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Sample records for black death mortality

  1. Setting the stage for medieval plague: Pre-black death trends in survival and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2015-11-01

    The 14(th) -century Black Death was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history, killing tens of millions of people in a short period of time. It is not clear why mortality rates during the epidemic were so high. One possibility is that the affected human populations were particularly stressed in the 14(th) century, perhaps as a result of repeated famines in areas such as England. This project examines survival and mortality in two pre-Black Death time periods, 11-12(th) centuries vs 13(th) century CE, to determine if demographic conditions were deteriorating before the epidemic occurred. This study is done using a sample of individuals from several London cemeteries that have been dated, in whole or in part, either to the 11-12(th) centuries (n = 339) or 13(th) century (n = 258). Temporal trends in survivorship and mortality are assessed via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and by modeling time period as a covariate affecting the Gompertz hazard of adult mortality. The age-at-death distributions from the two pre-Black Death time periods are significantly different, with fewer older adults in 13(th) century. The results of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicate reductions in survival before the Black Death, with significantly lower survival in the 13(th) century (Mantel Cox p Black Death. Together, these results suggest that health in general was declining in the 13(th) century, and this might have led to high mortality during the Black Death. This highlights the importance of considering human context to understand disease in past and living human populations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mortality risk and survival in the aftermath of the medieval Black Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon N DeWitte

    Full Text Available The medieval Black Death (c. 1347-1351 was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history. It killed tens of millions of Europeans, and recent analyses have shown that the disease targeted elderly adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. Following the epidemic, there were improvements in standards of living, particularly in dietary quality for all socioeconomic strata. This study investigates whether the combination of the selective mortality of the Black Death and post-epidemic improvements in standards of living had detectable effects on survival and mortality in London. Samples are drawn from several pre- and post-Black Death London cemeteries. The pre-Black Death sample comes from the Guildhall Yard (n = 75 and St. Nicholas Shambles (n = 246 cemeteries, which date to the 11th-12th centuries, and from two phases within the St. Mary Spital cemetery, which date to between 1120-1300 (n = 143. The St. Mary Graces cemetery (n = 133 was in use from 1350-1538 and thus represents post-epidemic demographic conditions. By applying Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Gompertz hazard model to transition analysis age estimates, and controlling for changes in birth rates, this study examines differences in survivorship and mortality risk between the pre- and post-Black Death populations of London. The results indicate that there are significant differences in survival and mortality risk, but not birth rates, between the two time periods, which suggest improvements in health following the Black Death, despite repeated outbreaks of plague in the centuries after the Black Death.

  3. Mortality risk and survival in the aftermath of the medieval Black Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2014-01-01

    The medieval Black Death (c. 1347-1351) was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history. It killed tens of millions of Europeans, and recent analyses have shown that the disease targeted elderly adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. Following the epidemic, there were improvements in standards of living, particularly in dietary quality for all socioeconomic strata. This study investigates whether the combination of the selective mortality of the Black Death and post-epidemic improvements in standards of living had detectable effects on survival and mortality in London. Samples are drawn from several pre- and post-Black Death London cemeteries. The pre-Black Death sample comes from the Guildhall Yard (n = 75) and St. Nicholas Shambles (n = 246) cemeteries, which date to the 11th-12th centuries, and from two phases within the St. Mary Spital cemetery, which date to between 1120-1300 (n = 143). The St. Mary Graces cemetery (n = 133) was in use from 1350-1538 and thus represents post-epidemic demographic conditions. By applying Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Gompertz hazard model to transition analysis age estimates, and controlling for changes in birth rates, this study examines differences in survivorship and mortality risk between the pre- and post-Black Death populations of London. The results indicate that there are significant differences in survival and mortality risk, but not birth rates, between the two time periods, which suggest improvements in health following the Black Death, despite repeated outbreaks of plague in the centuries after the Black Death.

  4. Validation of inverse seasonal peak mortality in medieval plagues, including the Black Death, in comparison to modern Yersinia pestis-variant diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Welford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have noted myriad qualitative and quantitative inconsistencies between the medieval Black Death (and subsequent "plagues" and modern empirical Y. pestis plague data, most of which is derived from the Indian and Chinese plague outbreaks of A.D. 1900+/-15 years. Previous works have noted apparent differences in seasonal mortality peaks during Black Death outbreaks versus peaks of bubonic and pneumonic plagues attributed to Y. pestis infection, but have not provided spatiotemporal statistical support. Our objective here was to validate individual observations of this seasonal discrepancy in peak mortality between historical epidemics and modern empirical data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compiled and aggregated multiple daily, weekly and monthly datasets of both Y. pestis plague epidemics and suspected Black Death epidemics to compare seasonal differences in mortality peaks at a monthly resolution. Statistical and time series analyses of the epidemic data indicate that a seasonal inversion in peak mortality does exist between known Y. pestis plague and suspected Black Death epidemics. We provide possible explanations for this seasonal inversion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results add further evidence of inconsistency between historical plagues, including the Black Death, and our current understanding of Y. pestis-variant disease. We expect that the line of inquiry into the disputed cause of the greatest recorded epidemic will continue to intensify. Given the rapid pace of environmental change in the modern world, it is crucial that we understand past lethal outbreaks as fully as possible in order to prepare for future deadly pandemics.

  5. Validation of inverse seasonal peak mortality in medieval plagues, including the Black Death, in comparison to modern Yersinia pestis-variant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welford, Mark R; Bossak, Brian H

    2009-12-22

    Recent studies have noted myriad qualitative and quantitative inconsistencies between the medieval Black Death (and subsequent "plagues") and modern empirical Y. pestis plague data, most of which is derived from the Indian and Chinese plague outbreaks of A.D. 1900+/-15 years. Previous works have noted apparent differences in seasonal mortality peaks during Black Death outbreaks versus peaks of bubonic and pneumonic plagues attributed to Y. pestis infection, but have not provided spatiotemporal statistical support. Our objective here was to validate individual observations of this seasonal discrepancy in peak mortality between historical epidemics and modern empirical data. We compiled and aggregated multiple daily, weekly and monthly datasets of both Y. pestis plague epidemics and suspected Black Death epidemics to compare seasonal differences in mortality peaks at a monthly resolution. Statistical and time series analyses of the epidemic data indicate that a seasonal inversion in peak mortality does exist between known Y. pestis plague and suspected Black Death epidemics. We provide possible explanations for this seasonal inversion. These results add further evidence of inconsistency between historical plagues, including the Black Death, and our current understanding of Y. pestis-variant disease. We expect that the line of inquiry into the disputed cause of the greatest recorded epidemic will continue to intensify. Given the rapid pace of environmental change in the modern world, it is crucial that we understand past lethal outbreaks as fully as possible in order to prepare for future deadly pandemics.

  6. Validation of Inverse Seasonal Peak Mortality in Medieval Plagues, Including the Black Death, in Comparison to Modern Yersinia pestis-Variant Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welford, Mark R.; Bossak, Brian H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent studies have noted myriad qualitative and quantitative inconsistencies between the medieval Black Death (and subsequent “plagues”) and modern empirical Y. pestis plague data, most of which is derived from the Indian and Chinese plague outbreaks of A.D. 1900±15 years. Previous works have noted apparent differences in seasonal mortality peaks during Black Death outbreaks versus peaks of bubonic and pneumonic plagues attributed to Y. pestis infection, but have not provided spatiotemporal statistical support. Our objective here was to validate individual observations of this seasonal discrepancy in peak mortality between historical epidemics and modern empirical data. Methodology/Principal Findings We compiled and aggregated multiple daily, weekly and monthly datasets of both Y. pestis plague epidemics and suspected Black Death epidemics to compare seasonal differences in mortality peaks at a monthly resolution. Statistical and time series analyses of the epidemic data indicate that a seasonal inversion in peak mortality does exist between known Y. pestis plague and suspected Black Death epidemics. We provide possible explanations for this seasonal inversion. Conclusions/Significance These results add further evidence of inconsistency between historical plagues, including the Black Death, and our current understanding of Y. pestis-variant disease. We expect that the line of inquiry into the disputed cause of the greatest recorded epidemic will continue to intensify. Given the rapid pace of environmental change in the modern world, it is crucial that we understand past lethal outbreaks as fully as possible in order to prepare for future deadly pandemics. PMID:20027294

  7. Did medieval trade activity and a viral etiology control the spatial extent and seasonal distribution of Black Death mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossak, Brian H; Welford, Mark R

    2009-06-01

    Recent research into the world's greatest recorded epidemic, the Medieval Black Death (MBD), has cast doubt on Bubonic Plague as the etiologic agent. Prior research has recently culminated in outstanding advances in our understanding of the spatio-temporal pattern of MBD mortality, and a characterization of the incubation, latent, infectious, and symptomatic periods of the MBD. However, until now, several mysteries remained unexplained, including perhaps the biggest quandary of all: why did the MBD exhibit inverse seasonal peaks in mortality from diseases recorded in modern times, such as seasonal Influenza or the Indian Plague Epidemics of the early 1900 s? Although some have argued that climate changes likely explain the observed differences between modern clinical Bubonic Plague seasonality and MBD mortality accounts, we believe that another factor explains these dissimilarities. Here, we provide a synthetic hypothesis which builds upon previous theories developed in the last ten years or so. Our all-encompassing theory explains the causation, dissemination, and lethality of the MBD. We theorize that the MBD was a human-to-human transmitted virus, originating in East-Central Asia and not Africa (as some recent work has proposed), and that its areal extent during the first great epidemic wave of 1347-1350 was controlled hierarchically by proximity to trade routes. We also propose that the seasonality of medieval trade controlled the warm-weather mortality peaks witnessed during 1347-1350; during the time of greatest market activity, traders, fairgoers, and religious pilgrims served as unintentional vectors of a lethal virus with an incubation period of approximately 32 days, including a largely asymptomatic yet infectious period of roughly three weeks. We include a description of the rigorous research agenda that we have proposed in order to subject our theory to scientific scrutiny and a description of our plans to generate the first publicly available

  8. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  9. [Maternal mortality among black women in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alaerte Leandro

    2006-11-01

    Every minute a woman dies in the world due to labor or complications of pregnancy. Maternal mortality is a public health problem in Brazil and affects the country's various regions unequally. Researchers agree that maternal death occurs mainly in women with lower income and less schooling. The racial issue emerges in the midst of socioeconomic issues. The analysis is hampered by the difficulty in understanding Brazil's official classification of race/color, which often impedes recording this information. Various Maternal Mortality Committees are applying the color item and reviewing their data. The current article analyzes various Maternal Mortality Committee reports, showing that the risk of maternal mortality is greater among black women (which encompasses two census categories, negra, or black, and parda, or brown), thus representing a major expression of social inequality. The article concludes with a review of political and technical recommendations to decrease maternal mortality.

  10. Black Heterogeneity in Cancer Mortality: US-Blacks, Haitians, and Jamaicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Paulo S; Callahan, Karen E; Ragin, Camille; Hage, Robert W; Hylton, Tara; Kobetz, Erin N

    2016-10-01

    The quantitative intraracial burden of cancer incidence, survival and mortality within black populations in the United States is virtually unknown. We computed cancer mortality rates of US- and Caribbean-born residents of Florida, specifically focusing on black populations (United States, Haiti, Jamaica) and compared them using age-adjusted mortality ratios obtained from Poisson regression models. We compared the mortality of Haitians and Jamaicans residing in Florida to populations in their countries of origin using Globocan. We analyzed 185,113 cancer deaths from 2008 to 2012, of which 20,312 occurred in black populations. The overall risk of death from cancer was 2.1 (95% CI: 1.97-2.17) and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.55-1.71) times higher for US-born blacks than black Caribbean men and women, respectively (P cancer mortality. Among all analyzed races and ethnicities, including Whites and Hispanics, US-born blacks had the highest mortality rates while black Caribbeans had the lowest. The biggest intraracial difference was observed for lung cancer, for which US-blacks had nearly 4 times greater mortality risk than black Caribbeans. Migration from the islands of Haiti and Jamaica to Florida resulted in lower cancer mortality for most cancers including cervical, stomach, and prostate, but increased or stable mortality for 2 obesity-related cancers, colorectal and endometrial cancers. Mortality results in Florida suggest that US-born blacks have the highest incidence rate of "aggressive" prostate cancer in the world, rather than Caribbean men.

  11. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are based on...

  12. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2006. These data are...

  13. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979. Data...

  14. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  15. Early Family Deaths May Create 'Grief Gap' for Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163190.html Early Family Deaths May Create 'Grief Gap' for Blacks Compared ... Americans, the researchers found that death strikes black families significantly earlier than whites on average. "Blacks were ...

  16. CDC WONDER: Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Detailed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are...

  17. CDC WONDER: Compressed Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979...

  18. Rates of Early Deaths Rise for Whites, Drop for Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 26, 2017 WEDNESDAY, Jan. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Premature death rates in the United States have fallen for ... 1999 to 2014. They found that rates of premature death (between ages 25 to 64) declined among blacks, ...

  19. Widening rural-urban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from major causes of death in the USA, 1969-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    This study examined trends in rural-urban disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the USA between 1969 and 2009. A rural-urban continuum measure was linked to county-level mortality data. Age-adjusted death rates were calculated by sex, race, cause-of-death, area-poverty, and urbanization level for 13 time periods between 1969 and 2009. Cause-of-death decomposition and log-linear and Poisson regression were used to analyze rural-urban differentials. Mortality rates increased with increasing levels of rurality overall and for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Despite the declining mortality trends, mortality risks for both males and females and for blacks and whites have been increasingly higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas, particularly since 1990. In 2005-2009, mortality rates varied from 391.9 per 100,000 population for Asians/Pacific Islanders in rural areas to 1,063.2 for blacks in small-urban towns. Poverty gradients were steeper in rural areas, which maintained higher mortality than urban areas after adjustment for poverty level. Poor blacks in non-metropolitan areas experienced two to three times higher all-cause and premature mortality risks than affluent blacks and whites in metropolitan areas. Disparities widened over time; excess mortality from all causes combined and from several major causes of death in non-metropolitan areas was greater in 2005-2009 than in 1990-1992. Causes of death contributing most to the increasing rural-urban disparity and higher rural mortality include heart disease, unintentional injuries, COPD, lung cancer, stroke, suicide, diabetes, nephritis, pneumonia/influenza, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Residents in metropolitan areas experienced larger mortality reductions during the past four decades than non-metropolitan residents, contributing to the widening gap.

  20. The modal age at death and the shifting mortality hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The modal age at death is used to study the shifting mortality scenario experienced by low mortality countries. The relations of the life table functions at the modal age are analyzed using mortality models. In the models the modal age increases over time, but there is an asymptotic approximation...

  1. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and cause-specific mortality in black and white adults in the Southern Community Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Charles E; Cohen, Sarah S; Fowke, Jay H; Han, Xijing; Xiao, Qian; Buchowski, Maciej S; Hargreaves, Margaret K; Signorello, Lisa B; Blot, William J

    2014-08-15

    There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of physical activity with regard to mortality risk or the harms associated with sedentary behavior in black adults, so we examined the relationships between these health behaviors and cause-specific mortality in a prospective study that had a large proportion of black adults. Participants (40-79 years of age) enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study between 2002 and 2009 (n = 63,308) were prospectively followed over 6.4 years, and 3,613 and 1,394 deaths occurred in blacks and whites, respectively. Black adults who reported the highest overall physical activity level (≥32.3 metabolic equivalent-hours/day vs. 12 hours/day vs. mortality in blacks and whites. Blacks who reported the most time spent being sedentary (≥10.5 hours/day) and lowest level of physical activity (mortality risk in black adults.

  2. Association between an Internet-Based Measure of Area Racism and Black Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Clouston, Sean; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Kramer, Michael R; Cooper, Hannah L F; Wilson, Sacoby M; Stephens-Davidowitz, Seth I; Gold, Robert S; Link, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparities in health are well-documented and represent a significant public health concern in the US. Racism-related factors contribute to poorer health and higher mortality rates among Blacks compared to other racial groups. However, methods to measure racism and monitor its associations with health at the population-level have remained elusive. In this study, we investigated the utility of a previously developed Internet search-based proxy of area racism as a predictor of Black mortality rates. Area racism was the proportion of Google searches containing the "N-word" in 196 designated market areas (DMAs). Negative binomial regression models were specified taking into account individual age, sex, year of death, and Census region and adjusted to the 2000 US standard population to examine the association between area racism and Black mortality rates, which were derived from death certificates and mid-year population counts collated by the National Center for Health Statistics (2004-2009). DMAs characterized by a one standard deviation greater level of area racism were associated with an 8.2% increase in the all-cause Black mortality rate, equivalent to over 30,000 deaths annually. The magnitude of this effect was attenuated to 5.7% after adjustment for DMA-level demographic and Black socioeconomic covariates. A model controlling for the White mortality rate was used to further adjust for unmeasured confounders that influence mortality overall in a geographic area, and to examine Black-White disparities in the mortality rate. Area racism remained significantly associated with the all-cause Black mortality rate (mortality rate ratio = 1.036; 95% confidence interval = 1.015, 1.057; p = 0.001). Models further examining cause-specific Black mortality rates revealed significant associations with heart disease, cancer, and stroke. These findings are congruent with studies documenting the deleterious impact of racism on health among Blacks. Our study contributes to

  3. Association between an Internet-Based Measure of Area Racism and Black Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Chae

    Full Text Available Racial disparities in health are well-documented and represent a significant public health concern in the US. Racism-related factors contribute to poorer health and higher mortality rates among Blacks compared to other racial groups. However, methods to measure racism and monitor its associations with health at the population-level have remained elusive. In this study, we investigated the utility of a previously developed Internet search-based proxy of area racism as a predictor of Black mortality rates. Area racism was the proportion of Google searches containing the "N-word" in 196 designated market areas (DMAs. Negative binomial regression models were specified taking into account individual age, sex, year of death, and Census region and adjusted to the 2000 US standard population to examine the association between area racism and Black mortality rates, which were derived from death certificates and mid-year population counts collated by the National Center for Health Statistics (2004-2009. DMAs characterized by a one standard deviation greater level of area racism were associated with an 8.2% increase in the all-cause Black mortality rate, equivalent to over 30,000 deaths annually. The magnitude of this effect was attenuated to 5.7% after adjustment for DMA-level demographic and Black socioeconomic covariates. A model controlling for the White mortality rate was used to further adjust for unmeasured confounders that influence mortality overall in a geographic area, and to examine Black-White disparities in the mortality rate. Area racism remained significantly associated with the all-cause Black mortality rate (mortality rate ratio = 1.036; 95% confidence interval = 1.015, 1.057; p = 0.001. Models further examining cause-specific Black mortality rates revealed significant associations with heart disease, cancer, and stroke. These findings are congruent with studies documenting the deleterious impact of racism on health among Blacks. Our

  4. Young, Black, and Sentenced To Die: Black Males and the Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Janice

    1996-01-01

    Explores the death penalty as imposed on young black males in the United States and examines the disparity in death penalty rates for homicides with black offenders and white victims. States continue to impose the death penalty rather than viewing youth violence as a failure of the social system. (SLD)

  5. Median age at death as an indicator of premature mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Jannerfeldt, Eric; Hörte, Lars-Gunnar

    1988-01-01

    The median age at death from certain diseases was calculated for each year for 1969-85 and compared with that at death from all causes. The results indicated the impact of these diseases in terms of premature mortality and changes over time. Cancer was a more important cause of premature mortality among women than among men. For cancer of the cervix the median age at death increased appreciably whereas for cancer of the lung in women it slightly decreased. The median age at death is easy to c...

  6. Improving the accuracy of maternal mortality and pregnancy related death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Burk

    2014-01-01

    Comparing abortion-related death and pregnancy-related death remains difficult due to the limitations within the Abortion Mortality Surveillance System and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). These methods lack a systematic and comprehensive method of collecting complete records regarding abortion outcomes in each state and fail to properly identify longitudinal cause of death related to induced abortion. This article seeks to analyze the current method of comparing abortion-related death with pregnancy-related death and provide solutions to improve data collection regarding these subjects.

  7. Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenic patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    A cohort consisting of 6178 people that were psychiatric inpatients with a clinical schizophrenia diagnosis in 1957 were followed up from 1957 through 1986, and their cause-specific mortality was determined. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases, lung diseases, gastrointestinal and urogenital...... disorders, accidents and suicide was increased, whereas mortality from cerebrovascular disorders was reduced. In the male patients cancer mortality was reduced whereas cancer mortality in the female patients was increased. Mortality from a number of causes that theoretically could be associated with side...... effects from neuroleptics was increased. Mortality from some causes of death used as a measurement of the quality of medical care was found to be slightly increased. Further studies of the quality of the medical care provided to schizophrenic patients and of the association between neuroleptic medication...

  8. Using Literal Text From the Death Certificate to Enhance Mortality Statistics: Characterizing Drug Involvement in Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, James P; Warner, Margaret; Bastian, Brigham A; Minino, Arialdi M; Hedegaard, Holly

    2016-12-01

    Objectives-This report describes the development and use of a method for analyzing the literal text from death certificates to enhance national mortality statistics on drug-involved deaths. Drug-involved deaths include drug overdose deaths as well as other deaths where, according to death certificate literal text, drugs were associated with or contributed to the death. Methods-The method uses final National Vital Statistics System-Mortality files linked to electronic files containing literal text information from death certificates. Software programs were designed to search the literal text from three fields of the death certificate (the cause of death from Part I, significant conditions contributing to the death from Part II, and a description of how the injury occurred from Box 43) to identify drug mentions as well as contextual information. The list of drug search terms was developed from existing drug classification systems as well as from manual review of the literal text. Literal text surrounding the identified drug search terms was analyzed to ascertain the context. Drugs mentioned in the death certificate literal text were assumed to be involved in the death unless contextual information suggested otherwise (e.g., "METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTION"). The literal text analysis method was assessed by comparing the results from application of the method with results based on ICD-10 codes, and by conducting a manual review of a sample of records.

  9. Mortality and causes of death in first admitted schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, P B; Juel, K

    1993-01-01

    of 9156 first admitted schizophrenic patients. Suicide accounted for 50% of deaths in men and 35% of deaths in women. Suicide risk was particularly increased during the first year of follow-up. Death from natural causes, with the exception of cancer and cerebrovascular diseases, was increased. Suicide...... risk during the first year of follow-up increased by 56%, with a 50% reduction on psychiatric in-patient facilities. The study confirms that mortality in schizophrenia is still markedly elevated, and the finding of an increasing suicide risk may be an indicator of some adverse effects...

  10. Deaths following influenza vaccination--background mortality or causal connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokia, Ehud S; Silverman, Barbara G; Green, Manfred; Kedem, Hagai; Guindy, Michal; Shemer, Joshua

    2007-12-12

    In October 2006, four deaths occurred in Israel shortly after influenza immunization, resulting in a temporary halt to the vaccination campaign. After an epidemiologic investigation, the Ministry of Health concluded that these deaths were not related to the vaccine itself and the campaign resumed; however, vaccine uptake was markedly reduced. Estimates of true background mortality in this high-risk population would aid in public education and quell unnecessary concerns regarding vaccine safety. We used data from a large HMO to estimate mortality in influenza vaccine recipients aged 55 and over during four consecutive winters (2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006). Date of immunization was ascertained from patient treatment files, vital status through Israeli National Insurance Institute data. We calculated crude death rates within 7, 14 and 30 days of influenza immunization, and used a Cox Proportional Hazards Model to estimate the risk of death within 14 days of vaccination, adjusting for age and comorbid conditions (age over 75, history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, status as homebound patient) in 2006. The death rate among influenza vaccine recipients ranged from 0.01 to 0.02% within 7 days and 0.09-0.10% at 30 days. Influenza immunization was associated with a decreased risk of death within 14 days after adjustment for comorbidities (Hazard ratio, 0.33, 95% CI, 0.18-0.61). Our findings support the assumption that influenza vaccination is not associated with increased risk of death in the short term.

  11. The sex-selective impact of the Black Death and recurring plagues in the Southern Netherlands, 1349-1450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Daniel R; Roosen, Joris

    2017-06-15

    Although recent work has begun to establish that early modern plagues had selective mortality effects, it was generally accepted that the initial outbreak of Black Death in 1347-52 was a "universal killer." Recent bioarchaeological work, however, has argued that the Black Death was also selective with regard to age and pre-plague health status. The issue of the Black Death's potential sex selectivity is less clear. Bioarchaeological research hypothesizes that sex-selection in mortality was possible during the initial Black Death outbreak, and we present evidence from historical sources to test this notion. To determine whether the Black Death and recurring plagues in the period 1349-1450 had a sex-selective mortality effect. We present a newly compiled database of mortality information taken from mortmain records in Hainaut, Belgium, in the period 1349-1450, which not only is an important new source of information on medieval mortality, but also allows for sex-disaggregation. We find that the Black Death period of 1349-51, as well as recurring plagues in the 100 years up to 1450, often had a sex-selective effect-killing more women than in "non-plague years." Although much research tends to suggest that men are more susceptible to a variety of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites, we cannot assume that the same direction of sex-selection in mortality applied to diseases in the distant past such as Second Pandemic plagues. While the exact reasons for the sex-selective effect of late-medieval plague are unclear in the absence of further data, we suggest that simple inequities between the sexes in exposure to the disease may not have been a key driver. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Changes in the Leading Cause of Death: Recent Patterns in Heart Disease and Cancer Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie; Anderson, Robert N

    2016-08-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System •Heart disease has consistently been the leading cause of death in the United States and remained so in 2014. •The gap between the number of heart disease and cancer deaths generally widened from 1950 through 1968, narrowed from 1968 through 2012, and then slightly widened again from 2012 through 2014. •The mortality burden of cancer has surpassed that of heart disease in several states. In 2000, there were only 2 states where cancer was the leading cause of death; in 2014, there were 22. •Heart disease remained the leading cause of death for the non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black populations in 2014. •Cancer is now the leading cause of death for the non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander and Hispanic populations. The timing of the leading-cause crossover varied by group. For the total U.S. population, heart disease has been the leading cause of death for decades, with cancer the second leading cause (1). However, the ranking of these causes has varied across demographic group and geographic unit over time. Rankings are based on the number of deaths and reflect mortality burden rather than risk of death (2). This report highlights changes in the mortality burden of heart disease and cancer and presents findings by state, race, and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  13. Distinct clones of Yersinia pestis caused the black death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haensch, Stephanie; Bianucci, Raffaella; Signoli, Michel; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Schultz, Michael; Kacki, Sacha; Vermunt, Marco; Weston, Darlene A; Hurst, Derek; Achtman, Mark; Carniel, Elisabeth; Bramanti, Barbara

    2010-10-07

    From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18(th) century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease.

