last 1 and 2 Gyr. Within the framework of our extended models, this prolonged star...

  8. Rotational studies in the Orion Nebula Cluster: from solar mass stars to brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Ledesma, Maria Victoria; Eislöffel, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    Rotational studies at a variety of ages and masses are important for constraining the angular momentum evolution of young stellar objects (YSO). Of particular interest are the very low mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs (BDs), because of the significant lack of known rotational periods in that mass range. We provide for the first time information on rotational periods for a large sample of young VLM stars and BDs. This extensive rotational period study in the 1 Myr old Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is based on a deep photometric monitoring campaign using the Wide Field Imager (WFI) camera on the ESO/MPG 2.2m telescope on La Silla, Chile. Accurate I-band photometry of 2908 stars was obtained, extending three magnitudes deeper than previous studies in the ONC. We found 487 periodic variables with estimated masses between 0.5 Msun and 0.015 Msun, 124 of which are BD candidates. This is by far the most extensive and complete rotational period data set for young VLM stars and BDs. In addition, 808 objects show non-per...

  9. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. II. Searching for signatures of reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We search for signatures of reionization in the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies (10{sup 4} < M{sub *} < 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}). The SFHs are derived from color-magnitude diagrams using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. Only five quenched galaxies (And V, And VI, And XIII, Leo IV, and Hercules) are consistent with forming the bulk of their stars before reionization, when full uncertainties are considered. Observations of 13 of the predicted 'true fossils' identified by Bovill and Ricotti show that only two (Hercules and Leo IV) indicate star formation quenched by reionization. However, both are within the virial radius of the Milky Way and evidence of tidal disturbance complicates this interpretation. We argue that the late-time gas capture scenario posited by Ricotti for the low mass, gas-rich, and star-forming fossil candidate Leo T is observationally indistinguishable from simple gas retention. Given the ambiguity between environmental effects and reionization, the best reionization fossil candidates are quenched low mass field galaxies (e.g., KKR 25).

  10. STAR FORMATION IN ULTRA-FAINT DWARFS: CONTINUOUS OR SINGLE-AGE BURSTS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, David; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Sutherland, Ralph, E-mail: d.webster@physics.usyd.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2015-01-30

    We model the chemical evolution of six ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs): Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, Coma Berenices, Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I based on their recently determined star formation histories. We show that two single-age bursts cannot explain the observed [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] distribution in these galaxies and that some self-enrichment is required within the first burst. An alternative scenario is modeled, in which star formation is continuous except for short interruptions when one or more supernovae temporarily blow the dense gas out from the center of the system. This model allows for self-enrichment and can reproduce the chemical abundances of the UFDs in which the second burst is only a trace population. We conclude that the most likely star formation history is one or two extended periods of star formation, with the first burst lasting for at least 100 Myr. As found in earlier work, the observed properties of UFDs can be explained by formation at a low mass (M{sub vir}∼10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}), rather than being stripped remnants of much larger systems.

  11. The Potential of Planets Orbiting Red Dwarf Stars to Support Oxygenic Photosynthesis and Complex Life

    CERN Document Server

    Gale, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We review the latest findings on extra-solar planets and their potential to support Earth-like life. Focusing on planets orbiting Red Dwarf (RD) stars, the most abundant stellar type, we show that including RDs as potential host stars could increase the probability of finding biotic planets by a factor of up to a thousand, and reduce the estimate of the distance to our nearest biotic neighbor by up to 10. We argue that binary and multiple star systems need to be taken into account when discussing exoplanet habitability. Early considerations indicated that conditions on RD planets would be inimical to life, as their Habitable Zones (where liquid water could exist) would be so close as to make planets tidally locked to their star. This was thought to cause an erratic climate and expose life forms to flares of ionizing radiation. Recent calculations show that these negative factors are less severe than originally thought. It has been argued that the lesser photon energy of the radiation of the relatively cool RD...

  12. The Stellar Content and the Star Formation History of the Local Group Dwarf Galaxy LGS 3

    CERN Document Server

    Aparicio, A; Bertelli, G

    1997-01-01

    The star formation history (SFH) and the properties of the dwarf galaxy LGS3 are analyzed using color-magnitude (CM) diagrams plotted from VRI photometry of 736 stars. The distance to the galaxy is estimated through the position of the tip or the red giant branch. Two acceptable results have been obtained: 0.77+/-0.07 Mpc and 0.96+/-0.07 Mpc, although the first value is favored by complementary considerations on the stellar content of the galaxy. Both values make LGS3 a possible satellite of M31 or of M33. The SFH is investigated for each of the two adopted distances comparing the observed CM diagrams with model CM diagrams computed for different star formation rates (psi(t)) and chemical enrichment laws (Z(t)). The results are compatible with LGS3 having been forming stars since an early epoch, 15-12 Gyr ago, at an almost constant rate if distance is 0.77 Mpc or at an exponentially decreasing rate if distance is 0.96 Mpc. According to our models, the current metallicity would range from Z~0.0007 to Z~0.002. ...

  13. Toward High Precision Seismic Studies of White Dwarf Stars: Parametrization of the Core and Tests of Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Giammichele, N; Fontaine, G; Brassard, P

    2016-01-01

    We present a prescription for parametrizing the chemical profile in the core of white dwarfs in the light of the recent discovery that pulsation modes may sometimes be deeply confined in some cool pulsating white dwarfs. Such modes may be used as unique probes of the complicated chemical stratification that results from several processes that occurred in previous evolutionary phases of intermediate-mass stars. This effort is part of our ongoing quest for more credible and realistic seismic models of white dwarfs using static, parametrized equilibrium structures. Inspired from successful techniques developed in design optimization fields (such as aerodynamics), we exploit Akima splines for the tracing of the chemical profile of oxygen (carbon) in the core of a white dwarf model. A series of tests are then presented to better seize the precision and significance of the results that can be obtained in an asteroseismological context. We also show that the new parametrization passes an essential basic test, as it ...

  14. Shock waves in tidally compressed stars by massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Brassart, M

    2007-01-01

    We study the case of a solar-type star penetrating deeply within the tidal radius of a massive black hole. We focus on the compression phase leading to a so-called pancake configuration of the star at the instant of maximal compression. The aim is to provide reliable estimates of the thermodynamical quantities involved in the pancake star, and to solve a controversy about whether or not thermonuclear reactions can be triggered in the core of a tidally compressed star. We have set up a one-dimensional hydrodynamical code based on the high-resolution shock-capturing Godunov-type approach in order to study the compression phase undergone by the star in the direction orthogonal to its orbital plane, taking into account the development of shock waves during that phase. We show the existence of two regimes of compression depending on whether shock waves develop after or before the instant of maximal compression. In both cases we confirm high compression and heating factors in the stellar core, able to trigger a the...

  15. Mass modelling of dwarf spheroidal galaxies: the effect of unbound stars from tidal tails and the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentowski, Jarosław; Łokas, Ewa L.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Prada, Francisco; Mayer, Lucio; Mamon, Gary A.

    2007-06-01

    We study the origin and properties of the population of unbound stars in the kinematic samples of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. For this purpose we have run a high-resolution N-body simulation of a two-component dwarf galaxy orbiting in a Milky Way potential. In agreement with the tidal stirring scenario of Mayer et al., the dwarf is placed on a highly eccentric orbit, its initial stellar component is in the form of an exponential disc and it has a NFW-like dark matter (DM) halo. After 10 Gyr of evolution the dwarf produces a spheroidal stellar component and is strongly tidally stripped so that mass follows light and the stars are on almost isotropic orbits. From this final state, we create mock kinematic data sets for 200 stars by observing the dwarf in different directions. We find that when the dwarf is observed along the tidal tails the kinematic samples are strongly contaminated by unbound stars from the tails. We also study another source of possible contamination by adding stars from the Milky Way. We demonstrate that most of the unbound stars can be removed by the method of interloper rejection proposed by den Hartog & Katgert and recently tested on simulated DM haloes. We model the cleaned-up kinematic samples using solutions of the Jeans equation with constant mass-to-light ratio (M/L) and velocity anisotropy parameter. We show that even for such a strongly stripped dwarf the Jeans analysis, when applied to cleaned samples, allows us to reproduce the mass and M/L of the dwarf with accuracy typically better than 25 per cent and almost exactly in the case when the line of sight is perpendicular to the tidal tails. The analysis was applied to the new data for the Fornax dSph galaxy. We show that after careful removal of interlopers the velocity dispersion profile of Fornax can be reproduced by a model in which mass traces light with a M/L of 11 solar units and isotropic orbits. We demonstrate that most of the contamination in the kinematic sample of

  16. The properties of brown dwarfs and low-mass hydrogen-burning stars formed by disc fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatellos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    We suggest that a high proportion of brown dwarfs are formed by gravitational fragmentation of massive extended discs around Sun-like stars. Such discs should arise frequently, but should be observed infrequently, precisely because they fragment rapidly. By performing an ensemble of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we show that such discs fragment within a few thousand years, and produce mainlybrown dwarf (BDs) stars, but also planetary mass (PM) stars and very low-mass hydrogen-burning (HB) stars. Most of the the PM stars and BDs are ejected by mutual interactions. We analyse the statistical properties of these stars, and compare them with observations. After a few hundred thousand years the Sun-like primary is typically left with a close low-mass HB companion, and two much wider companions: a low-mass HB star and a BD star, or a BD-BD binary. There is a BD desert extending out to at least ~100 AU; this is because BDs tend to be formed further out than low-mass HB stars, and then they tend to be scattered...

  17. Quark-Novae in Neutron Star-White-Dwarf Binaries: A model for dim, sub-Chandrasekhar, Type Ia Supernovae ?

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyed, Rachid

    2011-01-01

    We show that appealing to a Quark-Nova in a tight NS-WD binary system, a Type Ia explosion can occur for a narrow range in white dwarf mass (0.5 2 universe, we expect QNe-Ia to manifest themselves as rare sub-Chandrasekhar Type Ias; most likely in star-forming galaxies.

  18. The ACS LCID project : RR Lyrae stars as tracers of old population gradients in the isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxy tucana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard, Edouard J.; Gallart, Carme; Monelli, Matteo; Aparicio, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Skillman, Evan D.; Stetson, Peter B.; Cole, Andrew A.; Drozdovsky, Igor; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Mateo, Mario; Tolstoy, Eline

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the radial distribution of RR Lyrae variables, which present a range of photometric and pulsational properties, in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Tucana. We find that the fainter RR Lyrae stars, having a shorter period, are more centrally concentrated than the more luminous, longe

  19. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury VIII. The Global Star Formation Histories of 60 Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Williams, Benjamin F; Gilbert, Karoline M; Skillman, Evan D; Seth, Anil C; Dolphin, Andrew E; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Holtzman, Jon; Rosema, Keith; Cole, Andrew; Karachentsev, Igor D; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 60 nearby (D~4Mpc) dwarf galaxies based on CMDs of resolved stellar populations from images taken with HST as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury program (ANGST). This volume-limited sample contains 12 dSph/dE, 5 dwarf spiral, 28 dI, 12 transition, and 3 tidal dwarf galaxies. From the best fit SFHs we find three significant results: (1) the average dwarf galaxy formed >50% of its stars by z~2 and 60% of its stars by z~1, regardless of current morphological type; (2) the mean SFHs of dIs, dTrans, and dSphs are similar over most of cosmic time, with the clearest differences appearing during the most recent 1 Gyr; and (3) the mean values are inconsistent with simple SFH models, e.g., exponentially declining SFRs. The mean SFHs are in general agreement with the cosmic SFH, although we observe offsets near z~1 that could be evidence that low mass systems experienced delayed star formation relative to more massive galaxies. The sample shows ...

  20. Roche Accretion of stars close to massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lixin,; Blandford, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider Roche accretion in an Extreme Mass-Ratio Inspiral (EMRI) binary system formed by a star orbiting a massive black hole. The ultimate goal is to detect the mass and spin of the black hole and provide a test of general relativity in the strong-field regime from the resultant quasi-periodic signals. Before accretion starts, the stellar orbit is presumed to be circular and equatorial, and shrinks due to gravitational radiation. New fitting formulae are presented for the inspiral time and the radiation-reaction torque in the relativistic regime. If the inspiralling star fills its Roche lobe outside the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO) of the hole, gas will flow through the inner Lagrange point (L1) to the hole. We give new relativistic interpolation formulae for the volume enclosed by the Roche lobe. If this mass-transfer happens on a time scale faster than the thermal time scale but slower than the dynamical time scale, the star will evolve adiabatically, and, in most cases, will re...

  1. Flares from Disruptions of White Dwarfs by Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Roman; Haas, R.; Bode, T.; Laguna, P.

    2011-05-01

    Tidal disruptions of white dwarfs (WDs) by intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) may produce detectable electromagnetic/gravitational wave signature. They may provide the evidence for existence of IMBHs. We simulate the disruptions in full numerical general relativity (GR) with MayaKranc + Whisky code combination for several BH spin values. We model X-ray and UV time-dependent spectra from the simulations. Direct emission from hot fallback material is substantial, when the BH spin is aligned with WD orbital angular momentum. However, the fallback material can be completely shielded by large Compton optical depth in a misaligned case. This emphasizes the importance of realistic GR simulations with misaligned spin. Properties of flares from shock breakout region depend less on spin orientation and value. We discuss the prospects of positive identifications of candidates from GALEX and other surveys.

  2. The potential of planets orbiting red dwarf stars to support oxygenic photosynthesis and complex life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Joseph; Wandel, Amri

    2017-01-01

    We review the latest findings on extra-solar planets and their potential of having environmental conditions that could support Earth-like life. Focusing on planets orbiting red dwarf (RD) stars, the most abundant stellar type in the Milky Way, we show that including RDs as potential life supporting host stars could increase the probability of finding biotic planets by a factor of up to a thousand, and reduce the estimate of the distance to our nearest biotic neighbour by up to 10. We argue that binary and multiple star systems need to be taken into account when discussing habitability and the abundance of biotic exoplanets, in particular RDs in such systems. Early considerations indicated that conditions on RD planets would be inimical to life, as their habitable zones would be so close to the host star as to make planets tidally locked. This was thought to cause an erratic climate and expose life forms to flares of ionizing radiation. Recent calculations show that these negative factors are less severe than originally thought. It has also been argued that the lesser photon energy of the radiation of the relatively cool RDs would not suffice for oxygenic photosynthesis (OP) and other related energy expending reactions. Numerous authors suggest that OP on RD planets may evolve to utilize photons in the infrared. We however argue, by analogy to the evolution of OP and the environmental physiology and distribution of land-based vegetation on Earth, that the evolutionary pressure to utilize infrared radiation would be small. This is because vegetation on RD planets could enjoy continuous illumination of moderate intensity, containing a significant component of photosynthetic 400-700 nm radiation. We conclude that conditions for OP could exist on RD planets and consequently the evolution of complex life might be possible. Furthermore, the huge number and the long lifetime of RDs make it more likely to find planets with photosynthesis and life around RDs than around

  3. Stellar Populations and Star Formation History of the Metal-poor Dwarf Galaxy DDO 68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, E.; Annibali, F.; Cignoni, M.; Aloisi, A.; Sohn, T.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Grocholski, A. J.; James, B.

    2016-10-01

    We present the star formation history (SFH) of the extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxy DDO 68, based on our photometry with the Advanced Camera for Surveys. With a metallicity of only 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})=7.15 and a very isolated location, DDO 68 is one of the most metal-poor galaxies known. It has been argued that DDO 68 is a young system that started forming stars only ∼0.15 Gyr ago. Our data provide a deep and uncontaminated optical color–magnitude diagram (CMD) that allows us to disprove this hypothesis since we find a population of at least ∼1 Gyr old stars. The star formation activity has been fairly continuous over all the look-back time. The current rate is quite low, and the highest activity occurred between 10 and 100 Myr ago. The average star formation rate over the whole Hubble time is ≃0.01 M ⊙ yr‑1, corresponding to a total astrated mass of ≃1.3 × 108 M ⊙. Our photometry allows us to infer the distance from the tip of the red giant branch, D = 12.08 ± 0.67 Mpc; however, to let our synthetic CMD reproduce the observed ones, we need a slightly higher distance, D = 12.65 Mpc, or (m ‑ M)0 = 30.51, still inside the errors of the previous determination, and we adopt the latter. DDO 68 shows a very interesting and complex history, with its quite disturbed shape and a long tail, probably due to tidal interactions. The SFH of the tail differs from that of the main body mainly for enhanced activity at recent epochs likely triggered by the interaction. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy under NASA Contract NAS5-26555.

  4. Homogeneous abundance analysis of dwarf, subgiant and giant FGK stars with and without giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, R; Rocha-Pinto, H J

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra of nearby FGK stars with and without detected giant planets in order to homogeneously measure their photospheric parameters, mass, age, and the abundances of volatile (C, N, and O) and refractory (Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Ba) elements. Our sample contains 309 stars from the solar neighborhood (up to the distance of 100 pc), out of which 140 are dwarfs, 29 are subgiants, and 140 are giants. The photospheric parameters are derived from the equivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines. Masses and ages come from the interpolation in evolutionary tracks and isochrones on the HR diagram. The abundance determination is based on the equivalent widths of selected atomic lines of the refractory elements and on the spectral synthesis of C_2, CN, C I, O I, and Na I features. We apply a set of statistical methods to analyze the abundances derived for the three subsamples. Our results show that: i) giant stars systematically exhi...

  5. Carbon Shell or Core Ignitions in White Dwarfs Accreting from Helium Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Jared; Schwab, Josiah; Paxton, Bill

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs accreting from helium stars can stably burn at the accreted rate and avoid the challenge of mass loss associated with unstable Helium burning that is a concern for many Type Ia supernovae scenarios. We study binaries with helium stars of mass $1.25 M_\\odot\\le M_{\\rm{He}} \\le 1.8 M_\\odot$, which have lost their hydrogen rich envelopes in an earlier common envelope event and now orbit with periods ($P_{\\rm orb}$) of several hours with non-rotating $0.84$ and $1.0 M_\\odot$ C/O WDs. The helium stars fill their Roche lobes (RLs) after exhaustion of central helium and donate helium on their thermal timescales (${\\sim}10^5$yr). As shown by others, these mass transfer rates coincide with the steady helium burning range for WDs, and grow the WD core up to near the Chandrasekhar mass ($M_{\\rm Ch}$) and a core carbon ignition. We show here, however, that many of these scenarios lead to an ignition of hot carbon ashes near the outer edge of the WD and an inward going carbon flame that does not cause an explo...

  6. GIANO Y-band spectroscopy of dwarf stars: Phosphorus, Sulphur, and Strontium abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Caffau, E; Korotin, S; Origlia, L; Oliva, E; Sanna, N; Ludwig, H -G; Bonifacio, P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years a number of poorly studied chemical elements, such as phosphorus, sulphur, and strontium, have received special attention as important tracers of the Galactic chemical evolution. By exploiting the capabilities of the infrared echelle spectrograph GIANO mounted at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, we acquired high resolution spectra of four Galactic dwarf stars spanning the metallicity range between about one-third and twice the solar value. We performed a detailed feasibility study about the effectiveness of the P, S, and Sr line diagnostics in the Y band between 1.03 and 1.10 microm. Accurate chemical abundances have been derived using one-dimensional model atmospheres computed in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We computed the line formation assuming LTE for P, while we performed non-LTE analysis to derive S and Sr abundances. We were able to derive phosphorus abundance for three stars and an upper limit for one star, while we obtained the abundance of sulphur and strontium for all of...

  7. HATS-7b: A Hot Super Neptune Transiting a Quiet K Dwarf Star

    CERN Document Server

    Bakos, G Á; Bayliss, D; Hartman, J D; Zhou, G; Brahm, R; Mancini, L; deVal-Borro, M; Bhatti, W; Jordán, A; Rabus, M; Espinoza, N; Csubry, Z; Howard, A W; Fulton, B J; Buchhave, L A; Ciceri, S; Henning, T; Schmidt, B; Isaacson, H; Noyes, R W; Marcy, G W; Suc, V; Howe, A R; Burrows, A S; Lázár, J; Papp, I; Sári, P

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery by the HATSouth network of HATS-7b, a transiting Super-Neptune with a mass of 0.120+/-0.012 M_Jup, a radius of 0.563+0.046-0.034 R_Jup, and an orbital period of 3.1853 days. The host star is a moderately bright (V = 13.340+/-0.010 mag, K_S = 10.976+/-0.026 mag) K dwarf star with a mass of 0.849+/-0.027 M_Sun, a radius of 0.815+0.049-0.035 R_Sun, and a metallicity of [Fe/H]= +0.250+/-0.080. The star is photometrically quiet to within the precision of the HATSouth measurements, has low RV jitter, and shows no evidence for chromospheric activity in its spectrum. HATS-7b is the second smallest radius planet discovered by a wide-field ground-based transit survey, and one of only a handful of Neptune-size planets with mass and radius determined to 10% precision. Theoretical modeling of HATS-7b yields a hydrogen-helium fraction of 18+/-4% (rock-iron core and H2-He envelope), or 9+/-4% (ice core and H2-He envelope), i.e.it has a composition broadly similar to that of Uranus and Neptune, and ve...

  8. The SONYC survey: Towards a complete census of brown dwarfs in star forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Muzic, K; Geers, V C; Jayawardhana, R; Tamura, M; Dawson, P; Ray, T P

    2013-01-01

    SONYC, short for "Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters", is a survey program to provide a census of the substellar population in nearby star forming regions. We have conducted deep optical and near-infrared photometry in five young regions (NGC1333, rho Ophiuchi, Chamaeleon-I, Upper Sco, and Lupus-3), combined with proper motions, and followed by extensive spectroscopic campaigns with Subaru and VLT, in which we have obtained more than 700 spectra of candidate low-mass objects. We have identified and characterized more than 60 new substellar objects, among them a handful of objects with masses close to, or below the Deuterium burning limit. Through SONYC and surveys by other groups, the substellar IMF is now well characterized down to ~ 5 - 10 MJup, and we find that the ratio of the number of stars with respect to brown dwarfs lies between 2 and 6. A comprehensive survey of NGC 1333 reveals that, down to ~5MJup, free-floating objects with planetary masses are 20-50 times less numerous than stars, i.e. ...

  9. The self regulating star formation of gas rich dwarf galaxies in quiescent phase

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, M A R; Kobayashi, Masakazu A.R.; Kamaya, Hideyuki

    2004-01-01

    The expected episodic or intermittent star formation histories (SFHs) of gas rich dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs) are the longstanding puzzles to understand their whole evolutional history. Solving this puzzle, we should grasp what physical mechanism causes the quiescent phase of star formation under the very gas rich condition after the first starburst phase. We consider that this quiescent phase is kept by lack of H2, which can be important coolant to generate the next generation of stars in the low-metal environment like dIrrs. Furthermore, in dIrrs, H2 formation through gas-phase reactions may dominate the one on dust-grain surfaces because their interstellar medium (ISM) are very plentiful and the typical dust-to-gas ratio of dIrrs (D_dIrrs = 1.31 x 10^-2 D_MW, where D_MW is its value for the local ISM) is on the same order with a critical value D_cr ~ 10^-2 D_MW. We show that the lack of H2 is mainly led by H- destruction when gas-phase H2 formation dominates since H- is important intermediary of gas-p...

