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Sample records for black ducks anas

  1. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes

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    Orin J. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes from 1951–2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south. The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species.

  2. Heavy rainfall triggers increased nocturnal flight in desert populations of the Pacific black duck (Anas superciliosa).

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    McEvoy, J F; Ribot, R F H; Wingfield, J C; Bennett, A T D

    2017-12-14

    Understanding of avian nocturnal flight comes mainly from northern hemisphere species in seasonal temperate ecosystems where nocturnal flight is often precisely timed and entrained by annual photoperiod. Here we investigate patterns of nocturnal flight in waterbirds of Australian desert ecosystems that fly considerable distances to find temporary water bodies formed from rainfall which is highly unpredictable seasonally and spatially, and when there is sufficient water, they then breed. How they perform these feats of navigation and physiology remain poorly known. Using GPS tracking of 38 satellite tagged Pacific black ducks (Anas superciliosa) in two contrasting ecosystems, before and after heavy rainfall we revealed a key role for facultative nocturnal flight in the movement ecology of this species. After large rainfall events, birds rapidly increased nocturnal flight activity in the arid aseasonal ecosystem, but not in the mesic seasonal one. Nocturnal flights occurred throughout the night in both ecosystems. Long range flights (>50 km in 2 hours) occurred almost exclusively at night; at night the distance flown was higher than during the day, birds visited more locations, and the locations were more widely dispersed. Our work reveals that heavy rainfall triggers increased nocturnal flight activity in desert populations of waterbirds.

  3. Intestinal absorption of 5 chromium compounds in young black ducks (Anas rubripes)

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    Eastin, W.C.; Haseltine, S.D.; Murray, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    An in vivo intestinal perfusion technique was used to measure the absorption rates of five Cr compounds in black ducks. Cr was absorbed from saline solutions of KCr(SO4 )2 and CrO3 at a rate about 1.5 to 2.0 times greater than from solutions of Cr, Cr(NO3 )3, and Cr(C5H7O2)3. These results suggest the ionic form of Cr in solution may be an important factor in determining absorption of Cr compounds from the small intestine.

  4. Capturing American black ducks in tidal waters

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    Harrison, M.K.; Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, Dennis G.; Stotts, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    We modified conventional, funnel-entrance dabbling duck bait traps to increase captures for banding of American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) in tidal saltmarsh habitats of Smith Island, Maryland, one of the few remaining strongholds for breeding Black Ducks in the Chesapeake Bay. Traps and trapping techniques were adapted to tidal creeks and refined to improve capture rate, reduce mortality, and minimize interference by gulls. Best results were achieved by synchronizing trapping with predawn, low-tide foraging patterns of Black Ducks. Trap entrances were critical to retaining ducks, and use of loafing platforms reduced overall mortality to 3% of captures per year. We captured 3071 Black Ducks during the 14-year period, 1984-199

  5. Benefits, costs, and determinants of dominance in American black ducks

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    Hepp, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Behavioural dominance was studied in captive American black ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-December 1984. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and groups of 10 ducks consisting of 5 adults (3 males and 2 females) and 5 juveniles (3 males and 2 females) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet, and ducks in the other 4 pens were given a restricted diet. Dominance structure within pens was linear. Adults were dominant to young, and body mass had no influence on dominance rank. The effect of sex on dominance rank was age-specific. Adult males were dominant to adult females and to young black ducks of both sexes; however, dominance rank of young males did not differ from adult or young females. Paired adults were dominant to unpaired adults and to young individuals that were either paired or unpaired. Paired young black ducks were similar in dominance rank to unpaired adults and unpaired young indicating that pairing did not make these individuals more dominant. Ducks on the restricted diet gained less body mass than ducks on the ad libitum diet, but dominant and subordinate black ducks within treatment groups experienced similar changes in body mass during the early winter. Dominant black ducks interacted more frequently and were more likely to form pair bonds than subordinates, thus higher energy costs of dominant individuals may explain the poor relationship between physical condition and dominance rank. There was a significant positive association between the dominance ranks of pair members.

  6. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

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    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric American black ducks and mallards

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    Nichols, J.D.; Obrecht, H.H.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Banding and recovery data from American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) banded in the same breeding or wintering areas over the same time periods were used to estimate annual survival and band recovery rates. Recovery rates, based on preseason bandings, were very similar for sympatric black ducks and mallards and exhibited similar patterns of year-to-year variation for the 2 species. Tests for differences between the species in annual survival rates yielded equivocal results. We tentatively conclude that annual survival rates of mallards generally were not higher than those of black ducks banded in the same areas. The apparent difference in population status between black ducks and eastern mallards does not seem to result from differences in mortality rate. Nevertheless, we should attempt to identify management practices that might increase survival probabilities of black ducks.

  8. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

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    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  9. Selection for duration of fertility and mule duck white plumage colour in a synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

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    Liu, H. C.; Huang, J. F.; Lee, S. R.; Liu, H. L.; Hsieh, C. H.; Huang, C. W.; Huang, M. C.; Tai, C.; Poivey, Jean Paul; Rouvier, R.; Cheng, Y. S.

    2015-01-01

    A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the GO. Then G1 were i...

  10. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC class Igene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIN ZHANG

    2017-06-17

    Jun 17, 2017 ... Abstract. To enrich gene polymorphism of DuMHC I and provide data for further studies on disease resistance, 14 DuMHC I genes from Weishan Ma duck and Cherry Valley duck were cloned, and their characterization were investigated. The overall conservation of the 14 alleles could be observed within ...

  11. The effects of hunting on survival rates of American black ducks

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    Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Percival, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    Using data from 10 preseason and 10 winter major reference areas from 1950-83, the authors tested hypotheses regarding the effects of hunting on the survival and recovery rates of the American black duck (Anas rubripes ). Although estimates of the proportion of total annual mortality due to hunting are low (35% for ad and 45% for young) compared to Blandin's (1982) estimates, mean mortality and kill rates have increased since 1982. When hunting regulations were liberalized, recovery rates increased and survival rates decreased in males whereas only recovery rates increased in females. Changes in hunting regulations appeared to affect survival rates of adult males and young American black ducks.

  12. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC class I gene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-06-17

    Jun 17, 2017 ... The overallconservation of the 14 alleles could be observed within the sequences, and relative conservation were also displayed in the peptide-binding domain and CD8 interaction sites. Based on full-length amino acid homology, MHC class I fromdifferent duck lines could be divided into 13 gene groups ...

  13. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC classⅠ gene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    server (calculating Wu-Kabat index, http://imed.med.ucm.es/PVS/) were used. The 3D structure of the ... during their evolution. Substitutions with high Wu-Kabat index in the two duck lines were also observed as ... This study was cosupported by the Shandong Academy of Agricultural Science Funds for Young. Scholar ...

  14. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

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    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  15. Effect of restrictive harvest regulations on survival and recovery rates of American black ducks

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    Francis, C.M.; Sauer, J.R.; Serie, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Population management of waterfowl requires an understanding of the effects of changes in hunting regulations on harvest and survival rates. Mean survival and recovery rates of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were estimated during 3 periods of increasingly restrictive harvest regulations: 1950-66, 1967-82, and 1983-93. From the first to the second period, direct recovery rates declined for at least 1 age class in 4 of 6 reference areas, with a mean decline of 14% for adult and 7% for immature black ducks. From the second to the third period, direct recovery rates declined in all areas, declines averaging 37% for adults and 27% for immatures. Estimated mean survival rates increased from the first to the second period, consistent with a model of additivity of hunting mortality. Limited evidence existed for increases in survival rates from the second to the third period for immature males. For adults, however, survival increased less between these periods than would be expected if hunting mortality were additive and changes in recovery rates were proportional to changes in hunting mortality. Changes in survival and recovery rates of black ducks banded postseason were similar to those of adults banded preseason. Comparisons among estimates by degree blocks of latitude and longitude indicate that, at least between 1967 and 1983, estimated survival rates of immature and adult black ducks were lower in areas with high direct recovery rates. Smaller samples of banded birds and changes in banding locations in recent years may be limiting ability to evaluate consequences of recent changes in harvest rates. These correlation-based studies are limited in their ability to explain causes of observed changes in survival rates, suggesting the need for alternative approaches such as adaptive harvest management to increase understanding of the effects of hunting on black duck populations.

  16. The susceptibility of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) to Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin

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    Jensen, Wayne I.; Duncan, Ruth M.

    1980-01-01

    Most strains of Clostridium botulinum type C, after having lost their capacity to produce their dominant toxin (C1) as a result of being“cured”of their prophages, continue to produce C2, a trypsin-activable toxin reported by other investigators. While of relatively low toxicity when administered perorally to the adult mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), it was highly toxic when given parenterally. By the intravenous route, for example, it was more than 1, 000 times as toxic as C1 toxin by the same route, when compared on the basis of mouse intraperitoneal toxicity. The cause of death in every instance was massive pulmonary edema and hemorrhage rather than the respiratory paralysis that occurs in C1 intoxication.抄録

  17. Histomorphological study of the parathyroid gland in female Kuttanad ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus

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    Firdous Ahmad Dar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work was targeted to form the baseline data of normal morphological and histological picture of parathyroid gland in female Kuttanad ducks.Materials and Methods: A Histomorphological study of the parathyroid gland was carried out in twelve adult female Kuttanad ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus of 20 weeks of age. Birds reared semintensively were procured from Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Poultry and Duck Farm and sacrificed humanely. Glands were collected and gross parameters were recorded. The glands were fixed in 10 percent neutral buffered formalin. The small sized glands were processed as such by routine histological methods, paraffin blocks were prepared and sectioned to a thickness of 5µ. The tissues were stained by Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E for routine histological studies and Gomori's rapid one step trichrome method for connective tissue fibres. Micrometric parameters were recorded using ocular micrometer. Results: Parathyroid glands in Kuttanad ducks lay just caudal to the division of the innominate artery into the subclavian and common carotid arteries. Parathyroids were oval to spherical in shape, yellow in colour and smaller than thyroid gland of the representative sides. The arterial blood supply was from common carotid artery and blood from gland was drained directly into jugular vein. Although it lied close to the thyroid, thymus and ultimobranchial gland, parathyroid tissue did not merge to any of the above mentioned three glands. Parenchyma was composed irregular anatomizing cords of cells supplied by connective tissue stroma penetrated by blood capillaries. Parenchyma was predominantly made of lightly stained cell, the chief cell. The nuclei were round and contain one or two nucleoli. Oxyphil cells present in parathyroid glands of other mammals were not seen in the present study. Conclusion: Histomorphological features or characteristics of Parathyroid gland in Kuttanad duck were

  18. Multilocus phylogeography of a holarctic duck: colonization of north america from eurasia by gadwall (Anas strepera).

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    Peters, Jeffrey L; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; Fefelov, Igor; Humphries, Elizabeth M; Omland, Kevin E

    2008-06-01

    More than 100 species of birds have Holarctic distributions extending across Eurasia and North America, and many of them likely achieved these distributions by recently colonizing one continent from the other. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and five nuclear introns were sequenced to test the direction and timing of colonization for a Holarctic duck, the gadwall (Anas strepera). Three lines of evidence suggest gadwalls colonized North America from Eurasia. First, New World (NW) gadwalls had fewer alleles at every locus and 61% of the allelic richness found in Old World (OW) gadwalls. Second, NW gadwalls had lower mtDNA allelic richness than other NW ducks. Third, coalescent analysis suggested that less than 5% of the ancestral population contributed to NW gadwalls at the time of divergence. Gadwalls likely colonized North America during the Late Pleistocene (approximately 81,000 years ago), but the confidence interval on that estimate was large (8500-450,000 years ago). Intercontinental gene flow and selection also likely contributed to genetic diversity in gadwalls. This study illustrates the use of multiple loci and coalescent analyses for critically testing a priori hypotheses regarding dispersal and colonization and provides an independent datapoint supporting an OW to NW bias in the direction of colonization.

  19. The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. in Canada.

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    Zsuzsanna Papp

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. across Canada. Generalized linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that risk of AIV infection was higher in hatch-year birds compared to adults, and was positively associated with a high proportion of hatch-year birds in the population. Males were more likely to be infected than females in British Columbia and in Eastern Provinces of Canada, but more complex relationships among age and sex cohorts were found in the Prairie Provinces. A species effect was apparent in Eastern Canada and British Columbia, where teal (A. discors and/or A. carolinensis were less likely to be infected than mallards (A. platyrhynchos. Risk of AIV infection increased with the density of the breeding population, in both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces, and lower temperatures preceding sampling were associated with a higher probability of AIV infection in Eastern Canada. Our results provide new insights into the ecological and demographic factors associated with AIV infection in waterfowl.

  20. Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

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    Liu, H C; Huang, J F; Lee, S R; Liu, H L; Hsieh, C H; Huang, C W; Huang, M C; Tai, C; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Cheng, Y S

    2015-05-01

    A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie), the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F), the total number of dead embryos (M), the maximum duration of fertility (Dm) and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H) with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H); F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201) was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie (h (2) = 0.07±0.03) and M (h (2) = 0.07±0.01), moderately low for Dm (h (2) = 0.13±0.02), of medium values for H (h (2) = 0.20±0.03) and F (h (2) = 0.23±0.03). High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm (rg = 0.93), between F and H (rg = 0.97) and between Dm and H (rg = 0.90). The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201), with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201) and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality

  1. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

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    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  2. Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) with reference to other anserine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    he purpose of this study was to provide a reference for xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic anatomy of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) as a representative of the avian Order Anseriformes. The head, body, wing, and pelvic limb of three adult birds were radiographed using xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Nine xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate normal anatomy. Selected views of other anseriform species were included to illustrate certain anatomical features unique to those species

  3. Identification and synthetic modeling of factors affecting American black duck populations

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    Conroy, Michael J.; Miller, Mark W.; Hines, James E.

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on factors potentially affecting the population status of American black ducks (Anas rupribes). Our review suggests that there is some support for the influence of 4 major, continental-scope factors in limiting or regulating black duck populations: 1) loss in the quantity or quality of breeding habitats; 2) loss in the quantity or quality of wintering habitats; 3) harvest, and 4) interactions (competition, hybridization) with mallards (Anas platyrhychos) during the breeding and/or wintering periods. These factors were used as the basis of an annual life cycle model in which reproduction rates and survival rates were modeled as functions of the above factors, with parameters of the model describing the strength of these relationships. Variation in the model parameter values allows for consideration of scientific uncertainty as to the degree each of these factors may be contributing to declines in black duck populations, and thus allows for the investigation of the possible effects of management (e.g., habitat improvement, harvest reductions) under different assumptions. We then used available, historical data on black duck populations (abundance, annual reproduction rates, and survival rates) and possible driving factors (trends in breeding and wintering habitats, harvest rates, and abundance of mallards) to estimate model parameters. Our estimated reproduction submodel included parameters describing negative density feedback of black ducks, positive influence of breeding habitat, and negative influence of mallard densities; our survival submodel included terms for positive influence of winter habitat on reproduction rates, and negative influences of black duck density (i.e., compensation to harvest mortality). Individual models within each group (reproduction, survival) involved various combinations of these factors, and each was given an information theoretic weight for use in subsequent prediction. The reproduction model with highest

  4. Cranial joint histology in the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos): new insights on avian cranial kinesis.

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    Bailleul, Alida M; Witmer, Lawrence M; Holliday, Casey M

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of avian cranial kinesis is a phenomenon in part responsible for the remarkable diversity of avian feeding adaptations observable today. Although osteological, developmental and behavioral features of the feeding system are frequently studied, comparatively little is known about cranial joint skeletal tissue composition and morphology from a microscopic perspective. These data are key to understanding the developmental, biomechanical and evolutionary underpinnings of kinesis. Therefore, here we investigated joint microstructure in juvenile and adult mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos; Anseriformes). Ducks belong to a diverse clade of galloanseriform birds, have derived adaptations for herbivory and kinesis, and are model organisms in developmental biology. Thus, new insights into their cranial functional morphology will refine our understanding of avian cranial evolution. A total of five specimens (two ducklings and three adults) were histologically sampled, and two additional specimens (a duckling and an adult) were subjected to micro-computed tomographic scanning. Five intracranial joints were sampled: the jaw joint (quadrate-articular); otic joint (quadrate-squamosal); palatobasal joint (parasphenoid-pterygoid); the mandibular symphysis (dentary-dentary); and the craniofacial hinge (a complex flexion zone involving four different pairs of skeletal elements). In both the ducklings and adults, the jaw, otic and palatobasal joints are all synovial, with a synovial cavity and articular cartilage on each surface (i.e. bichondral joints) ensheathed in a fibrous capsule. The craniofacial hinge begins as an ensemble of patent sutures in the duckling, but in the adult it becomes more complex: laterally it is synovial; whereas medially, it is synostosed by a bridge of chondroid bone. We hypothesize that it is chondroid bone that provides some of the flexible properties of this joint. The heavily innervated mandibular symphysis is already fused in the

  5. Mitochondrial D-loop analysis for uncovering the population structure and genetic diversity among the indigenous duck (Anas platyrhynchos) populations of India.

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    Gaur, Uma; Tantia, Madhu Sudan; Mishra, Bina; Bharani Kumar, Settypalli Tirumala; Vijh, Ramesh Kumar; Chaudhury, Ashok

    2018-03-01

    The indigenous domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) which is domesticated from Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) contributes significantly to poor farming community in coastal and North Eastern regions of India. For conservation and maintenance of indigenous duck populations it is very important to know the existing genetic diversity and population structure. To unravel the population structure and genetic diversity among the five indigenous duck populations of India, the mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 120 ducks were analyzed. The sequence analysis by comparison of mtDNA D-loop region (470 bp) of five Indian duck populations revealed 25 mitochondrial haplotypes. Pairwise F ST value among populations was 0.4243 (p < .01) and the range of nucleotide substitution per site (Dxy) between the five Indian duck populations was 0.00034-0.00555, and the net divergence (Da) was 0-0.00355. The phylogenetic analysis in the present study unveiled three clades. The analysis revealed genetic continuity among ducks of coastal region of the country which formed a separate group from the ducks of the inland area. Both coastal as well as the land birds revealed introgression of the out group breed Khaki Campbell, which is used for breed improvement programs in India. The observations revealed very less selection and a single matrilineal lineage of indigenous domestic ducks.

  6. Population ecology and harvest of the American black duck: a review

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    Rusch, D.H.; Ankney, C.D.; Boyd, H.; Longcore, J.R.; Montalbano, F.; Ringelman, J.K.; Stotts, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    1. The purpose of our review was to examine available data on population trends and current status of black ducks and trends in natality and survival and to relate these, where possible, to changes in habitat, predation, disease, contaminants, harvest, and hybridization with mallards. 2. The number of black ducks tallied in the winter survey has declined steadily over the past 30 years at an average rate of about 3%/ year. Reliability and precision of the survey are uncertain; it may not provide an adequate index to the continental population of black ducks. Breeding surveys are incomplete and sporadic, but black ducks have decreased in Ontario and increased in the Maritime Provinces and Quebec. 3. Recent declines in numbers of black ducks tallied in the winter survey are not unusual in magnitude or much different from those that have occurred among several other species of waterfowl. 4. At present, black ducks are not especially scarce relative to numbers of several other ducks in eastern North America. 5. There is no solid evidence of major decreases in quality or quantity of breeding habitat for black ducks in recent years; in some areas, habitat has improved. 6. Natural mortality of black ducks has not been well studied, but does not seem unusually high compared to other dabbling ducks. 7. Harvest rates of black ducks are similar to those of sympatric mallards as determined by banding analyses. 8. There is no strong evidence for direct effects of contaminants on black ducks, but some indirect effects through invertebrate food resources have been detected. 9. Age ratios in black ducks show no trend in the past 18 years. 10. The quality and quantity of wintering habitat for black ducks have decreased substantially in some areas. 11. Disease and other natural mortality that affect black ducks do .not occur in unusually high frequency. 12. A decline in harvest of black ducks has occurred; most of the decline has been in the United States, especially since

  7. Effect of Desalination on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Duck (Anas plotyrhyncus) Egg Whites

    OpenAIRE

    Mhamadi Mmadi; Tidjani Amza; YuChuan Wang; Min Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Desalted Duck Egg Whites (DDEW) was prepared by electrodialysis desalination using Salted Duck Egg Whites (SDEW). DDEW and SDEW (used as control) were subjected to freeze drying process. Freeze Dried Desalted and Salted Duck Egg Whites (FDDEW and FSDEW, respectively) were assessed for functional properties (turbidity, foaming, emulsifying and gelation) and some physicochemical characteristics. Among the physicochemical parameters, the proximate composition, amino acid composition, pH, particl...

  8. First report of Anatoecus dentatus in domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Linnaeus, 1978 from Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyathilakan N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infection is one of the prime causes for morbidity and mortality of ducks in India. Ducks have the habit of wading through the water resources especially paddy fields and feeding on snail which favours occurrence of various parasites. Among the parasites, lice infestation affects growth and productivity of ducks by way of irritation. Lice are well adapted as external parasites and usually are more a nuisance than a threat to their hosts. A nomadic farmer from Mannargudi area of Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu, India who had a flock of 1600 ducks reported continuous death of 700 ducks within a period of one month and brought a dead duck to Dept. of Veterinary Pathology for postmortem examination. Examination of entire body of duck prior to necropsy revealed the presence of live lice in the hairs around the junction of beak and head. About 7 lice specimens were collected and brought to Dept. of Veterinary Parasitology for identification. The lice specimens were processed and identified as Anatoecus dentatus based on the presence of ‘tin opener’ shaped effracter in the male genitalia. This is the first report of occurrence of these lice in ducks from Southern India.

  9. Proteomic analysis of liver development of lean Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aijuan; Liu, Guohua; Zhang, Yunsheng; Hou, Shuisheng; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Chen, Guilan

    2012-09-18

    The liver plays vital roles in digestion, metabolism and immune defense. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of nutrient metabolism and antioxidation of lean Pekin duck liver from hatching to slaughter, the proteome changes were investigated using 2-DE, MS, quantitative real-time PCR and bioinformatics. A total of 59 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Proteins involved in transportation were highly up-regulated in newborn ducks whereas 37 proteins associated with metabolism, defense and antioxidation were up-regulated in adult ducks. The over-expression of proteins at the last developmental stage presumably occurs to fulfill the needs of multiple functions of the liver. However, the over-expressed proteins related to transportation during the first developmental stage are involved in maintaining the high basal metabolism of newborn ducks. The functional enrichment analysis also confirmed these results. Furthermore, the protein interaction network predicted 28 proteins acting as key nodes for liver development. The validated expression between proteins and genes provides us target genes for future genetic analyses to improve the health and performance of these ducks. These significant advanced proteome data expand our knowledge on the physiology of the duck liver, thereby providing a potentially valuable foundation for molecular breeding to enhance feed efficiency and immunity and for optimizing the feeding strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cloning and expression profiling of the VLDLR gene associated with egg performance in duck (Anas platyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xiu-li

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The very low density lipoprotein receptor gene (VLDLR, a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene family, plays a crucial role in the synthesis of yolk protein precursors in oviparous species. Differential splicing of this gene has been reported in human, rabbit and rat. In chicken, studies showed that the VLDLR protein on the oocyte surface mediates the uptake of yolk protein precursors into growing oocytes. However, information on the VLDLR gene in duck is still scarce. Methods Full-length duck VLDLR cDNA was obtained by comparative cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. Tissue expression patterns were analysed by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Association between the different genotypes and egg performance traits was investigated with the general linear model (GLM procedure of the SAS® software package. Results In duck, two VLDLR transcripts were identified, one transcript (variant-a containing an O-linked sugar domain and the other (variant-b not containing this sugar domain. These transcripts share ~70 to 90% identity with their counterparts in other species. A phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences showed that duck VLDLR proteins were closely related with those of chicken and zebra finch. The two duck VLDLR transcripts are differentially expressed i.e. VLDLR-a is mainly expressed in muscle tissue and VLDLR-b in reproductive organs. We have localized the duck VLDLR gene on chromosome Z. An association analysis using two completely linked SNP sites (T/C at position 2025 bp of the ORF and G/A in intron 13 and records from two generations demonstrated that the duck VLDLR gene was significantly associated with egg production (P Conclusions Duck and chicken VLDLR genes probably perform similar function in the development of growing oocytes and deposition of yolk lipoprotein. Therefore, VLDLR could be a candidate gene for duck egg performance

  11. Unraveling molecular mechanistic differences in liver metabolism between lean and fat lines of Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica): a proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Aijuan; Chang, Wenhuan; Hou, Shuisheng; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Chen, Guilan; Lou, Ruiying; Liu, Guohua

    2014-02-26

    Duck is one of the major poultry meat sources for human consumption. To satisfy different eating habits, lean and fat strains of Pekin ducks have been developed. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular mechanistic differences in liver metabolism between two duck strains. The liver proteome of the Pekin duck lines was compared on days 1, 14, 28, and 42 posthatching using 2-DE based proteomics. There was a different abundance of 76 proteins in the livers of the two duck lines. Fat ducks strongly expressed proteins related to pathways of glycolysis, ATP synthesis, and protein catabolism, suggesting enhanced fat deposition rather than protein retention. In contrast, highly expressed proteins in lean ducks improved protein anabolism and reduced protein catabolism, resulting in an enhancement of lean meat deposition. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, the immune system of the lean duck strain may be enhanced by enhanced expression of proteins involved in stress response, immune defense, and antioxidant functions. These results indicate that selection pressure has shaped the two duck lines differently resulting in different liver metabolic capacities. These observed variations between the two strains at the molecular level are matched with physiological changes in growth performance and meat production. This information may have beneficial impacts in areas such as genetic modification through the manipulation of target proteins or genes in specific pathways to improve the efficiency of duck meat production. The objective of this study was to unravel molecular mechanistic differences in liver metabolism between lean and fat Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) strains. There was a different abundance of 76 proteins in the livers of the two duck lines. Enhanced protein expression in the fat ducks related to pathways of glycolysis, ATP synthesis and protein catabolism suggesting increased fat deposition rather than protein retention. In

  12. Survival of American Black Ducks radiomarked in Quebec, Nova Scotia and Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Clugston, D.A.; Bunck, C.M.; Giroux, J.-F.; Ouellet, C.; Parker, G.R.; Dupuis, P.; Stotts, D.B.; Goldsberry, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    We monitored survival of 397 radiomarked juvenile American black ducks (Anas rubripes) distributed among Les Escoumins (n = 75) and Kamouraska, Quebec (n = 84), Amherst Point, Nova Scotia (n = 89), and a site on the Vermont-Quebec border (n = 149) during autumn 1990 and 1991. Eighty-six percent (215 of 250) of all confirmed mortalities during the study was from hunting; 72% of marked ducks were shot and retrieved and 14% were shot and unretrieved. We tested for differences in survival in relation to sex, body mass, year (1990-91, 1991-92), and among the 4 locations for each of 2 monitoring periods (early, EMP; late, LMP). With data from the EMP for Vermont-Quebec in 1990 and 1991, Les Escoumins in 1990, and Amherst Point in 1991, survival of hatching-year (HY) males and females did not differ (P = 0.357). For sexes combined for the EMP, survival of ducks was greater in 1991 than 1990 (P = 0.086), and differed among locations (P = 0.013). Survival (years combined) was greater at Amherst Point than at Kamouraska (P = 0.003) and Vermont-Quebec (P = 0.002) during the EMP. The highest survival rate at Amherst Point (0.545 ? 0.056 [SE]) was associated with the latest date (8 Oct) of season opening; the lowest survival rate (0.395 ? 0.043) was at the Vermont-Quebec border, where hunter numbers and activity were greatest. For the LMP, no interaction between years and locations was detected (P = 0.942), and no differences in survival existed between years (P = 0.102) and among locations (P = 0.349). No association was detected between body mass at capture and survival of combined males and females during the EMP (P = 0.572) or during the LMP (P = 0.965). When we censored hunting losses for combined years for each period, EMP or LMP, all survival estimates exceeded 0.800 (0.809-0.965). These data emphasize need for an improved harvest strategy for American black ducks in North America to allow for increases in breeding populations to achieve population goals.

  13. Avian botulism: a case study in translocated endangered Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) on Midway Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Klavitter, John L.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Laysan Ducks are endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago and are one of the world’s most endangered waterfowl. For 150 yr, Laysan Ducks were restricted to an estimated 4 km2 of land on Laysan Island in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In 2004 and 2005, 42 Laysan Ducks were translocated to Midway Atoll, and the population increased to approximately 200 by 2007. In August 2008, mortality due to botulism type C was identified, and 181 adult, fledgling, and duckling carcasses were collected from August to October. Diseased birds were found on two islands within Midway Atoll at multiple wetlands; however, one wetland contributed most carcasses. The epidemic was discovered approximately 14–21 days after the mortality started and lasted for 50 additional days. The details of this epidemic highlight the disease risk to birds restricted to small island populations and the challenges associated with managing newly translocated endangered species. Frequent population monitoring for early disease detection and comprehensive wetland monitoring and management will be needed to manage avian botulism in endangered Laysan Ducks. Vaccination may also be beneficial to reduce mortality in this small, geographically closed population.

  14. Acid precipitation and food quality: Inhibition of growth and survival in black ducks and mallards by dietary aluminum, calcium and phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    In areas impacted by acid precipitation, water chemistry of acidic ponds and streams often changes, resulting in increased mobilization of aluminum and decreased concentration of calcium carbonate. Aluminum binds with phosphorus and inhibits its uptake by organisms. Thus, invertebrate food organisms used by waterfowl may have inadequate Ca and P or elevated Al for normal growth and development. Acid rain and its effects may be one of the factors negatively impacting American black ducks (Anas rubripes) in eastern North America. One-day old mallards (A. platyrhynchos) and black ducks were placed on one of three Ca:P regimens: low:low (LL), normal:normal (NN), and low:high (LH) with each regimen divided further into three or four Al levels for 10 weeks. Forty-five % of the black ducks died on nine different diets whereas only 28% of the mallards died on three different diets. Mortality was significantly related to diet in both species. Growth rates for body weight, culmens, wings, and tarsi of both species on control diets exceeded those on many treatment diets but the differences were less apparent for mallards than for black ducks. Differences among treatments were due to both Ca:P and Al levels.

  15. Acid precipitation and food quality: Effects of dietary Al, Ca and P on bone and liver characteristics in American black ducks and mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) were fed diets varying in concentrations of aluminum (Al). calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) for 10 weeks to identify toxic effects of Al under conditions representative of areas with acid precipitation. Femur and liver tissues were analyzed for Al. Ca, and P concentrations and structural characteristics. At two weeks of age, both species demonstrated pronounced differences in femur Al and P concentrations and femur mass from dietary Al and interaction between Ca:P regimen and Al:Low Ca:Low P enhanced Al storage and decreased P and mass in femurs. Femur Ca was lowest in the Low Ca:Low P regimen but was not affected by dietary Al. At 10 weeks, femur and liver Al continued to vary with dietary Al. Elevated Al and reduced Ca lowered modulus of elasticity. Femur P increased with elevated dietary P in black ducks. Elevated dietary P negated some of the effects of dietary A! on femur mass in black ducks. Reduced Ca concentrations weakened bones of both species and lowered both Ca and P. An array of clinical signs including lameness, discoloration of the upper mandible, complete and greenstick fractures, and death were responses to elevated Al and Ca:P regimen. Black ducks seemed to display these signs over a wider range of diets than mallards. Diets of 1,000 mg/kg Al had toxic effects on both species, particularly when combined with diets low in Ca and P.

  16. A hierarchical model for regional analysis of population change using Christmas Bird Count data, with application to the American Black Duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Niven, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data is complicated by the need to account for variation in effort on counts and to provide summaries over large geographic regions. We describe a hierarchical model for analysis of population change using CBC data that addresses these needs. The effect of effort is modeled parametrically, with parameter values varying among strata as identically distributed random effects. Year and site effects are modeled hierarchically, accommodating large regional variation in number of samples and precision of estimates. The resulting model is complex, but a Bayesian analysis can be conducted using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. We analyze CBC data for American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes), a species of considerable management interest that has historically been monitored using winter surveys. Over the interval 1966-2003, Black Duck populations showed distinct regional patterns of population change. The patterns shown by CBC data are similar to those shown by the Midwinter Waterfowl Inventory for the United States.

  17. Seasonal carcass composition and energy balance of female black ducks in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, K.J.; Stone, T.L.; Owen, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Female Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) collected in Maine during the summer, fall, and winter of 1974-1976 showed significant seasonal variation in body weight, nonfat dry weight, gizzard and pectoral muscle weight, and fat, moisture, and protein content. Variation of body weight within and among seasons was correlated more strongly with carcass protein content, and with fat content during seasons of heavy lipid deposition, than with three structural size variables (culmen, tarsus, and sternum). Regression equations including fat and protein as independent variables accounted for 80-90% of the annual and seasonal variation in body weight; structural size variables alone accounted for less than 30%. Immature females averaged 54 and 99 g lighter, and carried 54 and 59 g less fat than adults during the fall and winter. Ducks of both age classes lost weight in December and January. Adult and immature females metabolized 59 and 64 g of fat and 17 and 25 g of protein in winter compared with 46 g of fat during the nesting season. Nutrient reserves are thus equally as important for the winter survival of these birds as for successfurl eproduction. Seasonal changes in carcass composition suggest that (1) fat deposited in late fall provides an energy reserve during winter, (2) a reduction in lean weight during winter may lower daily energy requirements and increase the effective amount of energy reserves, and (3) declining body weights during late winter may be an endogenous rhythm that reflects a shift in the expected benefits of an energy reserve compared to the costs of carrying additional weight,

  18. Humid microclimates within the plumage of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) can potentially facilitate long distance dispersal of propagules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Neil E.; Kelly, Tom C.; Davenport, John; Jansen, Marcel A. K.

    2015-05-01

    Birds as carriers of propagules are major agents in the dispersal of plants, animals, fungi and microbes. However, there is a lack of empirical data in relation to bird-mediated, epizoochorous dispersal. The microclimate found within the plumage likely plays a pivotal role in survival during flight conditions. To investigate the potential of epizoochory, we have analysed the microclimatic conditions within the plumage of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Under similar ambient conditions of humidity and temperature, a sample of mallards showed a consistent microclimatic regime with variation across the body surface. The highest (mean) temperature and specific humidity occurred between feathers of the postpatagium. The lowest humidity was found between feathers of the centre back and the lowest temperature in the crissum. Observed differences in plumage depth and density, and distance from the skin, are all likely to be determining factors of microclimate condition. Specific humidity found within the plumage was on average 1.8-3.5 times greater than ambient specific humidity. Thus, the plumage can supply a microclimate buffered from that of the exterior environment. Extrapolating survival data for Lemna minor desiccation at various temperature and humidity levels to the measured plumage microclimatic conditions of living birds, survival for up to 6 h can be anticipated, especially in crissum, crural and breast plumage. The results are discussed in the context of potential long distance epizoochorous dispersal by A. platyrhynchos and similar species.

  19. Shell thinning and reproductive impairment in black ducks after cessation of DDE dosage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Stendell, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Captive black ducks (anas rubripes) were fed dietary DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] at 10 ppm (dry weight; about 2 ppm on a natural diet basis) for 2 breeding seasons, then untreated feed for 2 succeeding years. Residues of DDE in the carcasses of adults declined 90% during the 2-year clean-up period. Following 2 years of dietary DDE, mean residues in eggs reached 64.9 ppm. Even after 2 years on clean feed, DDE residues in the eggs averaged 6.2 ppm or 9.5% of the mean DDE level reached after 2 years on treated feed. Shells of eggs from treated hens were about 20% thinner than shells of eggs from controls. Stoppage of DDE dosage resulted in progressively thicker shells, yet even after 2 years on untreated feed hens laid eggs with shells about 10% thinner than control hens. After DDE was removed from the diet, DDE residues in the eggs decreased, shell thickness increased, and reproductive success improved. Hens previously exposed to DDE, but then fed clean feed for 2 years, still produced significantly fewer surviving ducklings than did control hens.

  20. Interspecific hybridization contributes to high genetic diversity and apparent effective population size in an endemic population of mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula maculosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeffrey L.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Lavretsky, Philip; Rezsutek, Michael; Johnson, William P.; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Under drift-mutation equilibrium, genetic diversity is expected to be correlated with effective population size (Ne). Changes in population size and gene flow are two important processes that can cause populations to deviate from this expected relationship. In this study, we used DNA sequences from six independent loci to examine the influence of these processes on standing genetic diversity in endemic mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) and geographically widespread mallards (A. platyrhynchos), two species known to hybridize. Mottled ducks have an estimated census size that is about two orders-of-magnitude smaller than that of mallards, yet these two species have similar levels of genetic diversity, especially at nuclear DNA. Coalescent analyses suggest that a population expansion in the mallard at least partly explains this discrepancy, but the mottled duck harbors higher genetic diversity and apparent N e than expected for its census size even after accounting for a population decline. Incorporating gene flow into the model, however, reduced the estimated Ne of mottled ducks to 33 % of the equilibrium Ne and yielded an estimated Ne consistent with census size. We also examined the utility of these loci to distinguish among mallards, mottled ducks, and their hybrids. Most putatively pure individuals were correctly assigned to species, but the power for detecting hybrids was low. Although hybridization with mallards potentially poses a conservation threat to mottled ducks by creating a risk of extinction by hybridization, introgression of mallard alleles has helped maintain high genetic diversity in mottled ducks and might be important for the adaptability and survival of this species.

  1. Toxicity of Prudhoe Bay crude oil to mallard duck (Anas Platyrhynchos) embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusimbo, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis examined the rates and timing of mortality and hatchability of mallard duck embryos that have been exposed to Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). The objective was to identify any pathological abnormalities that may suggest that the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a target organ of toxicity. The study involved the external application of PBCO to the eggshell to mimic the natural route of exposure. Embryo mortality was then determined at different days of incubation and the most sensitive age of incubation to oil was established. On the basis of initial results, the following 3 hypothesis were formulated: (1) the CAM is a target organ of oil toxicity, (2) injury to the CAM compromises its physiological role of calcium mobilization from the eggshell, and (3) oil exposure causes anemia and damage to red blood cells of mallard embryos. Data was compared with data reported in chicken embryos exposed to the same type of petroleum oil. It was shown that the toxic effects of PBCO to mallard duck embryos were similar to those found in chicken embryos. Oil-exposed embryos exhibited high mortality and reduced growth. Pathological changes in liver, kidneys and bursa of Fabricius, in oil-exposed mallard embryos were also similar to those of exposed chicken embryos. It was noted that this is the first study to recognize and describe pathological changes in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of avian embryos exposed to petroleum oil. Lesions in the CAM were found in areas right beneath the oil on the egg shell and in areas distant from any such direct contact, suggesting that direct contact with the oil was not the main cause of injury to the CAM. The occurrence of lesions in CAM were highest immediately following exposure to PBCO. The lesions observed suggest two different kids of toxic effects, lethal injury to cells in various tissues, and alteration in the timing of organ development. The author notes that more remains to be learned regarding the toxic effects of

  2. Toxicity of Prudhoe Bay crude oil to mallard duck (Anas Platyrhynchos) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusimbo, W.S.

    1999-09-30

    This thesis examined the rates and timing of mortality and hatchability of mallard duck embryos that have been exposed to Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). The objective was to identify any pathological abnormalities that may suggest that the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a target organ of toxicity. The study involved the external application of PBCO to the eggshell to mimic the natural route of exposure. Embryo mortality was then determined at different days of incubation and the most sensitive age of incubation to oil was established. On the basis of initial results, the following 3 hypothesis were formulated: (1) the CAM is a target organ of oil toxicity, (2) injury to the CAM compromises its physiological role of calcium mobilization from the eggshell, and (3) oil exposure causes anemia and damage to red blood cells of mallard embryos. Data was compared with data reported in chicken embryos exposed to the same type of petroleum oil. It was shown that the toxic effects of PBCO to mallard duck embryos were similar to those found in chicken embryos. Oil-exposed embryos exhibited high mortality and reduced growth. Pathological changes in liver, kidneys and bursa of Fabricius, in oil-exposed mallard embryos were also similar to those of exposed chicken embryos. It was noted that this is the first study to recognize and describe pathological changes in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of avian embryos exposed to petroleum oil. Lesions in the CAM were found in areas right beneath the oil on the egg shell and in areas distant from any such direct contact, suggesting that direct contact with the oil was not the main cause of injury to the CAM. The occurrence of lesions in CAM were highest immediately following exposure to PBCO. The lesions observed suggest two different kids of toxic effects, lethal injury to cells in various tissues, and alteration in the timing of organ development. The author notes that more remains to be learned regarding the toxic effects of

  3. Urocortin-like immunoreactivity in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Luca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Urocortin (UCN is a 40 aminoacid peptide which belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF family. This family of peptides stimulates the secretion of proopiomelanocortin (POMC-derived peptides, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, b-endorphin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH in the pituitary gland. In the present study, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, the distribution of UCN in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck was investigated at different ages. In the cloacal burse and thymus, Western blot demonstrated the presence of a peptide having a molecular weight compatible with that of the mammalian UCN. In the cloacal burse, immunoreactivity was located in the medullary epithelial cells and in the follicular associated and cortico-medullary epithelium. In the thymus, immunoreactivity was located in single epithelial cells. Double labelling immunofluorescence studies showed that UCN immunoreactivity completely colocalised with cytokeratin immunoreactivity in both the thymus and cloacal burse. Statistically significant differences in the percentage of UCN immunoreactivity were observed between different age periods in the cloacal burse. The results suggest that, in birds, urocortin has an important role in regulating the function of the immune system.

  4. Specific expression and promoter analysis of the albumin gene promoter of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Yu, Q; Huang, Z; Wang, B; Xu, Q; Lan, L; Chang, G; Zhang, Y; Chen, G

    2017-02-01

    1. Albumin (ALB) is a serum protein most highly expressed in liver and regarded as an effective indicator for liver pathologies. The objectives of this study were to determine the expression of duck ALB gene (duALB) in various non-hepatic tissues and identify the potential cis-regulatory elements in the promoter. 2. A model was established to assess duALB promoter activity in different cell lines by construction of a duALB promoter-driven GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein)-expressing vector, which exhibited high expression activity in liver-derived cells and lower expression in other cells. Through the firefly luciferase reporter gene driven by a series of constructs carrying progressive deletions, the core transcriptional regulatory region within the duALB promoter was identified. Mutations in candidate-binding sites were made by site-directed mutagenesis. 3. The core transcriptional regulatory region was located in the -190/-51 bp region. This region contains three potential transcription factor-binding sites, one each for hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF-3β) (-158/-149), CCAAT/Enhancer-binding protein element (C/EBPα) (-119/-107) and nuclear factor-1 (HNF-1) (-67/-57). Site-directed mutagenesis of HNF-1 and C/EBPα-binding sites resulted in a significant reduction in duALB promoter activity. Two potential cis-regulatory elements (C/EBPα and HNF-1) were responsible for its transcriptional activity in liver-derived cells. 4. These findings contribute to the further understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of ALB gene regulation and the use of tissue-specific gene promoters to regulate tissue-specific expression of exogenous genes in vivo.

  5. Light and electron microscopic study of mature spermatozoa from White Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos): an ultrastructural and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Kumar, Pradeep; Maity, Apratim; Giri, Sunil C; Goswami, Chandan

    2016-03-01

    The morphology, ultrastructure, and functions of mature avian spermatozoa have been of immense commercial and scientific interest for several reasons. This is mainly important in case of birds in poultry production, conservation, and in the use of sperm morphometry as phylogenetic evidence. Avian spermatozoa share complex or no correlation of sperm morphometry with respect to testis and/or body size as described before. In this work, we have isolated mature spermatozoa from White Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos) by non-invasive methods and performed several immunostaining analysis as well as cytochemical analysis using electron and light microscopes. Here, we report the presence of different post-translationally modified tubulin such as tyrosinated-, detyrosinated-, acetylated-, polyglutamylated-, and glycylated-tubulin in specific regions of the mature spermatozoa. By using field-emission scanning electron microscope, we confirm the presence of acrosome-like structure at the tip of the sperm head. However, this structure remains non-reactive to common lectins such as Peanut Agglutinin (PNA) and cholesterol-sensitive dyes such as Filipin. We report that this acrosomal structure is primarily made of lipid-based structures and is resistant to 0.1% Triton X100. Confocal microscopy and super resolution structured illumination microscopy study indicates that the nucleus is bifurcated at the tip region. By using specific markers, we report that the perforatorium structure present at the tip of the spermatozoa head contains specialized organelles that is similar to atypical mitochondria. We propose that these ultrastructural and molecular parameters can be used as species-specific features. The bifurcated nucleus and presence of atypical mitochondria within this structure may be relevant for the complex mitochondrial inheritance and mitochondrial heteroplasmy observed in case of avian population. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; McKernan, Moira A.; Eisenreich, Karen M.; Link, William A.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Hoffman, David J.; Knowles, K.A.; McGowan, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was lympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 μg/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 μg/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 μg/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney (<5 μg/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  7. Acidification of experimental wetlands: Effects on wetland productivity and survival of juvenile black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Chu, D.S.; Bunck, C.M.; Mingo, T.M.; Schaffner, W.W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Six man-made wetlands (0.02 ha each) and pen-reared broods of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were used to assess the effects of reduced pH on the quality of fish- free, palustrine habitat for brood rearing. Acid treatment was assigned randomly among newly constructed wetlands during April through June 1984-85, to simulate depressed pH from snowmelt and spring rain. Sampling of chlorophyll epiphytic growth, zooplankton and macroinvertebrates confirmed reduced productivity of acidified (pH 5.0) versus control (pH 6.8) wetlands. Primary productivity was particularly reduced in acidified wetlands in early spring as indicated by high water transparency and low chlorophyll a concentrations. Chlrophyll a concentrations showed treatment (p = 0.01) and date (p = 0.05) effects, but no interaction, and dry weight of epiphytic growth was lower (p = 0.03) in acidified versus control wetlands. Numbers of zooplankton were similar in experimental wetlands, although controls generally exceeded acidified wetlands in abundance; only a single treatment effect for cladocerans (p = 0.1) was detected. Sweep net samples yielded greater numbers (p = 0.03), taxa (p = 0.01) and biomass (p = 0.07) of macroinvertebrates in control wetlands with gastropods, pelecypods and leeches notably reduced by acidification. Placement of 18 broods (female with four 10-day-old ducklings) for 10-day trials on experimental wetlands revealed limited growth, altered behaviour and marked reduction in survival of ducklings on acidified wetlands. An inadequate number of invertebrates is indicated as the cause for poor duckling productivity on acidified wetlands

  8. Comparison of fertility and embryo mortality following artificial insemination of common duck females (Anas Platyrhynchos) with semen from common or Muscovy (Cairina Moschata) drakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, Nadine; Brun, Jean-Michel; Richard, Marie-Madeleine; Batellier, Florence; Dupuy, Vincent; Brillard, Jean-Pierre

    2005-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare fertility and early embryo mortality rates (duck females (Anas Platyrhynchos) with semen from either common or Muscovy (Cairina Moschata) drakes at various periods of the reproductive season (Period I, 27-35 weeks; Period II, 39-43 weeks and Period III, 49-56 weeks). Based on observations performed by stereomicroscopy on eggs laid from Days 2 to 10 after AI, we confirmed that fertility was significantly lower in the interbred compared to the purebred cross at each of the periods tested (purebred 58.1, 61.2 and 54.2 versus crossbred 31.0, 40.4 and 39.5 at Periods I, II and II, respectively; 0.01 mortality (EEM) between mule and common duck eggs indicated that increased levels of EEM in mule embryos corresponded to Stages II-IV of the Eyal-Giladi and Kochav classification (EGK). While a similar age-dependent increase in early embryo mortality was observed in eggs from both genetic origins during the latter periods of the reproductive season, it was also established that embryo mortality due to parental age was related rather to Stages X-XIV of the EGK classification in eggs from both genetic origins. It is concluded that the relative subfertility of mule compared to common duck eggs is probably the consequence of a more intense rate of selection of heterologous than homologous spermatozoa occurring in the vaginal portion of the oviduct while the causal origins of EEM in mule duck eggs can at least in part be identified on the basis of precise staging (by stereomicroscopy) of dead embryos.

  9. An empirical evaluation of landscape energetic models: Mallard and American black duck space use during the non-breeding period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Naylor, Luke W.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.; Coluccy, John M.; Soulliere, G.

    2015-01-01

    Bird conservation Joint Ventures are collaborative partnerships between public agencies and private organizations that facilitate habitat management to support waterfowl and other bird populations. A subset of Joint Ventures has developed energetic carrying capacity models (ECCs) to translate regional waterfowl population goals into habitat objectives during the non-breeding period. Energetic carrying capacity models consider food biomass, metabolism, and available habitat to estimate waterfowl carrying capacity within an area. To evaluate Joint Venture ECCs in the context of waterfowl space use, we monitored 33 female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 55 female American black ducks (A. rubripes) using global positioning system satellite telemetry in the central and eastern United States. To quantify space use, we measured first-passage time (FPT: time required for an individual to transit across a circle of a given radius) at biologically relevant spatial scales for mallards (3.46 km) and American black ducks (2.30 km) during the non-breeding period, which included autumn migration, winter, and spring migration. We developed a series of models to predict FPT using Joint Venture ECCs and compared them to a biological null model that quantified habitat composition and a statistical null model, which included intercept and random terms. Energetic carrying capacity models predicted mallard space use more efficiently during autumn and spring migrations, but the statistical null was the top model for winter. For American black ducks, ECCs did not improve predictions of space use; the biological null was top ranked for winter and the statistical null was top ranked for spring migration. Thus, ECCs provided limited insight into predicting waterfowl space use during the non-breeding season. Refined estimates of spatial and temporal variation in food abundance, habitat conditions, and anthropogenic disturbance will likely improve ECCs and benefit conservation planners

  10. Mortality in Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) by emaciation complicated by Echinuria uncinata on Laysan Island, Hawaii, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2004-01-01

    In November 1993, unusual mortality occurred among endangered Laysan ducks on Laysan Island, one of the remote refugia of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge (USA). Ten live ducks were emaciated, and blood samples documented anemia, heterophilia, and eosinophilia. Pathology in 13 duck carcasses revealed emaciation, marked thickening of the proventricular wall, abundant mucus, and nodules in the gastrointestinal tract. Histology revealed granulomata associated with nematodes in the proventriculus, small intestines, and body walls of nine of 10 ducks examined on histology. We suspect that low rainfall and low food abundance that year contributed to enhanced pathogenicity of parasite infection, either through increased exposure or decreased host resistance. Because the Laysan duck is found only on Laysan island and is critically endangered, translocation of this species to other islands is being considered. Given that we have not seen pathology associated with Echinuria spp. in native waterfowl on other Hawaiian Islands and given the parasite's potential to cause significant lesions in Laysan ducks, it will be important to prevent the translocation of Echinuria spp.

  11. Cadmium and lead in tissues of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) using the Illinois River (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levengood, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Tissue lead and cadmium concentrations were examined in two common, widely distributed species of duck, utilizing a major river system. - Cadmium and lead concentrations were determined in the tissues of Mallards and Wood Ducks collected from two waterfowl management areas along the Illinois River, USA, during the autumn and late winter of 1997-1998. Lead concentrations in livers of Mallards were lower than previously reported, and, along with those in a small sample of Wood Duck livers, were within background levels (<2.0 μg/g wet weight). Mean concentrations of cadmium in the kidneys of Wood Ducks utilizing the Illinois River were four times greater than in after-hatch-year Mallards, and 14 times greater than in hatch-year Mallards. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidneys of Wood Ducks were comparable with those of specimens dosed with cadmium or inhabiting contaminated areas in previous studies. Wood Ducks utilizing wetlands associated with the Illinois River, and presumably other portions of the lower Great Lakes region, may be chronically exposed to cadmium

  12. THE USE OF Pomacea canaliculata SNAILS IN FEED TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF ALABIO DUCK (Anas plathyrinchos Borneo MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Subhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments  included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.

  13. Characterization of 35 novel microsatellite DNA markers from the duck (Anas platyrhynchos genome and cross-amplification in other birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ke

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study duck microsatellites, we constructed a library enriched for (CAn, (CAGn, (GCCn and (TTTCn. A total of 35 pairs of primers from these microsatellites were developed and used to detect polymorphisms in 31 unrelated Peking ducks. Twenty-eight loci were polymorphic and seven loci were monomorphic. A total of 117 alleles were observed from these polymorphic microsatellite markers, which ranged from 2 to 14 with an average of 4.18 per locus. The frequencies of the 117 alleles ranged from 0.02 to 0.98. The highest heterozygosity (0.97 was observed at the CAUD019 microsatellite locus and the lowest heterozygosity (0.04 at the CAUD008 locus, and 11 loci had heterozygosities greater than 0.50 (46.43%. The polymorphism information content (PIC of 28 loci ranged from 0.04 to 0.88 with an average of 0.42. All the above markers were used to screen the polymorphism in other bird species. Two markers produced specific monomorphic products with the chicken DNA. Fourteen markers generated specific fragments with the goose DNA: 5 were polymorphic and 9 were monomorphic. But no specific product was detected with the peacock DNA. Based on sequence comparisons of the flanking sequence and repeat, we conclude that 2 chicken loci and 14 goose loci were true homologous loci of the duck loci. The microsatellite markers identified and characterized in the present study will contribute to the genetic map, quantitative traits mapping, and phylogenetic analysis in the duck and goose.