  14. Distinct clones of Yersinia pestis caused the black death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Haensch

    Full Text Available From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18(th century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease.

  15. Distinct Clones of Yersinia pestis Caused the Black Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haensch, Stephanie; Bianucci, Raffaella; Signoli, Michel; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Schultz, Michael; Kacki, Sacha; Vermunt, Marco; Weston, Darlene A.; Hurst, Derek; Achtman, Mark; Carniel, Elisabeth; Bramanti, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18th century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a deletion in glpD gene, our aDNA results identified two previously unknown but related clades of Y. pestis associated with distinct medieval mass graves. These findings suggest that plague was imported to Europe on two or more occasions, each following a distinct route. These two clades are ancestral to modern isolates of Y. pestis biovars Orientalis and Medievalis. Our results clarify the etiology of the Black Death and provide a paradigm for a detailed historical reconstruction of the infection routes followed by this disease. PMID:20949072

  16. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: Identifying risk and preventing mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhatoo, Samden; Noebels, Jeffrey; Whittemore, Vicky

    2015-11-01

    Premature death among individuals with epilepsy is higher than in the general population, and sudden unexpected death is the most common cause of this mortality. A new multisite collaborative research consortium, the Center for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) Research (CSR), has received major funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to examine the possible biologic mechanisms underlying this potentially preventable comorbidity and develop predictive biomarkers for interventions that could lower SUDEP incidence. This inaugural report describes the structure of the CSR, its priorities for human and experimental research, and the strategic collaborations and advanced tools under development to reduce this catastrophic outcome of epilepsy. The CSR Partners Program will work closely with committed volunteer agencies, industry, and academic institutions to accelerate and communicate these advances to the professional and lay community.

  17. Epidemic waves of the Black Death in the Byzantine Empire (1347-1453 AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Tsakris, Athanassios; Petridou, Eleni

    2011-09-01

    The lack of valid demographic data and the literary ambiguities of the Byzantine chroniclers raise questions about the actual size and mortality rate of the Black Death in the Byzantine Empire. This study presents for the first time a quantitative overview of the Black Death in Byzantium for the period 1347-1453. Our data were obtained from descriptions of the plague, by prominent Byzantine historians and scholars, grouped by time of appearance and geographical spread. During the period 1347-1453, a total of 61 plague reports were noted, which can be distinguished in nine major epidemic waves, 11 local outbreaks and 16 disease-free periods. The capital Constantinople and the Venetian colonies of the Ionian and Aegean Sea were the areas most affected by the plague. The epidemic waves of the Black Death in Byzantium had a total average duration of 3.2 years. Scientific ignorance of the nature of the disease, a turbulent period of warfare and an organized maritime network seem to have contributed to the spread of the disease. Employing quantitative analysis, our multidisciplinary study sheds light from various standpoints on the evolution and dynamic of the plague in the South-eastern Mediterranean during the 14th and 15th centuries, despite the lack of sound morbidity and mortality data.

  18. Black lives matter: Differential mortality and the racial composition of the U.S. electorate, 1970-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Javier M; Geronimus, Arline T; Bound, John; Dorling, Danny

    2015-07-01

    Excess mortality in marginalized populations could be both a cause and an effect of political processes. We estimate the impact of mortality differentials between blacks and whites from 1970 to 2004 on the racial composition of the electorate in the US general election of 2004 and in close statewide elections during the study period. We analyze 73 million US deaths from the Multiple Cause of Death files to calculate: (1) Total excess deaths among blacks between 1970 and 2004, (2) total hypothetical survivors to 2004, (3) the probability that survivors would have turned out to vote in 2004, (4) total black votes lost in 2004, and (5) total black votes lost by each presidential candidate. We estimate 2.7 million excess black deaths between 1970 and 2004. Of those, 1.9 million would have survived until 2004, of which over 1.7 million would have been of voting-age. We estimate that 1 million black votes were lost in 2004; of these, 900,000 votes were lost by the defeated Democratic presidential nominee. We find that many close state-level elections over the study period would likely have had different outcomes if voting age blacks had the mortality profiles of whites. US black voting rights are also eroded through felony disenfranchisement laws and other measures that dampen the voice of the US black electorate. Systematic disenfranchisement by population group yields an electorate that is unrepresentative of the full interests of the citizenry and affects the chance that elected officials have mandates to eliminate health inequality.

  19. Mortality and Causes of Death in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir;

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary connective tissue disease that causes frequent fractures. Little is known about causes of death and length of survival in OI. The objective of this work was to calculate the risk and cause of death, and the median survival time in patients with OI...... five to one to the OI cohort. We calculated hazard ratios for all-cause mortality and subhazard ratios for cause-specific mortality in a comparison of the OI cohort and the reference population. We also calculated all-cause mortality hazard ratios for males, females, and age groups (0 to 17.99 years......, 18.00 to 34.99 years, 35.00 to 54.99 years, 55.00 to 74.99 years, and >75 years). We identified 687 cases of OI (379 women) and included 3435 reference persons (1895 women). A total of 112 patients with OI and 257 persons in the reference population died during the observation period. The all-cause...

  20. Racial disparities in context: a multilevel analysis of neighborhood variations in poverty and excess mortality among black populations in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S V; Chen, Jarvis T; Rehkopf, David H; Waterman, Pamela D; Krieger, Nancy

    2005-02-01

    We analyzed neighborhood heterogeneity in associations among mortality, race/ethnicity, and area poverty. We performed a multilevel statistical analysis of Massachusetts all-cause mortality data for the period 1989 through 1991 (n=142836 deaths), modeled as 79813 cells (deaths and denominators cross-tabulated by age, gender, and race/ethnicity) at level 1 nested within 5532 block groups at level 2 within 1307 census tracts (CTs) at level 3. We also characterized CTs by percentage of the population living below poverty level. Neighborhood variation in mortality across CTs and block groups was not accounted for by these areas' age, gender, and racial/ethnic composition. Neighborhood variation in mortality was much greater for the Black population than for the White population, largely because of CT-level variation in poverty rates. Neighborhood heterogeneity in the relationship between mortality and race/ethnicity in Massachusetts is statistically significant and is closely related to CT-level variation in poverty.

  1. A draft genome of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Kirsten I; Schuenemann, Verena J; Golding, G Brian; Burbano, Hernán A; Waglechner, Nicholas; Coombes, Brian K; McPhee, Joseph B; DeWitte, Sharon N; Meyer, Matthias; Schmedes, Sarah; Wood, James; Earn, David J D; Herring, D Ann; Bauer, Peter; Poinar, Hendrik N; Krause, Johannes

    2011-10-12

    Technological advances in DNA recovery and sequencing have drastically expanded the scope of genetic analyses of ancient specimens to the extent that full genomic investigations are now feasible and are quickly becoming standard. This trend has important implications for infectious disease research because genomic data from ancient microbes may help to elucidate mechanisms of pathogen evolution and adaptation for emerging and re-emerging infections. Here we report a reconstructed ancient genome of Yersinia pestis at 30-fold average coverage from Black Death victims securely dated to episodes of pestilence-associated mortality in London, England, 1348-1350. Genetic architecture and phylogenetic analysis indicate that the ancient organism is ancestral to most extant strains and sits very close to the ancestral node of all Y. pestis commonly associated with human infection. Temporal estimates suggest that the Black Death of 1347-1351 was the main historical event responsible for the introduction and widespread dissemination of the ancestor to all currently circulating Y. pestis strains pathogenic to humans, and further indicates that contemporary Y. pestis epidemics have their origins in the medieval era. Comparisons against modern genomes reveal no unique derived positions in the medieval organism, indicating that the perceived increased virulence of the disease during the Black Death may not have been due to bacterial phenotype. These findings support the notion that factors other than microbial genetics, such as environment, vector dynamics and host susceptibility, should be at the forefront of epidemiological discussions regarding emerging Y. pestis infections.

  2. Was the black death in India and China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, George D

    2011-01-01

    Firsthand accounts of the Black Death in Europe and the Middle East and many subsequent historians have assumed that the pandemic originated in Asia and ravaged China and India before reaching the West. One reason for this conviction among modern historians is that the plague in the nineteenth century originated and did its worst damage in these countries. But a close examination of the sources on the Delhi Sultanate and the Yuan Dynasty provides no evidence of any serious epidemic in fourteenth-century India and no specific evidence of plague among the many troubles that afflicted fourteenth-century China.

  3. Mortality of Siberian polecats and black-footed ferrets released onto prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Miller, B.J.; Hanebury, L.R.; Powell, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) likely were extirpated from the wild in 19851986, and their repatriation depends on captive breeding and reintroduction. Postrelease survival of animals can be affected by behavioral changes induced by captivity. We released neutered Siberian polecats (M. eversmanii), close relatives of ferrets, in 19891990 on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in Colorado and Wyoming initially to test rearing and reintroduction techniques. Captive-born polecats were reared in cages or cages plus outdoor pens, released from elevated cages or into burrows, and supplementally fed or not fed. We also translocated wild-born polecats from China in 1990 and released captive-born, cage-reared black-footed ferrets in 1991, the 1st such reintroduction of black-footed ferrets. We documented mortality for 55 of 92 radiotagged animals in these studies, mostly due to predation (46 cases). Coyotes (Canis latrans) killed 31 ferrets and polecats. Supplementally fed polecats survived longer than nonprovisioned polecats. With a model based on deaths per distance moved, survival was highest for wild-born polecats, followed by pen-experienced, then cage-reared groups. Indexes of abundance (from spotlight surveys) for several predators were correlated with mortality rates of polecats and ferrets due to those predators. Released black-footed ferrets had lower survival rates than their ancestral population in Wyoming, and lower survival than wild-born and translocated polecats, emphasizing the influence of captivity. Captive-born polecats lost body mass more rapidly postrelease than did captive-born ferrets. Differences in hunting efficiency and prey selection provide further evidence that these polecats and ferrets are not ecological equivalents in the strict sense. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. Monitoring child mortality through community health worker reporting of births and deaths in Malawi: validation against a household mortality survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzou, Agbessi; Banda, Benjamin; Kachaka, Willie; Joos, Olga; Kanyuka, Mercy; Hill, Kenneth; Bryce, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The rate of decline in child mortality is too slow in most African countries to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of reducing under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Effective strategies to monitor child mortality are needed where accurate vital registration data are lacking to help governments assess and report on progress in child survival. We present results from a test of a mortality monitoring approach based on recording of births and deaths by specially trained community health workers (CHWs) in Malawi. Government-employed community health workers in Malawi are responsible for maintaining a Village Health Register, in which they record births and deaths that occur in their catchment area. We expanded on this system to provide additional training, supervision and incentives. We tested the equivalence between child mortality rates obtained from data on births and deaths collected by 160 randomly-selected and trained CHWs over twenty months in two districts to those computed through a standard household mortality survey. CHW reports produced an under-five mortality rate that was 84% (95%CI: [0.71,1.00]) of the household survey mortality rate and statistically equivalent to it. However, CHW data consistently underestimated under-five mortality, with levels of under-estimation increasing over time. Under-five deaths were more likely to be missed than births. Neonatal and infant deaths were more likely to be missed than older deaths. This first test of the accuracy and completeness of vital events data reported by CHWs in Malawi as a strategy for monitoring child mortality shows promising results but underestimated child mortality and was not stable over the four periods assessed. Given the Malawi government's commitment to strengthen its vital registration system, we are working with the Ministry of Health to implement a revised version of the approach that provides increased support to CHWs.

  5. Recent results on the spatiotemporal modelling and comparative analysis of Black Death and bubonic plague epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, G; Olea, R A; Yu, H-L

    2007-09-01

    This work demonstrates the importance of spatiotemporal stochastic modelling in constructing maps of major epidemics from fragmentary information, assessing population impacts, searching for possible etiologies, and performing comparative analysis of epidemics. Based on the theory previously published by the authors and incorporating new knowledge bases, informative maps of the composite space-time distributions were generated for important characteristics of two major epidemics: Black Death (14th century Western Europe) and bubonic plague (19th-20th century Indian subcontinent). The comparative spatiotemporal analysis of the epidemics led to a number of interesting findings: (1) the two epidemics exhibited certain differences in their spatiotemporal characteristics (correlation structures, trends, occurrence patterns and propagation speeds) that need to be explained by means of an interdisciplinary effort; (2) geographical epidemic indicators confirmed in a rigorous quantitative manner the partial findings of isolated reports and time series that Black Death mortality was two orders of magnitude higher than that of bubonic plague; (3) modern bubonic plague is a rural disease hitting harder the small villages in the countryside whereas Black Death was a devastating epidemic that indiscriminately attacked large urban centres and the countryside, and while the epidemic in India lasted uninterruptedly for five decades, in Western Europe it lasted three and a half years; (4) the epidemics had reverse areal extension features in response to annual seasonal variations. Temperature increase at the end of winter led to an expansion of infected geographical area for Black Death and a reduction for bubonic plague, reaching a climax at the end of spring when the infected area in Western Europe was always larger than in India. Conversely, without exception, the infected area during winter was larger for the Indian bubonic plague; (5) during the Indian epidemic, the disease

  6. Recent results on the spatiotemporal modelling and comparative analysis of Black Death and bubonic plague epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.; Yu, H.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This work demonstrates the importance of spatiotemporal stochastic modelling in constructing maps of major epidemics from fragmentary information, assessing population impacts, searching for possible etiologies, and performing comparative analysis of epidemics. Methods: Based on the theory previously published by the authors and incorporating new knowledge bases, informative maps of the composite space-time distributions were generated for important characteristics of two major epidemics: Black Death (14th century Western Europe) and bubonic plague (19th-20th century Indian subcontinent). Results: The comparative spatiotemporal analysis of the epidemics led to a number of interesting findings: (1) the two epidemics exhibited certain differences in their spatiotemporal characteristics (correlation structures, trends, occurrence patterns and propagation speeds) that need to be explained by means of an interdisciplinary effort; (2) geographical epidemic indicators confirmed in a rigorous quantitative manner the partial findings of isolated reports and time series that Black Death mortality was two orders of magnitude higher than that of bubonic plague; (3) modern bubonic plague is a rural disease hitting harder the small villages in the countryside whereas Black Death was a devastating epidemic that indiscriminately attacked large urban centres and the countryside, and while the epidemic in India lasted uninterruptedly for five decades, in Western Europe it lasted three and a half years; (4) the epidemics had reverse areal extension features in response to annual seasonal variations. Temperature increase at the end of winter led to an expansion of infected geographical area for Black Death and a reduction for bubonic plague, reaching a climax at the end of spring when the infected area in Western Europe was always larger than in India. Conversely, without exception, the infected area during winter was larger for the Indian bubonic plague; (5) during the

  7. The black death and the transformation of the west

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel López

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Herlihy, David, The Black Death and the Transformation of the West. Edited with an Introduction by Samuel K. Cohn, Jr., Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1997, 117 p. Este libro reúne tres conferencias que el autor leyó, en 1985, en la Universidad de Maine. Herlihy duda de que la peste de 1348 fuese la hoy denominada peste bubónica, causada por el bacilo yersinia pestis, transmitido a los humanos por las pulgas las cuales, a su vez, vivian en las ratas. Sustenta sus dudas en dos argumentos. No hay evidencias de una epizootia de ratas cuya muerte sería condición previa para que las pulgas buscasen a los humanos.

  8. Maternal bereavement: the heightened mortality of mothers after the death of a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Javier; Evans, William N

    2013-07-01

    Using a 9-year follow-up of 69,224 mothers aged 20-50 from the National Longitudinal Mortality Survey, we investigate whether there is heightened mortality of mothers after the death of a child. Results from Cox proportional hazard models indicate that the death of a child produces a statistically significant hazard ratio of 2.3. There is suggestive evidence that the heightened mortality is concentrated in the first two years after the death of a child. We find no difference in results based on mother's education or marital status, family size, the child's cause of death or the gender of the child.

  9. [Estimated coverage of death counts and adult mortality in Mozambique based on census data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, Serafim Adriano; Queiroz, Bernardo Lanza

    2015-10-01

    In 1997 and 2007, the questionnaire used in the Population Census in Mozambique included a question on deaths at home in the previous 12 months. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of mortality data for the country as a whole and its three major geographic regions. More specifically, based on formal demographic methods, the authors sought to evaluate the quality of information in terms of degree of coverage of death counts and mortality structure, summarized by the probability of death between 15 and 60 years of age. The 2007 census enumerated between 65% and 90% of deaths in Mozambique, suggesting that mortality estimates using direct methods underestimate mortality in the country. The study showed that there has been progress in the quality of death counts in the census, and that in the absence of high-quality vital statistics, population censuses can be a good source of mortality data in developing countries.

  10. Black-white differences in infectious disease mortality in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: This study determined the degree to which Black-White differences in infectious disease mortality are explained by income and education and the extent to which infectious diseases contribute to Black-White differences in all-cause mortality. METHODS: A sampl

  11. East to West or West to East: Plague Spread after the Black Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Cui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Black Death, one of the most destructive pandemics in human history, has claimed millions of lives and considerably influenced human civilization. Following the Black Death, plague outbreaks in Europe lasted for several hundred years until late the 18th century. It is generally presumed that the Black Death was caused by Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis and spread from China to Europe in one or more waves. However, because of the lack of etiological research during the medieval period and absence of a natural plague focus in Europe today, the causative agent of this pandemic and its transmission has led to long-term debate among researchers. Thus, several questions remain including whether Y. pestis actually caused the Black Death, whether a natural plague focus existed in medieval Europe and led to post-Black Death plague outbreaks, and whether the Europe plague focus played a role in the spread and evolution of Y. pestis.

  12. Mortality and Causes of Death in Patients With Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir;

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary connective tissue disease that causes frequent fractures. Little is known about causes of death and length of survival in OI. The objective of this work was to calculate the risk and cause of death, and the median survival time in patients with OI...

  13. Suicides, homicides, accidents, and other external causes of death among blacks and whites in the Southern Community Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Sonderman

    Full Text Available Prior studies of risk factors associated with external causes of death have been limited in the number of covariates investigated and external causes examined. Herein, associations between numerous demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors and the major causes of external mortality, such as suicide, homicide, and accident, were assessed prospectively among 73,422 black and white participants in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated in multivariate regression analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Men compared with women (HR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.87-2.89, current smokers (HR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.40-2.17, and unemployed/never employed participants at the time of enrollment (HR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.38-2.02 had increased risk of dying from all external causes, with similarly elevated HRs for suicide, homicide, and accidental death among both blacks and whites. Blacks compared with whites had lower risk of accidental death (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.38-0.57 and suicide (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31-0.99. Blacks and whites in the SCCS had comparable risks of homicide death (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.63-1.76; however, whites in the SCCS had unusually high homicide rates compared with all whites who were resident in the 12 SCCS states, while black SCCS participants had homicide rates similar to those of all blacks residing in the SCCS states. Depression was the strongest risk factor for suicide, while being married was protective against death from homicide in both races. Being overweight/obese at enrollment was associated with reduced risks in all external causes of death, and the number of comorbid conditions was a risk factor for iatrogenic deaths. Most risk factors identified in earlier studies of external causes of death were confirmed in the SCCS cohort, in spite of the low SES of SCCS participants. Results from other epidemiologic cohorts are needed to confirm the novel findings

  14. Mortality and causes of death in autism spectrum disorders - An update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Hansen, H.B.; Rich, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared mortality among Danish citizens with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with that of the general population. A clinical cohort of 341 Danish individuals with variants of ASD, previously followed over the period 1960-93, now on average 43 years of age, were updated with respect...... to mortality and causes of death. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for various times after diagnosis. In all, 26 persons with ASD had died, whereas the expected number of deaths was 13.5. Thus the mortality risk among those with ASD was nearly twice that of the general population. The SMR...... was particularly high in females. The excess mortality risk has remained unchanged since our first study in 1993. Eight of the 26 deaths were associated with epilepsy and four died from epilepsy. Future staff education should focus on better managing of the complex relationships between ASD and physical illness...

  15. Mortality and causes of death in autism spectrum disorders: An update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rich, Bente

    2008-01-01

    This study compared mortality among Danish citizens with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with that of the general population. A clinical cohort of 341 Danish individuals with variants of ASD, previously followed over the period 1960-93, now on average 43 years of age, were updated with respect...... to mortality and causes of death. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for various times after diagnosis. In all, 26 persons with ASD had died, whereas the expected number of deaths was 13.5. Thus the mortality risk among those with ASD was nearly twice that of the general population. The SMR...... was particularly high in females. The excess mortality risk has remained unchanged since our first study in 1993. Eight of the 26 deaths were associated with epilepsy and four died from epilepsy. Future staff education should focus on better managing of the complex relationships between ASD and physical illness...

  16. Mortality and causes of death in children referred to a tertiary epilepsy center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Sabine; Uldall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with epilepsy, including children, have an increased mortality rate when compared to the general population. Only few studies on causes of mortality in childhood epilepsy exist and pediatric SUDEP rate is under continuous discussion. AIM: To describe general mortality......, incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), causes of death and age distribution in a pediatric epilepsy patient population. METHODS: The study retrospectively examined the mortality and causes of death in 1974 patients with childhood-onset epilepsy at a tertiary epilepsy center in Denmark...... (8 SUDEP cases per 10,000 patient years). 9 patients died in the course of neurodegenerative disease and 28 children died of various causes. Epilepsy was considered drug resistant in more than 95% of the deceased patients, 90% were diagnosed with intellectual disability. Mortality of patients...

  17. Mortality and causes of death of 344 Danish patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Halberg, P; Ullman, S

    1998-01-01

    To determine survival, mortality and causes of death in Danish patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), and to analyse how these parameters are influenced by demographic variables and the extent of skin involvement.......To determine survival, mortality and causes of death in Danish patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), and to analyse how these parameters are influenced by demographic variables and the extent of skin involvement....

  18. Famine, the Black Death, and health in fourteenth-century London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Antoine

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the fourteenth century two catastrophes struck the population of Europe: the Great Famine and the Black Death. The latter has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the biological effects of the Great Famine. A large assemblage of skeletal remains from one of the Black Death burial grounds, the Royal Mint cemetery in London, provides a unique opportunity to investigate these effects by analyzing the teeth of individuals who survived the famine but died during the Black Death.

  19. Growing burden of sepsis-related mortality in northeastern Italy: a multiple causes of death analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Ugo; Piccinni, Pasquale; Schievano, Elena; Saugo, Mario; Pellizzer, Giampietro

    2016-07-13

    Few population-based data are available on mortality due to sepsis. The aim of the study was to estimate sepsis-related mortality rates and to assess the associated comorbidities. From multiple causes of death data (MCOD) of the Veneto Region (northeastern Italy), all deaths with sepsis mentioned anywhere in the death certificate were retrieved for the period 2008-2013. Among these deaths the prevalence of common chronic comorbidities was investigated, as well as the distribution of the underlying cause of death (UCOD), the single disease selected from all condition mentioned in the certificate and usually tabulated in mortality statistics. Age-standardized mortality rates were computed for sepsis selected as the UCOD, and for sepsis mentioned anywhere in the certificate. Overall 16,906 sepsis-related deaths were tracked. Sepsis was mentioned in 6.3 % of all regional deaths, increasing from 4.9 in 2008 to 7.7 % in 2013. Sepsis was the UCOD in 0.6 % of total deaths in 2008, and in 1.6 % in 2013. Age-standardized mortality rates increased by 45 % for all sepsis-related deaths, and by 140 % for sepsis as the UCOD. Sepsis was often reported in the presence of chronic comorbidities, especially neoplasms, diabetes, circulatory diseases, and dementia. Respiratory tract and intra-abdominal infections were the most frequently associated sites of infection. MCOD analyses provide an estimate of the burden of sepsis-related mortality. MCOD data suggest an increasing importance attributed to sepsis by certifying physicians, but also a real increase in mortality rates, thus confirming trends reported in some other countries by analyses of hospital discharge records.

  20. Using dendrochonology to crossdate year of death in trees: limitations with stressed trees in a diffuse mortality context. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angers, V. A.; Bergeron, Y.; Drapeau, P.