  10. DISCOVERY OF MIRA VARIABLE STARS IN THE METAL-POOR SEXTANS DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Tsuyoshi [Japan Spaceguard Association, 1716-3 Ookura, Bisei, Ibara, Okayama 714-1411 (Japan); Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Nakada, Yoshikazu [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 10762-30 Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso-gun, Nagano 397-0101 (Japan); Hasegawa, Takashi, E-mail: sakamoto@spaceguard.or.jp [Gunma Astronomical Observatory, 6860-86 Nakayama, Takayama, Agatsuma, Gunma 377-0702 (Japan)

    2012-12-10

    We report the discovery of two Mira variable stars (Miras) toward the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph). We performed optical long-term monitoring observations for two red stars in the Sextans dSph. The light curves of both stars in the I{sub c} band show large-amplitude (3.7 and 0.9 mag) and long-period (326 {+-} 15 and 122 {+-} 5 days) variations, suggesting that they are Miras. We combine our own infrared data with previously published data to estimate the mean infrared magnitudes. The distances obtained from the period-luminosity relation of the Miras (75.3{sup +12.8}{sub -10.9} and 79.8{sup +11.5}{sub -9.9} kpc, respectively), together with the radial velocities available, support memberships of the Sextans dSph (90.0 {+-} 10.0 kpc). These are the first Miras found in a stellar system with a metallicity as low as [Fe/H] {approx} -1.9 than any other known system with Miras.

  11. An independent limit on the axion mass from the variable white dwarf star R548

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, Alejandro H; Romero, Alejandra D; Mukadam, Anjum S; García--Berro, Enrique; Isern, Jordi; Kepler, S O; Corti, Mariela A

    2012-01-01

    Pulsating white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich atmospheres, also known as DAV stars, can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of fundamental particles like axions. Comparing the measured cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for sources of additional cooling due to the emission of weakly interacting particles. In this paper, we present an independent inference of the mass of the axion using the recent determination of the evolutionary cooling rate of R548, the DAV class prototype. We employ a state-of-the-art code which allows us to perform a detailed asteroseismological fit based on fully evolutionary sequences. Stellar cooling is the solely responsible of the rates of change of period with time ($\\dot\\Pi$) for the DAV class. Thus, the inclusion of axion emission in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DAV stars. This allows us to compare the theor...

  12. Ground-based observation of emission lines from the corona of a red-dwarf star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J H; Wichmann, R

    2001-08-02

    All 'solar-like' stars are surrounded by coronae, which contain magnetically confined plasma at temperatures above 106 K. (Until now, only the Sun's corona could be observed in the optical-as a shimmering envelope during a total solar eclipse.) As the underlying stellar 'surfaces'-the photospheres-are much cooler, some non-radiative process must be responsible for heating the coronae. The heating mechanism is generally thought to be magnetic in origin, but is not yet understood even for the case of the Sun. Ultraviolet emission lines first led to the discovery of the enormous temperature of the Sun's corona, but thermal emission from the coronae of other stars has hitherto been detectable only from space, at X-ray wavelengths. Here we report the detection of emission from highly ionized iron (Fe XIII at 3,388.1 A) in the corona of the red-dwarf star CN Leonis, using a ground-based telescope. The X-ray flux inferred from our data is consistent with previously measured X-ray fluxes, and the non-thermal line width of 18.4 km s-1 indicates great similarities between solar and stellar coronal heating mechanisms. The accessibility and spectral resolution (45,000) of the ground-based instrument are much better than those of X-ray satellites, so a new window to the study of stellar coronae has been opened.

  13. Not Alone: Tracing the Origins of Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs Through Multiplicity Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, A J; Siegler, N; Close, L; Allen, P; Lowrance, P J; Gizis, J; Burgasser, Adam J.; Siegler, Nick; Close, Laird; Allen, Peter; Lowrance, Patrick; Gizis, John

    2006-01-01

    The properties of multiple stellar systems have long provided important empirical constraints for star formation theories, enabling (along with several other lines of evidence) a concrete, qualitative picture of the birth and early evolution of normal stars. At very low masses (VLM; M = 0.8) occurring infrequently (perhaps 10-30%). Both the frequency and maximum separation of stellar and brown dwarf binaries steadily decrease for lower system masses, suggesting that VLM binary formation and/or evolution may be a mass-dependent process. There is evidence for a fairly rapid decline in the number of loosely-bound systems below ~0.3 M_sun, corresponding to a factor of 10-20 increase in the minimum binding energy of VLM binaries as compared to more massive stellar binaries. This wide-separation ``desert'' is present among both field (~1-5 Gyr) and older (> 100 Myr) cluster systems, while the youngest (<~10 Myr) VLM binaries, particularly those in nearby, low-density star forming regions, appear to have somewhat...

  14. On the survival of brown dwarfs and planets engulfed by their giant host star

    CERN Document Server

    Passy, Jean-Claude; De Marco, Orsola

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of two Earth-mass planets in close orbits around an evolved star has raised questions as to whether substellar companions can survive encounters with their host stars. We consider whether these companions could have been stripped of significant amounts of mass during the phase when they orbited through the dense inner envelopes of the giant. We apply the criterion derived by Murray et al. for disruption of gravitationally bound objects by ram pressure, to determine whether mass loss may have played a role in the histories of these and other recently discovered low-mass companions to evolved stars. We find that the brown dwarf and Jovian mass objects circling WD 0137-349, SDSS J08205+0008, and HIP 13044 are most unlikely to have lost significant mass during the common envelope phase. However, the Earth-mass planets found around KIC 05807616 could well be the remnant of one or two Jovian mass planets that lost extensive mass during the common envelope phase.

  15. New PARSEC evolutionary tracks of massive stars at low metallicity: testing canonical stellar evolution in nearby star forming dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jing; Rosenfield, Philip; Slemer, Alessandra; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo; Bianchi, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    We extend the {\\sl\\,PARSEC} library of stellar evolutionary tracks by computing new models of massive stars, from 14\\Msun to 350\\Msun. The input physics is the same used in the {\\sl\\,PARSEC}~V1.1 version, but for the mass-loss rate which is included by considering the most recent updates in literature. We focus on low metallicity, $Z$=0.001 and $Z$=0.004, for which the metal poor dwarf irregular star forming galaxies, Sextans A, WLM and NCG6822, provide simple but powerful workbenches. The models reproduce fairly well the observed CMDs but the stellar colour distributions indicate that the predicted blue loop is not hot enough in models with canonical extent of overshooting. In the framework of a mild extended mixing during central hydrogen burning, the only way to reconcile the discrepancy is to enhance the overshooting at the base of the convective envelope (EO) during the first dredge-UP. The mixing scales required to reproduce the observed loops, EO=2\\HP or EO=4\\HP, are definitely larger than those derive...

  16. Measuring neutron star tidal deformability with Advanced LIGO: black hole - neutron star binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prayush; Pürrer, Michael; Pfeiffer, Harald

    2017-01-01

    The pioneering observations of gravitational waves (GW) by Advanced LIGO have ushered us into an era of observational GW astrophysics. Compact binaries remain the primary target sources for GW observations, of which black hole - neutron star (BHNS) binaries form an important subset. GWs from coalescing BHNS systems carry signatures of the tidal distortion of the neutron star by its companion black hole during inspiral, as well as of its disruption close to merger. In this talk, I will discuss how well we can measure tidal effects from individual and populations of LIGO observations of disruptive BHNS mergers. I will also talk about how our measurements of non-tidal parameters can get affected by ignoring tidal effects in BHNS parameter estimation.

  17. Evolution and colours of helium-core white dwarf stars the case of low metallicity progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Serenelli, A M; Rohrmann, R D; Benvenuto, O G

    2002-01-01

    The present work is designed to explore the evolution of helium-core white dwarf (HeWD) stars for the case of metallicities much lower than the solar one (Z=0.001 and Z=0.0002). Evolution is followed in a self-consistent way with the predictions of detalied and new non-grey atmospheres, time-dependent element diffusion and the history of the white dwarf progenitor. Reliable initial models for low mass HeWDs are obtained by applying mass loss rates to a 1msun stellar model. The loss of angular momentum caused by gravitational wave emission and magnetic stellar wind braking are considered. Model atmospheres, based on a detailed treatment of the microphysics entering the WD atmosphere enable us to provide accurate colours and magnitudes at both early and advanced evolutionary stages. We find that most of our evolutionary sequences experience several episodes of hydrogen thermonuclear flashes. In particular, the lower the metallicity, the larger the minimum stellar mass for the occurrence fo flashes induced by CN...

  18. Importance of tides for periastron precession in eccentric neutron star-white dwarf binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sravan, N.; Valsecchi, F.; Kalogera, V. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Althaus, L. G., E-mail: niharika.sravan@gmail.com [Grupo de Evolución Estelar y Pulsaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina Instituto de Astrofísica La Plata, CONICET-UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2014-09-10

    Although not nearly as numerous as binaries with two white dwarfs, eccentric neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) binaries are important gravitational-wave (GW) sources for the next generation of space-based detectors sensitive to low frequency waves. Here we investigate periastron precession in these sources as a result of general relativistic, tidal, and rotational effects; such precession is expected to be detectable for at least some of the detected binaries of this type. Currently, two eccentric NS-WD binaries are known in the galactic field, PSR J1141–6545 and PSR B2303+46, both of which have orbits too wide to be relevant in their current state to GW observations. However, population synthesis studies predict the existence of a significant Galactic population of such systems. Though small in most of these systems, we find that tidally induced periastron precession becomes important when tides contribute to more than 3% of the total precession rate. For these systems, accounting for tides when analyzing periastron precession rate measurements can improve estimates of the inferred WD component mass and, in some cases, will prevent us from misclassifying the object. However, such systems are rare, due to rapid orbital decay. To aid the inclusion of tidal effects when using periastron precession as a mass measurement tool, we derive a function that relates the WD radius and periastron precession constant to the WD mass.

  19. Searching for star-forming dwarf galaxies in the Antlia cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Vaduvescu, O; Bassino, L P; Castelli, A V Smith; Calderon, J P

    2014-01-01

    The formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies in clusters need to be understood, and this requires large aperture telescopes. In this sense, we selected the Antlia cluster to continue our previous work in the Virgo, Fornax, and Hydra clusters and in the Local Volume (LV). Because of the scarce available literature data, we selected a small sample of five blue compact dwarf (BCD) candidates in Antlia for observation. Using the Gemini South and GMOS camera, we acquired the Halpha imaging needed to detect star-forming regions in this sample. With the long-slit spectroscopic data of the brightest seven knots detected in three BCD candidates, we derived their basic chemical properties. Using archival VISTA VHS survey images, we derived K_S magnitudes and surface brightness profile fits for the whole sample to assess basic physical properties. FS90-98, FS90-106, and FS90-147 are confirmed as BCDs and cluster members, based on their morphology, K_S surface photometry, oxygen abundance, and velocity redshift. FS90-15...

  20. Importance of Tides for Periastron Precession in Eccentric Neutron Star - White Dwarf Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Sravan, Niharika; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Althaus, Leandro G

    2014-01-01

    Although not nearly as numerous as binaries with two white dwarfs, eccentric neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) binaries are important gravitational wave sources for the next generation of space-based detectors sensitive to low frequency waves. Here we investigate periastron precession in these sources as a result of general relativistic, tidal, and rotational effects; such precession is expected to be detectable for at least some of the detected binaries of this type. Currently, two eccentric NS-WD binaries are known in the galactic field, PSR J1141-6545 and PSR B2303+46, both of which have orbits too wide to be relevant in their current state to gravitational-wave observations. However, population synthesis studies predict the existence of a significant Galactic population of such systems. We find that the contribution from tides should not be neglected when analyzing periastron precession signatures in gravitational-wave signals: not accounting for tides can produce errors as high as a factor of 80 in the WD...

  1. A census of very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the sigma Orionis cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Rebolo, R; Martín, E L; Hambly, N C

    2009-01-01

    (ABRIDGED) We have analysed the near-infrared photometric data from the Fourth Data Release (DR4) of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Suvey (UKIDSS) Galactic Clusters Survey (GCS) to derive the cluster luminosity and mass functions, evaluate the extent of the cluster, and study the distribution and variability of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs down to the deuterium-burning limit. We have recovered most of the previously published members and found a total of 287 candidate members within the central 30 arcmin in the 0.5-0.009 Msun mass range, including new objects not previously reported in the literature. This new catalogue represents a homogeneous dataset of brown dwarf member candidates over the central 30 arcmin of the cluster. The expected photometric contamination by field objects with similar magnitudes and colours to sigma Orionis members is ~15%. We present evidence of variability at the 99.5% confidence level over ~yearly timescales in 10 member candidates that exhibit signs of youth and the presence of ...

  2. Probing Galactic Structure with the Spatial Correlation Function of SEGUE G-dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Qingqing; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Schlesinger, Katharine J; Johnson, Jennifer A; Rockosi, Constance M; Beers, Timothy C; Schneider, Donald P; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Malanushenko, Elena

    2015-01-01

    We measure the two-point correlation function of G-dwarf stars within 1-3 kpc of the Sun in multiple lines-of-sight using the Schlesinger et al. G-dwarf sample from the SDSS SEGUE survey. The shapes of the correlation functions along individual SEGUE lines-of-sight depend sensitively on both the stellar-density gradients and the survey geometry. We fit smooth disk galaxy models to our SEGUE clustering measurements, and obtain strong constraints on the thin- and thick-disk components of the Milky Way. Specifically, we constrain the values of the thin- and thick-disk scale heights with 3% and 2% precision, respectively, and the values of the thin- and thick-disk scale lengths with 20% and 8% precision, respectively. Moreover, we find that a two-disk model is unable to fully explain our clustering measurements, which exhibit an excess of clustering at small scales (< 50 pc). This suggests the presence of small-scale substructure in the disk system of the Milky Way.

  3. No Neutron Star Companion To The Lowest Mass SDSS White Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Agueros, Marcel; Camilo, Fernando; Kilic, Mukremin; Anderson, Scott; Freire, Paulo; Kleinman, Scot; Liebert, James; Silvestri, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    SDSS J091709.55+463821.8 (hereafter J0917+4638) is the lowest surface gravity white dwarf (WD) currently known, with log g = 5.55 +/- 0.05 (M ~ 0.17 M_sun; Kilic et al. 2007a,b). Such low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs) are believed to originate in binaries that evolve into WD/WD or WD/neutron star (NS) systems. An optical search for J0917+4638's companion showed that it must be a compact object with a mass >= 0.28 M_sun (Kilic 2007b). Here we report on Green Bank Telescope 820 MHz and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of J0917+4638 intended to uncover a potential NS companion to the LMWD. No convincing pulsar signal is detected in our radio data. Our X-ray observation also failed to detect X-ray emission from J0917+4638's companion, while we would have detected any of the millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc. We conclude that the companion is almost certainly another WD.

  4. THE EATING HABITS OF MILKY WAY-MASS HALOS: DESTROYED DWARF SATELLITES AND THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION OF ACCRETED STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H., E-mail: adeason@stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (M{sub vir} ∼ 10{sup 12.1} M{sub ⊙}) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with M{sub star} ∼ 10{sup 8}–10{sup 10}M{sub ⊙}. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙}), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (M{sub star} < 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (≪1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (∼2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < −2. Dwarfs with masses 10{sup 5} < M{sub star}/M{sub ⊙} < 10{sup 8} provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (∼40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with M{sub star} > 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙} can contribute a considerable fraction (∼20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil”; a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  5. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies I. Hubble Space Telescope / Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2014-01-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with $\\tau$ $\\sim$ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs (dTrans), and dwarf ellipticals (dEs) can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH ($\\tau$ $\\sim$ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages $>$ 10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z=2 ranges considerably (80\\%...

  6. Dwarf nova-type cataclysmic variable stars are significant radio emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Coppejans, Deanne L; Miller-Jones, James C A; Rupen, Michael P; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Knigge, Christian; Groot, Paul J; Woudt, Patrick A; Waagen, Elizabeth O; Templeton, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We present 8--12\\,GHz radio light curves of five dwarf nova (DN) type Cataclysmic Variable stars (CVs) in outburst (RX And, U Gem and Z Cam), or superoutburst (SU UMa and YZ Cnc), increasing the number of radio-detected DN by a factor of two. The observed radio emission was variable on time-scales of minutes to days, and we argue that it is likely to be synchrotron emission. This sample shows no correlation between the radio luminosity and optical luminosity, orbital period, CV class, or outburst type; however higher-cadence observations are necessary to test this, as the measured luminosity is dependent on the timing of the observations in these variable objects. The observations show that the previously detected radio emission from SS Cyg is not unique in type, luminosity (in the plateau phase of the outburst), or variability time-scales. Our results prove that DN, as a class, are radio emitters in outburst.

  7. NuSTAR and swift observations of the fast rotating magnetized white dwarf AE Aquarii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitaguchi, Takao; An, Hongjun; Beloborodov, Andrei M.;

    2014-01-01

    AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P-spin = 33.08 s). Compared to many intermediate polars, AE Aquarii shows a soft X-ray spectrum with a very low luminosity (L-X similar to 10(31) erg s(-1)). We have analyzed overlapping observations...... of this system with the NuSTAR and the Swift X-ray observatories in 2012 September. We find the 0.5-30 keV spectra to be well fitted by either an optically thin thermal plasma model with three temperatures of 0.75(-0.45)(+0.18), 2.29(-0.82)(+0.96), and 9.33(-2.18)(+6.07) keV, or an optically thin thermal plasma...

  8. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: A new proposed Fijivirus species in the family Reoviridae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuoHui; WEN JingJung; CAI DeJiang; LI Peng; XU DongLin; ZHANG ShuGuang

    2008-01-01

    For the past several years, a novel dwarf disease has been observed on rice (Oryza sativa) in some regions of Guangdong Province and Hainan Province, southern China. Infected plants showed stunting,dark leaf and small enations on stem and leaf back. Typical Fijivirus viroplasma containing crystalline arrayed spherical virons approximately 70-75 nm in diameter and tubular structures were detected in ultrathin sections by an electron microscope in parenchyma phloem cells of the infected plants. The virus was transmitted to rice seedlings by white-backed planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), collected in the diseased fields. Analysis of dsRNA extracts from infected plants revealed ten linear segments, which were similar to the electrophoretic profile of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). RT-PCR with a single primer which matched to a linker sequence ligated to both 3' ends of the viral genomic dsRNAs resulted in amplification of genome segments 9 (S9) and 10 (S10) cDNA products. The complete nucleotide sequences of S9 and S10 were obtained from clones of the RT-PCR amplicon exhibited characteristic properties of Fijivirus including low GC content (34.5% and 35.6%), genus conserved 5' and 3' termini sequences and similar genome organization. Blast searches indicated that the sequences of S9 and S10 shared 68.8%-74.9% and 67.1 %-77.4% nucleotide identities with those of viruses in the Fijivirus group 2, respectively. These values were similar to those among other viruses in the Fijivirus group 2 and considerably lower than those among RBSDV isolates. Phylogenetic trees based on S9 and S10 nucleotide sequences and their putative amino acid sequences showed that this virus represented a separate branch among other Fijiviruses. The virus was also detected by a nested RT-PCR assay in corn (Zea mays), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), Juncellus serotinus and flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum) in and/or adjacent to the infected rice fields

  9. Is beryllium ultra-depletion in solar-type stars linked to the presence of a white dwarf companion?

    CERN Document Server

    Desidera, S; Lugaro, M

    2015-01-01

    Abundance studies of solar-type stars revealed a small fraction of objects with extreme depletion of beryllium. We investigate the possible link between the beryllium depletion and the presence of companions. The classical methods (radial velocity, astrometry, imaging) used to search for binary companions were exploited. We also performed a chemical analysis to identify binaries by the alteration in abundances that is produced by the accretion of material lost by a former evolved companion. We found that all the four previously investigated stars that were found to be ultra--depleted in Be are binaries. In two cases the companion is a white dwarf, and in the other two cases the companion might be a white dwarf or a main-sequence star. One new barium star was identified. We speculate that the interaction with the white dwarf progenitor caused an alteration in the abundance pattern of the star, which resulted in severe beryllium depletion. Possible mechanisms such as thermohaline mixing, episodic accretion, and...

  10. Growth of black holes in the interior of rotating neutron stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, C.; Tinyakov, P.

    2014-01-01

    Mini-black holes made of dark matter that can potentially form in the interior of neutron stars always have been thought to grow by accreting the matter of the core of the star via a spherical Bondi accretion. However, neutron stars have sometimes significant angular velocities that can...... in principle stall the spherical accretion and potentially change the conclusions derived about the time it takes for black holes to destroy a star. We study the effect of the star rotation on the growth of such black holes and the evolution of the black hole spin. Assuming no mechanisms of angular momentum...... evacuation, we find that even moderate rotation rates can in fact destroy spherical accretion at the early stages of the black hole growth. However, we demonstrate that the viscosity of nuclear matter can alleviate the effect of rotation, making it possible for the black hole to maintain spherical accretion...

  11. Nonspinning black hole-neutron star mergers: a model for the amplitude of gravitational waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Pannarale, Francesco; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Black hole-neutron star binary mergers display a much richer phenomenology than black hole-black hole mergers, even in the relatively simple case - considered in this paper - in which both the black hole and the neutron star are nonspinning. When the neutron star is tidally disrupted, the gravitational wave emission is radically different from the black hole-black hole case and it can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. We present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain that encompasses the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, "mild", and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to general relativistic numerical simulations using piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. It should prove useful to extract information on the nuclear equation of state from future gravitational-wave observations, and also to obtain more accurate estimates of black hole-neutron ...