  14. Gait in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos and chickens (Gallus gallus – similarities in adaptation to high growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Duggan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for increased growth rate and muscle mass in broiler chickens has been accompanied by mobility issues and poor gait. There are concerns that the Pekin duck, which is on a similar selection trajectory (for production traits to the broiler chicken, may encounter gait problems in the future. In order to understand how gait has been altered by selection, the walking ability of divergent lines of high- and low-growth chickens and ducks was objectively measured using a pressure platform, which recorded various components of their gait. In both species, lines which had been selected for large breast muscle mass moved at a slower velocity and with a greater step width than their lighter conspecifics. These high-growth lines also spent more time supported by two feet in order to improve balance when compared with their lighter, low-growth conspecifics. We demonstrate that chicken and duck lines which have been subjected to intense selection for high growth rates and meat yields have adapted their gait in similar ways. A greater understanding of which components of gait have been altered in selected lines with impaired walking ability may lead to more effective breeding strategies to improve gait in poultry.

  15. Linking Canadian Harvested Juvenile American Black Ducks to Their Natal Areas Using Stable Isotope (δD, δ13C, and δ15N Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ashley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding source-sink dynamics of game birds is essential to harvest and habitat management but acquiring this information is often logistically and financially challenging using traditional methods of population surveys and banding studies. This is especially true for species such as the American Black Duck (Anas rubripes, which have low breeding densities and extensive breeding ranges that necessitate extensive surveys and banding programs across eastern North America. Despite this effort, the contribution of birds fledged from various landscapes and habitat types within specific breeding ranges to regional harvest is largely unknown but remains an important consideration in adaptive harvest management and targeted habitat conservation strategies. We investigated if stable isotope (δD, δ13C, δ15N could augment our present understanding of connectivity between breeding and harvest areas and so provide information relevant to the two main management strategies for black ducks, harvest and habitat management. We obtained specimens from 200 hatch-year Black Duck wings submitted to the Canadian Wildlife Service Species Composition Survey. Samples were obtained from birds harvested in Western, Central, and Eastern breeding/harvest subregions to provide a sample representative of the range and harvest rate of birds harvested in Canada. We sampled only hatch-year birds to provide an unambiguous and direct link between production and harvest areas. Marine origins were assigned to 12%, 7%, and 5% of birds harvested in the Eastern, Central, and Western subregions, respectively. In contrast, 32%, 9%, and 5% of birds were assigned, respectively, to agricultural origins. All remaining birds were assigned to nonagricultural origins. We portrayed probability of origin using a combination of Bayesian statistical and GIS methods. Placement of most eastern birds was western Nova Scotia, eastern New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and southern

  16. Differences in the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in feather samples from 4-week-old and 24-week-old infected Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Roberta; Beato, Maria Serena; Mancin, Marzia; Rigoni, Michela; Tejeda, Aurora Romero; Maniero, Silvia; Capua, Ilaria; Terregino, Calogero

    2013-08-30

    Previous studies have reported the detection of H5N1 HPAI virus in feathers from ducks naturally and experimentally infected and suggested that feather calami (FC) could be used as diagnostic samples for the early detection of H5N1 HPAI infections. Ducks are readily infected with H5N1 HPAI viruses although the development of clinical signs and deaths were reported as age-related with younger birds being more susceptible. The correlation between age and virus localisation in FC of infected ducks has not been studied to date. In the present study juvenile (4-week-old) and adult (24-week-old) Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica) were infected experimentally with a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI virus (A/duck/Nigeria/1071-23/2007). Tracheal (Tr) and cloacal (Cl) swabs and FC were collected at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post infection and tested by RRT-PCR and a double antibody sandwich-ELISA (DAS-ELISA) developed in house. Virus was detected in swabs and FC of challenged ducks with a higher rate of detection in juvenile ducks. In this age group virus was detected over a longer period of time in FC compared to swabs. Our study showed that FC samples collected from young ducks are a valid diagnostic specimen for H5N1 HPAI virus detection. The DAS-ELISA on FC proved to be a suitable alternative diagnostic test when molecular and/or virus isolation techniques are not available therefore it could be useful in the diagnosis of H5N1 HPAI infections in under-resourced countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intra and extra hepathic biliary ducts of ducks (Anas boscas Vias biliares intra e extra-hepáticas de marreco-de-pequim (Anas boscas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Cezar Borges de Aquino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A study in 38 liver of adults ducks from Jundiaí, state of São Paulo, was developed. After injection of Neoprene latex 650 colored by green and fixation in aqueous 10% formalin, the material was dissected under dental loupe, photographed and sketched. The intra hepatic bile ducts of the left lobe showed up in 76.3% the samples consisting of three collecting ducts bile; and 23.7% of the cases, there was the presence of one collector originated from caudal segment, draining to the hepatic duodenal duct. In the right lobe, in 100% of samples, were four collecting duct segments: cranium medial superficial, cranium medial deep, lateral and caudal (ventral caudal. With regard to biliary extra hepatic in 36 samples(94.7% it was composed of three ducts visible in hepatic hilum: hepatic duodenal, hepatic cystic and cystic duodenal. In two samples (5.3% was not observed hepatic cystic duct. The hepatic duodenal ductand cystic duodenal duct in 100% of the samples, they reached the duodenum. In six samples (15.8 %, besides the hepatic cystic duct, the gallbladder was achieved directly by bile collecting ducts of the right lobe. The gallbladder was not achieved by hepatic cystic duct in two samples (5.3 %. As vias biliares intra e extra-hepáticas de 38 marrecos-de-pequim adultos, provenientes de Jundiaí,estado de São Paulo, após injeção de Neoprene Látex 650 corado de verde e fixação em solução aquosa de formol a 10%, foram dissecados sob lupa odontológica, fotografados e desenhados esquematicamente. A via biliar intra-hepática no lobo esquerdo mostrou-se constituída por três ductos coletores biliares em 76,3% das amostras e, em 23,7% dos casos, está presente um quarto coletor, originado no segmentocaudal, drenando para o ducto hepatoduodenal. No lobo direito, em 100% das amostras ocorreram quatro ductos coletores dos segmentos craniomedial superficial, craniomedial profundo, lateral e caudal (ventrocaudal. No que se refere à via biliar

  18. Bacteriocin production of Lactobacillus sp. from intestines of ducks (Anas domesticus L.) incubated at room temperature and antibacterial effectivity against pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfani, Nurfitri; Nur, Fatmawati; Hafsan, Azrianingsih, Rodiyati

    2017-05-01

    Bacteriocin is a peptide that is easily degraded by proteolytic enzymes in the digestive systems of animals, including humans. It has antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. Lactobacillus sp. is one type of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that occupies the intestines of ducks (Anas domesticus L.). The purpose of this research was to determine the optimum time of the highest protein production by Lactobacillus sp. and to determine inhibitory activity of bacteriocin against pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Using the Bradford method, the results showed that the optimum time of highest bacteriocin production was after 36 hours of incubation, with a protein content of 0.93 mg/ml. The bacteriocin inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli showed that a protein concentration of 30% gave a maximum inhibition index of 1.1 mm, while for Staphylococcus aureus, a concentration of 70% gave a maximum inhibition index of 0.3 mm. Further research is required to determine the stationary state of bacteriocin production in this circumstance.

  19. Duration of fertility and hatchability of the common duck (Anas platyrhynchos) in pure- or crossbreeding with Muscovy drakes (Cairina moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, J-M; Mialon-Richard, M-M; Sellier, N; Batellier, F; Brillard, J-P

    2008-05-01

    A total of 540 common duck dams were used for a comparison of duration of fertility and hatchability between eggs issued from common dams inseminated with sperm (175 x 10(6) dose(-1)) from either common (pure-breeding or PB) or Muscovy (crossbreeding or CB) drakes. Artificial inseminations (AI) were performed at 3 periods of the reproductive season (27-35, 39-43 and 49-56 weeks) with 2 alternate inseminations/period at 3-week intervals (one with semen from common and the other from Muscovy). Fertility was estimated from egg candling while early embryo mortality (EEM), medium embryo mortality (MEM) and late embryo mortality (LEM) was estimated on Days 0-6 (PB+CB), Days 7-25 (PB) or Day 28 (CB) of incubation, and after, respectively. Overall fertility from Days 2-12 after AI was 61.1% in PB and 42.8% in CB. The maximum duration of fertility (time interval between AI and last fertile egg) was 8.1 days in PB versus 6.4 days in CB (pincrease in EEM and MEM was observed in both types of eggs at and after 50 weeks of age. An increase in EEM (regardless of dam's age) and in MEM (only in the oldest females) was observed with sperm storage duration. Sex ratio at hatching (49.2% males in PB vs. 53.0% in CB) was particularly unbalanced on the first fertile day (54.7% and 57.1%, respectively).

  20. Development of endothermy and concomitant increases in cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in the precocial Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsat, Sarah K G; Sirsat, Tushar S; Faber, Alan; Duquaine, Allison; Winnick, Sarah; Sotherland, Paul R; Dzialowski, Edward M

    2016-04-15

    Attaining endothermic homeothermy occurs at different times post-hatching in birds and is associated with maturation of metabolic and aerobic capacity. Simultaneous measurements at the organism, organ and cellular levels during the transition to endothermy reveal means by which this change in phenotype occurs. We examined development of endothermy in precocial Pekin ducks ( ITALIC! Anas platyrhynchos domestica) by measuring whole-animal O2consumption ( ITALIC! V̇O2 ) as animals cooled from 35 to 15°C. We measured heart ventricle mass, an indicator of O2delivery capacity, and mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized skeletal and cardiac muscle to elucidate associated changes in mitochondrial capacities at the cellular level. We examined animals on day 24 of incubation through 7 days post-hatching. ITALIC! V̇O2  of embryos decreased when cooling from 35 to 15°C; ITALIC! V̇O2  of hatchlings, beginning on day 0 post-hatching, increased during cooling with a lower critical temperature of 32°C. Yolk-free body mass did not change between internal pipping and hatching, but the heart and thigh skeletal muscle grew at faster rates than the rest of the body as the animals transitioned from an externally pipped paranate to a hatchling. Large changes in oxidative phosphorylation capacity occurred during ontogeny in both thigh muscles, the primary site of shivering, and cardiac ventricles. Thus, increased metabolic capacity necessary to attain endothermy was associated with augmented metabolic capacity of the tissue and augmented increasing O2delivery capacity, both of which were attained rapidly at hatching. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Intermittent feeding in a migratory omnivore: Digestion and body composition of American Black Duck during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, Dennis G.

    2001-01-01

    Birds fast intermittently during weather disturbances and migration. We tested responses of black duck to lost feeding days during autumn mass gain. Nine adult males were fed a pelleted diet (1.5% fat, 15.8% protein, and 18.3% neutral detergent fiber) and caged indoors during September and October (12 h light; 17? -24? C) to measure balances over 14 d when fed ad lib. each day and fasted intermittently for 2 d wk-1 (short fast) or 4 d wk-1 (long fast). Body mass (1,081 g), body water content, and metabolizable intakes of energy and protein were maintained as daily intakes of dry matter increased to 1.65 (short fast) and 2.35 (long fast) times the unfasted level. Intermittent feeding reduced metabolizability of dry matter, energy, protein, and acid detergent fiber. Concentrations of Mn provided similar estimates of metabolizability to direct measures in unfasted birds but underestimated measures of birds on long fasts. Fasting regimes continued outdoors for 9 wk when temperatures declined to -9? C. Birds on short fasts were heavier (1,373 vs. 1,241 g) and fatter (159 vs. 58 g) than those on long fasts, while body water (894 g) and protein (316 g) were similar between groups after 5 wk. Birds on long fasts subsequently gained mass when fed daily, but those on short fasts lost mass when fed each day. Omnivorous waterfowl combine ingestive and digestive flexibility with plasticity of body lipid to contend with uncertain food availability.

  2. Infection studies with two highly pathogenic avian influenza strains (Vietnamese and Indonesian) in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), with particular reference to clinical disease, tissue tropism and viral shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, John; Green, Diane J; Lowther, Sue; Klippel, Jessica; Burggraaf, Simon; Anderson, Danielle E; Wibawa, Hendra; Hoa, Dong Manh; Long, Ngo Thanh; Vu, Pham Phong; Middleton, Deborah J; Daniels, Peter W

    2009-08-01

    Pekin ducks were infected by the mucosal route (oral, nasal, ocular) with one of two strains of Eurasian lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus: A/Muscovy duck/Vietnam/453/2004 and A/duck/Indramayu/BBVW/109/2006 (from Indonesia). Ducks were killed humanely on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 after challenge, or whenever morbidity was severe enough to justify euthanasia. Morbidity was recorded by observation of clinical signs and cloacal temperatures; the disease was characterized by histopathology; tissue tropism was studied by immunohistochemistry and virus titration on tissue samples; and viral shedding patterns were determined by virus isolation and titration of oral and cloacal swabs. The Vietnamese strain caused severe morbidity with fever and depression; the Indonesian strain caused only transient fever. Both viruses had a predilection for a similar range of tissue types, but the quantity of tissue antigen and tissue virus titres were considerably higher with the Vietnamese strain. The Vietnamese strain caused severe myocarditis and skeletal myositis; both strains caused non-suppurative encephalitis and a range of other inflammatory reactions of varying severity. The principal epithelial tissue infected was that of the air sacs, but antigen was not abundant. Epithelium of the turbinates, trachea and bronchi had only rare infection with virus. Virus was shed from both the oral and cloacal routes; it was first detected 24 h after challenge and persisted until day 5 after challenge. The higher prevalence of virus from swabs from ducks infected with the Vietnamese strain indicates that this strain may be more adapted to ducks than the Indonesia strain.

  3. The effect of age on the pathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally

    OpenAIRE

    L?ndt, Brandon Z.; N??ez, Alejandro.; Banks, Jill; Alexander, Dennis J.; Russell, Christine; Richard? L?ndt, Angela C.; Brown, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Background? Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have recently displayed increased virulence for wild waterfowl. Objectives? To study the effect of host age on the shedding and tissue dissemination of a HPAI H5N1 virus in infected Pekin ducks. Methods? Pekin ducks in two age?matched groups (n?=?18), 8 and 12?weeks old (wo) were each infected with 106 EID50/0?1?ml of HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, clade 2?2). Each day for 5?days, birds were monitored clinically, and cloacal ...

  4. Susceptibility of Muscovy (Cairina Moschata) and mallard ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos) to experimental infections by different genotypes of H5N1 avian influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phuong, Do Quy; Dung, Nguyen Tien; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2011-01-01

    It is a fact that in Viet Nam, Muscovy ducks are raised in large populations (approximately 8 million), usually kept in small flocks together with mallards and chickens. As a result, it is a great concern for epidemiologists to elucidate possible differences in relation to these species being...

  5. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of C/EBP α, β and δ in adipose-related tissues and adipocyte of duck (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiamin; Wang, Wanxia; Hu, Shenqiang; Wang, Yushi; Sun, Wenqiang; Hu, Jiwei; Wang, Jiwen

    2018-04-20

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, β, δ (C/EBP α, β, δ) are essential transcriptional factors in regulating adipose development. However, information about their sequence characteristics and functions during adipocyte development still remains scarce in birds. In present study, we found that duck C/EBP α, β, δ differed in their phosphorylation sites and low complexity regions (LCRs) among their orthologs and paralogs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that C/EBP α, β, δ had different evolutionary patterns, and each of duck C/EBP α, β, δ was strikingly diverged from orthologs of other Aves. Results of quantitative real-time PCR exhibited that C/EBP α, β, δ were all highly expressed in duck adipose tissues. Indeed, investigations of changes in both their mRNA levels and lipid droplet content during duck adipocytes differentiation showed that their expression profiles were closely related to cellular lipid accumulation. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering analysis of the C/EBPs and lipid metabolism-related genes expression profiles showed that C/EBP α was clustered with genes related to lipolysis, lipogenesis and fatty acid desaturation, whereas C/EBP β, δ were clustered with genes related to de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid elongation, which were different from mammals. In summary, C/EBP α, β, δ of duck differ from other species in their structures and have different effects on lipid metabolism during adipocytes differentiation. This research serve as a foundation for further investigations about avian C/EBP α, β, δ in adipocytes differentiation and adipose development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Aluminum and acid effects on calcium and phosphorus metabolism in young growing chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevielle, M C; Hart, L E; Goff, J; Scanes, C G

    1998-07-01

    Acidification is associated with increased mortality, reduced growth, and bone abnormalities in birds. Associated with acid deposition is an increase in aluminum availability due to solubilization from soil and other sources. (Conversely, experimental diets containing aluminum sulfate have much reduced pHs.) The present studies compare the effects of two levels of dietary acid (sulfuric acid) (0.122 and 0.56 mol H+ per kg feed; 0.056 and 0.277 mol sulfate per kg feed) and dietary aluminum (aluminum sulfate at 0.1 and 0.5%; sulfate at 0. 056 and 0.277 mol sulfate per kg feed) on bone growth, mineralization, and phosphorous/calcium homeostasis in growing birds (chickens and mallard ducks). Growth was reduced by the high acid (chicken) and aluminum (ducks and chickens) diets. A reduction in bone mineralization was observed in birds receiving aluminum-containing diets [low aluminum diet: decreased tibia ash, calcium, and phosphorus (chickens); high aluminum diet: decreased tibia dry weight, % of ash and mg; ash, calcium (chickens, ducks as % of ash), and phosphorus (chickens mg/duck, % of ash)]. Moreover, plasma concentrations of inorganic phosphate were reduced in chicks on the high aluminum diet. There were also marked decreases in bone growth and mineralization [tibia weight, ash (mg), calcium (mg), phosphorus (mg)] and plasma concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 in chicks on the high acid diet compared to those on a control diet. These changes were probably due to reduced feed intake; changes in bone indices being of a greater or similar magnitude in pairfed control. There was little change in bone indices, growth rate or feed consumption in ducklings receiving either the low or high acid diets. It is concluded that aluminum directly adversely affected bone mineralization whereas acid effects are mediated in part by changes in feed consumption.

  7. The effect of age on the pathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndt, Brandon Z.; Núñez, Alejandro.; Banks, Jill; Alexander, Dennis J.; Russell, Christine; Richard‐ Löndt, Angela C.; Brown, Ian H.

    2009-01-01

    Background  Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have recently displayed increased virulence for wild waterfowl. Objectives  To study the effect of host age on the shedding and tissue dissemination of a HPAI H5N1 virus in infected Pekin ducks. Methods  Pekin ducks in two age‐matched groups (n = 18), 8 and 12 weeks old (wo) were each infected with 106 EID50/0·1 ml of HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, clade 2·2). Each day for 5 days, birds were monitored clinically, and cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs collected, before three birds from each group were selected randomly for post‐mortem examination. Tissue samples were collected for examination by real‐time RT‐PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results  Severe clinical signs, including incoordination and torticollis were observed in the 8 wo group resulting in 100% mortality by 4 dpi. Mild clinical signs were observed in the 12 wo group with no mortality. Real‐time RT‐PCR and IHC results demonstrated the systemic spread of H5N1 virus in birds of both age groups. Higher levels of virus shedding were detected in oropharyngeal swabs than in cloacal swabs, with similar levels of shedding detected in both age groups. Variations in level and temporal dissemination of virus within tissues of older ducks, and the presence of the virus in brain and heart were observed, which coincided with the appearance of clinical signs preceding death in younger birds. Conclusions  These results are consistent with reports of natural infections of wild waterfowl and poultry possibly indicating an age‐related association with dissemination and clinical outcome in ducks following infection with H5N1 HPAI virus. PMID:20021503

  8. Pathogenesis of highly pathogenic avian influenza A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 H5N1 in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndt, Brandon Z; Nunez, Alejandro; Banks, Jill; Nili, Hassan; Johnson, Linda K; Alexander, Dennis J

    2008-12-01

    Asian H5N1 (hereafter referred to as panzootic H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused large numbers of deaths in both poultry and wild-bird populations. Recent isolates of this virus have been reported to cause disease and death in commercial ducks, which has not been seen with other HPAI viruses. However, little is known about either the dissemination of this H5N1 within the organs or the cause of death in infected ducks. Nineteen 4-week-old Pekin ducks were infected with 10(6.7) median egg infectious doses of HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, clade 2.2) in 0.1ml via the intranasal and intraocular routes. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were taken daily before three animals were selected randomly and killed humanely for postmortem examination, when samples of tissues were taken for real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry. Clinical signs were first observed 4 days post infection (d.p.i.) and included depression, reluctance to feed, in-coordination and torticollis resulting in the death of all the birds remaining on 5d.p.i. Higher levels of virus shedding were detected from oropharyngeal swabs than from cloacal swabs. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry identified peak levels of virus at 2d.p.i. in several organs. In the spleen, lung, kidney, caecal tonsils, breast muscle and thigh muscle the levels were greatly reduced at 3d.p.i. However, the highest viral loads were detected in the heart and brain from 3d.p.i. and coincided with the appearance of clinical signs and death. Our experimental results demonstrate the systemic spread of this HPAI H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks, and the localization of virus in the brain and heart tissue preceding death.

  9. The effect of age on the pathogenesis of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndt, Brandon Z; Núñez, Alejandro; Banks, Jill; Alexander, Dennis J; Russell, Christine; Richard-Löndt, Angela C; Brown, Ian H

    2010-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have recently displayed increased virulence for wild waterfowl. To study the effect of host age on the shedding and tissue dissemination of a HPAI H5N1 virus in infected Pekin ducks. Pekin ducks in two age-matched groups (n = 18), 8 and 12 weeks old (wo) were each infected with 10(6) EID(50)/0.1 ml of HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, clade 2.2). Each day for 5 days, birds were monitored clinically, and cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs collected, before three birds from each group were selected randomly for post-mortem examination. Tissue samples were collected for examination by real-time RT-PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Severe clinical signs, including incoordination and torticollis were observed in the 8 wo group resulting in 100% mortality by 4 dpi. Mild clinical signs were observed in the 12 wo group with no mortality. Real-time RT-PCR and IHC results demonstrated the systemic spread of H5N1 virus in birds of both age groups. Higher levels of virus shedding were detected in oropharyngeal swabs than in cloacal swabs, with similar levels of shedding detected in both age groups. Variations in level and temporal dissemination of virus within tissues of older ducks, and the presence of the virus in brain and heart were observed, which coincided with the appearance of clinical signs preceding death in younger birds. These results are consistent with reports of natural infections of wild waterfowl and poultry possibly indicating an age-related association with dissemination and clinical outcome in ducks following infection with H5N1 HPAI virus.

  10. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from the feet of Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) as affected by acid, alkaline, and enzyme pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedinia, Ahmadreza; Ariffin, Fazilah; Huda, Nurul; Nafchi, Abdorreza Mohammadi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of different pretreatments on yield and composition of extraction, physicochemical, and rheological properties of duck feet gelatin (DFG) were investigated. Gelatins were extracted from the whole feet of Pekin duck with an average yield of 4.09%, 3.65%, and 5.75% for acidic (Ac-DFG), alkaline (Al-DFG), and enzymatic (En-DFG) pretreatment on a wet weight basis, respectively. Proteins at 81.38%, 79.41%, 82.55%, and 87.38% were the major composition for Ac-DFG, Al-DFG, En-DFG, and bovine, respectively. Amino acid analysis showed glycine as the predominant amino acid in Ac-DFG, followed by hydroxyproline, proline, and alanine for Ac-DFG, Al-DFG, and En-DFG, respectively. Rheological analysis indicated that the maximum elastic modulus (9972.25Pa) and loss modulus (4956.28Pa) for Ac-DFG gelatin were significantly higher than those of other gelatins. Extracted gelatins contained α 1 and α 2 chains as the predominant components, and enzymatic gelatin had low molecular weight peptides. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the peak of the gelatins was mainly positioned in the amide band region (amides I, II, and III). A considerable loss of molecular-order triple helical structure was also observed after pepsin treatment. In summary, duck feet gelatin has potential to replace as mammalian gelatin in food and pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Emprego da microscopia eletrônica na avaliação pós-vacinal de epitélio traqueal de patos (Anas platyrhynchos imunizados contra a doença de Newcastle The use of scanning electron microscopy in post-vaccinal evaluation of tracheal epithelium in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos imunized against Newcastle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Franzo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o emprego da microscopia eletrônica de varredura no estudo da reação respiratória pós-vacinal em epitélio traqueal de patos (Anas platyrhynchos imunizados contra a doença de Newcastle. Foram utilizadas 48 aves, distribuídas em quatro grupos: T1 - grupo de aves-controle (não vacinadas, T2 - grupo de aves vacinadas com a estirpe Ulster 2C, T3 - grupo de aves vacinadas com a estirpe B1 e T4 - grupo de aves vacinadas com a estirpe LaSota. Independente do grupo experimental, as aves não apresentaram sinais clínicos detectáveis de reação respiratória pós-vacinal. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura, observou-se que os animais vacinados com as estirpes B1 e LaSota desenvolveram descamação epitelial da traqueia, enquanto os vacinados com a estirpe Ulster 2C não, mostrando um epitélio traqueal íntegro, semelhante ao do grupo-controle. Os patos vacinados com a estirpe B1 mostraram evidências de regeneração epitelial da traqueia decorridos 21 dias pós-vacinação, o que não ocorreu com os vacinados com a amostra LaSota.Scanning electron microscopy was used in the study of the post-vaccinal respiratory reaction of the tracheal epithelium of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos immunized against Newcastle disease. Forty-eight ducks were distributed into four groups: T1 - control birds (non-vaccinated; T2 - birds vaccinated with Ulster 2C strain; t3 - birds vaccinated with B1 strain; and t4 - birds vaccinated with LaSota strain. Regardless the experimental group, birds did not show detectable clinical signs of post-vaccinal respiratory reaction. Scanning electron microscopy showed that birds vaccinated with B1 and LaSota strains developed epithelial sloughing of the trachea, whereas those vaccinated with Ulster 2C strain did not develop this change, showing intact tracheal epithelium, similar to the control group. However, the birds vaccinated with B1 strain showed evidences of regeneration of tracheal epithelium 21 days post

  12. Ana Mendieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Íñigo Clavo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente texto hace un recorrido sobre algunos asuntos tratados en la producción artística de Ana Mendieta a través de una única obra: La performance Body Prints. En contraposición con la limpieza minimalista y en contraposición también con la opaca y compleja retícula gestual de Pollock, Mendieta presenta su cuerpo desnudo impregnado de sangre. Tendida en el suelo es cubierta primero con una sábana blanca y luego con una negra hasta dejar su huella en ambas. Las dos sábanas manchadas de sangre nos remiten a la figura del sudario, elemento que Mendieta usó en varios trabajos durante los primeros setenta.The following text looks at some of Ana Mendietas' subject matters through her piece: The Body Prints. Mendieta presents her naked body ipregnated of blood in contrast to the minimal cleannes, and also in contrast to Pollocks opaque and complex gestures network. On the floor she is first covered with a white sheet and then with a black one until a trace of her figure is imprinted on the sheets. The two sheets remaind us the shrough figure, an element that Mendieta used in several pieces during the seventies. Analyzing this performance we recognize themes such as violence, birth and female identity claimed by the feminist theory of diference.

  13. Identification and expression analysis of the interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5 (IFIT5 gene in duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs protein family mediates antiviral effects by inhibiting translation initiation, cell proliferation, and migration in the interferon (IFN dependent innate immune system. Several members of this family, including IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5, have been heavily studied in mammals. Avian species contain only one family member, IFIT5, and little is known about the role of this protein in birds. In this study, duck IFIT5 (duIFIT5 full-length mRNA was cloned by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE. Based on the sequence obtained, we performed a series of bioinformatics analyses, and found that duIFIT5 was most similar to homologs in other avian species. Also, duIFIT5 contained eight conserved TPR motifs and two conserved multi-domains (TPR_11 and TPR_12. Finally, we used duck hepatitis virus type 1 (DHV-1 and polyriboinosinicpolyribocytidylic acid (poly (I:C as a pathogen or a pathogen-associated molecular pattern induction to infect three-day-old domestic ducklings. The liver and spleen were collected to detect the change in duIFIT5 transcript level upon infection by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. DuIFIT5 expression rapidly increased after DHV-1 infection and maintained a high level, while the transcripts of duIFIT5 peaked at 8h after poly (I:C infection and then returned to normal. Taken together, these results provide a greater understanding of avian IFIT5.

  14. Surveillance for avirulent Newcastle disease viruses in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos and Cairina moschata) at live bird markets in Eastern China and characterization of the viruses isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Wang, Xiaoquan; Wu, Shuang; Hu, Shunlin; Peng, Yi; Xue, Feng; Liu, Xiufan

    2009-10-01

    We isolated and identified 201 Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) from domestic ducks in a 5-year surveillance study at live bird markets in Eastern China. Seventy-three of these isolates were characterized biologically and genetically. Fusion protein (F) genes of these isolates were amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Intracerebral pathogenicity index tests in 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens and the mean death time of embryonated fowl eggs in addition to the cleavage site analysis of the F-protein precursor for these viruses showed that they were all avirulent NDVs. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of the F gene showed that 30 isolates clustered into the class I clade and the other 43 isolates clustered into genotype I of class II, but diverged from the vaccine virus Queensland V4, which is extensively used in China. Most class I viruses (18/30) formed a separate branch closest to the Hong Kong live bird market strains that have been recently designated as genotype 3, while the rest (12/30) were closely related to some European viruses within genotype 2. All of the 43 class II genotype I viruses diverged from viruses originally assigned to genotype Ia and formed a separate sublineage designated as Ib with water bird isolates from the Far East, suggesting the possible transmission between the wild and domestic waterfowl. The results in the present study clearly showed that the domestic duck population carries avirulent NDVs with genetic divergence regularly and may act as one of the important reservoirs.

  15. Composición de la dieta de otoño del pato mexicano (Anas diazi en el vaso sur de las ciénegas del Lerma, Estado de México Fall diet composition of Mexican duck (Anas diazi at Lerma marsh, South Vessel, México State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Colón-Quezada

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la composición de la dieta del pato mexicano (Anas diazi y su variación en 2 periodos de otoño consecutivos (2004-2005 en el vaso sur de las ciénegas del Lerma, Estado de México, a partir de 24 muestras de patos cazados. El análisis complementario del peso seco agregado y la frecuencia mostraron que durante el otoño el pato mexicano tiene una dieta vegetariana en la que predominan las semillas de plantas acuáticas, malezas, maíz y tubérculos de Sagittaria y un mínimo consumo de invertebrados. Los alimentos que principalmente se consumieron en 2004 fueron semillas de Echinichloa holciformis, Polygonum lapathifolium y P. punctatum, en tanto que en la dieta de 2005, fueron semillas de maíz y tubérculos de Sagittaria macrophylla. El análisis de similitud de dietas de Sorensen, evidenció una variación de 70% entre los 2 años, lo cual puede atribuirse a la disponibilidad anual de alimento.The Mexican duck's diet composition and its variation in 2 consecutive fall periods (2004-2005 was studied at the Lerma marsh, South Basin, Mexico State, including 24 esophageal samples obtained during the hunting season. A complementary analysis using aggregated dry weight and frequency of occurrence showed than the Mexican duck has a vegetarian diet dominated by aquatic plants seeds, weeds seeds, corn seeds and Sagittaria tubes. The main foods in 2004 were Echinochloa holciformis, Polygonum lapathifolium and P. punctatum seeds, whereas corn seeds and Sagittaria macrophylla tubers dominated the 2005 diet. The Sorensen similarity analysis of the diets showed a diet variation of 70% on both years, which could be to attributed to annual food availability.

  16. Thallium contamination in wild ducks in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Mori, Makoto; Akinaga, Mayumi; Yugami, Kyoko; Oya, Chika; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2005-07-01

    Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little information on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Significant correlations between Tl contents in kidney and liver were observed for all dabbling ducks except mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); similar correlations were not observed in diving ducks. Variation in Tl content was observed between sampling locations with the highest mean Tl content in the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) collected in Ibaraki Prefecture.

  17. Pathogenesis of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 H5N1 in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) infected experimentally

    OpenAIRE

    Löndt , Brandon Z.; Nunez , Alejandro; Banks , Jill; Nili , Hassan; Johnson , Linda K; Alexander , Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Asian H5N1 (hereafter referred to as panzootic H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused large numbers of deaths in both poultry and wild bird populations. Recent isolates of this virus have been reported to cause disease and death in commercial ducks, which has not been seen with other HPAI viruses. However, little is known about the dissemination of this H5N1 within the organs and the cause of death in infected ducks. Nineteen 4-week-old Pekin ducks...

  18. The status of the Nordic populations of the Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in a changing world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Söderquist, Pär; Christensen, Thomas Kjær

    2013-01-01

    Dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) are important migratory quarry species, protected as a shared resource under international legislation. However, there is a lack of sufficient high-qual- ity data on vital demographic rates and long-term trends in numbers to judge the conser- vation status of many duck ...

  19. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Diana R.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Burgess, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  20. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  1. Weather-related indices of autumn–winter Dabbling Duck abundance in Middle North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. Schummer; Richard Kaminski; Andrew H. Raedeke; David A. Graber

    2010-01-01

    Research on effects of key weather stimuli influencing waterfowl migration during autumn and winter is limited. We investigated relationships between changes in relative abundances of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and other dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) and weather variables at midlatitude locations in North America. We used waterfowl survey data from Missouri Conservation...

  2. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  3. Experimental infection of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses to chickens, ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats for the evaluation of their roles in virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ogasawara, Kohei; Endo, Mayumi; Kuribayashi, Saya; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Motohashi, Yurie; Chu, Duc-Huy; Suzuki, Mizuho; Ichikawa, Takaya; Nishi, Tatsuya; Abe, Yuri; Matsuno, Keita; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Tanigawa, Tsutomu; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have spread in both poultry and wild birds. Determining transmission routes of these viruses during an outbreak is essential for the control of avian influenza. It has been widely postulated that migratory ducks play crucial roles in the widespread dissemination of HPAIVs in poultry by carrying viruses along with their migrations; however close contacts between wild migratory ducks and poultry are less likely in modern industrial poultry farming settings. Therefore, we conducted experimental infections of HPAIVs and low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) to chickens, domestic ducks, tree sparrows, jungle crows, and black rats to evaluate their roles in virus transmission. The results showed that chickens, ducks, sparrows, and crows were highly susceptible to HPAIV infection. Significant titers of virus were recovered from the sparrows and crows infected with HPAIVs, which suggests that they potentially play roles of transmission of HPAIVs to poultry. In contrast, the growth of LPAIVs was limited in each of the animals tested compared with that of HPAIVs. The present results indicate that these common synanthropes play some roles in influenza virus transmission from wild birds to poultry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  5. Seasonal survival of adult female mottled ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jena A.; Haukos, David A.; Conway, Warren C.

    2017-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulgivula) is a non-migratory duck dependent on coastal habitats to meet all of its life cycle requirements in the Western Gulf Coast (WGC) of Texas and Louisiana, USA. This population of mottled ducks has experienced a moderate decline during the past 2 decades. Adult survival has been identified as an important factor influencing population demography. Previous work based on band-recovery data has provided only annual estimates of survival. We assessed seasonal patterns of female mottled duck survival from 2009 to 2012 using individuals marked with satellite platform transmitter terminals (PTTs). We used temperature and movement sensors within each PTT to indicate potential mortality events. We estimated cumulative weekly survival and ranked factors influential in patterns of mortality using known-fate modeling in Program MARK. Models included 4 predictors: week; hunting and non-hunting periods; biological periods defined as breeding, brooding, molt, and pairing; and mass at time of capture. Models containing hunt periods, during and outside the mottled duck season, comprised essentially 100% of model weights where both legal and illegal harvest had a negative influence on mottled duck survival. Survival rates were low during 2009–2011 (12–38% annual rate of survival), when compared with the long-term banding average of 53% annual survival. During 2011, survival of female mottled ducks was the lowest annual rate (12%) ever documented and coincided with extreme drought. Management actions maximizing the availability of wetlands and associated upland habitats during hunting seasons and drought conditions may increase adult female mottled duck survival.

  6. mercury contamination in domestic ducks in geita, northwest tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. Total mercury concentrations (THg) were determined in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhncha) tissues in Mgusu Village, Geita District NW Tanzania. Elevated mercury levels were found in all tissue samples and showed a trend of increasing mercury concentration with weight/age of the poultry. Highest total ...

  7. Sex determination of duck embryos: observations on syrinx development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2013-01-01

    Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexing developing embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.

  8. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Alan B.; Allen, Stephen H.; Eberhardt, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) predation on nesting ducks was assessed by examining 1,857 adult duck remains found at 1,432 fox rearing dens from 1968 to 1973. Dabbling ducks were much more vulnerable to foxes than diving ducks. Dabbling ducks (1,798) found at dens consisted of 27% blue-winged teals (Anas discors), 23% mallards (A. platyrhynchos), 20% northern pintails (A. acuta), 9% northern shovelers (Spatula clypeata), 8% gadwalls (A. strepera), 3% green-winged teals (A. crecca), 2% American wigeons (A. americana), and 10% unidentified. Relative abundance of individual species and nesting chronology were the most important factors affecting composition of ducks taken by foxes. Seventy-six percent of 1,376 adult dabbling ducks and 40% of 30 adult diving ducks for which sex was determined were hens. In western North Dakota and western South Dakota, 65% of mallard and northern pintail remains found at dens were hens compared with 76% in eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota (P fox predation rates on ducks. Predation rate indices ranged from 0.01 duck/den in Iowa to 1.80 ducks/den in eastern North Dakota. Average annual predation rate indices for dabbling ducks in a 3-county intensive study area in eastern North Dakota were closely correlated with May pond numbers (r = 0.874, P foxes than hens of late nesting species. Predation rate indices were expanded to estimate total numbers of ducks taken by fox families during the denning season. Estimated numbers of dabbling ducks taken annually by individual fox families in 2 physiographic regions comprising the intensive study area ranged from 16.1 to 65.9. Predation was highest during wet years and lowest during dry years and averaged lower, but was more variable, in the region where tillage was greatest and wetland water levels were least stable. Predation in the intensive study area averaged 2.97 adult dabbling ducks/ km2/year and represented an estimated average annual loss of 13.5% of hen and 4.5% of drake

  9. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC class Igene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIN ZHANG

    2017-06-17

    Jun 17, 2017 ... The forward prime P1 was 5 -. ATGGGCGGGGCCCTGGGCCT-3 and reverse prime. P2 was 5 -TTAGACACTGGGGTTGCTCCCTGCG-3 . PCR was carried out in a final volume of 50 µL which includes 0.5 µg cDNA template, P1/P2 (100 µM) 1 µL, respectively, 0.5 U LA Taq polymerase (TaKaRa Biotech-.

  10. Temporal flexibility of reproduction in temperate-breeding dabbling ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.

    2000-01-01

    I compared nesting intervals during three consecutive years in five species of temperate-nesting dabbling ducks (Mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], Northern Pintail [Anas acuta], Northern Shoveler [Anas clypeata], Blue-winged Teal [Anas discors], Gadwall [Anas strepera]) and assessed whether differences existed in timing of refractoriness. Most nesting by females of all five species ended by the summer solstice. Nesting ended earliest for Northern Shovelers and Northern Pintails and latest for Gadwalls. Some Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls continued to nest into mid- and late summer, whereas Northern Shovelers and Northern pintails did not. Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls accounted for 99% (81 of 82) of flightless broods resulting from nests initiated during mid- or late summer in North Dakota and 98% (58 of 59) of flightless juveniles shot on or after 1 October by a random sample of duck hunters from across the United States. Early cessation of breeding by Northern Shovelers may have evolved in response to the species' limited flexibility in diet. Photorefractory mechanisms that limit most breeding to spring presumably evolved in response to severe constraints on reproductive success when nesting continued through summer(e.g. mortality of late-hatched young and molting females due to low temperatures). Interspecific differences in photosensitivity may account for variation in timing of cessation of nesting in late spring, but controlled experiments are needed to assess the possible role of non-photic influences. My results suggest that the refractory mechanisms controlling length of the breeding in temperate-nesting dabbling ducks are more varied and complex than previously thought, with non-photic influences (e.g. water conditions, food availability, food quality) having a larger role than indicated by earlier research.

  11. Sexual dimorphism and identification of single nucleotide polymorphism of growth hormone gene in muscovy duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ismoyowati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to investigate the different growth and to identify growth hormone gene polymorphism in Muscovy ducks. Two hundred Muscovy day-old ducks consisting of white-plumed male and female duck, black and white-plumed male and female ducks. Body weight was recorded weekly and the obtained data were subject to T test. Primer design used the Custal X Program based on a database from the GeneBank Cairina moschata GH gene, partial cds (AB158762. Primer base sequence of GH gene was forward/Sequence: 5’-CTGGGGTTGTTTAGCTTGGA-3’ and reverse/Sequence: 5’-TAAACCTTCCCTGGCACAAC-3’. The DNA sequences were aligned by using the BioEdit version 7.7 for identification of the single nucleotide polymorphism. The result showed that male Muscovy duck produced higher an average body weight gain and more relative growth than those of females. The highest body weight gain was at three weeks old, and then it started to decrease at four weeks old. The sequencing PCR product obtained nucleotide polymorphism. AA genotype was observed at 136 t of black female Muscovy duck, CC in black and white male Muscovy duck, and white female Muscovy duck. Conclusively, a body weight gain of 3-week-old male Muscovy ducks was higher than that of females and GH gene polymorphism was observed in Muscovy ducks.

  12. Harvest and dynamics of duck populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedinger, James S.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    The role of harvest in the dynamics of waterfowl populations continues to be debated among scientists and managers. Our perception is that interested members of the public and some managers believe that harvest influences North American duck populations based on calls for more conservative harvest regulations. A recent review of harvest and population dynamics of North American mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) populations (Pöysä et al. 2004) reached similar conclusions. Because of the importance of this issue, we reviewed the evidence for an impact of harvest on duck populations. Our understanding of the effects of harvest is limited because harvest effects are typically confounded with those of population density; regulations are typically most liberal when populations are greatest. This problem also exists in the current Adaptive Harvest Management Program (Conn and Kendall 2004). Consequently, even where harvest appears additive to other mortality, this may be an artifact of ignoring effects of population density. Overall, we found no compelling evidence for strong additive effects of harvest on survival in duck populations that could not be explained by other factors.

  13. Recently created man-made habitats in Doñana provide alternative wintering space for the threatened continental European black-tailed godwit population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez-Ferrando, Rocío; Figuerola, Jordi; Hooijmeijer, Jos; Piersma, Theunis

    Over the last decades the Continental European population of black-tailed godwits, Limosa limosa limosa, has shown steep declines as a consequence of agricultural intensification on the breeding grounds. Although numbers have also declined in their traditional wintering areas in West-Africa, in the

  14. Recently created man-made habitats in Doñana provide alternative wintering space for the threatened Continental European black-tailed godwit population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez-Ferrando, R.; Figuerola, J.; Hooijmeijer, J.C.E.W.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades the Continental European population of black-tailed godwits, Limosa limosa limosa, has shown steep declines as a consequence of agricultural intensification on the breeding grounds. Although numbers have also declined in their traditional wintering areas in West-Africa, in the

  15. Temperature does not dictate the wintering distributions of European dabbling duck species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Fox, Anthony David; Petersen, Ib Krag

    2013-01-01

    To predict future changes in wintering dabbling duck (Anas sp.) distributions in response to climate change, it is necessary to understand their response to temperature at a continental scale. Food accessibility, competition and thermoregulatory costs are likely to play a major role in determining...

  16. Inositol-P 6 induced structural changes in duck major haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactivities of 5,5'-Dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoate) with the sulphydryl groups of major haemoglobin of duck (Anas platyrhinchos) have been carried out in the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate, inositol-P6. The time course of the reaction is biphasic. The addition of inositol-P6 changed the pH dependence profile of the ...

  17. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, Dennis G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  18. Quantifying changes and influences on mottled duck density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the relative influence of environmental and intrinsic effects on populations is important for managing and conserving harvested species, especially those species inhabiting changing environments. Additionally, climate change can increase the uncertainty associated with management of species in these changing environments, making understanding factors affecting their populations even more important. Coastal ecosystems are particularly threatened by climate change; the combined effects of increasing severe weather events, sea level rise, and drought will likely have non-linear effects on coastal marsh wildlife species and their associated habitats. A species of conservation concern that persists in these coastal areas is the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). Mottled ducks in the western Gulf Coast are approximately 50% below target abundance numbers established by the Gulf Coast Joint Venture for Texas and Louisiana, USA. Although evidence for declines in mottled duck abundance is apparent, specific causes of the decrease remain unknown. Our goals were to determine where the largest declines in mottled duck population were occurring along the system of Texas Gulf Coast National Wildlife Refuges and quantify the relative contribution of environmental and intrinsic effects on changes to relative population density. We modeled aerial survey data of mottled duck density along the Texas Gulf Coast from 1986–2015 to quantify effects of extreme weather events on an index to mottled duck density using the United States Climate Extremes Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index. Our results indicate that decreases in abundance are best described by an increase in days with extreme 1-day precipitation from June to November (hurricane season) and an increase in drought severity. Better understanding those portions of the life cycle affected by environmental conditions, and how to manage mottled duck habitat in conjunction with these events will likely be key to

  19. Absorption and biotransformation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers DE-71 and DE-79 in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), American kestrel (Falco sparverius) and black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Moira A.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Hatfield, Jeff S.; Hale, Robert C.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that air cell administration of penta-brominated diphenyl ether (penta-BDE; DE-71) evokes biochemical and immunologic effects in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos at very low doses, and impairs pipping (i.e., stage immediately prior to hatching) and hatching success at 1.8 ug g-1 egg (actual dose absorbed) in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). I n the present study, absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners was measured following air cell administration of a penta-BDE mixture (11.1 ug DE-71 g-1 egg) or an octa-brominated diphenyl ether mixture (octa-BDE; DE-79; 15.4 ug DE-79 g-1 egg). Uptake of PBDE congeners was measured at 24 h post-injection, midway through incubation, and at pipping in chicken, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and American kestrel egg contents, and at the end of incubation in black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) egg contents. Absorption of penta-BDE and octa-BDE from the air cell into egg contents occurred throughout incubation; at pipping, up to 29.6% of penta-BDE was absorbed, but only 1.40-6.48% of octa-BDE was absorbed. Higher brominated congeners appeared to be absorbed more slowly than lower brominated congeners, and uptake rate was inversely proportional to the log Kow of predominant BDE congeners. Six congeners or co-eluting pairs of congeners were detected in penta-BDE-treated eggs that were not found in the dosing solution suggesting debromination in the developing embryo, extraembryonic membranes, and possibly even in the air cell membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of determining the fraction of xenobiotic absorbed into the egg following air cell administration for estimation of the lowest-observed-effect level.

  20. Virulence of six strains of duck plague virus in eight waterfowl species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, J O; Yuill, T M; Burgess, E C

    1996-07-01

    Susceptibility of New World waterfowl to the Lake Andes strain of duck plague virus (DPV) was assessed by intramuscular inoculation of adult muscovies (Cairina moschata), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), Canada geese (Branta canadensis), wood ducks (Aix sponsa), redheads (Aythya americana), gadwalls (Anas strepera), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), and pintails (Anas acuta). The relative virulence of DPV strains isolated from five United States and one Canadian location was established in muscovies, mallards, and Canada geese. Differences in DPV strain virulence were detected by formation of plaques in cell culture. Two strains that consistently formed plaques killed adult mallards while non-plaque forming strains killed hatchling but not adult mallards. Based on mortality after exposure to the Lake Andes strain, blue-winged teal, then wood ducks and redheads were highly susceptible, muscovies and gadwalls moderately susceptible, mallards and Canada geese less susceptible, and pintails the least susceptible. Mean death times were significantly (P Science and the Charmany research facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  1. GAMBARAN PROFIL DARAH ITIK PEKING (ANAS PLATYRHYNCHOS SETELAH DIBERIKAN EKSTRAK AKUADES DAUN KEDONDONG PAGAR (LANNEA COROMANDELICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safrida Safrida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was designed to determine the effect aqueous extract of Lannea coromandelica leaf at concentrations of erythrocytes and leukocytes in peking duck (Anas platyrhynchos. Experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD consisted of 3 experimental treatments, each consisted of 8 ducks i.e., P0 (control, P1 (given aqueous extract of Lannea coromandelica leaf as much as 780 mg / mL / day / kg body weight, P2 (given aqueous extract of Lannea coromandelica leaf as much as 1560 mg / mL / day / kg body weight. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results showed that the aqueous extract of Lannea coromandelica significant effect (p <0.01 in concentrations of erythrocytes peking duck, but had no effect (P>  0.01 in concentrations of the leukocytes. Average erythrocytes in all treatments, 2081667-2300000 per mm 3. The average number of leukocytes in all treatments, 23175-23500 per mm3. It was concluded that the aqueous extract of Lannea coromandelica leaf have effect on the increase concentrations of erythrocytes peking duck (Anas platyrhynchos.

  2. High rates of conspecific brood parasitism revealed by microsatellite analysis in a diving duck, the common pochard Aythya ferina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťovíček, O.; Kreisinger, Jakub; Javůrková, V.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2013), s. 369-375 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : intraspecific nest parasitism * mallards Anas platyrhynchos * extra-pair maternity * clutch size * wood ducks Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2013

  3. Sublethal effects of chronic lead ingestion in mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos) fed 1, 5, or 25 ppm lead nitrate were bled and sacrificed at 3-wk intervals. No mortality occurred, and the pathologic lesions usually associated with lead poisoning were not found. Changes in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration did not occur. After 3-wk ducks fed 25 ppm lead exhibited a 40% inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity that persisted through 12 wk exposure. After 12 wk treatment similar enzyme inhibition was present in the ducks fed 5 ppm lead. At 3 wk there was a small accumulation of lead (less than 1 ppm) in the liver and kidneys of ducks fed 25ppm lead; no further increases occurred throughout the exposure. No significant accumulation of lead occurred the the tibiae or wing bones. Groups of ducks fed 5 and 25 ppm diets for 12 wk were placed on clean feed and examined through a 12 wk posttreatment period. After 3 wk on clean diet delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and lead concentrations in the blood had returned to pretreatment levels. Even though lead concentrations in the blood, soft organs and bone were low, a highly significant negative correlation between blood lead and blood enzyme activity was obtained. This enzyme bioassay should provide a sensitive and precise estimate for monitoring lead in the blood for waterflow.

  4. Baseline blood Pb levels of black-necked stilts on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Thomas V.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    There are no known biological requirements for lead (Pb), and elevated Pb levels in birds can cause a variety of sub-lethal effects and mortality. Historic and current levels of Pb in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) suggest that environmental sources of Pb remain available on the upper Texas coast. Because of potential risks of Pb exposure among coexisting marsh birds, black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) blood Pb concentrations were measured during the breeding season. Almost 80 % (n = 120) of 152 sampled stilts exceeded the background threshold (>20 μg/dL) for Pb exposure. However, blood Pb concentrations did not vary by age or gender, and toxic or potentially lethal concentrations were rare (<5 %). Consistent, low-level blood Pb concentrations of black-necked stilts in this study suggest the presence of readily bioavailable sources of Pb, although potential impacts on local stilt populations remain unclear.

  5. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Miller, M.R.; Poole, A.; Gill, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Northern Pintail is a medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration. It is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout the fall and winter. Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often long distances from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season. Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in

  6. Punnett and duck genetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetics therefore appeared to afford an 'easy' so- lution that could be of much economic importance. Punnett was successful in his efforts by analysing reciprocal crosses between the Mallard and Indian Runner duck. Interestingly, he does not restrict his observations to the colour but also comments on the behaviour of the ...

  7. Classical bile acids in animals, beta-phocaecholic acid in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, M; Klinot, J; Klinotová, E; Ubik, K; Kucera, K

    1989-01-01

    1. Bile samples of different animals were analysed and the percentage content of classical bile acids was determined. 2. Herbivorous birds mostly excreted a large proportion of chenodeoxycholic acid. 3. The anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) excreted deoxycholic acid most probably as a primary bile acid. 4. In the bile of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) a large amount of (23R)3 alpha, 7 alpha, 23-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholan-24-oic acid (beta-phocaecholic acid) was found.

  8. Mid-winter European dabbling duck distributions are not linked to species body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Delany, Simon; Fox, Anthony David

    are likely to play a major role in determining the wintering distribution of short- to medium-distance migratory bird species and its inter-annual variability. As avian thermoregulatory costs scale allometrically with body size, we predicted that the mean mid-winter temperature experienced by six species...... of dabbling ducks wintering in Western Europe would be negatively correlated with body mass. We found no evidence for such a relationship in a large-scale analysis testing for a link between temperature and dabbling duck distributions, suggesting that other factors such as those related to feeding ecology......In order to understand the current changes and to predict future changes in wintering dabbling duck (Anas sp.) distributions in response to climate change, it is important to understand how species distribute themselves on a continental scale in response to temperature. Thermoregulatory costs...

  9. Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) in wild ducks in Western Pomerania, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kalisińska, Elzbieta; Nowak, Małgorzata R

    2011-01-01

    Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1892) is a polyxenic and cosmopolitan tapeworm from the family Hymenolepididae. Its generic name derives from their typical location (cloaca), and the typical final hosts which are birds typically associated with water and marsh environments: Anseriformes, Galliformes and Gruiformes. In Poland, the presence of C. megalops has been observed so far in 16 species of ducks from the Baltic coast, the Mazurian Lake District, Wielkopolsko-Kujawska Lowland, Mazovian Lowland, and Podlasie Lowland. In Western Pomerania, quantitative structure analyses were only carried out on Anas platyrhynchos, and therefore the aim of this study was the detailed analysis of environmental populations of C. megalops in wild ducks. The examined tapeworms were isolated from the digestive tract of 1005 wild ducks representing 17 species belonging to three different eco-tribes: Anatini (n=225), Aythyini (n=413) and Mergini (n=367), from northwestern Poland. During the Study 187 C. megalops were found in 89 birds (8.8% of examined ducks) belonging to 7 species: Anas crecca (common teal), A. querquedula (garganey), A. platyrhynchos (mallard) (Anatini); Aythyaferina (pochard), A. fuligula (tufted duck), A. marila (greater scaup) (Aythyini) and Bucephala clangula (goldeneye) (Mergini). The results show the differences in the quantitative structure of C. megalops among the examined species of ducks. The highest prevalence was found in mallard (18.6%) and the lowest in greater scaup (3.2%). The highest mean intensity was observed in greater scaup (4.0), and the lowest in garganey and common teal (1.0). Relative density was at a similar level in the tested birds. Based on the ratio of dominance, it was found that C. megalops is a rare species in the cestodofauna in the examined birds.