    2013-12-01

    Dendrochronological crossdating of dead trees is commonly used to reconstruct mortality patterns over time. This method assumes that the year of formation of the last growth ring corresponds to the year of the death of the tree. Trees experiencing important stress, such as defoliation, drought or senescence, may rely on very few resources to allocate to growth and may favour other vital physiological functions over growth. Even if the tree is still living, growth may thus be reduced or even supressed during a stressful event. When a tree dies following this event and that there is a lag between year of last ring production and year of actual death, crossdating underestimates the actual year of death. As ring formation is not uniform across the bole, growth may occur only in some parts of the tree and may be detectable only if multiple bole samples are analysed. In this study, we wanted to investigate how the growth patterns of dying trees influence estimation of year of death when crossdating. Our research questions were the following 1) Is there a difference (hereafter referred as 'lag') between the last year of growth ring formation in disc samples collected at different heights in dead trees? 2) If so, what is the range of magnitude of these lags? and 3) Is this magnitude range influenced by the causes of death? Sampled sites were located in northwestern Quebec (Canada), over an area overlapping the eastern mixedwood and coniferous boreal forests. Four tree species were examined: Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP). Trees that died following fire, self-thinning, defoliation and senescence were sampled. Two to three discs were collected on each dead tree (snags and logs) at different heights. Dendrochronological analyses were conducted to determine year of last growth ring production by crossdating. The more severe the disturbance, the

  1. Mortality after parental death in childhood: a nationwide cohort study from three Nordic countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bereavement by spousal death and child death in adulthood has been shown to lead to an increased risk of mortality. Maternal death in infancy or parental death in early childhood may have an impact on mortality but evidence has been limited to short-term or selected causes of death. Little is known about long-term or cause-specific mortality after parental death in childhood.This cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1968 to 2008 (n = 2,789,807 and in Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,380,301, and a random sample of 89.3% of all born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,131,905. A total of 189,094 persons were included in the exposed cohort when they lost a parent before 18 years old. Log-linear Poisson regression was used to estimate mortality rate ratio (MRR. Parental death was associated with a 50% increased all-cause mortality (MRR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.43-1.58. The risks were increased for most specific cause groups and the highest MRRs were observed when the cause of child death and the cause of parental death were in the same category. Parental unnatural death was associated with a higher mortality risk (MRR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.71-2.00 than parental natural death (MRR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.24-1.41. The magnitude of the associations varied according to type of death and age at bereavement over different follow-up periods. The main limitation of the study is the lack of data on post-bereavement information on the quality of the parent-child relationship, lifestyles, and common physical environment.Parental death in childhood or adolescence is associated with increased all-cause mortality into early adulthood. Since an increased mortality reflects both genetic susceptibility and long-term impacts of parental death on health and social well-being, our findings have implications in clinical responses and public health strategies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  2. Adverse Trends in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality among Young New Yorkers, Particularly Young Black Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel R Smilowitz

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease (IHD mortality has been on the decline in the United States for decades. However, declines in IHD mortality have been slower in certain groups, including young women and black individuals.Trends in IHD vary by age, sex, and race in New York City (NYC. Young female minorities are a vulnerable group that may warrant renewed efforts to reduce IHD.IHD mortality trends were assessed in NYC 1980-2008. NYC Vital Statistics data were obtained for analysis. Age-specific IHD mortality rates and confidence bounds were estimated. Trends in IHD mortality were compared by age and race/ethnicity using linear regression of log-transformed mortality rates. Rates and trends in IHD mortality rates were compared between subgroups defined by age, sex and race/ethnicity.The decline in IHD mortality rates slowed in 1999 among individuals aged 35-54 years but not ≥55. IHD mortality rates were higher among young men than women age 35-54, but annual declines in IHD mortality were slower for women. Black women age 35-54 had higher IHD mortality rates and slower declines in IHD mortality than women of other race/ethnicity groups. IHD mortality trends were similar in black and white men age 35-54.The decline in IHD mortality rates has slowed in recent years among younger, but not older, individuals in NYC. There was an association between sex and race/ethnicity on IHD mortality rates and trends. Young black women may benefit from targeted medical and public health interventions to reduce IHD mortality.

  3. The Gompertz force of mortality in terms of the modal age at death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missov, Trifon I.; Lenart, Adam; Nemeth, Laszlo;

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Gompertz force of mortality (hazard function) is usually expressed in terms of a, the initial level of mortality, and b, the rate at which mortality increases with age. Objective: We express the Gompertz force of mortality in terms of b and the old-age modal age at death M......, and present similar relationships for other widely-used mortality models. Our objective is to explain the advantages of using the parameterization in terms of M. Methods: Using relationships among life table functions at the modal age at death, we express the Gompertz force of mortality as a function...... of the old-age mode. We estimate the correlation between the estimators of old (a and b) and new (M and b) parameters from simulated data. Results: When the Gompertz parameters are statistically estimated from simulated data, the correlation between estimated values of b and M is much less than...

  4. A continuum of premature death. Meta-analysis of competing mortality in the psychosocially vulnerable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    Background Suicide may be an extreme expression of liability to death of any type. If true, suicide risk factors should also increase other mortality, and, given exposure, excess risk should be higher for suicide than for other mortality. Methods Of 304 publications identified in Index Medicus (1966

  5. Cause-Specific Mortality and Death Certificate Reporting in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and…

  6. Long-term mortality and causes of death associated with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotland, N; Uhre, M L; Mejer, N

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Data describing long-term mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is scarce. This study investigated risk factors, causes of death and temporal trends in long-term mortality associated with SAB. METHODS: Nationwide population-based matched cohort study...

  7. Mortality in adult congenital heart disease : Are national registries reliable for cause of death?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, A. Carla; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; van der Velde, Enno T.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Mariman, Edwin C. M.; Verheugt, Carianne L.; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Pieper, Petronella G.; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Statistics on cause-specific mortality are important for prognostic research. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the national mortality registry in research on causes of death in adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Methods: The CONCOR registry of over

  8. Mortalidade materna de mulheres negras no Brasil Maternal mortality among black women in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaerte Leandro Martins

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A cada minuto uma mulher morre no mundo em decorrência do trabalho de parto ou complicações da gravidez. A mortalidade materna configura-se no Brasil como um problema de saúde pública, atingindo desigualmente as várias regiões brasileiras. É consenso que a mulheres acometidas pela morte materna são as de menor renda e escolaridade. Juntamente com as questões sócio-econômicas, emerge a questão racial. A análise é difícil de ser realizada em virtude da dificuldade de entendimento da classificação raça/cor que muitas vezes impede o registro dessa informação. Vários Comitês de Morte Materna estão utilizando o quesito cor e revisando seus dados. Este artigo analisa vários relatórios de Comitês de Morte Materna, mostrando que o risco de mortalidade materna é maior entre as mulheres negras, o que inclui as pretas e pardas, configurando-se em importante expressão de desigualdade social. Ao final, apresenta-se uma revisão de recomendações para diminuição da Mortalidade Materna, enfatizando ações políticas e técnicas que possam contribuir para tal.Every minute a woman dies in the world due to labor or complications of pregnancy. Maternal mortality is a public health problem in Brazil and affects the country's various regions unequally. Researchers agree that maternal death occurs mainly in women with lower income and less schooling. The racial issue emerges in the midst of socioeconomic issues. The analysis is hampered by the difficulty in understanding Brazil's official classification of race/color, which often impedes recording this information. Various Maternal Mortality Committees are applying the color item and reviewing their data. The current article analyzes various Maternal Mortality Committee reports, showing that the risk of maternal mortality is greater among black women (which encompasses two census categories, negra, or black, and parda, or brown, thus representing a major expression of social inequality

  9. Mortality from diabetes mellitus, 2004 to 2008: A multiple-cause-of-death analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungwee; Peters, Paul A

    2014-03-01

    Using multiple-cause-of-death data, this study examines diabetes mellitus as a cause of mortality. During the 2004-to-2008 period, diabetes mellitus was listed as either the underlying cause or a contributing cause of 119,617 deaths. It was more than twice as likely to be a contributing than the underlying cause of death. When it was identified as the underlying cause of death, diabetes mellitus was rarely the only cause. The diabetes mellitus mortality rate was relatively high among males, older individuals, and people living in lower-income neighbourhoods. Provincial/Territorial differences in rates of death from diabetes mellitus were considerable. When diabetes mellitus was the underlying cause of death, cardiovascular diseases were listed as a contributing cause most often, and when diabetes mellitus was a contributing cause, cardiovascular diseases were most likely to be the underlying cause.

  10. Self-affirmation and mortality salience: affirming values reduces worldview defense and death-thought accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Martens, Andy

    2005-05-01

    To the extent that cultural worldviews provide meaning in the face of existential concerns, specifically the inevitability of death, affirming a valued aspect of one's worldview should render reminders of death less threatening. The authors report two studies in support of this view. In Study 1, mortality salience led to derogation of a worldview violator unless participants had first affirmed an important value. In Study 2, self-affirmation before a reminder of death was associated with reduced accessibility of death-related thoughts a short while thereafter. The authors propose that actively affirming one's worldview alters reactions to reminders of mortality by reducing the accessibility of death-related thoughts, not by boosting self-esteem. These studies attest to the flexible nature of psychological self-defense and to the central role of cultural worldviews in managing death-related concerns.

  11. Facing death together : Understanding the consequences of mortality threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    In everyday life people are constantly reminded of the temporary nature of life. Newspapers, television, and the Internet offer a constant stream or death reminders, ranging from terrorist attacks to natural disasters. According to Terror Management Theory, people are able to cope with these threats

  12. Famine, the Black Death, and health in fourteenth-century London

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Antoine; Simon Hillson

    2004-01-01

    In the first half of the fourteenth century two catastrophes struck the population of Europe: the Great Famine and the Black Death. The latter has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the biological effects of the Great Famine. A large assemblage of skeletal remains from one of the Black Death burial grounds, the Royal Mint cemetery in London, provides a unique opportunity to investigate these effects by analyzing the teeth of individuals who survived the famine but died dur...

  13. Maternal mortality in Bahrain 1987-2004: an audit of causes of avoidable death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, A K; Mustafa, F E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this report was to establish the national maternal mortality rate in Bahrain over the period 1987-2004, to identify preventable factors in maternal deaths and to make recommendations for safe motherhood. There were 60 maternal deaths out of 243 232 deliveries giving an average maternal mortality rate of 24.7 per 100 000 total births. The main causes of death were sickle-cell disease (25.0%), hypertension (18.3%), embolism (13.3%), haemorrhage (13.3%), heart disease (11.7%), infection (8.3%) and other (10.0%). In an audit of care, 17 (28.3%) out of 60 deaths were judged to be avoidable, nearly half of which were due to a shortage of intensive care beds. We recommend that a confidential enquiry of maternal deaths be conducted at the national level every 3 to 5 years.

  14. US County-Level Trends in Mortality Rates for Major Causes of Death, 1980–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Stubbs, Rebecca W.; Morozoff, Chloe; Kutz, Michael J.; Huynh, Chantal; Barber, Ryan M.; Shackelford, Katya A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Mokdad, Ali H.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE County-level patterns in mortality rates by cause have not been systematically described but are potentially useful for public health officials, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve health and reduce geographic disparities. OBJECTIVES To demonstrate the use of a novel method for county-level estimation and to estimate annual mortality rates by US county for 21 mutually exclusive causes of death from 1980 through 2014. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Redistribution methods for garbage codes (implausible or insufficiently specific cause of death codes) and small area estimation methods (statistical methods for estimating rates in small subpopulations) were applied to death registration data from the National Vital Statistics System to estimate annual county-level mortality rates for 21 causes of death. These estimates were raked (scaled along multiple dimensions) to ensure consistency between causes and with existing national-level estimates. Geographic patterns in the age-standardized mortality rates in 2014 and in the change in the age-standardized mortality rates between 1980 and 2014 for the 10 highest-burden causes were determined. EXPOSURE County of residence. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cause-specific age-standardized mortality rates. RESULTS A total of 80 412 524 deaths were recorded from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2014, in the United States. Of these, 19.4 million deaths were assigned garbage codes. Mortality rates were analyzed for 3110 counties or groups of counties. Large between-county disparities were evident for every cause, with the gap in age-standardized mortality rates between counties in the 90th and 10th percentiles varying from 14.0 deaths per 100 000 population (cirrhosis and chronic liver diseases) to 147.0 deaths per 100 000 population (cardiovascular diseases). Geographic regions with elevated mortality rates differed among causes: for example, cardiovascular disease mortality tended to be highest along the

  15. The temporal dynamics of the fourteenth-century Black Death: new evidence from English ecclesiastical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James W; Ferrell, Rebecca J; Dewitte-Aviña, Sharon N

    2003-08-01

    Recent research has questioned whether the European Black Death of 1347-1351 could possibly have been caused by the bubonic plague bacillus Yersinia pestis, as has been assumed for over a century. Central to the arguments both for and against involvement of Y. pestis has been a comparison of the temporal dynamics observed in confirmed outbreaks of bubonic plague in early-20th-century India, versus those reconstructed for the Black Death from English church records--specifically, from lists of institutions (appointments) to vacated benefices contained in surviving bishops' registers. This comparison is, however, based on a statistical error arising from the fact that most of the bishops' registers give only the dates of institution and not the dates of death. Failure to correct for a distributed (as opposed to constant) lag time from death to institution has made it look as if the Black Death passed slowly through specific localities. This error is compounded by a failure to disaggregate the information from the bishops' registers to a geographical level that is genuinely comparable to the modern data. A sample of 235 deaths from the bishop's register of Coventry and Lichfield, the only English register to list both date of death and date of institution, shows that the Black Death swept through local areas much more rapidly than has previously been thought. This finding is consistent with those of earlier studies showing that the Black Death spread too rapidly between locales to have been a zoonosis such as bubonic plague. A further analysis of the determinants of the lag between death and institution, designed to provide a basis for reexamining other bishops' registers that do not provide information on date of death, shows that the distribution of lags could vary significantly by time and space even during a single epidemic outbreak.

  16. Comparative mortality patterns among the black population and the white-mestizo in Cali and Valle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Urrea-Giraldo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the patterns of comparative mortality of Cali and Valle, between the Afrodescendant and white-mestizo population, by sex and age groups, based on the metadata of deaths in the 2005 Census and the death certificate of the year 2010. The findings reveal strong differentials by age structures of deaths (pyramids and the cumulative mortality, which are conclusive of unequal mortality patterns between the two populations, both in Cali and Valle. This evinces demography of social inequality based on ethnic-racial component.

  17. Disability Status, Mortality, and Leading Causes of Death in the United States Community Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L.; Ault, Kimberly L.; Anderson, Wayne L.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Stevens, Alissa; Campbell, Vincent A.; Armour, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the effect of functional disability on all-cause mortality and cause-specific deaths among community-dwelling US adults. Methods We used data from 142,636 adults who participated in the 1994–1995 National Health Interview Survey-Disability Supplement eligible for linkage to National Death Index records from 1994 to 2006 to estimate the effects of disability on mortality and leading causes of death. Results Adults with any disability were more likely to die than adults without disability (19.92% vs. 10.94%; hazard ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval, 1.45–1.57). This association was statistically significant for most causes of death and for most types of disability studied. The leading cause of death for adults with and without disability differed (heart disease and malignant neoplasms, respectively). Conclusions Our results suggest that all-cause mortality rates are higher among adults with disabilities than among adults without disabilities and that significant associations exist between several types of disability and cause-specific mortality. Interventions are needed that effectively address the poorer health status of people with disabilities and reduce the risk of death. PMID:25719432

  18. Maternal Mortality Ratio and Causes of Death in IRI Between 2009 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahiddastjerdy, Marzieh; Changizi, Nasrin; Habibollahi, Abas; Janani, Leila; Farahani, Zahra; Babaee, Farah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The Maternal Mortality Ratio is an important health indicator. We presented the distribution and causes of maternal mortality in Islamic Republic of Iran. Materials and methods: After provision of an electronic Registry system for date entry, a descriptive-retrospective data collection had been performed for all maternal Deaths in March 2009- March 2012. All maternal deaths and their demographic characteristic were identified by using medical registries, death certificates, and relevant codes according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) during pregnancy, labor, and 42 days after parturition. Results: During 3 years, there were 5094317 deliveries and 941 maternal deaths (MMR of 18.5 per 1000000 live births). We had access to pertained data of 896 cases (95.2%) for review in our study. Of 896 reported deaths, 549 were classified as direct, 302 as indirect and 45 as unknown. Hemorrhage was the most common cause of maternal mortality, followed by Preeclampsia, Eclampsia and sepsis. Among all indirect causes, cardio -vascular diseases were responsible for 10% of maternal deaths, followed by thromboembolism, HTN and renal diseases. Conclusion: Although maternal mortality ratio in IRI could be comparable with the developed countries but its pattern is following developing countries and with this study we had provided reliable data for other prospective studies. PMID:28101117

  19. A prospective population-based study of differences in elder self-neglect and mortality between black and white older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A; Fulmer, Terry; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Hebert, Liesi E; Beck, Todd; Scherr, Paul A; Evans, Denis A

    2011-06-01

    Self-neglect is the behavior of an elderly person that threatens his or her own health and safety, and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although report of self-neglect is more common among black older adults, the racial/ethnic differences in mortality remain unclear. The Chicago Healthy Aging Project is a population-based cohort study conducted from 1993 to 2005. A subset of these participants were suspected to self-neglect and were reported to a social services agency. Mortality was ascertained during follow-up and from the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the mortality risk. In the total cohort, there were 5,963 black and 3,475 white older adults, and of these, 1,479 were reported for self-neglect (21.7% in black and 5.3% in white older adults). In multivariable analyses with extensive adjustments, the interaction term indicated that impact of self-neglect on mortality was significantly stronger in black than in white older adults (parameter estimate, 0.54, SE, 0.14, p self-neglect, the hazard ratio for black older adults was 5.00 (95% confidence interval, 4.47-5.59) and for white older adults was 2.75 (95% confidence interval, 2.19-3.44). At 3 years after report, the hazard ratios were 2.61 (95% confidence interval, 2.25-3.04) and 1.47 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.96) for black older adults and white older adults, respectively. Future studies are needed to qualify the casual mechanisms between self-neglect and mortality in black and white older adults in order to devise targeted prevention and intervention strategies.

  20. The Gompertz force of mortality in terms of the modal age at death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon I. Missov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Gompertz force of mortality (hazard function is usually expressed in terms of a, the initial level of mortality, and b, the rate at which mortality increases with age. Objective: We express the Gompertz force of mortality in terms of b and the old-age modal age at death M, and present similar relationships for other widely-used mortality models. Our objective is to explain the advantages of using the parameterization in terms of M. Methods: Using relationships among life table functions at the modal age at death, we express theGompertz force of mortality as a function of the old-age mode. We estimate the correlationbetween the estimators of old (a and b and new (M and b parameters from simulated data. Results: When the Gompertz parameters are statistically estimated from simulated data, the correlationbetween estimated values of b and M is much less than the correlation between estimated values of a and b. For the populations in the Human Mortality Database, there is a negative association between a and b and a positive association between M and b. Conclusions: Using M, the old-age mode, instead of a, the level of mortality at the starting age, has two major advantages. First, statistical estimation is facilitated by the lower correlation between the estimators of model parameters. Second, estimated values of M are more easily comprehended and interpreted than estimated values of a.

  1. Mortality and causes of death of 513 Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Petersen, Jørgen; Ullman, S;

    1999-01-01

    A multicentre cohort of 513 clinic attenders with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was retrospectively identified, representing 4185 patient-years of follow-up. Expected numbers of death were calculated by means of age- and sex-specific mortality rates of the general Danish population. The obse......A multicentre cohort of 513 clinic attenders with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was retrospectively identified, representing 4185 patient-years of follow-up. Expected numbers of death were calculated by means of age- and sex-specific mortality rates of the general Danish population...

  2. Health in post-Black Death London (1350-1538): age patterns of periosteal new bone formation in a post-epidemic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2014-10-01

    Previous research has shown that the Black Death targeted older adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. This project investigates whether this selectivity of the Black Death, combined with post-epidemic rising standards of living, led to significant improvements in patterns of skeletal stress markers, and by inference in health, among survivors and their descendants. Patterns of periosteal lesions (which have been previously shown, using hazard analysis, to be associated with elevated risks of mortality in medieval London) are compared between samples from pre-Black Death (c. 1,000-1,300, n = 464) and post-Black Death (c. 1,350-1,538, n = 133) London cemeteries. To avoid the assumptions that stress markers alone provide a direct measure of health and that a change in frequencies of the stress marker by itself indicates changes in health, this study assesses age-patterns of the stress marker to obtain a more nuanced understanding of the population-level effects of an epidemic disease. Age-at-death in these samples is estimated using transition analysis, which provides point estimates of age even for the oldest adults in these samples and thus allows for an examination of physiological stress across the lifespan. The frequency of lesions is significantly higher in the post-Black Death sample, which, at face value, might indicate a general decline in health. However, a significant positive association between age and periosteal lesions, as well as a significantly higher number of older adults in the post-Black Death sample more likely suggests improvements in health following the epidemic.

  3. Mortality associated with neurofibromatosis type 1: A study based on Italian death certificates (1995-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pace Monica

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons affected by neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 have a decreased survival, yet information on NF1-associated mortality is limited. Methods/Aim The National Mortality Database and individual Multiple-Causes-of-Death records were used to estimate NF1-associated mortality in Italy in the period 1995-2006, to compare the distribution of age at death (as a proxy of survival to that of the general population and to evaluate the relation between NF1 and other medical conditions by determining whether the distribution of underlying causes of NF1-associated deaths differs from that of general population. Results Of the nearly 6.75 million deaths in the study period, 632 had a diagnosis of NF1, yet for nearly three-fourths of them the underlying cause was not coded as neurofibromatosis. The age distribution showed that NF1-associated deaths also occurred among the elderly, though mortality in early ages was high. The mean age for NF1-associated death was approximately 20 years lower than that for the general population. The gender differential may suggest that women are affected by more severe NF1-related complications, or they may simply reflect a greater tendency for NF1 to be reported on the death certificates of young women. Regarding the relation with other medical conditions, we found an excess, as the underlying cause of death, for malignant neoplasm of connective and other soft tissue and brain, but not for other sites. We also found an excess for obstructive chronic bronchitis and musculoskeletal system diseases among elderly persons. Conclusion This is the first nationally representative population-based study on NF1-associated mortality in Italy. It stresses the importance of the Multiple-Causes-of-Death Database in providing a more complete picture of mortality for conditions that are frequently not recorded as the underlying cause of death, or to study complex chronic diseases or diseases that have no specific

  4. Average age at death in infancy and infant mortality level: Reconsidering the Coale-Demeny formulas at current levels of low mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny M. Andreev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The long-term historical decline in infant mortality has been accompanied by increasing concentration of infant deaths at the earliest stages of infancy. In the mid-1960s Coale and Demeny developed formulas describing the dependency of the average age of death in infancy on the level of infant mortality, based on data obtained up to that time. Objective: In the more developed countries a steady rise in average age of infant death began in the mid-1960s. This paper documents this phenomenon and offers alternative formulas for calculation of the average age of death, taking into account the new mortality trends. Methods: Standard statistical methodologies and a specially developed method are applied to the linked individual birth and infant death datasets available from the US National Center for Health Statistics and the initial (raw numbers of deaths from the Human Mortality Database. Results: It is demonstrated that the trend of decline in the average age of infant death becomes interrupted when the infant mortality rate attains a level around 10 per 1000, and modifications of the Coale-Demeny formulas for practical application to contemporary low levels of mortality are offered. Conclusions: The average age of death in infancy is an important characteristic of infant mortality, although it does not influence the magnitude of life expectancy. That the increase in average age of death in infancy is connected with medical advances is proposed as a possible explanation.

  5. Leading Causes of Death Contributing to Decrease in Life Expectancy Gap Between Black and White Populations: United States, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Kenneth D; Anderson, Robert N; Arias, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Life expectancy at birth has increased steadily since 1900 to a record 78.8 years in 2013. But differences in life expectancy between the white and black populations still exist, despite a decrease in the life expectancy gap from 5.9 years in 1999 to 3.6 years in 2013. Differences in the change over time in the leading causes of death for the black and white populations have contributed to this decrease in the gap in life expectancy. Between 1999 and 2013, the decrease in the life expectancy gap between the black and white populations was mostly due to greater decreases in mortality from heart disease, cancer, HIV disease, unintentional injuries, and perinatal conditions among the black population. Similarly, the decrease in the gap between black and white male life expectancy was due to greater decreases in death rates for HIV disease, cancer, unintentional injuries, heart disease, and perinatal conditions in black males. For black females, greater decreases in diabetes death rates, combined with decreased rates for heart disease and HIV disease, were the major causes contributing to the decrease in the life expectancy gap with white females. The decrease in the gap in life expectancy between the white and black populations would have been larger than 3.6 years if not for increases in death rates for the black population for aortic aneurysm, Alzheimer’s disease, and maternal conditions. For black males, the causes that showed increases in death rates over white males were hypertension, aortic aneurysm, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and kidney disease, while the causes that showed increases in death rates for black females were Alzheimer’s disease, maternal conditions, and atherosclerosis. This NCHS Data Brief is the second in a series of data briefs that explore the causes of death contributing to differences in life expectancy between detailed ethnic and racial populations in the United States. The first data brief focused on the racial differences in life

  6. Changes in causes of death and mortality rates among children in Greenland from 1987 - 91 to 1992 - 99

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen-Larsen, Birger; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This study analysed the spontaneous trends in mortality among children in Greenland from 1987 - 91 to 1992 - 99 and describes the changes in the causes of death, mortality rates, and variation between regions....