  12. Living with a Red Dwarf: Rotation and X-Ray and Ultraviolet Properties of the Halo Population Kapteyn's Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.; Durbin, Allyn

    2016-04-01

    As part of Villanova's Living with a Red Dwarf program, we have obtained UV, X-ray, and optical data of the Population II red dwarf -- Kapteyn's Star. Kapteyn's Star is noteworthy for its large proper motions and high radial velocity of ∼+245 km s-1. As the nearest Pop II red dwarf, it serves as an old age anchor for calibrating activity/irradiance-rotation-age relations, and an important test bed for stellar dynamos and the resulting X-ray-UV emissions of slowly rotating, near-fully convective red dwarf stars. Adding to the notoriety, Kapteyn's Star has recently been reported to host two super-Earth candidates, one of which (Kapteyn b) is orbiting within the habitable zone. However, Robertson et al. questioned the planet's existence since its orbital period may be an artifact of activity, related to the star's rotation period. Because of its large Doppler-shift, measures of the important, chromospheric H i Lyα 1215.67 Å emission line can be reliably made, because it is mostly displaced from ISM and geo-coronal sources. Lyα emission dominates the FUV region of cool stars. Our measures can help determine the X-ray-UV effects on planets hosted by Kapteyn's Star, and planets hosted by other old red dwarfs. Stellar X-ray and Lyα emissions have strong influences on the heating and ionization of upper planetary atmospheres and can (with stellar winds and flares) erode or even eliminate planetary atmospheres. Using our program stars, we have reconstructed the past exposures of Kapteyn's Star's planets to coronal - chromospheric XUV emissions over time. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13020. This work is also based on observations obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, a NASA science mission, program #13200633.

  13. The abundance of biotic exoplanets and life on planets of Red Dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandel, Amri; Gale, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    The Kepler mission has shown that Earthlike planets orbiting within the Habitable Zones of their host stars are common. We derive an expression for the abundance of life bearing (biotic) extra-solar-system planets (exoplanets) in terms of the (yet unknown) probability for the evolution of biotic life. This "biotic probability" may be estimated by future missions and observations, e.g. spectral analyses of the atmospheres of exoplanets, looking for biomarkers. We show that a biotic probability in the range 0.001-1 implies that a biotic planet may be expected within ~10-100 light years from Earth. Of particular interest in the search for exolife are planets orbiting Red Dwarf (RD) stars, the most frequent stellar type. Previous researches suggested that conditions on planets near RDs would be inimical to life, e.g. the Habitable Zone of RDs is small, so their habitable planets would be close enough to be tidally locked. Recent calculations show that this and other properties of RDs, presumed hostile for the evolution of life, are less severe than originally estimated. We conclude that RD planets could be hospitable for the evolution of life as we know it, not less so than planets of solar-type stars. This result, together with the large number of RDs and their Kepler planet-statistics, makes finding life on RD planets ~10-1000 times more likely than on planets of solar-type stars. Our nearest biotic RD-planet is likely to be 2-10 times closer than the nearest solar-type one.

  14. Astrophysical false positives in direct imaging for exoplanets: a white dwarf close to a rejuvenated star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, A.; Vigan, A.; Hagelberg, J.; Desidera, S.; Chauvin, G.; Almenara, J. M.; Biazzo, K.; Bonnefoy, M.; Carson, J. C.; Covino, E.; Delorme, P.; D'Orazi, V.; Gratton, R.; Mesa, D.; Messina, S.; Moutou, C.; Segransan, D.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.

    2013-06-01

    Context. As is the case for all techniques involved in the research for exoplanets, direct imaging has to take into account the probability of so-called astrophysical false positives, which are phenomena that mimic the signature of the objects we are seeking. Aims: In this work we present the case of a false positive found during a direct-imaging survey conducted with VLT/NACO. A promising exoplanet candidate was detected around the K2-type star HD 8049 in July 2010. Its contrast of ΔH = 7.05 at 1.57 arcsec allowed us to assume a 35 MJup companion at 50 projected AU, for the nominal system age and heliocentric distance. Methods: To check whether it was gravitationally bound to the host star, as opposed to an unrelated background object, we re-observed the system one year later and concluded a high probability of a bound system. We also used radial velocity measurements of the host star, spanning a time range of ~30 yr, to constrain the companion's mass and orbital properties, as well as to probe the host star's spectral age indicators and general spectral energy distribution. We also obtained U-band imaging with EFOSC and near-infrared spectroscopy for the companion. Results: Combining all these information we conclude that the companion of HD 8049 is a white dwarf (WD) with temperature Teff = 18 800 ± 2100 K and mass MWD = 0.56 ± 0.08 M⊙. The significant radial velocity trend combined with the imaging data indicates that the most probable orbit has a semi-major axis of about 50 AU. The discrepancy between the age indicators speaks against a bona-fide young star. The moderately high level of chromospheric activity and fast rotation, mimicking the properties of a young star, might be induced by the exchange of mass with the progenitor of the WD. This example demonstrates some of the challenges in determining accurate age estimates and identifications of faint companions. Based on observations collected at La Silla and Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile): Programs

  15. Molecular gas and star formation in the Tidal Dwarf Galaxy VCC 2062

    CERN Document Server

    Lisenfeld, U; Duc, P A; Boquien, M; Brinks, E; Bournaud, F; Lelli, F; Charmandaris, V

    2016-01-01

    The physical mechanisms driving star formation (SF) in galaxies are still not fully understood. Tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs), made of gas ejected during galaxy interactions, seem to be devoid of dark matter and have a near-solar metallicity. The latter makes it possible to study molecular gas and its link to SF using standard tracers (CO, dust) in a peculiar environment. We present a detailed study of a nearby TDG in the Virgo Cluster, VCC 2062, using new high-resolution CO(1--0) data from the Plateau de Bure, deep optical imaging from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), and complementary multiwavelength data. Until now, there was some doubt whether VCC 2062 was a true TDG, but the new deep optical images from the NGVS reveal a stellar bridge between VCC 2062 and its parent galaxy, NGC 4694, which is clear proof of its tidal origin. Several high-resolution tracers (\\halpha, UV, 8~\\mi, and 24~\\mi) of the star formation rate (SFR) are compared to the molecular gas distribution as traced by the CO(1-...

  16. Outside-in Shrinking of the Star-forming Disk of Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Gao, Yu; Schruba, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We have studied multi-band surface brightness profiles of a representative sample of 34 nearby dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs). Our data include GALEX FUV/NUV, UBV, H\\alpha, and Spitzer 3.6 \\mum images. These galaxies constitute the majority of the LITTLE THINGS survey. By modeling the azimuthal averages of the spectral energy distributions with a complete library of star formation (SF) histories, we derived the stellar mass surface density distributions and the SF rate averaged over three different timescales: the recent 0.1 Gyr, 1 Gyr and a Hubble time. We find that, for \\sim 80% (27 galaxies) of our sample galaxies, radial profiles (at least in the outer part) at shorter wavelengths have shorter disk scale lengths than those at longer wavelengths. This indicates that the star-forming disk has been shrinking. In addition, the radial distributions of the stellar mass surface density are well described as piece-wise exponential profiles, and \\sim 80% of the galaxies have steeper mass profiles in the outer di...

  17. Dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31: I. Variable stars and stellar populations in Andromeda XIX

    CERN Document Server

    Cusano, Felice; Garofalo, Alessia; Cignoni, Michele; Federici, Luciana; Marconi, Marcella; Musella, Ilaria; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Boutsia, Konstantina; Fumana, Marco; Gallozzi, Stefano; Testa, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    We present B,V time-series photometry of Andromeda XIX (And XIX), the most extended (half-light radius of 6.2') of Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal companions, that we observed with the Large Binocular Cameras at the Large Binocular Telescope. We surveyed a 23'x 23' area centered on And XIX and present the deepest color magnitude diagram (CMD) ever obtained for this galaxy, reaching, at V~26.3 mag, about one magnitude below the horizontal branch (HB). The CMD shows a prominent and slightly widened red giant branch, along with a predominantly red HB, which, however, extends to the blue to significantly populate the classical instability strip. We have identified 39 pulsating variable stars, of which 31 are of RR Lyrae type and 8 are Anomalous Cepheids (ACs). Twelve of the RR Lyrae variables and 3 of the ACs are located within And XIX's half light radius. The average period of the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars ( = 0.62 d, \\sigma= 0.03 d) and the period-amplitude diagram qualify And XIX as an Oosterhoff-Intermedia...

  18. Nuclear planetology: understanding habitable planets as Galactic bulge stellar remnants (black dwarfs) in a Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    The Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram is one of the most important diagrams in astronomy. In a HR diagram, the luminosity of stars and/or stellar remnants (white dwarf stars, WD's), relative to the luminosity of the sun, is plotted versus their surface temperatures (Teff). The Earth shows a striking similarity in size (radius ≈ 6.370 km) and Teff of its outer core surface (Teff ≈ 3800 K at the core-mantle-boundary) with old WD's (radius ≈ 6.300 km) like WD0346+246 (Teff ≈ 3820 K after ≈ 12.7 Ga [1]), which plot in the HR diagram close to the low-mass extension of the stellar population or main sequence. In the light of nuclear planetology [2], Earth-like planets are regarded as old, down-cooled and differentiated black dwarfs (Fe-C BLD's) after massive decompression, the most important nuclear reactions involved being 56Fe(γ,α)52Cr (etc.), possibly responsible for extreme terrestrial glaciations events ("snowball" Earth), together with (γ,n), (γ,p) and fusion reactions like 12C(α,γ)16O. The latter reaction might have caused oxidation of the planet from inside out. Nuclear planetology is a new research field, tightly constrained by a coupled 187Re-232Th-238U systematics. By means of nuclear/quantum physics and taking the theory of relativity into account, it aims at understanding the thermal and chemical evolution of Fe-C BLD's after gravitational contraction (e.g. Mercury) or Fermi-pressure controlled collapse (e.g. Earth) events after massive decompression, leading possibly to an r-process event, towards the end of their cooling period [2]. So far and based upon 187Re-232Th-238U nuclear geochronometry, the Fe-C BLD hypothesis can successfully explain the global terrestrial MORB 232Th/238U signature [3]. Thus, it may help to elucidate the DM (depleted mantle), EMI (enriched mantle 1), EMII (enriched mantle 2) or HIMU (high U/Pb) reservoirs, and the 187Os/188Os isotopic dichotomy in Archean magmatic rocks and sediments [4]. Here I present a conceptual

  19. HATS-7b: A Hot Super Neptune Transiting a Quiet K Dwarf Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, G. Á.; Penev, K.; Bayliss, D.; Hartman, J. D.; Zhou, G.; Brahm, R.; Mancini, L.; de Val-Borro, M.; Bhatti, W.; Jordán, A.; Rabus, M.; Espinoza, N.; Csubry, Z.; Howard, A. W.; Fulton, B. J.; Buchhave, L. A.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, T.; Schmidt, B.; Isaacson, H.; Noyes, R. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Suc, V.; Howe, A. R.; Burrows, A. S.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2015-11-01

    We report the discovery by the HATSouth network of HATS-7b, a transiting Super-Neptune with a mass of 0.120 ± 0.012 {M}{{J}}, a radius of {0.563}-0.034+0.046 {R}{{J}}, and an orbital period of 3.1853 days. The host star is a moderately bright (V=13.340\\+/- 0.010 mag, {K}S=10.976\\+/- 0.026 mag) K dwarf star with a mass of 0.849 ± 0.027 {M}⊙ , a radius of {0.815}-0.035+0.049 {R}⊙ , and a metallicity of [{Fe}/{{H}}] =+0.250\\+/- 0.080. The star is photometrically quiet to within the precision of the HATSouth measurements, has low RV jitter, and shows no evidence for chromospheric activity in its spectrum. HATS-7b is the second smallest radius planet discovered by a wide-field ground-based transit survey, and one of only a handful of Neptune-size planets with mass and radius determined to 10% precision. Theoretical modeling of HATS-7b yields a hydrogen-helium fraction of 18 ± 4% (rock-iron core and H2-He envelope), or 9 ± 4% (ice core and H2-He envelope), i.e., it has a composition broadly similar to that of Uranus and Neptune, and very different from that of Saturn, which has 75% of its mass in H2-He. Based on a sample of transiting exoplanets with accurately (Mauna Kea, the MPG 2.2 m and ESO 3.6 m telescopes at the ESO Observatory in La Silla. This paper uses observations obtained with facilities of the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope.

  20. Dwarf spheroidal satellites of M31. I. Variable stars and stellar populations in Andromeda XIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusano, Felice; Clementini, Gisella; Garofalo, Alessia; Federici, Luciana, E-mail: felice.cusano@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: gisella.clementini@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: luciana.federici@oabo.inaf.it, E-mail: alessia.garofalo@studio.unibo.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); and others

    2013-12-10

    We present B, V time-series photometry of Andromeda XIX (And XIX), the most extended (half-light radius of 6.'2) of Andromeda's dwarf spheroidal companions, which we observed with the Large Binocular Cameras at the Large Binocular Telescope. We surveyed a 23' × 23' area centered on And XIX and present the deepest color-magnitude diagram (CMD) ever obtained for this galaxy, reaching, at V ∼ 26.3 mag, about one magnitude below the horizontal branch (HB). The CMD shows a prominent and slightly widened red giant branch, along with a predominantly red HB, which extends to the blue to significantly populate the classical instability strip. We have identified 39 pulsating variable stars, of which 31 are of RR Lyrae type and 8 are Anomalous Cepheids (ACs). Twelve of the RR Lyrae variables and three of the ACs are located within And XIX's half light radius. The average period of the fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars ((P {sub ab}) = 0.62 days, σ = 0.03 days) and the period-amplitude diagram qualify And XIX as an Oosterhoff-Intermediate system. From the average luminosity of the RR Lyrae stars ((V(RR)) = 25.34 mag, σ = 0.10 mag), we determine a distance modulus of (m – M){sub 0} = 24.52 ± 0.23 mag in a scale where the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is 18.5 ± 0.1 mag. The ACs follow a well-defined Period-Wesenheit (PW) relation that appears to be in very good agreement with the PW relationship defined by the ACs in the LMC.

  1. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  2. Tidal stripping of stars near supermassive black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandford R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a binary system composed of a supermassive black hole and a star orbiting the hole in an equatorial, circular orbit, the stellar orbit will shrink due to the action of gravitational radiation, until the star fills its Roche lobe outside the Innermost Stable Circular Orbit (ISCO of the hole or plunges into the hole. In the former case, gas will flow through the inner Lagrange point (L1 to the hole. If this tidal stripping process happens on a time scale faster than the thermal time scale but slower than the dynamical time scale, the entropy as a function of the interior mass is conserved. The star will evolve adiabatically, and, in most cases, will recede from the hole while filling its Roche lobe. We calculate how the stellar equilibrium properties change, which determines how the stellar orbital period and mass-transfer rate change through the “Roche evolution” for various types of stars in the relativistic regime. We envisage that the mass stream eventually hits the accretion disc, where it forms a hot spot orbiting the hole and may ultimately modulate the luminosity with the stellar orbital frequency. The ultimate goal is to probe the mass and spin of the hole and provide a test of general relativity in the strong-field regime from the resultant quasi-periodic signals. The observability of such a modulation is discussed along with a possible interpretation of an intermittent 1 hour period in the X-ray emission of RE J1034+ 396.

  3. Chemical Abundances of M-dwarfs from the APOGEE Survey. I. The Exoplanet Hosting Stars Kepler-138 and Kepler-186

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, D.; Cunha, K.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Zamora, O.; Allende Prieto, C.; Smith, V. V.; Mahadevan, S.; Blake, C.; Johnson, J. A.; Jönsson, H.; Pinsonneault, M.; Holtzman, J.; Majewski, S. R.; Shetrone, M.; Teske, J.; Nidever, D.; Schiavon, R.; Sobeck, J.; García Pérez, A. E.; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Stassun, K.

    2017-02-01

    We report the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of the exoplanet-hosting M-dwarf stars Kepler-138 and Kepler-186 from the analysis of high-resolution (R ∼ 22,500) H-band spectra from the SDSS-IV–APOGEE survey. Chemical abundances of 13 elements—C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe—are extracted from the APOGEE spectra of these early M-dwarfs via spectrum syntheses computed with an improved line list that takes into account H2O and FeH lines. This paper demonstrates that APOGEE spectra can be analyzed to determine detailed chemical compositions of M-dwarfs. Both exoplanet-hosting M-dwarfs display modest sub-solar metallicities: [Fe/H]Kepler-138 = ‑0.09 ± 0.09 dex and [Fe/H]Kepler-186 = ‑0.08 ± 0.10 dex. The measured metallicities resulting from this high-resolution analysis are found to be higher by ∼0.1–0.2 dex than previous estimates from lower-resolution spectra. The C/O ratios obtained for the two planet-hosting stars are near-solar, with values of 0.55 ± 0.10 for Kepler-138 and 0.52 ± 0.12 for Kepler-186. Kepler-186 exhibits a marginally enhanced [Si/Fe] ratio.

  4. Follow-up spectroscopic observations of HD 107148 B: A new white dwarf companion of an exoplanet host star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugrauer, M.; Dinçel, B.

    2016-07-01

    We report on our follow-up spectroscopy of HD 1071478 B, a recently detected faint co-moving companion of the exoplanet host star HD 107148 A. The companion is separated from its primary star by about 35 arcsec (or 1790 AU of projected separation) and its optical and near infrared photometry is consistent with a white dwarf, located at the distance of HD 107148 A. In order to confirm the white dwarf nature of the co-moving companion, we obtained follow-up spectroscopic observations of HD 107148 B with CAFOS at the CAHA 2.2 m telescope. According to our CAFOS spectroscopy HD 107148 B is a DA white dwarf with an effective temperature in the range between 5900 and 6400 K. The properties of HD 107148 B can further be constrained with the derived effective temperature and the known visual and infrared photometry of the companion, using evolutionary models of DA white dwarfs. We obtain for HD 107148 B a mass of 0.56±0.05 M_⊙, a luminosity of (2.0±0.2)×10-4 L_⊙, log g [cm s-2])=7.95±0.09, and a cooling age of 2100±270 Myr. With its white dwarf companion the exoplanet host star HD 107148 A forms an evolved stellar system, which hosts at least one exoplanet. So far, only few of these evolved systems are known, which represent only about 5 % of all known exoplanet host multiple stellar systems. HD 107148 B is the second confirmed white dwarf companion of an exoplanet host star with a projected separation to its primary star of more than 1000 AU. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  5. NEW M, L, AND T DWARF COMPANIONS TO NEARBY STARS FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Loutrel, Nicholas P.; McCurdy, Nicholas S.; Melso, Nicole D.; Star, Kimberly M.; Terrien, Ryan C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S. [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Young, Michael D.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Swain West 319, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Davy Kirkpatrick, J., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dwarfs that exhibit unusually blue near-IR colors. Among the possible mechanisms that have been previously proposed for the peculiar colors of these L dwarfs, low metallicity does not appear to be a viable explanation for 2MASS J17430860+8526594 since our spectrum of the primary suggests that its metallicity is not significantly subsolar.

  6. Gravitational waves from spinning black hole-neutron star binaries: dependence on black hole spins and on neutron star equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Okawa, Hirotada; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2011-09-01

    We study the merger of black hole-neutron star binaries with a variety of black hole spins aligned or antialigned with the orbital angular momentum, and with the mass ratio in the range MBH/MNS=2-5, where MBH and MNS are the mass of the black hole and neutron star, respectively. We model neutron-star matter by systematically parametrized piecewise polytropic equations of state. The initial condition is computed in the puncture framework adopting an isolated horizon framework to estimate the black hole spin and assuming an irrotational velocity field for the fluid inside the neutron star. Dynamical simulations are performed in full general relativity by an adaptive-mesh refinement code, SACRA. The treatment of hydrodynamic equations and estimation of the disk mass are improved. We find that the neutron star is tidally disrupted irrespective of the mass ratio when the black hole has a moderately large prograde spin, whereas only binaries with low mass ratios, MBH/MNS≲3, or small compactnesses of the neutron stars bring the tidal disruption when the black hole spin is zero or retrograde. The mass of the remnant disk is accordingly large as ≳0.1M⊙, which is required by central engines of short gamma-ray bursts, if the black hole spin is prograde. Information of the tidal disruption is reflected in a clear relation between the compactness of the neutron star and an appropriately defined “cutoff frequency” in the gravitational-wave spectrum, above which the spectrum damps exponentially. We find that the tidal disruption of the neutron star and excitation of the quasinormal mode of the remnant black hole occur in a compatible manner in high mass-ratio binaries with the prograde black hole spin. The correlation between the compactness and the cutoff frequency still holds for such cases. It is also suggested by extrapolation that the merger of an extremely spinning black hole and an irrotational neutron star binary does not lead to the formation of an overspinning

  7. Numerical simulations of bubble-induced star formation in dwarf irregular galaxies with a novel stellar feedback scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K.; Barnes, David J.; Grand, Robert J. J.; Rahimi, Awat

    2014-02-01

    To study the star formation and feedback mechanism, we simulate the evolution of an isolated dwarf irregular galaxy (dIrr) in a fixed dark matter halo, similar in size to Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte, using a new stellar feedback scheme. We use the new version of our original N-body/smoothed particle chemodynamics code, GCD+, which adopts improved hydrodynamics, metal diffusion between the gas particles and new modelling of star formation and stellar wind and supernovae feedback. Comparing the simulations with and without stellar feedback effects, we demonstrate that the collisions of bubbles produced by strong feedback can induce star formation in a more widely spread area. We also demonstrate that the metallicity in star-forming regions is kept low due to the mixing of the metal-rich bubbles and the metal-poor interstellar medium. Our simulations also suggest that the bubble-induced star formation leads to many counter-rotating stars. The bubble-induced star formation could be a dominant mechanism to maintain star formation in dIrrs, which is different from larger spiral galaxies where the non-axisymmetric structures, such as spiral arms, are a main driver of star formation.

  8. Extracting equation of state parameters from black hole-neutron star mergers. I. Nonspinning black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lackey, Benjamin D; Shibata, Masaru; Brady, Patrick R; Friedman, John L

    2011-01-01

    The late inspiral, merger, and ringdown of a black hole-neutron star (BHNS) system can provide information about the neutron-star equation of state (EOS). Candidate EOSs can be approximated by a parametrized piecewise-polytropic EOS above nuclear density, matched to a fixed low-density EOS; and we report results from a large set of BHNS inspiral simulations that systematically vary two parameters. To within the accuracy of the simulations, we find that, apart from the neutron-star mass, a single physical parameter Lambda, describing its deformability, can be extracted from the late inspiral, merger, and ringdown waveform. This parameter is related to the radius, mass, and l=2 Love number, k_2, of the neutron star by Lambda = 2k_2 R^5/3M_{NS}^5, and it is the same parameter that determines the departure from point-particle dynamics during the early inspiral. Observations of gravitational waves from BHNS inspiral thus restrict the EOS to a surface of constant Lambda in the parameter space, thickened by the meas...

  9. Stars and black holes in varying speed of light theories

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J

    2001-01-01

    We investigate spherically symmetric solutions to a recently proposed covariant and locally Lorentz-invariant varying speed of light theory. We find the metrics and variations in $c$ associated with the counterpart of black holes, the outside of a star, and stellar collapse. The remarkable novelty is that $c$ goes to zero or infinity (depending on parameter signs) at the horizon. We show how this implies that, with appropriate parameters, observers are prevented from entering the horizon. Concomitantly stellar collapse must end in a ``Schwarzchild radius'' remnant. We then find formulae for gravitational light deflection, gravitational redshift, radar echo delay, and the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, highlighting how these may differ distinctly from their Einstein counterparts but still evade experimental constraints. The main tell-tale signature of this theory is the prediction of the observation of a different value for the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$, in spectral lines formed in the surfac...