  10. Welfare of ducks in European duck husbandry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Berk, J.; Cooper, J.; Faure, J.M.; Guemene, D.; Harlander, A.; Jones, T.; Knierim, U.; Kuhnt, K.; Pingel, H.; Reiter, K.; Serviere, J.; Ruis, M.A.W.

    2005-01-01

    European duck meat production is based on the use of Pekin, Muscovy and Mule duck genotypes that vary in their behavioural and physiological characteristics. Furthermore, large differences exist in their housing and management conditions. The aim of this review is to discuss the welfare of these

  11. Purification and Characterization of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Allergens Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sforza, Stefano; Valk, Van Der J.P.M.; Gerth Van Wijk, Van Roy; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Jong, De N.W.; Wichers, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a fast and simple purification procedure for the three known allergens from cashew (7S globulin Ana o 1, 11S globulin Ana o 2, and 2S albumin Ana o 3) is described. The purified allergens are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE),

  12. Central hydroelectric of Santa Ana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo A, German

    2000-01-01

    The paper is related to the construction of an alternating tunnel of conduction to take advantage of the available hydraulic load among the Wiesner Plant and Santa Ana's tanks and of Suba, works required to build a hydroelectric power station with a generation capacity of approximately of 12 MW

  13. Comparative genomics in chicken and Pekin duck using FISH mapping and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowler Katie E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, we provided a comprehensive cytogenetic map for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and the first analysis of copy number variants (CNVs in birds. Here, we extend this approach to the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos, an obvious target for comparative genomic studies due to its agricultural importance and resistance to avian flu. Results We provide a detailed molecular cytogenetic map of the duck genome through FISH assignment of 155 chicken clones. We identified one inter- and six intrachromosomal rearrangements between chicken and duck macrochromosomes and demonstrated conserved synteny among all microchromosomes analysed. Array comparative genomic hybridisation revealed 32 CNVs, of which 5 overlap previously designated "hotspot" regions between chicken and turkey. Conclusion Our results suggest extensive conservation of avian genomes across 90 million years of evolution in both macro- and microchromosomes. The data on CNVs between chicken and duck extends previous analyses in chicken and turkey and supports the hypotheses that avian genomes contain fewer CNVs than mammalian genomes and that genomes of evolutionarily distant species share regions of copy number variation ("CNV hotspots". Our results will expedite duck genomics, assist marker development and highlight areas of interest for future evolutionary and functional studies.

  14. Wetland dynamics influence mid-continent duck recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Pearse, Aaron T.; Szymankski, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment is a key factor influencing duck population dynamics. Understanding what regulates recruitment of ducks is a prerequisite to informed habitat and harvest management. Quantity of May ponds (MP) has been linked to recruitment and population size (Kaminski and Gluesing 1987, Raveling and Heitmeyer 1989). However, wetland productivity (quality) is driven by inter-annual hydrological fluctuations. Periodic drying of wetlands due to wet-dry climate cycles releases nutrients and increases invertebrate populations when wet conditions return (Euliss et al. 1999). Wetlands may also become wet or dry within a breeding season. Accordingly, inter-annual and intra-seasonal hydrologic variation potentially influence duck recruitment. Here, we examined influences of wetland quantity, quality, and intra-seasonal dynamics on recruitment of ducks. We indexed duck recruitment by vulnerability-corrected age ratios (juveniles/adult females) for mid-continent Gadwall (Anas strepera). We chose Gadwall because the majority of the continental population breeds in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), where annual estimates of MP exist since 1974. We indexed wetland quality by calculating change in MP (?MP) over the past two years (?MP = 0.6[MPt – MPt-1] + 0.4[MPt – MPt-2]). We indexed intra-seasonal change in number of ponds by dividing the PPR mean standardized precipitation index for July by MP (hereafter summer index). MP and ?MP were positively correlated (r = 0.65); therefore, we calculated residual ?MP (?MPr) with a simple linear regression using MP, creating orthogonal variables. Finally, we conducted a multiple regression to examine how MP, ?MPr, and summer index explained variation in recruitment of Gadwall from 1976–2010. Our model explained 67% of the variation in mid-continent Gadwall recruitment and all three hydrologic indices were positively correlated with recruitment (Figure 1). Type II semi-partial R2 estimates indicated that MP accounted for 41%, ?MPr

  15. Relationships between T-cell-mediated immune response and Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and as concentrations in blood of nestling white storks (Ciconia ciconia) and black kites (Milvus migrans) from Doñana (southwestern Spain) after the Aznalcóllar toxic spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baos, Raquel; Jovani, Roger; Forero, Manuela G; Tella, José L; Gómez, Gemma; Jiménez, Begoña; González, María J; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2006-04-01

    In the Aznalcóllar mining accident (April 1998), nearly six million cubic meters of toxic wastes were spilled in the surroundings of the Doñana National Park (southwestern Spain). The present study focused on the likely effects of metal pollution on the immune system of nestling white storks (Ciconia ciconia) and black kites (Milvus migrans) sampled in the nearby area. Using the phytohaemagglutinin skin test, we examined cell-mediated immune response (CMI) in relation to Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As concentrations in blood of 281 nestling white storks and of 89 black kites. The former species was monitored along a four-year period (1999, 2001-2003), while black kites were sampled in 1999. Overall, average levels of heavy metals and As were relatively low when compared to those reported for birds in metal-polluted areas. Copper showed a negative effect on CMI in both species, although the relationship was significant only for white storks in 2002. We found no evidence that environmental exposure to Pb, Zn, As, and Cd had any effect on nestlings' CMI. Interannual consistency is revealed as an important factor, supporting the need of long-term studies when assessing the immunotoxic effects of metal exposure in the wild.

  16. True metabolizable energy for wood ducks from acorns compared to other waterfowl foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, R.M.; Davis, J.B.; Essig, H.W.; Gerard, P.D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Acorns of bottomland red oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important food of North American wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Barras et al. (1996) demonstrated that female wood ducks selected willow oak ( Q. phetlos) acorns over other species. We measured true metabolizable energy (TME) derived by captive, wild-strain, adult female wood ducks from acorns of willow oak, water oak (Q. nigra), cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda), and pin oak (Q. patustris) to determine whether female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns was related to TME. Estimates of TME within acorn species were relatively precise, yet we did not detect variation in TME among acorn species (P= 0.31 ); hence, we estimated TME across species (2.76 + 0.033 [SE] kcal/g dry mass; n = 34). We concluded that TME apparently did not explain female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns and hypothesized that morphological characteristics of willow oak acorns may be proximate cues related to selection by wood ducks. We also summarized known TME estimates for acorns fed to wood ducks and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and natural and agricultural foods fed to mallards, northern pintails (A. acura), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). We found that acorns and moist-soil plant seeds and tubers provided, on average, about 76% of the TME in agricultural seeds. Thus, bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats have potential to provide significant amounts of dietary energy, as well as greater diversity of foods and nutrients than croplands. Researchers should continue to determine TME of common foods (plant and animal) of waterfowl, and use TME in estimating waterfowl habitat carrying capacity (e.g., Reinecke et al. 1989). Additionally, large-scale, reliable estimates of plant and animal food availability in bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats are needed to evaluate carrying capacity of landscapes important to waterfowl, such as the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV).

  17. Selection and Crossbreeding in Relation to Plumage Color Inheritance in Three Chinese Egg Type Duck Breeds (

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    R. L. Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In China and South East Asia, the duck (common duck is important in egg production for human consumption. Plumage color is a breed characteristic and of economic importance, together with egg production. Our aim in this study was to investigate the inheritance of plumage color in three Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds, Shan Ma (S, Putian White (F and Putian black (P, and some of their crossbreds. These three breeds have different plumage color and are used in crossbreeding. The crossbred laying ducks F×(P×S and F×(S×P showed highly improved laying ability but heterogeneous plumage color. Genotypes at four relevant loci were investigated by studying down color and pattern in ducklings after crossbreeding. F1 ducklings from the matings F×S and S×F, P×S, and S×P were classified into four classes of plumage color (the Shan Ma plumage color, black, white, or multicolored over three generations. Parents were selected for the Shan Ma plumage color of their progeny. In the fourth generation, P male and P female ducks were selected according to the frequency of the desired class of plumage color (Shan Ma of their F1 progeny to obtain the so-called “Brown Putian Ma duck”. The Shan Ma duck genotype was identified as having the restricted mallard color pattern (MRMR, full expression of any of the patterns or colors (CC, no extended black (ee and no brown dilution D (D. The Putian White genotype was recessive white (cc, no extended black (ee and no brown dilution D (D. The Putian Black genotype exhibited full expression of extended black (E gene and no brown dilution (CCEE D [D]. It was shown that F×S and S×F tests should be implemented to eliminate the recessive white c allele in the S line and the dominant extended black E allele in the F line. It was also shown that the Brown Putian Ma obtained from Putian Black, with no extended black genotype (ee, could be used to get rid of the black plumage (E gene in the crossbred ducks. This

  18. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  19. Purification and Characterization of Anacardium occidentale (Cashew) Allergens Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sforza, Stefano; van der Valk, Johanna P M; van Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Savelkoul, Huub F J; de Jong, Nicolette W; Wichers, Harry J

    2016-02-10

    In this study a fast and simple purification procedure for the three known allergens from cashew (7S globulin Ana o 1, 11S globulin Ana o 2, and 2S albumin Ana o 3) is described. The purified allergens are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot, glycoprotein stain, and protein identification. The purified proteins still bind IgE, and this IgE binding varied between different pools of patient serum. Ana o 1 was found to be a glycoprotein. Ana o 3 has been studied more in detail to identify both the small and large subunits, both displaying microheterogeneity, and epitope mapping of Ana o 3 has been performed.

  20. Urbanization and the dynamics of RNA viruses in Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Michelle; Lindqvist, Kristine; Muradrasoli, Shaman; Olsen, Björn; Järhult, Josef D

    2017-07-01

    Urbanization is intensifying worldwide, and affects the epidemiology of infectious diseases. However, the effect of urbanization on natural host-pathogen systems remains poorly understood. Urban ducks occupy an interesting niche in that they directly interact with both humans and wild migratory birds, and either directly or indirectly with food production birds. Here we have collected samples from Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) residing in a pond in central Uppsala, Sweden, from January 2013 to January 2014. This artificial pond is kept ice-free during the winter months, and is a popular location where the ducks are fed, resulting in a resident population of ducks year-round. Nine hundred and seventy seven (977) fecal samples were screened for RNA viruses including: influenza A virus (IAV), avian paramyxovirus 1, avian coronavirus (CoV), and avian astrovirus (AstroV). This intra-annual dataset illustrates that these RNA viruses exhibit similar annual patterns to IAV, suggesting similar ecological factors are at play. Furthermore, in comparison to wild ducks, autumnal prevalence of IAV and CoV are lower in this urban population. We also demonstrate that AstroV might be a larger burden to urban ducks than IAV, and should be better assessed to demonstrate the degree to which wild birds contribute to the epidemiology of these viruses. The presence of economically relevant viruses in urban Mallards highlights the importance of elucidating the ecology of wildlife pathogens in urban environments, which will become increasingly important for managing disease risks to wildlife, food production animals, and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of certain anesthetic agents on mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, D.R.; Greenwood, R.J.

    1972-01-01

    Four anesthetic agents used in human or veterinary medicine and 3 experimental anesthetic preparations were evaluated for effectiveness in inducing narcosis when administered orally to game-farm mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).Tribromoethanol was the only compound to satisfy criteria of initial tests. Mean duration of the induction, immobilization, and recovery periods was 2.4 minutes, 8.7 minutes, and 1.3 hours, respectively, at the median effective dosage for immobilization (ED50; 100 mg./kg. of body weight). The median lethal dosage (LD50) was 400 mg./kg. of body weight.Tribromoethanol was also tested on mallards during the reproductive season. Effects on the hatchability of eggs or the survival of young were not detected.

  2. Methylmercury: Second generation reproductive and behavioral effects of mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) whose parents were fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury (equal to about 0.1 ppm mercury in a natural diet) also were fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury beginning at 9 days of age and continuing through their reproductive season. Mercury in the eggs of treated hens averaged 0.86 ppm. Hens fed 0.5 ppm mercury made less efficient use of feed and laid a greater percentage of eggs outside nestboxes compared with controls. Hens fed mercury also produced fewer 1-week-old ducklings than did controls. There were no significant differences between controls and ducklings from parents fed 0.5 ppm mercury in approach responses to tape-recorded maternal calls, in avoidance of a frightening stimulus, or in open-field behavior. Ducklings from parents fed 0.5 pprn mercury did not grow as fast as did control ducklings.

  3. Selenium and heavy metals in San Francisco Bay diving ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Lowe, Roy W.; Kelly, P.R.; Harvey, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    We analyzed for selenium (Se) and heavy metals in greater scaups (Aythya marila) and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) collected from southern San Francisco Bay in March and April 1982. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between species for liver concentrations of silver (Ag), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb). Copper (Cu) (P 0.05) between the 2 species. The geometric mean cadmium (Cd) concentration in scoter kidneys (24.6 ppm, dry wt) was higher than in scaups (15.5 ppm) (0.1 > P > 0.05). Liver concentrations of Hg and Se were correlated (P < 0.01). The toxicological significance of some elements in these species is not known. However, Se levels in scoters (34.4 ppm, dry wt) were similar to those in livers of dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in the nearby San Joaquin Valley where reproduction was impaired severely.

  4. The universe of ANA testing: a case for point-of-care ANA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Rubin, Robert L

    2017-12-01

    Testing for total antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a critical tool for diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases at both the primary care and subspecialty settings. Repurposing of ANA from a test for lupus to a test for any autoimmune condition has driven the increase in ANA requests. Changes in ANA referral patterns include early or subclinical autoimmune disease detection in patients with low pre-test probability and use of negative ANA results to rule out underlying autoimmune disease. A positive result can lead to further diagnostic considerations. Currently, ANA tests are performed in centralized laboratories; an alternative would be ANA testing at the clinical point-of-care (POC). By virtue of its near real-time data collection capability, low cost, and ease of use, we believe the POC ANA has the potential to enable a new paradigm shift in autoimmune serology testing.

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of the hepatic response to heat stress in Muscovy and Pekin ducks: insight into thermal tolerance related to energy metabolism.

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    Tao Zeng

    Full Text Available The Pekin duck, bred from the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos in china, is one of the most famous meat duck species in the world. However, it is more sensitive to heat stress than Muscovy duck, which is believed to have originated in South America. With temperature raising, mortality, laying performance, and meat quality of the Pekin duck are severely affected. This study aims to uncover the temperature-dependent proteins of two duck species using comparative proteomic approach. Duck was cultured under 39°C ± 0.5°C for 1 h, and then immediately returned to 20°C for a 3 h recovery period, the liver proteins were extracted and electrophoresed in two-dimensional mode. After analysis of gel images, 61 differentially expressed proteins were detected, 54 were clearly identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Of the 54 differentially expressed protein spots identified, 7 were found in both species, whereas 47 were species specific (25 in Muscovy duck and 22 in Pekin duck. As is well known, chaperone proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP 70 and HSP10, were abundantly up-regulated in both species in response to heat stress. However, we also found that several proteins, such as α-enolase, and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, showed different expression patterns in the 2 duck species. The enriched biological processes were grouped into 3 main categories according to gene ontology analysis: cell death and apoptosis (20.93%, amino acid metabolism (13.95% and oxidation reduction (20.93%. The mRNA levels of several differentially expressed protein were investigated by real-time RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide insights into the differential expression of proteins following heat stress in ducks and enables better understanding of possible heat stress response mechanisms in animals.

  6. Structural basis of antigen recognition: crystal structure of duck egg lysozyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, David Brent; Schofield, Peter; Jackson, Jenny; Zeraati, Mahdi; Maltby, David; Christie, Mary; Burnett, Deborah; Brink, Robert; Goodnow, Christopher; Christ, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Duck egg lysozyme (DEL) is a widely used model antigen owing to its capacity to bind with differential affinity to anti-chicken egg lysozyme antibodies. However, no structures of DEL have so far been reported, and the situation had been complicated by the presence of multiple isoforms and conflicting reports of primary sequence. Here, the structures of two DEL isoforms from the eggs of the commonly used Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos) are reported. Using structural analyses in combination with mass spectrometry, non-ambiguous DEL primary sequences are reported. Furthermore, the structures and sequences determined here enable rationalization of the binding affinity of DEL for well documented landmark anti-lysozyme antibodies. PMID:29095163

  7. Immune responses of ducks infected with duck Tembusu virus

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    Ning eLi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV can cause serious disease in ducks, characterized by reduced egg production. Although the virus has been isolated and detection methods developed, the host immune responses to DTMUV infection are unclear. Therefore, we systematically examined the expression of immune-related genes and the viral distribution in DTMUV-infected ducks, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results show that DTMUV replicates quickly in many tissues early in infection, with the highest viral titers in the spleen 1 day after infection. Rig-1, Mda5, and Tlr3 are involved in the host immune response to DTMUV, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, -2, -6, Cxcl8 and antiviral proteins (Mx, Oas, etc. are also upregulated early in infection. The expression of Il-6 increased most significantly in the tissues tested. The upregulation of Mhc-I was observed in the brain and spleen, but the expression of Mhc-II was upregulated in the brain and downregulated in the spleen. The expression of the interferons was also upregulated to different degrees in the spleen but that of the brain was various. Our study suggests that DTMUV replicates rapidly in various tissues and that the host immune responses are activated early in infection. However, the overexpression of cytokines may damage the host. These results extend our understanding of the immune responses of ducks to DTMUV infection, and provide insight into the pathogenesis of DTMUV attributable to host factors.

  8. Widespread horizontal genomic exchange does not erode species barriers among sympatric ducks

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    Kraus Robert HS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of speciation and maintenance of species barriers is at the core of evolutionary biology. During speciation the genome of one population becomes separated from other populations of the same species, which may lead to genomic incompatibility with time. This separation is complete when no fertile offspring is produced from inter-population matings, which is the basis of the biological species concept. Birds, in particular ducks, are recognised as a challenging and illustrative group of higher vertebrates for speciation studies. There are many sympatric and ecologically similar duck species, among which fertile hybrids occur relatively frequently in nature, yet these species remain distinct. Results We show that the degree of shared single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between five species of dabbling ducks (genus Anas is an order of magnitude higher than that previously reported between any pair of eukaryotic species with comparable evolutionary distances. We demonstrate that hybridisation has led to sustained exchange of genetic material between duck species on an evolutionary time scale without disintegrating species boundaries. Even though behavioural, genetic and ecological factors uphold species boundaries in ducks, we detect opposing forces allowing for viable interspecific hybrids, with long-term evolutionary implications. Based on the superspecies concept we here introduce the novel term "supra-population" to explain the persistence of SNPs identical by descent within the studied ducks despite their history as distinct species dating back millions of years. Conclusions By reviewing evidence from speciation theory, palaeogeography and palaeontology we propose a fundamentally new model of speciation to accommodate our genetic findings in dabbling ducks. This model, we argue, may also shed light on longstanding unresolved general speciation and hybridisation patterns in higher organisms, e.g. in other bird

  9. Age-class separation of blue-winged ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, W.L.; Moore, J.L.; Twedt, D.J.; Mensik, John G.; Logerwell, E.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate determination of age is of fundamental importance to population and life history studies of waterfowl and their management. Therefore, we developed quantitative methods that separate adult and immature blue-winged teal (Anas discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) during spring and summer. To assess suitability of discriminant models using 9 remigial measurements, we compared model performance (% agreement between predicted age and age assigned to birds on the basis of definitive cloacal or rectral feather characteristics) in different flyways (Mississippi and Pacific) and between years (1990-91 and 1991-92). We also applied age-classification models to wings obtained from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service harvest surveys in the Mississippi and Central-Pacific flyways (wing-bees) for which age had been determined using qualitative characteristics (i.e., remigial markings, shape, or wear). Except for male northern shovelers, models correctly aged lt 90% (range 70-86%) of blue-winged ducks. Model performance varied among species and differed between sexes and years. Proportions of individuals that were correctly aged were greater for males (range 63-86%) than females (range 39-69%). Models for northern shovelers performed better in flyway comparisons within year (1991-92, La. model applied to Calif. birds, and Calif. model applied to La. birds: 90 and 94% for M, and 89 and 76% for F, respectively) than in annual comparisons within the Mississippi Flyway (1991-92 model applied to 1990-91 data: 79% for M, 50% for F). Exclusion of measurements that varied by flyway or year did not improve model performance. Quantitative methods appear to be of limited value for age separation of female blue-winged ducks. Close agreement between predicted age and age assigned to wings from the wing-bees suggests that qualitative and quantitative methods may be equally accurate for age separation of male blue-winged ducks. We interpret annual

  10. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  11. Identification of polymorphisms in and genes and their associations with plumage colors in Asian duck breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Sultana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the melanogenesis associated transcription factor (MITF and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT genes on plumage coloration in Asian native duck breeds. MITF encodes a protein for microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, which regulates the development and function of melanocytes for pigmentation of skin, hair, and eyes. Among the tyrosinase-related family genes, DCT is a pigment cell-specific gene that plays important roles in the melanin synthesis pathway and the expression of skin, feather, and retina color. Methods Five Asian duck varieties (black Korean native, white Korean native, commercial Peking, Nageswari, and Bangladeshi Deshi white ducks were investigated to examine the polymorphisms associated with plumage colors. Among previously identified SNPs, three synonymous SNPs and one indel of MITF and nine SNPs in exon regions of DCT were genotyped. The allele frequencies for SNPs of the black and white plumage color populations were estimated and Fisher’s exact test was conducted to assess the association between the allele frequencies of these two populations. Results Two synonymous SNPs (c.114T>G and c.147T>C and a 14-bp indel (GCTGCAAAC AGATG in intron 7 of MITF were significantly associated with the black- and white-colored breeds (pG (p.His313Arg] in DCT, was highly significantly associated (pG was significantly associated (p<0.05 with black and white color plumage in the studied duck populations. Conclusion The results of this study provide a basis for further investigations of the associations between polymorphisms and plumage color phenotypes in Asian duck breeds.

  12. Profiles of mRNA expression of related genes in the duck hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis during embryonic and early post-hatch development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Liu, Hongxiang; Song, Chi; Xu, Wenjuan; Ji, Gaige; Zhu, Chunhong; Shu, Jingting; Li, Huifang

    2015-03-15

    In this study, the ontogeny of body and liver weight and the pattern of related gene mRNA expression in the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis (HPGA) of two different duck breeds (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) were compared during embryonic and post-hatch development. Duck hypothalamic growth hormone release hormone (GHRH), somatostatin (SS), pituitary growth hormone (GH), liver growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) mRNA were first detected on the 13th embryonic day. During early duck development, SS maintained a lower expression status, whereas the other four genes exhibited highly significant variations in an age-specific manner. Highly significant breed specificity was observed with respect to hepatic IGF-1 mRNA expression, which showed a significant breed-age interaction effect. Compared with previous studies on chickens, significant species differences were observed regarding the mRNA expression of bird embryonic HPGA-related genes. During early development, highly significant breed and age specificity were observed with respect to developmental changes in body and liver weight, and varying degrees of significant linear correlation were found between these performances and the mRNA expression of HPGA-related genes in the duck HPGA. These results suggest that different genetic backgrounds may lead to differences in duck growth and HPGA-related gene mRNA expression, and the differential mRNA expression of related genes in the duck HPGA may be particularly important in the early growth of ducks. Furthermore, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA expression presented highly significant breed specificity, and evidence suggests the involvement of hepatic IGF-1 in mediating genetic effects on embryo and offspring growth in ducks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lead shot ingestion in two raptor species from Doñana, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, R; Cadenas, R; Máñez, M; Guitart, R

    2001-01-01

    Diurnal raptors inhabiting wetland areas where waterfowl shooting is conducted have many opportunities to ingest lead (Pb) shot pellets when feeding on their prey. Exposure to Pb shot was studied in the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), an endangered species with a world population of about 150 breeding pairs, and in the red kite (Milvus milvus) from Doñana (southwest Spain). Lead exposure was evaluated by the presence of Pb shot in the pellets of both species. Results obtained by this noninvasive method demonstrated Pb shot in 11.0% of Spanish imperial eagle and 5.5% of red kite pellets. When the data of both species were pooled, there was a significant relationship between Pb shot ingestion and consumption of waterfowl during the hunting season. Pb shot found in pellets exhibited signs of erosion, and their weight distribution had peaks at 70, 170, and 240 mg, which could correspond to ammunition used for duck and goose hunting.

  14. Use of no-till winter wheat by nesting ducks in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Nesting of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) was studied in fields of no-till winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota during 1984 and 1985. Total area of 59 fields searched in 1984 was 1,135 ha and total area of 70 fields searched in 1985 was 1,175 ha. Field sizes ranged from 3 ha to 110 ha. Nests of five duck species were found: blue-winged teal (Anas discors), 55 nests; northern pintail (A. acuta), 44; mallard (A. platyrhynchos), 29; gadwall (A. strepera), 15; and northern shoveler (A. clypeata), 8. The average number of nests found was 8/100 ha in 1984 and 6/100 ha in 1985. Nest success for all species averaged 26% in 1984 and 29% in 1985. Predation by mammals was the principal cause of nest destruction. No egg or hen mortality could be attributed to pesticide use. Only 6 of 151 nests (4%) were abandoned during the two years. We also found 29 nests of seven other ground-nesting bird species. The trend toward increased planting of no-till winter wheat in the prairie pothole region should benefit production of ducks and other ground-nesting birds.

  15. Nest-site selection and success of mottled ducks on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, R.S.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    Listing of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula maculosa) as a priority species in the Gulf Coast Joint Venture of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan, coupled with recent declines of rice (Oryza sativa) acreage, led us to investigate the nesting ecology of this species on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana. We examined nest-site selection at macro- and microhabitat levels, nest success, causes of nest failures, and habitat features influencing nest success. We found that female mottled ducks preferred to nest in permanent pastures with knolls (53% of nests) and idle fields (22% of nests). Vegetation height was greater at nests than at random points within the same macrohabitat patch. Successful nests were associated with greater numbers of plant species, located farther from water, and associated with higher vegetation density values than were unsuccessful nests. We determined that mammalian predators caused most nest failures (77% of 52 unsuccessful nests). Our results suggest that nest success of mottled ducks on agricultural lands in southwest Louisiana could be improved by 1) locating large permanent pastures and idle fields near rice fields and other available wetlands, 2) managing plant communities in these upland areas to favor dense stands of perennial bunch grasses, tall composites, dewberry (Rubus trivialis), and other native grasses and forbs, and 3) managing cattle-stocking rates and the duration and timing of grazing to promote tall, dense stands of these plant taxa during the nesting season (March-June).

  16. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Anti-avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Innate Immune Response of the Cherry Valley Duck CIITA Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II transactivator (CIITA is a member of the pattern recognition receptor in cytoplasm, which is involved in host innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Cherry Valley duck CIITA (duCIITA was cloned from the spleen of healthy Cherry Valley ducks for the first time. The CDs of duCIITA have 3648 bp and encode 1215 amino acids. The homology analysis of CIITAs amino acid sequence showed that the duCIITA has the highest identity with the Anas platyrhynchos (94.9%, followed by Gallus gallus and Meleagris gallopavo. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that duCIITA mRNA has a broad expression level in healthy Cherry Valley duck tissues. It was highly expressed in the lung and cerebellum, and lowly expressed in the rectum and esophagus. After the avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC O1K1 infection, the ducks exhibited the typical clinical symptoms, and a severe fibrinous exudate in the heart and liver surface was observed. Meanwhile, a significant up-regulation of duCIITA was detected in the infected liver. The inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 have a significant up-regulation in the infected liver, spleen and brain. In addition, knockdown of the duCIITA reduces antibacterial activity and inflammatory cytokine production of the duck embryo fibroblast cells. Our research is the first study of the cloning, tissue distribution, and antibacterial immune responses of duCIITA, and these findings imply that duCIITA was an important receptor, which was involved in the early stage of the antibacterial innate immune response to APEC O1K1 infection of Cherry Valley duck.

  17. Windows 7 ieviešana

    OpenAIRE

    Laurens, Matīss

    2011-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbā „Windows 7 ieviešana” tiek izveidota Windows 7 operētājsistēmas ieviešanas sistēma virtuālajā vidē, kas sevī ietver visu ieviešanas produktu un rīku apvienojumu, lai būtu pieejami visi „Lite Touch Installation” ieviešanas veidi noteiktu ieviešanas situāciju risināšanai. Ieviešanas sistēma tiek veidota ar mērķi izveidot pilnība strādājošu infrastruktūru virtuālajā vidē, pēc kuras piemēra pēc tam būtu iespējams realizēt strādājošu ievi...

  18. Dimensiju samazināšanas algoritmi

    OpenAIRE

    Starovoitova, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Šīs darbs apskata datu dimensiju samazināšanas nepieciešamību un metodes. Tas pēta vienu no pieejām - galveno komponenšu analīzi. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt to teorētisko pamatojumu, darbības principus un pielietošanas iespējas; salīdzināt eksistējošas implementācijas, noskaidrot to pielietošanas robežas, un izpētīt iteratīvo tuvināto algoritmu veidošanas iespējas. Algoritmu darbība tiek pārbaudīta uz lielām datu kopām, lai salīdzināt veiktspēju un patērētus resursus un ieraudzīt uzlabošanas...

  19. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  20. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Results Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. Conclusions The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important

  1. Red fox prey demands and implications to prairie duck production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during spring and summer with 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to determine prey demands, feeding characteristics, and growth rates using natural foods. Pups began eating prey the 4th week after birth. Then, prey consumption averaged 1.38 and 1.90 kg/pup/week for weeks 5-8 and 9-12 of the denning season respectively, and 2.54 kg/pup/week for the postdenning period. Feeding by adults averaged 2.25 kg/adult/week. Free water was not needed by either pups or adults. About 90 percent of the prey offered to pups on simulated natural diets was consumed, remains varied with prey availability and prey type. Prey biomass required by a typical fox family was estimated at 18.5 kg/km2 for the 12-week denning season and 2.4 kg/km2/week for the postdenning period. Because of the large prey demands, ducks could represent a small part of the foxes' diet and yet be of consequence to the productivity of particular species. An example is provided for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

  2. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  3. Habitats of North American sea ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding, molting, fall and spring staging, and wintering habitats of the sea duck tribe Mergini are described based on geographic locations and distribution in North America, geomorphology, vegetation and soil types, and fresh water and marine characteristics. The dynamics of habitats are discussed in light of natural and anthropogenic events that shape areas important to sea ducks. Strategies for sea duck habitat management are outlined and recommendations for international collaboration to preserve key terrestrial and aquatic habitats are advanced. We follow the definition of habitat advanced by Odum (1971), which is the place or space where an organism lives. Weller (1999) emphasized that habitats for waterbirds required presence of sufficient resources (i.e., food, water, cover, space) for maintenance during a portion of their annual cycle. Habitats exploited by North American sea ducks are diverse, widespread across the continent and adjacent marine waters and until recently, most were only superficially known. A 15-year-long effort funded research on sea duck habitats through the Sea Duck Joint Venture and the Endangered or Threatened Species programs of the United States and Canada. Nevertheless, important gaps remain in our understanding of key elements required by some species during various life stages. Many significant habitats, especially staging and wintering sites, have been and continue to be destroyed or altered by anthropogenic activities. The goal of this chapter is to develop a comprehensive summary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats and their characteristics by considering sea duck species with similar needs as groups within the tribe Mergini. Additionally, we examine threats and changes to sea duck habitats from human-caused and natural events. Last, we evaluate conservation and management programs underway or available for maintenance and enhancement of habitats critical for sea ducks.

  4. Accuracy of aging ducks in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Waterfowl Parts Collection Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Richkus, Kenneth D.; Rohwer, Frank C.; Cox, Robert R.; Padding, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducts an annual Waterfowl Parts Collection Survey to estimate composition of harvested waterfowl by species, sex, and age (i.e., juv or ad). The survey relies on interpretation of duck wings by a group of experienced biologists at annual meetings (hereafter, flyway wingbees). Our objectives were to estimate accuracy of age assignment at flyway wingbees and to explore how accuracy rates may influence bias of age composition estimates. We used banded mallards (Anas platyrhynchos; n = 791), wood ducks (Aix sponsa; n = 242), and blue-winged teal (Anas discors; n = 39) harvested and donated by hunters as our source of birds used in accuracy assessments. We sent wings of donated birds to wingbees after the 2002–2003 and 2003–2004 hunting seasons and compared species, sex, and age determinations made at wingbees with our assessments based on internal and external examination of birds and corresponding banding records. Determinations of species and sex of mallards, wood ducks, and blue-winged teal were accurate (>99%). Accuracy of aging adult mallards increased with harvest date, whereas accuracy of aging juvenile male wood ducks and juvenile blue-winged teal decreased with harvest date. Accuracy rates were highest (96% and 95%) for adult and juvenile mallards, moderate for adult and juvenile wood ducks (92% and 92%), and lowest for adult and juvenile blue-winged teal (84% and 82%). We used these estimates to calculate bias for all possible age compositions (0–100% proportion juv) and determined the range of age compositions estimated with acceptable levels of bias. Comparing these ranges with age compositions estimated from Parts Collection Surveys conducted from 1961 to 2008 revealed that mallard and wood duck age compositions were estimated with insignificant levels of bias in all national surveys. However, 69% of age compositions for blue-winged teal were estimated with an unacceptable level of bias. The low

  5. Duck plague in free-flying waterfowl observed during the Lake Andes epizootic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, S.J.; Pearson, G.L.; Leibovitz, Louis

    1975-01-01

    The first major epizootic of duck plague in free-flying waterfowl occurred at Lake Andes, South Dakota, in January and February, 1973. Duck plague was diagnosed in black ducks, mallards, pintail-mallard hybrids, redheads, common mergansers, common golden eyes, canvasbacks, American widgeon, wood ducks, and Canada geese, indicating the general susceptibility of ducks to duck plague. Clinical signs observed in mallards were droopiness, polydipsia, lethargy, reduced wariness, weakness, reluctance to fly, swimming in circles, bloody diarrhea, bloody fluid draining from the nares and bill, and terminal convulsions.Because the mallard was the most numerous and heavily infected species during the Lake Andes epizootic, gross and microscopic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, heart, lung, bone marrow, pancreas, and ovaries were described. Lesions of the esophagus and cloaca were in the stratified submucosal glands. In the small and large intestine, lesions were located in lymphocytic aggregates, lamina propria, and crypt epithelium. Hemorrhages and necrosis of hepatocytes and bile duct epithelium were noted in the liver. Diffuse necrosis of lymphocytic and reticuloendothelial tissue were evident in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus. Hemorrhages in other tissues such as the lung and heart were often associated with lymphoid nodules, while those in organs such as the pancreas were associated with acinar necrosis. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus and cloaca, crypt epithelium of the intestine, hepatocytes, bile duct epithelium, cells of Hassel's corpuscles, splenic periarteriolar reticular cells, and epithelial cells in the bursa of Fabricius.

  6. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7???1??C). ...

  7. Título do blogue: ana vidigal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Néry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Existe desde 2007 e constitui‑se como um arquivo pessoal e actualizado do trabalho de 30 décadas da artista plástica Ana Vidigal. Afirma: a «pintura é tudo o que se cola». O processo é estabelecido assim pela artista como um regime de reciclagem de elementos que passa pelo uso de objectos da sua infância ou elementos característicos da cultura dos anos sessenta. O blogue é gerido pela própria, para que não fique nada por ver, como um depósito de narrativas do seu trabalho. Ana Vidigal convoca...

  8. Ana Istarú en tono mayor

    OpenAIRE

    Perdomo, Miguel Aníbal

    2009-01-01

    Pocas veces se ha oído un tono tan enérgico en la poesía femenina hispanoamericana como el que surge de Poesía escogida1 de Ana Istarú. La suya es voz que remonta los vientos cargados de fluoruro de carbono y choca contra el agujero abierto por nuestra salvaje civilización en la capa de ozono.

  9. Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie, the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F, the total number of dead embryos (M, the maximum duration of fertility (Dm and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H; F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201 was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie (h2 = 0.07±0.03 and M (h2 = 0.07±0.01, moderately low for Dm (h2 = 0.13±0.02, of medium values for H (h2 = 0.20±0.03 and F (h2 = 0.23±0.03. High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm (rg = 0.93, between F and H (rg = 0.97 and between Dm and H (rg = 0.90. The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201, with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201 and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality rate. The average

  10. Identification of polymorphisms in MITF and DCT genes and their associations with plumage colors in Asian duck breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Hasina; Seo, Dongwon; Choi, Nu-Ri; Bhuiyan, Md. Shamsul Alam; Lee, Seung Hwan; Heo, Kang-Nyeong

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the melanogenesis associated transcription factor (MITF) and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) genes on plumage coloration in Asian native duck breeds. MITF encodes a protein for microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, which regulates the development and function of melanocytes for pigmentation of skin, hair, and eyes. Among the tyrosinase-related family genes, DCT is a pigment cell-specific gene that plays important roles in the melanin synthesis pathway and the expression of skin, feather, and retina color. Methods Five Asian duck varieties (black Korean native, white Korean native, commercial Peking, Nageswari, and Bangladeshi Deshi white ducks) were investigated to examine the polymorphisms associated with plumage colors. Among previously identified SNPs, three synonymous SNPs and one indel of MITF and nine SNPs in exon regions of DCT were genotyped. The allele frequencies for SNPs of the black and white plumage color populations were estimated and Fisher’s exact test was conducted to assess the association between the allele frequencies of these two populations. Results Two synonymous SNPs (c.114T>G and c.147T>C) and a 14-bp indel (GCTGCAAAC AGATG) in intron 7 of MITF were significantly associated with the black- and white-colored breeds (pG (p.His313Arg)] in DCT, was highly significantly associated (pG) was significantly associated (p<0.05) with black and white color plumage in the studied duck populations. Conclusion The results of this study provide a basis for further investigations of the associations between polymorphisms and plumage color phenotypes in Asian duck breeds. PMID:28823136

  11. Determination of specificity and pattern of antinuclear antibodies (ana) in systemic rheumatic disease patients positive for ana testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, H.; Bashir, M.M.; Iqbal, W.

    2018-01-01

    To determine probability of finding antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) positive samples and associating ANA patterns with anti-ENA reactivities among a consecutive cohort of samples of systemic rheumatic disease patients referred for ANA testing. Study Design:Prospective cohort study. Place and Duration of Study:Immunology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to June 2016. Methodology:All the samples referred for ANA testing with clinical suspicion of systemic rheumatic disease were included. After screening, ANA positive samples were subjected to anti-ENA antibodies testing (including anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-SCL-70 and anti-Jo-1 antibodies) and ANA pattern and titer determination. Results:Of 4,347 samples received, 397 were positive for ANA (9%). Of 397, 96 (24%) samples positive on ENA screen were tested for anti-ENA reactivity. Anti-SSA antibodies were found in 59 samples. Commonest ANA patterns were coarse and fine speckled (43 and 22 samples of 81 tested), while majority of samples carried ANA in titers of 1:40 and 1:80 (22 and 18 samples of 81 tested). No specific ANA pattern was associated with any particular anti-ENA reactivity. Conclusion:Among samples/patients referred for investigations of autoimmune disorders, probability of finding positive ANA is approximately 9%. Of these 9%, about 24% also show reactivity against ENA. Commonest ANA pattern is coarse speckled and majority of such patients carry ANA in titers ranging from 1:40 to 1:80. Commonest ENA reactivity was against SSA. (author)

  12. Premigrational movements and behavior of young mallards and wood ducks in north-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, R.E.; Cowardin, L.M.; Tester, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Movements and behavior of 89 young mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 48 young wood ducks (Aix sponsa) were monitored on a 932-km2 study area in north-central Minnesota in late summer and fall, 1972-74, with telemetry, visual observation, and aerial surveys. Initial flights of both species were confined to the natal (brood) marsh; first flights away from the natal marsh occurred in the third week after fledging in both species. First flights of young mallards and wood ducks away from their natal marshes were not significantly different between the sexes (mallard, mean = 4.95 km for females and 5.83 km for males; wood ducks, mean = 2.31 km for females and 2.64 km for males). However, flights away from the brood marshes by wood ducks were significantly shorter than for mallards.As young mallards and wood ducks grew, their daytime use of the natal marshes decreased in an irregular pattern as both species began daily flights between day- and night-use areas. Locally reared mallards made longer daily flights between use areas than did wood ducks, but wood ducks changed use areas with greater frequency before 1 October. Despite often extensive movements, most locally reared mallards and wood ducks remained in the vicinity of their brood marshes throughout fall until migration.Movement of young birds to new habitat was not the result of random searching and thus fortuitous discovery of nearby areas. Instead, birds seemed to learn of new habitat and develop movement patterns by associating with other birds; locally reared young always moved in the company of flocks of conspecifics that included adults and older immatures.Differences in movement patterns between the sexes of young birds and between young and adult birds cause them to be differentially distributed by age and sex on and near the breeding grounds. These differences are ultimately reflected in the distribution of the hunter harvest. We have interpreted generalizations about such phenomena, developed from

  13. Long-term monitoring of endangered Laysan ducks: Index validation and population estimates 1998–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen; Brinck, Kevin W.; Rehkemper, Cynthia; Hatfield, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring endangered wildlife is essential to assessing management or recovery objectives and learning about population status. We tested assumptions of a population index for endangered Laysan duck (or teal; Anas laysanensis) monitored using mark–resight methods on Laysan Island, Hawai’i. We marked 723 Laysan ducks between 1998 and 2009 and identified seasonal surveys through 2012 that met accuracy and precision criteria for estimating population abundance. Our results provide a 15-y time series of seasonal population estimates at Laysan Island. We found differences in detection among seasons and how observed counts related to population estimates. The highest counts and the strongest relationship between count and population estimates occurred in autumn (September–November). The best autumn surveys yielded population abundance estimates that ranged from 674 (95% CI = 619–730) in 2003 to 339 (95% CI = 265–413) in 2012. A population decline of 42% was observed between 2010 and 2012 after consecutive storms and Japan’s To¯hoku earthquake-generated tsunami in 2011. Our results show positive correlations between the seasonal maximum counts and population estimates from the same date, and support the use of standardized bimonthly counts of unmarked birds as a valid index to monitor trends among years within a season at Laysan Island.

  14. Yellow Ducks Overboard! A Lesson in Geography and World Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul; Beauboeuf, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This lesson was inspired by the book, "10 Little Rubber Ducks" by Eric Carle, which discusses ocean pollution. The book was inspired by an incident in 1992: A shipping container tumbled into the North Pacific Ocean, broke open, and 28,800 little rubber ducks (and other plastic bath toys) were lost at sea. The ducks were manufactured in China, and…

  15. Indigenous Ducks are Better Reservoirs of P. multocida than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were performed to study cross infections from chickens to ducks and vice versa. For each experiment the source birds (chickens or ducks) were infected with Pasteurella multocida strain 10322T. The infected birds were then mixed with sentinel indigenous ducks or chickens, respectively, six hours after ...

  16. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  17. Mycoplasma infection of ducks and geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, L; Szathmary, S

    2012-11-01

    Production of ducks and geese in certain parts of the world is very important. Mycoplasma diseases cause significant losses to the duck and goose industry. This review summarizes the epidemiological, clinical, and pathomorphological characteristics of mycoplasma diseases of ducks and geese and the involvement of the various mycoplasma species in their pathogenesis. The role of mycoplasma infections in the development of clinical signs, pathological lesions, and mortality of challenged birds is demonstrated in challenge experiments. Transmission of mycoplasma in the ovary and eggs resulting in the reduction of egg production and an increase of embryo mortality has been shown in challenge experiments as well as in field studies. The susceptibility of many mycoplasma isolates of the most important mycoplasma species of duck and goose origin were tested and showed relatively high average minimum inhibitory concentrations of lincomycin, tilosin, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and enrofloxacin but not for tiamulin. The successful treatment of mycoplasma infections with antibiotics in ducks and geese should be selected based on the minimum inhibitory concentration values against the mycoplasmas isolated from the flock.

  18. Diet and body mass of wintering ducks in adjacent brackish and freshwater habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.R.; Burns, E.G.; Wickland, B.E.; Eadie, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Field-collected and hunter-donated ducks obtained during September-January of 1997-98 and 1998-99 were used to determine if food habits and body mass of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) and Mallards (A. platyrhynchos) wintering in Suisun Marsh (Suisun), California, a managed estuarine brackish marsh, differed from values in the adjacent Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (the Delta), a freshwater region of grain fields flooded after harvest. Ducks in Suisun fed primarily on seeds of Sea Purslane (Sesuvium verrucosum), followed by Alkali Bulrush (Schoenoplectus maritimus) and Wild Millet (Echinochloa crusgalli), together forming 73-90% (aggregate % dry mass) of the diets. Ducks in the Delta fed primarily on seeds of Smartweed (Polygonum spp.), followed by corn (Zea mays) and tomato seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum), together forming 62-88% of the diets. Pintails and Mallards collected in Suisun each had similar (5 of 11 seasonal comparisons) or greater (6 of the 11 comparisons) body mass compared to their conspecifics collected from the Delta (90% confidence interval analyses), despite a composite diet in the Delta having about 39% greater metabolizable energy content (ME) and 24% greater protein content than in Suisun. Therefore, diet quality alone was not a predictor of body mass in these two areas. Other factors must have been involved, such as greater food abundance and density, lower waterfowl abundance and density, or lower daily energy costs in Suisun. Direct measurement of these factors should explain the apparent inconsistencies in body mass relative to food quality in these brackish and freshwater habitats.

  19. U Portugalii dusha poeta / Ana Paula Zacarias ; interv. Aleksandr Shegedin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zacarias, Ana Paula

    2006-01-01

    Äsja avatud Portugali saatkonda juhtiv suursaadik Ana Paula Baptista Grade Zacarias jagab Portugali kogemusi seoses liitumisega Euroopa Liiduga. Eesti-Portugali suhted, suursaadiku esmamuljed Eestist

  20. Factors affecting breeding dispersal of European ducks on Engure Marsh, Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Lindberg, M.S.; Hines, J.E.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 35 years of capture-recapture data from nearly 3300 individual female ducks nesting on Engure Marsh, Latvia, and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on breeding dispersal probability within the marsh. 2. Analyses based on observed dispersal distances of common pochards and tufted ducks provided no evidence that breeding success in year t influenced dispersal distance between t and t + 1. 3. Breeding dispersal distances (year t to t + 1) of pochards and tufted ducks were associated with a delay in relative nest initiation dates in year t + 1. The delay was greater for pochards (c. 4 days) than for tufted ducks (c. 2 days) when females dispersed > 0.8 km. 4. Northern shovelers and tufted ducks moved from a large island to small islands at low water levels and from small islands to the large island at high water levels before the construction of elevated small islands (1960-82). Following this habitat management (1983-94). breeding fidelity was extremely high and not influenced by water level in the marsh for either species. 5. Because pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period, nesting females moved into and out of colonies with similar probabilities. Local survival probabilities and incubation body masses were higher for both yearlings (SY) and adults (ASY) nesting within gull colonies, suggesting that these females were of better quality than females nesting outside of the colonies. 6. Tufted ducks showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. However, rates of movement for a given water level were higher during the period before management than after. 7. Both pochards and tufted ducks exhibited asymmetric movement with respect to proximity to water, with higher movement probabilities to near-water nesting locations than

  1. Serpentine Locomotion Articulated Chain: ANA II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Cardona

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available When humanity faces challenges in solving problems beyond their technical resources, and has no foundation to solve a problem, engineering must search for an answer developing new concepts and innovative frameworks to excel these limitations and travel beyond our capabilities. This project “Serpentine locomotion articulated chain: ANA II” is a self-contained robot built to evaluate the behavior of the platform being capable of serpentine movements, in a modular chain mechanical design, based on a master/slave architecture.

  2. Ducks: the "Trojan horses" of H5N1 influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Ki; Negovetich, Nicholas J; Forrest, Heather L; Webster, Robert G

    2009-07-01

    Wild ducks are the main reservoir of influenza A viruses that can be transmitted to domestic poultry and mammals, including humans. Of the 16 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses, only the H5 and H7 subtypes cause highly pathogenic (HP) influenza in the natural hosts. Several duck species are naturally resistant to HP Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. These duck species can shed and spread virus from both the respiratory and intestinal tracts while showing few or no disease signs. While the HP Asian H5N1 viruses are 100% lethal for chickens and other gallinaceous poultry, the absence of disease signs in some duck species has led to the concept that ducks are the "Trojan horses" of H5N1 in their surreptitious spread of virus. An important unresolved issue is whether the HP H5N1 viruses are maintained in the wild duck population of the world. Here, we review the ecology and pathobiology of ducks infected with influenza A viruses and ducks' role in the maintenance and spread of HP H5N1 viruses. We also identify the key questions about the role of ducks that must be resolved in order to understand the emergence and control of pandemic influenza. It is generally accepted that wild duck species can spread HP H5N1 viruses, but there is insufficient evidence to show that ducks maintain these viruses and transfer them from one generation to the next.

  3. Transfer of egg white proteins and activation of proteases during the development of Anas platyrhynchos domestica embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbailat, Seba Jamal; Abuassaf, Razan Ataallah

    2018-03-01

    The route of egg white transfer into the yolk and the mechanisms underlying the digestion of egg proteins are unexplored in the fertilized egg of the duck, Anas platyrhynchos domestica. Here, we investigated the route(s) of egg white transfer and we determined the type of activated proteases during duck embryo development. Initially, we tested the electrophoretic patterns of egg proteins throughout development. Then, we used lysozyme as a reference protein to follow egg white transfer and we measured its activity. After that, we determined the type of activated proteases by employing different types of protease inhibitors. Several presumptive egg white protein bands appeared in different egg compartments. Also, lysozyme activity was detected chronologically on day 15 in the extraembryonic fluid, on day 17 in the amniotic and intestinal fluids and on day 19 in the yolk. Furthermore, acidic aspartic proteases seemed to be activated at hatch in the intestine and late in development in the yolk. Our results suggest that the main route of egg white transfer into the yolk is through the amniotic cavity and intestinal lumen. Also, the transferred egg white and endogenous yolk proteins are probably digested by the activated acidic proteases in the intestine and yolk.

  4. Communicating stigma: the pro-ana paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna; Martins, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the personal experience of pro-ana bloggers, members of an online community for people with eating disorders. Using Erving Goffman's work on stigma, this study explores the motivations, benefits, and drawbacks of blogging about a stigmatized mental illness, as taken from the bloggers' own perceptive. We conducted 33 interviews with bloggers from seven different countries via phone, Skype, and e-mail. Participants were motivated to blog because they found social support, a way to cope with a stigmatized illness, and means of self-expression. Participants described blogging as a cathartic experience and perceived the social support they received from other members of the pro-ana community as a benefit. The fear that the eating disorder will be revealed if the blog is exposed and the concern that the blog encourages disordered eating were the perceived negative consequences of maintaining such a blog. Thus, blogging about anorexia serves to both alleviate and trigger anxiety about living with this stigmatized illness. Recommendations for future research are made.

  5. Free inside: The Music Class at Santa Ana Jail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Joe

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings of the music class at the Santa Ana Jail in Santa Ana, California. It gives us insight into a jail system and a music class focused on helping inmates position themselves to become productive members of society. In this article I examine how the facility encourages inmates' good behaviour and why the music class…

  6. Measurement of Phenotype Characteristics of Sasak Ducks: Indian Runner Ducks of Lombok Island Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasil Tamzil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the phenotype characteristics of Sasak ducks in Lombok Island.  The study used 64 Sasak ducks at production stage which were kept intensively by small holder farmers. Observations on the characteristics of the feather color were carried out directly on each animal. The data observed were feather colors, beak color, and the color of the foot and shank, while the data on the size of the body that was observed were body weight, beak length, neck length, back length, breast circumference, back length, thigh length, shank length, and the distance between the two pubic bones. The data obtained were tabulated and analyzed descriptively. The study concluded that the characteristic of the color of feathers in Sasak ducks were dominated by Roman color (50.13%, followed by Tanak color (21.87%, Tongkak color (15.63%, Rombak color (6.25%, and Cemaning color (3.12%.  Sasak ducks with medium size were observed to have a relatively long beak, medium-long neck, short back, broad and deep chest, medium height, and the distance between the two pubic bones was quite wide. These characteristics indicate that Sasak ducks are the type of superior Indian Runner having better production ability compared to the other types of Indian Runner duck.

  7. Transport of retinol in the duck plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    in goat (Sreekrishna and Cama, 1979) and canine (Muto et al., 1973) sources and agree well with the values reported in chicken (Heller, 1976). An important observation in this study was that duck prealbumin did not exhibit microheterogeneity while that from other sources like chicken (Bhat et al., 1977) exhibited multiple ...

  8. MHC classⅠ gene in two duck lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian,. Shandong 271018, People's Repulic of China. Keywords: duck; MHC class Ⅰ; molecular characteristic; allelic group; amino acid variability. Introduction. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ⅰ molecules play a critical role in.