  7. Body mass index and all-cause mortality in a large prospective cohort of white and black U.S. Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpa V Patel

    Full Text Available Remaining controversies on the association between body mass index (BMI and mortality include the effects of smoking and prevalent disease on the association, whether overweight is associated with higher mortality rates, differences in associations by race and the optimal age at which BMI predicts mortality. To assess the relative risk (RR of mortality by BMI in Whites and Blacks among subgroups defined by smoking, prevalent disease, and age, 891,572 White and 38,119 Black men and women provided height, weight and other information when enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study II in 1982. Over 28 years of follow-up, there were 434,400 deaths in Whites and 18,702 deaths in Blacks. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Smoking and prevalent disease status significantly modified the BMI-mortality relationship in Whites and Blacks; higher BMI was most strongly associated with higher risk of mortality among never smokers without prevalent disease. All levels of overweight and obesity were associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of mortality compared to the reference category (BMI 22.5-24.9 kg/m2, except among Black women where risk was elevated but not statistically significant in the lower end of overweight. Although absolute mortality rates were higher in Blacks than Whites within each BMI category, relative risks (RRs were similar between race groups for both men and women (p-heterogeneity by race  = 0.20 for men and 0.23 for women. BMI was most strongly associated with mortality when reported before age 70 years. Results from this study demonstrate for the first time that the BMI-mortality relationship differs for men and women who smoke or have prevalent disease compared to healthy never-smokers. These findings further support recommendations for maintaining a BMI between 20-25 kg/m2 for optimal health and longevity.

  8. Body Mass Index and All-Cause Mortality in a Large Prospective Cohort of White and Black U.S. Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alpa V.; Hildebrand, Janet S.; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Remaining controversies on the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality include the effects of smoking and prevalent disease on the association, whether overweight is associated with higher mortality rates, differences in associations by race and the optimal age at which BMI predicts mortality. To assess the relative risk (RR) of mortality by BMI in Whites and Blacks among subgroups defined by smoking, prevalent disease, and age, 891,572 White and 38,119 Black men and women provided height, weight and other information when enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study II in 1982. Over 28 years of follow-up, there were 434,400 deaths in Whites and 18,702 deaths in Blacks. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Smoking and prevalent disease status significantly modified the BMI-mortality relationship in Whites and Blacks; higher BMI was most strongly associated with higher risk of mortality among never smokers without prevalent disease. All levels of overweight and obesity were associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of mortality compared to the reference category (BMI 22.5–24.9 kg/m2), except among Black women where risk was elevated but not statistically significant in the lower end of overweight. Although absolute mortality rates were higher in Blacks than Whites within each BMI category, relative risks (RRs) were similar between race groups for both men and women (p-heterogeneity by race  = 0.20 for men and 0.23 for women). BMI was most strongly associated with mortality when reported before age 70 years. Results from this study demonstrate for the first time that the BMI-mortality relationship differs for men and women who smoke or have prevalent disease compared to healthy never-smokers. These findings further support recommendations for maintaining a BMI between 20–25 kg/m2 for optimal health and longevity. PMID:25295620

  9. A Bayesian uncertainty analysis of cetacean demography and bycatch mortality using age-at-death data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey E; Read, Andrew J

    2008-12-01

    Wildlife ecologists and managers are challenged to make the most of sparse information for understanding demography of many species, especially those that are long lived and difficult to observe. For many odontocete (dolphin, porpoise, toothed whale) populations, only fertility and age-at-death data are feasibly obtainable. We describe a Bayesian approach for using fertilities and two types of age-at-death data (i.e., age structure of deaths from all mortality sources and age structure of anthropogenic mortalities only) to estimate rate of increase, mortality rates, and impacts of anthropogenic mortality on those rates for a population assumed to be in a stable age structure. We used strandings data from 1977 to 1993 (n = 96) and observer bycatch data from 1989 to 1993 (n = 233) for the Gulf of Maine, USA, and Bay of Fundy, Canada, harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) population as a case study. Our method combines mortality risk functions to estimate parameters describing age-specific natural and bycatch mortality rates. Separate functions are simultaneously fit to bycatch and strandings data, the latter of which are described as a mixture of natural and bycatch mortalities. Euler-Lotka equations and an estimate of longevity were used to constrain parameter estimates, and we included a parameter to account for unequal probabilities of natural vs. bycatch deaths occurring in a sample. We fit models under two scenarios intended to correct for possible data bias due to indirect bycatch of calves (i.e., death following bycatch mortality of mothers) being underrepresented in the bycatch sample. Results from the two scenarios were "model averaged" by sampling from both Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) chains with uniform probability. The median estimate for potential population growth (r(nat)) was 0.046 (90% credible interval [CRI] = 0.004-0.116). The median for actual growth (r) was -0.030 (90% CRI = -0.192 to +0.065). The probability of population decline due to added

  10. Mortality and causes of death among asylum seekers in the Netherlands, 2002-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostrum, I E A; Goosen, S; Uitenbroek, D G; Koppenaal, H; Stronks, K

    2011-04-01

    The world's growing population of asylum seekers faces different health risks from the populations of their host countries because of risk factors before and after migration. There is a current lack of insight into their health status. A unique notification system was designed to monitor mortality in Dutch asylum seeker centres (2002-2005). Standardised for age and sex, overall mortality among asylum seekers shows no difference from the Dutch population. However, it differs between subpopulations by sex, age and region of origin and by cause of death. Mortality among asylum seekers is higher than among the Dutch reference population at younger ages and lower at ages above 40. The most common causes of death among asylum seekers are cancer, cardiovascular diseases and external causes. Increased mortality was found from infectious diseases (males, standardised mortality ratio (SMR)=5.44 (95% CI 3.22 to 8.59); females, SMR=7.53 (95% CI 4.22 to 12.43)), external causes (males, SMR=1.95 (95% CI 0.52 to 2.46); females SMR=1.60 (95% CI 0.87 to 2.68)) and congenital anomalies in females (SMR 2.42; 95% CI 1.16 to 4.45). Considerable differences were found between regions of origin. Maternal mortality was increased (rate ratio 10.08; 95% CI 8.02 to 12.83) as a result of deaths among African women. Certain subgroups of asylum seekers (classified by age, sex and region of origin) are at increased risk of certain causes of death compared with the host population. Policies and services for asylum seekers should address both causes for which asylum seekers are at increased risk and causes with large absolute mortality, taking into account differences between subgroups.

  11. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8 %) and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %), followed by South Asia (India; 31 %), however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting

  12. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Anenberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, black carbon (BC is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m−3 (1.8 % and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000–194 000 annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %, followed by South Asia (India; 31 %, however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times

  13. Saving can save from death anxiety: mortality salience and financial decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaleskiewicz

    Full Text Available Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American, that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending.

  14. Saving can save from death anxiety: mortality salience and financial decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz; Gasiorowska, Agata; Kesebir, Pelin

    2013-01-01

    Four studies tested the idea that saving money can buffer death anxiety and constitute a more effective buffer than spending money. Saving can relieve future-related anxiety and provide people with a sense of control over their fate, thereby rendering death thoughts less threatening. Study 1 found that participants primed with both saving and spending reported lower death fear than controls. Saving primes, however, were associated with significantly lower death fear than spending primes. Study 2 demonstrated that mortality primes increase the attractiveness of more frugal behaviors in save-or-spend dilemmas. Studies 3 and 4 found, in two different cultures (Polish and American), that the activation of death thoughts prompts people to allocate money to saving as opposed to spending. Overall, these studies provided evidence that saving protects from existential anxiety, and probably more so than spending.

  15. An approach to adjust standardized mortality ratios for competing cause of death in cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhner, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    The calculation of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) is a standard tool for the estimation of health risks in occupational epidemiology. An increasing number of studies deal with the analysis of the mortality in employees suffering from an occupational disease like silicosis or coal-worker pneumoconiosis (CWP). Their focus lies not on the mortality risk due to the occupational disease itself, but on other diseases such as lung cancer or heart diseases. Using population-based reference rates in these studies can cause misleading results because mortality rates of the general population do not reflect the elevated mortality due to the occupational disease investigated. Hence, the purpose of the present paper is to develop an approach to adjust the risk estimates for other causes of death with respect to the effect of an occupational disease as a competing cause of death in occupational mortality cohort studies. To overcome the problems associated with SMRs, the paper makes use of proportional mortality ratios (PMR), which are a further approach for the estimation of health risks in occupational epidemiology. The cause-specific SMR can be rewritten as a product of PMR times the overall SMR. The PMR can be adjusted by ignoring the competing cause of death. Hence, an adjusted cause-specific SMR can be derived by multiplying this adjusted PMR with the overall SMR. This approach is applied to studies concerning lung cancer risk in coal miners suffering from CWP. The usual approach for calculating SMRs leads to an underestimation of the real lung cancer risk in subgroups of miners suffering from CWP. The same effect can be observed in workers exposed to respirable silica already suffering from silicosis. The presented approach results in more realistic risk estimation in mortality cohort studies of employees suffering from an occupational disease. It is easily calculable on the basis of usually published values of observed cases and the corresponding cause-specific SMR.

  16. Maternal Mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne S.

    1977-01-01

    Figures from 1800 through 1973 are used to demonstrate that black women have had substantially higher rates of death in childbirth than white women. As mortality has declined, the relative difference between whites and blacks has actually increased. Factors affecting mortality and future prospects for reducing maternal deaths are discussed. (GC)

  17. Time Does Not Heal All Wounds: Mortality following the Death of a Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostila, Mikael; Saarela, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    People linked through social ties are known to have interdependent health. Our aim was to investigate such collateral health effects in the context of offspring mortality after a parent's death in children aged 10-59 years. The data (N = 3,753,368) were from a linked-registers database that contains the total Swedish population. In minor children,…

  18. Mortality in parents after death of a child in Denmark: A nationwide follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of parental bereavement on physical health. We investigated whether the death of a child increased mortality in parents. METHODS: We undertook a follow-up study based on national registers. From 1980 to 1996, we enrolled 21062 parents in Denmark who ha...

  19. Mortality as a Context for Multicultural Practice: Awareness of Death and Relating with Diverse Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of subtle death reminders (mortality salience) on multicultural counseling competence (MCC) was examined using a quasi-experimental design. One hundred forty-one counseling students were recruited and randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. Results of a one-way analysis of variance indicated that counseling students in…

  20. Mortality Salience and Morality: Thinking about Death Makes People Less Utilitarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoliere, Bastien; De Neys, Wim; Bonnefon, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    According to the dual-process model of moral judgment, utilitarian responses to moral conflict draw on limited cognitive resources. Terror Management Theory, in parallel, postulates that mortality salience mobilizes these resources to suppress thoughts of death out of focal attention. Consequently, we predicted that individuals under mortality…

  1. Heart rate turbulence predicts all-cause mortality and sudden death in congestive heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Zareba, Wojciech; Vazquez, Rafael; Vallverdu, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R; Valdes, Mariano; Almendral, Jesus; Cinca, Juan; Caminal, Pere; de Luna, Antoni Bayes

    2008-08-01

    Abnormal heart rate turbulence (HRT) has been documented as a strong predictor of total mortality and sudden death in postinfarction patients, but data in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of HRT for predicting mortality in CHF patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III. In 651 CHF patients with sinus rhythm enrolled into the MUSIC (Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiaca) study, the standard HRT parameters turbulence onset (TO) and slope (TS), as well as HRT categories, were assessed for predicting total mortality and sudden death. HRT was analyzable in 607 patients, mean age 63 years (434 male), 50% of ischemic etiology. During a median follow up of 44 months, 129 patients died, 52 from sudden death. Abnormal TS and HRT category 2 (HRT2) were independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR: 2.10, CI: 1.41 to 3.12, P 120 ms. HRT is a potent risk predictor for both heart failure and arrhythmic death in patients with class II and III CHF.

  2. Time Does Not Heal All Wounds: Mortality following the Death of a Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostila, Mikael; Saarela, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    People linked through social ties are known to have interdependent health. Our aim was to investigate such collateral health effects in the context of offspring mortality after a parent's death in children aged 10-59 years. The data (N = 3,753,368) were from a linked-registers database that contains the total Swedish population. In minor children,…

  3. When death is not a problem: Regulating implicit negative affect under mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdecke, Christina; Baumann, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Terror management theory assumes that death arouses existential anxiety in humans which is suppressed in focal attention. Whereas most studies provide indirect evidence for negative affect under mortality salience by showing cultural worldview defenses and self-esteem strivings, there is only little direct evidence for implicit negative affect under mortality salience. In the present study, we assume that this implicit affective reaction towards death depends on people's ability to self-regulate negative affect as assessed by the personality dimension of action versus state orientation. Consistent with our expectations, action-oriented participants judged artificial words to express less negative affect under mortality salience compared to control conditions whereas state-oriented participants showed the reversed pattern.

  4. Geographical patterns of proportionate mortality for the most common causes of death in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichieri Rosely

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality due to chronic diseases has been increasing in all regions of Brazil with corresponding decreases in mortality from infectious diseases. The geographical variation in proportionate mortality for chronic diseases for 17 Brazilian state capitals for the year 1985 and their association with socio-economic variables and infectious disease was studied. Calculations were made of correlation coefficients of proportionate mortality for adults of 30 years or above due to ischaemic heart disease, stroke and cancer of the lung, the breast and stomach with 3 socio-economic variables, race, and mortality due to infectious disease. Linear regression analysis included as independent variables the % of illiteracy, % of whites, % of houses with piped water, mean income, age group, sex, and % of deaths caused by infectious disease. The dependent variables were the % of deaths due to each one of the chronic diseases studied by age-sex group. Chronic diseases were an important cause of death in all regions of Brazil. Ischaemic heart diseases, stroke and malignant neoplasms accounted for more than 34% of the mortality in each of the 17 capitals studied. Proportionate cause-specific mortality varied markedly among state capitals. Ranges were 6.3-19.5% for ischaemic heart diseases, 8.3-25.4% for stroke, 2.3-10.4% for infections and 12.2-21.5% for malignant neoplasm. Infectious disease mortality had the highest (p < 0.001 correlation with all the four socio-economic variables studied and ischaemic heart disease showed the second highest correlation (p < 0.05. Higher socio-economic level was related to a lower % of infectious diseases and a higher % of ischaemic heart diseases. Mortality due to breast cancer and stroke was not associated with socio-economic variables. Multivariate linear regression models explained 59% of the variance among state capitals for mortality due to ischaemic heart disease, 50% for stroke, 28% for lung cancer, 24% for breast cancer

  5. Geographical patterns of proportionate mortality for the most common causes of death in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Sichieri

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Mortality due to chronic diseases has been increasing in all regions of Brazil with corresponding decreases in mortality from infectious diseases. The geographical variation in proportionate mortality for chronic diseases for 17 Brazilian state capitals for the year 1985 and their association with socio-economic variables and infectious disease was studied. Calculations were made of correlation coefficients of proportionate mortality for adults of 30 years or above due to ischaemic heart disease, stroke and cancer of the lung, the breast and stomach with 3 socio-economic variables, race, and mortality due to infectious disease. Linear regression analysis included as independent variables the % of illiteracy, % of whites, % of houses with piped water, mean income, age group, sex, and % of deaths caused by infectious disease. The dependent variables were the % of deaths due to each one of the chronic diseases studied by age-sex group. Chronic diseases were an important cause of death in all regions of Brazil. Ischaemic heart diseases, stroke and malignant neoplasms accounted for more than 34% of the mortality in each of the 17 capitals studied. Proportionate cause-specific mortality varied markedly among state capitals. Ranges were 6.3-19.5% for ischaemic heart diseases, 8.3-25.4% for stroke, 2.3-10.4% for infections and 12.2-21.5% for malignant neoplasm. Infectious disease mortality had the highest (p < 0.001 correlation with all the four socio-economic variables studied and ischaemic heart disease showed the second highest correlation (p < 0.05. Higher socio-economic level was related to a lower % of infectious diseases and a higher % of ischaemic heart diseases. Mortality due to breast cancer and stroke was not associated with socio-economic variables. Multivariate linear regression models explained 59% of the variance among state capitals for mortality due to ischaemic heart disease, 50% for stroke, 28% for lung cancer, 24% for breast cancer

  6. Drug induced mortality: a multiple cause approach on Italian causes of death Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Grippo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-related mortality is a complex phenomenon that has several health, social and economic effects. In this paper trends of drug-induced mortality in Italy are analysed. Two approaches have been followed: the traditional analysis of the underlying cause of death (UC (data refers to the Istat mortality database from 1980 to 2011, and the multiple cause (MCanalysis, that is the analysis of all conditions reported on the death certificate (data for 2003-2011 period.Methods: Data presented in this paper are based on the Italian mortality register. The selection of Icd codes used for the analysis follows the definition of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Using different indicators (crude and standardized rates, ratio multiple to underlying, the results obtained from the two approaches (UC and MC have been compared. Moreover, as a measure of association between drug-related causes and specific conditions on the death certificate, an estimation of the age-standardized relative risk (RR has been used.Results: In the years 2009-2011, the total number of certificates whit mention of drug use was 1,293, 60% higher than the number UC based. The groups of conditions more strongly associated with drug-related causes are the mental and behavioral disorders (especially alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis and fibrosis of liver, AIDS and endocarditis.Conclusions : The analysis based on multiple cause approach shows, for the first time, a more detailed picture of the drug related death; it allows to better describe the mortality profiles and to re-evaluate  the contribution of a specific cause to death.

  7. Normal overall mortality rate in Addison's disease, but young patients are at risk of premature death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsen, Martina M; Løvås, Kristian; Fougner, Kristian J; Svartberg, Johan; Hauge, Erik R; Bollerslev, Jens; Berg, Jens P; Mella, Bjarne; Husebye, Eystein S

    2009-02-01

    Primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) is a rare autoimmune disease. Until recently, life expectancy in Addison's disease patients was considered normal. To determine the mortality rate in Addison's disease patients. i) Patients registered with Addison's disease in Norway during 1943-2005 were identified through search in hospital diagnosis registries. Scrutiny of the medical records provided diagnostic accuracy and age at diagnosis. ii) The patients who had died were identified from the National Directory of Residents. iii) Background mortality data were obtained from Statistics Norway, and standard mortality rate (SMR) calculated. iv) Death diagnoses were obtained from the Norwegian Death Cause Registry. Totally 811 patients with Addison's disease were identified, of whom 147 were deceased. Overall SMR was 1.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.96-1.35), similar in females (1.18 (0.92-1.44)) and males (1.10 (0.80-1.39)). Patients diagnosed before the age of 40 had significantly elevated SMR at 1.50 (95% CI 1.09-2.01), most pronounced in males (2.03 (1.19-2.86)). Acute adrenal failure was a major cause of death; infection and sudden death were more common than in the general population. The mean ages at death for females (75.7 years) and males (64.8 years) were 3.2 and 11.2 years less than the estimated life expectancy. Addison's disease is still a potentially lethal condition, with excess mortality in acute adrenal failure, infection, and sudden death in patients diagnosed at young age. Otherwise, the prognosis is excellent for patients with Addison's disease.

  8. Mortality and cause-of-death reporting and analysis systems in seven pacific island countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Karen L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality statistics are essential for population health assessment. Despite limitations in data availability, Pacific Island Countries are considered to be in epidemiological transition, with non-communicable diseases increasingly contributing to premature adult mortality. To address rapidly changing health profiles, countries would require mortality statistics from routine death registration given their relatively small population sizes. Methods This paper uses a standard analytical framework to examine death registration systems in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. Results In all countries, legislation on death registration exists but does not necessarily reflect current practices. Health departments carry the bulk of responsibility for civil registration functions. Medical cause-of-death certificates are completed for at least hospital deaths in all countries. Overall, significantly more information is available than perceived or used. Use is primarily limited by poor understanding, lack of coordination, limited analytical skills, and insufficient technical resources. Conclusion Across the region, both registration and statistics systems need strengthening to improve the availability, completeness, and quality of data. Close interaction between health staff and local communities provides a good foundation for further improvements in death reporting. System strengthening activities must include a focus on clear assignment of responsibility, provision of appropriate authority to perform assigned tasks, and fostering ownership of processes and data to ensure sustained improvements. These human elements need to be embedded in a culture of data sharing and use. Lessons from this multi-country exercise would be applicable in other regions afflicted with similar issues of availability and quality of vital statistics.

  9. Malnutrition is associated with increased mortality in older adults regardless of the cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Lisa; Rosenblad, Andreas; Thors Adolfsson, Eva; Bergkvist, Leif

    2017-02-01

    Malnutrition predicts preterm death, but whether this is valid irrespective of the cause of death is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether malnutrition is associated with cause-specific mortality in older adults. This cohort study was conducted in Sweden and included 1767 individuals aged ≥65 years admitted to hospital in 2008-2009. On the basis of the Mini Nutritional Assessment instrument, nutritional risk was assessed as well nourished (score 24-30), at risk of malnutrition (score 17-23·5) or malnourished (score malnutrition, and 9·4 % of the participants were malnourished. During a median follow-up of 5·1 years, 839 participants (47·5 %) died. The multiple Cox regression model identified significant associations (hazard ratio (HR)) between malnutrition and risk of malnutrition, respectively, and death due to neoplasms (HR 2·43 and 1·32); mental or behavioural disorders (HR 5·73 and 5·44); diseases of the nervous (HR 4·39 and 2·08), circulatory (HR 1·95 and 1·57) or respiratory system (HR 2·19 and 1·49); and symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (HR 2·23 and 1·43). Malnutrition and risk of malnutrition are associated with increased mortality regardless of the cause of death, which emphasises the need for nutritional screening to identify older adults who may require nutritional support in order to avoid preterm death.

  10. Coping with Catastrophe: The Black Death of the 14th Century. A Unit of Study for Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Anne

    This unit of study explains the causes, course, characteristics, and results of the Black Death during the 14th century. The Black Death, also known as the bubonic plague, left virtually no one untouched in Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. Europe lost a third or more of its population. In a broader context, study of the unit alerts students to…

  11. Coping with Catastrophe: The Black Death of the 14th Century. A Unit of Study for Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Anne

    This unit of study explains the causes, course, characteristics, and results of the Black Death during the 14th century. The Black Death, also known as the bubonic plague, left virtually no one untouched in Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. Europe lost a third or more of its population. In a broader context, study of the unit alerts students to…

  12. Survival of offspring who experience early parental death: early life conditions and later-life mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Norton, Maria C; Hollingshaus, Michael S; Mineau, Geraldine P

    2014-10-01

    We examine the influences of a set of early life conditions (ELCs) on all-cause and cause-specific mortality among elderly individuals, with special attention to one of the most dramatic early events in a child's, adolescent's, or even young adult's life, the death of a parent. The foremost question is, once controlling for prevailing (and potentially confounding) conditions early in life (family history of longevity, paternal characteristics (SES, age at time of birth, sibship size, and religious affiliation)), is a parental death associated with enduring mortality risks after age 65? The years following parental death may initiate new circumstances through which the adverse effects of paternal death operate. Here we consider the offspring's marital status (whether married; whether and when widowed), adult socioeconomic status, fertility, and later life health status. Adult health status is based on the Charlson Co-Morbidity Index, a construct that summarizes nearly all serious illnesses afflicting older individuals that relies on Medicare data. The data are based on linkages between the Utah Population Database and Medicare claims that hold medical diagnoses data. We show that offspring whose parents died when they were children, but especially when they were adolescents/young adults, have modest but significant mortality risks after age 65. What are striking are the weak mediating influences of later-life comorbidities, marital status, fertility and adult socioeconomic status since controls for these do little to alter the overall association. No beneficial effects of the surviving parent's remarriage were detected. Overall, we show the persistence of the effects of early life loss on later-life mortality and indicate the difficulties in addressing challenges at young ages.

  13. Mortality Rates and Causes of Death of Convicted Dutch Criminals 25 Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwbeerta, Paul; PIQUERO, ALEX R.

    2008-01-01

    Extant theory hypothesizes that offenders have greater risk of premature and unnatural death than nonoffenders, but few studies have assessed this hypothesis; those doing so have relied on U.S. samples of male offenders typically followed until midlife. This article examines the relation between criminal conduct and mortality rates in the Netherlands using data from the Criminal Careers and Life Course Study, which traces the life course and criminal careers of 4,615 males and females convict...

  14. Does death make us all equal? Conformism and status-seeking under mortality salience

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The thought of one’s own death induces anxiety and threatens self-esteem. According to Terror Management Theory, to reduce this existential threat individuals typically embrace their cultural worldview, and seek for an increase in self-esteem and status by improving their productivity. Within an experimental economy setting, this paper investigates the effect of Mortality Salience (MS) on individual productivity, using for the first time a real-effort task where the economic incentive is to n...

  15. Ridiculed death and the dead: Black humor on the epitaphs and epigrams of the ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Lađa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories about black humor usually regard that it as a contemporary phenomenon and a culmination of the literary modernism and beginning of post-modernism. My intent in this paper is to refute the thesis that the black humor is a modern invention. I am going to prove its existence still in Greek antiquity, quoting and analyzing humorous epitaphs and black humor epigrams. Putting in relation black humor with the joy and humor in religious (fertility and funeral rituals, I am also going to set a question about the attitude to death and life inherent for this kind of humor, arguing that its origin should be searched in the folk tradition.

  16. Short- and long-term mortality and causes of death in HIV/tuberculosis patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria N; Panteleev, Alexander M; Grint, Daniel;

    2014-01-01

    study. Mortality rates and causes of death were analysed by time from TB diagnosis (12 months) in 1078 consecutive HIV/TB patients. Factors associated with TB-related death were examined in multivariate Poisson regression analysis. 347 patients died during 2625 person-years of follow-up. Mortality......Mortality of HIV/tuberculosis (TB) patients in Eastern Europe is high. Little is known about their causes of death. This study aimed to assess and compare mortality rates and cause of death in HIV/TB patients across Eastern Europe and Western Europe and Argentina (WEA) in an international cohort...... in Eastern Europe was three- to ninefold higher than in WEA. TB was the main cause of death in Eastern Europe in 80%, 66% and 61% of patients who died 12 months after TB diagnosis, compared to 50%, 0% and 15% in the same time periods in WEA (p...