  10. Coalescence of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Shibata

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of general relativistic studies for the coalescence of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS binaries. First, procedures for a solution of BH-NS binaries in quasi-equilibrium circular orbits and the numerical results, such as quasi-equilibrium sequence and mass-shedding limit, of the high-precision computation, are summarized. Then, the current status of numerical-relativity simulations for the merger of BH-NS binaries is described. We summarize our understanding for the merger and/or tidal disruption processes, the criterion for tidal disruption, the properties of the remnant formed after the tidal disruption, gravitational waveform, and gravitational-wave spectrum.

  11. The Eating Habits of Milky Way Mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Deason, Alis J; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW) mass M_vir ~ 10^12.1 M_sun) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in, dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z=0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with M_star ~ 10^8-10^10 M_sun. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (10^8-10^9 M_sun), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (M_star 10^8 M_sun can contribute a considerable fraction (~20-60 %) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surv...

  12. Binary frequency of planet-host stars at wide separations: A new brown dwarf companion to a planet-host star

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Bejar, V J S; Gauza, B; Ruiz, M T; Rebolo, R; Pinfield, D J; Martin, E L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the project is to improve our knowledge on the multiplicity of planet-host stars at wide physical separations. We cross-matched approximately 6200 square degree area of the Southern sky imaged by the Visible Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) Hemisphere Survey (VHS) with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) to look for wide common proper motion companions to known planet-host stars. We complemented our astrometric search with photometric criteria. We confirmed spectroscopically the co-moving nature of seven sources out of 16 companion candidates and discarded eight, while the remaining one stays as a candidate. Among these new wide companions to planet-host stars, we discovered a T4.5 dwarf companion at 6.3 arcmin (~9000 au) from HIP70849, a K7V star which hosts a 9 Jupiter mass planet with an eccentric orbit. We also report two new stellar M dwarf companions to one G and one metal-rich K star. We infer stellar and substellar binary frequencies for our complete sample of 37 targets of...

  13. Long-term stellar activity variations of stars from the HARPS M-dwarf sample: Comparison between activity indices

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, J Gomes; Bonfils, X

    2010-01-01

    We used four known chromospheric activity indicators to measure long-term activity variations in a sample of 23 M-dwarf stars from the HARPS planet search program. We compared the indices using weighted Pearson correlation coefficients and found that in general (i) the correlation between $S_{CaII}$ and \\ion{Na}{i} is very strong and does not depend on the activity level of the stars, (ii) the correlation between our $S_{CaII}$ and H$\\alpha$ seems to depend on the activity level of the stars, and (iii) there is no strong correlation between $S_{CaII}$ and \\ion{He}{i} for these type of stars.

  14. Illuminating Massive Black Holes With White Dwarfs: Orbital Dynamics and High Energy Transients from Tidal Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Guillochon, James; Samsing, Johan

    2014-01-01

    White dwarfs (WDs) can be tidally disrupted only by massive black holes (MBHs) with masses less than approximately $10^5 M_\\odot$. These tidal interactions feed material to the MBH well above its Eddington limit, with the potential to launch a relativistic jet. The corresponding beamed emission is a promising signpost to an otherwise quiescent MBH of relatively low mass. We show that the mass transfer history, and thus the lightcurve, are quite different when the disruptive orbit is parabolic, eccentric, or circular. The mass lost each orbit exponentiates in the eccentric-orbit case leading to the destruction of the WD after several tens of orbits and making it difficult to produce a Swift J1644+57-like lightcurve via this channel. We then examine the stellar dynamics of clusters surrounding these MBHs to show that single-passage WD disruptions are substantially more common than repeating encounters in eccentric orbits. The $10^{49}$ erg s$^{-1}$ peak luminosity of these events makes them visible to cosmologi...

  15. Hairpin RNA Targeting Multiple Viral Genes Confers Strong Resistance to Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangquan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV belongs to the genus Fijivirus in the family of Reoviridae and causes severe yield loss in rice-producing areas in Asia. RNA silencing, as a natural defence mechanism against plant viruses, has been successfully exploited for engineering virus resistance in plants, including rice. In this study, we generated transgenic rice lines harbouring a hairpin RNA (hpRNA construct targeting four RBSDV genes, S1, S2, S6 and S10, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the putative core protein, the RNA silencing suppressor and the outer capsid protein, respectively. Both field nursery and artificial inoculation assays of three generations of the transgenic lines showed that they had strong resistance to RBSDV infection. The RBSDV resistance in the segregating transgenic populations correlated perfectly with the presence of the hpRNA transgene. Furthermore, the hpRNA transgene was expressed in the highly resistant transgenic lines, giving rise to abundant levels of 21–24 nt small interfering RNA (siRNA. By small RNA deep sequencing, the RBSDV-resistant transgenic lines detected siRNAs from all four viral gene sequences in the hpRNA transgene, indicating that the whole chimeric fusion sequence can be efficiently processed by Dicer into siRNAs. Taken together, our results suggest that long hpRNA targeting multiple viral genes can be used to generate stable and durable virus resistance in rice, as well as other plant species.

  16. Screening of Rice Genes Interacting with p5b of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ying; YANG Jian; ZHANG Heng-mu; CHEN Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) is a recognized member of the genus Fijivirus,family Reoviridae.Its genome has ten double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments (S1-S10),in which the fifth genome segment (S5) contains two open reading frames (ORFs) with a partially overlapping region.The second ORF of RBSDV S5 encodes a viral nonstructural protein named p5b with unknown function.To reveal the function of p5b,its gene was ligated into the bait plasmid pGBKT7 and an expression library containing rice cDNAs was constructed using plasmid pGADT7 for yeast two-hybrid assay.The bait protein p5b was detected in yeast by western blot,and the result of an auto-activation test showed that p5b could not autonomously activate the expression of reporter genes in yeast.Then the bait protein p5b was used for screening the cDNA expression libraries of rice.Gene fragments of some pivotal enzymes involved in photosynthesis,respiration and other important metabolic processes,were identified to interact with p5b in yeast,suggesting that these interactions may play roles in symptom development in infected plants.

  17. From the first stars to the first black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiante, Rosa; Schneider, Raffaella; Volonteri, Marta; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2016-04-01

    The growth of the first supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at z > 6 is still a major challenge for theoretical models. If it starts from black hole (BH) remnants of Population III stars (light seeds with mass ˜100 M⊙), it requires super-Eddington accretion. An alternative route is to start from heavy seeds formed by the direct collapse of gas on to an ˜105 M⊙ BH. Here we investigate the relative role of light and heavy seeds as BH progenitors of the first SMBHs. We use the cosmological, data constrained semi-analytic model GAMETE/QSODUST to simulate several independent merger histories of z > 6 quasars. Using physically motivated prescriptions to form light and heavy seeds in the progenitor galaxies, we find that the formation of a few heavy seeds (between 3 and 30 in our reference model) enables the Eddington-limited growth of SMBHs at z > 6. This conclusion depends sensitively on the interplay between chemical, radiative and mechanical feedback effects, which easily erase the conditions that allow the suppression of gas cooling in the low-metallicity gas (Z Jcr). We find that heavy seeds cannot form if dust cooling triggers gas fragmentation above a critical dust-to-gas mass ratio (D ≥ D_cr). In addition, the relative importance of light and heavy seeds depends on the adopted mass range for light seeds, as this dramatically affects the history of cold gas along the merger tree, by both SN- and AGN-driven winds.

  18. From the first stars to the first black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Valiante, Rosa; Volonteri, Marta; Omukai, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the first super massive black holes (SMBHs) at z > 6 is still a major challenge for theoretical models. If it starts from black hole (BH) remnants of Population III stars (light seeds with mass ~ 100 Msun) it requires super-Eddington accretion. An alternative route is to start from heavy seeds formed by the direct collapse of gas onto a ~ 10^5 Msun BH. Here we investigate the relative role of light and heavy seeds as BH progenitors of the first SMBHs. We use the cosmological, data constrained semi-analytic model GAMETE/QSOdust to simulate several independent merger histories of z > 6 quasars. Using physically motivated prescriptions to form light and heavy seeds in the progenitor galaxies, we find that the formation of a few heavy seeds (between 3 and 30 in our reference model) enables the Eddington-limited growth of SMBHs at z > 6. This conclusion depends sensitively on the interplay between chemical, radiative and mechanical feedback effects, which easily erase the conditions that allow the su...

  19. Black hole accretion versus star formation rate: theory confronts observations

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta; Netzer, Hagai; Bellovary, Jillian; Dotti, Massimo; Governato, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We use a suite of hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy mergers to compare star formation rate (SFR) and black hole accretion rate (BHAR) for galaxies before the interaction ('stochastic' phase), during the 'merger' proper, lasting ~0.2-0.3 Gyr, and in the 'remnant' phase. We calculate the bi-variate distribution of SFR and BHAR and define the regions in the SFR-BHAR plane that the three phases occupy. No strong correlation between BHAR and galaxy-wide SFR is found. A possible exception are galaxies with the highest SFR and the highest BHAR. We also bin the data in the same way used in several observational studies, by either measuring the mean SFR for AGN in different luminosity bins, or the mean BHAR for galaxies in bins of SFR. We find that the apparent contradiction or SFR versus BHAR for observed samples of AGN and star forming galaxies is actually caused by binning effects. The two types of samples use different projections of the full bi-variate distribution, and the full information would lead to unamb...

  20. Squeezars: Tidally powered stars orbiting a massive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, T; Alexander, Tal; Morris, Mark

    2003-01-01

    We propose that there exists a class of transient sources, "squeezars", which are stars caught in highly eccentric orbits around a massive (m<10^8 Mo) black hole (MBH), whose atypically high luminosity (up to a significant fraction of their Eddington luminosity) is powered by tidal interactions with the MBH. Their existence follows from the presence of a mass sink, the MBH, in the galactic center, which drives a flow of stars into nearly radial orbits to replace those it has destroyed. We consider two limits for the stellar response to tidal heating: surface heating with radiative cooling ("hot squeezars") and bulk heating with adiabatic expansion ("cold squeezars"), and calculate the evolution of the squeezar orbit, size, luminosity and effective temperature. The squeezar formation rate is only ~0.05 that of tidal disruption flares, but squeezar lifetimes are many orders of magnitude longer, and so future observations of squeezars in nearby galaxies can probe the tidal process that feeds MBHs and the effe...

  1. Circularization of tidally disrupted stars around spinning supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Stone, Nicholas; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-10-01

    We study the circularization of tidally disrupted stars on bound orbits around spinning supermassive black holes by performing 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations with post-Newtonian corrections. Our simulations reveal that debris circularization depends sensitively on the efficiency of radiative cooling. There are two stages in debris circularization if radiative cooling is inefficient: first, the stellar debris streams self-intersect due to relativistic apsidal precession; shocks at the intersection points thermalize orbital energy and the debris forms a geometrically thick, ring-like structure around the black hole. The ring rapidly spreads via viscous diffusion, leading to the formation of a geometrically thick accretion disc. In contrast, if radiative cooling is efficient, the stellar debris circularizes due to self-intersection shocks and forms a geometrically thin ring-like structure. In this case, the dissipated energy can be emitted during debris circularization as a precursor to the subsequent tidal disruption flare. The circularization time-scale is remarkably long in the radiatively efficient cooling case, and is also sensitive to black hole spin. Specifically, Lense-Thirring torques cause dynamically important nodal precession, which significantly delays debris circularization. On the other hand, nodal precession is too slow to produce observable signatures in the radiatively inefficient case. Since the stellar debris is optically thick and its photon diffusion time is likely longer than the time-scale of shock heating, our inefficient cooling scenario is more generally applicable in eccentric tidal disruption events (TDEs). However, in parabolic TDEs for MBH ≳ 2 × 106 M⊙, the spin-sensitive behaviour associated with efficient cooling may be realized.

  2. Magnetic activity in the HARPS M dwarf sample. The rotation-activity relationship for very low-mass stars through

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-Defru, N.; Delfosse, X.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T.; Lovis, C.; Rameau, J.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Atmospheric magnetic fields in stars with convective envelopes heat stellar chromospheres, and thus increase the observed flux in the Ca ii H and K doublet. Starting with the historical Mount Wilson monitoring program, these two spectral lines have been widely used to trace stellar magnetic activity, and as a proxy for rotation period (Prot) and consequently for stellar age. Monitoring stellar activity has also become essential in filtering out false-positives due to magnetic activity in extra-solar planet surveys. The Ca ii emission is traditionally quantified through the -index, which compares the chromospheric flux in the doublet to the overall bolometric flux of the star. Much work has been done to characterize this index for FGK-dwarfs, but M dwarfs - the most numerous stars of the Galaxy - were left out of these analyses and no calibration of their Ca ii H and K emission to an exists to date. Aims: We set out to characterize the magnetic activity of the low- and very-low-mass stars by providing a calibration of the -index that extends to the realm of M dwarfs, and by evaluating the relationship between and the rotation period. Methods: We calibrated the bolometric and photospheric factors for M dwarfs to properly transform the S-index (which compares the flux in the Ca ii H and K lines to a close spectral continuum) into the . We monitored magnetic activity through the Ca ii H and K emission lines in the HARPS M dwarf sample. Results: The index, like the fractional X-ray luminosity LX/Lbol, shows a saturated correlation with rotation, with saturation setting in around a ten days rotation period. Above that period, slower rotators show weaker Ca ii activity, as expected. Under that period, the index saturates to approximately 10-4. Stellar mass modulates the Ca ii activity, with showing a constant basal activity above 0.6 M⊙ and then decreasing with mass between 0.6 M⊙ and the fully-convective limit of 0.35 M⊙. Short-term variability of the

  3. Numerical simulation of binary black hole and neutron star mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastaun, W.; Rezzolla, L. [Albert Einstein Institut, Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    One of the last predictions of general relativity that still awaits direct observational confirmation is the existence of gravitational waves. Those fluctuations of the geometry of space and time are expected to travel with the speed of light and are emitted by any accelerating mass. Only the most violent events in the universe, such as mergers of two black holes or neutron stars, produce gravitational waves strong enough to be measured. Even those waves are extremely weak when arriving at Earth, and their detection is a formidable technological challenge. In recent years sufficiently sensitive detectors became operational, such as GEO600, Virgo, and LIGO. They are expected to observe around 40 events per year. To interpret the observational data, theoretical modeling of the sources is a necessity, and requires numerical simulations of the equations of general relativity and relativistic hydrodynamics. Such computations can only be carried out on large scale supercomputers, given that many scenarios need to be simulated, each of which typically occupies hundreds of CPU cores for a week. Our main goal is to predict the gravitational wave signal from the merger of two compact objects. Comparison with future observations will provide important insights into the fundamental forces of nature in regimes that are impossible to recreate in laboratory experiments. The waveforms from binary black hole mergers would allow one to test the correctness of general relativity in previously inaccessible regimes. The signal from binary neutron star mergers will provide input for nuclear physics, because the signal depends strongly on the unknown properties of matter at the ultra high densities inside neutron stars, which cannot be observed in any other astrophysical scenario. Besides mergers, we also want to improve the theoretical models of close encounters between black holes. A gravitational wave detector with even higher sensitivity, the Einstein Telescope, is already in the

  4. Magnetospheric Structure and Atmospheric Joule Heating of Habitable Planets Orbiting M-dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, O; Glocer, A; Garraffo, C; Poppenhaeger, K; Bell, J M; Ridley, A J; Gombosi, T I

    2014-01-01

    We study the magnetospheric structure and the ionospheric Joule Heating of planets orbiting M-dwarf stars in the habitable zone using a set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models. The stellar wind solution is used to drive a model for the planetary magnetosphere, which is coupled with a model for the planetary ionosphere. Our simulations reveal that the space environment around close-in habitable planets is extreme, and the stellar wind plasma conditions change from sub- to super-Alfvenic along the planetary orbit. As a result, the magnetospheric structure changes dramatically with a bow shock forming in the super-Alfvenic sectors, while no bow shock forms in the sub-Alfvenic sectors. The planets reside most of the time in the sub-Alfvenic sectors with poor atmospheric protection. A significant amount of Joule Heating is provided at the top of the atmosphere as a result of the planetary interaction with the stellar wind. For the steady-state solution, the heating is about 0.1-3\\% of the total incoming stellar ir...

  5. Thermal and electric conductivities of Coulomb crystals in neutron stars and white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Baiko, D A

    1996-01-01

    Thermal and electric conductivities are calculated for degenerate electrons scattered by phonons in a crystal made of atomic nuclei. The exact phonon spectrum and the Debye--Waller factor are taken into account. Monte Carlo calculations are performed for body-centered cubic (bcc) crystals made of C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ca, and Fe nuclei in the density range from 10^3 to 10^{11} g cm^{-3} at temperatures lower than the melting temperature but higher than the temperature at which the Umklapp processes begin to be "frozen out". A simplified method of calculation is proposed, which makes it possible to describe the results in terms of simple analytic expressions, to extend these expressions to any species of nucleus, and to consider face-centered cubic (fcc) crystals. The kinetic coefficients are shown to depend tangibly on the lattice type. The results are applicable to studies of heat transfer and evolution of the magnetic field in the cores of white dwarfs and in the crusts of neutron stars. The thermal drift of...

  6. Warm Dust around Cool Stars: Field M Dwarfs with WISE 12 or 22 Micron Excess Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Theissen, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Using the SDSS DR7 spectroscopic catalog, we searched the WISE AllWISE catalog to investigate the occurrence of warm dust, as inferred from IR excesses, around field M dwarfs (dMs). We developed SDSS/WISE color selection criteria to identify 175 dMs (from 70,841) that show IR flux greater than typical dM photosphere levels at 12 and/or 22 $\\mu$m, including seven new stars within the Orion OB1 footprint. We characterize the dust populations inferred from each IR excess, and investigate the possibility that these excesses could arise from ultracool binary companions by modeling combined SEDs. Our observed IR fluxes are greater than levels expected from ultracool companions ($>3\\sigma$). We also estimate that the probability the observed IR excesses are due to chance alignments with extragalactic sources is $<$ 0.1%. Using SDSS spectra we measure surface gravity dependent features (K, Na, and CaH 3), and find $<$ 15% of our sample indicate low surface gravities. Examining tracers of youth (H$\\alpha$, UV fl...

  7. Discovery of true, likely and possible symbiotic stars in the dwarf spheroidal NGC 205

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Denise R; de la Rosa, Ignacio G; Akras, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the photometric and spectroscopic observations of newly discovered (symbiotic) systems in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy NGC 205. The Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on-off band [O III] 5007 A emission imaging highlighted several [O III] line emitters, for which optical spectra were then obtained (Gon\\c{c}alves et al. 2014). The detailed study of the spectra of three objects allow us to identify them as true, likely and possible symbiotic systems (SySts), the first ones discovered in this galaxy. SySt-1 is unambiguously classified as a symbiotic star, because of the presence of unique emission lines which belong only to symbiotic spectra, the well known O VI Raman scattered lines. SySt-2 is only possibly a SySt because the Ne VII Raman scattered line at 4881 A, recently identified in a well studied Galactic symbiotic as another very conspicuous property of symbiotic, could as well be identified as N III or [Fe III]. Finally, SySt-3 is likely a symbiotic binary because in the red part of...

  8. A Pulsation Search Among Young Brown Dwarfs and Very Low Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Cody, Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, Palla & Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very low mass stars (VLMSs; <0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of 1-4 hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters $\\sigma$ Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to obs...

  9. A pulsation search among young brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, Ann Marie; Hillenbrand, Lynne A., E-mail: amc@ipac.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astrophysics, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In 2005, Palla and Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very-low-mass stars (VLMSs; < 0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of one to four hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters σ Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to observable amplitudes in the early pre-main sequence. In spite of the nondetection, we did uncover a rich set of variability behavior—both periodic and aperiodic—on day to week timescales. We present new compilations of variable sources from our sample, as well as three new candidate cluster members in Chamaeleon I.

  10. New Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Disks in Lupus

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, P R; Myers, P C; Megeath, S T; Allen, L E; Hartmann, L; Fazio, G G

    2007-01-01

    Using the Infrared Array Camera and the Multiband Imaging Photometer aboard the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}, we have obtained images of the Lupus 3 star-forming cloud at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 \\micron. We present photometry in these bands for the 41 previously known members that are within our images. In addition, we have identified 19 possible new members of the cloud based on red 3.6-8.0 \\micron colors that are indicative of circumstellar disks. We have performed optical spectroscopy on 6 of these candidates, all of which are confirmed as young low-mass members of Lupus 3. The spectral types of these new members range from M4.75 to M8, corresponding to masses of 0.2-0.03 $M_\\odot$ for ages of $\\sim1$ Myr according to theoretical evolutionary models. We also present optical spectroscopy of a candidate disk-bearing object in the vicinity of the Lupus 1 cloud, 2M 1541-3345, which Jayawardhana & Ivanov recently classified as a young brown dwarf ($M\\sim0.03$ $M_\\odot$) with a spectral type of M8. In co...

  11. NuSTAR AND SWIFT Observations of the Fast Rotating Magnetized White Dwarf AE Aquarii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaguchi, Takao; An, Hongjun; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hayashi, Takayuki; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Rana, Vikram R.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Will W.

    2014-01-01

    AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P(sub spin) = 33.08 s). Compared to many intermediate polars, AE Aquarii shows a soft X-ray spectrum with a very low luminosity (LX (is) approximately 10(exp 31) erg per second). We have analyzed overlapping observations of this system with the NuSTAR and the Swift X-ray observatories in 2012 September. We find the 0.5-30 keV spectra to be well fitted by either an optically thin thermal plasma model with three temperatures of 0.75(+0.18 / -0.45), 2.29(+0.96 / -0.82), and 9.33 (+6.07 / -2.18) keV, or an optically thin thermal plasma model with two temperatures of 1.00 (+0.34 / -0.23) and 4.64 (+1.58 / -0.84) keV plus a power-law component with photon index of 2.50 (+0.17 / -0.23). The pulse profile in the 3-20 keV band is broad and approximately sinusoidal, with a pulsed fraction of 16.6% +/- 2.3%. We do not find any evidence for a previously reported sharp feature in the pulse profile.

  12. Self-consistent evolution of accreting low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Baraffe, I; Vorobyov, E I; Chabrier, G

    2016-01-01

    We present self-consistent calculations coupling numerical hydrodynamics simulations of collapsing pre-stellar cores and stellar evolution models of accreting objects. We analyse the main impact of consistent accretion history on the evolution and lithium depletion of young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. These consistent models confirm the generation of a luminosity spread in Herzsprung-Russell diagrams at ages $\\sim$ 1-10 Myr. They also confirm that early accretion can produce objects with abnormal Li depletion, as found in a previous study that was based on arbitrary accretion rates. The results strengthen that objects with anomalously high level of Li depletion in young clusters should be extremely rare. We also find that early phases of burst accretion can produce coeval models of similar mass with a range of different Li surface abundances, and in particular with Li-excess compared to the predictions of non-accreting counterparts. This result is due to a subtle competition between the effect of burst a...