  9. Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE. The envelope (E gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs. Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.

  10. A multiplex PCR for detection of six viruses in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Shanyuan; Hong, Weiming; Wang, Anping; Zuo, Weiyong

    2017-10-01

    In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system. Specificity and sensitivity assays were also developed. The multiplex PCR was used to detect duck embryos infected with mixed viruses and those with clinically suspected diseases to verify the feasibility of the multiplex PCR. Results show that the primers can specifically amplify target fragments, without any cross-amplification with other viruses. The multiplex PCR system can amplify six DNA fragments from the pooled viral genomes and specifically detect nucleic acids of the six duck susceptible viruses when the template amount is 10 2 copies/μl. In addition, the system can be used to detect viral nucleic acids in duck embryos infected with the six common viruses. The detection results for clinical samples are consistent with those detected by single PCR. Therefore, the established multiplex PCR method can perform specific, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of six duck-infecting viruses and can be applied to clinical identification and diagnosis of viral infection in ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Egg Production Potentials of Muscovy Ducks ( Cairina moschata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ducks in intensive management systems came into lay significantly (P<0.05) earlier, (IO, 203 days and IW, 207 days) than ducks in semi-intensive management system (248 days). Eggs from ducks in IO and IW were significantly (P<0.05) heavier (76.35 and 76.27g, respectively) than eggs from those in SI. Clutch sizes were ...

  12. Caracterización molecular del pato criollo colombiano en cuatro departamentos Molecular characterization of the Colombian creole duck in four departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Hernández

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 53 individuos de patos Muscovy de los departamentos de Caldas, Risaralda, Antioquia y Valle del Cauca con tres cebadores RAMs. Se generaron 71 loci polimórficos (61.2% con 0.19 de heterocigosidad. El cebador con mayor heterocigosidad fue CGA (0.23 y CA el de mayor loci polimórfico (76.1%. La técnica RAMs permitió diferenciar los géneros Anas y Cairina a un índice de similitud de 0.83. Con un índice de similitud del 0.894, los patos Muscovy formaron cinco grupos. El mejor cebador para diferenciar especies fue CCA (Fst= 0.274. La diferenciación genética en la muestra poblacional fue moderada (Fst= 0.2045.53 individuals of Muscovy ducks from Caldas, Risaralda, Antioquia and Valle del Cauca departments with three primers RAMs were evaluated. 71 polymorphic loci (61,2% were generated with 0.19 of heterocigozity. The primer with the highest heterocigozity was CGA (0.23 and CA had the highest polymorphic loci (76.1%. The RAMs technique allowed to discriminate Anas and Cairina genus with an index of similarity of 0.83. At a 0.894 of similarity index, the Muscovy ducks formed 5 groups. The best primer to discriminate species was CCA (Fst= 0.274. The genetic differentiation was moderate (Fst= 0.2045.

  13. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  14. Ecology and conservation of North American sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Esler, Daniel N.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a huge increase in the interest and attention directed toward sea ducks, the Mergini tribe. This has been inspired, in large part, by the conservation concerns associated with numerical declines in several sea duck species and populations, as well as a growing appreciation for their interesting ecological attributes. Reflecting the considerable research recently conducted on this tribe, Ecology and Conservation of North American Sea Ducks examines the 15 extant species of sea ducks from North America.

  15. Post-epizootic surveys of waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, C.J.; Docherty, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Surviving birds from nine duck plague outbreaks in urban and confined waterfowl were sampled for duck plague (DP) virus and DP antibody during 1979-86. Duck plague virus was found in combined oral and cloacal swabs of birds from three outbreaks, and DP-neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in some birds from all nine outbreaks. Greater prevalence of DP antibody and higher titers were found in survivors from confined populations than from free-flying urban populations. Free-flying waterfowl from within 52 km of four DP outbreak sites were also sampled; virus was not found in any birds, but DP antibody was found in urban waterfowl in the vicinity of an outbreak in Potterville, Michigan. No evidence of exposure to or shedding of DP virus in migratory waterfowl was found in two regions where DP appears enzootic in urban and confined waterfowl (Eastern Shore of Maryland and the vicinity of Sacramento, California).

  16. ERP sistēmas ieviešana

    OpenAIRE

    Proskurins, Aleksandrs

    2008-01-01

    Šajā darbā tika apskatīta informācijas sistēmu klasifikācija, uzņēmuma resursu plānošanas sistēmas (ERP) definīcija un tās vieta IS klasifikācijā. Tika apskatīti ERP sistēmu ieviešanas teorētiskie aspekti, izstrādes un pielāgošanas specifika, kā arī tika izanalizēti vairāki ERP sistēmas ieviešanas projekti Latvijas uzņēmumos.

  17. Kukuļa izspiešanas nošķiršana no kukuļa pieprasīšanas

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovs, Igors

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs ir veltīts divu kukuļņemšanas kvalificējošo pazīmju – kukuļa pieprasīšanas un kukuļa izspiešanas – izpētei un analīzei. Darba gaitā autors secina, ka praksē kriminālprocesa ietvaros ne vienmēr tiek visaptveroši analizēts jautājums, vai darbība, par kuru dots kukulis, bija likumīga vai nelikumīga, un vai valsts amatpersona apdraudēja personas likumīgās intereses vai nē, kas var novest pie kļūdainas noziedzīga nodarījuma kvalifikācijas. Ievērojot teorētiskās atziņas un apkopoto ...

  18. Global transcriptional expression in ovarian follicles from Tsaiya ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) with a high-fertilization rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shyh-Jong; Cheng, Yu-Shin; Liu, Hsiao-Lung; Wang, Hsing-He; Huang, Hsiu-Lin

    2016-05-01

    Novel candidates for biomarkers of a high-fertilization rate were identified here through global transcriptional profiling of ovarian follicles. Some other differentially expressed candidate genes were first noted to influence animal reproduction in our previous cDNA microarray analysis and are now recognized as markers for marker-assisted selection. In the present study, we compared gene expression in ovarian follicles from animals with high- and low-fertilization rates using an oligonucleotide array. On the basis of a fold change of greater than 1.2 and less than -1.2, a difference of >100 Affymetrix arbitrary units between the two groups, and a P value of less than 0.05, 47 genes were found to be associated with fertilization rate. GOEAST and MetaCore software were further used to identify the functional categories of genes that were differentially expressed. Then, we focused on three interesting genes associated with a high-fertilization rate: one of these genes was discovered to participate in signaling pathways of fertilization, and two genes take roles in lipid metabolism. An oligonucleotide array showed that the levels of orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) gene expression were 1.62-fold and 1.95-fold higher in the high-fertilization rate group than in the low-fertilization rate group, respectively (P fertilization rate group, with a difference of 2.31-fold (P fertilization rates in ovarian follicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of duck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the maternal genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Nigerian duck populations were assessed. A total of 591 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region of 87 indigenous ducks from two populations in Nigeria were analyzed. Seven haplotypes and 70 polymorphic sites were ...

  20. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck interleukin-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belonging to the Th17 family is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. A 1034-bp cDNA encoding duck IL-17 (duIL-17) was cloned from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of ducks. The encoded protein, predicted to consisted of 169 amino acids, displayed a molec...

  1. Performance of Pekin ducks subjected to qualitative feed restriction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake was also reduced in proportion to the degree of lysine restriction and to age when first fed. Sexual maturity was delayed by lysine restriction but this did not cause an increase in average egg mass. The ducks on the low lysine diets laid fewer extra large and more smaller eggs than those ducks not restricted by ...

  2. Epidemiology and molecular characterisation of duck hepatitis A virus from different duck breeds in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfan, Ahmed M; Selim, Abdullah A; Moursi, Mohamed K; Nasef, Soad A; Abdelwhab, E M

    2015-06-12

    Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) is an acute highly contagious disease of ducklings caused by three distinct serotypes of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a member of the RNA family Picornaviridae, where serotype 1 is the most widespread serotype worldwide. To date, little if any is known about the prevalence and genetic characterisation of DHAV outside Asia. The current study describes surveillance on DHV in 46 commercial duck farms in Egypt with a history of high mortality in young ducklings from 3 to 15 day-old from 2012 to 2014. Clinical samples were examined by generic RT-PCR assays followed by partial sequence analysis of the 5'UTR, VP1 and 3D genes of the vaccine strain and 15 field viruses. The overall positive rate was 37% (n=17/46). All duck breeds (Pekin, Muscovy, Mallard and Green Winged) were susceptible to the disease with mortality ranged from 15% to 96.7%. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Egyptian strains cluster in the DHAV serotype 1 with Asian viruses and distinguishable from the vaccine strains. So far, this is the first report on the genetic characterisation of DHAV in Egypt. This study may be useful to better understand the epidemiology and evolution of DHAV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N1) Transmission Between Wild Ducks and Domestic Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Handberg, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virological investigation in a mixed flock of ducks and geese following detection of avian influenza virus antibodies in domestic geese. Low pathogenic H7N1 was found in both domestic and wild birds, indicating that transmission of virus was likely to have taken place...

  4. The Reproduction Performance of Tegal Duck Based on Hematology Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismoyowati Ismoyowati

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the physiological indicator of Tegal duck based on the hematological parameters and its relation to reproduction performances.  The research materials were 20 heads of male and 100 heads of female Tegal ducks. Parameters measured were erytrocyte, leucocyte, differential leucocyte, hemoglobin, hematocrit, protein total, albumin and globulin, and reproduction performances (semen volume and egg production.  Method of the research was experimental with Completely Randomized Design,  and data were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation.  The result of the experiment showed that hematological parameters of Tegal duck that had high production were high significantly (P<0,05 different than the others, except on albumin value.  It was concluded that reprodution performances of Tegal duck was highly affected by its hematologys status. (Animal Production 8(2: 88-93 (2006   Key Words: Reproduction performances, Tegal duck, hematology status

  5. 50 CFR 21.54 - Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., transport, and dispose of muscovy ducks taken under this order. (b) Muscovy ducks in Hidalgo, Starr, and Zapata Counties in Texas. In these counties, take of muscovy ducks, their nests, and their eggs may be... muscovy ducks taken under this order to public museums or public institutions for scientific or...

  6. Different Duck Species Infected Intramuscularly with Duck-Origin Genotype IX APMV-1 Show Discrepant Mortality and Indicate Another Fatal Genotype APMV-1 to Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guanghua; Cheng, Longfei; Fu, Qiuling; Qi, Baomin; Chen, Cuiteng; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Liu, Rongchang; Huang, Yu

    2017-03-01

    Isolations of genotype IX (gIX) avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) from various bird species have been more common recently, with isolates showing variable pathogenicity in different species of poultry. Here we sequenced the genome of a Muscovy duck origin gIX virus strain XBT14 and characterized the virulence and pathogenicity of this isolate in chickens and ducks. The genome sequence of strain XBT14 is 15,192 nt in length, containing multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. The XBT14 strain shared 91.6%-91.9% nucleotide identities with early-genotype viruses (such as genotype III and IV) and shared 85.3%-85.9% nucleotide homologies with later genotype viruses (such as genotype VII). Pathogenicity tests showed that strain XBT14 could cause death in different duck breeds with a mortality rate of 44.4% in Muscovy duck, 25.9% in Sheldrake, and 11.1% in Cherry Valley duck, respectively. Similar mortality discrepancies were also observed in different ducks when infected with chicken-origin gIX virus strain F48E8. These results indicate that XBT14-like velogenic gIX APMV-1 (such as XBT14, F48E8, and GD09-2) could cause fatal infection in duck, and genotype IX is another genotype velogenic to duck as well as genotype VII. Accompanied by genetic differences in the vaccine strains or dominant strains prevailing in poultry, the virulent XBT14-like gIX viruses might become potentially endemic strains in poultry in the future.

  7. Entrevista com a Professora Ana Jacó Vilela

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial, Corpo

    2017-01-01

    A professora Ana Jacó Vilela é graduada em Psicologia pela Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (1972), mestre em Psicologia pela Fundação Getúlio Vargas - RJ (1980) e doutora em Psicologia Escolar e do Desenvolvimento Humano pela Universidade de São Paulo (1996), com pós-doutorado em História e Historiografia da Psicologia na Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona (2004). Ana Jacó Vilela é professora associada da UERJ, atuando no Programa de Pós-graduação em Psicologia Social e no Curso de gradu...

  8. Zeolite-like metal-organic frameworks with ana topology

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-04-20

    Embodiments of the present disclosure describe a zeolite-like metal-organic framework composition comprising a metal-organic framework composition with ana topology characterized by the formula [MIII(4, 5-imidazole dicarboxylic acid)2X(solvent)a]n wherein MIII comprises a trivalent cation of a rare earth element, X comprises an alkali metal element or alkaline earth metal element, and solvent comprises a guest molecule occupying pores. Embodiments of the present disclosure describe a method of separating paraffins comprising contacting a zeolite-like metal-organic framework with ana topology with a flow of paraffins, and separating the paraffins by size.

  9. SOUND ABSORPTION PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITES MADE OF DISCARDED DUCK FEATHERS

    OpenAIRE

    BI, Jihong; YU, Xiang; WANG, Xiao; WEI, Chunyan; CUI, Yongzhu; LV, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    A novel composite with good sound absorption properties was prepared by discarded duck feathers and Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) non-woven fabrics by using lay-up and hot-pressing method. The effects of discarded duck feather concentration, composite density, composite thickness and air cavity depth on sound absorption performance were studied. When the composites with proportion (w/w) of the discarded duck feathers to EVA non-woven fabrics of 300/100, density of 1400g/m2, thickness...

  10. Testēšanas prasmju uzlabošana, pamatojoties uz procesa dokumentāciju

    OpenAIRE

    Andersons, Jānis

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir ”Testēšanas prasmju uzlabošana, pamatojoties uz procesa dokumentāciju”. Latvijā, pēdējos gados, programmatūras izstrādes industrija ir ļoti strauji augusi un augstskolās tiek sagatavoti daudzi šīs jomas speciālisti. Diemžēl ne visās augstskolās tiek pievērsta pietiekama uzmanība testēšanas jomas speciālistu sagatavošanai. Līdz ar to bieži programmatūras izstrādes uzņēmumiem ir pašiem jāsagatavo jaunos darbiniekus produktīvam darbam. Darba mērķis ir definēt un apr...

  11. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo, E-mail: liujiaguo@njau.edu.cn; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-04-15

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  12. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-01-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  13. Identification and comparative proteomic study of quail and duck egg white protein using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S; Qiu, N; Liu, Y; Zhao, H; Gao, D; Song, R; Ma, M

    2016-05-01

    A proteomic study of egg white proteins from 2 major poultry species, namely quail (Coturnix coturnix) and duck (Anas platyrhynchos), was performed with comparison to those of chicken (Gallus gallus) through 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS), 29 protein spots representing 10 different kinds of proteins as well as 17 protein spots designating 9 proteins were successfully identified in quail and duck egg white, respectively. This report suggested a closer relationship between quail and chicken egg white proteome patterns, whereas the duck egg white protein distribution on the 2-DE map was more distinct. In duck egg white, some well-known major proteins, such as ovomucoid, clusterin, extracellular fatty acid-binding protein precursor (ex-FABP), and prostaglandin D2 synthase (PG D2 synthase), were not detected, while two major protein spots identified as "deleted in malignant brain tumors 1" protein (DMBT1) and vitellogenin-2 were found specific to duck in the corresponding range on the 2-DE gel map. These interspecies diversities may be associated with the egg white protein functions in cell defense or regulating/supporting the embryonic development to adapt to the inhabiting environment or reproduction demand during long-term evolution. The findings of this work will give insight into the advantages involved in the application on egg white proteins from various egg sources, which may present novel beneficial properties in the food industry or related to human health. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Bottom's Semiology: The Duck-Rabbit and Magritte's Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoff, Ann E.

    1993-01-01

    Explores how a dyadic understanding of perception cancels the validity it might have as a model for the linguistic process. Discusses commonly misunderstood exhibits in the gallery of perception studies--the duck-rabbit and Magritte's pipe. (RS)

  15. [Enteric helminths of the mallard Anas platyrhynchos L., 1758 in the north-western part of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Rzad, Izabella; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Korol, Eleonora N; Sitko, Jiljí; Szałańska, Katarzyna

    2008-01-01

    Although the mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, is the most common wild duck in Poland, as well as in the entire Palearctic, it is extremely rarely studied by comprehensive parasitological surveys. The aim of this study was to present a synthesis on the species composition of enteric helminths of the mallard in north-western Poland. The study was carried out in 1999-2006 and involved parasitic worms isolated from the alimentary tracts of 187 mallards (Anseriformes: Anatidae). Following isolation, the parasites were preserved in 70% ethylene and stained (flatworms) or viewed in transient light (nematodes and acanthocephalans). Taxonomic identity of the worms was determined using taxonomic keys and numerous original papers. The studies have revealed that the parasitic community of this host in the north-west part of Poland is relatively complex, composed of 51 species of helminths of four systematic groups: 16 digenean species, 23 tapeworms, 9 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans. The material also revealed five new to Polish fauna parasitic species: one trematode (Echinostoma miyagawai) and four tapeworms (Microsomacanthus baeri, M. pachycephala, Monotestilepis tadornae, and Sobolevicanthus aculeostileticus). On the other hand, for another 11 species (Prosthogonimus ovatus, Psilotrema simillimum, Australapatemon minor, Leucochloridiomorpha lutea, Psilostomum brevicolle, Echinocotyle rosseteri, Fimbriarioides sp., Retinometra giranensis, Anisakinae gen. sp., Pseudocapillaria mergi i Polymorphus magnus) the mallard was found to be a new host.

  16. POSTMORTEM DIAGNOSIS OF ONE POPULATION OF BLUE-WINGED TEAL (Anas discors IN THE STATE OF VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena López-De-Buen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The health status of 30 Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors hunted in Amatitlán, in the central region of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, was assessed. The ducks were weighed, the wings were morphometrically measured, and of each organ the appearance, weight and length were evaluated, making comparisons between males and females, and between adults and immatures. The males weighed more than the females (n = 30, F(1,28 = 9.525, P = 0.004 and the adults more than the immatures (n = 19, F(1,17 = 6.526, P = 0.020. In all the groups the length of the wings was similar, as well as the internal organs had normal color, texture and location. The weight and size of lungs (5.4 g, 441 mm, liver (8.8 g, 608 mm, pancreas (1.5 g, 572 mm, gizzard (20.03 g, 448 mm and intestines (21 g were also similar among groups; however, the heart (3.8 g, 290 mm was larger in the males (n = 30, F(1,28 = 13.513, P = 0.0009, and the kidneys (3 g, 505 mm were heavier in the immature males (n = 19, F(1,17 = 7.417, P = 0.014. It was concluded that the Blue-winged Teal were in good health when hunted.

  17. Population estimates and monitoring guidelines for endangered Laysan Teal, Anas Laysanensis, at Midway Atoll: Pilot study results 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Laniawe, Leona

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of population size are often crucial to determining status and planning recovery of endangered species. The ability to detect trends in survival and population size over time enables conservation managers to make effective decisions for species and refuge management. During 2004–2007, the translocated population of endangered Laysan Teal (Anas laysanensis; also Laysan Duck) was fitted with radio transmitters providing known (―gold standard‖) measures of survival and reproduction. However, as the population grew, statistically rigorous monitoring protocols were needed that were less labor intensive than radio telemetry. A population die-off and alarmingly high number of carcasses (181) were recorded during a botulism epizootic in August–October 2008, which further reinforced the need for effective monitoring protocols since this endangered species is vulnerable to catastrophic population declines. In fall 2008, we initiated a pilot study using standardized surveys with uniquely marked birds to monitor abundance and estimate the population growth rate of the reintroduced Laysan Teal. Since few birds carried marks (leg bands) after the 2008 botulism die-off (only about 15% of the population), and standardized surveys were not yet implemented, the magnitude of the die-off on the population size was unknown.

  18. The Impact of Santa Ana Winds on Wildland Fire Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmire, M.; Loboda, T. V.; French, N. H.; Tyner, M.

    2011-12-01

    Santa Ana winds have been implicated as major drivers of extensive wildfires that occur annually in southern California. While numerous anecdotal reports dictate an obvious relationship, there is little quantitative analysis in current literature on how this loosely-defined weather phenomenon impacts fire progression regimes. A new satellite-derived fire progression dataset developed using MODIS and Landsat was linked to a network of 82 Remote Automated Weather Stations (RAWS) to evaluate three differing a priori classifications of Santa Ana events defined using three weather parameters: wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity. The fire progression dataset comprised 528 burn area polygons representing 151 distinct fire events from 2001-2009 in southern California. Each burn area polygon was assigned weather data from one of the RAWS units by shortest straight-line distance. These data and methods show quantitatively that burn area is dramatically larger under Santa Ana conditions than under non-Santa Ana conditions (see table). Outliers of both types (large burn areas under non-SA conditions; small burn areas under SA conditions) were identified and closely examined to identify potentially confounding variables. Time-lag effects (particularly with respect to cumulative precipitation preceding day of burn) and effects with regard to local vs. regional measurements were examined as well. We tested 17 variables (3 relative humidity variables, 5 wind speed variables, 3 temperature variables, 3 moisture variables, previous day burn area, census-derived population density, and the number of hours meeting one Santa Ana classification) individually and in combination for correlation with both burn area and burn area change from the previous day to test their predictive power. Mean daily relative humidity was found to have the strongest correlation (Pearson's r = -0.451) with burn area. All variables except moisture variables were more strongly correlated with the

  19. Estimating natal dispersal movement rates of female European ducks with multistate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lindberg, M.S.; Mednis, A.

    2003-01-01

    1. We used up to 34 years of capture-recapture data from about 22,100 new releases of day-old female ducklings and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on natal dispersal probability of three species of ducks within the Engure Marsh, Latvia. 2. The mean natal dispersal distances were very similar (c . 0?6-0?7 km) for all three species and were on average 2?7 times greater than breeding dispersal distances recorded within the same study system. 3. We were unable to confirm the kinship hypothesis and found no evidence that young first-nesting females nested closer to their relatives (either mother or sister) than to the natal nest. 4. Young female northern shovelers, like adults, moved from small islands to the large island when water level was high and vice versa when water level was low before the construction of elevated small islands. Movement probabilities between the two strata were much higher for young shovelers than adults, suggesting that young birds had not yet developed strong fidelity to the natal site. Movements of young female tufted ducks, unlike those of shovelers, were not dependent on water level fluctuations and reflected substantial flexibility in choice of first nesting sites. 5. Data for young birds supported our earlier conclusion that common pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period. Young females, like the two adult age groups, moved into and out of colonies with similar probability. Fidelity probability of female pochards to each stratum increased with age, being the lowest (0?62) for young (DK) females, intermediate (0?78) for yearlings (SY) and the highest (0?84) for adult (ASY) females. 6. Young female tufted ducks, like adults, showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. The relationship between the spring

  20. The Characteristics of Meat Duck, Problems and Prevention of Off Flavor Due to Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procula R Matitaputty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Source of poultry meat in Indonesia is currently dominated by chicken while local resources such as ducks have the potential to grow and be used as an alternative meat producer. Duck contribution towards the provision of a relatively small meat of 2.29%, compared with free-range chicken to reachs 20.33%. Sources of duck meat in Indonesia comes from local duck, and culled female ducks. Acceptance of most local duck meat is still relatively low, although in some areas local duck dishes are excellent. Meat ducks are generally less desirable, because taste and smell is different from chicken. Because consumers are not accustomed to the taste of typical meat, especially those that give the sensation of irregularities off meat – flavor or smell fishy/ rancid. Similarly, the color of duck meat is darker than that of chicken meat, high fat content of about 2.7 to 6.8%, which also influences consumer preferences. The high fat content, especially acid-unsaturated fatty acids in meat duck gives a tendency to produce off – flavors. Efforts to increase the consumption of duck meat should be based on the cause of the lack of acceptance by consumers. The smell of rancid meat duck is the most dominant cause of which is not liked by consumers. Efforts to reduce the off flavor of duck meat could be by adding antioxidant in feed stuffs.

  1. Fabrication of duck's feet collagen-silk hybrid biomaterial for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Hyeon; Park, Hae Sang; Lee, Ok Joo; Chao, Janet Ren; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Jung Min; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Ye Ri; Song, Jeong Eun; Khang, Gilson; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-04-01

    Collagen constituting the extracellular matrix has been widely used as biocompatible material for human use. In this study, we have selected duck's feet for extracting collagen. A simple method not utilizing harsh chemical had been employed to extract collagen from duck's feet. We fabricated duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold for the purpose of modifying the degradation rate of duck's feet collagen. This study suggests that extracted collagen from duck's feet is biocompatible and resembles collagen extracted from porcine which is commercially used. Duck's feet collagen is also economically feasible and it could therefore be a good candidate as a tissue engineering material. Further, addition of silk to fabricate a duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could enhance the biostability of duck's feet collagen scaffold. Duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold increased the cell viability compared to silk alone. Animal studies also showed that duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold was more biocompatible than silk alone and more biostable than duck's feet or porcine collagen alone. Additionally, the results revealed that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold had high porosity, cell infiltration and proliferation. We suggest that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could be used as a dermal substitution for full thickness skin defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses.......Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance...

  3. Molecular characterization of the Colombian creole duck in four departments Caracterización molecular del pato criollo colombiano en cuatro departamentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia Néstor

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available 53 individuals of Muscovy ducks from Caldas, Risaralda, Antioquia and Valle del Cauca departments with three primers RAMs were evaluated. 71 polymorphic loci (61,2% were generated with 0.19 of heterocigozity. The primer with the highest heterocigozity was CGA (0.23 and CA had the highest polymorphic loci (76.1%. The RAMs technique allowed to discriminate Anas and Cairina genus with an index of similarity of 0.83. At a 0.894 of similarity index, the Muscovy ducks formed 5 groups. The best primer to discriminate species was CCA (Fst= 0.274. The genetic differentiation was moderate (Fst= 0.2045.Se evaluaron 53 individuos de patos Muscovy de los departamentos de Caldas, Risaralda, Antioquia y Valle del Cauca con tres cebadores RAMs. Se generaron 71 loci polimórficos (61.2% con 0.19 de heterocigosidad. El cebador con mayor heterocigosidad fue CGA (0.23 y CA el de mayor loci polimórfico (76.1%. La técnica RAMs permitió diferenciar los géneros Anas y Cairina a un índice de similitud de 0.83. Con un índice de similitud del 0.894, los patos Muscovy formaron cinco grupos. El mejor cebador para diferenciar especies fue CCA (Fst= 0.274. La diferenciación genética en la muestra poblacional fue moderada (Fst= 0.2045.

  4. Online Stigma Resistance in the Pro-Ana Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshua-Katz, Daphna

    2015-10-01

    Media scholars often use concepts from Goffman's dramaturgical approach to study online communities of stigmatized individuals as "backstages," spaces where members take refuge from social disapproval. In this study, I extend this view through an examination of in-depth interviews with bloggers from the "pro-ana" community, an online community for people with eating disorders. To explore how this community uses an online environment that is both anonymous and public, I fuse Goffman's ideas about identity performance and stigma with more recent theories about boundary maintenance. In-depth interviews with "pro-ana" bloggers reveal that to protect this virtual group and resist stigmas associated both with their illness and with their online presence, they construct their own norms and rules in the online realm, and discipline and eject members deemed to be out-group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Congreso www.derechotics.com 2010 Ana Aba, Mesa 3

    OpenAIRE

    Cotino Hueso, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Garantías de la privacidad en las redes sociales, por Ana Aba Catoira, Profesora titular de Derecho constitucional, U. de A Coruña.Mesa 3: Privacidad y la propiedad intelectual frente a la libertad de expresión e información en la redCongreso www.derechotics.com Valencia, 14-15 octubre 2010 Libertades informativas en internet: ejercicio, amenazas y garantías, Lorenzo Cotino (org.)

  6. Kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas kvalifikācijas problēmas

    OpenAIRE

    Brauere, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darba nosaukums ir „Kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas kvalifikācijas problēmas”. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt normatīvos aktus, speciālo juridisko literatūru un judikatūru, nolūkā konstatēt problēmas kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas kvalifikācijā. Lai sasniegtu šo mērķi, darbā tika aplūkota kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas vēsturiskā attīstība, tādējādi sniedzot nelielu ieskatu par kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas juridiskā pamata vēsturiskās attīstības posmiem no 19.gadsimta līdz mūsdienām. Darb...

  7. The biological control of Pomacea canaliculata population by rice-duck mutualism in paddy fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang Liang; Jia-en Zhang; Li Fang; Benliang Zaho; Mingzhu Luo; Prem Parajuli; Ying Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Duck has been used as a non-chemical control method against Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, but little is known about its principles that underlie the control of snail populations. An indoor experiment was initially used to observe the predation potential of ducks, followed by replicated field trials. In the indoor studies, ducks effectively preyed on...

  8. O outro de Ana Cristina Cesar: WW ou um qualquer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cernicchiaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2010nesp3p176 Quem é Ana Cristina Cesar? A quem perguntar senão ao outro (como fazia Jacques Derrida ao gato1, a um outro, ao outro qualquer que somos nós seus leitores, estes que ela abraça e se joga aos pés; ao outro qualquer que são seus amigos: WW, KM, LM, Jack, Charles, Caio, Ângela, enfim, um índice onomástico inteiro. Aos outros seus conterrâneos, não só os do Rio de Janeiro, mas os da cidade dos poetas, Londres, Lisboa, Paris, Nova York, Belo Horizonte, São Paulo, etc, etc, etc. Ao outro suas personagens, suas máscaras, Ana C, ACC, Ana Cristina Cesar, o gato, a toalha, aquela que ouve Roberto Carlos, que assiste Casablanca, que briga com Freud, que conversa com uma amiga, que bate à porta de um amigo, que pega um táxi, que fuma debaixo da janela, “meio-bruxa, meia-fera”, a que tem sobressaltos, que escreve no automóvel, entre tantas outras que não são

  9. O outro de Ana Cristina Cesar: WW ou um qualquer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cernicchiaro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Quem é Ana Cristina Cesar? A quem perguntar senão ao outro (como fazia Jacques Derrida ao gato1, a um outro, ao outro qualquer que somos nós seus leitores, estes que ela abraça e se joga aos pés; ao outro qualquer que são seus amigos: WW, KM, LM, Jack, Charles, Caio, Ângela, enfim, um índice onomástico inteiro. Aos outros seus conterrâneos, não só os do Rio de Janeiro, mas os da cidade dos poetas, Londres, Lisboa, Paris, Nova York, Belo Horizonte, São Paulo, etc, etc, etc. Ao outro suas personagens, suas máscaras, Ana C, ACC, Ana Cristina Cesar, o gato, a toalha, aquela que ouve Roberto Carlos, que assiste Casablanca, que briga com Freud, que conversa com uma amiga, que bate à porta de um amigo, que pega um táxi, que fuma debaixo da janela, “meio-bruxa, meia-fera”, a que tem sobressaltos, que escreve no automóvel, entre tantas outras que não são.

  10. Mākoņdatošanas izmantošana informātikas priekšmetā vidusskolā.

    OpenAIRE

    Jēkabsone, Kristīne

    2013-01-01

    Izanalizējot informātikas standartu vidusskolā izpētīta mākoņdatošanas izmantošanas iespējas vidusskolā. Veikta aptauja vidusskolas klases skolēnu vidū. Aplūkots vidusskolas izglītojamo pieejamais tehnoloģiju klāsts. Meklēta atbilde uz pētniecisko jautājumu: kādas ir mākoņdatošanas izmantošanas iespējas informātikas priekšmeta apguvē vidusskolā? Sniegti ieteikumi skolotājiem strādājot ar mākoņdatošanu. Atslēgas vārdi: informātika, mākoņdatošana, Google Drive, Skydrive, Dropbox....

  11. Late Holocene extinction of Finsch's duck (Chenonetta finschi), an endemic, possibly flightless, New Zealand duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway, R.N.; Jones, M.D.; Beavan Athfield, N.R.

    2002-01-01

    Finsch's duck (Chenonetta finschi), an extinct, possibly flightless New Zealand endemic, was widely distributed and apparently abundant immediately before human settlement of New Zealand, but its bones have rarely been identified in archaeological sites. Its extinction has been variously attributed to habitat changes, predation by the introduced Pacific rat (Rattus exulans), and human predation. Discriminating between possible causes of its extinction hinges on determining the relative timing of phases of the extinction process and the arrival of rats and humans. Methodological problems of determining the time of extinction of fossil species are reviewed. Bayesian statistical analysis of a series of accelerator mass spectrometry 14 C ages on gelatin from Finsch's duck bones from non-cultural deposits suggests that the species began to decline before widespread Polynesian settlement and that it was much reduced in range and numbers by the time extensive human predation and habitat alteration began. Possible causes of its extinction after Polynesian settlement are discussed. (author). 90 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Live Attenuated Vaccine based on Duck Enteritis Virus against Duck Hepatitis A Virus Types 1 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1 and type 3 (DHAV-3 causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated DEV recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1 containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1 and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3 between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis results demonstrated that both VP1 proteins were robustly expressed in rC-KCE-2VP1-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Ducks that received a single dose of rC-KCE-2VP1 showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses and were completely protected against challenges of both pathogenic DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains. The protection was rapid, achieved as early as three days after vaccination. Moreover, viral replication was fully blocked in vaccinated ducks as early as one week post-vaccination. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant rC-KCE-2VP1 is potential fast-acting vaccine against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3.

  13. Dabbling duck harvest dynamics in the Central Valley of California--implications for recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.R.; Beam, J.; Connelly, D.P.; Weller, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    Age and sex ratios and body weights were obtained for northern pintails (Anas acuta), mallards (A. platyrhynchos), American wigeon (A. americana), green-winged teal (A. crecca), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) shot at Mendota State Wildlife Area in the San Joaquin Valley (SANJV) and at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge in the Sacramento Valley (SACV) during 1982-83 and 1983-84. Age ratios were determined for pintails at four locations during 1980-83. Cooperative Waterfowl Parts Collection Survey (1982-84; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) and California preseason-banding data (1973-77, for mallards and pintails) also were used to measure age ratios of the California harvest. Harvest rate (ducks shot per day) was obtained and summed from all SACV and SANJV public hunting areas in 1982-84. All species except female wigeon and adult female mallards lost weight between October and January. Except for wigeon, harvest rate was high in October when hunting began. Harvest rates were low in November and December but rose markedly in January in the SACV for all species and for all except pintails in the SANJV. Proportion of adults in the bag as measured by all methods increased progressively through the hunting season. Proportion of adults in the harvest was higher in 1982-83 than in 1983-84 and was greater in the SACV than the SANJV both years for most species. Adult females formed a small component of total kill but 50% or more of female kill. The harvest of pintails at a SACV and a SANJV location consistently contained about half as many immatures per adult as that at two other California locations for 1980-83. The substantial harvest of adults in January eliminates the most productive breeders from the population. Thus, winter hunting mortality may influence age composition of the spring flight and, hence, recruitment potential of the breeding population.

  14. Modelling the distribution of domestic ducks in Monsoon Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockel, Thomas P.; Prosser, Diann; Franceschini, Gianluca; Biradar, Chandra; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Domestic ducks are considered to be an important reservoir of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), as shown by a number of geospatial studies in which they have been identified as a significant risk factor associated with disease presence. Despite their importance in HPAI epidemiology, their large-scale distribution in Monsoon Asia is poorly understood. In this study, we created a spatial database of domestic duck census data in Asia and used it to train statistical distribution models for domestic duck distributions at a spatial resolution of 1km. The method was based on a modelling framework used by the Food and Agriculture Organisation to produce the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, and relies on stratified regression models between domestic duck densities and a set of agro-ecological explanatory variables. We evaluated different ways of stratifying the analysis and of combining the prediction to optimize the goodness of fit of the predictions. We found that domestic duck density could be predicted with reasonable accuracy (mean RMSE and correlation coefficient between log-transformed observed and predicted densities being 0.58 and 0.80, respectively), using a stratification based on livestock production systems. We tested the use of artificially degraded data on duck distributions in Thailand and Vietnam as training data, and compared the modelled outputs with the original high-resolution data. This showed, for these two countries at least, that these approaches could be used to accurately disaggregate provincial level (administrative level 1) statistical data to provide high resolution model distributions.

  15. Reciprocal crosses between Alabio and Mojosari ducks : early egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H Prasetyo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available alternative to increasing productivity and production efficiency. Crossbreeding has been used widely for increasing productivity, and in this experiment Alabio and Mojosari ducks were crossed reciprocally in order to evaluate their egg production and egg quality, when compared to their parental breeds. Four genotypes AA, AM, MA and MM were compared and each consisted of 50 layer ducks. Each animal was kept in individual cage, and individual egg production and egg quality were recorded. They were given layer feed containing 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolisable energy. Results showed that the crossbred ducks (AM and MA laid eggs earlier than their parental breeds (AA and MM, and MA laid earlier than AM. The weight of first eggs of the crossbreeds did not differ significantly, AM was the same as MM and MA the same as AA. For the body weight at first lay, MA and AM weighed in between their parental breeds, AA was the heaviest and then followed by MA, AM and MM. For the 3-month egg production, MA ducks laid significantly more egg than the other 3 genotypes, and this is related to the age of first lay being the earliest. In terms of egg quality such as egg weight, yolk color, weight and thickness of shell, weight of the white and HU value, the crossbred ducks showed quality in between AA and MM. The AM ducks tended to be closer to MM and MA closer to AA, and this shows a strong influence of maternal effects. The average level of heterosis for weight of first egg is 2.41% and for 3-month egg production is 2.1%, but for MA cross the heterosis level is 11.69% for egg production. The overall results showed that crossbreeds between Alabio and Mojosari have the potential in improving production traits in the effort to increase productivity and production efficiency.

  16. Tonawanda Creek, Genesee County, New York, Regional Flood Control. Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Linarea vulgaris Wild Mustard :Brasica sp. Sensitive Fern :Onoclea sensibilis *Christmas Fern :As21dium acrostichoides Panic Grass :Panicum sp. Barnyard... Sciurus carolinensis Reptiles E ’tern Painted Turtle :Chrysemys picta picta Birds Mallard :Anas platyrhynchos Black Duck :Anas rubripes Ring-necked...migratorius migratorius Starling :Sturnus vulgaris Eastern Golden-crowned Kinglet :Regulus satrapa satrapa Rusty Blackbird :Euphagus carolinus Red

  17. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on hepatic function in the duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J.F.; Dieter, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    1. The indocyanine green dye clearance test for hepatic function was determined in mallard ducks before and during the chronic ingestion (7 months) of representative paraffinic or aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons (PH).2. No mortality or visible symptoms of toxicity occured in any of the tests. Ingestion of 4000 ppm aromatic PH produced significant increases in liver (25%), plasma clearance of indocyanine green (33%) and hepatic blood flow (30%).3. Although the aromatics elicited a greater hepatic stress response than the paraffins, the ducks tolerated high concentrations of PH for extended periods.

  18. Transfection of embryonated Muscovy duck eggs with a recombinant plasmid is suitable for rescue of infectious Muscovy duck parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Huang, Yu; Ling, Jueyi; Wang, Zhixiang; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2017-12-01

    For members of the family Parvoviridae, rescue of infectious virus from recombinant plasmid is usually done in cultured cells. In this study, the whole genome of the pathogenic Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strain YY was cloned into the pBluescript II (SK) vector, generating recombinant plasmid pYY. With the aid of a transfection reagent, pYY plasmid was inoculated into 11-day-old embryonated Muscovy duck eggs via the chorioallantoic membrane route, resulting in the successful rescue of infectious virus and death of the embryos. The rescued virus exhibited pathogenicity in Muscovy ducklings similar to that of its parental strain, as evaluated based on the mortality rate. The results demonstrate that plasmid transfection in embryonated Muscovy duck eggs is a convenient and efficacious method for rescue of infectious MDPV in comparison to transfection of primary cells, which is somewhat time-consuming and laborious.

  19. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  20. Kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas noziedzīgo nodarījumu krimināltiesiskais raksturojums

    OpenAIRE

    Ozoliņš, Uldis

    2010-01-01

    . Kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas noziedzīgo nodarījumu krimināltiesiskais raksturojums. Kukuļņemšana un kukuļdošana ir vieni no izplatītākajiem noziedzīgajiem nodarījumiem valsts institūciju dienestā. Diplomdarba aktualitāte ir saistīta ar to, ka jau vairākus gadus Latvijas sabiedrībā ir izvērsusies plaša diskusija par nepieciešamību efektīvi cīnīties ar kukuļošanas izskaušanu valsts amatpersonu darbībā. Šajā darbā tiek apskatīts kukuļņemšanas un kukuļdošanas starptautiskais r...

  1. Prototype of A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as vaccine on local duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 virus subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as seed vaccine on local duck. AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine containing 256 HAU per dose was formulated using adjuvant ISA 71VG Montanide ™. Six groups of one day old local duck were used in this study. Three groups (10 ducks per group were vaccinated and 3 groups (9 duck per group were served control. Vaccination was conducted when the duck were three weeks old of age using single dose. Three weeks after vaccination when the duck were challenged either with HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.2, or HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 virus at dose 106 EID50/ 0.1 ml by drops intranasaly. Result showed that vaccination produced 100% protection compared to unvaccinated ducks againt HPAI subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2, and 100% protection againt HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (A/ck/wj/Subang-29/2007 and A/ck/wj/Smi-Part/2006, while unvaccinated ducks showed virus shedding on day 3 post infection.

  2. Contribution of Doñana wetlands to carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward P; Flecha, Susana; Figuerola, Jordi; Costas, Eduardo; Navarro, Gabriel; Ruiz, Javier; Rodriguez, Pablo; Huertas, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Inland and transitional aquatic systems play an important role in global carbon (C) cycling. Yet, the C dynamics of wetlands and floodplains are poorly defined and field data is scarce. Air-water CO2 fluxes in the wetlands of Doñana Natural Area (SW Spain) were examined by measuring alkalinity, pH and other physiochemical parameters in a range of water bodies during 2010-2011. Areal fluxes were calculated and, using remote sensing, an estimate of the contribution of aquatic habitats to gaseous CO2 transport was derived. Semi-permanent ponds adjacent to the large Guadalquivir estuary acted as mild sinks, whilst temporal wetlands were strong sources of CO2 (-0.8 and 36.3 mmol(CO2) m(-2) d(-1)). Fluxes in semi-permanent streams and ponds changed seasonally; acting as sources in spring-winter and mild sinks in autumn (16.7 and -1.2 mmol(CO2) m(-2) d(-1)). Overall, Doñana's water bodies were a net annual source of CO2 (5.2 mol(C) m(-2) y(-1). Up-scaling clarified the overwhelming contribution of seasonal flooding and allochthonous organic matter inputs in determining regional air-water gaseous CO2 transport (13.1 Gg(C) y(-1)). Nevertheless, this estimate is about 6 times < local marsh net primary production, suggesting the system acts as an annual net CO2 sink. Initial indications suggest longer hydroperiods may favour autochthonous C capture by phytoplankton. Direct anthropogenic impacts have reduced the hydroperiod in Doñana and this maybe exacerbated by climate change (less rainfall and more evaporation), suggesting potential for the modification of C sequestration.

  3. The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian influenza virus in post HPAI H5N1 outbreak area, Sunyani Municipality, Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Vitus Burimuah, W.K. Ampofo, B Awumbila, N Yebuah, B.O. Emikpe, W Tasiame, R.D. Folitse ...

  4. Ducks as sentinels for avian influenza in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globig, Anja; Baumer, Anette; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Beer, Martin; Wodak, Eveline; Fink, Maria; Greber, Norbert; Harder, Timm C; Wilking, Hendrik; Brunhart, Iris; Matthes, Doris; Kraatz, Ulf; Strunk, Peter; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Staubach, Christoph; Conraths, Franz J; Griot, Chris; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2009-10-01

    To determine the effectiveness of ducks as sentinels for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, we placed mallards in contact with wild birds at resting sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Infections of sentinel birds with different AIV subtypes confirmed the value of such surveillance for AIV monitoring.

  5. Redescription of the African duck leech Theromyzon cooperi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African duck leech Theromyzon cooperi, which is the only representative of the genus so far reported in Africa, is redescribed. Aspects of its internal morphology are described for the first time. The conspecificity of the two supposed species T. cooperi and T. lineatum is also indicated.

  6. Campylobacter jejuni in Duck Faeces around Drinking Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from 192 ducks feeding around 10 wells and 6 ponds in peri-urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2006 to March, 2007. The samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, followed by characterisation of positive samples. The overall ...

  7. The liability of some haematological parameters in chickens and ducks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liability of some haematological parameters in chickens and ducks. E.M. Smith, J Hattingh. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  8. ACTIVITY BUDGETS OF MALE MACCOA DUCKS FitzPatrick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prange & Schmidt-Nielsen 1970). Bathing and preening activity presumably has an energy cost between that of resting and swimming and was arbitrarily given a value 2 x BMR. Similarly, there are no actual data on caloric cost of diving in ducks ...

  9. Duck Tembusu virus exhibits neurovirulence in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Lijiao; Wang, Yongyue; Yu, Xiuling; Tian, Kegong; Su, Wenliang; Han, Bo; Su, Jingliang

    2013-08-14

    Duck Tembusu virus is a member of the Ntaya group in the genus Flavivirus. The virus has been responsible for severe duck egg-drop syndrome in China since 2010. Its emergence and rapid spread have caused great economic loss for the poultry industry. The epidemiology of the virus infection and the potential threat to public health is of great concern because of the infective and zoonotic nature of flaviviruses. In this study, the pathogenicity of duck Tembusu virus in BALB/c mice was investigated. Infected mice developed clinical signs, including loss of appetite, ruffled hair, weight loss, disorientation, blindness and paralysis of hind limbs from six days post- infection following intracerebral inoculation. Morbidity was 100%, with mortality ranging from 20 to 80% in three- to eight-week-old mice. High virus titers were recovered from the brain, and the virus was distributed in several organs. Histologically, there was widespread non-suppurative encephalitis in the brain. Lymphocyte depletion in the spleen was observed, along with fatty degeneration in the liver and kidney. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that duck Tembusu virus is highly neurovirulent in BALB/c mice. The mouse model used in this work was able to produce Tembusu virus infection and could be useful for elucidating some of the aspects of the pathophysiology of other flavivirus infections.

  10. Hatchability and fertility of indigenous chicken and duck eggs, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flocks under study are located in the suburbs of Nairobi province and Machakos district. They belonged to smallholder farmers. Twenty seven clutches of eggs given to indigenous chickens to seat on, and 10 clutches of eggs given to ducks to seat on were investigated for six months. The number of eggs in each clutch ...

  11. Genetic Divergence in Ducks for Economic Traits | Kalita | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D2 Statistics was used to identify the genetic divergence in 4 groups of duck, namely Khaki Campbell (KC), Desi (D), Khaki Campbell x Desi (KC x D) and Desi x Khaki Campbell (D x KC) reared under rural conditions at the Siphajar, Darrang District, Assam, India. The study showed that both Khaki Campbell and Desi or ...

  12. Propagation pattern of Machaerium Lunatum (Linn F) ducke in five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Propagation pattern of Machaerium Lunatum (Linn F) ducke in five different soil types. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... A study of the possibility of the propagation of this plant outside its natural aquatic environment, what part of the stem will grow and what soil type will be most suitable for it ...

  13. Karyotype analysis in Machaerium lunatum (Linn. f.) Ducke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-11

    Dec 11, 2017 ... Ducke (syn. Drepanocarpus lunatus (Linn. f.) G.F.W. Mey) belongs to the family Fabaceae-Papilionaceae. (Hutchinson and Dalziel 1954). It has about 130 species distributed from Mexico to Argentina which are difficult to delimit taxonomically (Rudd 1987) and 150 species distributed from Mexico to South.

  14. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in duck faeces around drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from one hundred and ninety-two ducks feeding around ten wells and six ponds in peri urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2004 to March, 2005. In total, one hundred and ninety-two samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, ...

  15. Modelling the energy budget and prey choice of eider ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, A.G.; Ens, B.J.; Kats, R.K.H.

    2003-01-01

    We developed an energy and heat budget model for eider ducks. All relevant processes have been quantified. Food processing, diving costs, prey heating, the costs of crushing mussel shells, heat losses during diving as well as during resting, and heat production as a result of muscle activity are

  16. Evidence for the exchange of blood parasites between North America and the Neotropics in blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Schmutz, Joel A.; Douglas, David; Stallknecht, David E.; Soos, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) are abundant, small-bodied dabbling ducks that breed throughout the prairies of the northcentral USA and central Canada and that winter in the southern USA and northern Neotropics. Given the migratory tendencies of this species, it is plausible that blue-winged teal may disperse avian pathogens, such as parasites causing avian malaria, between spatially distant areas. To test the hypothesis that blue-winged teal play a role in the exchange of blood parasites between North America and areas further south, we collected information on migratory tendencies of this species and sampled birds at spatially distant areas during breeding and non-breeding periods to diagnose and genetically characterize parasitic infections. Using a combination of band recovery data, satellite telemetry, molecular diagnostics, and genetic analyses, we found evidence for (1) migratory connectivity of blue-winged teal between our sampling locations in the Canadian prairies and along the US Gulf Coast with areas throughout the northern Neotropics, (2) parasite acquisition at both breeding and non-breeding areas, (3) infection of blue-winged teal sampled in Canada and the USA withPlasmodium parasite lineages associated with the Neotropics, and (4) infection of blue-winged teal with parasites that were genetically related to those previously reported in waterfowl in both North America and South America. Collectively, our results suggest that blue-winged teal likely play a role in the dispersal of blood parasites between the Neotropics and North America, and therefore, the targeting of this species in surveillance programs for the early detection of Neotropical-origin avian pathogens in the USA may be informative.

  17. Evidence for the exchange of blood parasites between North America and the Neotropics in blue-winged teal (Anas discors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; Reed, John A; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Schmutz, Joel A; Douglas, David C; Stallknecht, David E; Soos, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    Blue-winged teal (Anas discors) are abundant, small-bodied dabbling ducks that breed throughout the prairies of the northcentral USA and central Canada and that winter in the southern USA and northern Neotropics. Given the migratory tendencies of this species, it is plausible that blue-winged teal may disperse avian pathogens, such as parasites causing avian malaria, between spatially distant areas. To test the hypothesis that blue-winged teal play a role in the exchange of blood parasites between North America and areas further south, we collected information on migratory tendencies of this species and sampled birds at spatially distant areas during breeding and non-breeding periods to diagnose and genetically characterize parasitic infections. Using a combination of band recovery data, satellite telemetry, molecular diagnostics, and genetic analyses, we found evidence for (1) migratory connectivity of blue-winged teal between our sampling locations in the Canadian prairies and along the US Gulf Coast with areas throughout the northern Neotropics, (2) parasite acquisition at both breeding and non-breeding areas, (3) infection of blue-winged teal sampled in Canada and the USA with Plasmodium parasite lineages associated with the Neotropics, and (4) infection of blue-winged teal with parasites that were genetically related to those previously reported in waterfowl in both North America and South America. Collectively, our results suggest that blue-winged teal likely play a role in the dispersal of blood parasites between the Neotropics and North America, and therefore, the targeting of this species in surveillance programs for the early detection of Neotropical-origin avian pathogens in the USA may be informative.

  18. The impact of using lead pellets on lead contamination of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the degree of lead contamination in mallards in the Czech Republic as a result of using lead shots for wildfowling. Two sites used for mallard hunting were chosen, namely a flood-control reservoir in Moravia and a small fishpond in Bohemia. Lead concentrations were determined in the tissues of 20 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos raised at those standing open water sites (n = 10 at each site and killed there during the autumn hunting season with a steel shot. Control groups were made up of 20 mallards from the same breeding facility as experimental groups but raised in an enclosure without access to water (n = 10 at each site. Lead concentrations were determined in selected tissues (breast muscle, heart, liver, gizzard, kidney, feathers - quill base, lung, brain and humerus by high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed elevated lead concentrations in all tissues of mallards compared with control in the reservoir in Southern Moravia. The highest lead concentrations (mg/kg were found in the humerus (14.254 ± 4.525 and 5.083 ± 0.748 for experimental and control mallards, respectively. In contrast, lead concentrations in mallards from small fishpond in Southern Bohemia were lower compared to control. Similarly, the highest lead concentrations were found in the humerus (2.219 ± 0.349 and 8.930 ± 1.012 for experimental and control mallards, respectively. This study extends very limited information about lead contamination of wild ducks in the Czech Republic in connection with hunting activities.

  19. Atlantic Women in Motion: Ana Miranda’s and José Eduardo Agualusa’s Postcolonial Historical Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo A. Bergamo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a comparative study of Desmundo (1997 by the Brazilian Ana Miranda and Nação crioula (1997 by the Angolan José Eduardo Agualusa. The analysis focusses on the configuration of the protagonists of both novels. These protagonists transit the Atlantic Ocean which is characterized by symbolic exchanges and intense cultural contact: respectively a marriageable maiden who is compelled to immigrate to Brazil in order to strengthen the Lusitanian presence in the tropics, confirming the body of the white woman also as an instrument of European merchant machine, and a former slave and rich owner who becomes the embodiment of anti-abolitionist struggle in a mixed race Angola, confirming once again the body of the black woman as a slave trade merchandise.