  17. The unfolding counter-transition in rural South Africa: mortality and cause of death, 1994-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Houle

    Full Text Available The HIV pandemic has led to dramatic increases and inequalities in adult mortality, and the diffusion of antiretroviral treatment, together with demographic and socioeconomic shifts in sub-Saharan Africa, has further changed mortality patterns. We describe all-cause and cause-specific mortality patterns in rural South Africa, analyzing data from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system from 1994 to 2009 for those aged 5 years and older. Mortality increased during that period, particularly after 2002 for ages 30-69. HIV/AIDS and TB deaths increased and recently plateaued at high levels in people under age 60. Noncommunicable disease deaths increased among those under 60, and recently also increased among those over 60. There was an inverse gradient between mortality and household SES, particularly for deaths due to HIV/AIDS and TB and noncommunicable diseases. A smaller and less consistent gradient emerged for deaths due to other communicable diseases. Deaths due to injuries remained an important mortality risk for males but did not vary by SES. Rural South Africa continues to have a high burden of HIV/AIDS and TB mortality while deaths from noncommunicable diseases have increased, and both of these cause-categories show social inequalities in mortality.

  18. Increased Long-Term Mortality among Black CABG Patients Receiving Preoperative Inotropic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy T. Efird

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine racial differences in long-term mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, stratified by preoperative use of inotropic agents. Black and white patients who required preoperative inotropic support prior to undergoing CABG procedures between 1992 and 2011 were compared. Mortality probabilities were computed using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed using a Cox regression model. A total of 15,765 patients underwent CABG, of whom 211 received preoperative inotropic agents within 48 hours of surgery. Long-term mortality differed by race (black versus white among preoperative inotropic category (inotropes: adjusted HR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.009–2.4; no inotropes: adjusted HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.08–1.2; Pinteraction < 0.0001. Our study identified an independent preoperative risk-factor for long-term mortality among blacks receiving CABG. This outcome provides information that may be useful for surgeons, primary care providers, and their patients.

  19. Regional variations in mortality and causes of death in Israel, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ethel-Sherry; Haklai, Ziona; Meron, Jill; Aburbeh, Miriam; Salz, Inbal Weiss; Applbaum, Yael; Goldberger, Nehama F

    2017-08-01

    Regional variations in mortality can be used to study and assess differences in disease prevalence and factors leading to disease and mortality from different causes. To enable this comparison, it is important to standardize the mortality data to adjust for the effects of regional population differences in age, nationality and country of origin. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for the districts and sub-districts in Israel, for total mortality by gender as well as for leading causes of death and selected specific causes. Correlations were assessed between these SMRs, regional disease risk factors and socio-economic characteristics. Implications for health policy were then examined. Total mortality in the Northern District of Israel was not significantly different from the national average; but the Haifa, Tel Aviv, and Southern districts were significantly higher and the Jerusalem, Central, Judea and Samaria districts were lower. Cancer SMR was significantly lower in Jerusalem and not significantly higher in any region. Heart disease and diabetes SMRs were significantly higher in many sub-districts in the north of the country and lower in the south. SMRs for septicemia, influenza/pneumonia, and for cerebrovascular disease were higher in the south. Septicemia was also significantly higher in Tel Aviv and lower in the North, Haifa and Jerusalem districts. SMRs for accidents, particularly for motor vehicle accidents were significantly higher in the peripheral Zefat and Be'er Sheva sub-districts. The SMR, adjusted for age and ethnicity, is a good method for identifying districts that differ significantly from the national average. Some of the regional differences may be attributed to differences in the completion of death certificates. This needs to be addressed by efforts to improve reporting of causes of death, by educating physicians. The relatively low differences found after adjustment, show that factors associated with ethnicity may affect

  20. [Cutaneous melanoma - "black death" of modern times? Traces in contemporary literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmer, F A; Bahmer, J A

    2013-11-01

    Cutaneous melanoma, sometimes labeled as "black skin cancer", is increasing in frequency and becoming a more common literary motive. In US literature, Sylvia Plath and Charles Bukowski depicted melanoma more than 50 years ago, later Stephen King and Thomas C. Boyle. In German literature, Charlotte Roche shortly mentioned this tumor. Jörg Pönnighaus, both poet and dermatologist, intensively deals in his poems with the effects melanoma has on patients and doctors alike. Melanoma definitely is not the "Black Death" of modern times. However, the perception of this tumor as extremely malignant and as life-threatening makes melanoma a metaphor of the deadly danger of cancer.

  1. Pathway from Delirium to Death: Potential In-Hospital Mediators of Excess Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarajan, Kumar; Swami, Sunil; Gou, Ray Y; Jones, Richard N; Inouye, Sharon K

    2017-05-01

    (1) To determine the relationship of incident delirium during hospitalization with 90-day mortality; (2) to identify potential in-hospital mediators through which delirium increases 90-day mortality. Analysis of data from Project Recovery, a controlled clinical trial of a delirium prevention intervention from 1995 to 1998 with follow-up through 2000. Large academic hospital. Patients ≥70 years old without delirium at hospital admission who were at intermediate-to-high risk of developing delirium and received usual care only. (1) Incident delirium; (2) potential mediators of delirium on death including use of restraining devices (physical restraints, urinary catheters), development of hospital acquired conditions (HACs) (falls, pressure ulcers), and exposure to other noxious insults (sleep deprivation, acute malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia); (3) death within 90 days of admission. Among 469 patients, 70 (15%) developed incident delirium. These patients were more likely to experience restraining devices (37% vs 16%, P delirium was 4.2 (95% CI = 2.8-6.3) in bivariable analyses, increased in a graded manner with additional exposures to restraining devices, HACs, and other noxious insults, and declined by 10.9% after addition of these potential mediator categories, providing evidence of mediation. Restraining devices, HACs, and additional noxious insults were more frequent among patients with delirium, increased mortality in a graded manner, and were responsible for a significant percentage of the association of delirium with death. Additional efforts to prevent potential downstream mediators through which delirium increases mortality may help to improve outcomes among hospitalized older adults. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Comparative Mortality and Risk Factors for Death among US Supreme Court Justices (1789-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Robert J; Kush, Scott J; Day, Steven M; Vachon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Objectives .- To compare the mortality experience of 112 justices of the US Supreme Court with that expected in the general population. To identify variables associated with mortality within this cohort. Background .- Supreme Court justices are a select occupational cohort. High socio-economic status, advanced education, lifetime appointment, and the healthy worker effect suggest lower mortality. Sedentary work, stress, and a tendency to work beyond typical retirement age may attenuate this. Methods .- Standardized mortality ratios compare the observed mortality rates of justices with those expected in age- and sex-matched contemporary general populations. Poisson regression analyzes variables associated with mortality within the cohort. Results .- From 1789 to 2013, 112 justices (108 male) contributed 2,355 person-years of exposure. Mean age (standard deviation) at appointment was 53.1 years (6.7); at retirement 69.7 years (9.9); at death (n = 100) 74.4 years (10.3); and at end of the study for those alive (n = 12) 72.1 years (11.8). Standardized mortality ratios (95% ci) were: overall 0.87 (0.70-1.05); prior to 1950 0.92 (0.61-1.33); and from 1950 to 2013 0.66 (0.42-0.99). Variables in the final Poisson model and their associated mortality rate ratios (95% ci) were: age 1.06 (1.03-1.09); calendar year 0.99 (0.99-1.00); active status 0.41 (0.25-0.68); career length 1.04 (1.01-1.07); and chief justice 1.08 (0.59-1.84). Conclusions .- Supreme Court mortality was lower than that of the general population in the period from 1950 to the present, but was on par prior to 1950. Increasing age and career length were associated with greater mortality, while active status and later calendar year with lower. These results may add to a body of knowledge that may help to develop or refine models of mortality risk in increasingly aged working populations.

  3. Comparison of Expert Adjudicated Coronary Heart Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality With the National Death Index: Results From the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olubowale, Olusola Tope; Safford, Monika M; Brown, Todd M; Durant, Raegan W; Howard, Virginia J; Gamboa, Christopher; Glasser, Stephen P; Rhodes, J David; Levitan, Emily B

    2017-05-03

    The National Death Index (NDI) is widely used to detect coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths, but its reliability has not been examined recently. We compared CHD and CVD deaths detected by NDI with expert adjudication of 4010 deaths that occurred between 2003 and 2013 among participants in the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) cohort of black and white adults in the United States. NDI derived CHD mortality had sensitivity 53.6%, specificity 90.3%, positive predictive value 54.2%, and negative predictive value 90.1%. NDI-derived CVD mortality had sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 84.5%, positive predictive value 70.6%, and negative predictive value 86.2%. Among NDI-derived CHD and CVD deaths, older age (odds ratios, 1.06 and 1.04 per 1-year increase) was associated with a higher probability of disagreement with the adjudicated cause of death, whereas among REGARDS adjudicated CHD and CVD deaths a history of CHD or CVD was associated with a lower probability of disagreement with the NDI-derived causes of death (odds ratios, 0.59 and 0.67, respectively). The modest accuracy and differential performance of NDI-derived cause of death may impact CHD and CVD mortality statistics. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. [Infant mortality among the black population of Brazil, 1960-1980].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburo, E M

    1987-08-01

    This is a comparative analysis of infant mortality trends for the period 1960-1980 among blacks, whites, and mixed race population groups in Brazil, based on data from official sources. The impact of marital and educational status is considered. The study is confined to the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul, and Sao Paulo. An appendix on the methodological issues involved is included.

  5. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM WINTER SAVORY ON BLACK BEAN APHID MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of winter savory (Satureja montana L. on mortality of wingless females and larvae of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Stomach poisoning of extracts was determined by soaking broad bean leaves in the respective solutions, and then determining mortality of wingless female and larvae feeding on leaves thus prepared at 12 hour intervals. The results of the experiment showed that the extract prepared from dry matter at the highest concentration (10%, as well as the extracts from fresh matter at concentration of 20% and 30% contributed to an increase in mortality of wingless female of black bean aphid. Meanwhile, extracts prepared from both dry and fresh matter at two highest concentrations caused an increase in mortality of larvae of this pest. Furthermore, with increasing concentrations of analysed extracts prepared from both fresh and dry matter of winter savory, their negative effect on wingless females and larvae usually increase.

  6. Biocultural perspectives on maternal mortality and obstetrical death from the past to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Pamela K

    2016-01-01

    Global efforts to improve maternal health are the fifth focus goal of the Millennium Development Goals adopted by the international community in 2000. While maternal mortality is an epidemic, and the death of a woman in childbirth is tragic, certain assumptions that frame the risk of death for reproductive aged women continue to hinge on the anthropological theory of the "obstetric dilemma." According to this theory, a cost of hominin selection to bipedalism is the reduction of the pelvic girdle; in tension with increasing encephalization, this reduction results in cephalopelvic disproportion, creating an assumed fragile relationship between a woman, her reproductive body, and the neonates she gives birth to. This theory, conceived in the 19th century, gained traction in the paleoanthropological literature in the mid-20th century. Supported by biomedical discourses, it was cited as the definitive reason for difficulties in human birth. Bioarchaeological research supported this narrative by utilizing demographic parameters that depict the death of young women from reproductive complications. But the roles of biomedical and cultural practices that place women at higher risk for morbidity and early mortality are often not considered. This review argues that reinforcing the obstetrical dilemma by framing reproductive complications as the direct result of evolutionary forces conceals the larger health disparities and risks that women face globally. The obstetrical dilemma theory shifts the focus away from other physiological and cultural components that have evolved in concert with bipedalism to ensure the safe delivery of mother and child. It also sets the stage for a framework of biological determinism and structural violence in which the reproductive aged female is a product of her pathologized reproductive body. But what puts reproductive aged women at risk for higher rates of morbidity and mortality goes far beyond the reproductive body. Moving beyond reproduction

  7. An Exploratory Survey of the Attitudes of Black Memphians Toward Funeral Homes, the Funeral Ritual and Preparations for Death. Findings and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gordon C., II

    Black Americans face a paradox concerning death: although their involvement with death is intense, their knowledge of death, per se, comprehension of death related behaviors, and exposure to available life extending alternatives are minimal. An interview based questionnaire was distributed to 1,010 adults in a predominantly black section of…

  8. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  9. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S Friedman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS. Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI off Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point (CP in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host-parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  10. One in Five Maternal Deaths in Bangladesh Associated with Acute Jaundice: Results from a National Maternal Mortality Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rupal; Nahar, Quamrun; Gurley, Emily S

    2016-03-01

    We estimated the proportion of maternal deaths in Bangladesh associated with acute onset of jaundice. We used verbal autopsy data from a nationally representative maternal mortality survey to calculate the proportion of maternal deaths associated with jaundice and compared it to previously published estimates. Of all maternal deaths between 2008 and 2010, 23% were associated with jaundice, compared with 19% from 1998 to 2001. Approximately one of five maternal deaths was preceded by jaundice, unchanged in 10 years. Our findings highlight the need to better understand the etiology of these maternal deaths in Bangladesh.

  11. Fear of Death, Mortality Communication, and Psychological Distress among Secular and Religiously Observant Family Caregivers of Terminal Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachner, Yaacov G.; O'Rourke, Norm; Carmel, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that caregivers and terminally ill patients face substantial difficulties discussing illness and death. Existing research, however, has focused primarily on the experience of patients. The current study compared responses as well as the relative strength of association between mortality communication, fear of death, and…

  12. Historical Y. pestis Genomes Reveal the European Black Death as the Source of Ancient and Modern Plague Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Maria A; Tukhbatova, Rezeda I; Feldman, Michal; Drath, Joanna; Kacki, Sacha; Beltrán de Heredia, Julia; Arnold, Susanne; Sitdikov, Airat G; Castex, Dominique; Wahl, Joachim; Gazimzyanov, Ilgizar R; Nurgaliev, Danis K; Herbig, Alexander; Bos, Kirsten I; Krause, Johannes

    2016-06-08

    Ancient DNA analysis has revealed an involvement of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis in several historical pandemics, including the second plague pandemic (Europe, mid-14(th) century Black Death until the mid-18(th) century AD). Here we present reconstructed Y. pestis genomes from plague victims of the Black Death and two subsequent historical outbreaks spanning Europe and its vicinity, namely Barcelona, Spain (1300-1420 cal AD), Bolgar City, Russia (1362-1400 AD), and Ellwangen, Germany (1485-1627 cal AD). Our results provide support for (1) a single entry of Y. pestis in Europe during the Black Death, (2) a wave of plague that traveled toward Asia to later become the source population for contemporary worldwide epidemics, and (3) the presence of an historical European plague focus involved in post-Black Death outbreaks that is now likely extinct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of marital status on death rates. Part 2: Transient mortality spikes

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We examine what happens in a population when it experiences an abrupt change in surrounding conditions. Several cases of such "abrupt transitions" for both physical and living social systems are analyzed from which it can be seen that all share a common pattern. First, a steep rising death rate followed by a much slower relaxation process during which the death rate decreases as a power law (with an exponent close to 0.7). This leads us to propose a general principle which can be summarized as follows: "ANY abrupt change in living conditions generates a mortality spike which acts as a kind of selection process." This we term the Transient Shock conjecture. It provides a qualitative model which leads to testable predictions. For example, marriage certainly brings about a major change in environmental and social conditions and according to our conjecture one would expect a mortality spike in the months following marriage. At first sight this may seem an unlikely proposition but we demonstrate (by three differen...

  14. Paleoseismology of the Southern Section of the Black Mountains and Southern Death Valley Fault Zones, Death Valley, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Marsha S.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    The Death Valley Fault System (DVFS) is part of the southern Walker Lane–eastern California shear zone. The normal Black Mountains Fault Zone (BMFZ) and the right-lateral Southern Death Valley Fault Zone (SDVFZ) are two components of the DVFS. Estimates of late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rates and recurrence intervals for these two fault zones are uncertain owing to poor relative age control. The BMFZ southernmost section (Section 1W) steps basinward and preserves multiple scarps in the Quaternary alluvial fans. We present optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates ranging from 27 to 4 ka of fluvial and eolian sand lenses interbedded with alluvial-fan deposits offset by the BMFZ. By cross-cutting relations, we infer that there were three separate ground-rupturing earthquakes on BMFZ Section 1W with vertical displacement between 5.5 m and 2.75 m. The slip-rate estimate is ∼0.2 to 1.8 mm/yr, with an earthquake recurrence interval of 4,500 to 2,000 years. Slip-per-event measurements indicate Mw 7.0 to 7.2 earthquakes. The 27–4-ka OSL-dated alluvial fans also overlie the putative Cinder Hill tephra layer. Cinder Hill is offset ∼213 m by SDVFZ, which yields a tentative slip rate of 1 to 8 mm/yr for the SDVFZ.

  15. The Impact of the Black Death on the Golden Horde: Politics, Economy, Society, Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli Schamiloglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives and materials: This essay offers an overview of the political, economic, social, and cultural consequences of the Black Death (the epidemic of bubonic plague cause by the bacteria Yersinia pestis in the territories of the Golden Horde in the 14th–15th centuries. It considers the framework which has been developed for medieval Europe and the Middle East. It considers whether there was a medieval growth in population in the Golden Horde prior to the arrival of the Black Death in the mid-14th century. It considers the level of depopulation and how it led to political instability. It notes how bubonic plague was used as a weapon by the Mongol armies. It considers economic consequences such as the decline in certain professions and crafts, the threat to the food supply, and the rising cost of labor which led to inflation. It also considers the social crisis brought about by the sudden death of substantial portions of the population. Results and novelty of the research: The rise in urbanization in the 13th to mid-14th century was followed by a collapse in the population and decline in urban centers beginning in the second half of the 14th century. The Black Death also led to population pressure as most sedentary centers declined, while at the same time certain sedentary areas escaped the plague, as could many nomadic populations who were less susceptible to disease. It also examines the decline in literary languages and the growth in religiosity. Finally, it considers the recovery in the population beginning in the mid-15th century.

  16. Human amyloidogenic light chain proteins result in cardiac dysfunction, cell death, and early mortality in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shikha; Guan, Jian; Plovie, Eva; Seldin, David C.; Connors, Lawreen H.; Merlini, Giampaolo; Falk, Rodney H.; MacRae, Calum A.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is associated with rapidly progressive and fatal cardiomyopathy resulting from the direct cardiotoxic effects of circulating AL light chain (AL-LC) proteins and the indirect effects of AL fibril tissue infiltration. Cardiac amyloidosis is resistant to standard heart failure therapies, and, to date, there are limited treatment options for these patients. The mechanisms underlying the development of cardiac amyloidosis and AL-LC cardiotoxicity are largely unknown, and their study has been limited by the lack of a suitable in vivo model system. Here, we establish an in vivo zebrafish model of human AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity. AL-LC isolated from AL cardiomyopathy patients or control nonamyloidogenic LC protein isolated from multiple myeloma patients (Con-LC) was directly injected into the circulation of zebrafish at 48 h postfertilization. AL-LC injection resulted in impaired cardiac function, pericardial edema, and increased cell death relative to Con-LC, culminating in compromised survival with 100% mortality within 2 wk, independent of AL fibril deposition. Prior work has implicated noncanonical p38 MAPK activation in the pathogenesis of AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity, and p38 MAPK inhibition via SB-203580 rescued AL-LC-induced cardiac dysfunction and cell death and attenuated mortality in zebrafish. This in vivo zebrafish model of AL-LC cardiotoxicity demonstrates that antagonism of p38 MAPK within the AL-LC cardiotoxic signaling response may serve to improve cardiac function and mortality in AL cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, this in vivo model system will allow for further study of the molecular underpinnings of AL cardiotoxicity and identification of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:23624626

  17. Trends in mortality risk by education level and cause of death among US White women from 1986 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Zajacova, Anna

    2013-03-01

    To elucidate why the inverse association between education level and mortality risk (the gradient) has increased markedly among White women since the mid-1980s, we identified causes of death for which the gradient increased. We used data from the 1986 to 2006 National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File on non-Hispanic White women aged 45 to 84 years (n = 230 692). We examined trends in the gradient by cause of death across 4 time periods and 4 education levels using age-standardized death rates. During 1986 to 2002, the growing gradient for all-cause mortality reflected increasing mortality among low-educated women and declining mortality among college-educated women; during 2003 to 2006 it mainly reflected declining mortality among college-educated women. The gradient increased for heart disease, lung cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Lung cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease explained 47% of the overall increase. Mortality disparities among White women widened across 1986 to 2006 partially because of causes of death for which smoking is a major risk factor. A comprehensive policy framework should address the social conditions that influence smoking among disadvantaged women.

  18. Drug Use Severity, Mortality, and Cause of Death in Primary Care Patients With Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Maynard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the association between drug use severity and mortality in primary care patients with substance use disorders. In 848 individuals with known vital status, severity was low in 32%, intermediate in 38%, or substantial/severe in 30%. Two-year survival was 93% in the low group, 96% in the medium group, and 92% in the high group (p = .19. The age-adjusted risk of death for the high-severity group was twice that of the medium-risk group (hazard ratio = 2.00, 95% confidence interval = [1.02, 3.93]. Individuals in the high group were more likely to die from accidents than those in the low- or medium-severity groups (50% vs. 20%, p = .021. Compared with low- and medium-severity groups, age at death was 5 years younger in the high-severity group (52 ± 9 vs. 57 ± 6, p = .017. Premature death due to accidental causes in persons with substance use disorders is a persistent yet complex problem.

  19. Mortality associated with hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infection: A nationwide study on multiple causes of death data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Ugo; Grande, Enrico; Grippo, Francesco; Frova, Luisa

    2017-03-14

    To analyze mortality associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Italy. Death certificates mentioning either HBV or HCV infection were retrieved from the Italian National Cause of Death Register for the years 2011-2013. Mortality rates and proportional mortality (percentage of deaths with mention of HCV/HBV among all registered deaths) were computed by gender and age class. The geographical variability in HCV-related mortality rates was investigated by directly age-standardized rates (European standard population). Proportional mortality for HCV and HBV among subjects aged 20-59 years was assessed in the native population and in different immigrant groups. HCV infection was mentioned in 1.6% (n = 27730) and HBV infection in 0.2% (n = 3838) of all deaths among subjects aged ≥ 20 years. Mortality rates associated with HCV infection increased exponentially with age in both genders, with a male to female ratio close to unity among the elderly; a further peak was observed in the 50-54 year age group especially among male subjects. HCV-related mortality rates were higher in Southern Italy among elderly people (45/100000 in subjects aged 60-79 and 125/100000 in subjects aged ≥ 80 years), and in North-Western Italy among middle-aged subjects (9/100000 in the 40-59 year age group). Proportional mortality was higher among Italian citizens and North African immigrants for HCV, and among Sub-Saharan African and Asian immigrants for HBV. Population ageing, immigration, and new therapeutic approaches are shaping the epidemiology of virus-related chronic liver disease. In spite of limits due to the incomplete reporting and misclassification of the etiology of liver disease, mortality data represent an additional source of information for surveillance.

  20. Mortality by Cause of Death Among Immigrants and Natives in a South European Country: The Case of Greece, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verropoulou, Georgia; Tsimbos, Cleon

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine for the first time in Greece mortality by cause of death among immigrants. The analysis makes use of vital registration statistics for 2010-2012 and census data for 2011; standardised mortality ratios are estimated for four distinct groups: natives, migrants from EU-27 (excluding Greece), other Europeans (mainly Albanians) and those from all other countries (mainly Asia/Africa). All immigrants seem to experience favourable mortality from neoplasms but higher mortality from external causes in comparison to Greeks. The results regarding cardiovascular diseases are mixed. Persons originating in Asian/African regions exhibit higher mortality from infectious diseases and TB. The findings highlight the specificities of immigrant mortality which stem from pre-existing conditions in the country of origin as well as from the adverse socio-economic environment in the country of destination. As immigrants experience some excessive 'avoidable' mortality implementation of appropriate measures should be a social policy priority.

  1. The role of acuity of illness at presentation in early mortality in black children with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winestone, Lena E; Getz, Kelly D; Miller, Tamara P; Wilkes, Jennifer J; Sack, Leah; Li, Yimei; Huang, Yuan-Shung; Seif, Alix E; Bagatell, Rochelle; Fisher, Brian T; Epstein, Andrew J; Aplenc, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Black patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) experience higher mortality than White patients. We compared induction mortality, acuity of illness prior to chemotherapy, and insurance type between Black and White patients to assess whether acuity of presentation mediates the disparity. Within a retrospective cohort of 1,122 children with AML treated with two courses of standard induction chemotherapy between 2004 and 2014 in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database, the association between race (Black versus White) and inpatient mortality during induction was examined. Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-level resource utilization during the first 72 hours following admission for initial AML chemotherapy was evaluated as a potential mediator. The total effect of race on mortality during Induction I revealed a strong association (unadjusted HR 2.75, CI: 1.18, 6.41). Black patients had a significantly higher unadjusted risk of requiring ICU-level resources within the first 72 hours after initial presentation (17% versus 11%; RR 1.52, CI: 1.04, 2.24). Mediation analyses revealed the indirect effect of race through acuity accounted for 61% of the relative excess mortality during Induction I. Publicly insured patients experienced greater induction mortality than privately insured patients regardless of race. Black patients with AML have significantly greater risk of induction mortality and are at increased risk for requiring ICU-level resources soon after presentation. Higher acuity amongst Black patients accounts for a substantial portion of the relative excess mortality during Induction I. Targeting factors affecting acuity of illness at presentation may lessen racial disparities in AML induction mortality.