  13. BANYAN. VIII. New Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs with Candidate Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Boucher, Anne; Gagné, Jonathan; Malo, Lison; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Doyon, René; Chen, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a search for new circumstellar disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types >K5 that are confirmed or candidate members of nearby young moving groups. Our search input sample was drawn from the BANYAN surveys of Malo et al. and Gagn\\'e et al. Two-Micron All-Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data were used to detect near- to mid-infrared excesses that would reveal the presence of circumstellar disks. A total of 13 targets with convincing excesses were identified: four are new and nine were already known in the literature. The new candidates are 2MASS J05010082$-$4337102 (M4.5), J08561384$-$1342242 (M8$\\,\\gamma$), J12474428$-$3816464 (M9$\\,\\gamma$) and J02265658$-$5327032 (L0$\\,\\delta$), and are candidate members of the TW Hya ($\\sim10\\pm 3\\,$Myr), Columba ($\\sim 42^{+6}_{-4}\\,$Myr) and Tucana-Horologium ($\\sim 45\\pm 4\\,$Myr) associations, with masses of $120$ and $13-18\\,M_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$. The M8$-$L0 objects in Columba and Tucana-Horologium are po...

  14. A Neutron Star-White Dwarf Binary Model for Repeating Fast Radio Burst 121102

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Tong; Ma, Renyi; Wang, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    We propose a compact binary model for the fast radio burst (FRB) repeaters, where the system consists of a magnetic white dwarf (WD) and a neutron star (NS) with strong bipolar magnetic fields. When the WD fills its Roche lobe, mass transfer will occur from the WD to the NS through the inner Lagrange point. The accreted magnetized materials may trigger magnetic reconnection when they approach the NS surface, and therefore the electrons can be accelerated to an ultra-relativistic speed. In this scenario, the curvature radiation of the electrons moving along the NS magnetic field lines can account for the characteristic frequency and the timescale of an FRB. Owing to the conservation of angular momentum, the WD may be kicked away after a burst, and the next burst may appear when the system becomes semi-detached again through the gravitational radiation. By comparing our analyses with the observations, we show that such an intermittent Roche lobe overflow mechanism can be responsible for the observed repeating b...

  15. Cleaning spectroscopic samples of stars in nearby dwarf galaxies: The use of the nIR MgI line to weed out Milky Way contaminants

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, Giuseppina

    2012-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies provide insights on the processes of star formation and chemical enrichment at the low end of the galaxy mass function, as well as on the clustering of dark matter on small scales. In studies of Local Group dwarf galaxies, spectroscopic samples of individual stars are used to derive the internal kinematics and abundance properties of these galaxies. It is therefore important to clean these samples from Milky Way stars, not related to the dwarf galaxy, since they can contaminate the analysis of the properties of these objects. Here we introduce a new diagnostic for separating Milky Way contaminant stars -- that mainly constitute of dwarf stars -- and red giant branch stars targeted in dwarf galaxies. As discriminator we use the trends in the equivalent width of the nIR MgI line at 8806.8 \\AA\\ as a function of the equivalent width of CaII triplet lines. This method is particularly useful for works dealing with multi-object intermediate resolution spectroscopy focusing in the region of the nIR CaI...

  16. THE CHEMICAL SIGNATURE OF A RELIC STAR CLUSTER IN THE SEXTANS DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY-IMPLICATIONS FOR NEAR-FIELD COSMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Torgny [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Freeman, Ken C. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Silk, Joe, E-mail: torgny.karlsson@physics.uu.se [Physics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-10

    We present tentative evidence for the existence of a dissolved star cluster at [Fe/H] = -2.7 in the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We use the technique of chemical tagging to identify stars that are highly clustered in a multi-dimensional chemical abundance space (C-space). In a sample of six stars, three, possibly four, stars are identified as potential cluster stars. The initial stellar mass of the parent cluster is estimated from two independent observations to be M{sub *,init}=1.9{sup +1.5}{sub -0.9}(1.6{sup +1.2}{sub -0.8}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}, assuming a Salpeter (Kroupa) initial mass function. If corroborated by follow-up spectroscopy, this star cluster is the most metal-poor system identified to date. Chemical signatures of remnant clusters in dwarf galaxies like Sextans provide us with a very powerful probe to the high-redshift universe. From available observational data, we argue that the average star cluster mass in the majority of the newly discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxies was notably lower than it is in the Galaxy today and possibly lower than in the more luminous, classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Furthermore, the mean cumulative metallicity function of the dwarf spheroidals falls below that of the ultra-faints, which increases with increasing metallicity as predicted from our stochastic chemical evolution model. These two findings, together with a possible difference in the ([Mg/Fe]) ratio suggest that the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy population, or a significant fraction thereof, and the dwarf spheroidal population were formed in different environments and would thus be distinct in origin.

  17. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  18. STELLAR METALLICITIES AND KINEMATICS IN A GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY : FIRST CALCIUM TRIPLET SPECTROSCOPY OF RED GIANT BRANCH STARS IN WLM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leaman, Ryan; Cole, Andrew A.; Venn, Kim A.; Tolstoy, Eline; Irwin, Mike J.; Szeifert, Thomas; Skillman, Evan D.; McConnachie, Alan W.

    2009-01-01

    We present the first determination of the radial velocities and metallicities of 78 red giant stars in the isolated dwarf irregular galaxy WLM. Observations of the calcium II triplet in these stars were made with FORS2 at the VLT-UT2 in two separated fields of view in WLM, and the [Fe/H] values were

  19. Two planets around Kapteyn's star : a cold and a temperate super-Earth orbiting the nearest halo red-dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Tuomi, Mikko; Zechmeister, Mathias; Jenkins, James S; Ofir, Aviv; Dreizler, Stefan; Gerlach, Enrico; Marvin, Chris J; Reiners, Ansgar; Jeffers, Sandra V; Butler, R Paul; Vogt, Steven S; Amado, Pedro J; Rodríguez-López, Cristina; Berdiñas, Zaira M; Morin, Julian; Crane, Jeff D; Shectman, Stephen A; Thompson, Ian B; Díaz, Mateo; Rivera, Eugenio; Sarmiento, Luis F; Jones, Hugh R A

    2014-01-01

    Exoplanets of a few Earth masses can be now detected around nearby low-mass stars using Doppler spectroscopy. In this paper, we investigate the radial velocity variations of Kapteyn's star, which is both a sub-dwarf M-star and the nearest halo object to the Sun. The observations comprise archival and new HARPS, HIRES and PFS Doppler measurements. Two Doppler signals are detected at periods of 48 and 120 days using likelihood periodograms and a Bayesian analysis of the data. Using the same techniques, the activity indicies and archival ASAS-3 photometry show evidence for low-level activity periodicities of the order of several hundred days. However, there are no significant correlations with the radial velocity variations on the same time-scales. The inclusion of planetary Keplerian signals in the model results in levels of correlated and excess white noise that are remarkably low compared to younger G, K and M dwarfs. We conclude that Kapteyn's star is most probably orbited by two super-Earth mass planets, on...

  20. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. X. Quantifying the Star Cluster Formation Efficiency of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David O; Dale, Daniel A; Johnson, L Clifton; Weisz, Daniel R; Fouesneau, Morgan; Olsen, Knut A G; Engelbracht, Charles W; Dalcanton, Julianne J

    2012-01-01

    We study the relationship between the field star formation and cluster formation properties in a large sample of nearby dwarf galaxies. We use optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope and from ground-based telescopes to derive the ages and masses of the young (t_age < 100Myr) cluster sample. Our data provides the first constraints on two proposed relationships between the star formation rate of galaxies and the properties of their cluster systems in the low star formation rate regime. The data show broad agreement with these relationships, but significant galaxy-to-galaxy scatter exists. In part, this scatter can be accounted for by simulating the small number of clusters detected from stochastically sampling the cluster mass function. However, this stochasticity does not fully account for the observed scatter in our data suggesting there may be true variations in the fraction of stars formed in clusters in dwarf galaxies. Comparison of the cluster formation and the brightest cluster in our sample gala...

  1. The Initial Mass Function of Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Young Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, K. L.; Rieke, G. H.; Young, Erick T.; Cotera, Angela S.; Chen, H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Schneider, Glenn; Thompson, Rodger I.

    2000-09-01

    We have obtained images of the Trapezium Cluster (140''×140'' 0.3 pc×0.3 pc) with the Hubble Space Telescope Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Combining these data with new ground-based K-band spectra (R=800) and existing spectral types and photometry, we have constructed an H-R diagram and used it and other arguments to infer masses and ages. To allow comparison with the results of our previous studies of IC 348 and ρ Oph, we first use the models of D'Antona & Mazzitelli. With these models, the distributions of ages of comparable samples of stars in the Trapezium, ρ Oph, and IC 348 indicate median ages of ~0.4 Myr for the first two regions and ~1-2 Myr for the latter. The low-mass initial mass functions (IMFs) in these sites of clustered star formation are similar over a wide range of stellar densities (ρ Oph, n=0.2-1×103 pc-3 IC 348, n=1×103 pc-3 Trapezium, n=1-5×104 pc-3) and other environmental conditions (e.g., presence or absence of OB stars). With current data, we cannot rule out modest variations in the substellar mass functions among these clusters. We then make the best estimate of the true form of the IMF in the Trapezium by using the evolutionary models of Baraffe et al. and an empirically adjusted temperature scale and compare this mass function to recent results for the Pleiades and the field. All of these data are consistent with an IMF that is flat or rises slowly from the substellar regime to about 0.6 Msolar and then rolls over into a power law that continues from about 1 Msolar to higher masses with a slope similar to or somewhat larger than the Salpeter value of 1.35. For the Trapezium, this behavior holds from our completeness limit of ~0.02 Msolar and probably, after a modest completeness correction, even from 0.01-0.02 Msolar. These data include ~50 likely brown dwarfs. We test the predictions of theories of the IMF against (1) the shape of the IMF, which is not log-normal, in clusters and the field, (2) the

  2. SPLAT: Using Spectral Indices to Identify and Characterize Ultracool Stars, Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets in Deep Surveys and as Companions to Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganze, Christian; Burgasser, Adam J.; Martin, Eduardo; Konopacky, Quinn; Masters, Daniel C.

    2016-06-01

    The majority of ultracool dwarf stars and brown dwarfs currently known were identified in wide-field red optical and infrared surveys, enabling measures of the local, typically isolated, population in a relatively shallow (quantitative methodologies to identify and robustly characterize sources for these specific populations, based on templates and tools developed as part of the SpeX Prism Library Analysis Toolkit. In particular, we define and characterize specifically-tuned sets spectral indices that optimize selection of cool dwarfs and distinguish rare populations (subdwarfs, young planetary-mass objects) based on low-resolution, limited-wavelength-coverage spectral data; and present a template-matching classification method for these instruments. We apply these techniques to HST/WFC3 parallel fields data in the WISPS and HST-3D programs, where our spectral index set allows high completeness and low contamination for searches of late M, L and T dwarfs to distances out to ~3 kpc.The material presented here is based on work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX15AI75G.

  3. An aluminum/calcium-rich, iron-poor, white dwarf star: evidence for an extrasolar planetary lithosphere?

    CERN Document Server

    Zuckerman, B; Dufour, P; Melis, Carl; Klein, B; Jura, M

    2011-01-01

    The presence of elements heavier than helium in white dwarf atmospheres is often a signpost for the existence of rocky objects that currently or previously orbited these stars. We have measured the abundances of various elements in the hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs G149-28 and NLTT 43806. In comparison with other white dwarfs with atmospheres polluted by heavy elements, NLTT 43806 is substantially enriched in aluminum but relatively poor in iron. We compare the relative abundances of Al and eight other heavy elements seen in NLTT 43806 with the elemental composition of bulk Earth, with simulated extrasolar rocky planets, with solar system meteorites, with the atmospheric compositions of other polluted white dwarfs, and with the outer layers of the Moon and Earth. Best agreement is found with a model that involves accretion of a mixture of terrestrial crust and upper mantle material onto NLTT 43806. The implication is that NLTT 43806 is orbited by a differentiated rocky planet, perhaps quite similar to Eart...

  4. The Eating Habits of Milky Way-mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-04-01

    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ˜ 1012.1 M⊙) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ˜ 108-1010M⊙. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108-109 M⊙), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar 108 M⊙ can contribute a considerable fraction (˜20%-60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil” a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  5. Cool Companions to White Dwarf Stars from the Two Micron All Sky Survey All Sky Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, D W; Sturch, L K; Widhalm, A M; Weiler, K P; Pretorius, M L; Wellhouse, J W; Gibiansky, M; Sturch, Laura K.; Widhalm, Allison M.; Weiler, Kevin P.; Pretorius, Magaretha L.; Wellhouse, Joseph W.; Gibiansky, Maxsim

    2007-01-01

    We present the culmination of our near-infrared survey of the optically spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars from the McCook & Sion catalog, conducted using photometric data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey final All Sky Data Release. The color-selection technique, which identifies candidate binaries containing a white dwarf and a low mass stellar (or sub-stellar) companion via their distinctive locus in the near-infrared color-color diagram, is demonstrated to be simple to apply and to yield candidates with a high rate of subsequent confirmation. We recover 105 confirmed binaries, and identify 28 firm candidates (20 of which are new to this work) and 21 tentative candidates (17 of which are new to this work) from the 2MASS data. Only a small number of candidates from our survey have likely companion spectral types later than M5, none of which is an obvious L type (i.e., potential brown dwarf) companion. Only one previously known WD + brown dwarf binary is detected. This result is discussed in...

  6. Stellar winds near massive black holes: The case of the S-stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Pelupessy, Inti; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2015-01-01

    The Galactic center provides a unique laboratory to study the interaction of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) with its gaseous and stellar environment. Simulations to determine the accretion of stellar winds from the surrounding O-stars onto the black hole have been performed earlier, but in those the presence of the S-star system was ignored. The S-stars are a group of young massive B-stars in relatively close orbits around the black hole. Here we simulate those stars in order to study their contribution to the accretion rate, without taking the more distant and massive O-stars into account. We use the Astrophysical Multi-purpose Software Environment (AMUSE) to combine gravitational physics, stellar evolution and hydrodynamics in a single simulation of the S-stars orbiting the supermassive black hole, and use this framework to determine the amount of gas that is accreted onto the black hole. We find that the accretion rate is sensitive to the wind properties of the S-stars (rate of mass-loss and terminal vel...

  7. NuSTAR observations of the Dwarf Nova GK Persei in 2015: comparison between outburst and quiescent phases

    CERN Document Server

    Wada, Yuuki; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Makishima, Kazuo; Hayashi, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    We report on NuSTAR observations of the Intermediate Polar GK Persei which also behaves as a Dwarf Nova. It exhibited a Dwarf Nova outburst in 2015 March-April. The object was observed in 3-79 keV X-rays with NuSTAR, once at the outburst peak, and again in 2015 September during quiescence. The 5-50 keV flux during the outburst was 26 times higher than that during the quiescence. With a multi-temperature emission model and a reflection model, we derived the post-shock temperature as 19.2 +/- 0.7 keV in the outburst, and 38.5 +4.1/-3.6 keV in the quiescence. This temperature difference is considered to reflect changes in the radius at which the accreting matter, forming an accretion disk, is captured by the magnetosphere of the white dwarf (WD). Assuming that this radius scales as the power of -2/7 of the mass accretion rate, and utilizing the two temperature measurements, as well as the standard mass-radius relation of WDs, we determined the WD mass in GK Persei as 0.90 +/- 0.06 solar masses. The magnetic fiel...

  8. Constraining the nature of dark matter with the star formation history of the faintest Local Group dwarf galaxy satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, Alice; Governato, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    $\\Lambda$-Warm Dark Matter (WDM) has been proposed as alternative scenario to $\\Lambda$ cold dark matter (CDM), motivated by discrepancies at the scale of dwarf galaxies, with less small-scale power and realized by collisionless particles with energies in the range $1-3$ keV. We present a new approach to constrain the viability of such WDM models using star formation histories of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Local Group. We compare their high time-resolution star formation histories (SFHs) obtained with HST-based color magnitude diagrams with the range of possible collapse redshifts of their dark matter halos expected in CDM and in different WDM scenarios. The collapse redshift is inferred after determining a plausible infall mass of the subhalo. This is based on the current mass of individual dwarf inferred from stellar kinematics combined with results of cosmological simulations providing information on the subhalo evolution. Since WDM subhalos close to the filtering mass scale form signific...

  9. cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of genome segments S8 from rice black-streaked dwarf virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒木; 陈剑平; 薛庆中; 雷娟利

    2002-01-01

    Genome segments S8 of two Chinese isolates of rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), one from Zhejiang Province and another from Hebei Province, were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Both segments consisted of 1936 nts in full length (EMBL accession numbers were AJ297431 and AJ297432, respectively) and contained only one big open reading frame which encoded a polypeptide with molecular weight of 68kD. The two Chinese isolates shared 94.0% and 96.5% identity at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. They shared 94.5-94.9% and 92.5-92.9% homology with S8 of RBSDV Japanese isolate at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively; shared 85.1-87.6% and 91.7-91.9% homology with S7 of Italian MRDV (maize rough dwarf virus).

  10. Detection of binary and multiple systems among rapidly rotating K and M dwarf stars from Kepler data

    CERN Document Server

    Oláh, Katalin; Joss, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    From an examination of ~18,000 Kepler light curves of K- and M-stars we find some 500 which exhibit rotational periods of less than 2 days. Among such stars, approximately 50 show two or more incommensurate periodicities. We discuss the tools that allow us to differentiate between rotational modulation and other types of light variations, e.g., due to pulsations or binary modulations. We find that these multiple periodicities are independent of each other and likely belong to different, but physically bound, stars. This scenario was checked directly by UKIRT and adaptive optics imaging, time-resolved Fourier transforms, and pixel-level analysis of the data. Our result is potentially important for discovering young multiple stellar systems among rapidly rotating K- and M-dwarfs.

  11. The angular sizes of dwarf stars and subgiants - Non-linear surface brightness relations in BVRcIc from interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kervella, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prediction of stellar angular diameters from broadband photometry plays an important role for different applications. In particular, long-baseline interferometry, gravitational microlensing, extrasolar planet transits, and many other observing techniques require accurate predictions of the angular size of stars. These predictions are based on the surface brightness-colour (SBC) relations. Aims: Our goal is to calibrate general-purpose SBC relations using visible colours, the most commonly available data for most stars. Methods: We compiled the existing long-baseline interferometric observations of nearby dwarf and subgiant stars and the corresponding broadband photometry in the Johnson B V and Cousins Rc Ic bands. We then adjusted polynomial SBC models to these data. Results: Due to the presence of spectral features that depend on the effective temperature, the SBC relations are usually not linear for visible colours. We present polynomial fits that can be employed with BVRcIc based colours to pr...

  12. Fundamental M-dwarf parameters from high-resolution spectra using PHOENIX ACES models: I. Parameter accuracy and benchmark stars

    CERN Document Server

    Passegger, Vera Maria; Reiners, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    M-dwarf stars are the most numerous stars in the Universe; they span a wide range in mass and are in the focus of ongoing and planned exoplanet surveys. To investigate and understand their physical nature, detailed spectral information and accurate stellar models are needed. We use a new synthetic atmosphere model generation and compare model spectra to observations. To test the model accuracy, we compared the models to four benchmark stars with atmospheric parameters for which independent information from interferometric radius measurements is available. We used $\\chi^2$ -based methods to determine parameters from high-resolution spectroscopic observations. Our synthetic spectra are based on the new PHOENIX grid that uses the ACES description for the equation of state. This is a model generation expected to be especially suitable for the low-temperature atmospheres. We identified suitable spectral tracers of atmospheric parameters and determined the uncertainties in $T_{\\rm eff}$, $\\log{g}$, and [Fe/H] resul...

  13. The Masses and Spins of Neutron Stars and Stellar-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, M Coleman

    2014-01-01

    Stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars represent extremes in gravity, density, and magnetic fields. They therefore serve as key objects in the study of multiple frontiers of physics. In addition, their origin (mainly in core-collapse supernovae) and evolution (via accretion or, for neutron stars, magnetic spindown and reconfiguration) touch upon multiple open issues in astrophysics. In this review, we discuss current mass and spin measurements and their reliability for neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes, as well as the overall importance of spins and masses for compact object astrophysics. Current masses are obtained primarily through electromagnetic observations of binaries, although future microlensing observations promise to enhance our understanding substantially. The spins of neutron stars are straightforward to measure for pulsars, but the birth spins of neutron stars are more difficult to determine. In contrast, even the current spins of stellar-mass black holes are challenging to measure. ...

  14. Identification of dusty massive stars in star-forming dwarf irregular galaxies in the Local Group with mid-IR photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Britavskiy, N E; Mehner, A; Boyer, M L; McQuinn, K B W

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the statistics of spectroscopically confirmed evolved massive stars in the Local Group enables the investigation of the mass loss phenomena that occur in these stars in the late stages of their evolution. We aim to complete the census of luminous mid-IR sources in star-forming dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies of the Local Group. To achieve this we employed mid-IR photometric selection criteria to identify evolved massive stars, such as red supergiants (RSGs) and luminous blue variables (LBVs), by using the fact that these types of stars have infrared excess due to dust. The method is based on 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m photometry from archival ${\\it Spitzer}$ Space Telescope images of nearby galaxies. We applied our criteria to 4 dIrr galaxies: Pegasus, Phoenix, Sextans A, and WLM, selecting 79 point sources, which we observed with the VLT/FORS2 spectrograph in multi-object spectroscopy mode. We identified 13 RSGs, of which 6 are new discoveries, also 2 new emission line stars, and 1 candidate yellow...

  15. The Relativitic Evolution of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, J. A.; Baumgarte, T. W.; Shapiro, S. L.; Taniguchi, K.

    2004-12-01

    We report results from our new relativistic evolution calculations of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries. The evolution equations of general relativity are treated in the conformally flat (CF) approximation. Assuming that the BH mass is significantly larger than that of the NS allows us to simplify the field equations for the NS, which we solve self-consistently in a fixed BH background spacetime. This approach guarantees that self-gravity is fully included. The NS fluid, assumed here to follow a gamma-law equation of state (EOS), is evolved using a Lagrangian SPH method. The field equations are solved by spectral methods in spheroidal coordinates. The code has been tested by comparing our results to previously computed quasi-equilibrium sequences, showing good agreement. Our results are a crucial first step in evaluating the stability of mass transfer in extremely close BH-NS binaries. They will allow us to describe quantitatively the dynamical tidal disruption of the NS, and to determine the dependence on the initial binary parameters, including the mass ratio and assumed NS EOS. We will also discuss the implications for detecting gravitational waves from the merger of these systems, about which, in contrast to NS-NS binaries, little is currently known for systems with components of comparable mass. JAF is supported by an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-0401533.