  20. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Meat-type Ducks Raised under Same Feeding and Rearing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and physico-chemical meat quality in two different genotype ducks raised under identical feeding and rearing conditions. A total of ninety 1-d-old Korean native ducks (KND, n = 45 and commercial meat-type ducks (Grimaud, n = 45 were fed same experimental diets during 56 d and 42 d, respectively to obtain similar slaughter weights. The experimental diet for starter period contained 20% crude protein (CP and 2,900 kcal nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn/kg of diet and that for grower period contained 17% CP and 3,050 TMEn/kg of diet. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of KND were inferior to those of commercial meat-type ducks (p<0.05. Carcass weight was not different between two genetically different ducks, but carcass yield of KND was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of commercial meat-type ducks. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and pH of breast meat between two genetically different ducks, but water holding capacity of KND was significantly higher than that of commercial meat-type ducks. The linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acid of breast meat from KND were significantly higher (p<0.05 than the corresponding part from commercial meat-type ducks. Significant differences were detected in water holding capacity and the content of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, which were significantly higher in KND, whereas growth performance tended to be superior in commercial ducks. At the market weight, the meat from KND was judged to have better qualities with regard to higher water holding capacity and greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acid compare with meat from commercial meat-type duck.

  1. Doctora Ana Larralde Pineda, ejemplo para nuestra profesión Doctor Ana Larralde Pineda, an example to our profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto James Pita

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El papel de la mujer en la Cirugía Maxilofacial es valioso, y más aún el de la doctora Ana Larralde Pineda, primera cirujana maxilofacial de Cuba. Con este trabajo nos hemos propuesto resaltar la figura de esta ejemplar profesional y transmitir, sobre todo a las nuevas generaciones de nuestra especialidad y de la Estomatología en general, su recuerdo imperecedero. Se realizó una investigación de tipo histórica, para recopilar los datos biográficos más generales de la profesora. Se realizaron entrevistas abiertas. A los entrevistados se les explicó el objetivo y la intención de los autores. Todos dieron su consentimiento para ser entrevistados. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica mediante la consulta a de la base de datos Scielo Cuba y se consultó prensa escrita y el archivo de la Sociedad Cubana de Cirugía Maxilofacial. La doctora Ana Larralde Pineda supo en todo momento conjugar la responsabilidad profesional, docente, humana, con la vida familiar, y abrió las puertas a la incorporación de la mujer a esta especialidad de reconocida entrega, sacrificio y vocación para sus miembros, especialmente para las féminas.Women play a valuable role in maxillofacial surgery. A clear example is Doctor Ana Larralde Pineda, the first Cuban female maxillofacial surgeon. The purpose of this paper is to pay tribute to this outstanding professional and convey her imperishable example to the new generations of maxillofacial specialists and dental professionals at large. A historical study was conducted to gather the most general biographical information about the professor. Open interviews were carried out. Interviewees were informed of the authors' purpose and intention. All gave their consent to be interviewed. A bibliographic review was conducted based on Scielo Cuba database, the printed press and the archives of the Cuban Society of Maxillofacial Surgery. Doctor Ana Larralde Pineda was always able to combine her professional, teaching

  2. Indirect risk effects reduce feeding efficiency of ducks during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, Adam C; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan; Eichholz, Michael W; Stafford, Joshua D

    2018-01-01

    Indirect risk effects of predators on prey behavior can have more of an impact on prey populations than direct consumptive effects. Predation risk can elicit more vigilance behavior in prey, reducing the amount of time available for other activities, such as foraging, which could potentially reduce foraging efficiency. Understanding the conditions associated with predation risk and the specific effects predation risk have on prey behavior is important because it has direct influences on the profitability of food items found under various conditions and states of the forager. The goals of this study were to assess how ducks perceived predation risk in various habitat types and how strongly perceived risk versus energetic demand affected foraging behavior. We manipulated food abundance in different wetland types in Illinois, USA to reduce confounding between food abundance and vegetation structure. We conducted focal-animal behavioral samples on five duck species in treatment and control plots and used generalized linear mixed-effects models to compare the effects of vegetation structure versus other factors on the intensity with which ducks fed and the duration of feeding stints. Mallards fed more intensively and, along with blue-winged teal, used longer feeding stints in open habitats, consistent with the hypothesis that limited visibility was perceived to have a greater predation risk than unlimited visibility. The species temporally nearest to nesting, wood ducks, were willing to take more risks for a greater food reward, consistent with an increase in a marginal value of energy as they approached nesting. Our results indicate that some duck species value energy differently based on the surrounding vegetation structure and density. Furthermore, increases in the marginal value of energy can be more influential than perceived risk in shaping foraging behavior patterns. Based on these findings, we conclude that the value of various food items is not solely

  3. Who Is Spreading Avian Influenza in the Moving Duck Flock Farming Network of Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Henning

    Full Text Available Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds, thereby providing opportunities for virus spread. Effective risk management for HPAI has been significantly compromised by a limited understanding of management of moving duck flocks in these countries, despite of a small number of recent investigations. Here, for the first time, we described the management of moving duck flocks and the structure of the moving duck flock network in quantitative terms so that factors influencing the risk of HPAIV transmission can be identified. By following moving duck flock farmers over a period of 6 months in Java, Indonesia, we were able to describe the movement of flocks and to characterise the network of various types of actors associated with the production system. We used these data to estimate the basic reproductive number for HPAI virus spread. Our results suggest that focussing HPAI prevention measures on duck flocks alone will not be sufficient. Instead, the role of transporters of moving duck flocks, hatcheries and rice paddy owners, in the spread of the HPAI virus needs to be recognised.

  4. Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food: roast duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiming; Xie, Fan; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yuqiang; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food whose flavor is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process and are a potential health risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of the Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of a Chinese traditional food: roast duck. Ducks with different roasting times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40 and 50 min roast ducks exhibited an acceptable degree of sensory attributes, but the 60 min roast duck showed the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed to increase with roasting, and the 60 min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenylpicryhydrazyl, 39.3 µmol Trolox g(-1) sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g(-1)) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.089 µg g(-1)) were detected in the 50 and 60 min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60 min roast ducks manifested a higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be advantageous for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial to health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: A disease connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Palm, Eric C.; Takekawa, John Y.; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  6. Konkuretspējas paaugstināšanas virzieni apdrošināšanas sabiedrībā BTA

    OpenAIRE

    Filipova, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darbā „Konkurētspējas paaugstināšanas virzieni apdrošināšanas sabiedrībā „BTA” tiek analizēta apdrošināšanas sabiedrības konkurētspēja. Maģistra darba mērķis ir, pamatojoties uz teorētiskajām atziņām, izstrādāt konkurētspējas paaugstināšanas virzienus apdrošināšanas sabiedrībā „BTA”. Lai sasniegtu mērķi, tiek izvirzīti sekojoši uzdevumi: 1) apskatīt konkurētspējas jēdzienu, tās novērtēšanas metodes, ietekmējošos faktorus; 2) raksturot Latviju konkurētspējas jomā; 3) apskatīt konkurēt...

  7. Video spēļu tulkošana kā atšķirīgs tulkošanas veids

    OpenAIRE

    Voiciša, Anda

    2011-01-01

    Bakaluara darbā tiek pētīta video spēļu tulkošana attiecībā uz vispārējo tulkošanas nozari, aprakstot tulkošanas jēdziena skaidrojumu un saistību starp oriģinālvalodu un mērķa valodu. Tiek apskatītas galvenās metodes un stratēģijas, kas tiek lietotas tulkošanas procesā, kā arī tekstu veidi un to ietekme uz tulkošnas metožu izvēli. Aprakstot video spēļu būtību un to tulkošanas īpatnības, galvenā uzmanība tiek pievērsta svarīgākajiem tulkošanas jautājumiem, stratēģijām un tehnikām, kuras tiek i...

  8. Dažādu metožu izmantošana lasīšanas veicināšanai sākumskolā.

    OpenAIRE

    Lāce, Laimdota

    2006-01-01

    Darbā veikta lasīšanas veicināšanas metožu izpēte. Mērķis - noteikt šo metožu izmantošanas iespējas mācību procesā un noskaidrot skolēnu lasīšanas aktivitātes metožu mērķtiecīgas izmantošanas rezultātā pamatizglītības posmā no otrās līdz ceturtajai klasei. Tēmas aktualitāti pamato situācija, kāda izveidojusies, ja bērniem dažādu iemeslu dēļ zūd interese par grāmatu lasīšanu. Diplomdarba teorētiskajā daļā vispirms akcentēta lasīšanas nozīme bērna pasaules izziņas procesā, psihiskā lī...

  9. Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) perspective: Harlequin duck population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Progress, process, and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowman, Timothy D.; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Dean, Thomas A.; Jewett, Stephen C.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Holland-Bartels, Leslie E.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) populations during 1995-1998. We evaluated potential constraints to full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil, (2) food limitation, and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 years after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998, (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995-1998, (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995-1997, and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery also will be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to both initial

  10. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  11. Study on rural duck production systems in selected areas of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanum, J.; Chwalibog, André; Huque, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    were mostly used in Netrokona but in Sundargonj, farmers mostly raise exotic ducks. The farmers of Sundargonj area increased the amount of feed with the increase of age of their ducks, but the farmers of Netrokona decreased the amount of feed. The mortality rate in Netrokona was 27.1% but in Sundargonj...... it was only 2.12%. The percentage of egg production in Sundargonj was 68.8 and in Netrokona 47.9. The differences in mortality and egg production between the two areas were significant. The total annual expenditure and annual income per duck/year were significantly higher in Sundargonj (Tk.221 and 393) than......The present study was carried out to investigate scavenging duck production systems in two regions (Netrokona Sadar Upazila and Sundargonj Upazila) of Bangladesh. Feeding systems and availability of feed for raising ducks, production performance of scaavenging ducks and profitability of raising...

  12. Desalted duck egg white peptides promote calcium uptake by counteracting the adverse effects of phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tao; Liu, Weiwei; Shi, Wen; Ma, Zhili; He, Hui

    2017-03-15

    The structure of the desalted duck egg white peptides-calcium chelate was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Characterization results showed structural folding and aggregation of amino acids or oligopeptides during the chelation process. Desalted duck egg white peptides enhanced the calcium uptake in the presence of oxalate, phosphate and zinc ions in Caco-2 monolayers. Animal model indicated that desalted duck egg white peptides effectively enhanced the mineral absorption and counteracted the deleterious effects of phytic acid. These findings suggested that desalted duck egg white peptides might promote calcium uptake in three pathways: 1) desalted duck egg white peptides bind with calcium to form soluble chelate and avoid precipitate; 2) the chelate is absorbed as small peptides by enterocyte; and 3) desalted duck egg white peptides regulate the proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes through the interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 calcium channel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes in ducks: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzitey, Frederick; Huda, Nurul; Ali, Gulam Rusul Rahmat

    2012-06-01

    Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes are important bacterial pathogens associated with gastroenteritis. The consumption of poultry meat and their products is considered as a major and leading source of human infection. While surveys of chicken meat and products, and its association with foodborne pathogens are widely available, such information on ducks is scarce. This survey examines the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes isolated from ducks. Data obtained from key surveys are summarized. The observed prevalence of these pathogens and their resistance to various antibiotics varies from one study to the other. The mean prevalence (and range means from individual surveys) are duck 53.0% (0.0-83.3%), duck meat and parts 31.6% (12.5-45.8%), and duck rearing and processing environment 94.4% (92.0-96.7%) for Campylobacter spp. For Salmonella spp., the mean prevalence data are duck 19.9% (3.3-56.9%), duck meat and parts 28.4% (4.4-75.6%), duck egg, shell, and content 17.5% (0-4.17%), and duck rearing and processing environment 32.5% (10.5-82.6%). Studies on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of L. monocytogenes in ducks are by far very rare compared to Campylobacter and Salmonella, although ducks have been noted to be a potential source for these foodborne pathogens. From our survey, ducks were more frequently contaminated with Campylobacter than Salmonella. Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. also exhibited varying resistance to multiple antibiotics.

  14. Position of Imam Malik bin Anas on Deviant Sects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaa Eddin Muhammad Esmail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to highlight the position of Imam Malik bin Anas on deviant sects which emerged and developed during his time. It discusses the views of Imam Malik on other Muslim sects like Shi’its and its school of thoughts, Qadarites, where he authored a specific book and a chapter in his “Muwatta” in response to their central teachings, Khariji, Murji”it and Mu’tazilites. This paper also discusses the views of Imam Malik and his response to important issues related to those sects such as “al-mutasyabihat” and the creation of Al-Quran. Imam Malik’s ways and methods in dealing with those sects are also highlighted.

  15. Ana Enriqueta Terán: poetisa de la lengua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Angulo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este año ha sido esencial en la vida de la escritora Ana Enriqueta Terán, tres libros estupendos suyos han sido publicados en los primeros seis meses. Uno de sonetos con dibujos de ella misma (Otros sonetos de todos mis tiempos. Casa Nacional de las Letras Andrés Bello, Caracas, una novela (Apuntes y congojas de una decadencia narrada en tres muertes. Fundación Editorial El Perro y la Rana, Caracas, y a finales del mes de junio - en el marco del XI Festival Mundial de Poesía de Venezuela -, la prestigiosa Biblioteca Ayacucho ha presentado con el Nº 252 de su Colección Clásica a Piedra de habla, antología poética con prólogo de Patricia Guzmán titulado Ana Enriqueta Terán Voz relampagueante de misterio y belleza, amén de la profusa cronología y concienzuda compilación de las fuentes bibliográficas. También este año, el Museo de Arte Valencia conjuntamente con la Red de Escritores de Venezuela y de un grupo de amigos de la poetisa constituidos como comité preparatorio para la celebración del centenario de la escritora, le rindió un cálido homenaje el domingo 4 de mayo, aniversario noventa y seis (96 de su nacimiento en Valera, estado Trujillo, de la ahora República Bolivariana de Venezuela

  16. Ana Carolina Escosteguy: Cenários dos estudos culturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Cristina Bueno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autora do livro “Cartografia dos Estudos Culturais”, “Comunicação e recepção” (em coautoria com Nilda Jacks, “Leituras em comunicação, cultura e tecnologia”, além de coautora e organizadora em outras obras de referência sobre o tema cultura e comunicação no Brasil, Ana Carolina Escosteguy é hoje um dos nomes mais importantes quando se pensa em Estudos Culturais no país. Doutora em Ciências da Comunicação pela Universidade de São Paulo (2000, com pós-doutorado no CAMRI (Communication and Media Research Institute, associado ao Department of Journalism and Mass Communication da School of Media, Art and Design da University of Westminster (UK, Ana Carolina Escosteguy é professora titular da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS e bolsista produtividade em pesquisa do CNPq, desde março 2001. Nesta entrevista ela discute pontos sensíveis da área, entre eles o pouco destaque das pesquisas desse campo têm tido no Jornalismo, o fato de a base teórica ser bem mais ampla que os tradicionais estudos de recepção a que são comumente aproximados, não se nega a tratar das confusões com a folkcomunicação, bem como as próprios limites e intersecções desse campo de estudos. Durante esta conversa, aproveita para apontar as obras que considera essenciais para adentrar na área e mostra coragem e segurança para se colocar como uma pesquisadora que busca entender o tempo atual, as tecnologias e as rupturas a partir da perspectiva do usuário. Confiram:

  17. Viaje al palenque Caribe de Ana Mercedes Hoyos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Laverde Toscano

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Transitar por el camino de un artista consagrado despierta en el espectador diversos y entrañables sentimientos. Recorrer la obra de Ana Mercedes Hoyos nos enfrenta al proceso coherente y mesurado de una creadora que se apropió de la luz majestuosa para dar vida a objetos del entorno cotidiano. Objetos que danzan, dueños del movimiento y la sensualidad que los convierte en sagrados. El encuentro con un cuadro de esta artista se transforma así en un acto sublime de contemplación. Esta Maestra vive hoy en función de su trabajo las veinticuatro horas de cada día: sus viajes continuos tienen que ver siempre con sus labores artísticas en Nueva York, con sus exposiciones en los más disímiles puntos del planeta, con su anhelo ferviente de conocer lo que grandes maestros de la plástica universal muestran en famosos museos y galerías del mundo. Así preserva la riqueza de esa relación constante en su obra entre temáticas locales y estilos y lenguajes contemporáneos e internacionales. En Bogotá, la vida de Ana Mercedes Hoyos transcurre alderredor de su taller donde infatigablemente lleva al lienzo sólo algunos de los múltiples proyectos que invaden su creativa imaginación. Los pocos compromisos que acepta giran también en torno al trabajo, al igual que sus amigos con quienes comparte actividades y labores de su quehacer artístico. Al final, como ella afirma ... “todo se me vuelve el mismo cuento”.

  18. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, P; Kaewmanee, T; Benjakul, S; Baharin, B S

    2014-01-01

    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a range of 9.30-11.80% of protein, 11.40-13.52% of fat, 1.50-1.74% of sugar and 1.10-1.17% of ash. Proteins, lipids, and ash contents are found to be greatly enhanced during the pickling and salting process of pidan and salted duck eggs. However, the alkaline induced aggregation of pidan leads to degradation and subsequent generation of free peptides and amino acids. Very few amino acids are found to be lost during the pickling and storage. However, no such losses of amino acids are reported in salted duck eggs during the salting process of 14 d. Phospholipids and cholesterol contents are lower in pidan oil and salted duck egg yolk oil. Thus, the pidan and salted duck eggs are nutritionally rich alternatives of duck egg products which will benefit the human health during consumption.

  19. Influence of raised plastic floors compared with pine shaving litter on environment and Pekin duck condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, D M; Makagon, M M; Fraley, G S; Fraley, S M; Lilburn, M S

    2013-03-01

    Commercial poultry production management practices have been under increased public scrutiny driven by concerns for food safety and animal welfare. Within the United States, wood shavings and raised plastic floors are common flooring systems used in duck production. It is intuitive that each flooring type would present different management challenges influencing physical characteristics of growing ducks. This study evaluated the relationship between flooring type and duck condition during the winter. Random samples of 20 ducks from 5 predetermined areas (n = 100) were examined in commercial duck houses (n = 9, litter; n = 11, raised plastic slats). Ducks were assessed at 7, 21, and 32 d of age for eye, nostril, and feather cleanliness, feather and foot pad quality, and gait. The data were analyzed to determine the proportion of ducks with a given score. In both housing types, the proportion of 0 scores for foot pad quality improved during the production cycle (P flooring, whereas ducks reared on slatted flooring had cleaner feathers at d 32 (P flooring pertained to feather quality with the proportion of ducks having a 0 or 1 score greater in litter flooring systems than slats (P flooring system, was considered to be good.

  20. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  1. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  2. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adzliana Sajahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO46(OH2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA by chicken (CES and duck eggshells (DES as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3. CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH42HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  3. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  4. ANA IIF Automation: Moving towards Harmonization? Results of a Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Van den Bremt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our study aimed to investigate whether the introduction of automated anti-nuclear antibody (ANA indirect immunofluorescence (IIF analysis decreases the interlaboratory variability of ANA titer results. Method. Three serum samples were sent to 10 laboratories using the QUANTA-Lyser® in combination with the NOVA View®. Each laboratory performed the ANA IIF analysis 10x in 1 run and 1x in 10 different runs and determined the endpoint titer by dilution. One of the three samples had been sent in 2012, before the era of ANA IIF automation, by the Belgian National External Quality Assessment (EQA Scheme. Harmonization was evaluated in terms of variability in fluorescence intensity (LIU and ANA IIF titer. Results. The evaluation of the intra- and interrun LIU variability revealed a larger variability for 2 laboratories, due to preanalytical and analytical problems. Reanalysis of the EQA sample resulted in a lower titer variability. Diluted endpoint titers were similar to the estimated single well titer and the overall median titer as reported by the EQA in 2012. Conclusion. The introduction of automated microscopic analysis allows more harmonized ANA IIF reporting, provided that this totally automated process is controlled by a thorough quality assurance program, covering the total ANA IIF process.

  5. Effects of selenium on mallard duck reproduction and immune function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteley, P.L.; Yuill, T.M.; Fairbrother, A.

    1989-11-01

    Selenium from irrigation drain water and coal-fired power stations is a significant environmental contaminant in some regions of the USA. The objectives were to examine whether selenium-exposed waterfowl had altered immune function, disease resistance, or reproduction. Pairs of adult mallards were exposed for 95-99 days on streams with sodium selenite-treated water at 10 and 30 ppb, or on untreated streams. Selenium biomagnified through the food chain to the ducks. Disease resistance was decreased in ducklings hatched on the streams and challenged with duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV1) when 15-days old. Liver selenium concentrations for these ducklings on the 10 and 30 ppb streams was 3.6 and 7.6 ppm dry weight, respectively. Mortality of ducklings purchased when 7-days old, exposed to selenium for 14 days, and challenged when 22-days old was not affected. However, their selenium exposure was lower (liver selenium 4.1 ppm dry weight for the 30 ppb stream). Five parameters of immune function were measured in adult ducks. Phagocytosis of killed Pasteurella multocida by blood heterophils and monocytes, and blood monocyte concentrations were higher in adult males following 84 days exposure to 30 ppb selenium. Their liver selenium concentrations were 11.1 ppm dry weight after 95-99 days exposure.

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  7. Chronic effects of fumonisin B1 on ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, S T; Auvergne, A; Benard, G; Bailly, J D; Tardieu, D; Babilé, R; Guerre, P

    2005-01-01

    Partially purified fumonisin B1 (FB1) was orally administrated for 77 d to 5 groups of 8 mule ducks starting at 7 d of age; the concentrations corresponded to 5 diets containing 0, 2, 8, 32, and 128 mg of FB1/kg of feed. No mortality was observed, and no effects on feed consumption and body weight gain were observed at the end of the treatment period. But, surprisingly, FB1 ingested at 32 and 128 mg/kg led to decreased body weight from d 28 to 63 and from d 7 to 63, respectively. FB1 had no effect on the relative weight of heart and breast muscle, whereas a significant increases in the relative weights of gizzard, spleen, and liver were measured in ducks receiving 32 and 128 mg of FB1/kg of feed without evidence of detectable microscopic modification of these organs. FB1 had no significant effect of the serum aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels but increased serum total protein, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase levels when 128 mg of FB1/kg of feed was given. Serum, liver, and kidney sphinganine to sphingosine ratio was significantly increased in ducks fed 8 to 128 mg of FB1/kg of feed. The biggest increase was observed in kidneys, suggesting that this organ is the most sensitive to detect FB1-induced disruption of sphingolipid metabolism.

  8. Physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of preserved duck egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Tu, Yonggang; Xu, Mingsheng; Li, Jianke; Du, Huaying

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of preserved duck egg white were analyzed and compared with fresh egg and hard-cooked egg white (n = 3). The data obtained showed that the preserved egg white was rich in essential amino acids and minerals, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, K, and Na. After fresh duck eggs were processed into preserved eggs, contents of moisture, CP, amino acid, and water-soluble vitamin of egg white significantly decreased (P egg white significantly increased (P egg white had higher a* (redness/greenness) and b* values (yellowness/blueness; P egg white. The gel hardness of preserved egg white was approximately 50% of hard-cooked egg white; however, its springiness and cohesiveness were approximately 1.5 times of hard-cooked egg white. The results indicated that pickling with alkaline and other additives can significantly change physical properties and chemical composition of duck egg white, which make preserved egg white with characteristics of rich elements, brown color, and high springiness, but low vitamin. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Identification of double-yolked duck egg using computer vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available The double-yolked (DY egg is quite popular in some Asian countries because it is considered as a sign of good luck, however, the double yolk is one of the reasons why these eggs fail to hatch. The usage of automatic methods for identifying DY eggs can increase the efficiency in the poultry industry by decreasing egg loss during incubation or improving sale proceeds. In this study, two methods for DY duck egg identification were developed by using computer vision technology. Transmittance images of DY and single-yolked (SY duck eggs were acquired by a CCD camera to identify them according to their shape features. The Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD model equipped with a set of normalized Fourier descriptors (NFDs extracted from the acquired images and the convolutional neural network (CNN model using primary preprocessed images were built to recognize duck egg yolk types. The classification accuracies of the FLD model for SY and DY eggs were 100% and 93.2% respectively, while the classification accuracies of the CNN model for SY and DY eggs were 98% and 98.8% respectively. The CNN-based algorithm took about 0.12 s to recognize one sample image, which was slightly faster than the FLD-based (about 0.20 s. Finally, this work compared two classification methods and provided the better method for DY egg identification.

  10. Experimental susceptibility of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Porter, Robert E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 104.54 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 102and 102.9 PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that ducks play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  11. Does overfeeding enhance genotype effects on liver ability for lipogenesis and lipid secretion in ducks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrin, Pascal; Bernadet, Marie-Dominique; Guy, Gérard; Mourot, Jacques; Hocquette, Jean-François; Rideau, Nicole; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Baéza, Elisabeth

    2006-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of genotype (Muscovy, Pekin and their crossbreed hinny and mule ducks) and feeding levels (overfeeding between 12 and 14 weeks of age vs ad libitum feeding) on liver ability for lipogenesis and lipid secretion in ducks. Samples of liver and blood were collected at 14 weeks of age from 8 birds per group. Plasma levels of insulin was considerably increased in overfed ducks (1.9-fold), stimulating the hepatic activity of the main enzymes involved in lipogenesis from glucose (glucokinase, GK, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PDH, malic enzyme, ME, acetyl CoA carboxylase, ACX), while cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity, indicating overall oxidation ability of energy-yielding substrates, remained unchanged. Plasma levels of triglycerides, phospholipids and total cholesterol were therefore increased (1.9, 3.7, 1.6 and 1.6-fold, respectively). Glycaemia also significantly increased (+8%). Pekin ducks exhibited higher levels of GK and G6PDH activity in the liver than Muscovy ducks, suggesting a greater ability to use glucose consistent with their lower glycaemia. Muscovy ducks had greater ACX activity, suggesting greater ability to synthesise lipids. However, plasma lipid levels were much higher in Pekin ducks than in Muscovy ducks, suggesting a greater ability to export lipids from the liver. Values for the different criteria measured in this study were intermediate or similar in hinny and mule ducks to those of parental species. The high values for GK, G6PDH, ME and ACX activity in hybrid ducks enabled them to produce heavy fatty livers with the same chemical and lipid composition as Muscovy ducks and characterised by high amounts of triglycerides (around 96% of total lipids), and saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids.

  12. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases

  13. Spatial influence and oceanic thermal response to Santa Ana events along the Baja California peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: rubenc@uabc.mx; Mascarenhas, A.; Martinez-Diaz-de-leon, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Durazo, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, Baja California, (Mexico); Gil Silva, E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, Baja California, (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    Meteorological data were recorded at eight stations located along the coast of the Pacific Ocean and three along the coast of the Gulf of California, aimed to assess the spatial influence of Santa Ana weather conditions in the Baja California peninsula. February 2002 featured two Santa Ana events: one from the 9 to the 12 and another from the 21 to the 22. The first Santa Ana event had the strongest winds, however relative humidity and temperature behaved similarly on both events at some stations. Data from the Pacific Ocean showed typical Santa Ana condition patterns: wind speed and temperature increase opposed to decreased relative humidity values. Data from the Gulf of California did not show the typical temperature rise of a Santa Ana condition, but there was a decrease on the amplitude of the diurnal variability of air temperature and relative humidity as well as a marked increase on wind strength. Wind direction during the Santa Ana events on the Pacific side was NE and NW on the Gulf of California. NE winds are associated to the shift on the position of the North Pacific High Pressure Center, which moves towards the continent. Data suggest that relative humidity may be the best parameter to monitor both occurrence and length of Santa Ana conditions on the Pacific side. Normal weather conditions show a negative air-sea temperature difference, but during both Santa Ana events this difference was positive and higher than 10 degrees Celsius. Latent and sensible heat fluxes drastically increased during both events, reaching values more than three times higher than those for normal conditions, which is due to the presence of strong winds combined with a drier and hotter air mass over the ocean. [Spanish] Con el proposito de estudiar la influencia espacial de condiciones Santa Ana a lo largo de la peninsula de Baja California, se registraron datos meteorologicos en ocho estaciones localizadas en el lado del Pacifico y tres estaciones en el Golfo de California. En

  14. Programmēšanas spēle "PyDrone"

    OpenAIRE

    Siliņš, Viesturs

    2010-01-01

    Darbā “Programmēšanas spēle “PyDrone”” ir dokumentēta atvērtā koda programmas PyDrone izstrāde. PyDrone ir programmēšanas spēle, kas paredzēta izklaidei un izglītošanai, spēles veidā iepazīstinot cilvēkus ar programmēšanu. Programma izstrādāta, izmantojot Python programmēšanas valodu. Programma izstrādāta, izmantojot spējo metodiku programmizstrādes principus. Atslēgvārdi: Python, spējās metodikas, programmēšanas spēle.

  15. Teritorijas izmantošanas konflikti Ventspils un Rīgas ostās

    OpenAIRE

    Sniķere, Sandija

    2009-01-01

    Maģistra darba nosaukums „Teritorijas izmantošanas konflikti Ventspils un Rīgas ostās”. Darbs izstrādāts latviešu valodā, 51 lappušu apjomā. Maģistra darbā izvērtēti Ventspils un Rīgas ostas teritorijas izmantošanas konflikti. Osta ir specifisks teritorijas izmantošanas veids. Latvijā ostu teritorijām izmantošana tiek noteikta pašvaldību teritorijas plānojumos. Darbības ostas teritorijā var īstenot tikai ar ostas valdes akceptu. Plānojot teritoriju var rasties potenciālie konflikti, ja pē...

  16. Missugused on teie kogemused väikeklassidega? / Villu Mengel, Ana Kontor, Katrin Betlem, Riina Kink

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Küsimusele vastasid Sikupilli keskkooli direktor Villu Mengel, Tartu hariduse tugiteenuste keskuse eripedagoog Ana Kontor, Tabasalu ühisgümnaasiumi õppejuht-sotsiaalpedagoog Katrin Betlem, Keila kooli põhikooli õppejuht Riina Kink

  17. Contract Audit Followup: Defense Contract Management Agency Santa Ana Office's Actions on Incurred Cost Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This report addresses the DCMA Santa Ana District Office. DoD Directive 7640.2, "Policy for Follow-up on Contract Audit Reports," February 12, 1988, as amended August 16, 1995, implements OMB Circular A-50...

  18. Identification and expression analysis of duck interleukin-17D in Riemeralla anatipestifer infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin (IL)-17D is a proinflammatory cytokine with limited information on its biological functions. Here we provide the description of the sequence, bioactivity, and mRNA expression profile of duck IL-17D homologue. A full-length duck IL-17D (duIL-17D) cDNA with a 624-bp coding region was ident...

  19. Nutritional requirements of meat-type and egg-type ducks: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Ahmed Mohamed; Ruan, Dong; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Xia, Weiguang; Zheng, Chuntian

    2018-01-01

    The demand for duck meat, duck eggs, and associated products is increasing each year. Classic and modern selection programs have been applied to enhance the economic traits of ducks to satisfy the requirements of consumers and enhance the incomes of producers. The nutritional requirements of unselected ducks may not be adequate, however, to fulfill the potential productivity performance of modern birds, including both meat-type and egg-type ducks. In particular, an imbalanced diet is associated with low productive performance and signs of nutritional deficiency (if insufficient nutrients are supplied), as well as with high feed costs and manure problems that reflect flock health and welfare (if excessive nutrients are supplied). Thus, the main aim of this review is to summarize the results of previous studies that estimated the nutrient requirements of meat-type and egg-type ducks in order to evaluate current knowledge and to identify further issues that need to be addressed. In addition, the results obtained in previous studies are compared in order to understand how to lower commercial feed costs, fulfill the genetic potential of selected ducks, protect the environment from pollution, and satisfy the welfare and health needs of ducks.

  20. 75 FR 9316 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control of Muscovy Ducks, Revisions to the Waterfowl Permit Exceptions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... of aquatic and terrestrial plants, including agricultural crops. They also eat small fishes, reptiles... damage and aggressiveness demonstrated by the ducks. The muscovy duck is an introduced species in many... time to time. These escaped animals could easily set up a population and be responsible for the spread...

  1. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Marchese, Krysten; Romano, Marcelo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana I; Uhart, Marcela

    2015-05-01

    Numerous experiments under controlled conditions and extensive investigation of waterfowl die-offs have demonstrated that exposure to lead from spent gunshot is highly detrimental to the health of waterfowl. However, few studies have focused on examining the more subtle sub-lethal effects of lead toxicity on ducks in non-experimental settings. In our study, the health of ducks exposed to varying amounts of lead under natural conditions was assessed by correlating individual lead exposure with relevant indices of health. Based on hunter-killed wild ducks in Argentina, we measured spleen mass, body condition, examined bone marrow smears, and determined Ca and P in bone tissue. In free-ranging live-trapped ducks we determined basic hematology and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Using multivariate analyses, we found that, when controlling for the potential confounding effect of site type, year, duck species, body mass and age, lead levels in the liver were negatively associated with body condition and spleen mass. Spleen mass was also lower in ducks with higher lead levels in their bones. In live ducks, high blood lead levels were associated with low packed cell volume and red cell morphologic abnormalities. These findings suggest that, despite the lack of recorded lead-induced mortality in the region, lead exposure results in less conspicuous but still significant impacts on the health of ducks, which could have serious implications for their conservation. Moreover, this evidence further supports the need for urgently banning lead shot in the region.

  2. [Nitrogen cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during double cropping rice growth season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Raising duck in paddy rice field is an evolution of Chinese traditional agriculture. In May-October 2010, a field experiment was conducted in a double cropping rice region of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the nitrogen (N) cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during early rice and late rice growth periods, taking a conventional paddy rice field as the control. Input-output analysis method was adopted. The N output in the early rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 239.5 kg x hm(-2), in which, 12.77 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks, and the N output in the late rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 338.7 kg x hm(-2), in which, 23.35 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks. At the present N input level, there existed soil N deficit during the growth seasons of both early rice and late rice. The N input from duck sub-system was mainly from the feed N, and the cycling rate of the duck feces N recycled within the system was 2.5% during early rice growth season and 3.5% during late rice growth season. After late rice harvested, the soil N sequestration was 178.6 kg x hm(-2).

  3. Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Enteric Microflora of Wild Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, Dimitria A; Mollenkopf, Dixie F; Nolting, Jacqueline; Bowman, Andrew S; Daniels, Joshua B; Wittum, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    We tested 772 cloacal swabs from wild ducks to estimate the prevalence of enteric bacteria resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). We found a low prevalence of the important ESC resistance genotypes, bla CMY (5.7%) and bla CTX-M (0.3%). This suggests a minor role for wild ducks in the movement of resistant bacteria in the environment.

  4. Epidemiologic Investigation of Riemerella anatipestifer in a Commercial Duck Company by Serotyping and DNA Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    A commercial duck company that raises approximately two million Pekin ducks per year experienced an outbreak of Riemerella anatipestifer(RA)on nine farms over a one year period. Due to concerns that the bacteria was being spread from farm to farm, an investigation using serotyping and DNA fingerprin...

  5. Evaluation of Integrated Farming of Rice and Duck on Rice Grain Yield in Gilan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mofidian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate integrated farming of rice and duck on rice grain yield, an experiment was performed on Oryza sativa L. in Gilan, Iran in 2013. This experiment was performed based on factorial split and it was also according to plan of randomized complete block (RCB in three replications. In this experiment the main factor of duck was between two levels (by presence of duck and without presence of duck and the minor factor was the factorial combination of weeding levels (weeding on the releasing day of ducks and not weeding on the releasing day of ducks; and also the planting spaces were 20×20 cm, 25×25 cm, 30×30 cm.The results of the analysis of variance show that the presence of duck in a rice field causes increasing in plant height, the number of grains per panicle, the number of filled grains per panicle, weight of thousands grains, harvest index (HI and grain yield. In total, results and statistics show that using duck in rice fields causes increasing in grain yield and consequently it increases farmer’s income and also reduction of using agricultural pesticides and protecting the environment.

  6. Application of Faecalibacterium 16S rDNA genetic marker for accurate identification of duck faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Da; Duan, Chuanren; Shang, Yaning; Ma, Yunxia; Tan, Lili; Zhai, Jun; Gao, Xu; Guo, Jingsong; Wang, Guixue

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to judge the legal duty of pollution liabilities by assessing a duck faeces-specific marker, which can exclude distractions of residual bacteria from earlier contamination accidents. With the gene sequencing technology and bioinformatics method, we completed the comparative analysis of Faecalibacterium sequences, which were associated with ducks and other animal species, and found the sequences unique to duck faeces. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agarose gel electrophoresis techniques were used to verify the reliability of both human and duck faeces-specific primers. The duck faeces-specific primers generated an amplicon of 141 bp from 43.3 % of duck faecal samples, 0 % of control samples and 100 % of sewage wastewater samples that contained duck faeces. We present here the initial evidence of Faecalibacterium-based applicability as human faeces-specificity in China. Meanwhile, this study represents the initial report of a Faecalibacterium marker for duck faeces and suggests an independent or supplementary environmental biotechnology of microbial source tracking (MST).

  7. Transmission dynamics of the recently-identified BYD virus causing duck egg-drop syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen K Vaidya

    Full Text Available Baiyangdian (BYD virus is a recently-identified mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe disease in ducks, with extremely rapid transmission, up to 15% mortality within 10 days and 90% reduction in egg production on duck farms within 5 days of infection. Because of the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses, the characterization of BYD virus and its epidemiology are important public health concerns. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of this novel virus. We validate the model against BYD outbreak data collected from duck farms in Southeast China, as well as experimental data obtained from an animal facility. Based on our model, the basic reproductive number of BYD virus is high (R(0 = 21 indicating that this virus is highly transmissible, consistent with the dramatic epidemiology observed in BYDV-affected duck farms. Our results indicate that younger ducks are more vulnerable to BYD disease and that ducks infected with BYD virus reduce egg production (to about 33% on average for about 3 days post-infection; after 3 days infected ducks are no longer able to produce eggs. Using our model, we predict that control measures which reduce contact between mosquitoes and ducks such as mosquito nets are more effective than insecticides.

  8. Application of AFLP molecular markers to genetic characterisation of duck (Anas platyrhyncos, turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris Veneto breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the conservation of local breeds and of their genetic resources has gained more and more importance (Notter, 1999. In fact, the safeguard of animal genetic variability is determinant to maintain ecosystem equilibriums but it is also essential to guarantee future economic potentials of these animal resources. Moreover, biodiversity has a great cultural value and it can be also used for scientific purposes (FAO, 1992.

  9. Hydrophobic duck feathers and their simulation on textile substrates for water repellent treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yuyang; Chen Xianqiong; Xin, J H [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: liuxx751@umn.edu

    2008-12-01

    Inspired by the non-wetting phenomena of duck feathers, the water repellent property of duck feathers was studied at the nanoscale. The microstructures of the duck feather were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging method through a step-by-step magnifying procedure. The SEM results show that duck feathers have a multi-scale structure and that this multi-scale structure as well as the preening oil are responsible for their super hydrophobic behavior. The microstructures of the duck feather were simulated on textile substrates using the biopolymer chitosan as building blocks through a novel surface solution precipitation (SSP) method, and then the textile substrates were further modified with a silicone compound to achieve low surface energy. The resultant textiles exhibit super water repellent properties, thus providing a simple bionic way to create super hydrophobic surfaces on soft substrates using flexible material as building blocks.

  10. Neoliberalism, Pro-ana/mia Websites, and Pathologizing Women: Using Performance Ethnography to Challenge Psychocentrism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole D Schott

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Key terms such as “pro-ana,” “pro-anorexia,” and “pro-ED” are searched for on the Internet over 13 million times annually. These searches lead to web pages and social media sites where pro-anorexia and “pro-bulimia” (pro-ana/mia contributors share weight-loss and exercise tips, “thinspiration” slogans, images and videos, and speak openly about their problems with eating and body image. In this article, we outline our initial research on online responses to pro-ana/mia, and describe how we used the data and analyses from this research to create a piece of research-informed theatre, or performance ethnography. The initial research identified a range of responses to pro-ana/mia that were aligned with either dominant or critical discourses on the causes of, and solutions for, pro-ana/mia. Our findings and analyses challenge media portrayals and medical approaches to pro-ana/mia phenomena, and support an alternative, critical analysis of how psychocentrism and neoliberalism foster social injustices for women and girls. Our work nurtures collective efforts to displace dominant ideologies and practices that have serious implications for the socio-cultural, economic, physical and mental health of women and their communities.

  11. Quase nada, amor? - Quando Ana C. traduz Emily D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Franco Diniz

    2015-12-01

    Cristina Cesar para o poema “The Dying need but little, Dear”, de Emily Dickinson, ao mesmo tempo em que traço um paralelo com as soluções adotadas pelos tradutores José Lira e Isa Mara Lando em suas versões para a mesma obra. Para tanto, pondero sobre o esquema métrico e rímico do poema, sua prosódica e imagética, além de fazer menção a modulações como omissões e acréscimos nos poemas traduzidos. Uso como base os ensaios “Cinco e meio”, em que a própria Ana Cristina Cesar comenta sua experiência na tradução do poema em questão, e “Traduzindo o poema curto”, em que ela tenta estruturar suas ideias sobre tradução de poesia, ambos publicados no livro Crítica e Tradução.

  12. Migration strategy affects avian influenza dynamics in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, Nichola J.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herring, Garth; Hobson, Keith; Cardona, Carol J.; Runstadler, Jonathan; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of pathogen transmission typically overlook that wildlife hosts can include both migrant and resident populations when attempting to model circulation. Through the application of stable isotopes in flight feathers, we estimated the migration strategy of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) occurring on California wintering grounds. Our study demonstrates that mallards- a principal host of avian influenza virus (AIV) in nature, contribute differently to virus gene flow depending on migration strategy. No difference in AIV prevalence was detected between resident (9.6%), intermediate-distance (9.6%) and long-distance migrants (7.4%). Viral diversity among the three groups was also comparable, possibly owing to viral pool mixing when birds converge at wetlands during winter. However, migrants and residents contributed differently to the virus gene pool at wintering wetlands. Migrants introduced virus from northern breeding grounds (Alaska and the NW Pacific Rim) into the wintering population, facilitating gene flow at continental scales, but circulation of imported virus appeared to be limited. In contrast, resident mallards acted as AIV reservoirs facilitating year-round circulation of limited subtypes (i.e. H5N2) at lower latitudes. This study supports a model of virus exchange in temperate regions driven by the convergence of wild birds with separate geographic origins and exposure histories.

  13. Characterization of a non-pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus isolated from a migratory duck flying from Siberia in Hokkaido, Japan, in October 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamatsu Masatoshi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs of domestic poultry and wild birds has spread to more than 60 countries in Eurasia and Africa. It is concerned that HPAIVs may be perpetuated in the lakes in Siberia where migratory water birds nest in summer. To monitor whether HPAIVs circulate in migratory water birds, intensive surveillance of avian influenza has been performed in Mongolia and Japan in autumn each year. Until 2008, there had not been any H5N1 viruses isolated from migratory water birds that flew from their nesting lakes in Siberia. In autumn 2009, A/mallard/Hokkaido/24/09 (H5N1 (Mal/Hok/24/09 was isolated from a fecal sample of a mallard (Anas platyrhynchos that flew from Siberia to Hokkaido, Japan. The isolate was assessed for pathogenicity in chickens, domestic ducks, and quails and analyzed antigenically and phylogenetically. Results No clinical signs were observed in chickens inoculated intravenously with Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1. There was no viral replication in chickens inoculated intranasally with the isolate. None of the domestic ducks and quails inoculated intranasally with the isolate showed any clinical signs. There were no multiple basic amino acid residues at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA of the isolate. Each gene of Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1 is phylogenetically closely related to that of influenza viruses isolated from migratory water birds that flew from their nesting lakes in autumn. Additionally, the antigenicity of the HA of the isolate was similar to that of the viruses isolated from migratory water birds in Hokkaido that flew from their northern territory in autumn and different from those of HPAIVs isolated from birds found dead in China, Mongolia, and Japan on the way back to their northern territory in spring. Conclusion Mal/Hok/24/09 (H5N1 is a non-pathogenic avian influenza virus for chickens, domestic ducks, and quails, and is antigenically and genetically

  14. Experimental susceptibility of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik; Porter, Robert E; Franson, J Christian

    2015-04-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 10(4.54) plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 10(2) and 10(2.9) PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that they play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  15. Local Duck Fanning At Paddy Three Times Planting Areas ("IP Padi 300"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setioko A.R

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of duck husbandry in Indonesia is still run traditionally, herded in rice field or in the swampy area. This kind of husbandry seemed to be much preferred by farmers as they thought it was a simple and did not need high skill and high capital "IP padi 300" was a term of rice planting system tree times instead of twice in a year. This kind of changing might have significantly affected duck faming. The objective of the study was to observe the interactively effect of "IP padi 300" to duck husbandry at the same area. Two locations were choosen (Subang, West Jawa and Pemalang, Central Java with 5 farmers at each location to be involved in the study. As many as 1200 laying pullet ducks were distributed to 10 farmers at two locations. The farmers were suggested to raise laying ducks with their own systems (fully intensive, semi intensive and fully herded and were observed for 6 months. Biota was observed on both field and in the crop of the laying ducks. There was an interactive effect of "IP padi 300" and the duck farming on the same area. The availability of feed was increased on the "IP padi 300", which gave benefit to duck farming especially fue herded system, not to go far from owner's home base. Whilst the benefit to "IP padi 300" was assumed to the reduction of pest and desease, which was frequently attacked the rice field. The production of egg from herded duck was very fluctuative due to the movement and feed availability in the rice field. Field biota in Subang and Pemalang was very much the same in profile, although "golden snail" was only found in Subang. Ducks' crop content seemed to be very much similar with the profile of field biota, although rice grain was the most in the crop. Thus, it was found that field biota was not reduced by "IP padi 300", in fact it was rather increased.

  16. Development of an indirect ELISA with epitope on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus for differentiating between infected and vaccinated Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B; Ma, J-Z; Yu, T-F; Shao, S-L; Li, M; Fan, X-D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). Sera (100) from negative and vaccinated Muscovy ducks were compared with infected sera (240) to establish the cut-off value of this i-ELISA. There was a significant difference between the positive and negative populations (P < 0·05). The adoption of this positive-negative threshold value for this i-ELISA assay resulted in specificity of 98·0%. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. In this study, we developed an i-ELISA based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of MDPV. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Genomic characterization of H14 subtype Influenza A viruses in new world waterfowl and experimental infectivity in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos.

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    Andrew M Ramey

    Full Text Available Recent repeated isolation of H14 hemagglutinin subtype influenza A viruses (IAVs in the New World waterfowl provides evidence to suggest that host and/or geographic ranges for viruses of this subtype may be expanding. In this study, we used genomic analyses to gain inference on the origin and evolution of H14 viruses in New World waterfowl and conducted an experimental challenge study in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos to evaluate pathogenicity, viral replication, and transmissibility of a representative viral strain in a natural host species. Genomic characterization of H14 subtype IAVs isolated from New World waterfowl, including three isolates sequenced specifically for this study, revealed high nucleotide identity among individual gene segments (e.g. ≥95% shared identity among H14 HA gene segments. In contrast, lower shared identity was observed among internal gene segments. Furthermore, multiple neuraminidase subtypes were observed for H14 IAVs isolated in the New World. Gene segments of H14 viruses isolated after 2010 shared ancestral genetic lineages with IAVs isolated from wild birds throughout North America. Thus, genomic characterization provided evidence for viral evolution in New World waterfowl through genetic drift and genetic shift since purported introduction from Eurasia. In the challenge study, no clinical disease or lesions were observed among mallards experimentally inoculated with A/blue-winged teal/Texas/AI13-1028/2013(H14N5 or exposed via contact with infected birds. Titers of viral shedding for mallards challenged with the H14N5 IAV were highest at two days post-inoculation (DPI; however shedding was detected up to nine DPI using cloacal swabs. The distribution of viral antigen among mallards infected with H14N5 IAV was largely restricted to enterocytes lining the villi in the lower intestinal tract and in the epithelium of the bursa of Fabricius. Characterization of the infectivity of A/blue-winged teal/Texas/AI13

  18. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  19. The Growth of Protein Crystals Using McDUCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Felicia; Wilson, Lori; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Most of the current microgravity crystal growth hardware is optimized to produce crystals within the limited time available on orbit. This often results in the actual nucleation and growth process being rushed or the system not coming to equilibrium within the limited time available. Longer duration hardware exists, but one cannot readily pick out crystals grown early versus those which nucleated and grew more slowly. We have devised a long duration apparatus, the Multi-chamber Dialysis Unit for Crystallization Kinetics, or McDUCK. This apparatus-is a series of protein chambers, stacked upon a precipitant reservoir chamber. All chambers are separated by a dialysis membrane, which serves to pass small molecules while retaining the protein. The volume of the Precipitant chamber is equal to the sum of the volumes of the protein chamber. In operation, the appropriate chambers are filled with precipitant solution or protein solution, and the McDUCK is placed standing upright, with the precipitant chamber on the bottom. The precipitant diffuses upwards over time, with the time to reach equilibration a function of the diffusivity of the precipitant and the overall length of the diffusion pathway. Typical equilibration times are approximately 2-4 months, and one can readily separate rapid from slow nucleation and growth crystals. An advantage on Earth is that the vertical precipitant concentration gradient dominates that of the solute, thus dampening out solute density gradient driven convective flows. However, large Earth-grown crystals have so far tended to be more two dimensional. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of lysozyme crystals grown in McDUCK have indicated that the best, and largest, come from the middle chambers, suggesting that there is an optimal growth rate. Further, the improvements in diffraction resolution have been better signal to noise ratios in the low resolution data, not an increase in resolution overall. Due to the persistently large crystals

  20. Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattermann, K; Schmitt, C; Soike, D; Mankertz, A

    2003-12-01

    The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996 nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains four repeats of a 44-bp sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows close relation of DuCV with Goose circovirus and suggests classification of DuCV as a new member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae.

  1. Two-Dimensional Zymography of Proteases from Steatotic Duck Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Padrón, María Fernanda; Kurz, Liliana; Rémignon, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Protease activity present in liver cells with steatosis can be electrophoretically characterized. Zymographic techniques allow semi-quantitative results, successfully detecting cathepsin and metalloprotease activity using polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with gelatin and quantified by densitometry. By using specific inhibitors, the identity of the proteases can be confirmed. 2D zymography allows the determination of both M r. and pI of the metalloprotease and cathepsin activity present in the homogenates. The analysis of liver proteases activities in force fed ducks may elucidate the mechanisms behind steatosis development.

  2. Efeito de diferentes reguladores de crescimento na regeneração in vitro de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke Effect of differents growth regulators in vitro propagation of Aniba rosaeodora Ducke

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    Lyana Silva Jardim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um protocolo para a regeneração in vitro de pau-rosa (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, utilizando brotações apicais e segmentos nodais inoculados em meio de cultura com distintas concentrações de diferentes reguladores de crescimento. Explantes esterilizados com soluções de benomyl (4,0 g.L-1 por 24 horas e hipoclorito de sódio a 20% + tween 20 por 20 minutos, foram submetidos a um experimento de indução de broto, raiz e calo em meio MS1 acrescido de 30g.L-1 de sacarose e 9g.L-1 de agar, suplementado com BAP (0,0 e 4,0 mg.L-1, ANA, AIA e 2,4-D (0,0; 3,0 e 6,0 mg.L-1, e suas respectivas combinações. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 7 X 2, com 14 tratamentos e 15 repetições cada, onde foram analisados o número médio de brotos, raízes e calo. Após 90 dias, os resultados mostraram que a presença de auxinas é fundamental para a formação dos parâmetros induzidos nos explantes de pau-rosa. O meio de cultura contendo 4,0 mg.L-1 de BAP + 6,0 mg.L-1 de AIA apresentou a melhor média para a brotação com 2,13 brotos/explante. Para o enraizamento o meio contendo 3,0 mg.L-1 de ANA foi o mais eficiente, apresentando uma média de 2,53 raízes/explante. Em relação à indução de calo, todos os tratamentos apresentaram calogênese, porém o meio suplementado com 4,0 mg.L-1 de BAP + 6,0 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D, apresentou a melhor média, 1,67 calos/explante.The objective of this work was to establish a protocol for in vitro regeneration of rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora Ducke, using apical and nodal segments inoculated in culture medium with various concentrations of growth regulators. Explants disinfected with solutions of benomyl (4,0 g.L-1 for 24 hours and sodium hipoclorite in 20% + tween 20 for 20 minutes were submitted in an experiment of shoot, root and callus induction in MS medium, with 30 g.L-1 of sucrose and 9,0 g.L-1 of agar added with the growth regulators

  3. GENETIC VARIATION IN THREE BREEDS OF INDONESIAN LOCAL DUCKS BASED ON BLOOD AND EGG WHITE PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM

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    S. Johari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation of four blood protein loci and three egg white loci in three breeds of Indonesian local ducks (Magelang duck = MAD, Tegal duck = TED and Mojosari duck= MOD was investigated by using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The result showed that four blood protein loci (Pre-albumin, Albumin, Transferrin and Post-transferrin and three egg white loci (Ovalbumin, Ovoglobulin and Conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three breeds of local ducks. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein polyimorphism. The average value of heterozygosity on three breeds of local ducks had a genetic potential to determine the controlled mating system and selection to obtain pure line. The closest phylogenetic relationship among the three breeds of local ducks occurred between MAD and TED.