  2. Signatures of Energy Flux in Particle Production: A Black Hole Birth Cry and Death Gasp

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2015-01-01

    It is recently argued that if the Hawking radiation process is unitary, then a black hole's mass cannot be monotonically decreasing. We examine the time dependent particle count and negative energy flux in the non-trivial conformal vacuum via the moving mirror approach. A new, exactly unitary solution is presented which emits a characteristic above-thermal positive energy burst, a thermal plateau, and negative energy flux. It is found that the characteristic positive energy flare and thermal plateau is observed in the particle outflow. However, the results of time dependent particle production show no overt indication of negative energy flux. Therefore, a black hole's birth cry is detectable by asymptotic observers via particle count, whereas its death gasp is not.

  3. Signatures of energy flux in particle production: a black hole birth cry and death gasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-07-01

    It is recently argued that if the Hawking radiation process is unitary, then a black hole's mass cannot be monotonically decreasing. We examine the time dependent particle count and negative energy flux in the non-trivial conformal vacuum via the moving mirror approach. A new, exactly unitary solution is presented which emits a characteristic above-thermal positive energy burst, a thermal plateau, and negative energy flux. It is found that the characteristic positive energy flare and thermal plateau is observed in the particle outflow. However, the results of time dependent particle production show no overt indication of negative energy flux. Therefore, a black hole's birth cry is detectable by asymptotic observers via particle count, whereas its death gasp is not.

  4. Signatures of energy flux in particle production: a black hole birth cry and death gasp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, Michael R.R. [Department of Physics, Nazarbayev University,53 Kabanbay Batyr Ave., Astana, Republic of (Kazakhstan); Ong, Yen Chin [Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-27

    It is recently argued that if the Hawking radiation process is unitary, then a black hole’s mass cannot be monotonically decreasing. We examine the time dependent particle count and negative energy flux in the non-trivial conformal vacuum via the moving mirror approach. A new, exactly unitary solution is presented which emits a characteristic above-thermal positive energy burst, a thermal plateau, and negative energy flux. It is found that the characteristic positive energy flare and thermal plateau is observed in the particle outflow. However, the results of time dependent particle production show no overt indication of negative energy flux. Therefore, a black hole’s birth cry is detectable by asymptotic observers via particle count, whereas its death gasp is not.

  5. Completeness of death-count coverage and adult mortality (45q15) for Brazilian states from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Bernardo Lanza; Freire, Flávio Henrique Miranda de Araujo; Gonzaga, Marcos Roberto; Lima, Everton Emanuel Campos de

    2017-05-01

    Assess the completeness of the DataSUS SIM death-count registry, by sex and Brazilian state, and estimate the probability of adult mortality (45q15), by sex and state, from 1980 to 2010. The study was based on mortality data obtained in the DataSUS Mortality Information System, from 1980 to 2010, and on population data from the 1980, 1991, 2000, and 2010 demographic censuses. The quality assessment of the registry data was conducted using traditional demographic and death distribution methods, and death probabilities were calculated using life-table concepts. The results show a considerable improvement in the completeness of the death-count coverage in Brazil since 1980. In the southeast and south, we observed the complete coverage of the adult mortality registry, which did not occur in the previous decade. In the northeast and north, there were still places with a low coverage from 2000 to 2010, although there was a clear improvement in the quality of data. For all Brazilian states, there was a decline in the probability of adult mortality; we observed, however, that the death probability for males is much higher than that for females throughout the whole analysis period. The observed improvements seem to be related to investments in the public health care system and administrative procedures to improve the recording of vital events.

  6. Neurocysticercosis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011: Epidemiology of a neglected neurologic cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Cavalcanti, Marta Guimarães; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38.2%) as associated cause. Overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 0.97 deaths/1,000,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.12). The highest NCC-related mortality rates were found in males, elderly, white race/colour and residents in endemic states/regions. Age-adjusted mortality rates at national level decreased significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -4.7; 95% CI: -6.0 to -3.3), with a decrease in the Southeast, South and Central-West regions, and a non-significant increasing trend in the North and Northeast regions. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk mortality clusters located mainly in NCC-endemic areas. Conditions related to the nervous system were the most commonly associated causes of death when NCC was mentioned as an underlying cause, and HIV/AIDS was the main underlying cause when NCC was an associated cause. NCC is a neglected and preventable cause of severe neurologic disease and death with high public health impact in Brazil. There is a clear need to strengthen nationwide epidemiological surveillance and control for the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex.

  7. Meta-Analysis of Cardiac Mortality in Three Cohorts of Carbon Black Production Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Morfeld

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between airborne environmental particle exposure and cardiac disease and mortality; however, few have examined such effects from poorly soluble particles of low toxicity such as manufactured carbon black (CB particles in the work place. We combined standardised mortality ratio (SMR and Cox proportional hazards results from cohort studies of US, UK and German CB production workers. Under a common protocol, we analysed mortality from all causes, heart disease (HD, ischemic heart disease (IHD and acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Fixed and random effects (RE meta-regression models were fit for employment duration, and for overall cumulative and lugged quantitative CB exposure estimates. Full cohort meta-SMRs (RE were 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.79–1.29 for HD; 1.02 (95% CI 0.80–1.30 for IHD, and 1.08 (95% CI 0.74–1.59 for AMI mortality. For all three outcomes, meta-SMRs were heterogeneous, increased with time since first and time since last exposure, and peaked after 25–29 or 10–14 years, respectively. Meta-Cox coefficients showed no association with lugged duration of exposure. A small but imprecise increased AMI mortality risk was suggested for cumulative exposure (RE-hazards ratio (HR = 1.10 per 100 mg/m3-years; 95% CI 0.92–1.31, but not for lugged exposures. Our results do not demonstrate that airborne CB exposure increases all-cause or cardiac disease mortality.

  8. Causes of Death in Prader-Willi Syndrome: Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) 40-Year Mortality Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Merlin G.; Manzardo, Ann M.; Heinemann, Janalee; Loker, Carolyn; Loker, James

    2016-01-01

    Background Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare complex neurodevelopmental genetic disorder that is associated with hyperphagia and morbid obesity in humans leading to a shortened life expectancy. This report summarizes the primary causes of death and evaluates mortality trends in a large cohort of individuals with PWS. Methods PWSA (USA) mortality syndrome-specific database of death reports was collected through a cursory bereavement program for PWSA(USA) families using a brief survey created in 1999. Causes of death were descriptively characterized and statistically examined using Cox Proportional Hazards. Results A total of 486 deaths were reported (263 males, 217 females, 6 unknown) between 1973 and 2015 with mean age of 29.5 ± 16 years (2mo–67yrs), 70% occurring in adulthood. Respiratory failure was the most common cause accounting for 31% of all deaths. Males were at increased risk for presumed hyperphagia-related accidents/injuries compared to females and cardiopulmonary factors. PWS maternal disomy 15 genetic subtype showed an increased risk of death from cardiopulmonary factors compared to the deletion subtype. Conclusions These findings highlight the heightened vulnerability towards obesity and hyperphagia-related mortality in PWS. Future research is needed to address critical vulnerabilities such as gender and genetic subtype in the cause of death in PWS. PMID:27854358

  9. Ageism and death: effects of mortality salience and perceived similarity to elders on reactions to elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Andy; Greenberg, Jeff; Schimel, Jeff; Landau, Mark J

    2004-12-01

    The present research investigated the hypotheses that elderly people can be reminders of our mortality and that concerns about our own mortality can therefore instigate ageism. In Study 1, college-age participants who saw photos of two elderly people subsequently showed more death accessibility than participants who saw photos of only younger people. In Study 2, making mortality salient for participants increased distancing from the average elderly person and decreased perceptions that the average elderly person possesses favorable attitudes. Mortality salience did not affect ratings of teenagers. In Study 3, these mortality salience effects were moderated by prior reported similarity to elderly people. Distancing from, and derogation of, elderly people after mortality salience occurred only in participants who, weeks before the study, rated their personalities as relatively similar to the average elderly person's. Discussion addresses distinguishing ageism from other forms of prejudice, as well as possibilities for reducing ageism.

  10. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980–2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Background Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations...... coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specific causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes...... causes was lower (a decrease of 1·59%) during the same interval. Globally, the five leading causes of total YLLs in 2016 were cardiovascular diseases; diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; neoplasms; neonatal disorders; and HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. At a finer...

  11. Trends in Overall Mortality, and Timing and Cause of Death among Extremely Preterm Infants near the Limit of Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sein; Ahn, So Yoon; Park, Won Soon

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the trends in mortality, as well as in the timing and cause of death, among extremely preterm infants at the limit of viability, and thus to identify the clinical factors that contribute to decreased mortality. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 382 infants born at 23–26 weeks’ gestation; 124 of the infants were born between 2001 and 2005 (period I) and 258 were born between 2006 and 2011 (period II). We stratified the infants into two subgroups–“23–24 weeks” and “25–26 weeks”–and retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and mortality in each group, as well as the timing and cause of death. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to identify the clinical factors associated with mortality. Results The overall mortality rate in period II was 16.7% (43/258), which was significantly lower than that in period I (30.6%; 38/124). For overall cause of death, there were significantly fewer deaths due to sepsis (2.4% [6/258] vs. 8.1% [10/124], respectively) and air-leak syndrome (0.8% [2/258] vs. 4.8% (6/124), respectively) during period II than during period I. Among the clinical factors of time period, 1-and 5-min Apgar score, antenatal steroid identified significant by univariate analyses. 5-min Apgar score and antenatal steroid use were significantly associated with mortality in multivariate analyses. Conclusion Improved mortality rate attributable to fewer deaths due to sepsis and air leak syndrome in the infants with 23–26 weeks’ gestation was associated with higher 5-minute Apgar score and more antenatal steroid use. PMID:28114330

  12. Prioritizing child health interventions in Ethiopia: modeling impact on child mortality, life expectancy and inequality in age at death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fourth Millennium Development Goal calls for a two-thirds reduction in under-5 mortality between 1990 and 2015. Under-5 mortality rate is declining, but many countries are still far from achieving the goal. Effective child health interventions that could reduce child mortality exist, but national decision-makers lack contextual information for priority setting in their respective resource-constrained settings. We estimate the potential health impact of increasing coverage of 14 selected health interventions on child mortality in Ethiopia (2011-2015. We also explore the impact on life expectancy and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate potential impact of scaling-up 14 health interventions in Ethiopia (2011-2015. Interventions are scaled-up to 1 government target levels, 2 90% coverage and 3 90% coverage of the five interventions with the highest impact. Under-5 mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate and deaths averted are primary outcome measures. We used modified life tables to estimate impact on life expectancy at birth and inequality in the age of death (Gini(health. Under-5 mortality rate declines from 101.0 in 2011 to 68.8, 42.1 and 56.7 per 1000 live births under these three scenarios. Prioritizing child health would also increase life expectancy at birth from expected 60.5 years in 2015 to 62.5, 64.2 and 63.4 years and reduce inequality in age of death (Gini(health substantially from 0.24 to 0.21, 0.18 and 0.19. CONCLUSIONS: The Millennium Development Goal for child health is reachable in Ethiopia. Prioritizing child health would also increase total life expectancy at birth and reduce inequality in age of death substantially (Gini(health.

  13. Contribution of volcanic forcing to the initiation of the Black Death Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Henry; Baldini, James; Dodds, Ben

    2017-04-01

    The 14th Century plague epidemic, commonly termed the Black Death, coincided with the tumultuous climatic shift from the relative stability of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) to the initiation of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Plague is predominantly a vector borne disease that is spread through the transmission of the Yersinia pestis bacteria. This bacterium may have originated in the rodent populations of the Tibetan Plateau and later spread rapidly westward though Eurasia after vector transmission to humans. Several studies have determined that Asian rodent and vector populations are highly sensitive to climatic perturbations. The Samalas eruption of 1257 was the largest injection of aerosols in the Common Era and therefore probably had a significant climatic effect. Through a range of proxy records across Eurasia we reconstruct the climate for the period immediately preceding the outbreak of plague. This study investigates the interaction between the Samalas eruption of 1257, the climatic response to the event and the potential effect on the initiation of the Black Death epidemic which shaped population and culture across Eurasia for centuries.

  14. Molecular identification by "suicide PCR" of Yersinia pestis as the agent of medieval black death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoult, D; Aboudharam, G; Crubézy, E; Larrouy, G; Ludes, B; Drancourt, M

    2000-11-07

    Medieval Black Death is believed to have killed up to one-third of the Western European population during the 14th century. It was identified as plague at this time, but recently the causative organism was debated because no definitive evidence has been obtained to confirm the role of Yersinia pestis as the agent of plague. We obtained the teeth of a child and two adults from a 14th century grave in France, disrupted them to obtain the pulp, and applied the new "suicide PCR" protocol in which the primers are used only once. There were no positive controls: Neither Yersinia nor Yersinia DNA were introduced in the laboratory. A negative result is followed by a new test using other primers; a positive result is followed by sequencing. The second and third primer pair used, coding for a part of the pla gene, generated amplicons whose sequence confirmed that it was Y. pestis in 1 tooth from the child and 19/19 teeth from the adults. Negative controls were negative. Attempts to detect the putative alternative etiologic agents Bacillus anthracis and Rickettsia prowazekii failed. Suicide PCR avoids any risk of contamination as it uses a single-shot primer-its specificity is absolute. We believe that we can end the controversy: Medieval Black Death was plague.

  15. A 20-year prospective study of mortality and causes of death among hospitalized opioid addicts in Oslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldorsen Tor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study mortality rate and causes of death among all hospitalized opioid addicts treated for self-poisoning or admitted for voluntary detoxification in Oslo between 1980 and 1981, and to compare their mortality to that of the general population. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted on 185 opioid addicts from all medical departments in Oslo who were treated for either self-poisoning (n = 93, 1980, voluntary detoxification (n = 75, 1980/1981 or both (n = 17. Their median age was 24 years; with a range from 16 to 41, and 53% were males. All deaths that had occurred by the end of 2000 were identified from the Central Population Register. Causes of death were obtained from Statistics Norway. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs were computed for mortality, in general, and in particular, for different causes of death. Results During a period of 20 years, 70 opioid addicts died (37.8%, with a standardized mortality ratio (SMR equal to 23.6 (95% CI, 18.7–29.9. The SMR remained high during the whole period, ranging from 32.4 in the first five-year period, to 13.4 in the last five-year period. There were no significant differences in SMR between self-poisonings and those admitted for voluntarily detoxification. The registered causes of death were accidents (11.4%, suicide (7.1%, cancer (4.3%, cardiovascular disease (2.9%, other violent deaths (2.9%, other diseases (71.4%. Among the 50 deaths classified as other diseases, the category "drug dependence" was listed in the vast majority of cases (37 deaths, 52.9% of the total. SMRs increased significantly for all causes of death, with the other diseases group having the highest SMR; 65.8 (95% CI, 49.9–86.9. The SMR was 5.4 (95% CI, 1.3–21.5 for cardiovascular diseases, and 4.3 (95% CI, 1.4–13.5 for cancer. The SMR was 13.2 (95% CI, 6.6–26.4 for accidents, 10.7 (95% CI, 4.5–25.8 for suicides, and 28.6 (95% CI, 7.1–114.4 for other violent deaths. Conclusion The risk

  16. Mortality incidence estimation using federal death certificate and natality data with an application to Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Kabir; Carter, Randy L

    2015-09-01

    For confidentiality reasons, US federal death certificate data are incomplete with regards to the dates of birth and death for the decedents, making calculation of total lifetime of a decedent impossible and thus estimation of mortality incidence difficult. This paper proposes the use of natality data and an imputation-based method to estimate age-specific mortality incidence rates in the face of this missing information. By utilizing previously determined probabilities of birth, a birth date and death date are imputed for every decedent in the dataset. Thus, the birth cohort of each individual is imputed, and the total on-study time can be calculated. This idea is implemented in two approaches for estimation of mortality incidence rates. The first is an extension of a person-time approach, while the second is an extension of a life table approach. Monte Carlo simulations showed that both approaches perform well in comparison to the ideal complete data methods, but that the person-time method is preferred. An application to Tay-Sachs disease is demonstrated. It is concluded that the imputation methods proposed provide valid estimates of the incidence of death from death certificate data without the need for additional assumptions under which usual mortality rates provide valid estimates.

  17. Life and death in Philadelphia's black belt: a tale of an urban tuberculosis campaign, 1900-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthon, J Margo Brooks

    2011-01-01

    The poor health status of black Americans was a widely recognized fact during the first third of the twentieth century. Excess mortality in black communities was frequently linked to the infectious disease tuberculosis, which was particularly menacing in densely populated urban settings. As health authorities in large cities struggled to keep pace with the needs of citizens, private charities worked to launch community-oriented attacks against the deadly disease. In 1914 a novel experiment to address excess mortality among blacks was launched in Philadelphia. The success of the health promotion campaign initiated by the Henry Phipps Institute and the Whittier Centre, two private charitable associations, has been attributed primarily to the presence of black clinicians, in particular public health nurse Elizabeth Tyler. This study suggests that community health efforts also rest on partnerships between like-minded organizations and coalition building.

  18. COPD-Related Mortality and Co-morbidities in Northeastern Italy, 2008-2012: A Multiple Causes of Death Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro; Saugo, Mario; Fedeli, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of COPD mortality based only on the underlying cause of death (UCOD) derived from death certificates underestimates disease burden. We analyzed the burden of COPD, as well as the pattern of reporting COPD and its co-morbidities in death certificates, using multiple-cause of death (MCOD) records. All 220,281 death certificates of decedents aged ≥ 40 years in the Veneto region (northeastern Italy) were analyzed through 2008-2012. The UCOD was selected by the Automated Classification of Medical Entities software. COPD was defined by ICD-10 codes J40-J44 and J47 based either on the UCOD or on any mention of COPD in death certificates (MCOD). Annual age-standardized COPD death rates were computed for 40-85 year-old subjects. COPD was mentioned in 7.9% (and selected as the UCOD in 2.7%) of death certificates. In about half of these, COPD was mentioned in Part II only. After circulatory and neoplastic diseases, the most frequent chronic diseases reported in certificates with any mention of COPD were diabetes (15.2%) and dementia/Alzheimer (8.9%). Between 2008 and 2012, age-standardized death rates (/100,000/year) decreased from 39.8 to 34.0 in males and from 12.7 to 11.3 in females in the UCOD analyses. These trends were confirmed, although figures were three times greater, in the MCOD analyses. MCOD analysis should be adopted to fully evaluate the burden of COPD-related mortality. Our findings support a decreasing trend in COPD-related mortality in northeastern Italy between 2008 and 2012, in line with other recent studies in Europe and beyond.

  19. Denied their ‘natural nourishment’: religion, causes of death and infant mortality in the Netherlands, 1875-1899

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boomen, N.; Ekamper, P.

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, infant mortality rates started to fall rapidly in the Netherlands. Unfortunately, not all regions benefited from this development. High infant death in the Roman Catholic provinces of North-Brabant and Limburg has often been ascribed to a growing reluctance of C

  20. Denied their ‘natural nourishment’: religion, causes of death and infant mortality in the Netherlands, 1875-1899

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boomen, N.; Ekamper, P.

    2015-01-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, infant mortality rates started to fall rapidly in the Netherlands. Unfortunately, not all regions benefited from this development. High infant death in the Roman Catholic provinces of North-Brabant and Limburg has often been ascribed to a growing reluctance of

  1. Renin–angiotensin system inhibition is not associated with increased sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular mortality or all-cause mortality in patients with aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Greve, Anders M; Køber, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin system inhibition (RASI) is frequently avoided in aortic stenosis (AS) patients because of fear of hypotension. We evaluated if RASI with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) increased mortality in patients with mild...... to moderate AS. METHODS: All patients (n=1873) from the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis study: asymptomatic patients with AS and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction were included. Risks of sudden cardiac death (SCD), cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality according to RASI...... treatment were analyzed by multivariable time-varying Cox models and propensity score matched analyses. RESULTS: 769 (41%) patients received RASI. During a median follow-up of 4.3 ± 0.9 years, 678 patients were categorized as having severe AS, 545 underwent aortic valve replacement, 40 SCDs, 103...

  2. Sex- and age-specific trends in mortality from suicide and undetermined death in Germany 1991–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Jens J; Erazo, Natalia; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, significant downward linear time trends in suicide mortality were observed in most Western countries. To date, it is not established whether those favourable time trends developed homogeneously for sex and age groups and how they were affected by the number of undetermined deaths. Methods Data on suicide mortality and undetermined death from 1991 to 2002 in Germany were obtained from the German Federal Statistical Office. For each year, the age-standardised suicide rate (SR), undetermined death rate (UDR) and total rate (SR+UDR) was calculated by direct standardisation separately for men and women. Time trends were analyzed by Poisson regression estimating the average annual percentage change (AAPC) of the rates for sex and four age groups (15–24, 25–44, 45–74, ≥ 75 years). Results A significant decline of the SR was observed in all age groups but was less pronounced among the younger ages, particularly among men aged 15–24 years (AAPC -0.7%, p = 0.041). The SR in the oldest male age group (≥ 75 years) declined much stronger (AAPC -3.5%, p undetermined deaths for subjects ≥ 75 years, time trends in this age group were affected by the number of undetermined deaths, especially in women. Conclusion Observing downward trends in suicide mortality with lower declines for younger subjects, prevention strategies should focus in particular on younger subjects. PMID:15938747

  3. Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Boris V; Büntgen, Ulf; Easterday, W Ryan; Ginzler, Christian; Walløe, Lars; Bramanti, Barbara; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2015-03-10

    The Black Death, originating in Asia, arrived in the Mediterranean harbors of Europe in 1347 CE, via the land and sea trade routes of the ancient Silk Road system. This epidemic marked the start of the second plague pandemic, which lasted in Europe until the early 19th century. This pandemic is generally understood as the consequence of a singular introduction of Yersinia pestis, after which the disease established itself in European rodents over four centuries. To locate these putative plague reservoirs, we studied the climate fluctuations that preceded regional plague epidemics, based on a dataset of 7,711 georeferenced historical plague outbreaks and 15 annually resolved tree-ring records from Europe and Asia. We provide evidence for repeated climate-driven reintroductions of the bacterium into European harbors from reservoirs in Asia, with a delay of 15 ± 1 y. Our analysis finds no support for the existence of permanent plague reservoirs in medieval Europe.

  4. Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Easterday, W. Ryan; Ginzler, Christian; Walløe, Lars; Bramanti, Barbara; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2015-01-01

    The Black Death, originating in Asia, arrived in the Mediterranean harbors of Europe in 1347 CE, via the land and sea trade routes of the ancient Silk Road system. This epidemic marked the start of the second plague pandemic, which lasted in Europe until the early 19th century. This pandemic is generally understood as the consequence of a singular introduction of Yersinia pestis, after which the disease established itself in European rodents over four centuries. To locate these putative plague reservoirs, we studied the climate fluctuations that preceded regional plague epidemics, based on a dataset of 7,711 georeferenced historical plague outbreaks and 15 annually resolved tree-ring records from Europe and Asia. We provide evidence for repeated climate-driven reintroductions of the bacterium into European harbors from reservoirs in Asia, with a delay of 15 ± 1 y. Our analysis finds no support for the existence of permanent plague reservoirs in medieval Europe. PMID:25713390

  5. Revealing the burden of maternal mortality: a probabilistic model for determining pregnancy-related causes of death from verbal autopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Teklay

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial reductions in maternal mortality are called for in Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG-5, thus assuming that maternal mortality is measurable. A key difficulty is attributing causes of death for the many women who die unaided in developing countries. Verbal autopsy (VA can elicit circumstances of death, but data need to be interpreted reliably and consistently to serve as global indicators. Recent developments in probabilistic modelling of VA interpretation are adapted and assessed here for the specific circumstances of pregnancy-related death. Methods A preliminary version of the InterVA-M probabilistic VA interpretation model was developed and refined with adult female VA data from several sources, and then assessed against 258 additional VA interviews from Burkina Faso. Likely causes of death produced by the model were compared with causes previously determined by local physicians. Distinction was made between free-text and closed-question data in the VA interviews, to assess the added value of free-text material on the model's output. Results Following rationalisation between the model and physician interpretations, cause-specific mortality fractions were broadly similar. Case-by-case agreement between the model and any of the reviewing physicians reached approximately 60%, rising to approximately 80% when cases with a discrepancy were reviewed by an additional physician. Cardiovascular disease and malaria showed the largest differences between the methods, and the attribution of infections related to pregnancy also varied. The model estimated 30% of deaths to be pregnancy-related, of which half were due to direct causes. Data derived from free-text made no appreciable difference. Conclusion InterVA-M represents a potentially valuable new tool for measuring maternal mortality in an efficient, consistent and standardised way. Further development, refinement and validation are planned. It could become a routine

  6. Strategy for sensitive and specific detection of Yersinia pestis in skeletons of the black death pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Seifert

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis has been identified as the causative agent of the Black Death pandemic in the 14(th century. However, retrospective diagnostics in human skeletons after more than 600 years are critical. We describe a strategy following a modern diagnostic algorithm and working under strict ancient DNA regime for the identification of medieval human plague victims. An initial screening and DNA quantification assay detected the Y. pestis specific pla gene of the high copy number plasmid pPCP1. Results were confirmed by conventional PCR and sequence analysis targeting both Y. pestis specific virulence plasmids pPCP1 and pMT1. All assays were meticulously validated according to human clinical diagnostics requirements (ISO 15189 regarding efficiency, sensitivity, specificity, and limit of detection (LOD. Assay specificity was 100% tested on 41 clinically relevant bacteria and 29 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains as well as for DNA of 22 Y. pestis strains and 30 previously confirmed clinical human plague samples. The optimized LOD was down to 4 gene copies. 29 individuals from three different multiple inhumations were initially assessed as possible victims of the Black Death pandemic. 7 samples (24% were positive in the pPCP1 specific screening assay. Confirmation through second target pMT1 specific PCR was successful for 4 of the positive individuals (14%. A maximum of 700 and 560 copies per µl aDNA were quantified in two of the samples. Those were positive in all assays including all repetitions, and are candidates for future continuative investigations such as whole genome sequencing. We discuss that all precautions taken here for the work with aDNA are sufficient to prevent external sample contamination and fulfill the criteria of authenticity. With regard to retrospective diagnostics of a human pathogen and the uniqueness of ancient material we strongly recommend using a careful strategy and validated assays as presented in our study.