  16. Chemical analysis of carbon stars in the Local Group: I. The Small Magellanic Cloud and the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    De Laverny, P; Dominguez, I; Plez, B; Straniero, O; Wahlin, R; Eriksson, K; Jørgensen, U G

    2005-01-01

    We present the first results of our ongoing chemical study of carbon stars in the Local Group of galaxies. We used spectra obtained with UVES at the 8.2 m Kueyen-VLT telescope and a new grid of spherical model atmospheres for cool carbon-rich stars which include polyatomic opacities, to perform a full chemical analysis of one carbon star, BMB-B~30, in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and two, IGI95-C1 and IGI95-C3, in the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal (Sgr dSph) galaxy. Our main goal is to test the dependence on the stellar metallicity of the s-process nucleosynthesis and mixing mechanism occurring in AGB stars. For these three stars, we find important s-element enhancements with respect to the mean metallicity ([M/H]), namely [s/M]$\\approx$+1.0, similar to the figure found in galactic AGB stars of similar metallicity. The abundance ratios derived between elements belonging to the first and second s-process abundance peaks, corresponding to nuclei with a magic number of neutrons N=50 (88Sr, 89Y, 90Zr) and N=82...

  17. Ultra-faint dwarf galaxies as a test of early enrichment and metallicity-dependent star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Tassis, Konstantinos; Kravtsov, Andrey V

    2011-01-01

    The tight relation of star formation with molecular gas indicated by observations and assumed in recent models implies that the efficiency with which galaxies convert their gas into stars depends on gas metallicity. This is because the abundance of molecular hydrogen is sensitive to the abundance of dust, which catalyzes the formation of H_2 and helps to shield it from dissociating radiation. In this study we point out that in the absence of significant pre-enrichment by Population III stars forming out of zero metallicity gas, such H_2-based star formation is expected to leave an imprint in the form of bi-modality in the metallicity distribution among dwarf galaxies and in the metallicity distribution of stars within individual galaxies. The bi-modality arises because when gas metallicity (and dust abundance) is low, formation of molecular gas is inefficient, the gas consumption time scale is long, and star formation and metal enrichment proceed slowly. When metallicity reaches a critical threshold value sta...

  18. L-dwarf variability Magnetic star spots or non-uniform clouds?

    CERN Document Server

    Gelino, C R; Holtzmann, J A; Ackerman, A S; Lodders, K; Gelino, Christopher R.; Marley, Mark S.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Lodders, Katharina

    2001-01-01

    The recent discovery of photometric variations in L dwarfs has opened a discussion on the cause of the variations. We argue against the existence of magnetic spots in these atmospheres and favor the idea that non-uniform condensate coverage (i.e. clouds) is responsible for the variations. The magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) in the atmosphere of L dwarfs, which describes how well the gas couples with the magnetic field, is too small (<<1) to support the formation of magnetic spots. In constrast silicate and iron clouds form in the photospheres of L dwarfs. Inhomogeneities in such cloud decks can plausibly produce the observed photometric variations. Further evidence in support of clouds is the tendency for variable L dwarfs to be bluer in J-Ks than the average L dwarf of a given spectral type. This color effect is expected if clear holes appear in an otherwise uniform cloud layer.

  19. Herschel/PACS view of disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the TW Hya association

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yao; Gong, Munan; Allers, Katelyn N; Brown, Joanna M; Kraus, Adam L; Liu, Michael C; Shkolnik, Evgenya L; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2014-01-01

    We conducted Herschel/PACS observations of five very low-mass stars or brown dwarfs located in the TW Hya association with the goal of characterizing the properties of disks in the low stellar mass regime. We detected all five targets at $70\\,\\mu{\\rm{m}}$ and $100\\,\\mu{\\rm{m}}$ and three targets at $160\\,\\mu{\\rm{m}}$. Our observations, combined with previous photometry from 2MASS, WISE, and SCUBA-2, enabled us to construct SEDs with extended wavelength coverage. Using sophisticated radiative transfer models, we analyzed the observed SEDs of the five detected objects with a hybrid fitting strategy that combines the model grids and the simulated annealing algorithm and evaluated the constraints on the disk properties via the Bayesian inference method. The modelling suggests that disks around low-mass stars and brown dwarfs are generally flatter than their higher mass counterparts, but the range of disk mass extends to well below the value found in T Tauri stars, and the disk scale heights are comparable in both...

  20. Suppression of star formation in early-type galaxies by feedback from supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kaviraj, Sugata; Yi, Sukyoung K; Boselli, Alessandro; Barlow, Tom; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Martin, D Chris; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Small, Todd; Wyder, Ted K; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Tim; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry; Milliard, Bruno; Rich, R Michael; Szalay, Alex

    2006-08-24

    Detailed high-resolution observations of the innermost regions of nearby galaxies have revealed the presence of supermassive black holes. These black holes may interact with their host galaxies by means of 'feedback' in the form of energy and material jets; this feedback affects the evolution of the host and gives rise to observed relations between the black hole and the host. Here we report observations of the ultraviolet emissions of massive early-type galaxies. We derive an empirical relation for a critical black-hole mass (as a function of velocity dispersion) above which the outflows from these black holes suppress star formation in their hosts by heating and expelling all available cold gas. Supermassive black holes are negligible in mass compared to their hosts but nevertheless seem to play a critical role in the star formation history of galaxies.

  1. Rapid growth of black holes in massive star-forming galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D M; Smail, I; Bauer, F E; Chapman, S C; Blain, A W; Brandt, W N; Ivison, R J

    2005-04-07

    The tight relationship between the masses of black holes and galaxy spheroids in nearby galaxies implies a causal connection between the growth of these two components. Optically luminous quasars host the most prodigious accreting black holes in the Universe, and can account for greater than or approximately equal to 30 per cent of the total cosmological black-hole growth. As typical quasars are not, however, undergoing intense star formation and already host massive black holes (> 10(8)M(o), where M(o) is the solar mass), there must have been an earlier pre-quasar phase when these black holes grew (mass range approximately (10(6)-10(8))M(o)). The likely signature of this earlier stage is simultaneous black-hole growth and star formation in distant (redshift z > 1; >8 billion light years away) luminous galaxies. Here we report ultra-deep X-ray observations of distant star-forming galaxies that are bright at submillimetre wavelengths. We find that the black holes in these galaxies are growing almost continuously throughout periods of intense star formation. This activity appears to be more tightly associated with these galaxies than any other coeval galaxy populations. We show that the black-hole growth from these galaxies is consistent with that expected for the pre-quasar phase.

  2. Brown dwarfs and planetary mass objects in star-forming regions. (Spanish Title: Enanas marrones y objetos de masas planetarias en regiones de formación estelar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M.

    In this contribution we present the properties of substellar mass objects and discuss the different formation mechanisms of brown dwarfs. In particular we analyze the so-called T Tauri formation mode, with disks and jets, and its implications for the existence of planetary systems associated with subestellar mass objects or brown dwarfs. We also briefly discuss the properties of planemos (planetary mass objects). Finally we consider the contribution of these objects to the Initial Mass Function (IMF). Although brown dwarfs and planetary mass objects seem to be as common as stars in the Galaxy, their precise contribution to the IMF still remains uncertain.

  3. No time for dead time: timing analysis of bright black hole binaries with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.; Cook, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Timing of high-count-rate sources with the NuSTAR Small Explorer Mission requires specialized analysis techniques. NuSTAR was primarily designed for spectroscopic observations of sources with relatively low count rates rather than for timing analysis of bright objects. The instrumental dead time ...... techniques. We apply this technique to NuSTAR observations of the black hole binaries GX 339-4, Cyg X-1, and GRS 1915+105....

  4. Creation of a dense torus in the coalescence of a black hole with a neutron star

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We used a newtonian SPH (smooth-particle hydrodynamics) code to follow the final stages of evolution of a coalescing binary system of a neutron star and a black hole. We find that the outcome of the "merger" is very sensitive to the equation of state describing the neutron star. A neutron star with a soft equation of state (polytrope with index Gamma=5/3) is completely disrupted, and a fairly large and long-lived accretion torus is formed.

  5. Novae from isolated white dwarfs as a source of helium for second generation stars in globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Maccarone, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    We explore the possible contribution of classical and recurrent novae from isolated white dwarfs accreting from the intracluster medium to the abundances of "second generation" globular cluster stellar populations. We show that under reasonable assumptions the helium abundances of clusters can be enhanced substantially by these novae and argue that novae should be considered as an important, and perhaps even dominant channel in the evolution of the intracluster medium. We also discuss a possible test for whether helium enhancement really is the cause of the multiple main sequences in globular clusters that is independent of the positions of stars in the color-magnitude diagram.

  6. A close look at the Centaurus A group of galaxies III. Recent star formation histories of late-type dwarfs around M83

    CERN Document Server

    Crnojević, D; Cole, A A

    2011-01-01

    We study the resolved stellar populations of dwarf galaxies in the nearby Centaurus A/M83 group of galaxies. Our goal is to characterize their evolutionary history and to investigate eventual similarities or differences with the dwarf population in other group environments. This work presents the analysis of five late-type (irregular) dwarfs found in the vicinity of the giant spiral M83. Using archival HST/ACS data, we perform synthetic color-magnitude diagram modeling to derive the star formation histories of these late-type dwarfs. The target objects show heterogeneous star formation histories, with average star formation rates of 0.08 to 0.70x10^{-2} M_odot/yr. Some of them present prolonged, global bursts of star formation (~300-500 Myr). The studied galaxies are all metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~-1.4). We further investigate the spatial extent of different stellar populations, finding that the young stars show a clumpy distribution, as opposed to the smooth, broad extent of the old ones. The actively star forming ...

  7. The Sagittarius Dwarf spheroidal Galaxy Survey (SDGS); 2, The stellar content and constraints on the star formation history

    CERN Document Server

    Bellazzini, M; Buonanno, R; Bellazzini, Michele; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Buonanno, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    A detailed study of the Star Formation History of the Sgr dSph galaxy is performed through the analysis of the data from the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy Survey (SDGS; Bellazzini, Ferraro & Buonanno 1999). Accurate statistical decontamination of the SDGS Color - Magnitude diagrams allow us to obtain many useful constraints on the age and metal content of the Sgr stellar populations in three different region of the galaxy. A coarse metallicity distribution of Sgr stars is derived, ranging from [Fe/H]~ -2.0 to [Fe/H]~ -0.7, the upper limit being somewhat higher in the central region of the galaxy. A qualitative global fit to all the observed CMD features is attempted, and a general scheme for the Star Formation History of the Sgr is derived. According to this scheme, star formation began at very early time from a low metal content Inter Stellar Medium and lasted for several Gyr, coupled with progressive chemical enrichment. The Star Formation Rate (SFR) had a peak from 8 to 10 gyr ago when the mean metallicity ...

  8. Investigating the rotational evolution of very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in young clusters using Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Vasconcelos, M J

    2016-01-01

    Context. Very low-mass (VLM) stars and brown dwarfs (BDs) present a different rotational behaviour from their solar mass counter-parts. Aims. We investigate the rotational evolution of young VLM stars and BDs using Monte Carlo simulations under the hypothesis of disk locking and stellar angular momentum conservation. Methods. We built a set of objects with masses ranging from 0.01 Mo to 0.4 Mo and considered models with single- and double- peaked initial period distributions with and without disk locking. An object is considered to be diskless when its mass accretion rate is below a given threshold. Results. Models with initial single-peaked period distributions reproduce the observations well given that BDs rotate faster than VLM stars. We observe a correlation between rotational period and mass when we relax the disk locking hypothesis, but with a shallower slope compared to some observational results. The angular momentum evolution of diskless stars is flatter than it is for stars with a disk which occurs ...

  9. Hubble Space Telescope study of resolved red giant stars in the outer halos of nearby dwarf starburst galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ryś, Agnieszka; van der Marel, Roeland P; Aloisi, Alessandra; Annibali, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    [abridged] Aims. We observed the outer parts of NGC 1569 and NGC 4449, two of the closest and strongest dwarf starburst galaxies in the local universe, to characterize their stellar density and populations, and obtain new insights into the structure, formation, and evolution of starburst galaxies and galaxy halos. Methods. We obtained HST/WFPC2 images between 5 and 8 scale radii from the center, along the intermediate and minor axes. We performed point-source photometry to determine color magnitude diagrams of I vs. V-I. We compared the results at different radii, including also our prior HST/ACS results for more centrally located fields. Results. We detect stars in the RGB and TP-AGB (carbon star) phases in all outer fields, but not younger stars such as those present at smaller radii. The RGB star density profile is well fit by either a de Vaucouleurs profile or a power-law profile, but has more stars at large radii than a single exponential. To within the uncertainties, there are no radial gradients in the...

  10. A Spitzer Study of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars. III. Dust Production and Gas Return in Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; van Loon, Jacco Th; Gehrz, Robert D; Woodward, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    We present the third and final part of a census of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies. Papers I and II presented the results for WLM and IC 1613. Included here are Phoenix, LGS 3, DDO 210, Leo A, Pegasus dIrr, and Sextans A. Spitzer photometry at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 are presented, along with a more thorough treatment of background galaxy contamination than was presented in papers I and II. We find that at least a small population of completely optically obscured AGB stars exists in each galaxy, regardless of the galaxy's metallicity, but that higher-metallicity galaxies tend to harbor more stars with slight IR excesses. The optical incompleteness increases for the redder AGB stars, in line with the expectation that some AGB stars are not detected in the optical due to large amounts of extinction associated with in situ dust production. Overall, there is an underrepresentation of 30% - 40% in the optical AGB within the 1 sigma errors for all of the galaxies in our samp...

  11. Asteroseismology of hot pre-white dwarf stars: the case of the DOV stars PG 2131+066 and PG 1707+427, and the PNNV star NGC 1501

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, A H; Bertolami, M M Miller; García--Berro, E

    2009-01-01

    We present an asteroseismological study on the two high-gravity pulsating PG1159 (GW Vir or DOV) stars, PG 2131+066 and PG 1707+427, and on the pulsating [WCE] star NGC 1501. We compute adiabatic $g$-mode pulsation periods on PG1159 evolutionary models with stellar masses ranging from 0.530 to 0.741 Msun. These models take into account the complete evolution of progenitor stars, through the thermally pulsing AGB phase, and born-again episode. We constrain the stellar mass of PG 2131+066, PG 1707+427 and NGC 1501 by comparing the observed period spacing with the asymptotic period spacing and with the average of the computed period spacings. We also employ the individual observed periods in search of representative seismological models for each star. This work closes our short series of asteroseismological studies on pulsating pre-white dwarf stars. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of asteroseismology for probing the internal structure and evolutionary status of pre-white dwarf stars. In particular, aster...

  12. New M, L, and T Dwarf Companions to Nearby Stars from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, Kevin L; McCurdy, Nicholas S; Mace, Gregory N; Melso, Nicole D; Star, Kimberly M; Young, Michael D; Terrien, Ryan C; McLean, Ian S; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Rhode, Katherine L

    2012-01-01

    We present 11 candidate late-type companions to nearby stars identified with data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). Eight of the candidates are likely to be companions based on their common proper motions with the primaries. The remaining three objects are rejected as companions, one of which is a free-floating T7 dwarf. Spectral types are available for five of the companions, which consist of M2V, M8.5V, L5, T8, and T8. Based on their photometry, the unclassified companions are probably two mid-M dwarfs and one late-M/early-L dwarf. One of the T8 companions, WISE J142320.84+011638.0, has already been reported by Pinfield and coworkers. The other T8 companion, ULAS J095047.28+011734.3, was discovered by Burningham and coworkers through the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, but its companionship has not been previously recognized in the literature. The L5 companion, 2MASS J17430860+8526594, is a new member of a class of L dw...

  13. Compact Stellar Systems in the Fornax Cluster Super-massive Star Clusters or Extremely Compact Dwarf Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Drinkwater, M J; Gregg, M D; Phillipps, S

    2000-01-01

    We describe a population of compact objects in the centre of the Fornax Cluster which were discovered as part of our 2dF Fornax Spectroscopic Survey. These objects have spectra typical of old stellar systems, but are unresolved on photographic sky survey plates. They have absolute magnitudes -13dwarf galaxies. These objects are all within 30 arcminutes of the central galaxy of the cluster, NGC 1399, but are distributed over larger radii than the globular cluster system of that galaxy. We suggest that these objects are either super-massive star clusters (intra-cluster globular clusters or tidally stripped nuclei of dwarf galaxies) or a new type of low-luminosity compact elliptical dwarf (M32-type) galaxy. The best way to test these hypotheses will be to obtain high resolution imaging and high-dispersion spectroscopy to determine their structures and mass-to-light ratios. This will allow us ...

  14. Spectroscopic and photometric studies of low-metallicity star-forming dwarf galaxies. I. SBS 1129+576

    CERN Document Server

    Guseva, N G; Izotov, Yu I; Green, R F; Fricke, K J; Thuan, T X; Noeske, K G

    2003-01-01

    Spectroscopy and V,I CCD photometry of the dwarf irregular galaxy SBS 1129+576 are presented for the first time. The CCD images reveal a chain of compact H II regions within the elongated low-surface-brightness (LSB) component of the galaxy. Star formation takes place mainly in two high-surface-brightness H II regions. The mean (V-I) colour of the LSB component in the surface brightness interval between 23 and 26 mag/sq.arcsec is relatively blue ~0.56+/-0.03 mag, as compared to the (V-I)~0.9-1.0 for the majority of known dwarf irregular and blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies. Spectroscopy shows that the galaxy is among the most metal-deficient galaxies with an oxygen abundance 12+log(O/H)= 7.36+/-0.10 in the brightest H II region and 7.48+/-0.12 in the second brightest H II region, or 1/36 and 1/28 of the solar value, respectively. Hbeta and Halpha emission lines and Hdelta and Hgamma absorption lines are detected in a large part of the LSB component. We use two extinction-insensitive methods based on the equi...

  15. Bright transients from strongly-magnetized neutron star-black hole mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Daniel J.; Levin, Janna; Murray, Norman W.; Price, Larry

    2016-07-01

    Direct detection of black hole-neutron star pairs is anticipated with the advent of aLIGO. Electromagnetic counterparts may be crucial for a confident gravitational-wave detection as well as for extraction of astronomical information. Yet black hole-neutron star pairs are notoriously dark and so inaccessible to telescopes. Contrary to this expectation, a bright electromagnetic transient can occur in the final moments before merger as long as the neutron star is highly magnetized. The orbital motion of the neutron star magnet creates a Faraday flux and corresponding power available for luminosity. A spectrum of curvature radiation ramps up until the rapid injection of energy ignites a fireball, which would appear as an energetic blackbody peaking in the x ray to γ rays for neutron star field strengths ranging from 1012 to 1016 G respectively and a 10 M⊙ black hole. The fireball event may last from a few milliseconds to a few seconds depending on the neutron star magnetic-field strength, and may be observable with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor with a rate up to a few per year for neutron star field strengths ≳1014 G . We also discuss a possible decaying post-merger event which could accompany this signal. As an electromagnetic counterpart to these otherwise dark pairs, the black-hole battery should be of great value to the development of multi-messenger astronomy in the era of aLIGO.

  16. The Effects of Element Diffusion on the Pulsational Properties of Variable DA White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Corsico, A H; Althaus, L G; Serenelli, A M

    2002-01-01

    We explore the effects of element diffusion due to gravitational settling and thermal and chemical diffusion on the pulsational properties of DA white dwarfs. To this end, we employ an updated evolutionary code coupled with a pulsational, finite difference code for computing the linear, non-radial g-modes in the adiabatic approximation. We follow the evolution of a 0.55 \\msun white dwarf model in a self-consistent way with the evolution of chemical abundance distribution as given by time dependent diffusion processes. Results are compared with the standard treatment of diffusive equilibrium in the trace element approximation. Appreciable differences are found between the two employed treatments. We conclude that time dependent element diffusion plays an important role in determining the whole oscillation pattern and the temporal derivative of the periods in DAV white dwarfs. In addition, we discuss the plausibility of the standard description employed in accounting for diffusion in most of white dwarf asteros...

  17. An upper limit to the secular variation of the gravitational constant from white dwarf stars

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G; Isern, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    A variation of the gravitational constant over cosmological ages modifies the main sequence lifetimes and white dwarf cooling ages. Using an state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary code we compute the effects of a secularly varying G on the main sequence ages and, employing white dwarf cooling ages computed taking into account the effects of a running G, we place constraints on the rate of variation of Newton's constant. This is done using the white dwarf luminosity function and the distance of the well studied open Galactic cluster NGC 6791. We derive an upper bound G'/G ~ -1.8 10^{-12} 1/yr. This upper limit for the secular variation of the gravitational constant compares favorably with those obtained using other stellar evolutionary properties, and can be easily improved if deep images of the cluster allow to obtain an improved white dwarf luminosity function.

  18. Toward the End of Stars: Discovering the Galaxy's Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J; Cruz, Kelle; Cushing, Michael; Leggett, Sandy; Lodders, Katharina; Mainzer, Amanda; Marley, Mark; Metchev, Stanimir; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Oppenheimer, Ben; West, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This White Paper to the National Academy of Sciences Astro2010 Decadal Review Committee highlights cross-disciplinary science opportunities over the next decade with cold brown dwarfs, sources defined here as having photospheric temperatures less than ~1000 K.

  19. Hydrodynamical simulations of the tidal stripping of binary stars by massive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainetti, Deborah; Lupi, Alessandro; Campana, Sergio; Colpi, Monica

    2016-04-01

    In a galactic nucleus, a star on a low angular momentum orbit around the central massive black hole can be fully or partially disrupted by the black hole tidal field, lighting up the compact object via gas accretion. This phenomenon can repeat if the star, not fully disrupted, is on a closed orbit. Because of the multiplicity of stars in binary systems, also binary stars may experience in pairs such a fate, immediately after being tidally separated. The consumption of both the binary components by the black hole is expected to power a double-peaked flare. In this paper, we perform for the first time, with GADGET2, a suite of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of binary stars around a galactic central black hole in the Newtonian regime. We show that accretion luminosity light curves from double tidal disruptions reveal a more prominent knee, rather than a double peak, when decreasing the impact parameter of the encounter and when elevating the difference between the mass of the star which leaves the system after binary separation and the mass of the companion. The detection of a knee can anticipate the onset of periodic accretion luminosity flares if one of the stars, only partially disrupted, remains bound to the black hole after binary separation. Thus knees could be precursors of periodic flares, which can then be predicted, followed up and better modelled. Analytical estimates in the black hole mass range 105-108 M⊙ show that the knee signature is enhanced in the case of black holes of mass 106-107 M⊙.