  4. [Experimental infection of the mule duck by Eimeria mulardi sp. nov.: effects on body weight and modifications of different hematologic and biochemical parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascalon-Pekelniczky, A; Chauve, C M; Gauthey, M

    1994-01-01

    Eleven-day-old female Mule ducks (Cairina moschata x Anas platyrhynchos) were individually infected per os with a single inoculation containing 10(4), 10(5) or 10(6) sporulated oocysts of E mulardi, or kept as uninfected controls. No mortality was observed. Growth rate was not modified at lower doses, but was reduced in the other 2 groups, with weight loss on d 7 post inoculation (PI). Blood was detected in feces by chemical characterization of hemoglobin as early as d 3 PI with the highest infecting dose, while oocyst excretion began on d 6 PI in all infected groups. With 10(5) and 10(6) oocysts, the authors observed a significant increase in sedimentation rate and a slight anemia. Total protein and lipid concentrations in the plasma decreased in the 3 infected groups. These results show the pathogenic effect of E mulardi in Mule duckling, with dose-dependent changes. All parameters, except sedimentation rate, showed maximal variations during the acute phase of infection, between d 6 and d 9 PI, and returned to normal values early, in relation to the infecting dose, except that the weight remained lower than in the uninfected group at the final control (d 28 Pl). These perturbations have been described in avian coccidiosis.

  5. Morphometric Traits of Muscovy Ducks from Two Agro Ecological Zones of Nigeria

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    Yakubu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation between Muscovy ducks from the guinea savannah and rainforest zones of Nigeria was examined using multivariate discriminant analysis. Data comprised eight morphometric traits measured in a total of 435 adult ducks randomly selected in the two agro-ecological zones. Common descriptive statistics showed that ducks from the rainforest zone had higher (P< 0.05 body weight, foot length and thigh circumference, while their guinea savannah counterparts were longer (P< 0.05 in the neck. Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that foot length, neck length, thigh circumference and body length were more effective in discriminating between the duck populations. The low Mahalanobis distance of 3.39, as revealed by the canonical discriminant analysis, is an indication of high gene flow between ducks from the two agro-ecological zones. The cluster analysis also revealed the homogeneity of the genetic identity of the duck populations. The present information will be the basis for further characterization, conservation and sustainable genetic improvement strategies for indigenous ducks.

  6. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  7. Death feigning by ducks in response to predation by red foxes (Vulpes fulva)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    Predation by captive red foxes (Vulpes fulva) on approximately 50 ducks comprised of five species was observed in tests conducted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. Most ducks were attacked from a rear or lateral position and seized in the cervical or thoracic region. All birds became immobile (death-feigned) immediately when seized and with few exceptions remained motionless during prey-handling and for varying lengths of time thereafter. Initial death feints lasted from 20 sec to 14 min. Recovery was delayed by tactile, visual and, possibly, auditory cues from the foxes. Death-feigning birds appeared alert and often took advantage of escape opportunities. Twenty-nine birds survived initial capture and handling by the foxes. Naive foxes were wary of ducks during initial confrontations, but experienced foxes showed little hesitation in attacking them. After capture, most ducks were taken alive to lay-down sites where they were mouthed and often killed. Then the ducks were usually cached or taken to dens or pups. Several birds were cached alive. Red foxes appear to have adapted to the escape of death-feigning ducks by learning to kill some birds soon after capture and by the evolution of an appendage-severing behavior. Death feigning appears to be a highly developed antipredator behavior of ducks that facilitates the escape of some birds after capture by red foxes.

  8. Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt

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    Essam A. Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Few studies have been made in regard to avian influenza (AI in ducks, thus the aim of this work was planned to investigate the hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in domestic Egyptian ducks naturally infected with AI. Materials and Methods: 30 duck from private backyards 3-month-old 15 were clinically healthy (Group 1 and the other fifteen (Group 2 were naturally diseased with AI (H5N1. The disease was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction as H5N1. Results: Duck showed cyanosis, subcutaneous edema of head and neck with nervous signs (torticollis. Hematological studies revealed a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, Υ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phsphokinase. Prominent increase in creatinine and uric acid in addition to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were significantly detected in the infected ducks. Histopathological finding confirm these investigations. Conclusion: The highly pathogenic AIV (A/H5N1 became more severe infectious to ducks than before and causes nervous manifestations and blindness which were uncommon in ducks. Besides the significant increases of hepatic enzymes, brain, heart, and renal markers as a response to virus damage to these organs.

  9. Optimizing the Performance of Solo Duck Wave Energy Converter in Tide

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    Jinming Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The high efficiency performance of the Edinburgh Duck wave energy converter (WEC in 2D regular wave tests makes it a promising wave energy conversion scheme. A solo Duck WEC will be able to apply the point absorber effect to further enhance its performance. Since released degree of freedom will decrease the efficiency, a Duck WEC with fixed pitching axis will be a better option. However, for fixed supported WECs, tide is a non-ignorable consideration. In this paper, a movable mass method is utilized in the whole tidal range to not only balance the Duck to appropriate beak angles, but also follow the variation of hydrodynamic coefficients to keep cancelling the reactance of the system impedance so that complex conjugate control can be realized to optimize the power capture performance of the Duck WEC in tide. Results show that the beak angle should be adjusted to as large a value as possible so that the response amplitude of the Duck at maximum relative capture width will be reasonable small, and the lowest weight of the movable mass is found when its designed position locates at the center of the Duck profile.

  10. Determination of Benzylpenicillin Potassium Residues in Duck Meat Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Au Nanoparticles

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    Yijie Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS with Au nanoparticles was established for the rapid detection of benzylpenicillin potassium (PG residues in duck meat. Au nanoparticles were used as SERS enhancement substrate, and the maximum absorption peak of Au nanoparticles using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer was 548 nm. In the research, the SERS spectra of PG solutions and PG duck meat extract as well as their vibrational assignment were analyzed. The effects of Au nanoparticles addition, sample addition, NaCl solution addition, and adsorption time on the SERS intensities of PG duck meat extract were discussed. It is revealed that a good linearity can be obtained between the SERS intensities at 993 cm−1 and the PG residues concentrations (0.5~15.0 mg·L−1 detected in duck meat extract. The linear equation was Y=831.68X+1997.1, and the determination coefficient was 0.9553. The determination coefficient of PG in duck meat extract between the actual values and the predictive values was 0.9757, and the root mean square error (RMSEP was 0.6496 mg/L. The recovery rate of PG in duck meat extract was 90~121%. The results showed that the method using SERS with Au nanoparticles could pave a new way for the rapid detection of PG residues in duck meat.

  11. Rapid Detection of Tetracycline Residues in Duck Meat Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

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    Jinhui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid detection method based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS was proposed in this paper in order to realize the detection of tetracycline residues in duck meat. Firstly, surface enhanced Raman spectra characteristics of tetracycline aqueous solution, duck meat extract, and duck meat extract containing tetracycline were analyzed. Secondly, the effect of the addition amount of duck meat extract containing tetracycline on SERS intensity and the effect of the adsorption time on SERS intensity were discussed, respectively. Thirdly, SERS intensity ratio at 1272 and 1558 cm−1 (I1272/I1558 was used to establish the SERS calibration curve. A good linearity relationship between the tetracycline concentration in duck meat extract and I1272/I1558 was obtained, and the linear regression equation and the correlation coefficient (r were y=0.0177x+0.1213 and 0.950, respectively. The average recovery of tetracycline in duck meat extract was 101~108% with relative standard deviation (RSD of 2.4~4.6%. The experimental results showed that the method proposed in this paper was a good detection scheme for the rapid detection of tetracycline residues in duck meat.

  12. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

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    Jingliang Su

    Full Text Available Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus, with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  13. Effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on growth performance in Muscovy ducks

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    T Sheng-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary Bacillus subtilis natto could affect growth performance of Muscovy ducks. A total of 120 hundred Muscovy ducks at the age of 1 day were randomly assigned to four groups (30 Muscovy ducks/group, and fed with diets supplemented with 0% (control group, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto, respectively during the 6-week feeding period. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Muscovy ducks were significantly improved by the dietary addition of Bacillus subtilis natto, and the results were more significant in 0.4% dietary Bacillus subtilis natto treatment group; Also, Bacillus subtilis natto reduced Escherichia coli and Salmonella colonies, and increased lactobacilli population in the ileum and the cecum. Biochemical parameters, including total protein, GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, GPT (glutamic pyruvic transaminase, AKP (alkaline phosphatase, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4 contents (pBacillus subtilis natto was added to the diets (p0.05. The results of the present study indicate that diets with 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto improved the growth performance of Muscovy ducks by increasing the absorption of protein, simulating hormone secretion, suppressing harmful microflora, and improving the duodenal structure and immune functions of Muscovy ducks. It is suggested that Bacillus subtilis natto is a potential candidate to be used use as a probiotic to improve the growth performance of Muscovy ducks.

  14. Evaluation of chlorpyrifos transferred from contaminated feed to duck commodities and dietary risks to Chinese consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Ji, Xiaofeng; He, Liang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wei, Wei; Qiang, Mingrong; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Yuwei

    2015-06-03

    The present study describes chlorpyrifos residues in duck commodities through the duck food chain, transfer factors, and dietary risks to Chinese consumers. After duck feeding experiments with pellet feed that lasted for 42 days, chlorpyrifos residues found in all samples collected from the ducks on maximum estimated dose group (3.20 mg/kg level) were from commodities were from 0.0001 to 0.0049 among different contamination levels, which indicated that chlorpyrifos had a low persistency in duck meat and metabolism organs. The chronic exposure assessment revealed that only 0.034-0.150% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 0-0.01 mg/kg/bw/day) of chlorpyrifos was consumed via the duck commodities for different age and gender groups in China. The acute exposure assessments of different age and gender groups were only 0.019-0.082% of the acute reference dose (ARfD; 0-0.1 mg/kg/bw). The results show that the single dietary exposure risk of chlorpyrifos raised by the intake of duck commodities was quite low in China.

  15. Characterization of nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2014-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Penggantian Sebagian Ransum Komersial dengan Polar dan Aditif Duck mix terhadap Komposisi Fisik Karkas Itik

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    Ni Wayan Siti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The substitution a part of commercial feed with pollard and duck mix additive on duck carcass physic composition ABSTRACT. The aim of this experiment was to study pollard optimum levels with additive complex mineral vitamin on the carcass physic composition Balinese male duck age 10 weeks, was carried out at Jl. Binginambe, Kediri village, Tabanan Regency. The design which used in this experiment a completely randomized design Those four treatments were ration contain 100% commercial feed (A; ration with 85% commercial feed + 15% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (B; ration with 70% commercial feed + 30% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (C; ration with 55% commercial feed + 45% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (D, respectively. The variables which measured were carcass weight, carcass percent, and carcass physic composition. The result of this experiment showed that the substitution commercial feed with pollard from 15-45% and duck mix were not significant (P >0.05 decrease carcass percent, carcass bone percent than treatment A. Meat percent on treatment B 1.81% non significant (P>0.05 increase than treatment A, but C and D treatments 2.63% and 4.87% significantly increase than treatment A. Subcutan fat on C and D treatments 6.72% and 6.67% significant lower (P <0.05 than treatment A, and D treatment 4.91% significant lower than treatment B. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that substitution pollard from 15%-45% with additive 0.3% duck mix were decrease carcass percent and bone carcass percent, but substitution pollard 30% and 45% can increase meat carcass percent and decrease fat Balinese male duck age 10 weeks.

  17. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST, and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. We applied molecular epidemiology and population genetics to obtain insights in to the population structure, host-species relationships, gene flow and

  18. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting-Wei, E-mail: M10126010@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jai-Wei, E-mail: joeylee@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Hsueh-Yen, E-mail: M9926012@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsiao, E-mail: M10126011@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Chu, Chun-Yen, E-mail: cychu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Animal Vaccine Technology, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun, E-mail: sllin100@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Chang-Chien, Guo Ping, E-mail: guoping@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Department of Cosmetics and Fashion styling, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chi, E-mail: chiyu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  19. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  20. Automātiska testēšana un efektivitāte

    OpenAIRE

    Šibko-Šipkovskis, Jevgenijs

    2013-01-01

    Mūsdienās informācijas sistēmu izstrāde notiek ļoti ātri, un ņemot vērā nepārtraukto nepieciešamību pēc attīstības, tās tiek atjauninātas ļoti bieţi. Šāda tendence rada prasības pēc testēšanas procesa uzlabošanas un efektīvākas resursu izmantošanas. Darbs „Automātiska testēšana un efektivitāte” apskata iespējamās testēšanas metodes un novērtē iespēju šīs metodes automatizēt. Autors apskata arī daţas populārās izstrādes metodes un dod novērtējumu, kā tās ietekmē iespēju automatizēt testēšan...

  1. Darbstaciju attālināta administrēšana

    OpenAIRE

    Pleiko, Uģis

    2011-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbā apskatītas attālinātās darbstaciju administrēšanas iespējas, attālinātas administrēšanas programmatūras uzstādīšana, konfigurēšana, salīdzinājums un lietojamība. Darba mērķis – datortīkla administratora dažādas sarežģītības ikdienas uzdevumu paveikšana attālināti, izmantojot dažādus risinājumus; veikt šos pašus uzdevumus arī attālināti savienojoties starp dažādām operētājsistēmām, piemēram, no Microsoft Windows attālinātās darbvirsmas režīmā pieslēgties Ubuntu Linux un...

  2. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  3. Trade patterns facilitating highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dissemination in the free-grazing layer duck system in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Dinh, T X; Han, T A; Do, D V; Nhu, T V; Pham, L T; Nguyen, T T T; Newman, S; Häsler, B; Pfeiffer, D U; Vergne, T

    2018-04-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam. In this study, we used a value chain approach to provide a complete picture of the actors involved in the production and marketing of free-grazing duck eggs and spent layer ducks, as well as to investigate the governance structure of this food system. Group interviews and key informant interviews were conducted in two provinces located in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) and the Red River Delta (RRD). The results presented here highlight similarities and differences in farming and trade practices between the two provinces. The trade of spent layer ducks involved large volumes of live ducks being sent to China and Cambodia for consumption, generating a substantial risk of transboundary spread of pathogens, including HPAI viruses. We describe the major role of "duck yards", which act as hubs in the northbound trade of spent layer ducks. These yards should be considered as essential links in the value chain of spent layer ducks when considering HPAI surveillance and control. The veterinary authorities are only marginally involved in the value chain activities, and their influence could be strengthened by increasing surveillance activities for instance in duck yards. Last, we discuss the dynamics of the duck value chain and further implications for future HPAI management policies. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Disease dynamics and bird migration--linking mallards Anas platyrhynchos and subtype diversity of the influenza A virus in time and space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Gunnarsson

    Full Text Available The mallard Anas platyrhynchos is a reservoir species for influenza A virus in the northern hemisphere, with particularly high prevalence rates prior to as well as during its prolonged autumn migration. It has been proposed that the virus is brought from the breeding grounds and transmitted to conspecifics during subsequent staging during migration, and so a better understanding of the natal origin of staging ducks is vital to deciphering the dynamics of viral movement pathways. Ottenby is an important stopover site in southeast Sweden almost halfway downstream in the major Northwest European flyway, and is used by millions of waterfowl each year. Here, mallards were captured and sampled for influenza A virus infection, and positive samples were subtyped in order to study possible links to the natal area, which were determined by a novel approach combining banding recovery data and isotopic measurements (δ(2H of feathers grown on breeding grounds. Geographic assignments showed that the core natal areas of studied mallards were in Estonia, southern and central Finland, and northwestern Russia. This study demonstrates a clear temporal succession of latitudes of natal origin during the course of autumn migration. We also demonstrate a corresponding and concomitant shift in virus subtypes. Acknowledging that these two different patterns were based in part upon different data, a likely interpretation worth further testing is that the early arriving birds with more proximate origins have different influenza A subtypes than the more distantly originating late autumn birds. If true, this knowledge would allow novel insight into the origins and transmission of the influenza A virus among migratory hosts previously unavailable through conventional approaches.

  5. Nest crypsis, reproductive value of a clutch and escape decisions in incubating female mallards Anas platyrhynchos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albrecht, Tomáš; Klvaňa, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 8 (2004), s. 603-613 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA AV ČR IAB6130001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : ducks * behavior * reproduction Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2004

  6. Black Cohosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have had hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer or for pregnant women or nursing mothers. Black cohosh should not be confused with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) , which has different effects and may not be safe. Black cohosh has ...

  7. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  8. Harlequin duck capture and EROD activity data from Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2011, 2013, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data set includes capture information and ethoxyresorufin­O­deethylase (EROD) activity results for harlequin ducks sampled during March 2011, 2013, and 2014 in...

  9. Physicochemical properties of meat of ducks of mulberries in modern technologies of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Galin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the chemical composition of mullards duck meat in comparison with the ducks of the Beijingg white breed and musk ducks. The chemical analysis results allow us to note the high moisture content for mullard duck meat. The low fat content for white and red mullard duck meat opens up wide opportunities for the development of an assortment of meat products with a functional orientation. The limited amino acids are determined. The total number of essential amino acids in the mullard duck meat is higher than in musk (by 1.02 g / 100 g protein and Beijingg (by 0.86 g / 100 g protein, which indicates a higher biological value. The limiting amino acid is methionine and cysteine. The article presents the results of the raw material aroma assessment using the "MAG 8" - "electronic nose" analyzer. The content of easily volatile compounds in the equilibrium gas phase for samples of muscle and fat tissue from ducks of different breeding was compared and evaluated. The most informative in the matrix are sensors with films of polydiethylene glycol succinate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol PEG-2000, 18-crown-6, trioctylphosphine oxidase, which show maximum sensitivity to polar and nitrogen-containing compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons. This is explained by the fact that the easily volatile fraction of both meat and fat of the samples under study is represented by a variety of organic compounds of different concentrations. Such a variety of substances can be perceived by tasters as "a noticeable smell, difficult". In accordance with the results obtained, we concluded that the aroma of muscle and fat tissue of mulard ducks is more intense, more saturated than the Beijingg duck. The obtained data on the chemical composition indicate possible dietary properties of meat of ducks of mullards. The rich, pronounced aroma of muscle and fatty tissue causes high organoleptic parameters of the finished product, which is

  10. The effects of different bill-trimming methods on the well-being of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, L A; Cheng, H-W; Garner, J P; Pajor, E A; Mench, J A

    2007-09-01

    Pekin ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism, but this practice has been criticized because of the resulting potential for acute and chronic pain. The goal of this experiment was to compare 2 different bill-trimming methods, hot blade trimming with cautery (TRIM) and cautery only (tip-searing; SEAR), on the behavior, bill morphology, and weight gain of Pekin ducks. Ducklings (n = 192, 96 per sex) were trimmed at the hatchery and assigned to 12 floor pens (3.66 x0.91 m) by treatment. Behavior was evaluated by scan sampling, and plumage condition was scored using a 0 to 3 scoring system. Thirty-six ducks were randomly euthanized at 3 and 6 wk of age, and their bills were collected for examination. Following fixation and decalcification, the bills were embedded in paraffin wax and sectioned longitudinally. Alternate sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome for the connective tissues, and with Bielschowsky's silver impregnation, Bodian's staining, and Holmes' staining for the nerve fibers. Trimmed ducks engaged in fewer bill-related behaviors and rested more than untrimmed ducks (NOTRIM) during the first 2 wk posttrim. Ducks in the SEAR and NOTRIM groups showed similar patterns of weight gain, but those in the TRIM group had a lower rate of gain than ducks in the SEAR group during the first week posttrim and had a lower rate of gain than those in the NOTRIM group for 2 wk posttrim. Feather scores of ducks in the NOTRIM group were significantly worse than those in the TRIM or SEAR group by 18 d, and scores continued to deteriorate at a greater rate than those of trimmed ducks throughout the study. Both trimming methods caused connective tissue proliferation in the bill stumps, but the TRIM method caused thicker scar tissue than the SEAR method. No neuromas were found with either trimming method, but there were more nerve fibers in bill stumps of the SEAR ducks than the TRIM ducks. These results suggest that

  11. Veinte años de investigaciones alrededor de Doñana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arambarri, Pablo

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.La rotura de la balsa de decantado de lodos de la empresa Boliden-Apirsa en Aznalcóllar ha demostrado que el Parque Nacional de Doñana está indefenso ante accidentes de gran calibre, que deben prevenirse. Doñana no puede permanecer aislada ni ajena al territorio que la rodea, pero sí debe estar protegida por suficientes medios descontaminantes, sistemas de alarma en tiempo real, planes de emergencia operativos y estudios y proyectos I+D como sean necesarios para evitar percances como el ocurrido, que ponen en terrible peligro su propia existencia.

  12. Geologic map of the Santa Ana Pueblo quadrangle, Sandoval County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personius, Stephen F.

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Ana Pueblo quadrangle is located in the northern part of the Albuquerque basin, which is the largest basin or graben within the Rio Grande rift. The quadrangle is underlain by poorly consolidated sedimentary rocks of the Santa Fe Group and is dominated by Santa Ana Mesa, a volcanic tableland underlain by basalt flows of the San Felipe volcanic field. The San Felipe volcanic field is the largest area of basaltic lavas exposed in the Albuquerque basin. The structural fabric of the quadrangle is dominated by dozens of generally north striking, east- and west-dipping normal faults associated with the Neogene Rio Grande rift.

  13. Pro-Ana websites and its impact on the quality of life of anorexic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Fernanda Araújo Rios

    2016-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Doenças Metabólicas e Comportamento Alimentar, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Medicina, 2016 Pro-ana websites have been growing in number and popularity. These websites promote anorexia nervosa as a lifestyle rather than a disease. Consequently, it tends to negatively affect the quality of life of visitors. Aiming to better understand the associations between pro-ana website usage and the quality of life of anorexic patients, the goal of this study was to identify a...

  14. Economics of duck marketing in Oyo State | Saka | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prices of drake (N557.30) were significantly higher than prices of duck (N424.90) across the locations and also ducks were sold at significantly higher prices during festival periods than non-festival periods (p<0.01). Marketing profit was 31.2% of the total marketing cost and 68.9% of the marketing margin, thus indicating that ...

  15. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of formation of green eggshell color in ducks through global gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa Qiong Xu

    Full Text Available The green eggshell color produced by ducks is a threshold trait that can be influenced by various factors, such as hereditary, environment and nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic regulation of the formation of eggs with green shells in Youxian ducks. We performed integrative analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs expression profiling in the shell gland samples from ducks by RNA-Seq. We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. A total of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between ducks laying green eggs and white eggs. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes also indicated the functional characteristics of these miRNAs; they were involved in the ABC transporter pathway and the solute carrier (SLC supper family. Analysis with qRT-PCR was applied to validate the results of global gene expression, which showed a correlation between results obtained by RNA-seq and RT-qPCR. Moreover, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was established using correlation analysis of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNA. Compared to ducks that lay white eggs, ducks that lay green eggs include six up-regulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 35 down-regulated genes, and seven down-regulated miRNAs which influenced 46 up-regulated genes. For example, the ABC transporter pathway could be regulated by expressing gga-miR-144-3p (up-regulated with ABCG2 (up-regulated and other miRNAs and genes. This study provides valuable information about mRNA and miRNA regulation in duck shell gland tissues, and provides foundational information for further study on the eggshell color formation and marker-assisted selection for Youxian duck breeding.

  17. A coordinated set of ecosystem research platforms open to international research in ecotoxicology, AnaEE-France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Christian; Azam, Didier; Caquet, Thierry; Cheviron, Nathalie; Dequiedt, Samuel; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Guillaume, Olivier; Houot, Sabine; Lacroix, Gérard; Lafolie, François; Maron, Pierre-Alain; Michniewicz, Radika; Pichot, Christian; Ranjard, Lionel; Roy, Jacques; Zeller, Bernd; Clobert, Jean; Chanzy, André

    2015-10-01

    The infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems (AnaEE-France) is an integrated network of the major French experimental, analytical, and modeling platforms dedicated to the biological study of continental ecosystems (aquatic and terrestrial). This infrastructure aims at understanding and predicting ecosystem dynamics under global change. AnaEE-France comprises complementary nodes offering access to the best experimental facilities and associated biological resources and data: Ecotrons, seminatural experimental platforms to manipulate terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, in natura sites equipped for large-scale and long-term experiments. AnaEE-France also provides shared instruments and analytical platforms dedicated to environmental (micro) biology. Finally, AnaEE-France provides users with data bases and modeling tools designed to represent ecosystem dynamics and to go further in coupling ecological, agronomical, and evolutionary approaches. In particular, AnaEE-France offers adequate services to tackle the new challenges of research in ecotoxicology, positioning its various types of platforms in an ecologically advanced ecotoxicology approach. AnaEE-France is a leading international infrastructure, and it is pioneering the construction of AnaEE (Europe) infrastructure in the field of ecosystem research. AnaEE-France infrastructure is already open to the international community of scientists in the field of continental ecotoxicology.

  18. [Fungi microbiot of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Richard E; Feijó, Francisco M C; Alves, Nilza D; Lima, Paulo M; Pereira, Daniel S; Freitas, Carlos C O

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the occurrence of filamentous fungi found on the surface of the bees body from the specie Melipona subnitida Ducke that inhabits rocky places on the semi-arid Northeastern Brazil. Bees with cause of natural death were collected of beehives belonging to the Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido. We found the fungi: Aspergillus sp. 6 (37.5%); Aspergillus niger 2 (12.5%); Penicilium sp. 2 (12.5%); Aspergillus terreus 1 (6.3%); Curvularia sp. 1 (6.35%); Monilia sp. 1 (6.3%); Nigrospora sp. 1 (6.3%); Cladosporium sp. 1 (6.3%); Tricoderma sp. 1 (6.3%).

  19. Book review: Ducks, geese, and swans of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    As pointed out in the book’s introduction by Richard McCabe, very few books deserve being called a classic. First published in 1942, the various editions of Ducks, Geese, and Swans of North America—authored by Francis K. Kortright (1942), Frank C. Bellrose (1976, 1981), and this new edition by Guy Baldassarre (2014)—are deservedly placed in that category among the waterfowl literature. This book has been a valuable resource for the scientific community and waterfowl enthusiasts, and I was excited to learn that a new version has been published. As expected, this new edition did not disappoint and is a remarkable volume in terms of incorporating current research into each species account in a way that does not overwhelm either professional or amateur readers.

  20. Role of domestic ducks in the propagation and biological evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse-Post, D J; Sturm-Ramirez, K M; Humberd, J; Seiler, P; Govorkova, E A; Krauss, S; Scholtissek, C; Puthavathana, P; Buranathai, C; Nguyen, T D; Long, H T; Naipospos, T S P; Chen, H; Ellis, T M; Guan, Y; Peiris, J S M; Webster, R G

    2005-07-26

    Wild waterfowl, including ducks, are natural hosts of influenza A viruses. These viruses rarely caused disease in ducks until 2002, when some H5N1 strains became highly pathogenic. Here we show that these H5N1 viruses are reverting to nonpathogenicity in ducks. Ducks experimentally infected with viruses isolated between 2003 and 2004 shed virus for an extended time (up to 17 days), during which variant viruses with low pathogenicity were selected. These results suggest that the duck has become the "Trojan horse" of Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. The ducks that are unaffected by infection with these viruses continue to circulate these viruses, presenting a pandemic threat.

  1. GENETIC VARIATION IN THREE BREEDS OF INDONESIAN LOCAL DUCKS BASED ON BLOOD AND EGG WHITE PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation of four blood protein loci and three egg white loci in three breeds ofIndonesian local ducks (Magelang duck = MAD, Tegal duck = TED and Mojosari duck= MOD wasinvestigated by using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The result showed that four bloodprotein loci (Pre-albumin, Albumin, Transferrin and Post-transferrin and three egg white loci(Ovalbumin, Ovoglobulin and Conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three breeds of localducks. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein polyimorphism. The average value ofheterozygosity on three breeds of local ducks had a genetic potential to determine the controlled matingsystem and selection to obtain pure line. The closest phylogenetic relationship among the three breeds oflocal ducks occurred between MAD and TED.

  2. Modelling the distribution of chickens, ducks, and geese in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Wu, Junxi; Ellis, Erie C.; Gale, Fred; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Global concerns over the emergence of zoonotic pandemics emphasize the need for high-resolution population distribution mapping and spatial modelling. Ongoing efforts to model disease risk in China have been hindered by a lack of available species level distribution maps for poultry. The goal of this study was to develop 1 km resolution population density models for China's chickens, ducks, and geese. We used an information theoretic approach to predict poultry densities based on statistical relationships between poultry census data and high-resolution agro-ecological predictor variables. Model predictions were validated by comparing goodness of fit measures (root mean square error and correlation coefficient) for observed and predicted values for 1/4 of the sample data which were not used for model training. Final output included mean and coefficient of variation maps for each species. We tested the quality of models produced using three predictor datasets and 4 regional stratification methods. For predictor variables, a combination of traditional predictors for livestock mapping and land use predictors produced the best goodness of fit scores. Comparison of regional stratifications indicated that for chickens and ducks, a stratification based on livestock production systems produced the best results; for geese, an agro-ecological stratification produced best results. However, for all species, each method of regional stratification produced significantly better goodness of fit scores than the global model. Here we provide descriptive methods, analytical comparisons, and model output for China's first high resolution, species level poultry distribution maps. Output will be made available to the scientific and public community for use in a wide range of applications from epidemiological studies to livestock policy and management initiatives.

  3. Pathogenicity of two Egyptian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in domestic ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilenko, J L; Arafa, A M; Selim, A A; Hassan, M K; Aly, M M; Ali, A; Nassif, S; Elebiary, E; Balish, A; Klimov, A; Suarez, D L; Swayne, D E; Pantin-Jackwood, M J

    2011-01-01

    Domestic ducks have been implicated in the dissemination and evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In this study, two H5N1 HPAI viruses belonging to clade 2.2.1 isolated in Egypt in 2007 and 2008 were analyzed for their pathogenicity in domestic Pekin ducks. Both viruses produced clinical signs and mortality, but the 2008 virus was more virulent, inducing early onset of neurological signs and killing all ducks with a mean death time (MDT) of 4.1 days. The 2007 virus killed 3/8 ducks with a MDT of 7 days. Full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to examine differences in the virus genes that might explain the differences observed in pathogenicity. The genomes differed in 49 amino acids, with most of the differences found in the hemagglutinin protein. This increase in pathogenicity in ducks observed with certain H5N1 HPAI viruses has implications for the control of the disease, since vaccinated ducks infected with highly virulent strains shed viruses for longer periods of time, perpetuating the virus in the environment and increasing the possibility of transmission to susceptible birds.

  4. Differential effects of coyotes and red foxes on duck nest success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Sargeant, A.; Grier, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Low recruitment rates prevail among ducks in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, primarily because of high nest depredation rates. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a major predator of duck eggs, but fox abundance is depressed by coyotes (Canis latrans). We tested the hypothesis that nest success of upland-nesting ducks is higher in areas with coyotes than in areas with red foxes. We conducted the study during 1990-92 in uplands of 36 areas managed for nesting ducks in North Dakota and South Dakota. Overall nest success averaged 32% (95% CI = 25-40) on 17 study areas where coyotes were the principal canid and 17% (CI = 11-25) on 13 study areas where red foxes were the principal canid (P = 0.01). Both canids were common on 6 other areas, where nest success averaged 25% (CI = 13-47). Habitat composition, predator communities with the exception of canids, and species composition of duck nests in coyote and red fox areas were similar overall. Upon examining only nests with greater than or equal to 6 eggs on the last visit prior to hatch or depredation, we determined nests with evidence characteristic of fox predation accounted for 4% of depredated nests in coyote areas and 27% in fox areas (P = 0.001). An expanding coyote population is contributing to higher overall nest success. Management of coyotes may be an effective method for increasing duck nest success.

  5. Ph, Ammonia Flux, and Total Nitrogen in Duck Litter with Chemical Blends - A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TH Chung

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chemical blend additives to duck litter on pH, ammonia (NH3 fluxes, total nitrogen (TN under a small pen trial. One hundred twenty 1-day-old duck (pekin were randomly assigned to 6 pens in a completely randomized design during 6 weeks. Control received no litter treatment whereas top-dressed treatment at rates of 50 g aluminum sulfate + 50 aluminum chloride/kg duck litter were mixed into the upper 1 cm of duck litter. Duck litter pH at 2 weeks through 5 weeks was significantly affected (p0.05 between treatments at 0 and 1 week. Reductions of NH3 fluxes at 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks were 31, 16, 29 and 24%, respectively. Chemical blend treatments as a function of time resulted in increase in TN contents compared with control. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in TN between treatments at 2 and 3 weeks, except for 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Chemical blend decreases NH3 fluxes and increases TN positively by reducing duck litter pH.

  6. Infectious diseases, parasites, and biological toxins in sea ducks: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses disease agents in the broad sense, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and helminth parasites, and biological toxins. Some of these agents are known to cause mortality in sea ducks, some are thought to be incidental findings, and the significance of others is yet poorly understood. Although the focus of the chapter is on free-living sea ducks, the study of disease in this taxonomic group has been relatively limited and examples from captive sea ducks and other wild waterfowl are used to illustrate the pathogenicity of certain diseases. Much of the early work in sea ducks consisted of anecdotal and descriptive reports of parasites, but it was soon recognized that diseases such as avian cholera, renal coccidiosis, and intestinal infections with acanthocephalans were causes of mortality in wild populations. More recently, adenoviruses, reoviruses, and the newly emergent Wellfleet Bay virus, for example, also have been linked to die-offs of sea ducks. Declining populations of animals are particularly vulnerable to the threats posed by disease and it is important that we improve our understanding of the significance of disease in sea ducks. To conclude, we offer our recommendations for future directions in this field.

  7. SIA "Statoil Fuel & Retail Latvia" komunikācijas sociālajos medijos; klientu uzrunāšana un uzklausīšana

    OpenAIRE

    Černova, Egita

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā "SIA "Statoil Fuel & Retail Latvia" komunikācijas sociālajos medijos; klientu uzrunāšana un uzklausīšana" tika pētīta uzņēmuma komunikācija sociālajos tīklos - komunicēšanas veids, identificējot sociālo tīklu lietotāju viedokli par to. Darba mērķis izpētīt „Statoil” komunikāciju sociālajos medijos un secinājumus piedāvāt kā ierosinājumus uzņēmuma komunikācijas pilnveidošanai. Darba teorētisko daļu veido nodaļas par Gruniga sabiedrisko attiecību komunikācijas modeļiem, so...

  8. Impact of curcumin supplementation in monochromatic light on lipid serum profile of sexually mature female Magelang ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kasiyati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of curcumin supplementation inexpose monochromatic light on serum lipid concentrations of sexually mature female magelang duck. One hundred and ninety two female magelang ducks were assigned into a completely randomized design with a 4×4 factorial arrangement and each experimental unit was repeated 3 times, each with 4 female magelang ducks. The first factor was dose of curcumin supplementation consisted of 4 levels i.e., 0, 9, 18, and 36 mg/duck/day. The second factor was the color of monochromatic light consisted of 4 levels i.e., white, red, green, and blue colors. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The result showed that serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL were lower (P<0.05 while high density lipoprotein (HDL were higher (P<0.05 in experimental ducks supplemented with a curcumin dose of 36 mg/duck/day in variety of monochromatic light colors compared to control experimental ducks without curcumin supplementation. The curcumin doses of 18 or 36 mg/duck/day within red, green, or blue light had the potential to modulate lipid metabolism, as indicated by the increased serum concentration of HDL and the decreased serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, VLDL, and LDL of the experimental female magelang ducks.

  9. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  10. The estimation of genetic distance and discriminant variables on breed of duck (Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan by morphological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Brahmantiyo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on morphological body conformation of Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan ducks was carried out to determine the genetic distance and discriminant variables. This research was held in Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi, Bogor using 65 Alabio ducks, 40 Bali ducks, 36 Khaki Campbell ducks, 60 Mojosari ducks and 30 Pegagan ducks. Seven different body parts were measured, they were the length of femur, tibia, tarsometatarsus, the circumference of tarsometatarsus, the length of third digits, wing and maxilla. General Linear Models and simple discriminant analysis were used in this observation (SAS package program. Male and female Pegagan ducks had morphological size bigger than Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell and Mojosari ducks. Khaki Campbell ducks were mixed with Bali ducks (47.22% and Pegagan ducks from isolated location in South Sumatera were lightly mixed with Alabio and Bali. Mahalanobis genetic distance showed that Bali and Khaki Campbell ducks, also, Alabio and Mojosari ducks had similarity, with genetic distance of 1.420 and 1.548, respectively. Results from canonical analysis showed that the most discriminant variables were obtained from the length of femur, tibia and third digits.

  11. THE DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS AND SOURCES OF LIPIDS IN DUCK DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Sychov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of digestibility of nutrients in ducklings was performed by use of feed contained the lipids from different levels and sources. Experimental studies were conducted in terms of problem research laboratory of feed additives of National Agriculture University of Ukraine. The material for scientific experiments was the ducklings of cross STAR 53 H.Y. Experiment was carried out by group-analog method. We determined the optimal content of crude fat in fodder of young ducks at the first stage of experiment and the best source of lipids at second stage. We increased the crude fat in duckling feed by the introduction of sunflower oil at first stage. The amount of fat in the duck feed was 5% in control group and this were 3% and 7% in group II and III. The ducks from experimental groups received feed with sunflower oil at the second stage of experiment, the ducks of group II and III obtained feed from soya, rapeseed, and palm fat. Feeding the ducks was done per group twice per day – in morning and evening. It was registered that the feeding of 8-14 days ducks by food with crude fat of 7% plausible increased the digestibility of protein by 3.2%, of fat by 5.1%, and nitrogen-free extractives matters by 2.7%. At the same time the use of feed for 36-42 days ducks with crude fat of 7% allows to get the best results with the more higher level of protein and fat digestibility by 4.9% and 4.8% respectively. The use of feed with the addition of soybean oil for duck feeding have a positive effect towards increasing the level of digestibility of organic matter, protein, fat, and fiber in all the duck age groups. At the same time the use of feed containing palm oil reduces the digestibility of fat by 4,1-6,7%  compared to control group, that obtained feed with sunflower oil . We confirmed the prospect of further research in order to to establish the optimal ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of ducks and to determine their

  12. The Chicana Subject in Ana Castillo's Fiction and the Discursive Zone of Chicana/o Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Benjamin D.

    2007-01-01

    In the world of Chicana fiction, Ana Castillo has achieved the kind of status Maxine Hong Kingston has attained within Asian American discourse. Castillo's work is popular not only with the general reading public but in many academic circles as well. What sets Castillo apart from so many other Chicana fiction writers is that she is also a…

  13. Peroksīdu noteikšana ar eksprestestu metodi

    OpenAIRE

    Bruņeniece, Aiva

    2017-01-01

    Peroksīdu noteikšana ar eksprestestu metodi. Bruņeniece A., darba vadītājs Dr. ķīm. docents Ģībietis J. Bakalaura darbs, 44 lappuses, 10 tabulas, 26 attēli, 23 literatūras avoti. Latviešu valodā. Darbā apskatītas dažādas ūdeņraža peroksīda un peroksietiķskābes kvantitatīvās noteikšanas metodes. Veikta ITS firmas ekprestesta „Water-Works” teststrēmeļu kalibrēšana. Eksperimentāli izpētīta jonu spēka, pH un organiskā šķīdinātāja ietekme uz teststrēmeļu darbību. Iegūti kalibrēšanas grafiki un iz...

  14. Forecast skill of synoptic conditions associated with Santa Ana winds in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Jones; Francis Fujioka; Leila M.V. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Santa Ana winds (SAW) are synoptically driven mesoscale winds observed in Southern California usually during late fall and winter. Because of the complex topography of the region, SAW episodes can sometimes be extremely intense and pose significant environmental hazards, especially during wildfire incidents. A simple set of criteria was used to identify synoptic-scale...

  15. New diastereomeric bis-sesquiterpenes from Hainan marine sponges Axinyssa variabilis and Lipastrotethya ana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, S.-C.; Manzo, E.; Guo, Y.-W.; Gavagnin, M.; Mollo, E.; Ciavatta, M.L.; van Soest, R.; Cimino, G.

    2007-01-01

    Three unprecedented diastereoisomeric dimers, cis-dimer A, cis-dimer B and trans-dimer C, exhibiting a bis-bisabolene skeleton, and a new sesquiterpene, dehydrotheonelline, their potential precursor, have been isolated from the South China Sea sponges Axinyssa variabilis and Lipastrotethya ana,

  16. A Study of Non-Native English Speakers' Academic Performance at Santa Ana College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slark, Julie; Bateman, Harold

    A study was conducted in 1980-81 at Santa Ana College (SAC) to collect data on the English communication skills of non-native English speakers and to determine if a relationship existed between these skills and student's educational success. A sample of 22 classes, with an enrollment of at least 50% non-native English speakers and representing a…

  17. OBJETOS SIMBÓLICOS EN LA NARRATIVA DE ANA MARÍA MATUTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Cai (Capital Normal University, Beijin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste aritigo, está esboçado o simbolismo pessoal que faz Ana Maria Matute em objetos cotidianos e materiais. Através de análise da caracterização que transmitem imagens como a ilha, o boneco, o teatro de bonecos, o fogo, a torre e a pedra azul, está realizada uma sistematização de simbolismo na narrativa de Matute e revela uma faceta fundamental e novel da poética da escritora.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ana María Matute, Simbolismo, Metáforas, Alegorias, Objetos Materiais. Resumen  En este artículo se reseña el simbolismo personal que elabora Ana María Matute sobre objetos cotidianos y materiales. Por medio del análisis de la caracterización que transmiten imágenes como la isla, el muñeco, el teatro de marionetas, el fuego, la torre y la piedra azul, se realiza una sistematización del simbolismo en la narrativa de Matute y se revela una faceta fundamental y novedosa de la poética de la escritora. PALABRAS CLAVE: Ana María Matute, Simbolismo, Metáforas, Alegorías, Objetos Materiales. 

  18. Composition and size class structure of tree species in Ihang'ana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ihang'ana Forest Reserve is part of the Udzungwa Mountains ecosystem that falls under the Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM). Previous plant biodiversity studies in this ecosystem concentrated on large-sized Forest Reserves of greater than 20,000 ha (FR) such as the Uzungwa Scarp ignoring small-sized forests of less than ...

  19. 75 FR 77961 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Santa Ana Sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ...). Riparian vegetation and emergent aquatic vegetation provide additional sources of detritus and aquatic... discharges contain contaminants not found in natural runoff, there is no evidence that the concentrations of... investigation for Santa Ana suckers (Service 2008, p. 2). Cover or Shelter Instream emergent and overhanging...

  20. Review of "Crítica e Tradução" by Ana Cristina Cesar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Regina Guimarães Barboza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The text presents a review on the book of essays "Crítica e Tradução" by Ana Cristina Cesar. Counting her publications in magazines and her academic productions, besides her works in translation, the volume brings has a interesting perspective on culture, cinema, literature and translation according to the researches of the author.

  1. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...

  2. Isolation and characterization of a subtype C avian metapneumovirus circulating in Muscovy ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikai; Chen, Feng; Cao, Sheng; Liu, Jiajia; Lei, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Song, Yongfeng; Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Chuang; Qin, Jianping; Li, Haiyan

    2014-07-25

    Subtype C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C), is an important pathogen that can cause egg-drop and acute respiratory diseases in poultry. To date, aMPV-C infection has not been documented in Muscovy ducks in China. Here, we isolated and characterized an aMPV-C, designated S-01, which has caused severe respiratory disease and noticeable egg drop in Muscovy duck flocks in south China since 2010. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an enveloped virus exhibiting multiple morphologies with a diameter of 20-500 nm. The S-01 strain was able to produce a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) on Vero cells and cause death in 10- to 11-day-old Muscovy duck embryos. In vivo infection of layer Muscovy ducks with the isolate resulted in typical clinical signs and pathological lesions similar to those seen in the original infected cases. We report the first complete genomic sequence of aMPV-C from Muscovy ducks. A phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that the S-01 virus belongs to the aMPV-C family, sharing 92.3%-94.3% of nucleotide identity with that of aMPV-C, and was most closely related to the aMPV-C strains isolated from Muscovy ducks in France. The deduced eight main proteins (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G and L) of the novel isolate shared higher identity with hMPV than with other aMPV (subtypes A, B and D). S-01 could bind a monoclonal antibody against the F protein of hMPV. Together, our results indicate that subtype-C aMPV has been circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in South China, and it is urgent for companies to develop new vaccines to control the spread of the virus in China.

  3. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano ( L. Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  4. Flow cytometric DNA analysis of ducks accumulating 137Cs on a reactor reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, L.S.; Dallas, C.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Evans, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect red blood cell (rbc) DNA abnormalities in male, game-farm mallard ducks as they ranged freely and accumulated 137Cs (radiocesium) from an abandoned nuclear reactor cooling reservoir. Prior to release, the ducks were tamed to enable recapture at will. Flow cytometric measurements conducted at intervals during the first year of exposure yielded cell cycle percentages of DNA (G0/G1, S, G2 + M phases) of rbc, as well as coefficients of variation (CV) in the G0/G1 phase. DNA histograms of exposed ducks were compared with two sets of controls which were maintained 30 and 150 miles from the study site. 137Cs live wholebody burdens were also measured in these animals in a parallel kinetics study, and an approximate steady-state equilibrium was attained after about 8 months. DNA histograms from 2 of the 14 contaminated ducks revealed DNA aneuploid-like patterns after 9 months exposure. These two ducks were removed from the experiment at this time, and when sampled again 1 month later, one continued to exhibit DNA aneuploidy. None of the control DNA histograms demonstrated DNA aneuploid-like patterns. There were no significant differences in cell cycle percentages at any time point between control and exposed animals. A significant increase in CV was observed at 9 months exposure, but after removal of the two ducks with DNA aneuploidy, no significant difference was detected in the group monitored after 12 months exposure. An increased variation in the DNA and DNA aneuploidy could, therefore, be detected in duck rbc using flow cytometric analysis, with the onset of these effects being related to the attainment of maximal levels of 137Cs body burdens in the exposed animals

  5. Temporal trends in classical and alternative flame retardants in bird eggs from Doñana Natural Space and surrounding areas (south-western Spain) between 1999 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón, E; Bosch, C; Máñez, M; Andreu, A; Sergio, F; Hiraldo, F; Eljarrat, E; Barceló, D

    2015-11-01

    Several halogenated flame retardants were detected in black kite, white stork and greater flamingo unborn eggs from Doñana Natural Space (Spain) collected in 1999, 2003, 2011 and 2013. The main components of Penta-BDE commercial mixture (BDE-47, -99 and -100) showed a decrease in the studied time interval, concurring with the ban of this mixture in the European Union (EU) in 2006. On the other hand, BDE-209, the main component of Deca-BDE mixture showed a clear trend in black kites but further monitoring is needed since its production ceased at the end of 2013. Besides, even if Dechlorane Plus (DP) was proposed by the EU as an alternative to BDE-209 no time trends were observed. Furthermore, total concentrations of PBDEs (classical FRs) are still higher than concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and alternative FRs halogenated norbornenes (HNs), which are theoretically substitutes of the already banned PBDEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribution of aflatoxin B1 and hepatitis B virus infection in the induction of liver tumors in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, L; Wild, C P; Mehrotra, R; Turusov, V; Shirai, T; Lambert, V; Jacquet, C; Tomatis, L; Trépo, C; Montesano, R

    1990-04-01

    The study of two major risk factors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, namely persistent hepatitis virus infection and exposure to dietary aflatoxins, has been hampered by lack of an experimental system. To this end we have used a Pekin duck model to examine the effect of congenital duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure in the induction and development of liver cancer. AFB1 was administered to DHBV infected or noninfected ducks at two doses (0.08 and 0.02 mg/kg) by i.p. injection once a week from the third month posthatch until they were sacrificed (2.3 years later). Two control groups of ducks not treated with AFB1 (one of which was infected with DHBV) were observed for the same period. Each experimental group included 13-16 ducks. Higher mortality was observed in ducks infected with DHBV and treated with AFB1 compared to noninfected ducks treated with AFB1 and other control ducks. In the groups of noninfected ducks treated with high and low doses of AFB1, liver tumors developed in 3 of 10 and 2 of 10 ducks; in infected ducks treated with the high dose 3 of 6 liver tumors were observed and none in the low dose of AFB1. No liver tumors were observed in the two control groups. Ducks infected with DHBV and treated with AFB1 showed more pronounced periportal inflammatory changes, fibrosis, and focal necrosis compared to other groups. All DHBV carrier ducks showed persistent viremia throughout the observation period. An increase of viral DNA titers in livers and sera of AFB1 treated animals compared to infected controls was frequently observed. No DHBV DNA integration into the host genome was observed, although in one hepatocellular carcinoma from an AFB1 treated duck, an accumulation of viral multimer DNA forms was detected. The metabolism of AFB1 in infected and noninfected duck liver was also examined. The study on the role of DHBV infection and AFB1 in the etiopathogenesis of liver tumors may help to clarify some of

  7. Examination of Growth Hormone (GH) Gene Polymorphism and its Association with Body Weight and Selected Body Dimensions in Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, Artur; Frieske, Anna; Kokoszynski, Dariusz; Mroczkowski, Sławomir; Bernacki, Zenon; Wilkanowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene and its association with some morphological traits (body weight--BW, length of trunk with neck--LTN, length of trunk--LT, chest girth--CG, length of breast bone--LBB, length of shank--LS). Polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene was evaluated for four duck populations (Pekin ducks AF51, Muscovy ducks from a CK and CRAMMLCFF mother and Mulard ducks). Genetic polymorphism was determined with the PCR-RFLP method using the BsmFI restriction enzyme. In the studied duck sample two alleles (GH(C) and GH(T)) and three genotypes (GH/TT, GH/CT, GH/CC) were found at locus GH/BsmFI. In both groups of Muscovies and in Mulards the dominant allele was GH(T). On the contrary in Pekin ducks AF51, the frequency of both alleles was found to be similar. The most frequent genotype in the examined ducks was GH/TT. In Pekin ducks AF51 three genotypes were observed, while in Mulard ducks and in male Muscovy ducks from a mother marked as CK, two genotypes (GH/TT and GH/CT) were identified. Muscovy duck females from a CK mother and all males and females of Muscovy duck from a CRAMMLCFF mother were monomorphic with only the GH/TTgenotype detected. The results showed that males of Pekin duck AF51 with the GH/TT genotype were characterized by higher (P GH/CC and GH/CTgenotype. In females of Pekin ducks AF51, this same trend was observed; individuals with GH/TT genotype were superior (P GH/TT genotype were distinguished by higher values of all evaluated traits compared to ducks with GH/CT and GH/CC genotypes, however most of the recorded differences were not significant. The only trait markedly impacted (P GH gene intron 2 was the LS value in males.

  8. To duck or not to duck: resistance advantages and disadvantages of the candy-cane stem phenotype in tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Michael J

    2009-08-01

    Solidago altissima populations consistently contain a minority of 'ducking', or 'candy-cane', stems. The goals of this study were to investigate whether these candy-cane stems may be an adaptation to resist herbivory, and to look for costs (namely, resistance tradeoffs or reduced reproduction) that might constrain the spread of the ducking trait. In this study, herbivory and seed set were recorded for 272 erect and 272 candy-cane stems in a field population of S. altissima. Candy-cane plants were twice as resistant as erect plants to two common apex-attacking gall midges, but were 26% more susceptible than erect plants to a more abundant apex-boring caterpillar. The two stem morphs were equally resistant to all other herbivores surveyed. Candy-cane plants were 11% less likely to experience apex damage and 3% more likely to set seed than erect-stemmed plants. Damaged candy-cane stems were 9% more likely to produce seeds than damaged erect stems. Although ducking is an effective means of resisting apex-galling herbivores, its spread may be constrained by susceptibility to an apex-boring caterpillar, which may enjoy enemy-reduced space on candy-cane stems. The evolution of ducking does not seem to be constrained by a reduced likelihood of sexual reproduction, or reduced tolerance of apex damage.

  9. The pathogenesis of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) and Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Erica; Prosser, Diann J.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Berlin, Alicia; Stephens, Christopher B.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl are the natural hosts of avian influenza virus (AIV) and disseminate the virus worldwide through migration. Historically, surveillance and research efforts for AIV in waterfowl have focused on dabbling ducks. The role of diving ducks in AIV ecology has not been well characterized. In this study, we examined the relative susceptibility and pathogenicity of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) in two species of diving ducks. Juvenile and adult Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) and juvenile Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) were intranasally inoculated with A/Northern Pintail/WA/40964/2014 H5N2 HPAIV. Additional groups of juvenile Lesser Scaups were inoculated with A/Gyrfalcon/WA/41088/2014 H5N8 HPAIV. The approximate 50% bird infectious doses (BID50) of the H5N2 isolate for adult Ruddy Ducks was infectious doses (EID50) and for the juvenile Lesser Scaups it was Clinical disease was not observed in any group; however, mortality occurred in the juvenile Ruddy Ducks inoculated with the H5N2 virus (three of five ducks), and staining for AIV antigen was observed in numerous tissues from these ducks. One adult Ruddy Duck also died and although it was infected with AIV (the duck was positive for virus shedding and AIV antigen was detected in tissues), it was also infected with coccidiosis. The proportion of ducks shedding virus was related to the dose administered, but the titers were similar among dose groups. The group with the fewest ducks shedding virus was the adult Ruddy Ducks. There was a trend for the Lesser Scaups to shed higher titers of virus than the Ruddy Ducks. No virus shedding was detected after 7 d postinoculation in any group. Similar to dabbling ducks, Lesser Scaups and Ruddy Ducks are susceptible to infection with this H5 HPAIV lineage, although they excrete lower titers of virus.