  7. Strategy for sensitive and specific detection of Yersinia pestis in skeletons of the black death pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Lisa; Harbeck, Michaela; Thomas, Astrid; Hoke, Nadja; Zöller, Lothar; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Scholz, Holger C; Riehm, Julia M

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis has been identified as the causative agent of the Black Death pandemic in the 14(th) century. However, retrospective diagnostics in human skeletons after more than 600 years are critical. We describe a strategy following a modern diagnostic algorithm and working under strict ancient DNA regime for the identification of medieval human plague victims. An initial screening and DNA quantification assay detected the Y. pestis specific pla gene of the high copy number plasmid pPCP1. Results were confirmed by conventional PCR and sequence analysis targeting both Y. pestis specific virulence plasmids pPCP1 and pMT1. All assays were meticulously validated according to human clinical diagnostics requirements (ISO 15189) regarding efficiency, sensitivity, specificity, and limit of detection (LOD). Assay specificity was 100% tested on 41 clinically relevant bacteria and 29 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains as well as for DNA of 22 Y. pestis strains and 30 previously confirmed clinical human plague samples. The optimized LOD was down to 4 gene copies. 29 individuals from three different multiple inhumations were initially assessed as possible victims of the Black Death pandemic. 7 samples (24%) were positive in the pPCP1 specific screening assay. Confirmation through second target pMT1 specific PCR was successful for 4 of the positive individuals (14%). A maximum of 700 and 560 copies per µl aDNA were quantified in two of the samples. Those were positive in all assays including all repetitions, and are candidates for future continuative investigations such as whole genome sequencing. We discuss that all precautions taken here for the work with aDNA are sufficient to prevent external sample contamination and fulfill the criteria of authenticity. With regard to retrospective diagnostics of a human pathogen and the uniqueness of ancient material we strongly recommend using a careful strategy and validated assays as presented in our study.

  8. Exploring the birth and death of black holes and other creatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márka, Szabolcs

    2012-07-01

    Astronomers and physicists of diverse interest are teaming up to study enigmatic cosmic phenomena, such as the life cycle of black holes. A "disruptive innovation" is about to emerge during the next decade: Advanced gravitational-wave observatories. The emergence of gravitational-wave physics as a viable observational channel is expected to improve our understanding of the Universe in unprecedented and plausibly unexpected ways, and to enhance the capabilities of the astrophysics community. Detecting cosmic counterparts to gravitational-wave events would revolutionize our understanding of violent astrophysical processes, such as the birth and death of black holes and neutron stars. Although the vanguard of joint observational work with electromagnetic observatories has already rewarded us with a glimpse of the power of gravitational-wave astronomy, the most interesting science is yet to come. Many sources of gravitational-waves are expected to be observable through a broad set of messengers, including γ-rays, X-rays, optical, radio, and neutrino emission. Multimessenger investigations may be crucial for the first detection of gravitational-waves, and could provide the broadest scientific impact afterwards. This paper outlines some exciting aspects of transient multimessenger astronomy with gravitational-waves and highlights open questions that might be resolvable by Advanced or third generation gravitational-wave detector networks. In addition, we will use examples from current research to illustrate that the toolkit of fundamental research can enrich other fields, and that synergistic science can expand horizons here on Earth.

  9. Mortality and causes of death among incident cases of systemic lupus erythematosus in Finland 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving, P; Puolakka, K; Kautiainen, H; Virta, L J; Pohjolainen, T; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate mortality and causes of death in patients with recent-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Finland. Data for patients with SLE for the study were collected (2000-2007) from the nationwide register on decisions of special reimbursements for drugs, maintained by the Social Insurance Institution (SII) in Finland. Data on deaths of the patients were obtained from the official death certificate statistics of Statistics Finland until the end of 2008. Of the 566 incident SLE patients, median follow-up time was 5.4 (IQR 3.3, 7.1) years, and 30 patients (23 females, seven males) died in the years 2000 through 2008. Mean age at death was 67.8 ± 17.2 years for females and 62.3 ± 15.2 years for males. The 5-year survival rates were 94.8% (95%CI 92.0-96.6%) and 88.2% (95%CI 76.5-94.3%), respectively. The age- and sex-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 1.48 (95%CI 1.01-2.12). Primary causes of death were cardiovascular diseases, malignancy and SLE itself. In conclusion, survival of the patients with SLE was inferior to that of the general population. Cardiovascular diseases were responsible for 37% of deaths.

  10. The impact of foot ulceration and amputation on mortality in diabetic patients. I: From ulceration to death, a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupiter, Daniel C; Thorud, Jakob C; Buckley, Clifford J; Shibuya, Naohiro

    2016-10-01

    A great deal of emphasis, clinical and financial, is placed on limb salvage efforts in diabetic patients suffering from lower extremity ulceration. This is because of the impression that amputation in such patients may be a proximal cause of death. While amputation is certainly a negative clinical outcome, it is not entirely clear that it causes death. In this systematic review, we examine the available literature to attempt to understand the role that the ulceration itself may play in mortality. In brief, we searched for human studies in OVID, CINAHL and the COCHRANE CENTRAL DATABASE from 1980 to 2013, looking for articles related to ulcer or wound of the foot, in patients with diabetes or peripheral vascular disease, and death. We looked for articles with 5 years of follow-up, or Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year mortality, and excluded reviews and letters. Articles were assessed for quality and potential bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. We find that while the patient populations studied varied widely in terms of demographics and comorbidities, limiting generalisability, 5-year mortality rates after ulceration were around 40%. Risk factors for death commonly identified were increased age, male gender, peripheral vascular disease and renal disease.

  11. Serum 25(OHD is a 2-year predictor of all-cause mortality, cardiac death and sudden cardiac death in chest pain patients from Northern Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja A Naesgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown an association between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D status is assessed by determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in serum. METHODS: We assessed the prognostic utility of 25(OHD in 982 chest-pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS from Salta, Northern Argentina. 2-year follow-up data including all-cause mortality, cardiac death and sudden cardiac death were analyzed in quartiles of 25(OHD, applying univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: There were statistically significant changes in seasonal 25(OHD levels. At follow-up, 119 patients had died. The mean 25(OHD levels were significantly lower among patients dying than in long-term survivors, both in the total population and in patients with a troponin T (TnT release (n = 388. When comparing 25(OHD in the highest quartile to the lowest quartile in a multivariable Cox regression model for all-cause mortality, the hazard ratio (HR for cardiac death and sudden cardiac death in the total population was 0.37 (95% CI, 0.19-0.73, p = 0.004, 0.23 (95% CI, 0.08-0.67, p = 0.007, and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.11-0.94, p = 0.038, respectively. In patients with TnT release, the respective HR was 0.24 (95% CI, 0.10-0.54, p = 0.001, 0.18 (95% CI, 0.05-0.60, p = 0.006 and 0.25 (95% CI, 0.07-0.89, p = 0.033. 25(OHD had no prognostic value in patients with no TnT release. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D was shown to be a useful biomarker for prediction of mortality when obtained at admission in chest pain patients with suspected ACS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01377402.

  12. Using Simulation Modeling to Inform Strategies to Reduce Breast Cancer Mortality in Black Women in the District of Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee M. Near

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Black women in the District of Columbia (DC have the highest breast cancer mortality in the US. Local cancer control planners are interested in how to most efficiently reduce this mortality. Methods. An established simulation model was adapted to reflect the experiences of Black women in DC and estimate the past and future impact of changes in use of screening and adjuvant treatment. Results. The model estimates that the observed reduction in mortality that occurred from 1975 to 2007 attributable to screening, treatment, and both was 20.2%, 25.7%, and 41.0% respectively. The results suggest that, by 2020, breast cancer mortality among Black women in DC could be reduced by 6% more by initiating screening at age 40 versus age 50. Screening annually may also reduce mortality to a greater extent than biennially, albeit with a marked increase in false positive screening rates. Conclusion. This study demonstrates how modeling can provide data to assist local planners as they consider different cancer control policies based on their individual populations.

  13. Using Simulation Modeling to Inform Strategies to Reduce Breast Cancer Mortality in Black Women in the District of Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Aimee M; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Schechter, Clyde B; Stoto, Michael A

    2012-04-26

    Black women in the District of Columbia (DC) have the highest breast cancer mortality in the US. Local cancer control planners are interested in how to most efficiently reduce this mortality. An established simulation model was adapted to reflect the experiences of Black women in DC and estimate the past and future impact of changes in use of screening and adjuvant treatment. The model estimates that the observed reduction in mortality that occurred from 1975 to 2007 attributable to screening, treatment, and both was 20.2%, 25.7%, and 41.0% respectively. The results suggest that, by 2020, breast cancer mortality among Black women in DC could be reduced by 6% more by initiating screening at age 40 vs. age 50. Screening annually may also reduce mortality to a greater extent than biennially, albeit with a marked increase in false positive screening rates. This study demonstrates how modeling can provide data to assist local planners as they consider different cancer control policies based on their individual populations.

  14. Differences in Age-Standardized Mortality Rates for Avoidable Deaths Based on Urbanization Levels in Taiwan, 1971–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    The World is undergoing rapid urbanization, with 70% of the World population expected to live in urban areas by 2050. Nevertheless, nationally representative analysis of the health differences in the leading causes of avoidable mortality disaggregated by urbanization level is lacking. We undertake a study of temporal trends in mortality rates for deaths considered avoidable by the Concerted Action of the European Community on Avoidable Mortality for four different levels of urbanization in Taiwan between 1971 and 2008. We find that for virtually all causes of death, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) were lower in more urbanized than less urbanized areas, either throughout the study period, or by the end of the period despite higher rates in urbanized areas initially. Only breast cancer had consistently higher AMSRs in more urbanized areas throughout the 38-year period. Further, only breast cancer, lung cancer, and ischemic heart disease witnessed an increase in ASMRs in one or more urbanization categories. More urbanized areas in Taiwan appear to enjoy better indicators of health outcomes in terms of mortality rates than less urbanized areas. Access to and the availability of rich healthcare resources in urban areas may have contributed to this positive result. PMID:24503974

  15. Cause-specific premature death from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India: Estimate adjusted for baseline mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sourangsu; Dey, Sagnik

    2016-05-01

    In India, more than a billion population is at risk of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration exceeding World Health Organization air quality guideline, posing a serious threat to health. Cause-specific premature death from ambient PM2.5 exposure is poorly known for India. Here we develop a non-linear power law (NLP) function to estimate the relative risk associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure using satellite-based PM2.5 concentration (2001-2010) that is bias-corrected against coincident direct measurements. We show that estimate of annual premature death in India is lower by 14.7% (19.2%) using NLP (integrated exposure risk function, IER) for assumption of uniform baseline mortality across India (as considered in the global burden of disease study) relative to the estimate obtained by adjusting for state-specific baseline mortality using GDP as a proxy. 486,100 (811,000) annual premature death in India is estimated using NLP (IER) risk functions after baseline mortality adjustment. 54.5% of premature death estimated using NLP risk function is attributed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 24.0% to ischemic heart disease (IHD), 18.5% to stroke and the remaining 3.0% to lung cancer (LC). 44,900 (5900-173,300) less premature death is expected annually, if India achieves its present annual air quality target of 40μgm(-3). Our results identify the worst affected districts in terms of ambient PM2.5 exposure and resulting annual premature death and call for initiation of long-term measures through a systematic framework of pollution and health data archive.

  16. Predictors of Fear of Death and Self-Mortality: An Atlantic Canadian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Trinda L.; Smith, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    This research was undertaken to explore gender, religiosity, perceived time-left-to-live and the interactions between these variables as predictors of fear of death in 144 Atlantic Canadian students using the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS). Predictions about cause, age, marital status, and place of death were also derived from the…

  17. Persistence of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus delays mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Persistent infection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) (also called IHHNV) and its non-infectious inserts in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (P. monodon) genome are commonly found without apparent disease. Here, we introduced the method of multiplex PCR in order to differentiate shrimp with viral inserts from ones with the infectious virus. The method allowed us to study the effect of pre-infection of IHHNV, in comparison to IHHNV inserts, on WSSV resistance in P. monodon. Results A multiplex PCR system was developed to amplify the entire IHHNV genome, ensuring the accurate diagnosis. Field samples containing IHHNV DNA templates as low as 20 pg or equivalent 150 viral copies can be detected by this method. By challenging the two groups of diagnosed shrimp with WSSV, we found that shrimp with IHHNV infection and those with viral inserts responded to WSSV differently. Considering cumulative mortality, average time to death of shrimp in IHHNV-infected group (day 14) was significantly delayed relative to that (day 10) of IHHNV-inserted group. Real-time PCR analysis of WSSV copy number indicated the lower amount of WSSV in the IHHNV-infected group than the virus-inserted group. The ratio of IHHNV: WSSV copy number in all determined IHHNV-infected samples ranged from approximately 4 to 300-fold. Conclusion The multiplex PCR assay developed herein proved optimal for convenient differentiation of shrimp specimens with real IHHNV infection and those with insert types. Diagnosed shrimp were also found to exhibit different WSSV tolerance. After exposed to WSSV, the naturally pre-infected IHHNV P. monodon were less susceptible to WSSV and, consequently, survived longer than the IHHNV-inserted shrimp. PMID:23414329

  18. An international delphi study of the causes of death and the criteria used to assign cause of death in bovine perinatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, J F; Sanchez-Miguel, C; Doherty, M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to elicit opinion from two groups of veterinarians [subject matter experts and non-subject matter experts] about the causes of bovine perinatal mortality and the criteria used to assign such causes. The subject matter experts were selected on the basis of their scientific publications or experience of working in a veterinary diagnostic or research laboratory in the area of bovine perinatal mortality. The non-subject matter experts were self-selected as cattle veterinarians without particular expertise in bovine perinatology. A total of 74 veterinarians (46 subject matter experts and 28 non-subject matter experts) from 23 countries responded. The study was conducted using Delphi methodology over seven rounds. Respondents were asked to agree the causes of bovine perinatal mortality and for each cause to agree the supporting diagnostic criteria. There was a close agreement between groups on 16 causes of death apart from intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) and micronutrient imbalances which were accepted by fewer subject matter experts. There was inter-group consensus on the criteria to diagnose accidents, congenital defects, dystocia, hyperthermia, infections, premature placental separation, prematurity and prolonged calving. There was inter-group consensus on the criteria to diagnose anoxia, apart from gingival cyanosis; on haemorrhage, apart from haemorrhagic anaemia; on IUGR, apart from organ weights; and on iodine imbalance, apart from goitre and thyroid iodine content. The results from this study highlighted the current lack of standardization of the criteria used to define the cause of death for bovine perinatal mortality and the need for such standardization.

  19. Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiter are both associated with increased mortality but differ with respect to the cause of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperthyroidism has been associated with increased all-cause mortality. Whether the underlying cause of hyperthyroidism influences this association is unclear. Our objectives were to explore whether mortality risk and cause of death differ between Graves' disease (GD) and toxic nodular...... associated with increased all-cause mortality. After stratification for the cause of death, GD was associated with increased mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (HR=1.49 [CI 1.25-1.77]) and lung diseases (HR=1.91 [CI 1.37-2.65]), whereas TNG was associated with increased cancer mortality (HR=1.36 [CI 1.......06-1.75]). When analyzing mortality in GD using TNG individuals as controls, there was no significant difference in all-cause mortality between GD and TNG. However, GD was clearly associated with a higher cardiovascular mortality (HR=1.39 [CI 1.10-1.76]) compared to TNG. Conclusion: Both GD and TNG, treated...

  20. Present and potential future contributions of sulfate, black and organic carbon aerosols from China to global air quality, premature mortality and radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikawa, Eri; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Liu, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Aerosols are harmful to human health and have both direct and indirect effects on climate. China is a major contributor to global emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2), a sulfate (SO 42-) precursor, organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) aerosols. Although increasingly examined, the effect of present and potential future levels of these emissions on global premature mortality and climate change has not been well quantified. Through both direct radiative effects and indirect effects on clouds, SO 42- and OC exert negative radiative forcing (cooling) while BC exerts positive forcing (warming). We analyze the effect of China's emissions of SO 2, SO 42-, OC and BC in 2000 and for three emission scenarios in 2030 on global surface aerosol concentrations, premature mortality, and radiative forcing (RF). Using global models of chemical transport (MOZART-2) and radiative transfer (GFDL RTM), and combining simulation results with gridded population data, mortality rates, and concentration-response relationships from the epidemiological literature, we estimate the contribution of Chinese aerosols to global annual premature mortality and to RF in 2000 and 2030. In 2000, we estimate these aerosols cause approximately 470 000 premature deaths in China and an additional 30 000 deaths globally. In 2030, aggressive emission controls lead to a 50% reduction in premature deaths from the 2000 level to 240 000 in China and 10 000 elsewhere, while under a high emissions scenario premature deaths increase 50% from the 2000 level to 720 000 in China and to 40 000 elsewhere. Because the negative RF from SO 42- and OC is larger than the positive forcing from BC, Chinese aerosols lead to global net direct RF of -74 mW m -2 in 2000 and between -15 and -97 mW m -2 in 2030 depending on the emissions scenario. Our analysis indicates that increased effort to reduce greenhouse gases is essential to address climate change as China's anticipated reduction of aerosols will result in the

  1. Modelling the black death. A historical case study and implications for the epidemiology of bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Monecke, Hannelore; Monecke, Jochen

    2009-12-01

    We analysed a plague outbreak in the mining town of Freiberg in Saxony which started in May 1613 and ended in February 1614. This epidemic was selected for study because of the high quality of contemporary sources. It was possible to identify 1400 individual victims meaning that more than 10% of the population of the city perished. The outbreak was modelled by 9 differential equations describing flea, rat, and human populations. This resulted in a close fit to the historical records of this outbreak. An interesting implication of the model is that the introduction of even a small number of immune rats into an otherwise unchanged setting results in an abortive outbreak with very few human victims. Hence, the percentage of immune rats directly influences the magnitude of a human epidemic by diverting search activities of the fleas. Thus, we conclude that the spread of Rattus norvegicus, which might acquire partial herd immunity by exposure to soil- or water-borne Yersinia species due to its preference for wet habitats, contributed to the disappearance of Black Death epidemics from Europe in the 18th century. In order to prove whether or not the parameter values obtained by fitting a given outbreak are also applicable to other cases, we modelled the plague outbreak in Bombay 1905/06 using the same parameter values except for the number of humans as well as of immune and susceptible rats.

  2. Network theory may explain the vulnerability of medieval human settlements to the Black Death pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José M; Verdú, Miguel

    2017-03-06

    Epidemics can spread across large regions becoming pandemics by flowing along transportation and social networks. Two network attributes, transitivity (when a node is connected to two other nodes that are also directly connected between them) and centrality (the number and intensity of connections with the other nodes in the network), are widely associated with the dynamics of transmission of pathogens. Here we investigate how network centrality and transitivity influence vulnerability to diseases of human populations by examining one of the most devastating pandemic in human history, the fourteenth century plague pandemic called Black Death. We found that, after controlling for the city spatial location and the disease arrival time, cities with higher values of both centrality and transitivity were more severely affected by the plague. A simulation study indicates that this association was due to central cities with high transitivity undergo more exogenous re-infections. Our study provides an easy method to identify hotspots in epidemic networks. Focusing our effort in those vulnerable nodes may save time and resources by improving our ability of controlling deadly epidemics.

  3. Network theory may explain the vulnerability of medieval human settlements to the Black Death pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José M.; Verdú, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Epidemics can spread across large regions becoming pandemics by flowing along transportation and social networks. Two network attributes, transitivity (when a node is connected to two other nodes that are also directly connected between them) and centrality (the number and intensity of connections with the other nodes in the network), are widely associated with the dynamics of transmission of pathogens. Here we investigate how network centrality and transitivity influence vulnerability to diseases of human populations by examining one of the most devastating pandemic in human history, the fourteenth century plague pandemic called Black Death. We found that, after controlling for the city spatial location and the disease arrival time, cities with higher values of both centrality and transitivity were more severely affected by the plague. A simulation study indicates that this association was due to central cities with high transitivity undergo more exogenous re-infections. Our study provides an easy method to identify hotspots in epidemic networks. Focusing our effort in those vulnerable nodes may save time and resources by improving our ability of controlling deadly epidemics. PMID:28262733

  4. HIV and hepatitis C mortality in Massachusetts, 2002-2011: spatial cluster and trend analysis of HIV and HCV using multiple cause of death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Meyers

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases, while associated with a much smaller proportion of deaths than they were 50 years ago, still play a significant role in mortality across the state of Massachusetts. Most analysis of infectious disease mortality in the state only take into account the underlying cause of death, rather than contributing causes of death, which may not capture the full extent of mortality trends for infectious diseases such as HIV and the Hepatitis C virus (HCV.In this study we sought to evaluate current trends in infectious disease mortality across the state using a multiple cause of death methodology. We performed a mortality trend analysis, identified spatial clusters of disease using a 5-step geoprocessing approach and examined spatial-temporal clustering trends in infectious disease mortality in Massachusetts from 2002-2011, with a focus on HIV/AIDS and HCV.Significant clusters of high infectious disease mortality in space and time throughout the state were detected through both spatial and space time cluster analysis. The most significant clusters occurred in Springfield, Worcester, South Boston, the Merrimack Valley, and New Bedford with other smaller clusters detected across the state. Multiple cause of death mortality rates were much higher than underlying cause mortality alone, and significant disparities existed across race and age groups.We found that our multi-method analyses, which focused on contributing causes of death, were more robust than analyses that focused on underlying cause of death alone. Our results may be used to inform public health resource allocation for infectious disease prevention and treatment programs, provide novel insight into the current state of infectious disease mortality throughout the state, and benefited from approaches that may more accurately document mortality trends.

  5. Cause of Death in Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Nepal Obtained Through Community-Based Surveillance: Is Reducing Maternal Mortality the Right Priority for Women's Health Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakurel, Ram; Sharma, Nirmala; Paudel, Deepak; Coghill, Anna; Sinden, Laura; Bost, Liberty; Larkin, Melissa; Burrus, Carla Jean; Roy, Khrist

    2015-01-01

    We used a community surveillance system to gather information regarding pregnancy outcomes and the cause of death for women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kanchanpur, Nepal. A total of 784 mother groups participated in the collection of pregnancy outcomes and mortality data. Of the 273 deaths among WRA, the leading causes of death reported were chronic diseases (94, 34.4%) poisoning, snake bites, and suicide (grouped together; 55, 20.1%), and accidents (29, 10.6%), while maternal mortality accounted for 7%. Nevertheless, the calculated maternal mortality ratio was quite high (259.3 per 100,000 live births).

  6. Deaths in 122 U.S. cities - 1962-2016. 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file contains the complete set of data reported to 122 Cities Mortality Reposting System. The system was retired as of 10/6/2016. While the system was running...

  7. Study of coverage of confidence intervals for the standardized mortality ratio in studies with missing death certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timkova, Jana; Kotik, Lukas; Tomasek, Ladislav

    2017-08-16

    This paper assesses the coverage probability of commonly used confidence intervals for the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) when death certificates are missing. It also proposes alternative confidence interval approaches with coverage probabilities close to .95. In epidemiology, the SMR is an important measure of risk of disease mortality (or incidence) to compare a specific group to a reference population. The appropriate confidence interval for the SMR is crucial, especially when the SMR is close to 1.0 and the statistical significance of the risk needs to be determined. There are several ways to calculate confidence intervals, depending on a study characteristics (ie, studies with small number of deaths, studies with small counts, aggregate SMRs based on several countries or time periods, and studies with missing death certificates). This paper summarizes the most commonly used confidence intervals and newly applies several existing approaches not previously used for SMR confidence intervals. The coverage probability and length of the different confidence intervals are assessed using a simulation study and different scenarios. The performance of the confidence intervals for the lung cancer SMR and all other cancer SMR is also assessed using the dataset of French and Czech uranium miners. Finally, the most appropriate confidence intervals to use under different study scenarios are recommended. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. MORTALITY AND CAUSE OF DEATH IN ABUTH, ZARIA: 1999 – 2005

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: From May 1999 to November 2005, all case folders of de- ceased patients were retrieved .... ing workshop for all the medical doctors, nurses and staff of HMI ... The framework for analysis is based on the causes of death classification.

  9. Death rests a while: holy day and Sabbath effects on Jewish mortality in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, J; Anson, O

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand previous research examining the association between holy days and the timing of death. We analysed daily numbers of deaths of Jewish men and women aged 35 and above in Israel from 1983 to 1992, controlling for long term and seasonal trends. For all men, and for younger women (ages 35-74) there was a clear and significant dip-peak pattern in the number of deaths around the Sabbath (Saturday), but no consistent dip-peak pattern around other holy days. This pattern was found for all causes of death (particularly cerebro-vascular causes), was stronger for men than for women, and was not found among young Jewish children, or among the non-Jewish population.