  20. Chemo-orbital evidence from SDSS/SEGUE G dwarf stars for a mixed origin of the Galactic thick disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Ven G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available About 13,000 G dwarf within 7stars and smoothly extends into a thick disk with α-enhanced stars, consistent with an in-situ formation through radial migration. On the other hand, the metal-poor population with enhanced α-abundance, higher scale height, and disperse kinematical properties, is difficult to explain with radial migration but might have originated from gas-rich mergers. The thick disk of the Milky Way seems to have a mixed origin.

  1. Diagnostics of models and observations in the contexts of exoplanets, brown dwarfs, and very low-mass stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytova, Taisiya

    2016-01-01

    When studying isolated brown dwarfs and directly imaged exoplanets with insignificant orbital motion,we have to rely on theoretical models to determine basic parameters such as mass, age, effective temperature, and surface gravity.While stellar and atmospheric models are rapidly evolving, we need a powerful tool to test and calibrate them.In my thesis, I focussed on comparing interior and atmospheric models with observational data, in the effort of taking into account various systematic effects that can significantly influence the data analysis.As a first step, about 460 candidate member os the Hyades were screened for companions using diffraction limited imaging observation (both our own data and archival data). As a result I could establish the single star sequence for the Hyades comprising about 250 stars (Kopytova et al. 2015, accepted to A&A). Open clusters contain many coeval objects of the same chemical composition and age, and spanning a range of masses. We compare the obtained sequence with a set of theoretical isochrones identifying systematic offsets and revealing probable issues in the models.However, there are many cases when it is impossible to test models before comparing them with observations.As a second step, we apply atmospheric models for constraining parameters of WISE 0855-07, the coolest known Y dwarf(Kopytova et al. 2014, ApJ 797, 3). We demonstrate the limits of constraining effective temperature and the presence/absence of water clouds.As a third step, we introduce a novel method to take into account the above-mentioned systematics. We construct a "systematics vector" that allows us to reveal problematic wavelength ranges when fitting atmospheric models to observed near-infrared spectraof brown dwarfs and exoplanets (Kopytova et al., in prep.). This approach plays a crucial role when retrieving abundances for these objects, in particularly, a C/O ratio. The latter parameter is an important key to formation scenarios of brown dwarf and

  2. A Be-type star with a black-hole companion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, J; Negueruela, I; Ribó, M; Ribas, I; Paredes, J M; Herrero, A; Simón-Díaz, S

    2014-01-16

    Stellar-mass black holes have all been discovered through X-ray emission, which arises from the accretion of gas from their binary companions (this gas is either stripped from low-mass stars or supplied as winds from massive ones). Binary evolution models also predict the existence of black holes accreting from the equatorial envelope of rapidly spinning Be-type stars (stars of the Be type are hot blue irregular variables showing characteristic spectral emission lines of hydrogen). Of the approximately 80 Be X-ray binaries known in the Galaxy, however, only pulsating neutron stars have been found as companions. A black hole was formally allowed as a solution for the companion to the Be star MWC 656 (ref. 5; also known as HD 215227), although that conclusion was based on a single radial velocity curve of the Be star, a mistaken spectral classification and rough estimates of the inclination angle. Here we report observations of an accretion disk line mirroring the orbit of MWC 656. This, together with an improved radial velocity curve of the Be star through fitting sharp Fe II profiles from the equatorial disk, and a refined Be classification (to that of a B1.5-B2 III star), indicates that a black hole of 3.8 to 6.9 solar masses orbits MWC 656, the candidate counterpart of the γ-ray source AGL J2241+4454 (refs 5, 6). The black hole is X-ray quiescent and fed by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow giving a luminosity less than 1.6 × 10(-7) times the Eddington luminosity. This implies that Be binaries with black-hole companions are difficult to detect in conventional X-ray surveys.

  3. NuSTAR observations of the black holes GS 1354-645: Evidence of rapid black hole spin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Batal, A. M.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a NuSTAR study of the dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black hole GS 1354-645. The source was observed during its 2015 "hard" state outburst; we concentrate on spectra from two relatively bright phases. In the higher-flux observation, the broadband NuSTAR spectra reveal...... a clear, strong disk reflection spectrum, blurred by a degree that requires a black hole spin of a = cf/GM(2) >= 0.98 (1 sigma statistical limits only). The fits also require a high inclination: 0 similar or equal to 75 (2)degrees. Strong "dips" are sometimes observed in the X-ray light curves of sources...... in stellar-mass black holes, and inner accretion flow geometries at moderate accretion rates....

  4. The mass donor star and the accretion disc of the dwarf nova V2051 Ophiuchi in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcikiewicz, Eduardo; Baptista, Raymundo; Ribeiro, Tiago

    2016-07-01

    We report the analysis of infrared JHK_s high speed photometry of the dwarf nova V2051 Oph in quiescence. We model the ellipsoidal variations in the light curve to measure the fluxes of the mass donor star. Its colors are consistent with an M8 ± 1 spectral type with an equivalent blackbody temperature of T_{bb}= (2700± 300) K, in agreement with spectroscopic measurements and with theoretical expectation for donor stars at the same orbital period. We use the mass donor star fluxes and the Barnes & Evans relation to find a photometric parallax distance of (102 ± 16) pc to the binary. At this distance the outbursts of V2051 Oph occur at disc temperatures everywhere lower than the minimum/critical temperature predicted by the disc instability model, underscoring previous suggestions that they are powered by mass transfer bursts. We subtract the contribution of the mass donor star and apply eclipse mapping techniques to the remaining light curve in order to investigate the structure and emission of its accretion disc. The infrared accretion disc is bright and 'blue' in the inner regions and becomes progressively fainter and redder with increasing radii, indicating that the disc temperature decreases with radius. Bulges in the eclipse shape, more prominent in the H and K_s bands, lead to asymmetric arcs in the eclipse maps reminiscent of the spiral arms found in disc maps of outbursting dwarf novae. The arcs show an azimuthal extent of ˜90^o, extend from the intermediate to the outer disc regions (0.3-0.4 R_{L1}, where R_{L1} is the distance from disc center to the inner lagrangian point), and account for ≃ 30 per cent of the total flux in the H and K_s bands.

  5. Simulating a High-Spin Black Hole-Neutron Star Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, John; Lovelace, Geoffrey; Duez, Matt; Foucart, Francois; Simulating Extreme Spacetimes (SXS) Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During their first observing run (fall 2015) Advanced LIGO detected gravitational waves from merging black holes. In its future observations LIGO could detect black hole neutron star binaries (BHNS). It is important to have numerical simulations to predict these waves, to help find as many of these waves as possible and to estimate the sources properties, because at times near merger analytic approximations fail. Also, numerical models of the disk formed when the black hole tears apart the neutron star can help us learn about these systems' potential electromagnetic counterparts. One area of the parameter space for BHNS systems that is particularly challenging is simulations with high black hole spin. I will present results from a new BHNS simulation that has a black hole spin of 90% of the theoretical maximum. We are part of SXS but not all.

  6. Optical Thermonuclear Transients From Tidal Compression of White Dwarfs as Tracers of the Low End of the Massive Black Hole Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Kasen, Daniel; Rosswog, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we model the observable signatures of tidal disruptions of white dwarf (WD) stars by massive black holes (MBHs) of moderate mass, $\\approx 10^3 - 10^5 M_\\odot$. When the WD passes deep enough within the MBH's tidal field, these signatures include thermonuclear transients from burning during maximum compression. We combine a hydrodynamic simulation that includes nuclear burning of the disruption of a $0.6 M_\\odot$ C/O WD with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculation to synthesize the properties of a representative transient. The transient's emission emerges in the optical, with lightcurves and spectra reminiscent of type I SNe. The properties are strongly viewing-angle dependent, and key spectral signatures are $\\approx 10,000$ km s$^{-1}$ Doppler shifts due to the orbital motion of the unbound ejecta. Disruptions of He WDs likely produce large quantities of intermediate-mass elements, offering a possible production mechanism for Ca-rich transients. Accompanying multiwavelength transients ar...

  7. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Konopacky, Q. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); McLeod, K. K. [Whitin Observatory, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481 (United States); Apai, D.; Pascucci, I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Robberto, M., E-mail: todorovk@phys.ethz.ch [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M {sub ☉}). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15{sub −0.03}{sup +0.05} for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M {sub ☉}) and 4/108 = 0.04{sub −0.01}{sup +0.03} for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  8. The Tidal Disruption of Giant Stars and Their Contribution to the Flaring Supermassive Black Hole Population

    CERN Document Server

    MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Sun-like stars are thought to be regularly disrupted by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) within galactic nuclei. Yet, as stars evolve off the main sequence their vulnerability to tidal disruption increases drastically as they develop a bifurcated structure consisting of a dense core and a tenuous envelope. Here we present the first hydrodynamic simulations of the tidal disruption of giant stars and show that the core has a substantial influence on the star's ability to survive the encounter. Stars with more massive cores retain large fractions of their envelope mass, even in deep encounters. Accretion flares resulting from the disruption of giant stars should last for tens to hundreds of years. Their characteristic signature in transient searches would not be the $t^{-5/3}$ decay typically associated with tidal disruption events, but a correlated rise over many orders of magnitude in brightness on months to years timescales. We calculate the relative disruption rates of stars of varying evolutionary stages in...

  9. Photometric Study on Stellar Magnetic Activity: I. Flare Variability of Red Dwarf Stars in the Open Cluster M37

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, S -W; Hartman, J D

    2015-01-01

    Based on one-month long MMT time-series observations of the open cluster M37, we monitored light variations of nearly 2500 red dwarfs and successfully identified 420 flare events from 312 cluster M dwarf stars. For each flare light curve, we derived observational and physical parameters, such as flare shape, peak amplitude, duration, energy, and peak luminosity. We show that cool stars produce serendipitous flares energetic enough to be observed in the $r$-band, and their temporal and peak characteristics are almost the same as those in traditional $U$-band observations. We also found many large-amplitude flares with inferred $\\Delta u > 6$ mag in the cluster sample which had been rarely reported in previous ground-based observations. Following the ergodic hypothesis, we investigate in detail statistical properties of flare parameters over a range of energy ($E_{r}$ $\\simeq$ $10^{31}-10^{34}$ erg). As expected, there are no statistical differences in the distributions of flare timescales, energies, and freque...

  10. Limits on a Gravitational Field Dependence of the Proton--Electron Mass Ratio from H$_2$ in White Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Bagdonaite, Julija; Preval, Simon P; Barstow, Martin A; Barrow, John D; Murphy, Michael T; Ubachs, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Spectra of molecular hydrogen (H$_2$) are employed to search for a possible proton-to-electron mass ratio ($\\mu$) dependence on gravity. The Lyman transitions of H$_2$, observed with the Hubble Space Telescope towards white dwarf stars that underwent a gravitational collapse, are compared to accurate laboratory spectra taking into account the high temperature conditions ($T \\sim 13\\,000$ K) of their photospheres. We derive sensitivity coefficients $K_i$ which define how the individual H$_2$ transitions shift due to $\\mu$-dependence. The spectrum of white dwarf star GD133 yields a $\\Delta\\mu/\\mu$ constraint of $(-2.7\\pm4.7_{\\rm stat}\\pm 0.2_{\\rm sys})\\times10^{-5}$ for a local environment of a gravitational potential $\\phi\\sim10^4\\ \\phi_\\textrm{Earth}$, while that of G29$-$38 yields $\\Delta\\mu/\\mu=(-5.8\\pm3.8_{\\rm stat}\\pm 0.3_{\\rm sys})\\times10^{-5}$ for a potential of $2 \\times 10^4$ $\\phi_\\textrm{Earth}$.

  11. The Asymptotic Giant Branch and the Tip of the Red Giant Branch as Probes of Star Formation History: The Nearby Dwarf Irregular Galaxy KKH 98

    OpenAIRE

    Melbourne, J; Williams, B.; Dalcanton, J.; Ammons, S. M.; Max, C.; Koo, D.C.; Girardi, Leo; Dolphin, A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the utility of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and the red giant branch (RGB) as probes of the star formation history (SFH) of the nearby (D=2.5 Mpc) dwarf irregular galaxy, KKH 98. Near-infrared (IR) Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (AO) images resolve 592 IR bright stars reaching over 1 magnitude below the Tip of the Red Giant Branch. Significantly deeper optical (F475W and F814W) Hubble Space Telescope images of the same field contain over 2500 stars, reaching to the ...

  12. Hydrodynamical simulations of the tidal stripping of binary stars by massive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mainetti, Deborah; Campana, Sergio; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In a galactic nucleus, a star on a low angular momentum orbit around the central massive black hole can be fully or partially disrupted by the black hole tidal field, lighting up the compact object via gas accretion. This phenomenon can repeat if the star, not fully disrupted, is on a closed orbit. Because of the multiplicity of stars in binary systems, also binary stars may experience in pairs such a fate, immediately after being tidally separated. The consumption of both the binary components by the black hole is expected to power a double peaked flare (Mandel & Levin 2015). In this paper we perform for the first time, with GADGET2, a suite of SPH simulations of binary stars around a galactic central black hole in the Newtonian regime. We show that accretion luminosity light curves from double tidal disruptions reveal a more prominent knee, rather than a double peak, when decreasing the impact parameter of the encounter and when elevating the difference between the mass of the star which leaves the syst...

  13. The formation of massive black holes through collision runaway in dense young star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwart, S P; Hut, P; Makino, J; McMillan, S

    2004-01-01

    A luminous X-ray source is associated with a cluster (MGG-11) of young stars \\~200pc from the center of the starburst galaxy M82. The properties of the X-ray source are best explained by a black hole with a mass of at least 350Msun, which is intermediate between stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. A nearby but somewhat more massive star cluster (MGG-9) shows no evidence of such an intermediate mass black hole, raising the issue of just what physical characteristics of the clusters can account for this difference. Here we report numerical simulations of the evolution and the motions of stars within the clusters, where stars are allowed to mergers with each other. We find that for MGG-11 dynamical friction leads to the massive stars sinking rapidly to the center of the cluster to participate in a runaway collision, thereby producing a star of 800-3000Msun, which ultimately collapses to an black hole of intermediate mass. No such runaway occurs in the cluster MGG-9 because the larger cluster radius leads ...

  14. Iron abundance in hot hydrogen-deficient central stars and white dwarfs from FUSE, HST, and IUE spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Miksa, S; Dreizler, S; Kruk, J W; Rauch, T; Werner, K

    2002-01-01

    We present a first systematic investigation of the iron abundance in very hot (Teff>50,000K) hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars. Our sample comprises 16 PG1159 stars and four DO white dwarfs. We use recent FUSE observations as well as HST and IUE archival data to perform spectral analyses with line blanketed NLTE model atmospheres. Iron is not detected in any PG1159 star. In most cases this is compatible with a solar iron abundance due to limited quality of HST and IUE data, although the tendency to an iron underabundance may be recognized. However, the absence of iron lines in excellent FUSE spectra suggests an underabundance by at least 1 dex in two objects (K1-16 NGC 7094). A similar result has been reported recently in the [WC]-PG1159 transition object Abell 78 (Werner et al. 2002). We discuss dust fractionation and s-process neutron-captures as possible origins. We also announce the first identification of sulfur in PG1159 stars.

  15. Probing the boundary between star clusters and dwarf galaxies: A MUSE view on the dynamics of Crater/Laevens I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voggel, Karina; Hilker, Michael; Baumgardt, Holger; Collins, Michelle L. M.; Grebel, Eva K.; Husemann, Bernd; Richtler, Tom; Frank, Matthias J.

    2016-08-01

    We present MUSE observations of the debated ultrafaint stellar system Crater. We spectroscopically confirm 26 member stars of this system via radial velocity measurements. We derive the systematic instrumental velocity uncertainty of MUSE spectra to be 2.27 km s- 1. This new data set increases the confirmed member stars of Crater by a factor of 3. One out of three bright blue stars and a fainter blue star just above the main-sequence turn-off are also found to be likely members of the system. The observations reveal that Crater has a systemic radial velocity of v_sys=148.18^+1.08_-1.15 km s^{-1}, whereas the most likely velocity dispersion of this system is σ _v=2.04^+2.19_-1.06 km s^{-1}. The total dynamical mass of the system, assuming dynamical equilibrium is then M_tot=1.50^{+4.9}_{-1.2}× 10^5 M_{⊙} implying a mass-to-light ratio of M/LV = 8.52^{+28.0}_{-6.5} M_{⊙}/L_{⊙}, which is consistent with a purely baryonic stellar population within its errors and no significant evidence for the presence of dark matter was found. We also find evidence for a velocity gradient in the radial velocity distribution. We conclude that our findings strongly support that Crater is a faint intermediate-age outer halo globular cluster and not a dwarf galaxy.

  16. A Ringed Dwarf LINER 1 Galaxy Hosting an Intermediate-mass Black Hole with Large-scale Rotation-like Hα Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Juan; Qian, Lei; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Jiang, Ning; Lira, Paulina; Cai, Zheng; Wang, Feige; Yang, Jinyi; Xiao, Ting; Kim, Minjin

    2017-03-01

    We report the discovery of a 20 kpc sized {{H}}α emission in SDSS J083803.68+540642.0, a ringed dwarf galaxy ({M}V=-17.89 mag) hosting an accreting intermediate-mass black hole at z = 0.02957. Analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope images indicates that it is an early-type galaxy with a featureless low-surface brightness disk ({μ }0=20.39 mag arcsec‑2 in the V band) and a prominent, relatively red bulge (V ‑ I = 2.03, {R}{{e}}=0.28 {kpc} or 0.″48) that accounts for ≈81% of the total light in the I band. A circumgalactic ring of a diameter 16 kpc is also detected, with a disperse shape on its south side. The optical emission lines reveal the nucleus to be a broad-line LINER. Our MMT longslit observation indicates that the kinematics of the extended {{H}}α emission is consistent with a rotational gaseous disk, with a mean blueshifted velocity of 162 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and mean redshifted velocity of 86 {km} {{{s}}}-1. According to our photoionization calculations, the large-scale {{H}}α emission is unlikely to be powered by the central nucleus or by hot evolved (post-AGB) stars interspersed in the old stellar populations, but by in situ star formation; this is vindicated by the line-ratio diagnostic of the extended emission. We propose that both the ring and large-scale {{H}}α -emitting gas are created by the tidal accretion in a collision—and then merger—with a gas-rich galaxy of a comparable mass.

  17. Growing black holes and galaxies: black hole accretion versus star formation rate

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta; Netzer, Hagai; Bellovary, Jillian; Dotti, Massimo; Governato, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We present a new suite of hydrodynamical simulations and use it to study, in detail, black hole and galaxy properties. The high time, spatial and mass resolution, and realistic orbits and mass ratios, down to 1:6 and 1:10, enable us to meaningfully compare star formation rate (SFR) and BH accretion rate (BHAR) timescales, temporal behaviour and relative magnitude. We find that (i) BHAR and galaxy-wide SFR are typically temporally uncorrelated, and have different variability timescales, except during the merger proper, lasting ~0.2-0.3 Gyr. BHAR and nuclear (<100 pc) SFR are better correlated, and their variability are similar. Averaging over time, the merger phase leads typically to an increase by a factor of a few in the BHAR/SFR ratio. (ii) BHAR and nuclear SFR are intrinsically proportional, but the correlation lessens if the long-term SFR is measured. (iii) Galaxies in the remnant phase are the ones most likely to be selected as systems dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), because of the long...

  18. The Dynamical Evolution of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries in General Relativity: Simulations of Tidal Disruption

    CERN Document Server

    Faber, J A; Shapiro, S L; Taniguchi, K; Rasio, F A; Faber, Joshua A.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the first dynamical evolutions of merging black hole-neutron star binaries that construct the combined black hole-neutron star spacetime in a general relativistic framework. We treat the metric in the conformal flatness approximation, and assume that the black hole mass is sufficiently large compared to that of the neutron star so that the black hole remains fixed in space. Using a spheroidal spectral methods solver, we solve the resulting field equations for a neutron star orbiting a Schwarzschild black hole. The matter is evolved using a relativistic, Lagrangian, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) treatment. We take as our initial data recent quasiequilibrium models for synchronized neutron star polytropes generated as solutions of the conformal thin-sandwich (CTS) decomposition of the Einstein field equations. We are able to construct from these models relaxed SPH configurations whose profiles show good agreement with CTS solutions. Our adiabatic evolution calculations for neutron stars wit...

  19. The Dynamical Evolution of Stellar-Mass Black Holes in Dense Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Maggie

    Globular clusters are gravitationally bound systems containing up to millions of stars, and are found ubiquitously in massive galaxies, including the Milky Way. With densities as high as a million stars per cubic parsec, they are one of the few places in the Universe where stars interact with one another. They therefore provide us with a unique laboratory for studying how gravitational interactions can facilitate the formation of exotic systems, such as X-ray binaries containing black holes, and merging double black hole binaries, which are produced much less efficiently in isolation. While telescopes can provide us with a snapshot of what these dense clusters look like at present, we must rely on detailed numerical simulations to learn about their evolution. These simulations are quite challenging, however, since dense star clusters are described by a complicated set of physical processes occurring on many different length and time scales, including stellar and binary evolution, weak gravitational scattering encounters, strong resonant binary interactions, and tidal stripping by the host galaxy. Until very recently, it was not possible to model the evolution of systems with millions of stars, the actual number contained in the largest clusters, including all the relevant physics required describe these systems accurately. The Northwestern Group's Henon Monte Carlo code, CMC, which has been in development for over a decade, is a powerful tool that can be used to construct detailed evolutionary models of large star clusters. With its recent parallelization, CMC is now capable of addressing a particularly interesting unsolved problem in astrophysics: the dynamical evolution of stellar black holes in dense star clusters. Our current understanding of the stellar initial mass function and massive star evolution suggests that young globular clusters may have formed hundreds to thousands of stellar-mass black holes, the remnants of stars with initial masses from 20 - 100

  20. LIVING WITH A RED DWARF: ROTATION AND X-RAY AND ULTRAVIOLET PROPERTIES OF THE HALO POPULATION KAPTEYN’S STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.; Durbin, Allyn, E-mail: scott.engle@villanova.edu [Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    As part of Villanova’s Living with a Red Dwarf program, we have obtained UV, X-ray, and optical data of the Population II red dwarf—Kapteyn’s Star. Kapteyn’s Star is noteworthy for its large proper motions and high radial velocity of ∼+245 km s{sup −1}. As the nearest Pop II red dwarf, it serves as an old age anchor for calibrating activity/irradiance–rotation–age relations, and an important test bed for stellar dynamos and the resulting X-ray–UV emissions of slowly rotating, near-fully convective red dwarf stars. Adding to the notoriety, Kapteyn’s Star has recently been reported to host two super-Earth candidates, one of which (Kapteyn b) is orbiting within the habitable zone. However, Robertson et al. questioned the planet’s existence since its orbital period may be an artifact of activity, related to the star’s rotation period. Because of its large Doppler-shift, measures of the important, chromospheric H i Lyα 1215.67 Å emission line can be reliably made, because it is mostly displaced from ISM and geo-coronal sources. Lyα emission dominates the FUV region of cool stars. Our measures can help determine the X-ray–UV effects on planets hosted by Kapteyn’s Star, and planets hosted by other old red dwarfs. Stellar X-ray and Lyα emissions have strong influences on the heating and ionization of upper planetary atmospheres and can (with stellar winds and flares) erode or even eliminate planetary atmospheres. Using our program stars, we have reconstructed the past exposures of Kapteyn’s Star's planets to coronal—chromospheric XUV emissions over time.