  10. Comportamiento del asma bronquial en adolescentes tratados en el Policlínico Universitario "Ana Betancourt" Course of bronchial asthma in adolescents seen in "Ana Betancourt" University Polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de la Vega Pazitková

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el asma infantil representa una entidad que aún no ha logrado ser bien definida y delimitada, lo que establece variadas interpretaciones de su epidemiología, diagnóstico y, consecuentemente de su tratamiento. Objetivos: estimar la prevalencia global de asma en adolescentes tratados en consultorios médicos de familia del Policlínico Universitario "Ana Betancourt". Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, que incluyó a 81 adolescentes de ambos sexos con edades entre 11 y 18 años, pertenecientes a dos consultorios médicos de familia del Grupo Básico de Trabajo No. 2, del Policlínico Universitario "Ana Betancourt", del municipio Playa, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2006 y enero de 2007. Como herramienta de trabajo se utilizó el cuestionario: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, instrumento validado internacionalmente. Resultados: la cifra total de asmáticos ascendió a 52 adolescentes con un discreto predominio del sexo masculino y de los casos ligeros de la enfermedad, para una prevalencia global de 64,1 %. Se encontró un subregistro de 20,9 %. Conclusiones: en ambos consultorios se constata una elevada prevalencia de asma bronquial en la población de adolescentes con mayor afectación en los varones. Los pacientes exhiben mayoritariamente las formas ligeras de la enfermedad. Se encuentra un importante subregistro para el asma bronquial en los adolescentes tratados en el Policlínico Universitario "Ana Betancourt"Introduction: the bronchial asthma is a even defined entity establishing some interpretations of its epidemiology, diagnosis and consequently of its treatment. Objectives: to estimate the global prevalence of asthma in adolescents seen in family medical consulting rooms from "Ana Betancourt" University Polyclinic. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 81 adolescents of both sexes aged between 11 and 18 from family

  11. Contrasting nest survival patterns for ducks and songbirds in northern mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Todd; Shaffer, Terry L.; Madden, Elizabeth M.; Nenneman, Melvin P.

    2017-01-01

    Management actions intended to protect or improve habitat for ducks may benefit grassland-nesting passerines, but scant information is available to explore this assumption. During 1998–2003, we examined nest survival of ducks and songbirds to determine whether effects of prescribed fire and other habitat features (e.g., shrub cover and distance to habitat edges) were similar for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota. We used the logistic-exposure method to estimate survival of duck and songbird nests (n = 3,171). We used an information-theoretic approach to identify factors that most influenced nest survival. Patterns of nest survival were markedly different between taxonomic groups. For ducks, nest survival was greater during the first postfire nesting season (daily survival rate [DSR] = 0.957, 85% CI = 0.951–0.963), relative to later postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.946, 85% CI = 0.942–0.950). Furthermore duck nest survival and nest densities were inversely related. Duck nest survival also was greater as shrub cover decreased and as distance from cropland and wetland edges increased. Passerines had lower nest survival during the first postfire nesting season (DSR = 0.934, 85% CI = 0.924–0.944), when densities also were low compared to subsequent postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.947, 85% CI = 0.944–0.950). Parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) reduced passerine nest survival and this effect was more pronounced during the first postfire nesting season compared to subsequent nesting seasons. Passerine nest survival was greater as shrub cover decreased and perhaps for more concealed nests. Duck and songbird nest survival rates were not correlated during this study and for associated studies that examined additional variables using the same dataset, suggesting that different mechanisms influenced their survival. Based on our results, ducks should not be considered direct surrogates for passerines

  12. Effects of aflatoxins on growth performance and skeletal muscle of Cherry Valley meat male ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhuan Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effects of aflatoxins on growth performance and skeletal muscle of Cherry Valley meat male ducks as they grow and develop. One-day-old healthy meat male ducks (n = 180 were randomly divided into 2 groups; there were 6 replicates in each group and 15 ducks in each replicate. The control group was fed a basic diet, and the experimental group was fed a mold-exposed cottonseed meal diet containing aflatoxins instead of normal cottonseed meal. The experimental period was 35 days, and divided into two stages of 1 to 14 days (early stage and 15 to 35 days (late stage. During the experimental period, live weight, breast muscle weight and thigh muscle weight of meat male ducks were measured weekly. Results showed as follows: 1 aflatoxins contained in the mold-exposed diet significantly reduced daily weight gain and feed intake, and increased feed-to-gain ratio of meat male ducks at different ages (P < 0.05; 2 the Gompertz equation (Wt = Wm exp {−exp [−B (t − t*]} could successfully fit the growth curve and growth and developmental patterns of skeletal muscles of Cherry Valley meat male ducks (R2 ≥ 0.97; 3 the relationship between chest muscle and live weight was the best described by a power regression and polynomial regression (R2 = 0.99; the relationship between live weight and thigh muscle weight was the best described by linear regression, polynomial regression, and power regression (R2 = 0.99; 4 aflatoxins in the mold-exposed diet significantly reduced live weight, breast muscle weight and thigh muscle weight of Cherry Valley meat male ducks at various ages; and 5 aflatoxins delayed the age at peak in growth of meat male ducks, and reduced weights at the peak for breast muscle, thigh muscle and whole body as well as the maximal daily weight gain. In summary, aflatoxins delayed growth of Cherry Valley meat male ducks and development of skeletal muscle.

  13. Pro-ana versus Pro-recovery: A Content Analytic Comparison of Social Media Users' Communication about Eating Disorders on Twitter and Tumblr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branley, Dawn B; Covey, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare how people communicate about eating disorders on two popular social media platforms - Twitter and Tumblr. Materials and Methods: Thematic analysis was conducted to characterize the types of communications posted, and a content analysis was undertaken of between-platform differences. Results: Three types of content (pro-ana, anti-ana, and pro-recovery) were posted on each platform. Overall, across both platforms, extreme pro-ana posts were in the minority compared to anti-ana and pro-recovery. Pro-ana posts (including 'thinspiration') were more common on Twitter than Tumblr, whereas anti-ana and pro-recovery posts were more common on Tumblr. Conclusion: The findings have implications for future research and health care relating to the treatment and prevention of eating disorders. Developers of future interventions targeting negative pro-ana content should remain aware of the need to avoid any detrimental impact on positive online support.

  14. DNA microarray global gene expression analysis of influenza virus-infected chicken and duck cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V. Kuchipudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article pertain to the article by Kuchipudi et al. (2014 titled “Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens But Not Ducks Is Associated with Elevated Host Immune and Pro-inflammatory Responses” [1]. While infection of chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes often leads to 100% mortality within 1 to 2 days, infection of ducks in contrast causes mild or no clinical signs. The rapid onset of fatal disease in chickens, but with no evidence of severe clinical symptoms in ducks, suggests underlying differences in their innate immune mechanisms. We used Chicken Genechip microarrays (Affymetrix to analyse the gene expression profiles of primary chicken and duck lung cells infected with a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H2N3 virus and two HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes to understand the molecular basis of host susceptibility and resistance in chickens and ducks. Here, we described the experimental design, quality control and analysis that were performed on the data set. The data are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEOdatabase with accession number GSE33389, and the analysis and interpretation of these data are included in Kuchipudi et al. (2014 [1].

  15. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  16. Cherry Valley Ducks Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein-Mediated Signaling Pathway and Antiviral Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Wang, Yao; Guo, Mengjiao; Cao, Zongxi; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly upregulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon (IFN)-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8) in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What is more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (DTMUV, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus) at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks.

  17. Population trends of North American sea ducks as revealed by the Christmas Bird Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, D.K.; Sauer, J.R.; Butcher, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Relative to other waterfowl, sea ducks are not well understood, yet evidence from a variety of analyses suggests that as many as 10 of the 15 species of North American sea ducks may be declining in population. However, because of the difficulty of conducting surveys of breeding populations and the lack of range-wide winter surveys, few data are available to assess the population trends of sea ducks with confidence. We analyze Audubon Christmas Bird Count data using hierarchical modeling methods that control for varying effort among circles and over time. These procedures allow us to assess early-winter relative density patterns among states and Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) while also assessing trends in these regions and across the species North American range. Over the interval 1966 - 2003, continent-wide declines were observed in 1 of 11 species (the White-winged Scoter; -3.7%/yr). We compare CBC results to estimates of population change derived from the midwinter waterfowl survey conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The CBC does not effectively sample offshore populations of sea ducks; however, the CBC data can be used to assist in development of species-specific surveys, and CBC data can be used in combination with additional offshore sampling programs to better sample sea duck species.

  18. Santa Ana River Design Memorandum Number 1. Phase 2. GDM on the Santa Ana River Mainstem Including Santiago Creek. Volume 1. Seven Oaks Dam. Appendix A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    until filled with sediment. Seven Oaks Dam flood control storage will be used to help control flooding on the lower Santa Ana River below Prade Dam by...34o4 6-tervah; .1 35.7- 36.1, 70.2- 77.2 S.-7Yw 6.-S.V ho 24 12 q.W.9ly 0" lth .11 qgo-lik. AlltwW0. loaly ith6 74 252 76 p*fro~Ic willy .. fd oc 0

  19. The Birth of a research animal. Ibsen's The Wild Duck and the origin of a new animal science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.A.E.

    2000-01-01

    What role does the wild duck play in Ibsen's famous drama? I argue that, besides mirroring the fate of the human cast members, the duck is acting as animal subject in a quasi-experiment, conducted in a private setting. Analysed from this perspective, the play allows us to discern the epistemological

  20. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinheng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Zhang, Huanmin [USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Feng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Chen, Weiguo [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Xie, Qingmei, E-mail: qmx@scau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  1. A Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies to Improve the electrical System on the Duck Valley Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman Atkins, Shoshone-Paiute; Mark Hannifan, New West Technologies

    2005-06-30

    A range of sustainable energy options were assessed for feasibility in addressing chronic electric grid reliability problems at Duck Valley IR. Wind power and building energy efficiency were determined to have the most merit, with the Duck Valley Tribes now well positioned to pursue large scale wind power development for on- and off-reservation sales.

  2. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinheng; Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Chen, Weiguo; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  3. Serological survey and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in domestic ducks and geese in Lower Saxony, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    To obtain estimates for the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ducks and geese in Germany, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were established based on affinity-purified T. gondii tachyzoite surface antigen 1 (TgSAG1) and used to examine duck and goose sera for T. gondii -specific ...

  4. Establishment of an H6N2 Influenza Virus Lineage in Domestic Ducks in Southern China ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K.; Bahl, J.; Fan, X. H.; Vijaykrishna, D.; Cheung, C. L.; Webby, R. J.; Webster, R. G.; Chen, H.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Peiris, J. S. M.; Guan, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple reassortment events between different subtypes of endemic avian influenza viruses have increased the genomic diversity of influenza viruses circulating in poultry in southern China. Gene exchange from the natural gene pool to poultry has contributed to this increase in genetic diversity. However, the role of domestic ducks as an interface between the natural gene pool and terrestrial poultry in the influenza virus ecosystem has not been fully characterized. Here we phylogenetically and antigenically analyzed 170 H6 viruses isolated from domestic ducks from 2000 to 2005 in southern China, which contains the largest population of domestic ducks in the world. Three distinct hemagglutinin lineages were identified. Group I contained the majority of isolates with a single internal gene complex and was endemic in domestic ducks in Guangdong from the late 1990s onward. Group II was derived from reassortment events in which the surface genes of group I viruses were replaced with novel H6 and N2 genes. Group III represented H6 viruses that undergo frequent reassortment with multiple virus subtypes from the natural gene pool. Surprisingly, H6 viruses endemic in domestic ducks and terrestrial poultry seldom reassort, but gene exchanges between viruses from domestic ducks and migratory ducks occurred throughout the surveillance period. These findings suggest that domestic ducks in southern China mediate the interaction of viruses between different gene pools and facilitate the generation of novel influenza virus variants circulating in poultry. PMID:20463062

  5. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The ...

  6. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent (Shoshone-Paiute Nation, Duck Valley Indian Reservation, Owyhee, NV)

    2000-01-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservations' Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect the critical riparian areas, natural springs, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project was begun in 1997 with the hiring of a fisheries biologist and the creation of a new department for the Tribes. The project's goals are to protect and enhance the springs, Owyhee River, its tributaries, and to develop a database that can be used by other fisheries professionals which includes information on water quality and fish composition, health, abundance, and genetic makeup. One habitat portion of the project is a focus on protection the numerous springs that provide clean, cool water to the Owyhee River. This will be accomplished through enclosure fences of the spring heads and water troughs to provide clean cool drinking water for wildlife and livestock. Another habitat portion of the project involves protecting headwater areas of streams with native fish populations. This is accomplished through enclosure fencing and riparian plantings on any eroded or degraded banks in the enclosure area. Finally, we monitor and evaluate the areas protected and enhanced. This is accomplished through biological sampling for temperature, Oxygen, sedimentation, and measurements of water depth, bank height and undercut, and width of stream. With the habitat and biological indices we will be able to evaluate how well protective measures are doing, and where to focus future efforts.

  7. Genetic characterization of a potentially novel goose parvovirus circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Shi-Long; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Long

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel goose parvovirus (MDGPV/PT) isolated from an affected Muscovy duck in Fujian Province, China. In this study, the NS1 sequence analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between MDGPV/PT and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strains, although MDGPV/DY, which was isolated from a Muscovy duck in 2006 in Sichuan Province, could be divided into GPV-related groups. Phylogenetic analysis showed that except for differences in the NS1 gene, MDGPV strains PT and DY are closely related to a parvovirus that infects domestic waterfowls. This is the first demonstration of recombination between goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses in nature, and MDGPV/PT might have led to the generation of a novel waterfowl parvovirus strain circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in China.

  8. Effect of Gamma Radiation to the Content of Nutrition Duck Egg Environment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutjipto; Yohannes Sardjono

    2007-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation dose of 0.7 kGy to the content of nutrition duck egg environment sample of Turi area, Bantul Yogyakarta has been studied. This research is conducted to determine the effect of gamma radiation 0.7 kGy to the nutrition duck egg which stored during 21 days. The grouped of some fresh duck egg sample to become 2 group. First group with 0 kGy (non irradiation) and the second group with 0.7 kGy dose. The irradiation sample was conducted at Kartini reactor Beamport. After the desired dose reached, the duck egg was lifted. Both irradiated and non irradiated duck egg then stored during 21 days. The research design used is Complete Block Random Device (RABL) with pattern factorial and restating as block. First factor : Dose of Irradiation (D) : D 1 = 0 kGy (non irradiation) and D 2 = 0.7 kGy. Second factors : stored time (P) : P 1 = 0 and day of P 2 = 21 days. The analysis of water content, total protein, dissolve protein, ash and fat was carried out. The research result shows that the gamma irradiation have no significant effect to the water content, total protein, dissolve protein, ash and fat both in white and also duck egg yolk for day of 0 (P> 0.05). For storage during 21 days, gamma radiation have significant effect to the water content, total protein, dissolve protein both in white and also duck egg yolk (P 0.05), because the irradiation process do not influence the availability of mineral in egg yolk and also have no significant effect to fat content (P> 0.05), because at the protein have compound which able to kill bacterium, so-called with lysozyme, besides high protein alkalinity which do not advantage growth of bacterium, so that during storage do not happened protein lipolysis by enzyme of lipase yielded by microbe. The effect of gamma radiation to the duck egg which stored during 21 days shows that the water content at white duck egg rising to 1.02 % wb, the protein total decreasing to 0.99 % db, the dissolve protein decreasing to 0

  9. Portugali saadik : Venemaaga räägime kõigest / Ana Paula Zacarias ; interv. Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zacarias, Ana Paula

    2007-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu uue eesistujamaa Portugali suursaadik Eestis Ana Paula Zacarias Euroopa Liidu välispoliitika kujundamise põhimõtetest, suhetest Venemaaga, tööst EL-i põhiseaduslepingut asendava reformilepinguga

  10. "Programmatūra kā Pakalpojums" ieviešanas stratēģija

    OpenAIRE

    Meiers, Egils

    2010-01-01

    Iesniegtajā bakalaura darbā „„Programmatūra kā pakalpojums” ieviešanas stratēģija” izskatīti programmatūras kā pakalpojuma sniegšanas veidi, veikta šo pakalpojumu veidu salīdzināšana un izstrādāta stratēģija un rekomendācijas pakalpojuma ieviešanai SIA „Lattelecom Technology”. Bakalaura darbs ir sadalīts 2 daļās – analītiskā daļa un projekta daļa. Analītiskajā darba daļā tiek raksturota „Programmatūra kā pakalpojums” pakalpojuma būtība, lietošanas gadījumi un veikta dažādo pakalpojumu ...

  11. Short beak and dwarfism syndrome of mule duck is caused by a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palya, Vilmos; Zolnai, Anna; Benyeda, Zsófia; Kovács, Edit; Kardi, Veronika; Mató, Tamás

    2009-04-01

    From the early 1970s to the present, numerous cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus. It was suggested that the syndrome was caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not so far been reproduced by experimental infection. The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus strains isolated from field cases of SBDS, and to reproduce the disease experimentally. Phylogenetic analysis proved that the parvovirus isolates obtained from SBDS of mule duck belonged to a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus-related group of waterfowl parvoviruses. The authors carried out experimental infections of 1-day-old, 2-week-old and 3-week-old mule ducks by the oral route with three different parvovirus strains: strain D17/99 of goose parvovirus from Derzsy's disease, strain FM of Muscovy duck parvovirus from the parvovirus disease of Muscovy ducks, and strain D176/02 isolated from SBDS of mule duck. The symptoms of SBDS of the mule duck could only be reproduced with the mule duck isolate (strain D176/02) following 1-day-old inoculation. Infection with a genetically different strain of goose parvovirus isolated from classical Derzsy's disease (D17/99) or with the Muscovy duck parvovirus strain (FM) did not cause any clinical symptoms or pathological lesions in mule ducks.

  12. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  13. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  14. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  15. Project W-314 241-AN-A valve pit upgrade acceptance for beneficial use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-07-21

    This report identifies the responsibilities and requirements, applicable to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit Upgrades portion of Project W-314, for Acceptance for Beneficial Use in accordance with HNF-IP-0842, Vol IV, Sec 3.12. At project turnover, the end user accepts the affected Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for beneficial use. This checklist is used to help the end user ensure that all documentation, training, and testing requirements are met prior to turnover. This checklist specifically identifies those items related to the upgrading of the 241-AN-A valve pit. The upgrades include: the installation of jumper/valve manifolds with position sensors, replacement pit leak detection systems, construction of replacement cover blocks, and electrical upgrades to support the instrumentation upgrades.

  16. Project W-314 241-AN-A valve pit upgrade acceptance for beneficial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    This report identifies the responsibilities and requirements, applicable to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit Upgrades portion of Project W-314, for Acceptance for Beneficial Use in accordance with HNF-IP-0842, Vol IV, Sec 3.12. At project turnover, the end user accepts the affected Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for beneficial use. This checklist is used to help the end user ensure that all documentation, training, and testing requirements are met prior to turnover. This checklist specifically identifies those items related to the upgrading of the 241-AN-A valve pit. The upgrades include: the installation of jumper/valve manifolds with position sensors, replacement pit leak detection systems, construction of replacement cover blocks, and electrical upgrades to support the instrumentation upgrades

  17. Efficiency strategies in building conservation in natural protected areas. The experience of Doñana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Rincón Calderón

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is remarkable the amount of buildings that have existed and still exist in Doñana. These constructions, which are very diverse, are examples of the local identity. Some have been lost, but others are in a process of degradation that raises the question of building conservation in a unique natural environment. In this paper, the available information on the current state of the Doñana built heritage is compiled, updated and completed. The geographical distribution structure of the buildings’ locations is also analyzed. This study verifies how these buildings have evolved throughout the park history to the condition we see now, how they have been useful to their inhabitants in this environment, how they have performed their roles of sheltering and protecting men, and how they could face the future using the same strategies they have developed to survive until our day.

  18. Intellectual Property as a Drive for Sustainable Medical Tourism – The Ana Aslan case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolos Mihaela Daciana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies the way intellectual property rights may encourage sustainable medical tourism, meaning the advantages that a patent, traditional knowledge, a trademark, or other IP right may offer to a hospital in order to attract foreign patients. The analysis is done trough the Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics “Ana Aslan” case study, seen not from a medical point of view but from the perspective of the intellectual property importance for the development of medical tourism. The Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics “Ana Aslan” was founded in 1952 and become an international renowned center in the study and the diminishing of old age effects. Many celebrities (artist and state presidents came to receive treatment here, even though Romania had, at that time, a communist regime.

  19. The spectacle of conservation. Doñana National Park in Man and the Earth (1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Alcalá-Lorente

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 1970s, four documentaries about Doñana National Park were broadcast within the National Spanish Television series Man and the Earth, directed by Félix Rodríguez de la Fuente. Through the account of the Park’s life cycle –each chapter matched each one of the year’s seasons–, these chapters were a celebration of the struggle to conserve the natural heritage, whose meaning was established in relation to a beautifully-produced representation of both nature and the natural sciences. This paper analyzes how, in a quite complex historical and political context, and through the spectacle of the success and fragility of Doñana National Park, Rodríguez de la Fuente represented sensitivity towards nature and the natural heritage, acquired through the study of the natural sciences, as a key element of modernization.

  20. Glikoalkaloīdu daudzuma noteikšana kartupeļos

    OpenAIRE

    Kulvinska, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Pētījumā salīdzinājām divas glikoalkaloīdu α – solanīna un α – hakonīna daudzuma noteikšanas metodes: augsti efektīvo šķidruma hromatogrāfiju (AEŠH) ar ultravioleto (UV) detektoru un šķidruma hromatogrāfiju (ŠH) – masspektrometriju (MS). Salīdzinot abas glikoalkaloīdu noteikšanas metodes tika secināts, ka abas metodes ir vienlīdzīgi kvalitatīvas un efektīvas, taču ŠH-MS ir tehniski vienkāršāka un standatvielu uzņemtie spektri var tikt izmantoti atkārtoti bez iepriekšējas atkārtotas metodes...

  1. Virtuālo komandu darba analīze un uzlabošana uzturēšanas projektos

    OpenAIRE

    Koncevičs, Rolands

    2006-01-01

    Arvien vairāk un vairāk uzņēmumiem saskaroties ar globāliem projektiem un ārpakalpojumu izmantošanu, tiek izmantotas virtuālās komandas, bet projektu vadīšana paliek lokālo projektu līmenī. Taču daudzi praktiķi uzskata, ka virtuāla produktu izstrāde ir ievērojami sarežģītāka, nekā vissarežģītākais projekts, kuru pārvalda organizācijas iekšienē. Šajā darbā autors pēta unikālas virtuālo projektu problēmas divos virtuālajos uzturēšanas projektos. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no piecām nodaļām. D...

  2. Subchronic hepatotoxicity of selenomethionine ingestion in mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Bunck, C.M.; Green, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    Twoyearold male mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) received a control diet (0.2 ppm Se) or diets containing 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 ppm Se as selenomethionine for 14 wk. Se accumulated readily in the liver in a dosedependent manner, reaching a mean concentration of 29 ppm (wet weight) in the 32 ppm group. Dietary Se of 2 ppm or greater increased plasma glutathione peroxidase activity. Mortality (10%) and histopathological effects, including bile duct hyperplasia and hemosiderin pigmentation of the liver and spleen, occurred in the 32 ppm group. These histopathological effects were accompanied by lower hemoglobin concentrations (16 and 32 ppm groups) and hematocrit (32 ppm group), and elevated plasma alkaline phosphatase activity (32 ppm group) indicative of cholestatic liver inJury. Other manifestations of hepatotoxicity included significant linear dose responses for hepatic oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations and ratio of GSSG to reduced glutathione (GSH). Means for both of these responses differed from controls in groups receiving 832 ppm Se. Mean hepatic GSH and malondialdehyde (a measure of lipid peroxidation) concentrations were significantly elevated in the 16 and 32 ppm groups. Subchronic effects of selenomethionine, which occurs in vegetation, are of particular interest with respect to the health of wild aquatic birds in seleniferous locations.

  3. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  4. Selective feeding by juvenile diving ducks in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek, J.C.; Hickey, J.J.

    1969-01-01

    Waterfowl often fail to use foods that seem plentiful to the investigator. The extent to which selective feeding or rejection of foods is a function of behavioral and morphological adaptations of the species, conditioned behavior of the individual, or individual preference for certain foods has not been appraised. The objectives of our study were to determine: (1) the extent of selective feeding among juvenile Canvasbacks (Aytha valisineria) and redheads (A. americana), (2) which food items were and which were not utilized, and (3) how selective use was related to the relative quality and availability of the food resource. In another paper (Bartonek and Hickey, MS) we present findings on the food habits of juvenile and adult Canvasbacks, Redheads, and Lesser Scaup (Aytha affinis) in southwestern Manitoba primarily during late spring and summer.Only a few of the limited number of investigations into the summer food habits of waterfowl correlate use of foods with the relative quantity and/or availability of potential foods (White, 1936; Beard, 1953; Keith, 1961; Chura, 1961; Perret, 1962; Collias and Collias, 1963). Perret (1962) concluded that seasonal variations in the food habits of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were related to changes in the availability of foods.

  5. Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.

    1968-01-01

    In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of duck hepatitis a virus types 1 and 3 in China, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X; Zhu, D; Cheng, A; Wang, M; Chen, S; Jia, R; Liu, M; Sun, K; Zhao, X; Yang, Q; Wu, Y; Chen, X

    2018-02-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is the most common aetiologic agent of duck virus hepatitis (DVH), causing substantial economic losses in the duck industry worldwide. In China, officially approved DHAV-1 live-attenuated vaccines have been used widely to vaccinate breeder ducks since 2013. However, following the reports of DVH outbreaks, it has become necessary to assess the epidemiological situation of this virus in China. We conducted molecular epidemiological analyses of 32 DHAV field isolates while analysing the samples from ducks suspected of having hepatitis collected from commercial duck farms in China between May 2010 and December 2015. Considerable changes were observed in the epidemiology of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 in China over time. A higher number of DHAV-1 strains were isolated during 2010-2012, coinciding with the widespread use of officially approved DHAV-1 live vaccine strains beginning in 2013. In contrast, a higher rate of DHAV-3 causing DHAV infections was observed between 2013 and 2015. Phylogenetic analyses based on the full-length VP1 gene were performed on these field isolates and using reference strains available in GenBank. DHAV-1 field isolates were evaluated in two groups: one group closely related to prototype strains and circulating in China between 2010 and 2012 and another group exhibiting genetic and serological differences from prototype strains. All DHAV-3 strains isolated in this study were grouped as monophyletic, which has become the predominant viral type, particularly in Shandong and Sichuan provinces, since 2013. In conclusion, these data provide updated information on the genetic and serological diversity of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, and our findings may serve as a foundation for the prevention of, and vaccine development for, DHAV in China. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Time-specific patterns of nest survival for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Grant, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    In many bird species, survival can vary with the age of the nest, with the date a nest was initiated, or among years within the same nesting area. A literature review showed that patterns of survival vary in relation to nest age and date and are often contradictory. Inconsistencies could be a result of temporal variation in the environment or life-history differences among species. We examined patterns of nest survival in relation to nest age, date, and year for several duck and passerine species nesting at a single location in North Dakota during 1998–2003. We predicted that if environment shaped nest survival patterns, then temporal patterns in survival might be similar among three species of upland nesting ducks, and also among three species of grassland passerines nesting at the same site. We expected that survival patterns would differ between ducks and passerines because of relatively disparate life histories and differences in predators that prey on their nests. Nest survival was rarely constant among years, seasonally, or with age of the nest for species that we studied. As predicted, the pattern of survival was similar among duck species, driven mainly by differences in nest survival associated with nest initiation date. The pattern of survival also was similar among passerine species, but nest survival was more influenced by nest age than by date. Our findings suggest that some but not all variation in temporal patterns of nest survival in grassland birds reported in the literature can be explained on the basis of temporal environmental variation. Because patterns of survival were dissimilar among ducks and passerines, it is likely that mechanisms such as predation or brood parasitism have variable influences on productivity of ducks and passerines nesting in the same area. Our results indicate that biologists and managers should not assume that temporal environmental variations, especially factors that affect nest survival, act similarly on all

  8. Ana o 2, a major cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut allergen of the legumin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Robotham, Jason M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2003-09-01

    We recently cloned and described a vicilin and showed it to be a major cashew allergen. Additional IgE-reactive cashew peptides of the legumin group and 2S albumin families have also been reported. Here, we attempt to clone, express and characterize a second major cashew allergen. A cashew cDNA library was screened with human IgE and rabbit IgG anti-cashew extract antisera, and a reactive nonvicilin clone was sequenced and expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Immunoblotting was used to screen for reactivity with patients' sera, and inhibition of immunoblotting was used to identify the corresponding native peptides in cashew nut extract. The identified allergen was subjected to linear epitope mapping using SPOTs solid-phase synthetic peptide technology. Sequence analysis showed the selected clone, designated Ana o 2, to encode for a member of the legumin family (an 11S globulin) of seed storage proteins. By IgE immunoblotting, 13 of 21 sera (62%) from cashew-allergic patients were reactive. Immunoblot inhibition data showed that the native Ana o 2 constitutes a major band at approximately 33 kD and a minor band at approximately 53 kD. Probing of overlapping synthetic peptides with pooled human cashew-allergic sera identified 22 reactive peptides, 7 of which gave strong signals. Several Ana o 2 epitopes were shown to overlap those of the peanut legumin group allergen, Ara h 3, in position but with little sequence similarity. Greater positional overlap and identity was observed between Ana o 2 and soybean glycinin epitopes. We conclude that this legumin-like protein is a major allergen in cashew nut. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. ANA Negative Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Leading to CTEPH, TTP-Like Thrombocytopenia, and Skin Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Changal, Khalid Hamid; Sofi, Fayaz; Altaf, Sheikh Shoaib; Raina, Adnan; Raina, Ab. Hameed

    2016-01-01

    SLE affects almost every organ system, with differing degrees of severity. During its clinical course periods of flares may alternate with periods of remission culminating in disease and therapy related damage. We describe a case of ANA negative SLE with severe thrombocytopenia, cutaneous vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and pulmonary artery hypertension. As there is no definitive cure for SLE the treatment lies in caring for the individual organ systems involved and simultaneo...

  10. ANA Negative Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Leading to CTEPH, TTP-Like Thrombocytopenia, and Skin Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Hamid Changal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SLE affects almost every organ system, with differing degrees of severity. During its clinical course periods of flares may alternate with periods of remission culminating in disease and therapy related damage. We describe a case of ANA negative SLE with severe thrombocytopenia, cutaneous vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and pulmonary artery hypertension. As there is no definitive cure for SLE the treatment lies in caring for the individual organ systems involved and simultaneously taking care of the patient as a whole.

  11. Multielemental analysis by neutron activation of sediments in the Ana Maria Gulf, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Gandarias, D.; Calzavilla, R.; Garcia, G.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper general samples of marine sediments taken from six control stations of the Ana Maria Gulf (Cuba) were analyzed. For this purpose the thermal neutron activation analysis method was used. 18 elements were determinated. They are: Al, Ce, Co, Cs, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Mo, Mn, Rb, Sc, Ta, Th, Yb and Zn. The accuracy varied between 5 and 30% for all elements. 10 refs

  12. About Identities and Struggles: Interview with Ana María Spadafora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Bossi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropologist Ana María Spadafora describes the current situation of indigenous communities in Argentina. She explains the meaning of “being Indian” and how processes of ethnic re-emergence have taken place in Argentina and elsewhere in the continent. The articulation between Positive Law and indigenous world view, and the effects of globalization on ethnic minorities are some of the issues covered.

  13. The Multiple other in Ana Castillo’s So Far from God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozovschi Simona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at familiarizing readers with Ana Castillo’s reshaping of traditional female archetypes in her novel So Far from God. Not only does she remodel and enrich them, she also incorporates them into modern, contemporary life. In addition, all the female characters in the novel are drawn together towards Sofia, the all-encompassing self, the multiple Other.

  14. Review of "Crítica e Tradução" by Ana Cristina Cesar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Regina Guimarães Barboza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2017v37n2p270 The text presents a review on the book of essays "Crítica e Tradução" by Ana Cristina Cesar. Counting her publications in magazines and her academic productions, besides her works in translation, the volume brings has a interesting perspective on culture, cinema, literature and translation according to the researches of the author.

  15. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  16. Quantum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.

  17. Host Differences Affecting Resistance and Susceptibility of the Second Generation of a Pekin Duck Flock to Duck Hepatitis A Virus Genotype 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Earlier work suggested the possibility to anti duck hepatitis A virus genotype 3 (DHAV-3 using the resistance breeding strategy. Here, we report the creation of the second generations of a resistant Pekin duck flock (designated Z8R2 and a highly susceptible Pekin duck flock (designated Z8S2 and the investigation of their responses to DHAV-3. Experimental infection with DHAV-3 at 7 days of age resulted in a high mortality (66.3% in 11 susceptible Z8S2 families and an extremely low mortality rate (2.67% in 32 Z8R2 families, indicating that Z8R2 exhibits strong resistance to DHAV-3, while Z8S2 is highly susceptible to the virus. Detection of DHAV-3 in the liver between 1 and 60 hours post inoculation (hpi suggests that DHAV-3 can be replicated rapidly and efficiently in the liver of Z8S2, whereas the replication of the virus in the liver of Z8R2 is suppressed greatly. High levels of serum biochemical markers (e.g., ALT, AST, ALP and GGT were detected in Z8S2 at 24 hpi, which were significantly higher than those in Z8R2. Analysis of transcripts in the liver revealed that the expression levels of several pattern recognition receptors (PRRs (e.g., TLR4/7, RIG-1 and MDA5 and cytokines (e.g., IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-α, and IFN-γ in Z8S2 were significantly higher than those in Z8R2 at 12 and 24 hpi. Together these findings suggest that Z8R2 and Z8S2 Pekin ducks, which were derived from the same Z8 line, exhibit disparate pathogenic outcomes following DHAV-3 infection. Therefore, it is possible to select a Pekin duck flock resistant to DHAV-3 employing the strategy described here. It is likely that the high viral load and the strong inflammatory response correlate with the high susceptibility of Z8S2 Pekin ducks to DHAV-3.

  18. Effects of Dietary Methionine Levels on Choline Requirements of Starter White Pekin Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. Wen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 2×5 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary methionine levels (0.28% and 0.48% and 5 dietary choline levels (0, 394, 823, 1,239, and 1,743 mg/kg, was conducted to study the effects of dietary methionine status on choline requirements of starter white Pekin ducks from 7 to 28 days of age. Four hundred eighty 7-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to ten dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 28 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured and the legs of all ducks from each pen were examined for incidence of perosis. Perosis and growth depression were observed in choline-deficient ducks and supplementation of choline reduced perosis and significantly increased weight gain and feed intake regardless of dietary methionine levels (p<0.05. In addition, significant positive effects of dietary methionine supplementation on weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were observed at any choline level (p<0.05. Supplementation of 1,743 mg/kg choline in diets alleviated the depression of weight gain and feed intake caused by methionine deficiency at 0.28% methionine level. The interaction between choline and methionine influenced weight gain and feed intake of ducks (p<0.05. At 0.28% methionine level, 1,743 mg/kg choline group caused 4.92% and 3.23% amount of improvement in weight gain and feed intake compared with 1,239 mg/kg choline group, respectively. According to the broken-line regression, the choline requirements of starter Pekin ducks for weight gain and feed intake were 1,472 and 1,424 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 946 and 907 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. It suggested the choline recommendations of starter Pekin ducks on a semi-purified diet were 1448 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 927 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. Compared with the adequate methionine level, menthionine deficiency markedly increased the choline requirements of

  19. Feeding ecology of long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis wintering on the Nantucket Shoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Timothy P.; Veit, Richard R.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2009-01-01

    A substantial proportion, perhaps 30%, of the North American breeding population of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) winter in the vicinity of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. These birds spend the night on Nantucket Sound and commute during daylight hours to the Nantucket Shoals, which extend about 65 km offshore from the southeastern corner of Nantucket. Strip transects done from a single-engine plane in 1997 and 1998 indicated that Long-tailed Ducks foraged over the shallower (fish and marine mammals. Our findings emphasize the importance of conservation of the Nantucket Shoals and the prevention of oil spills or other potentially harmful accidents.

  20. Carbonate deposition on tail feathers of ruddy ducks using evaporation ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Substantial carbonate deposits were observed on rectrices of Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) collected during 1982-1984 on evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Carbonate deposits were composed of about 75% aragonite and 25% calcite, both polymorphous forms of CaCO3. Significantly more carbonate deposits were observed on Ruddy Ducks as length of exposure to agricultural drain water increased, during the 1983-1984 field season when salt concentrations in the ponds were higher, and in certain evaporation-pond systems.

  1. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for 241-AN-A valve pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system's performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a ''lower tier'' document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) This STEP encompasses all testing activities required to demonstrate compliance to the project design criteria as it relates to the modifications of the AN-A valve pit. The Project Design Specifications (PDS) identify the specific testing activities required for the Project. Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the modifications to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation

  2. Reproduktīvās klonēšanas ētiskie aspekti.

    OpenAIRE

    Urbāne, Dārta

    2011-01-01

    Reproduktīvā klonēšana ir viena no jaunākajām zinātnes inovācijām. Klonēšanas būtība ir radīt kādas būtnes ģenētiski identisku indivīdu. Klonēšana ir specifiska reproduktīvā metode, tādēļ tā ir izraisījusi ievērojamu skaitu ētikas jautājumu un radījusi morālās problēmas. Kā sava darba mērķi esmu izvirzījusi noskaidrot, šīs tehnoloģijas specifiku, apzināt tās izraisīto problēmu loku, kā arī izpētīt, kā klonēšanu vērtē citas ar sabiedrību saistītās nozares, piemēram, medicīna un reliģija. V...

  3. Doñana y su entorno: Conservación y explotación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Rubio Recio

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Tanto río de tinta sobre Doñana y tantas palabras, noticias, pareceres, opinio­nes y declaraciones de gentes de las más diversa condición, no están haciendo sino sembrar confusión . Y no digamos nada de la presencia de gobernantes y políticos, -alguna sospechosamente asidua- que se arroban y extasian en el secarral o humedal doñanero, sobre todo si está la televisión o la prensa delante. Doñana para esas personas es sólo fuente de imagen , porque Doñana , como muy acertadamente expresó Aquilino Duque al titular su libro sobre el Parque Nacio­nal que se asienta sobre dicho lugar, es un mito y como tal se explota. En el fondo, no se si será una manifestación de "si aquí se invitaba a los Reyes de España y a otras gentes de la nobleza, en otras épocas, -denostadas, eso sí-, ¿por qué no voy a venir yo?-".

  4. Los rostros de Ana: Tres comentarios sobre Darío Morales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marcelo Velázquez Sabogal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito es una aproximación a la obra del artista colombiano Darío Morales desde la perspectiva dialéctica “vida-muerte”, alentada por el acontecimiento de lo ambiguo y sus implicaciones en la deconstrucción de una corporeidad estable regida por parámetros sociales, jurídicos y biológicos que desembocan en la caracterización de un “otro” en el cual se encuentran figuras como el anormal, el incorregible, el monstruo. Desde ellos pretendo trazar un punto de vista sobre aquellos Rostros de Ana donde se manifiestan figuras como el onanista y la vampira, para desembocar en un comentario que amplíe el espectro de sentido alrededor la obra del artista cartagenero. Palabras claves Cuerpo ambiguo, vida-muerte, sagrado-profano, onanismo. Ñawekuna kai warmi Ana Sutipa: Kimsa pariai ksi runa Dario Morales Sugllapi Kai kilkai kame ñalla regcha kai tacha runa colombiano Dario Morales Kilkakasina rimangapa “ kausai- wamui” aida chingapa kaikuna Mana allilla llugsichu tukuikunamanda icharichu llanga “sug manda” Kaipe turrerreme ¡ kauancheme man aillakaska, man allilla rurasla! Kirú. Kaipi pudenchi kauanga imasami kauacheca kai warme Ana paipa ñawekuna Kai ruraikuna sutikame onanista Chasallata vampira, Kaiwa munakume Allilla intendechengapa imasame parlaku sug iacha Cartagenero. Ima suti Rimai Simi: Cuerpo ambiguo, kaugsai, muerte, sagrado - profano, onanismo. The Faces of Ana: Three Comments on Dario Morales Abstract This paper is an approach to the work of Colombian artist Dario Morales from the perspective of the dialectic of “life and death”, encouraged by the occurrence of the ambiguous and its implications for the deconstruction of a stable corporeality governed by social, legal and biological parameters that lead to the characterization of an “other”, in which figures such as the abnormal, the incorrigible, the monster are to be found. From them, I intend to plot a point of view on those faces of Ana

  5. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  6. Establishment of a rice-duck integrated farming system and its effects on soil fertility and rice disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-Qing; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    Rice-duck integrated farming is an ecological farming system newly established in some areas of southern China . It was reported that the ducks walking around the paddy fields is beneficial to control weed hazards and reduce rice pests and diseases. To study and evaluate the effects of the rice-duck integrated farming on soil fertility and rice disease control, a field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai in 2014. It includes a treatment of raising ducks in the fields and a control without ducks. The treatment was implemented by building a duck coop nearby the experimental fields and driving 15 ducks into a plot at daytime since the early stage of rice growth. Each plot is 667 m2 in area. The treatment and control were replicated for three times. No any herbicides, pesticides, fungicides and chemical fertilizers were applied during the experiment to prevent any disturbance to duck growing and rice weed hazards and disease incidences from agrochemicals. The results are as follows: (1) The incidences of rice leaf rollers (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and stem borers treated with ducks, 0.45%and 1.18% on average, respectively, are lower than those of the control, 0.74% and 1.44% on average, respectively. At the late stage of rice growth, the incidence of rice sheath blight treated with ducks, 13.15% on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 16.9% on average; and the incidence of rice planthoppers treated with ducks, 11.3 per hill on average, is also significantly lower than that of the control, 47.4 per hill on average. (2) The number of weeds in the plots treated with ducks, 8.3 per m2 on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 87.5 m2 on average. (3) Raising ducks in the fields could also enhance soil enzyme activity and nutrient status. At the late stage of rice growth, the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in the soils treated with ducks are 1.39 times, 1.40 times, 1

  7. Isolation and Genomic Characterization of a Duck-Origin GPV-Related Parvovirus from Cherry Valley Ducklings in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Dou, Yanguo; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Zhenjie; Zheng, Xiaoqiang; Niu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jing; Yu, Xianglong; Diao, Youxiang

    2015-01-01

    A newly emerged duck parvovirus, which causes beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS) in Cherry Valley ducks, has appeared in Northern China since March 2015. To explore the genetic diversity among waterfowl parvovirus isolates, the complete genome of an identified isolate designated SDLC01 was sequenced and analyzed in the present study. Genomic sequence analysis showed that SDLC01 shared 90.8%-94.6% of nucleotide identity with goose parvovirus (GPV) isolates and 78.6%-81.6% of nucleotide identity with classical Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of 443 nucleotides (nt) of the fragment A showed that SDLC01 was highly similar to a mule duck isolate (strain D146/02) and close to European GPV isolates but separate from Asian GPV isolates. Analysis of the left inverted terminal repeat regions revealed that SDLC01 had two major segments deleted between positions 160-176 and 306-322 nt compared with field GPV and MDPV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of Rep and VP1 encoded by two major open reading frames of parvoviruses revealed that SDLC01 was distinct from all GPV and MDPV isolates. The viral pathogenicity and genome characterization of SDLC01 suggest that the novel GPV (N-GPV) is the causative agent of BADS and belongs to a distinct GPV-related subgroup. Furthermore, N-GPV sequences were detected in diseased ducks by polymerase chain reaction and viral proliferation was demonstrated in duck embryos and duck embryo fibroblast cells.

  8. Developmental toxicity of lead contaminated sediment to mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Campbell, J.K.; LeCaptain, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion has been identified as an important exposure route for toxicants in waterfowl. The toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin (CDARB) in Idaho was examined on posthatching development of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings for 6 weeks. Day-old ducklings received either untreated control diet, clean sediment (24%) supplemented control diet, CDARB sediment (3,449 I?g/g lead) supplemented diets at 12% or 24%, or a positive control diet containing lead acetate equivalent to that found in 24% CDARB. The 12% CDARB diet resulted in a geometric mean blood lead concentration of 1.41 ppm (WW) with over 90% depression of red blood cell ALAD activity and over threefold elevation of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration. The 24% CDARB diet resulted in blood lead of 2.56 ppm with over sixfold elevation of protoporphyrin and lower brain weight. In this group the liver lead concentration was 7.92 ppm (WW), and there was a 40% increase in hepatic reduced glutathione concentration. The kidney lead concentration in this group was 7.97 ppm, and acid-fast inclusion bodies were present in the kidneys of four of nine ducklings. The lead acetate positive control group was more adversely affected in most respects than the 24% CDARB group. With a less optimal diet (mixture of two thirds corn and one third standard diet), CDARB sediment was more toxic; blood lead levels were higher, body growth and liver biochemistry (TBARS) were more affected, and prevalence of acid-fast inclusion bodies increased. Lead from CDARB sediment accumulated more readily in duckling blood and liver than reported in goslings, but at given concentrations was generally less toxic to ducklings. Many of these effects are similar to ones reported in wild mallards and geese within the CDARB.

  9. Ducks as a potential reservoir for Pasteurella multocida infection detected using a new rOmpH-based ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Cuiteng; Cheng, Longfei; Lu, Ronghui; Fu, Guanghua; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Lin, Jiansheng; Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu

    2017-07-28

    Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen of numerous domestic poultry and wild animals and is associated with a variety of diseases including fowl cholera. The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant outer-membrane protein H (rOmpH) for detection of anti-P. multocida antibodies in serum to determine their prevalence in Chinese ducks. The P. multocida ompH gene was cloned into pET32a, and rOmpH was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blotting revealed that purified rOmpH was recognized by duck antisera against P. multocida, and an indirect ELISA was established. During analysis of serum samples (n=115) from ducks, the rOmpH ELISA showed 95.0% specificity, 100% sensitivity and a 92.0% κ coefficient (95% confidence interval 0.844-0.997) as compared with a microtiter agglutination test. Among 165 randomly selected serum samples, which were collected in 2015 and originated from six duck farms across Fujian Province, China, anti-P. multocida antibodies were detected in 22.42% of apparently healthy ducks, including 25 of 90 sheldrakes (27.8%), eight of 50 Peking ducks (16.0%) and four of 25 Muscovy ducks (16%). Overall, the data suggest that rOmpH is a suitable candidate antigen for the development of an indirect ELISA for detection of P. multocida in ducks; moreover, our results showed that ducks could serve as a potential reservoir for P. multocida infection.

  10. Influence of plastic slatted floors compared with pine shaving litter on Pekin Duck condition during the summer months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S; Karcher, D M; Makagon, M M; Lilburn, M S

    2013-07-01

    The management and well-being of commercial Pekin ducks has been studied in the European Union where straw is the predominant litter source. In the United States, however, the most prevalent litter is wood shavings, with a recent trend toward using plastic slatted flooring. A previous study in the United States evaluated the relationship between flooring type (litter, slats) and duck condition during winter months and found very few differences between the 2 in terms of overall duck condition. The purpose of the current study was to reevaluate the 2 flooring systems during the summer months to determine if seasonal differences would interact with flooring type to have an impact on duck condition. Eighteen commercial barns that produce Pekin ducks for Maple Leaf Farms Inc. (Leesburg, IN), located in northern Indiana and southern Wisconsin (n = 9 litter; n = 9 raised slatted floor), were used for this study. Twenty ducks were randomly selected from 5 predetermined areas within each house (n = 100 total) and scored for eye condition, nostril and feather cleanliness, and feather and foot pad quality at 7, 21, and 32 d of age. Environmental data, including carbon monoxide, ammonia, RH, and temperature, were also obtained at each collection day. The only statistical differences in body condition occurred at 7 d; there were more ducks with clear eyes and eye rings on the litter flooring, whereas average nostril scores were better on the plastic slatted floors. Live weight, weight gain per day, flock mortality, and condemnations at the plant were collected, and the only statistical difference was a higher gain per day for ducks reared on slatted floors compared with litter (P flooring systems in the environmental parameters measured within the barns. In summary, there were very few differences between the litter and slatted flooring systems, indicating that there may not be clear advantages for one particular flooring system over the other from the point of view of duck

  11. Physico-chemical analysis of eggs of native fowl, duck and goose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of eggs such as moisture, crude protein, crude fat, total ash, carbohydrate, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorous and metabolized energy were also evaluated. The significant variability observed in most of egg quality traits indicated the scope for further genetic improvement. Keywords: Duck and ...

  12. Assessment of species and antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from mallard duck faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Krueger, Karolin; Roesler, Uwe; Weinreich, Joerg; Schierack, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Mallard ducks have demonstrated to be a likely reservoir for zoonotic E. coli strains; thus, it is possible that these ducks could also act as a reservoir for other Enterobacteriaceae members. The present study was initiated to evaluate the species distribution of Enterobacteriaceae other than E. coli in 175 fresh faecal samples collected from a population of mallard ducks. Sixty-four samples displayed detectable colonies of Enterobacteriaceae (excluding E. coli), which resulted in 75 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. Seventy-five single representatives of each PFGE type were subjected to identification with API 32NE and MALDI TOF MS systems due to the practical difficulties in species differentiation of Enterobacteriaceae. Those isolated were found to be from nine genera: Buttiauxella (15 %), Citrobacter (5 %), Enterobacter (32 %), Hafnia (1 %), Leclercia (1 %), Pantoea (7 %), Raoultella (21 %), Rahnella (7 %) and Serratia (11 %). Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes using the disc method and detection of resistance genes using the microarray method revealed that these microbes possess resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones, rifamycine, sulphonamides, streptogramins and diaminopyrimidines. In conclusion, mallard ducks harbour a variety of non-pathogenic and pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae species like Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter amnigenus in their intestine and could act as a reservoir of resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

  13. Sequence-specific inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robaczewska, Magdalena; Narayan, Ramamurthy; Seigneres, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) appear as promising new antisense agents, that have not yet been examined as hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibitors. Our aim was to study the ability of PNAs targeting the duck HBV (DHBV) encapsidation signal epsilon to inhibit reverse transcription (RT...

  14. Perception of poultry farmers on duck farming in Kwara State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the perception of poultry farmers on duck farming in Kwara state, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was employed in selecting 80 poultry farmers used in the study. Analytical tools used include frequency counts, charts, mean, percentage and Pearson Product moment correlation. Results showed ...

  15. The gastrointestinal helminth fauna of the eider duck (Somateria mollissima L.) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Okulewicz, A.; Zoun, P.E.F.; Okulewicz, J.

    2005-01-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 25 eider ducks (Somateria mollissima L.) in the Netherlands has been described and number of worms counted or estimated. For the most common species maximum worm numbers are given. Five nematode species were found: Amidostomum acutum (max. intensity 1500).

  16. Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. II: The duck-rabbit figure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Freegard, Matthew; Moore, James; Rawles, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The BBC television programme Right Hand, Left Hand, broadcast in August 1953, showed a version of the duck-rabbit figure and asked viewers to say what they could see in the “puzzle picture”. Nearly 4,000 viewers described the image, and the answers to those questions have recently been found and analysed. The programme probably used the same version of the figure as appeared in Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, which had been published a month or two previously. Although Dr Jacob Bronowski, the presenter of the programme, had suspected that left- and right-handers might differ in their perception of the figure, since they might scan it from different sides, in fact there is no relationship in the data between six measures of lateralisation and a propensity for seeing a duck or a rabbit. However the large data set does show separate effects of both age and sex on viewing the figure, female and older viewers being more likely to report seeing a rabbit (although a clear majority of viewers reported seeing a duck). There was also a very significant tendency for female viewers to use more typical descriptions of the duck, whereas males used a wider variety of types.

  17. Long-Term Changes in Beach Fauna at Duck, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    informative. & nerita taZpoida was in a group by itself and was the only species characteristic of the shallow nearshore sites. Edotea spp. was also in a...These three taxa were also dominant at Duck, accounting for 33 percent of all taxa and 71 percent -. of all occurrences (Table 10). _ nerita ta7poida was

  18. Functional characterization of duck LSm14A in IFN-β induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kexin; Li, Huilin; Chen, Huanchun; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Luo, Rui; Jin, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Human LSm14A is a key component of processing body (P-body) assembly that mediates interferon-β (IFN-β) production by sensing viral RNA or DNA. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report duck LSm14A (duLSm14A) cloning from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). Full-length duLSm14A encoded 461 amino acids and was highly homologous with chicken and swan goose sequences. More interestingly, the duLSm14A mRNA was extensively expressed in all the studied tissues. In DEFs, duLSm14A was localized in the cytoplasm as P-body-like dots. Expression of duLSm14A induced IFN-β through the activation of interferon regulatory factor-1 and nuclear factor-κB in DEFs. Furthermore, knockdown of duLSm14A by small interfering RNA notably decreased poly(I:C)- or duck reovirus-induced IFN-β production. The present study results indicate that the duLSm14A is an essential sensor that mediates duck innate immunity against viral infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of Immune-Related Genes of Ducks Infected with Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC can cause severe disease in ducks, characterized by perihepatitis, pericarditis and airsacculitis. Although the studies of bacteria isolation and methods of detection have been reported, host immune responses to APEC infection remain unclear. In response, we systemically examined the expression of immune-related genes and bacteria distribution in APEC-infected ducks. Results demonstrated that APEC can quickly replicate in the liver, spleen and brain, with the highest bacteria content at 2 day post infection. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs, avian β-defensins (AvBDs and major histocompatibility complex (MHC were tested in the liver, spleen and brain of infected ducks. TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR15 showed different expression patterns, which indicated that they all responded to APEC infection. The expression of AvBD2 was upregulated in all tested tissues during the 3 days of testing, whereas the expression of AvBD4, AvBD5, AvBD7 and AvBD9 were downregulated, and though MHC-I was upregulated on all test days, MHC-II was dramatically downregulated. Overall, our results suggest that APEC can replicate in various tissues in a short time, and the activation of host immune responses begins at onset of infection. These findings thus clarify duck immune responses to APEC infection and offer insights into its pathogenesis.

  20. Artificial incubation of muscovy duck eggs : Why some eggs hatch and others do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M

    This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic

  1. Wavelength of ocean waves and surf beat at duck from array measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Menon, H.B.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Jog, P.D.; Almeida, A.M.

    Wavelength of ocean waves and surf beat (infra gravity waves) has for the first time been computed as a function of frequency from different combinations of non-collinear 3-gauge arrays. Data at the 15-gauge polygonal array at 8 m depth at Duck...

  2. Ergot Alkaloids in Feed for Pekin Ducks: Toxic Effects, Metabolism and Carry Over into Edible Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Dänicke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hardened sclerotia (ergots of Claviceps purpurea contaminate cereal grains and contain toxic ergot alkaloids (EA. Information on EA toxicity in ducks is scarce. Therefore, the aim of the growth experiment (Day 0–49, n = 54/group was to titrate the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL for total ergot alkaloids (TEA. A control diet was prepared without ergots, and the diets designated Ergot 1 to 4 contained 1, 10, 15 and 20 g ergot per kg diet, respectively, corresponding to TEA contents of 0.0, 0.6, 7.0, 11.4 and 16.4 mg/kg. Sensitivity of ducks to EA was most pronounced at the beginning of the experiment when feed intake decreased significantly by 9%, 28%, 41% and 47% in groups Ergot 1 to 4, respectively, compared to the control group. The experiment was terminated after two weeks for ducks exposed to Ergot 3 and 4 due to significant growth retardation. Ergot alkaloid residues in edible tissues were lower than 5 ng/g. Bile was tested positive for ergonovine (=ergometrine = ergobasine with a mean concentration of 40 ng/g. Overall, the LOAEL amounted to 0.6 mg TA/kg diet suggesting that ducks are not protected by current European Union legislation (1 g ergot/kg unground cereal grains.

  3. Chlorfenapyr and mallard ducks: overview, study design, macroscopic effects, and analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Klein, P.N.; Green, D.E.; Melancon, M.J.; Bradley, B.P.; Noguchi, G.

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial pesticide derived from a class of compounds known as halogenated pyrroles was registered for use in the United States in 2001. Chlorfenapyr degrades slowly in soil, sediment, and water and is highly toxic to birds. Information on biochemical or histological endpoints in birds is lacking; therefore, a two-year study was conducted to provide information needed to develop diagnostic criteria for chlorfenapyr toxicosis. In the first year, male mallard ducks were fed concentrations of 0, 2, 5, or 10 ppm technical chlorfenapyr or 5 ppm of a formulated product in their diet during a 10-week chronic exposure study. Survival, body weight, feed consumption (removal), behavior, and molt progression were monitored. Feed and liver were analyzed for chlorfenapyr and two metabolites. Five of 10 ducks in the 10-ppm group died, and neurotoxic effects were observed in the 5- and 10-ppm groups. Feed removal increased for ducks receiving chlorfenapyr and body weights of 5- and 10-ppm ducks were reduced. Loss of body fat, muscle atrophy, and bile retention were suggestive of metabolic disruption or a decreased ability to digest and absorb nutrients. Liver and kidney weights and liver and kidney weight/body weight ratios exhibited a positive response to concentrations of chlorfenapyr in the diet. Emaciation and elevated organ weight/body weight ratios are candidates for a suite of indicators of chronic chlorfenapyr exposure. Liver is the preferred tissue for chemical confirmation of exposure.

  4. Quantitative feed restriction of Pekin breeder ducks from 3 weeks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0,01) lower in body mass than those restricted from 8 weeks of age. The aversion of mass loss during this period could have contributed to the improved performance recorded during the laying period. At 60 weeks of age, the ducks restricted in intake from. 3 weeks were still highly significantly (P ",;;0,01) lighter in body mass ...

  5. Dynamic Emission of CH4 from a Rice-Duck Farming Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-En Zhang; Ying Ouyang; Zhao-Xiang Huang Huang; Guo-Ming Quan

    2011-01-01

    Global climatic change induced by emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities is an issue of increasing in-ternational environmental concerns, and agricultural practices and managements are the important contributors for such emissions. This study investigated dynamic emission of methane (CH4) from a paddy field in a rice-duck farming ecosystem. Three different...

  6. Ana o 3-specific IgE is a good predictor for clinically relevant cashew allergy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L; Lasota, L; Finger, A; Vlajnic, D; Büsing, S; Meister, J; Broekaert, I; Pfannenstiel, C; Friedrichs, F; Price, M; Trendelenburg, V; Niggemann, B; Beyer, K

    2017-04-01

    Component-resolved diagnostics using specific IgE to 2 S albumins has shown to be a valuable new option in diagnostic procedure. Ana o 3 is a 2 S albumin from cashew. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Ana o 3-specific serum IgE in the diagnosis of cashew allergy and to identify cut-off levels to replace oral food challenges. Moreover, the value of additional determination of total IgE has been investigated. In a multicentre study, we analysed specific IgE to cashew extract and Ana o 3 as well as total IgE in children with suspected cashew allergy using the ImmunoCAP-FEIA and a standardized diagnostic procedure including oral challenges where indicated. A total of 61 patients were included in the study. Forty-two were allergic to cashew, and 19 were tolerant. In receiver operating curves, Ana o 3 discriminates between allergic and tolerant children better than cashew-specific IgE with an area under the curve of 0.94 vs 0.78. The ratio of Ana o 3-specific IgE to total IgE did not further improve the diagnostic procedure. Probability curves for Ana o 3-specific IgE have been calculated, and a 95% probability could be estimated at 2.0 kU/l. Specific IgE to Ana o 3 is a valuable tool for the diagnosis of cashew allergy. Considering its positive predictive value, it might allow to make a considerable number of oral challenges superfluous. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The sighting of Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata (Linnaeus (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae after a gap of 112 years in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A female Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata was sighted in Saatvoini Beel on February 10, 2014. The female of this species was characterized by grey head, with a white ring around the eye which continued as a streak behind it. In India Mandarin Duck is vagrant and there were very few reported records from India. In 1902, Baker reported six individuals Mandarin Duck on the Subansiri River, Assam. The present sighting of this species from Baksa district is the first reliable record of this species in Assam after a gap of 112 years. 

  8. Distribution and abundance of predators that affect duck production--prairie pothole region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Greenwood, R.J.; Sovada, M.A.; Shaffer, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    During 1983-88, the relative abundance of 18 species and species-groups of mammalian and avian predators affecting duck production in the prairie pothole region was determined in 33 widely scattered study areas ranging in size from 23-26 km2. Accounts of each studied species and species-group include habitat and history, population structure and reported densities, and information on distribution and abundance from the present study. Index values of undetected, scarce, uncommon, common, or numerous were used to rate abundance of nearly all species in each study area. Principal survey methods were livetrapping of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and Franklin's ground squirrels (Spermophilus franklinii), systematic searches for carnivore tracks in quarter sections (0.65 km2), daily records of sightings of individual predator species, and systematic searches for occupied nests of tree-nesting avian predators. Abundances of predators in individual areas were studied 1-3 years.The distribution and abundance of predator species throughout the prairie pothole region have undergone continual change since settlement of the region by Europeans in the late 1800's. Predator populations in areas we studied differed markedly from those of pristine times. The changes occurred from habitat alterations, human-inflicted mortality of predators, and interspecific relations among predator species. Indices from surveys of tracks revealed a decline in the abundance of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and an albeit less consistent decline in the abundance of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with an increase in the abundance of coyotes (Canis latrans). Records of locations of occupied nests revealed great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) tended to nest 0.5 km apart, and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) tended to avoid nesting 0.5 km of nests of red-tailed hawks. Excluding large gulls, for which no measurements of abundance were obtained, the number of

  9. Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs in the Embryonic Breast Muscle of Pekin Duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Xie, Ming; Sun, Shiduo; Hou, Shuisheng

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by fully or partially binding to complementary sequences and play important roles in skeletal muscle development. However, the roles of miRNAs in embryonic breast muscle of duck are unclear. In this study, we analyzed the miRNAs profiling in embryonic breast muscle of Pekin duck at E13 (the 13th day of hatching), E19, and E27 by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 382 miRNAs including 359 preciously identified miRNAs 23 novel miRNA candidates were obtained. The nucleotide bias analysis of identified miRNAs showed that the miRNAs in Pekin duck was high conserved. The expression of identified miRNAs were significantly different between E13 and E19 as well as between E27 and E19. Fifteen identified miRNAs validated using stem-loop qRT-PCR can be divided into three groups: those with peak expression at E19, those with minimal expression at E19, and those with continuous increase from E11 to E27. Considering that E19 is the fastest growth stage of embryonic Pekin duck breast muscle, these three groups of miRNAs might be the potential promoters, the potential inhibitors, and the potential sustainer for breast muscle growth. Among the 23 novel miRNAs, novel-miRNA-8 and novel-miRNA-14 had maximal expression at some stages. The stem-loop qRT-PCR analysis of the two novel miRNAs and their two targets (MAP2K1 and PPARα) showed that the expression of novel-mir-8 and PPARα reached the lowest points at E19, while that of novel-mir-14 and MAP2K1 peaked at E19, suggesting novel-miRNA-8 and novel-miRNA-14 may be a potential inhibitor and a potential promoter for embryonic breast muscle development of duck. In summary, these results not only provided an overall insight into the miRNAs landscape in embryonic breast muscle of duck, but also a basis for the further investigation of the miRNAs roles in duck skeletal muscle development. PMID:24465928

  10. Ovarian transcriptomic analysis of Shan Ma ducks at peak and late stages of egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiMing Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the differences in ovarian transcriptomes in Shan Ma ducks between their peak and late stages of egg production, and to obtain new transcriptomic data of these egg-producing ducks. Methods The Illumina HiSeq 2000 system was used for high throughput sequencing of ovarian transcriptomes from Shan Ma ducks at their peak or late stages of egg production. Results Greater than 93% of the sequencing data had a base quality score (Q score that was not less than 20 (Q20. From ducks at their peak stage of egg production, 42,782,676 reads were obtained, with 4,307,499,083 bp sequenced. From ducks at their late stage of egg production, 45,316,166 reads were obtained, with 4,562,063,363 bp sequenced. A comparison of the two datasets identified 2,002 differentially expressed genes, with 790 upregulated and 1,212 downregulated. Further analysis showed that 1,645 of the 2,002 differentially expressed genes were annotated in the non-redundant (NR database, with 646 upregulated and 999 downregulated. Among the differentially expressed genes with annotations in the NR database, 696 genes were functionally annotated in the clusters of orthologous groups of proteins database, involving 25 functional categories. One thousand two hundred four of the differentially expressed genes with annotations in the NR database were functionally annotated in the gene ontology (GO database, and could be divided into three domains and 56 categories. The three domains were cellular component, molecular function, and biological process. Among the genes identified in the GO database, 451 are involved in development and reproduction. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes with annotations in the NR database against the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database revealed that 446 of the genes could be assigned to 175 metabolic pathways, of which the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, fructose and

  11. Ēdināšanas pakalpojumu uzņēmuma darbības efektivitātes paaugstināšanas iespējas

    OpenAIRE

    Buivide, Jūlija

    2013-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēma ir „Ēdināšanas pakalpojumu uzņēmuma darbības efektivitātes paaugstināšanas iespējas”. Latvijā lielāka uzņēmumu daļa, kas ir saistīta ar izmitināšanas un ēdināšanas pakalpojumu sniegšanu, saskārās ar lielu problēmu apjomu. Pirmkārt, samazinājās apmeklētāju skaits, un tas varētu būt saistīts kā ar maksātspējas pazemināšanos, tā arī ar viesnīcas vai restorānu pievilcības pasliktināšanos vai apkalpošanas kvalitātes pasliktināšanos. Samazinājās arī tūristu skaits. Tas, otrkā...

  12. Drag-based 'hovering' in ducks: the hydrodynamics and energetic cost of bottom feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ribak

    Full Text Available Diving ducks use their webbed feet to provide the propulsive force that moves them underwater. To hold position near the bottom while feeding, ducks paddle constantly to resist the buoyant force of the body. Using video sequences from two orthogonal cameras we reconstructed the 3-dimensional motion of the feet through water and estimated the forces involved with a quasi-steady blade-element model. We found that during station holding, near the bottom, ducks use drag based propulsion with the webbed area of the foot moving perpendicular to the trajectory of the foot. The body was pitched at 76+/-3.47 degrees below the horizon and the propulsive force was directed 26+/-1.9 degrees ventral to the body so that 98% of the propulsive force in the sagittal plane of the duck worked to oppose buoyancy. The mechanical work done by moving both feet through a paddling cycle was 1.1+/-0.2 J which was equivalent to an energy expenditure of 3.7+/-0.5 W to hold position while feeding at 1.5 m depth. We conclude that in shallow water the high energetic cost of feeding in ducks is due to the need to paddle constantly against buoyancy even after reaching the bottom. The mechanical energy spent on holding position near the bottom, while feeding, is approximately 2 fold higher than previous estimates that were made for similar bottom depths but based on the presumed motion of the body instead of motion of the feet.

  13. Environmental variability and population dynamics: Do European and North American ducks play by the same rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöysä, Hannu; Rintala, Jukka; Johnson, Douglas H.; Kauppinen, Jukka; Lammi, Esa; Nudds, Thomas D.; Väänänen, Veli-Matti

    2016-01-01

    Density dependence, population regulation, and variability in population size are fundamental population processes, the manifestation and interrelationships of which are affected by environmental variability. However, there are surprisingly few empirical studies that distinguish the effect of environmental variability from the effects of population processes. We took advantage of a unique system, in which populations of the same duck species or close ecological counterparts live in highly variable (north American prairies) and in stable (north European lakes) environments, to distinguish the relative contributions of environmental variability (measured as between-year fluctuations in wetland numbers) and intraspecific interactions (density dependence) in driving population dynamics. We tested whether populations living in stable environments (in northern Europe) were more strongly governed by density dependence than populations living in variable environments (in North America). We also addressed whether relative population dynamical responses to environmental variability versus density corresponded to differences in life history strategies between dabbling (relatively “fast species” and governed by environmental variability) and diving (relatively “slow species” and governed by density) ducks. As expected, the variance component of population fluctuations caused by changes in breeding environments was greater in North America than in Europe. Contrary to expectations, however, populations in more stable environments were not less variable nor clearly more strongly density dependent than populations in highly variable environments. Also, contrary to expectations, populations of diving ducks were neither more stable nor stronger density dependent than populations of dabbling ducks, and the effect of environmental variability on population dynamics was greater in diving than in dabbling ducks. In general, irrespective of continent and species life history

  14. Magnolol additive as a replacer of antibiotic enhances the growth performance of Linwu ducks

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    Qian Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnolol rich in Magnolia officinalis is a bioactive polyphenolic compound. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of magnolol additive (MA on growth performance, expression levels of antioxidant-related genes, and intestinal mucosal morphology of Linwu ducks aged from 49 to 70 days, comparing with that of an antibiotic additive (colistin sulfate [CS]. A total of 275, 49-day-old ducks were assigned to 5 groups with 5 cages of 11 ducks each and fed diets supplemented with 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg of MA/kg and 300 mg of CS/kg for 3 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the average daily body weight gain (ADG was increased significantly in MA-fed groups (200 and 300 mg/kg, compared with the basal diet (BD group (P < 0.05. The mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1, manganese superoxide dismutase-2 (MnSOD2 and catalase (CAT were also increased significantly in MA groups (P < 0.05. In addition, hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that Linwu ducks fed the diets with MA had more intact intestinal mucosa than those fed the BD and CS diets. In addition, ileal villus height, ileal villus height/crypt depth ratio (V/C and duodenal V/C were also improved significantly (P < 0.05. Taken together, these data demonstrated that MA is an effective feed additive to enhance the growth performance of the Linwu ducks by improving the antioxidant and intestinal mucosal status, suggesting that MA will be a potential additive to replace antibiotic (CS.

  15. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  16. Does limited virucidal activity of biocides include duck hepatitis B virucidal action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used, information is necessary whether disinfectants with limited virucidal activity also inactivate DHBV. In general, disinfectants with limited virucidal activity are used for skin and sensitive surfaces while agents with full activity are more aggressive. The present study compares the activity of five different biocides against DHBV and the classical test virus for limited virucidal activity, the vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV or the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA. Methods Virucidal assay was performed as suspension test according to the German DVV/RKI guideline. Duck hepatitis B virus obtained from congenitally infected Peking ducks was propagated in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes and was detected by indirect immunofluorescent antigen staining. Results The DHBV was inactivated by the use of 40% ethanol within 1-min and 30% isopropanol within 2-min exposure. In comparison, 40% ethanol within 2-min and 40% isopropanol within 1-min exposure were effective against VACV/MVA. These alcohols only have limited virucidal activity, while the following agents have full activity. 0.01% peracetic acid inactivated DHBV within 2 min and a concentration of 0.005% had virucidal efficacy against VACV/MVA within 1 min. After 2-min exposure, 0.05% glutardialdehyde showed a comparable activity against DHBV and VACV/MVA. This is also the case for 0.7% formaldehyde after a contact time of 30 min. Conclusions Duck hepatitis B virus is at least as sensitive to limited virucidal activity as VACV/MVA. Peracetic acid is less effective against DHBV, while the alcohols are less effective against VACV/MVA. It can be expected that in absence of more direct tests the results may be extrapolated to HBV.

  17. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel duck Tembusu virus isolate from Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kesen; Huang, Juan; Jia, Renyong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Mingshu; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Liu, Mafeng; Yin, Zhongqiong; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-11-01

    Tembusu virus (TMUV) has caused significant economic losses in the Chinese duck industry and may have been overlooked regarding its zoonotic transmission potential. A novel TMUV isolate (named CQW1) was separated from the liver tissue of a young duck in Southwest China. The CQW1 isolate proliferated in embryonated duck eggs and led to death within 3-4 days post-inoculation. Furthermore, CQW1 replicated in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells and caused a cytopathic effect (CPE). The disease emerged on a duck farm in Southwest China and was reproduced by animal experiment. We found that CQW1 was detectable by RT-PCR in brain and liver tissues of dead ducklings within 5 days after inoculation. Most importantly, concentrated nuclei, neuronophagia and microglial nodules were observed in the brain tissue of the inoculated ducklings, and additionally, the liver tissue was affected, mainly by disordered lobular architecture, degeneration, necrosis and regenerated hepatocytes. Analysis of the complete genome sequence showed that CQW1 was 10,992 nt in length with two nucleotide insertions and shared 96.8% to 99.1% and 98.4% to 99.6% identity at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively, with Chinese isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences demonstrated that the CQW1 isolate was closely related to other members of the genus Flavivirus and formed a new clade together with the GX2013H isolate. Also, the CQW1 isolate demonstrated the highest average pairwise distance value among the Chinese isolates. In the present study, we obtained evidence that TMUV is present in Southwest China. Extensive pathological and epidemiological studies are urgently needed.

  18. Detection of Egg Production of Tegal Duck by Blood Protein Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismoyowati Ismoyowati

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of transfferine, albumine, and haemoglobine loci to egg production characteristic of Tegal duck.  100 lying of Tegal ducks keeping by batteray-pen were used in this study.  Individual egg production was recorded until period of 120 days. Blood protein polymorphism analysed by electrophoresis method, and blood sample taken from each ducks.. Egg production and transfferine albumine, and haemoglobine phenotipe on electrophoresis gel were observed in this study.  Genotipe and gene frequencies and genetic variant were applied in data analysis. The result showed that (1 in the transferine locus were identified 3 aleles forming 4 genotipes (TfAA,TfAB, TfBB, and TfBC, (2 in albumine were identified 3 aleles forming 5 genotipes (AlbAA, AlbAB, AlbAC, AlbBB and AlbBC and (3 haemoglobine locus were identified 6 aleles forming 4 genotipes ((HbAA, HbAB, HbAC, HbBB, HbBC dan HbCC.  This study demostrated that B gene frequenci in transfferine, albumine and haemoglonine loci was highest than A and C gene frequency.  Tegal Duck with AA genotipe on all loci had higher egg production than BB and CC homozigote.  This research revealed that the most efective of selection method by haemoglobine protein polymorphism. (Animal Production 10(2: 122-128 (2008   Key Words: Tegal duck, egg production, selection, blood protein polymorphism

  19. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1980-01-01

    In years 1920 as a result of quantum mechanics principles governing the structure of ordinary matter, a sudden importance for a problem raised a long time ago by Laplace: what happens when a massive body becomes so dense that even light cannot escape from its gravitational field. It is difficult to conceive how could be avoided in the actual universe the accumulation of important masses of cold matter having been submitted to gravitational breaking down followed by the formation of what is called to day a black hole [fr

  20. Avocado fruit quality with applications of ANA, boron, nitrogen, saccharose and girdling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez Gil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of products for fruit set, production and quality of Hass avocado. This research was performed in a terrain that is located in a moderately cold weather, in Antioquia, Colombia. Factors for inducing flowering, types of inflorescence and production alternation were determined. In addition to the aforementioned, simple and combined foliar application of acid 1–naphthaleneacetic (ANA, boron, nitrogen, saccharose as source energy, and girding branches, was performed. For the experiment we used a complete block experimental design, with five replicates per treatment and a single tree as experimental unit, with three evaluations over time (2010, 2011 and 2012. The variables evaluated were initial and final fruit set, quantity, and quality of produced fruit. Results associated with this study indicate that floral induction in this variety occurs in periods of low rainfall and low temperatures, the inflorescences were mostly of an indeterminate type, and a slight alternation of production occurred. Initial fruit and final set increased with girdling branches and with the application of boron and girdling branches in 28% and 33% respectively, but this treatments did not improve the production, instead the production was favored by adding saccharose alone, and in combination with boron, nitrogen and ANA, it presented increments of 14,5, 15.9, 14.9 and 14.4% respectively. Results indicate that the addition of an individual external energy source combined with the foliar application of boron, nitrogen and ANA, improves the quality and quantity of fruit in the Hass avocado.

  1. ANA-Negative Presentation of SLE in Man with Severe Autoimmune Neutropenia

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    Melissa Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic, inflammatory, connective tissue disease that commonly affects the joints and a variety of organs due to an overactivation of the body’s immune system. There is wide heterogeneity in presentation of SLE patients, including lung, central nervous system, skin, kidney, and hematologic manifestations. Case Presentation. We report a case of atypical manifestation of SLE in a 53-year-old man who presented with neutropenic fever. Physical findings of interest included oral ulcers on the lower lip, a malar-like rash across the bridge of the nose, and a discoid-like rash on extensor surfaces of the elbows and knees. Labs include ANC <100, weakly positive anti-dsDNA, negative ANA, ferritin 1237 ng/mL, low C3/C4, and positive direct Coombs’ test. A thorough workup for infection and hematologic malignancy was negative. Two days after initiation of therapy with 25 mg IV solumedrol twice a day, the patient’s daily fevers resolved. ANC drastically improved to 2000 after two weeks of steroid treatment. He was later found to have a high titer of anti-neutrophil antibodies. Discussion. Autoimmune leukopenia is a common presentation in SLE, occurring in 50–60% of patients. Severe autoimmune neutropenia is uncommon and may correlate with high anti-neutrophil antibody activity despite a negative ANA. As neutropenia is usually mild, there are currently no guidelines for therapy. For our patient, we started him on low dose IV solumedrol and found that he responded drastically to treatment. Given strongly positive nonspecific anti-neutrophil antibodies in the setting of a negative ANA noted in our patient, it is likely that there are other currently unknown antibodies associated with SLE which may correlate strongly with autoimmune neutropenia.

  2. Correlation of serum ANA and direct immunofluorescence studies in elderly Thai patients with red and white oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprasom, Kobkan; Prapinjumrune, Chanwit; Kanjanabuch, Patnarin; Youngnak-Piboonratanakit, Pornpan; Preuksrisakul, Titipong

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the presence of serum antinuclear antibodies (ANA) profile and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) evaluation in elderly Thai patients with red and white oral lesions. Thirty-two patients with red and white oral lesions were divided into two groups: group I consisted of 10 cases not taking medications, while group II consisted of 12 cases taking medications, and 30 healthy subjects as a control group. Blood samples were used to determine the ANA profile. DIF was investigated in the lesion containing groups. Serum ANA was found in six cases (60%) in group I, eight cases (66.7%) in group II, and 19 cases (63.3%) in the control group. There were no significant differences between group I and group II and the control group (P > 0.05). Serum ANA was most commonly found in patients taking hypolipidemics (80%), followed by antihypertensives (71.4%), NSAIDs (50%), hypoglycemics (50%), and others (66.7%). The anticytoplasmic staining frequency in group II was higher compared with group I and the control group. Anti-dsDNA antibodies were not found in any group. Elderly patients with red and white oral lesions who were taking medications had a higher serum ANA frequency than group I and the control group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Muzeja IT infrastruktūras modernizēšana

    OpenAIRE

    Liparts, Arnis

    2014-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darba nosaukums ir „Muzeja IT infrastruktūras modernizācija”. Darbā tiek aprakstīts kā tika modernizēts jau esošs un salīdzinoši sarežģīts datoru tīkls. Darbā lielā mērā tika izmantoti Mikrotik maršrutētāji IT infrastruktūras modernizācijai. Atslēgas vārdi : Karstvieta, automatizēšana, Mikrotik, IT

  4. ANAlyte: A modular image analysis tool for ANA testing with indirect immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cataldo, Santa; Tonti, Simone; Bottino, Andrea; Ficarra, Elisa

    2016-05-01

    The automated analysis of indirect immunofluorescence images for Anti-Nuclear Autoantibody (ANA) testing is a fairly recent field that is receiving ever-growing interest from the research community. ANA testing leverages on the categorization of intensity level and fluorescent pattern of IIF images of HEp-2 cells to perform a differential diagnosis of important autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, it suffers from tremendous lack of repeatability due to subjectivity in the visual interpretation of the images. The automatization of the analysis is seen as the only valid solution to this problem. Several works in literature address individual steps of the work-flow, nonetheless integrating such steps and assessing their effectiveness as a whole is still an open challenge. We present a modular tool, ANAlyte, able to characterize a IIF image in terms of fluorescent intensity level and fluorescent pattern without any user-interactions. For this purpose, ANAlyte integrates the following: (i) Intensity Classifier module, that categorizes the intensity level of the input slide based on multi-scale contrast assessment; (ii) Cell Segmenter module, that splits the input slide into individual HEp-2 cells; (iii) Pattern Classifier module, that determines the fluorescent pattern of the slide based on the pattern of the individual cells. To demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of our tool, we experimentally validated ANAlyte on two different public benchmarks of IIF HEp-2 images with rigorous leave-one-out cross-validation strategy. We obtained overall accuracy of fluorescent intensity and pattern classification respectively around 85% and above 90%. We assessed all results by comparisons with some of the most representative state of the art works. Unlike most of the other works in the recent literature, ANAlyte aims at the automatization of all the major steps of ANA image analysis. Results on public benchmarks demonstrate that the tool can characterize HEp-2 slides in terms of

  5. Hermenéutica de los derechos humanos en la obra de Ana Luisa Guerrero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Inocencio Aguirre Martínez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La obra de Ana Luisa Guerrero se caracteriza por su abordaje filosófico-político sobre los derechos humanos y su aplicación. Su hermenéutica intercultural, dirigida, principalmente, a los derechos humanos de tercera generación, identifica el componente de la intersubjetividad que encamina hacia la construcción de un diálogo intercultural. Este componente permite, además, discutir sobre los fundamentos de los derechos humanos colocando las percepciones individuales y colectivas del paradigma.

  6. Gale Digital Collections: Ray Abruzzi Interviewed by Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Abruzzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This interview addresses the commercial dimensions of the nineteenth-century digital archive. Luisa Calè and Ana Parejo Vadillo ask Ray Abruzzi, Vice President and Publisher for 'Gale Digital Collections' at Gale, about the company’s origins, its commercial approach to digital collections, and the challenges of digitization. In the context of the open access movement, the architecture of participation, and crowdsourcing, Abruzzi discusses how the company works with academic partners and interfaces with other digital libraries and platforms.

  7. RURAL CHURCHES, „PEARLS” OF RURAL ARCHITECTURE IN CRIȘANA AND MARAMUREȘ

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    Alexandru ILIEȘ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania in general and in particular Crişana and Maramureș wooden churches are identifies of local identity. Using specific tools and methods used in geographical but complementary fields, in conjunction with an interdisciplinary architectural heritage element are analyzed wooden churches as tourist planning perspective. Each „land" and ethnographic area of the Tisa and Mureș north to south has a specific fingerprint identifiable architectural style of these „pearls" of Romanian folk architecture. This diversity is an element of favorable effects on tourism diversification and increasing the attractiveness of a region or locality.

  8. Effects of Gaseous Ozone Exposure on Bacterial Counts and Oxidative Properties in Chicken and Duck Breast Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlisin, Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    The effects of gaseous ozone exposure on the bacterial counts and oxidative properties were evaluated in duck and chicken breast fillets, which were stored under a continuous flux of gaseous ozone (10×10(-6) kg O3/m(3)/h) at 4±1℃ for 4 d. The ozone generator was set to on for 15 min and off for 105 min, and this cyclic timer was set during storage. Ozone effectively reduced the growth of coliform, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in both chicken and duck breast. However, lipid oxidation occurred faster in duck breast than chicken breast with higher degree of discoloration, TBARS value, and antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase and catalase) activity decline rates. It is concluded that ozone effectively controlled the growth of bacteria in both chicken and duck breast with less effects on oxidative deterioration in chicken breast.

  9. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bodkin, James L; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  10. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  11. Moulting patterns of Alabio and Mojosari ducks and their relation on blood lipids (tryglycerides, egg production and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Moulting is a biological condition that can happen in poultry. It is resulted from the complex interaction which involves the function of thyroxine hormone. Moulting can reduce or even stop the egg production. A study was conducted to observe the moulting patterns of local ducks (Alabio and Mojosari and to determine the relation of moulting with blood lipids (triglycerides, egg production and quality. Each breed consisted of ten female dukcs were observed for moulting pattern, blood triglycerides, egg production and quality. Fourty ducks were used for simulation of egg production. Data from moulting patterns,egg production and quality were analyzed using t-based on Least Square means with Statistical Analysis System. The relation of breeds and moulting patterns with triglycerides were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. The main factor was kind of breeds, while the subfactor was the period of moulting, before and during moulting. There were not interaction in every variables between both factors. The average moulting periode of Alabio was significantly (P<0.05 shorter than that of Mojosari (69 vs 76 days. There were 40% of Alabio ducks moulting for 61-70 days, while 40% of Mojosari ducks moulting for 71-80 days. Egg production of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were higher than those Mojosari ducks. The triglycerides content of Alabio and Mojosari ducks was decreased during moulting, in Alabio ducks they were 32.02 and 27.64 μg/ml before and during moulting, while in Mojosari ducks they were 32.83 and 29.32 μg/ml respectively. Egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, and haugh unit of the two breeds increased after moulting, while yolk colour decreased. The average yolk colour of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were 6.90 and 5.11, while in Mojosari ducks they were 7.90 and 4.60 respectively.

  12. Making Blackness, Making Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Too often the acknowledgment that race is a social construction ignores exactly how this construction occurs. By illuminating the way in which the category of blackness and black individuals are made, we can better see how race matters in America. Antidiscrimination policy, social science research, and the state's support of its citizens can all be improved by an accurate and concrete definition of blackness. Making Blackness, Making Policy argues that blackness and black people are literally...

  13. Growth and yield of tomato cultivated on composted duck excreta enriched wood shavings and source-separated municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Zoes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of growth substrates, made with duck excreta enriched wood shaving compost (DMC and the organic fraction of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW compost, on the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Campbell 1327. Substrate A consisted of 3:2 (W/W proportion of DMC and MSW composts. Substrates B and C were the same as A but contained 15% (W/W ratio of brick dust and shredded plastic, respectively. Three control substrates consisted of the commercially available peat-based substrate (Pr, an in-house sphagnum peat-based substrate (Gs, and black earth mixed with sandy loam soil (BE/S in a 1:4 (W/W ratio. Substrates (A, B, C and controls received nitrogen (N, phosphate (P and potassium (K at equivalent rates of 780 mg/pot, 625 mg/pot, and 625 mg/pot, respectively, or were used without mineral fertilizers. Compared to the controls (Pr, Gs and BE/S, tomato plants grown on A, B, and C produced a greater total number and dry mass of fruits, with no significant differences between them. On average, total plant dry-matter biomass in substrate A, B, and C was 19% lower than that produced on Pr, but 28% greater than biomass obtained for plant grown, on Gs and BE/S. Plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll concentrations indicate that substrates A, B, and C were particularly suitable for plant growth. Although the presence of excess N in composted substrates favoured vegetative rather than reproductive growth, the continuous supply of nutrients throughout the growing cycle, as well as the high water retention capacity that resulted in a reduced watering by 50%, suggest that substrates A, B, and C were suitable growing mixes, offering environmental and agronomic advantages.

  14. Impact of different monochromatic LED light colours and bird age on the behavioural output and fear response in ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabiha Sultana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to observe the effect of monochromatic light emitting diode (LED light colour and bird age on the behaviour and fear response of ducks. A total of 200 1-day-old ducklings were used in the experiment (two replications, 25 ducklings/pen, and lighting was set up as follows: white (W, control, 400-770 nm, yellow (Y, 600 nm, green (G, 520 nm and blue (B, 460 nm LED lights. Ducks were subjected to 23L: 1D h lighting with 0.1 Watt/m2 light intensity. Video was recorded twice per day (2 h in the morning and 2 h in the afternoon and observed five consecutive days per week. Duration of feeding, drinking, sitting, walking, standing, preening, wing flapping, wing stretching, tail wagging, head shaking, body shaking, ground pecking, peck object, and social interaction behaviour were recorded. At 3 and 6 weeks of age, 10 birds per treatment were subjected to the tonic immobility (TI test (three times/duck. Ducks reared in Y and W light were more active, as expressed by more walking, ground pecking, drinking and social interaction activities than those of ducks under the B light treatment (P<0.05. Ducks showed more time sitting, standing, and preening under B light (P<0.05. Feeding, sitting, standing and drinking behaviours increased, and walking and social interaction behaviours decreased with age of the ducks (P<0.05. Differences in behaviours among different light colours were observed. In addition, the TI test results indicated that B and G light reduced the fear response of the ducks.

  15. Stepwise colonization of the Andes by Ruddy Ducks and the evolution of novel β-globin variants

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Cortázar-Chinarro, M.; Lozano-Jaramillo, M.; McCracken, K.G.

    2013-01-01

    Andean uplift played a key role in Neotropical bird diversification, yet past dispersal and genetic adaptation to high-altitude environments remain little understood. Here we use multilocus population genetics to study population history and historical demographic processes in the ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), a stiff-tailed diving duck comprising three subspecies distributed from Canada to Tierra del Fuego and inhabiting wetlands from sea level to 4500 m in the Andes. We sequenced the mit...

  16. Seroepidemiological Evidence for the Presence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Ducks, Chickens, and Pigs, Bali-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of various animals, such as: ducks, chickens and pigs in households increases the potential risks of zoonosis from animal to human. One of the diseases is Japanese encephalitis (JE.  The seroepidemiological studies on the presence JE among animals especially those raised in household is very important for emerging and reemerging disease control program. Ducks, chickens and pigs have long been considered as carrier and even the amplifier hosts of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV replication. The presence of the animal hosts and mosquitoes as vector could result in transmission of the JEV to humans. Methods: A seroepidemiological study of the presence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV was conducted by collecting sera and detecting the antibody against JEV in ducks, chickens and pigs in Bali. As pig is the amplifying animal of JEV, comparison JEV antibody between ducks reared in households with pig nearby and with no pig were also determined the presence of antibody against JEV was examined by using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.  The serum samples with over cut off value (COV of optical density were considered as those containing Ab against JEV. Results: Antibody against JEV was demonstrated in ducks (20.6%, chickens (36.7% and pigs (32.2% evaluated in this study. Moreover, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 in the prevalence of antibody against JEV in ducks kept closely with pigs compared to the antibody in the ducks reared without pigs around. Conclusion: This study convinced that antibody against JEV is found in ducks, chickens and pigs in Bali. Indicating that these animals was infected or previously infected by the virus.

  17. Building the foundation for international conservation planning for breeding ducks across the U.S. and Canadian border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E Doherty

    Full Text Available We used publically available data on duck breeding distribution and recently compiled geospatial data on upland habitat and environmental conditions to develop a spatially explicit model of breeding duck populations across the entire Prairie Pothole Region (PPR. Our spatial population models were able to identify key areas for duck conservation across the PPR and predict between 62.1-79.1% (68.4% avg. of the variation in duck counts by year from 2002-2010. The median difference in observed vs. predicted duck counts at a transect segment level was 4.6 ducks. Our models are the first seamless spatially explicit models of waterfowl abundance across the entire PPR and represent an initial step toward joint conservation planning between Prairie Pothole and Prairie Habitat Joint Ventures. Our work demonstrates that when spatial and temporal variation for highly mobile birds is incorporated into conservation planning it will likely increase the habitat area required to support defined population goals. A major goal of the current North American Waterfowl Management Plan and subsequent action plan is the linking of harvest and habitat management. We contend incorporation of spatial aspects will increase the likelihood of coherent joint harvest and habitat management decisions. Our results show at a minimum, it is possible to produce spatially explicit waterfowl abundance models that when summed across survey strata will produce similar strata level population estimates as the design-based Waterfowl Breeding Pair and Habitat Survey (r2 = 0.977. This is important because these design-based population estimates are currently used to set duck harvest regulations and to set duck population and habitat goals for the North American Waterfowl Management Plan. We hope this effort generates discussion on the important linkages between spatial and temporal variation in population size, and distribution relative to habitat quantity and quality when linking habitat

  18. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black holes; numerical relativity; nonlinear sigma. Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. ... Theoretical and Computational Studies Group, Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA ...

  19. Digestive plasticity in Mallard ducks modulates dispersal probabilities of aquatic plants and crustaceans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charalambidou, I.; Santamaria, L.; Jansen, C.; Nolet, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    1. The consequences of plastic responses of the avian digestive tract for the potential of birds to disperse other organisms remain largely uninvestigated. 2. To explore how a seasonal diet switch in Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos L.) influences their potential to disperse plants and invertebrates, we

  20. LDAP un Samba risinājuma ieviešana uzņēmumā

    OpenAIRE

    Logina, Baiba

    2012-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darba "LDAP un Samba risinājuma ieviešana uzņēmumā" galvenais mērķis ir izveidot risinājumu vairāku uzņēmumu grupas datortīkla vienotās autentificēšanās un koplietošanas resursu sistēmas modernizēšanai. Darbā tiek aprakstīta dotā risinājuma ieviešanas gaita, kas ietver Samba servera konfigurēšanu, LDAP autentifikācijas sistēmas uzstādīšanu, automatizētu tīkla resursu pievienošanu darba videi un vienotu pielaides tiesību sistēmu dokumentiem. Rezultātā tika sastādīta instrukcija ...

  1. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  2. Organochlorines in free-range hen and duck eggs from Shanghai: occurrence and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhou, Yihui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu

    2015-02-01

    As an important part of the residents' diet in China, the consumption of hen and duck eggs has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Being rich in protein and lipid, eggs may be one of the main exposure routes for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to human beings. In this study, four kinds of free-range hen and duck eggs were collected from two traditional egg-producing areas in Shanghai, namely Dianshan Lake Area and Jinshan Industry Zone. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, 18 compounds) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 14 compounds) were analyzed with 41 egg samples. Among all OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the dominant contaminant, with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 730 ng/g, lw. Unlike the 4,4'-DDE as the predominant DDTs congener in other three kinds of eggs, the duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone had an abnormally high concentration of 2,4'-DDD, which may be related to ducks' feedings in the water. The levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in eggs from different places were similar to each other, while hexchlorobenzene (HCB) for hen eggs from Dianshan Lake was much higher than other eggs. According to the results, the DDTs residues detected in this study were mainly due to the historical usage, whereas the high ratio of γ-HCH/α-HCH suggested that there might be some recent input of lindane in these two areas. For PCBs, the congener profiles varied among species. Low molecular PCBs (Tri-PCBs and Tetra-PCBs) were main congeners for duck eggs from Dianshan Lake and all hen eggs, while high molecular PCBs accounted for more than 50 % for duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone, which was consistent with the water analysis results of the synchronous study from our group. This study suggests that Dianshan Lake Area may not be a good reference area for POPs monitoring in Shanghai. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, HCHs, HCBs, and PCBs were far below the reference limits, showing no

  3. The role of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in the spread of avian influenza: genomics, population genetics, and flyways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraus, R.H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Birds, in particular poultry and ducks, are a source of many infectious diseases, such as those caused by influenza viruses. These viruses are a threat not only to the birds themselves but also to poultry farming and human health, as forms that can infect humans are known to have evolved. It is

  4. The role of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) in the spread of avian influenza: genomics, population genetics, and flyways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraus, R.H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Birds, in particular poultry and ducks, are a source of many infectious diseases, such as those caused by influenza viruses. These viruses are a threat not only to the birds themselves but also to poultry farming and human health, as forms that can infect humans are known to have evolved. It is

  5. Os blogs pró-Ana e a experiência da anorexia no sexo masculino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires Citadini de Almeida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os blogs pró-anorexia, ou blogs pró-ana, produzidos por indivíduos do sexo masculino, para entender o comportamento anoréxico masculino e o espaço que os blogs ocupam na vida desses sujeitos. Nosso objetivo foi explorar elementos relacionados com a cultura de magreza disponível nos blogs, tendo em vista analisar a questão da anorexia em homens, bem como compreender como os mesmos vivenciam essa experiência. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, realizada em blogs brasileiros e estrangeiros cujos autores das páginas eram homens. Os resultados sugerem que essa população faz da internet uma rede de apoio, com características de ajuda mútua e de produção de autonomia. Por meio dos blogs, os homens discutem alternativas para ludibriar a família e socializam estratégias entre os pares para atingir o objetivo da manutenção do baixo peso. Percebemos que os profissionais da saúde devem prestar atenção para esta "rede informal" de apoio mútuo, uma vez que os blogs pró-ana têm contribuído para a promoção do comportamento anoréxico no sexo masculino.

  6. ANA Testing: What should we know about the methods, indication and interpretation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Au Elaine Yuen Ling

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Though ANA is a common test requested in several settings, one may not be aware of the potential traps for interpretation. Nowadays, there is a trend for autoantibodies diagnostics to move from traditional time honored manual methods to high throughput automated platforms. Nevertheless, the clinical significance and assay performance characteristics may be different from those “historical” methods. Though indirect immunofluorescence is the gold standard method for ANA tests, different laboratories vary in the slides (from different cell lines and commercial source, e.g., Hep 2, Hep 2000, etc., screening dilutions, terminology, reporting format and expertise. Hence, discrepancy in results among different laboratories is not uncommon and could be confusing. Knowing the assay characteristic and limitations helps proper results interpretation and facilitate patient’s management. Indeed, the titer and pattern by indirect immunofluorescence do provide valuable information in screening patients. In particular, DFS pattern with the associated anti-DFS70 antibodies has been shown to have a role to risk stratify cases referred for suspected autoimmune rheumatic disease.

  7. Jaunas darba stacijas uzstādīšana un konfigurācija.

    OpenAIRE

    Linge, Edgars

    2010-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbā „Jaunas darbstacijas uzstādīšana un konfigurācija” tiek izpētītas galvenās datorsistēmu un datortīklu administrēšanas problēmas, ar kurām bija iespēja sastapties studiju prakses laikā. Darbā minētās un pētītās problēmas vairāk saistītas ar maziem vai nelieliem uzņēmumiem. Darba teorētiskajā daļā tiek izklāstītas galvenās problēmas, ar kurām bija iespēja sastapties studiju prakses laikā. Tiek apskatīta teorētiskā informācija par Microsoft Windows XP Professional, v...

  8. Estrella de la mañana de Jacobo Fijman: poesía y apocalipsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lindstrom

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se propone una lectura de la poesía ostensiblemente católica del poeta judeoargentino Jacobo Fijman (1898-1970 en su Estrella de la mañana (1931 como un ejemplo modernizado, ecléctico e idiosincrásico del género apocalíptico. A pesar de la fuerte intertextualidad con el Libro de Revelación, la característica que más diferencia los poemas de Estrella del discurso apocalíptico tradicional, y en efecto de la expresión visionaria o mística en general, es la autocaracterización del sujeto hablante como una entidad dotada de atributos divinos. This study proposes a reading of the ostensibly Catholic poetry of the Jewish Argentine poet Jacobo Fijman (1898-1970 in his Estrella de la mañana (1931 as a modernized, eclectic, and idiosyncratic example of the apocalyptic genre. Despite the strong intertextuality with the book of Revelation, the feature that mostly sets the poems of Estrella apart from traditional apocalyptic discourse, and indeed from visionary or mystical expression in general, is the self-characterization of the speaking subject as an entity endowed with divine attributes.

  9. Lung fibrosis quantified by HRCT in scleroderma patients with different disease forms and ANA specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mancin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the prevalence of interstitial lung fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc and its relationship with the different clinical forms of disease and ANA specificities. Methods: fifty patients with SSc were submitted to pulmonary high resolution computed tomography (HRCT. Lung abnormalities were evaluated according to Warrick’s score that considers both the severity and the extent of fibrotic lesions. Results: pulmonary HRCT abnormalities were observed in 84% of SSc patients. Ground glass aspects (60%, irregular pleural margins (56% and septal/subpleural lines (68% were the most common lesions. The distribution of these abnormalities favoured the posterior basilar segments of both lungs. HRCT findings were significantly more frequent in males and in patients with the cutaneous diffuse form of SSc and with the specific antibody anti-Scl70. Conclusions: HRCT is a very useful method for the diagnosis of interstitial lung fibrosis in SSc. Warrick’s score permits to quantify the HRCT findings and to evaluate their relationship with the disease clinical forms and ANA specificities.

  10. "LinkedIn" loma Latvijas studentu sociālo mediju lietošanas paradumos

    OpenAIRE

    Mickēvičs, Rihards

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā „"LinkedIn" loma Latvijas studentu sociālo mediju lietošanas paradumos” aplūkots mērķa grupas kopējās interneta un sociālo mediju patēriņa tendences, komunikācijas rīku lietojums, vietnes „LinkedIn” loma Latvijas studentu sociālo mediju lietošanas aspektā un sava personīgā sociālā zīmola apzināšanās. Darbs balstīts uz četrām galvenajām daļām – teorētisko, metodoloģisko, empīrisko un rezultātu. Pamatojoties uz pieejamo teorētisko bāzi saistībā ar attiecīgo tēmu, tika veikta fok...

  11. Comportamiento de la sexualidad en ancianos del Policlínico "Ana Betancourt" Behavior of sexuality among the elderly in "Ana Betancourt" Polyclinic"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor T Pérez Martínez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y longitudinal en 125 sujetos en edad geriátrica, de ambos sexos, que asistieron a las consultas de psicogeriatría y/o disfunción sexual del Policlínico Docente "Ana Betancourt" durante el pasado año, con el propósito de definir el patrón sexual característico de las personas en edad geriátrica. Predominaron, en ambos sexos, los ancianos con vínculo conyugal. El 75 % de los ancianos mantienen el interés por el sexo y manifestaron deseo sexual, mientras que el 69,6 % realiza el acto sexual. El coito vaginal, seguido del sexo oral, fueron las formas de actividad sexual preferidas por ambos sexos. La pérdida de la erección en el hombre, y la disminución de la lubricación vaginal en la mujer, fueron los principales trastornos del funcionamiento sexual. El 78,4 % de los ancianos exhibió un bajo índice general de conocimiento sobre los cambios que ocurren en la sexualidad con el transcurso de los años.125 subjects at geriatric age of both sexes that visited the outpatient departments of psychogeriatrics and/or sexual dysfunction of "Ana Betancourt" Teaching Policlinic the last year were included in a descriptive and longitudinal study aimed at defining the sexual pattern characteristic of the persons at geriatric age. The married elderly predominated in both sexes. 75 % of the aged were interested in sex and manifested sexual desire, whereas 69.6 % have sexual relations. Vaginal coitus followed by oral sex were the forms of sexual activity preferred by both sexes. The loss of erection in men and the reduction of vaginal lubrication in women were the main disorders of sexual functioning. 78.4 % of the elderly showed a low general index of knowledge about the changes occurring in sexuality along the years.

  12. Rapid determination of 90Sr in samples of urine using sorbent AnaLig Sr-01 (presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilohuscin, J.; Dulanska, S.; Gardonova, V.

    2013-01-01

    Sorbent of molecular recognition of AnaLig Sr-01 from IBC's Technologies was used for effectively and selectively re-concentration, separation and determination of strontium from urine samples. The method utilizes the separation using two columns, consisting of two commercial products, first from Eichrom called pre-filter material absorbing organic compounds founded in urine, such as creatine, which interfere with separation and reduce the capture efficiency of strontium on the second column, consisting of AnaLig Sr-01 sorbent.

  13. "Houses and Fields and Vineyards Shall Yet Again Be Bought in This Land": The Story of Ana, a Public Kindergarten Teacher in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Teresa Maria Sena

    This study examined the teaching style and methods of Ana, a kindergarten teacher in Portugal, chosen because she is considered a master teacher by colleagues and parents and because she grew up in Portugal before democracy. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What are the commitments and competencies that distinguish Ana as a master…

  14. Influenza viruses production: Evaluation of a novel avian cell line DuckCelt®-T17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petiot, Emma; Proust, Anaïs; Traversier, Aurélien; Durous, Laurent; Dappozze, Frédéric; Gras, Marianne; Guillard, Chantal; Balloul, Jean-Marc; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel

    2017-05-29

    The influenza vaccine manufacturing industry is looking for production cell lines that are easily scalable, highly permissive to multiple viruses, and more effective in term of viral productivity. One critical characteristic of such cell lines is their ability to grow in suspension, in serum free conditions and at high cell densities. Influenza virus causing severe epidemics both in human and animals is an important threat to world healthcare. The repetitive apparition of influenza pandemic outbreaks in the last 20years explains that manufacturing sector is still looking for more effective production processes to replace/supplement embryonated egg-based process. Cell-based production strategy, with a focus on avian cell lines, is one of the promising solutions. Three avian cell lines, namely duck EB66®cells (Valneva), duck AGE.CR® cells (Probiogen) and quail QOR/2E11 cells (Baxter), are now competing with traditional mammalian cell platforms (Vero and MDCK cells) used for influenza vaccine productions and are currently at advance stage of commercial development for the manufacture of influenza vaccines. The DuckCelt®-T17 cell line presented in this work is a novel avian cell line developed by Transgene. This cell line was generated from primary embryo duck cells with the constitutive expression of the duck telomerase reverse transcriptase (dTERT). The DuckCelt®-T17 cells were able to grow in batch suspension cultures and serum-free conditions up to 6.5×10 6 cell/ml and were easily scaled from 10ml up to 3l bioreactor. In the present study, DuckCelt®-T17 cell line was tested for its abilities to produce various human, avian and porcine influenza strains. Most of the viral strains were produced at significant infectious titers (>5.8 log TCID50/ml) with optimization of the infection conditions. Human strains H1N1 and H3N2, as well as all the avian strains tested (H5N2, H7N1, H3N8, H11N9, H12N5) were the most efficiently produced with highest titre reached of 9

  15. The value of Inuit participation when conserving the common eider duck in Arctic Canada and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilchrist, Grant; Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Sonne, Christian

    The northern common eider duck nests in the eastern Canadian Arctic and west Greenland, and migrates to winter in Atlantic Canada and southwest Greenland. The eider is harvested for its meat, feather down and eggs and its ongoing conservation is the shared responsibility of Canada, Greenland......, Denmark, and northerners. This presentation will review the meaningful involvement and direct participation of Inuit during many aspects of historical and ongoing eider duck conservation efforts. These include studies that examined the sustainability of harvest, the establishment of new harvest...... regulations, long term monitoring of breeding colonies in remote coastal locations, reporting on emerging disease epidemics, and ongoing field studies which examine the impacts of polar bear predation under changing sea ice conditions. This presentation will review how working relationships were established...

  16. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  17. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  18. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Black Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-black-eye/basics/ART-20056675 . Mayo ...

  20. Behavioural adjustment in response to increased predation risk: a study in three duck species.

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    Cédric Zimmer

    Full Text Available Predation directly triggers behavioural decisions designed to increase immediate survival. However, these behavioural modifications can have long term costs. There is therefore a trade-off between antipredator behaviours and other activities. This trade-off is generally considered between vigilance and only one other behaviour, thus neglecting potential compensations. In this study, we considered the effect of an increase in predation risk on the diurnal time-budget of three captive duck species during the wintering period. We artificially increased predation risk by disturbing two groups of 14 mallard and teals at different frequencies, and one group of 14 tufted ducks with a radio-controlled stressor. We recorded foraging, vigilance, preening and sleeping durations the week before, during and after disturbance sessions. Disturbed groups were compared to an undisturbed control group. We showed that in all three species, the increase in predation risk resulted in a decrease in foraging and preening and led to an increase in sleeping. It is worth noting that contrary to common observations, vigilance did not increase. However, ducks are known to be vigilant while sleeping. This complex behavioural adjustment therefore seems to be optimal as it may allow ducks to reduce their predation risk. Our results highlight the fact that it is necessary to encompass the whole individual time-budget when studying behavioural modifications under predation risk. Finally, we propose that studies of behavioural time-budget changes under predation risk should be included in the more general framework of the starvation-predation risk trade-off.