  1. Time dependent diffusion in pulsating white dwarf stars Asteroseismology of G117-B15A

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuto, O G; Althaus, L G; Serenelli, A M

    2002-01-01

    We study the structural characteristic of the variable DA white dwarf G117B-15A by applying the methods of asteroseismology. For such a purpose, we construct white dwarf evolutionary models considering a detailed and up-to-date physical description as well as several processes responsible for the occurrence of element diffusion. We have considered several thickness for the outermost hydrogen layer, whereas for the inner helium-, carbon- and oxygen-rich layers we considered realistic profiles predicted by calculations of the white dwarf progenitor evolution. The evolution of each of the considered model sequences were followed down to very low effective temperature; in particular, from 12500K on we computed the dipolar, linear, adiabatic oscillations with low radial order. We find that asteroseismological results are not univocal regarding mode identification for the case of G117B-15A. However, our asteroseismological results are compatible with spectroscopical data only if the observed periods of 215.2, 271.0...

  2. M dwarf stars-the by-product of X-ray selected AGN candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Bai; Yan-Chun Sun; Xiang-Tao He; Yang Chen; Jiang-Hua Wu; Qing-Kang Li; Richard F.Green; Wolfgang Voges

    2012-01-01

    X-ray loud M dwarfs are a major source of by-products (contamination)in the X-ray band of the multiwavelength quasar survey.As a by-product,the low dispersion spectra of 22 M dwarfs are obtained in which the spectra of 16 sources are taken for the first time.The spectral types and distances of the sample arc given based on spectral indices CaH2,CaH3,and TiOS.The parameter (ι)TiO/CaH is calculated to separate the different metallicity classes among dwarfs,subdwarfs and extreme subdwarfs.We also discuss the distributions in the diagrams of log( Lx/ Lbol),the ratio between X-ray and bolometric luminosity versus spectral type and infrared colors.

  3. Modeling the Cloudy Atmospheres of Cool Stars, Brown Dwarfs and Hot Exoplanets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juncher, Diana

    M-dwarfs are very attractive targets when searching for new exoplanets. Unfortunately, they are also very difficult to model since their temperatures are low enough for dust clouds to form in their atmospheres. Because the properties of an exoplanet cannot be determined without knowing...... of their clouds and found that their synthetic spectra fit the observed spectra of mid to late type M-dwarfs and early type L-dwarfs well. With additional development into even cooler regimes, they could be used to characterize the atmospheres of exoplanets and aid us in our search for the kind of chemical...... imbalances that suggest the presence of life. I have also directly performed spectroscopic and photometric observations of exoplanets to discover and/or improve our knowledge of their properties and to participate in the development of the techniques that is being used to discover and characterize exoplanets."...

  4. Modeling motion of a small black hole through a star or a planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turova, Victoria; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    In some scenarios of Big Bang the fluctuations of density in early universe result in the formation of various sized primordial black holes. The black holes of mass range 10^10 -10^22 kg are suitable candidates for a dark matter (or at least for a part of it). Such black holes could from time to time pass via Solar system or Sun or even Earth. What would a trajectory of a small black hole passing through Sun or through Earth look like? Would a black hole slow down and stuck consuming matter and causing cataclysmic collapse of Earth or Sun, or would it just pass? What other effects would take place? We model computationally a motion of a small black hole moving with various initial velocities (10- 1000 km/sec) through a planet-like and a star-like body of various density distributions. The results of this modeling are presented.

  5. Enhanced accretion rates of stars on Super-massive Black Holes by star-disk interactions in galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Just, Andreas; Makukov, Maxim; Berczik, Peter; Omarov, Chingis; Spurzem, Rainer; Vilkoviskij, Emanuel Y

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical interaction of a central star cluster surrounding a super-massive black hole and a central accretion disk. The dissipative force acting on stars in the disk leads to an enhanced mass flow towards the super-massive black hole and to an asymmetry in the phase space distribution due to the rotating accretion disk. The accretion disk is considered as a stationary Keplerian rotating disk, which is vertically extended in order to employ a fully self-consistent treatment of stellar dynamics including the dissipative force originating from star-gas ram pressure effects. The stellar system is treated with a direct high-accuracy N-body integration code. A star-by-star representation, desirable in N-body simulations, cannot be extended to real particle numbers yet. Hence, we carefully discuss the scaling behavior of our model with regard to particle number and tidal accretion radius. The main idea is to find a family of models for which the ratio of two-body relaxation time and dissipation t...

  6. Apparent Deviations from Keplerian Acceleration for Stars Around the Supermassive Black Hole at the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, A

    2003-01-01

    We show that the time-dependent Doppler effect should induce measureable deviations of the time history of the projected orbit of a star around the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center (SgrA*) from the expected Keplerian history. In particular, the line-of-sight acceleration of the star generates apparent acceleration of its image along its velocity vector on the sky, even if its actual Keplerian acceleration in this direction vanishes. The excess apparent acceleration simply results from the transformation of time between the reference frames of the observer and the star. Although the excess acceleration averages to zero over a full closed orbit, it could lead to systematic offsets of a few percent in estimates of the dynamical mass or position of the black hole that rely on partially sampled orbits with pericentric distances of ~100AU. Deviations of this magnitude from apparent Keplerian dynamics of known stars should be detectable by future observations.

  7. Tidal Interaction between a Fluid Star and a Kerr Black Hole Relativistic Roche-Riemann Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, P; Wiggins, Paul; Lai, Dong

    1999-01-01

    We present a semi-analytic study of the equilibrium models of close binary systems containing a fluid star (mass $m$ and radius $R_0$) and a Kerr black hole (mass $M$) in circular orbit. We consider the limit $M\\gg m$ where spacetime is described by the Kerr metric. The tidally deformed star is approximated by an ellipsoid, and satisfies the polytropic equation of state. The models also include fluid motion in the stellar interior, allowing binary models with nonsynchronized stellar spin (as expected for coalescing neutron star--black hole binaries) to be constructed. Tidal disruption occurs at orbital radius $r_{\\rm tide}\\sim R_0(M/m)^{1/3}$, but the dimensionless ratio of the black hole as well as on the equation of state and the internal rotation of the star. We find that the general relativistic tidal field disrupts the star at a larger $\\hat r_{\\rm tide}$ than the Newtonian tide; the difference is particularly prominent if the disruption occurs in the vicinity of the black hole's horizon. In general, $\\h...

  8. The masses and spins of neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. Coleman, E-mail: miller@astro.umd.edu [University of Maryland, Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars represent extremes in gravity, density, and magnetic fields. They therefore serve as key objects in the study of multiple frontiers of physics. In addition, their origin (mainly in core-collapse supernovae) and evolution (via accretion or, for neutron stars, magnetic spindown and reconfiguration) touch upon multiple open issues in astrophysics. In this review, we discuss current mass and spin measurements and their reliability for neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes, as well as the overall importance of spins and masses for compact object astrophysics. Current masses are obtained primarily through electromagnetic observations of binaries, although future microlensing observations promise to enhance our understanding substantially. The spins of neutron stars are straightforward to measure for pulsars, but the birth spins of neutron stars are more difficult to determine. In contrast, even the current spins of stellar-mass black holes are challenging to measure. As we discuss, major inroads have been made in black hole spin estimates via analysis of iron lines and continuum emission, with reasonable agreement when both types of estimate are possible for individual objects, and future X-ray polarization measurements may provide additional independent information. We conclude by exploring the exciting prospects for mass and spin measurements from future gravitational wave detections, which are expected to revolutionize our understanding of strong gravity and compact objects.

  9. Formation of massive black holes through runaway collisions in dense young star clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Simon F Portegies; Baumgardt, Holger; Hut, Piet; Makino, Junichiro; McMillan, Stephen L W

    2004-04-15

    A luminous X-ray source is associated with MGG 11--a cluster of young stars approximately 200 pc from the centre of the starburst galaxy M 82 (refs 1, 2). The properties of this source are best explained by invoking a black hole with a mass of at least 350 solar masses (350 M(o)), which is intermediate between stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. A nearby but somewhat more massive cluster (MGG 9) shows no evidence of such an intermediate-mass black hole, raising the issue of just what physical characteristics of the clusters can account for this difference. Here we report numerical simulations of the evolution and motion of stars within the clusters, where stars are allowed to merge with each other. We find that for MGG 11 dynamical friction leads to the massive stars sinking rapidly to the centre of the cluster, where they participate in a runaway collision. This produces a star of 800-3,000 M(o) which ultimately collapses to a black hole of intermediate mass. No such runaway occurs in the cluster MGG 9, because the larger cluster radius leads to a mass segregation timescale a factor of five longer than for MGG 11.

  10. Evolution of white dwarf stars with high-metallicity progenitors: the role of 22Ne diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Althaus, Leandro G; Renedo, Isabel; Isern, Jordi; Córsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, Rene D

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the strong discrepancy between the main sequence turn-off age and the white dwarf cooling age in the metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791, we compute a grid of white dwarf evolutionary sequences that incorporates for the first time the energy released by the processes of 22Ne sedimentation and of carbon/oxygen phase separation upon crystallization. The grid covers the mass range from 0.52 to 1.0 Msun, and it is appropriate for the study of white dwarfs in metal-rich clusters. The evolutionary calculations are based on a detailed and self-consistent treatment of the energy released from these two processes, as well as on the employment of realistic carbon/oxygen profiles, of relevance for an accurate evaluation of the energy released by carbon/oxygen phase separation. We find that 22Ne sedimentation strongly delays the cooling rate of white dwarfs stemming from progenitors with high metallicities at moderate luminosities, whilst carbon/oxygen phase separation adds considerable delays at low luminositi...

  11. Constraining the initial conditions and final outcomes of accretion processes around young stars and supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jordan M.

    objects with effective temperatures greater than 1500 K are similar to the spectra of older more massive brown dwarfs at the same temperature, in contrast to objects at 1000 K that exhibit distinct L-band SEDs. The oldest object in my sample of young companions, 50 My old CD-35 2722 B, appears redder than field dwarfs with similar spectral type based on 1--2.5mum spectra. This could indicate reduced cloud opacity compared to field dwarfs at the same temperature. I also present work to better understand the supermassive blackhole at the center of our Galaxy. Astrometric monitoring of stellar orbits about the black hole have been used to sketch the gravitational potential, revealing 4 x 106 [solar masses] within a radius of 40 AU. Further constraints on the gravitational potential, and the detection of post-Newtonian effects on the stellar orbits, will require improved astrometric precision. Currently confusion noise in the crowded central cluster limits astrometric precision. Increased spatial resolution can alleviate confusion noise. Dual field phase referencing on large-aperture infrared interferometers provides the sensitivity needed to observe the Galactic center, providing the fastest route to increased spatial resolution. I present simulations of dual-field phase referencing performance with the Keck Interferometer and with the VLTI GRAVITY instrument, to describe the potential contributions each could make to Galactic center stellar astrometry. I demonstrate that the near-future GRAVITY instrument at the VLTI will have a large impact on the ability to precisely track the paths of stars orbiting there, as long as a star with K-band apparent magnitude less than 20 exists within 70 milliarcseconds of the blackhole. Many of the stars orbiting the blackhole are in a post-main sequence wind phase. The wind from these stars is feeding an accretion flow falling onto the blackhole. This flow is radiatively inefficient, producing only 10-8 times the Eddington limit. Thus our

  12. Ecological Fitness of Non-vector Planthopper Sogatella furcifera on Rice Plants Infected with Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-chan; XU Hong-xing; ZHENG Xu-song; YANG Ya-jun; GAO Guang-chun; PAN Jian-hong; LU Zhong-xian

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV)-infested rice plants on the ecological parameters and its relevant defensive and detoxification enzymes of white-backed planthopper (WBPH) in laboratory for exploring the relationship between RBSDV and the non-vector planthopper.The results showed that nymph survival rate,female adult weight and fecundity,and egg hatchability of WBPH fed on RBSDV-infested rice plants did not markedly differ from those on healthy plants,whereas the female adult longevity and egg duration significantly shortened on diseased plants.Furthermore,significantly higher activities of defensive enzymes (dismutase,catalase and peroxidase) and detoxification enzymes (acetylcholinesterase,carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase) were found in WBPH adults fed on infected plants.Results implied that infestation by RBSDV increased the ecological fitness of non-vector planlhopper population.

  13. The r-Process in Metal Poor Stars and Black Hole Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R N; Famiano, M A; Meyer, B S; Motizuki, Y; Kajino, T; Roederer, I U

    2011-11-30

    Nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei in metal-poor stars is generally ascribed to the r-process, as the abundance pattern in many such stars agrees with the inferred Solar r-process abundances. Nonetheless, a significant number of these stars do not share this r-process template. they suggest that many such stars have begun an r-process, but it was prevented from running to completion in more massive stars by collapse to black holes, creating a 'truncated r-process,' or 'tr-process'. The observed fraction of tr-process stars is found to be consistent with expectations from the initial mass function (IMF), and they suggest that an apparent sharp truncation observed at around mass 160 could result from a combination of collapses to black holes and the difficulty of observing the higher mass rare earths. They test the tr-process hypothesis with calculations that are terminated before all r-process trajectories have been ejected. These produce qualitative agreement with observation when both black hole collapse and observational realities are taken into account.

  14. I-Love-Q Relations: From Compact Stars to Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2016-01-01

    The relations between most observables associated with a compact star, such as the mass and radius of a neutron star or a quark star, typically depend strongly on their unknown internal structure. The I-Love-Q relations (between the moment of inertia, the tidal deformability and the quadrupole moment) are however approximately insensitive to this structure. These relations become exact for stationary black holes in General Relativity as shown by the no-hair theorems. In this paper, we take the first steps toward studying how the approximate I-Love-Q relations become exact in the limit as compact stars become black holes. To do so, we consider a toy model, i.e. incompressible stars with anisotropic pressure, which allows us to model an equilibrium sequence of stars with their compactness approaching the black hole limit arbitrarily closely. We extract the I-Love-Q trio by numerically constructing such a sequence in the slow-rotation and small-tide approximations. We find that the I-Love-Q relations approach th...

  15. The Low-Mass Stellar IMF at High Redshift Faint Stars in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Wyse, R F G; Feltzing, S; Houdashelt, M L; Wyse, Rosemary F.G.; Gilmore, Gerard; Feltzing, Sofia; Houdashelt, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Low-mass stars, those with main-sequence lifetimes that are of order the age of the Universe, provide unique constraints on the Initial Mass Function (IMF) when they formed. Star counts in systems with simple star-formation histories are particularly straightforward to interpret, and those in old systems allow one to determine the low-mass stellar IMF at large look-back times and thus at high redshift. We present the faint stellar luminosity function (based on optical HST data) in an external galaxy, the Ursa Minor dwarf Spheroidal (dSph). This relatively-nearby (distance 70kpc) companion galaxy to the Milky Way has a stellar population with narrow distributions of age and of metallicity, remarkably similar to that of a classical halo globular cluster such as M92 or M15, i.e. old and metal-poor. Contrasting with globular clusters, the internal velocity dispersion of the Ursa Minor dSph indicates the presence of significant amounts of dark matter. We find that the main sequence stellar luminosity function of t...

  16. CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY OF THREE-COMPONENT WHITE DWARFS AND NEUTRON STAR CRUSTS: PHASE STABILITY, PHASE STRATIFICATION, AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, T. A.; Yoder, N. C.; Crespi, V. H., E-mail: tae146@psu.edu, E-mail: ncy5007@psu.edu, E-mail: vhc2@psu.edu [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    A systematic search for multicomponent crystal structures is carried out for five different ternary systems of nuclei in a polarizable background of electrons, representative of accreted neutron star crusts and some white dwarfs. Candidate structures are “bred” by a genetic algorithm and optimized at constant pressure under the assumption of linear response (Thomas–Fermi) charge screening. Subsequent phase equilibria calculations reveal eight distinct crystal structures in the T = 0 bulk phase diagrams, five of which are complicated multinary structures not previously predicted in the context of compact object astrophysics. Frequent instances of geometrically similar but compositionally distinct phases give insight into structural preferences of systems with pairwise Yukawa interactions, including and extending to the regime of low-density colloidal suspensions made in a laboratory. As an application of these main results, we self-consistently couple the phase stability problem to the equations for a self-gravitating, hydrostatically stable white dwarf, with fixed overall composition. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to incorporate complex multinary phases into the equilibrium phase-layering diagram and mass–radius-composition dependence, both of which are reported for He–C–O and C–O–Ne white dwarfs. Finite thickness interfacial phases (“interphases”) show up at the boundaries between single-component body-centered cubic (bcc) crystalline regions, some of which have lower lattice symmetry than cubic. A second application—quasi-static settling of heavy nuclei in white dwarfs—builds on our equilibrium phase-layering method. Tests of this nonequilibrium method reveal extra phases that play the role of transient host phases for the settling species.

  17. Upper limits on the rates of binary neutron star and neutron-star--black-hole mergers from Advanced LIGO's first observing run

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calder'on; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavagli`a, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Costa, C F Da Silva; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Del'eglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; D'iaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J -D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; Gonz'alez, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; 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Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; K'ef'elian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y -M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Kr'olak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; L"uck, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Zertuche, L Magana; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; M'arka, S; M'arka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Pratt, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; P"urrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosi'nska, D; Rowan, S; 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    2016-01-01

    We report here the non-detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary neutron star systems and neutron-star--black-hole systems during the first observing run of Advanced LIGO. In particular we searched for gravitational wave signals from binary neutron star systems with component masses $\\in [1,3] M_{\\odot}$ and component dimensionless spins $< 0.05$. We also searched for neutron-star--black-hole systems with the same neutron star parameters, black hole mass $\\in [2,99] M_{\\odot}$ and no restriction on the black hole spin magnitude. We assess the sensitivity of the two LIGO detectors to these systems, and find that they could have detected the merger of binary neutron star systems with component mass distributions of $1.35\\pm0.13 M_{\\odot}$ at a volume-weighted average distance of $\\sim$ 70Mpc, and for neutron-star--black-hole systems with neutron star masses of $1.4M_\\odot$ and black hole masses of at least $5M_\\odot$, a volume-weighted average distance of at least $\\sim$ 110Mpc. From this we...

  18. Star-forming dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster: the link between molecular gas, atomic gas, and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Grossi, M; Bizzocchi, L; Giovanardi, C; Bomans, D; Coelho, B; De Looze, I; Gonçalves, T S; Hunt, L K; Leonardo, E; Madden, S; Menéndez-Delmestre, K; Pappalardo, C; Riguccini, L

    2016-01-01

    We present $^{12}$CO(1-0) and $^{12}$CO(2-1) observations of a sample of 20 star-forming dwarfs selected from the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, with oxygen abundances ranging from 12 + log(O/H) ~ 8.1 to 8.8. CO emission is observed in ten galaxies and marginally detected in another one. CO fluxes correlate with the FIR 250 $\\mu$m emission, and the dwarfs follow the same linear relation that holds for more massive spiral galaxies extended to a wider dynamical range. We compare different methods to estimate H2 molecular masses, namely a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor and one dependent on H-band luminosity. The molecular-to-stellar mass ratio remains nearly constant at stellar masses <~ 10$^9$ M$_{\\odot}$, contrary to the atomic hydrogen fraction, M$_{HI}$/M$_*$, which increases inversely with M$_*$. The flattening of the M$_{H_2}$/M$_*$ ratio at low stellar masses does not seem to be related to the effects of the cluster environment because it occurs for both HI-deficient and HI-normal dwa...

  19. The Star Formation Histories of Local Group Dwarf Galaxies III. Characterizing Quenching in Low-Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Williams, Benjamin F

    2015-01-01

    We explore the quenching of low-mass galaxies (10^4 < Mstar < 10^8 Msun) as a function of lookback time using the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies. The SFHs were derived from analyzing color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stellar populations in archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. We find: (1) Lower mass galaxies quench earlier than higher mass galaxies; (2) Inside of virial radius there is no correlation between a satellite's current proximity to a massive host and its quenching epoch; (3) There are hints of systematic differences in quenching times of M31 and Milky Way (MW) satellites, although the sample sample size and uncertainties in the SFHs of M31 dwarfs prohibit definitive conclusions. Combined with literature results, we qualitatively consider the redshift evolution (z=0-1) of the quenched galaxy fraction over ~7 dex in stellar mass (10^4 < Mstar < 10^11.5 Msun). The quenched fraction of all galaxies generally increases to...

  20. MagAO Imaging of Long-period Objects (MILO). II. A Puzzling White Dwarf around the Sun-like Star HD 11112

    CERN Document Server

    Rodigas, Timothy J; Simon, Amelie; Arriagada, Pamela; Faherty, Jackie; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Mamajek, Eric E; Weinberger, Alycia; Butler, R Paul; Males, Jared R; Morzinski, Katie; Close, Laird M; Hinz, Philip M; Bailey, Jeremy; Carter, Brad; Jenkins, James S; Jones, Hugh; O'Toole, Simon; Tinney, C G; Wittenmyer, Rob; Debes, John

    2016-01-01

    HD 11112 is an old, Sun-like star that has a long-term radial velocity (RV) trend indicative of a massive companion on a wide orbit. Here we present direct images of the source responsible for the trend using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system. We detect the object (HD 11112B) at a separation of 2\\fasec 2 (100 AU) at multiple wavelengths spanning 0.6-4 \\microns ~and show that it is most likely a gravitationally-bound cool white dwarf. Modeling its spectral energy distribution (SED) suggests that its mass is 0.9-1.1 \\msun, which corresponds to very high-eccentricity, near edge-on orbits from Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of the RV and imaging data together. The total age of the white dwarf is $>2\\sigma$ discrepant with that of the primary star under most assumptions. The problem can be resolved if the white dwarf progenitor was initially a double white dwarf binary that then merged into the observed high-mass white dwarf. HD 11112B is a unique and intriguing benchmark object that can be used to calibrate ...