  10. A prospective study of statin use and mortality among 67,385 blacks and whites in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipworth L

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Loren Lipworth,1 Sergio Fazio,1,2 Edmond K Kabagambe,1 Heather M Munro,3 Victor C Nwazue,1 Robert E Tarone,3 Joseph K McLaughlin,3 William J Blot,1,3 Uchechukwu KA Sampson1,2,41Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; 4Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USAPurpose: The primary objective of this study is to examine the race-specific associations between statin use and overall mortality, as well as cardiovascular and cancer mortality, among blacks and whites in the Southeastern United States (US. Little is known about these associations in blacks.Patients and methods: The Southern Community Cohort Study is an ongoing, prospective cohort study, which enrolled from 2002 through 2009 nearly 86,000 participants aged 40–79 years. We used Cox regression models to estimate race-specific hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI for overall and cause-specific mortality associated with statin use based on self-reported hypercholesterolemia and treatment at cohort entry. Mean age at cohort entry was 51.4 years in blacks (n=48,825 and 53.5 years in whites (n=18,560. Sixty-one percent of participants were women. Whites were more likely to have self-reported hypercholesterolemia (40% versus 27%, P<0.001, and to report being treated with either statins (52% versus 47%, P<0.001 or combination lipid therapy (9% versus 4%, P<0.001 compared with blacks, regardless of sex. During follow-up (median: 5.6 years 5,199 participants died. Compared with untreated hypercholesterolemic individuals, statin use was associated with reduced all-cause mortality (adjusted HR [aHR] 0.86; 95% CI 0.77–0.95 and cardiovascular disease mortality overall (aHR 0.75; 95% CI 0.64–0.89 and among whites (aHR 0.67; 95

  11. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations

  12. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naghavi, Mohsen; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Arnlov, Johan; Afshin, Ashkan; Agrawal, Anurag; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadi, Alireza; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Aiyar, Sneha; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Tahiya; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Ali, Syed Danish; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkaabi, Juma M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Christine; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Amoako, Yaw Ampem; Anber, Nahla; Andersen, Hjalte H.; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Androudi, Sofia; Ansari, Hossein; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arora, Megha; Artaman, Al; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Asayesh, Hamid; Asgedom, Solomon W.; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Paulina, Beatriz; Quintanilla, Ayala; Bejot, Yannick; Babalola, Tesleem Kayode; Bacha, Umar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Barac, Aleksandra; Barboza, Miguel A.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Bayu Begashaw; Bell, Michelle L.; Bennett, James R.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabe, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beuran, Mircea; Bhatt, Samir; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Bisanzio, Donal; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Negesa, Lemma; Bulto, Bulto; Bumgarner, Blair R.; Butt, Zahid A.; Cardenas, Rosario; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Cameron, Ewan; Cesar Campuzano, Julio; Car, Josip; Jesus Carrero, Juan; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Chitheer, Abdulaal A.; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cirillo, Massimo; Cohen, Aaron J.; Colombara, Danny; Cooper, Cyrus; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I.; das Neves, Jose; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Davletov, Kairat; de Courten, Barbora; Degenhardt, Louisa; Deiparine, Selina; Deribe, Kebede; Deribew, Amare; Dey, Subhojit; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Djalalinia, Shirin; Huyen Phuc Do,; Doku, David Teye; Douwes-Schultz, Dirk; Driscoll, Tim R.; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Echko, Michelle; El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad; Ellingsen, Christian Lycke; Enayati, Ahmadali; Erskine, Holly E.; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Esteghamati, Alireza; Ermakov, Sergey P.; Estep, Kara; E Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Filip, Irina; Finegold, Samuel; Fischer, Florian; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Frank, Tahvi; Fraser, Maya; Fullman, Nancy; Furst, Thomas; Furtado, Joao M.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Gebre, Teshome; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Genova-Maleras, Ricard; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Gething, Peter W.; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Godwin, William W.; Gold, Audra L.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Gona, Philimon N.; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gouda, Hebe N.; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Griswold, Max; Gupta, Prakash C.; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Tanush; Gupta, Vipin; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Hareri, Habtamu Abera; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; He, Fei; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Henry, Nathaniel J.; Beatriz Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Herteliu, Claudiu; Hoek, Hans W.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Huynh, Chantal; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Ikeda, Chad; Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile; Irenso, Asnake Ararsa; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter; Irenso, Asnake Ararsa; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter; Jurisson, Mikk; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jha, Vivekanand; John, Denny; Johnson, Catherine O.; Johnson, Sarah Charlotte; Jonas, Jost B.; Kabir, Zubair; Kadel, Rajendra; Kahsay, Amaha; Kamal, Ritul; Karch, Andre; Karimi, Seyed M.; Karimkhani, Chante; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassaw, Nigussie Assefa; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Kawakami, Norito; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemmer, Laura; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khoja, Abdullah Tawfih Abdullah; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kieling, Christian; Kievlan, Daniel; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kissoon, Niranjan; Kivimaki, Mika; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kopec, Jacek A.; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kulikoff, Xie Rachel; Kumar, G. Anil; Kumar, Pushpendra; Kutz, Michael; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Paul H.; Leigh, James; Leung, Janni; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yongmei; Kappe, Darya Li; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liben, Misgan Legesse; Lim, Stephen S.; Liu, Angela; Liu, Patrick Y.; Liu, Yang; Lodha, Rakesh; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lorkowski, Stefan; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Rafael; Lucas, Timothy C. D.; Ma, Stefan; Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King; Maddison, Emilie R.; Abd el Razek, Mohammed Magdy; Majdan, Marek; Majdzadeh, Reza; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rajesh; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Manguerra, Helena; Manyazewal, Tsegahun; Mapoma, Chabila C.; Marczak, Laurie B.; Markos, Desalegn; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlandio; Martopullo, Ira; McAlinden, Colm; McGaughey, Madeline; McGrath, John J.; Mehata, Suresh; Meier, Toni; Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese; Menota, Bereket Gebremichael; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Millear, Anoushka; Miller, Ted R.; Minnig, Shawn; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen Liddell D.; Mollenkopf, Sarah K.; Molokhia, Mariam; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio C.; Montico, Marcella; Mooney, Meghan D.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moraga, Paula; Morawska, Lidia; Morrison, Shane D.; Morozoff, Chloe; Mountjoy-Venning, Cliff; Mruts, Kalayu Birhane; Muller, Kate; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Nachega, Jean B.; Naheed, Aliya; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Nasher, Jamal T.; Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan; Negoi, Ionut; Ngunjiri, Josephine Wanjiku; Cuong Tat Nguyen,; Grant Nguyen,; Minh Nguyen, [No Value; Quyen Le Nguyen, [Unknown; Trang Huyen Nguyen,; Nichols, Emma; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Vuong Minh Nong,; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Okoro, Anselm; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Olsen, Helen E.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Ong, Kanyin; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Osman, Majdi; Ota, Erika; Pa, Mahesh; Pacella, Rosana E.; Pakhale, Smita; Pana, Adrian; Panda, Basant Kumar; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paudel, Deepak; Paulson, Katherine; Pereira, David M.; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Plass, Dietrich; Pletcher, Martin A.; Polinder, Suzanne; Postma, Maarten J.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Purcell, Caroline; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Rankin, Zane; Rao, Puja C.; Rath, Goura Kishor; Rawaf, Salman; Ray, Sarah E.; Rehm, Jurgen; Reiner, Robert C.; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Rezaei, Satar; Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Rokni, Mohammad Bagher; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saadat, Rizwan S. A. Soheil; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Sadat, Nafis; Safdarian, Mahdi; Safi, Sare; Safiri, Saeid; Sagar, Rajesh; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Salama, Joseph; Salamati, Payman; Salomon, Joshua A.; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria; Santomauro, Damian; Santos, Itamar S.; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Shahraz, Saeid; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Schwendicke, Falk; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya Anne; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shamsipour, Mansour; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Sharma, Jayendra; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shey, Muki; Shi, Peilin; Shields, Chloe; Shields, Chloe; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shirude, Shreya; Shiue, Ivy; Shoman, Haitham; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silpakit, Naris; Silva, Joao Pedro; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Sligar, Amber; Smith, Alison; Smith, David L.; Smith, Mari; Sobaih, Badr H. A.; Soneji, Samir; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Soriano, Joan B.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Srinivasan, Vinay; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steel, Nicholas; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Steinke, Sabine; Stokes, Mark Andrew; Strong, Mark; Strub, Bryan; Subart, Michelle; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Sur, Patrick J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar; Takahashi, Ken; Takala, Jukka S.; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taveira, Nuno; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thakur, J. S.; Thamsuwan, Ornwipa; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman; Thomas, Katie E.; Thompson, Alex H.; Thomson, Alan J.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Topor-Madry, Roman; Torre, Anna; Tortajada, Miguel; Towbin, Jeffrey Allen; Bach Xuan Tran,; Troeger, Christopher; Truelsen, Thomas; Tsoi, Derrick; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Updike, Rachel; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. Chudi; van Boven, Job F. M.; Vasankari, Tommi; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Wakayo, Tolassa; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whetter, Brian; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Woldeyes, Belete Getahun; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Woodbrook, Rachel; Workicho, Abdulhalik; Xavier, Denis; Xiao, Qingyang; Xu, Gelin; Yaghoubi, Mohsen; Yakob, Bereket; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Yimam, Hassen Hamid; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Yotebieng, Marcel; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew; Zerfu, Taddese Alemu; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Zhang, Xueying; Zipkin, Ben; Zodpey, Sanjay; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations

  13. Fenomen śmierci i umierania - rozważania o mojej śmiertelności (THE PHENOMENON OF DEATH AND DYING. A MEDITATION ON MY MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Fai Cheung

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of death and mortality of self. The author considers differences between the Western and Chinese culture regarding the attitude toward death. He contrasts European thought about death, especially that included in Mesopotamian, Greek and Hebrew mythology and Plato's, Theognis', Epicurus', Epictetus', Wittgenstein's, Marcel's or Heidegger's philosophy, with Taoist and Confucian ideas. From Western perspective death seems to make life senseless, whereas Chinese culture perceives mortality as an integral element of nature and life. The author's analysis of 'the uncertain certainty of my death and the unnecessary necessity of my life' leads him to a conclusion that because of existence of love 'death is meaningful and life is therefore worth living'.

  14. Mortality Rates and Causes of Death of Convicted Dutch Criminals 25 Years Later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    Extant theory hypothesizes that offenders have greater risk of premature and unnatural death than nonoffenders, but few studies have assessed this hypothesis; those doing so have relied on U.S. samples of male offenders typically followed until midlife. This article examines the relation between cri

  15. Mortality Rates and Causes of Death of Convicted Dutch Criminals 25 Years Later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    Extant theory hypothesizes that offenders have greater risk of premature and unnatural death than nonoffenders, but few studies have assessed this hypothesis; those doing so have relied on U.S. samples of male offenders typically followed until midlife. This article examines the relation between cri

  16. Mortality burden of the A/H1N1 pandemic in Mexico: a comparison of deaths and years of life lost to seasonal influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charu, Vivek; Chowell, Gerardo; Palacio Mejia, Lina Sofia; Echevarría-Zuno, Santiago; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A; Viboud, Cécile

    2011-11-01

    The mortality burden of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic remains controversial, in part because of delays in reporting of vital statistics that are traditionally used to measure influenza-related excess mortality. Here, we compare excess mortality rates and years of life lost (YLL) for pandemic and seasonal influenza in Mexico and evaluate laboratory-confirmed death reports. Monthly age- and cause-specific death rates from January 2000 through April 2010 and population-based surveillance of influenza virus activity were used to estimate excess mortality and YLL in Mexico. Age-stratified laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 death reports were obtained from an active surveillance system covering 40% of the population. The A/H1N1 pandemic was associated with 11.1 excess all-cause deaths per 100,000 population and 445,000 YLL during the 3 waves of virus activity in Mexico, April-December 2009. The pandemic mortality burden was 0.6-2.6 times that of a typical influenza season and lower than that of the severe 2003-2004 influenza epidemic. Individuals aged 5-19 and 20-59 years were disproportionately affected relative to their experience with seasonal influenza. Laboratory-confirmed deaths captured 1 of 7 pandemic excess deaths overall but only 1 of 41 deaths in persons >60 years of age in 2009. A recrudescence of excess mortality was observed in older persons during winter 2010, in a period when influenza and respiratory syncytial virus cocirculated. Mexico experienced higher 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic mortality burden than other countries for which estimates are available. Further analyses of detailed vital statistics are required to assess geographical variation in the mortality patterns of this pandemic.

  17. Excess mortality, causes of death and life expectancy in 270,770 patients with recent onset of mental disorders in Denmark, Finland and Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Nordentoft

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excess mortality among patients with severe mental disorders has not previously been investigated in detail in large complete national populations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the excess mortality in different diagnostic categories due to suicide and other external causes of death, and due to specific causes in connection with diseases and medical conditions. METHODS: In longitudinal national psychiatric case registers from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, a cohort of 270,770 recent-onset patients, who at least once during the period 2000 to 2006 were admitted due to a psychiatric disorder, were followed until death or the end of 2006. They were followed for 912,279 person years, and 28,088 deaths were analyzed. Life expectancy and standardized cause-specific mortality rates were estimated in each diagnostic group in all three countries. RESULTS: The life expectancy was generally approximately 15 years shorter for women and 20 years shorter for men, compared to the general population. Mortality due to diseases and medical conditions was increased two- to three-fold, while excess mortality from external causes ranged from three- to 77-fold. Mortality due to diseases and medical conditions was generally lowest in patients with affective disorders and highest in patients with substance abuse and personality disorders, while mortality due to suicide was highest in patients with affective disorders and personality disorders, and mortality due to other external causes was highest in patients with substance abuse. CONCLUSIONS: These alarming figures call for action in order to prevent the high mortality.

  18. Join me in Death: Managing Mortality Salience via Mediated Social Encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Frischlich, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The synopsis of this cumulative dissertation reports the theoretical background, methodology and main results of five studies addressing the role of intergroup versus interpersonal similarities for mediated social encounters under conditions of mortality salience (MS). Drawing upon terror management theory (TMT, Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986) individuals were expected to prefer similar over dissimilar others under conditions of MS. In theory, similarity can take place on the intergr...

  19. The Sudden Death in the Young Case Registry: Collaborating to Understand and Reduce Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kristin M; Bienemann, Lauren; Camperlengo, Lena; Cottengim, Carri; Covington, Theresa M; Dykstra, Heather; Faulkner, Meghan; Kobau, Rosemarie; Erck Lambert, Alexa B; MacLeod, Heather; Parks, Sharyn E; Rosenberg, Ellen; Russell, Mark W; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Shaw, Esther; Tian, Niu; Whittemore, Vicky; Kaltman, Jonathan R

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge gaps persist about the incidence of and risk factors for sudden death in the young (SDY). The SDY Case Registry is a collaborative effort between the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Michigan Public Health Institute. Its goals are to: (1) describe the incidence of SDY in the United States by using population-based surveillance; (2) compile data from SDY cases to create a resource of information and DNA samples for research; (3) encourage standardized approaches to investigation, autopsy, and categorization of SDY cases; (4) develop partnerships between local, state, and federal stakeholders toward a common goal of understanding and preventing SDY; and (5) support families who have lost loved ones to SDY by providing resources on bereavement and medical evaluation of surviving family members. Built on existing Child Death Review programs and as an expansion of the Sudden Unexpected Infant Death Case Registry, the SDY Case Registry achieves its goals by identifying SDY cases, providing guidance to medical examiners/coroners in conducting comprehensive autopsies, evaluating cases through child death review and an advanced review by clinical specialists, and classifying cases according to a standardized algorithm. The SDY Case Registry also includes a process to obtain informed consent from next-of-kin to save DNA for research, banking, and, in some cases, diagnostic genetic testing. The SDY Case Registry will provide valuable incidence data and will enhance understanding of the characteristics of SDY cases to inform the development of targeted prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Increased mortality of black-browed albatross chicks at a colony heavily-infested with the tick Ixodes uriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, S; Haemig, P D; Olsen, B

    1999-09-01

    At Bird Island, South Georgia, we studied the effects of the tick Ixodes uriae on survival of chicks at two colonies of the black-browed albatross Diomedea melanophrys, one where most chicks were infested with ticks, the other where most chicks were tick-free. When the two colonies were compared, it was found that the colony heavily-infested with ticks had significantly greater chick mortality than the colony lightly-infested with ticks. However, within each of the two colonies, there was no significant difference in survival between chicks with ticks and those without ticks.

  1. Parental mortality rates in a western country after the death of a child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Smits, Luc J.M.; Li, Jiong

    2010-01-01

    within a larger sample and focus on adverse health effects as an objective measure of possible long-term effects of maladaptive grief reactions. Methods: For the time period between 1980 and 1996, all children in Denmark who died before 18 years of age were identified. Parents who had lost a child were...... was not greater for fathers than for mothers. Conclusions: The results of this study revealed no significant effect of sex of the deceased child on mortality in these bereaved parents. The results might differ if this study was replicated in a population with a different grief culture and, more importantly...

  2. What you count is what you target: the implications of maternal death classification for tracking progress towards reducing maternal mortality in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Suzanne; Bell, Jacqueline S; Graham, Wendy J

    2010-02-01

    The first target of the fifth United Nations Millennium Development Goal is to reduce maternal mortality by 75% between 1990 and 2015. This target is critically off track. Despite difficulties inherent in measuring maternal mortality, interventions aimed at reducing it must be monitored and evaluated to determine the most effective strategies in different contexts. In some contexts, the direct causes of maternal death, such as haemorrhage and sepsis, predominate and can be tackled effectively through providing access to skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care. In others, indirect causes of maternal death, such as HIV/AIDS and malaria, make a significant contribution and require alternative interventions. Methods of planning and evaluating maternal health interventions that do not differentiate between direct and indirect maternal deaths may lead to unrealistic expectations of effectiveness or mask progress in tackling specific causes. Furthermore, the need for additional or alternative interventions to tackle the causes of indirect maternal death may not be recognized if all-cause maternal death is used as the sole outcome indicator. This article illustrates the importance of differentiating between direct and indirect maternal deaths by analysing historical data from England and Wales and contemporary data from Ghana, Rwanda and South Africa. The principal aim of the paper is to highlight the need to differentiate deaths in this way when evaluating maternal mortality, particularly when judging progress towards the fifth Millennium Development Goal. It is recommended that the potential effect of maternity services failing to take indirect maternal deaths into account should be modelled.

  3. Post-Death Cloning of Endangered Jeju Black Cattle (Korean Native Cattle): Fertility and Serum Chemistry in a Cloned Bull and Cow and Their Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun Young; SONG, Dong Hwan; Park, Min Jee; Park, Hyo Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Choi, Hyun Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Kim, Young Hoon; MUN, Seong Ho; OH, Chang Eon; KO, Moon Suck; Lee, Dong Sun; Riu, Key Zung; Park, Se Pill

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To preserve Jeju black cattle (JBC; endangered native Korean cattle), a pair of cattle, namely a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a previous study. In the present study, we examined the in vitro fertilization and reproductive potentials of these post-death cloned animals. Sperm motility, in vitro fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in a post-death cloned bull (Heuk Oll Dolee) and an extinct nuclear donor b...

  4. Mortality from congenital abnormality in Malaysia 1991-1997: the effect of economic development on death due to congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J J

    2001-06-01

    An analysis was done of available data from the Department of Statistics Malaysia, on the type of congenital abnormality contributing to death, to determine whether progress in health care over recent years was associated with any decline in mortality from congenital abnormality. A significant decline in death due to congenital abnormality was observed between 1991 and 1996. This was attributable to a decline in deaths due to congenital heart disease occurring because of improvements in cardiac surgical services for infants. In 1997 death due to congenital heart disease increased significantly. This could be attributed to improvements in the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in the neonate.

  5. The burden of diabetes-related mortality in France in 2002: an analysis using both underlying and multiple causes of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romon, Isabelle; Jougla, Eric; Balkau, Beverley; Fagot-Campagna, Anne

    2008-01-01

    To describe the burden of diabetes-related mortality in France. Underlying and multiple causes (all causes listed) of death were extracted from the 2002 French national mortality registry. Death rates were standardized on the age structure of the European population. Diabetes was reported as the underlying cause of death in 11,177 certificates (2.1%), and as multiple causes in 29,357 certificates (5.3%), giving a ratio (multiple/underlying causes) of 2.6. When diabetes was a multiple cause, the mean age at death was 75 years in men, 81 years in women. The age-standardized mortality rates were 41.0/100,000 in men, 24.6/100,000 in women. The excess mortality observed in men (men/women ratio = 1.7) decreased with age. Geographic differences were observed: higher rates in the North-East, lower rates in the West of the country. In certificates mentioning diabetes, the most frequent cause of death was diseases of the circulatory system (76%). Coronary heart diseases, foot ulcers and renal diseases were more likely to be mentioned in certificates referring to diabetes than in those that did not. The use of multiple rather than underlying causes of death more than doubled diabetes-related mortality rates. While probably still under-estimated, the burden of diabetes-related mortality corresponds to a high proportion of the total mortality, especially in men. Geographic differences partially reflect disparities in diabetes prevalence. Causes more frequently associated with diabetes include coronary heart disease and complications related to neuropathy and nephropathy.

  6. Stellar Death by Black Hole: How Tidal Disruption Events Unveil the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Eric Robert

    2017-08-01

    When a star comes very close to a supermassive black hole, the tidal field of the hole can be strong enough to deform and stretch the star into a stream of debris. Half of this stellar debris stream returns to the black hole and forms an accretion disk, briefly lighting up the black hole and, in the most extreme cases, launching relativistic jets. These ``tidal disruption events,'' from the initial stellar destruction to the eventual jet production, are the focus of my thesis, and during this talk I will describe some of the theoretical advances we have made in understanding them. I will also discuss more recent work that shows how this relatively simple picture can be more complicated when the disrupting black hole is part of a binary system. Despite the added complexity, I will argue that there is a timescale over which one expects to see variation in the luminosity of a tidal disruption event from a binary supermassive black hole system. Using these predictions and a set of simulations, I will motivate such an interpretation for the superluminous supernova ASASSN-15lh.

  7. The Life-Value of Death: Mortality, Finitude, and Meaningful Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Noonan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In his seminal reflection on the badness of death, Nagel links it to the permanent loss “of whatever good there is in living.” I will argue, following McMurtry, that “whatever good there is in living” is defined by the life-value of resources, institutions, experiences, and activities. Enjoyed expressions of the human capacities to experience the world, to form relationships, and to act as creative agents are (with important qualifications intrinsically life-valuable, the reason why anyone would desire to go on living indefinitely. As Nagel argues, “the fact that we will eventually die in a few score years cannot by itself imply that it would not be good to live longer. If there is no limit to the amount of life that it would be good to have, then it may be that a bad end is in store for all of us.” In this paper I want to question whether in fact there is no limit to the amount of life it would be good to have. My general conclusion will be that it is not the case that the eternal or even indefinite prolongation of any particular individual life necessarily increases life-value. Were death thus somehow removed as an inescapable limiting frame on human life, overall reductions of life-value would be the consequence. Individual and collective life would lose those forms of moral and material life-value that form the bases of life’s being meaningful and purposive.

  8. Motor neuron disease mortality and lifetime petrol lead exposure: Evidence from national age-specific and state-level age-standardized death rates in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Laidlaw, Mark A S; Rowe, Dominic B; Ball, Andrew S; Mielke, Howard W

    2017-02-01

    The age standardized death rate from motor neuron disease (MND) for persons 40-84 years of age in the Australian States of New South Wales, Victoria, and Queensland increased dramatically from 1958 to 2013. Nationally, age-specific MND death rates also increased over this time period, but the rate of the rise varied considerably by age-group. The historic use of lead (Pb) additives in Australian petrol is a candidate explanation for these trends in MND mortality (International Classification of Disease (ICD)-10 G12.2). Leveraging temporal and spatial variation in petrol lead exposure risk resulting from the slow rise and rapid phase-out of lead as a constituent in gasoline in Australia, we analyze relationships between (1) national age-specific MND death rates in Australia and age-specific lifetime petrol lead exposure, (2) annual between-age dispersions in age-specific MND death rates and age-specific lifetime petrol lead exposure; and (3) state-level age-standardized MND death rates as a function of age-weighted lifetime petrol lead exposure. Other things held equal, we find that a one percent increase in lifetime petrol lead exposure increases the MND death rate by about one-third of one percent in both national age-specific and state-level age-standardized models of MND mortality. Lending support to the supposition that lead exposure is a driver of MND mortality risk, we find that the annual between-age group standard deviation in age-specific MND death rates is strongly correlated with the between-age standard deviation in age-specific lifetime petrol lead exposure. Legacy petrol lead emissions are associated with age-specific MND death rates as well as state-level age-standardized MND death rates in Australia. Results indicate that we are approaching peak lead exposure-attributable MND mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular identification by “suicide PCR” of Yersinia pestis as the agent of Medieval Black Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoult, Didier; Aboudharam, Gérard; Crubézy, Eric; Larrouy, Georges; Ludes, Bertrand; Drancourt, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Medieval Black Death is believed to have killed up to one-third of the Western European population during the 14th century. It was identified as plague at this time, but recently the causative organism was debated because no definitive evidence has been obtained to confirm the role of Yersinia pestis as the agent of plague. We obtained the teeth of a child and two adults from a 14th century grave in France, disrupted them to obtain the pulp, and applied the new “suicide PCR” protocol in which the primers are used only once. There were no positive controls: Neither Yersinia nor Yersinia DNA were introduced in the laboratory. A negative result is followed by a new test using other primers; a positive result is followed by sequencing. The second and third primer pair used, coding for a part of the pla gene, generated amplicons whose sequence confirmed that it was Y. pestis in 1 tooth from the child and 19/19 teeth from the adults. Negative controls were negative. Attempts to detect the putative alternative etiologic agents Bacillus anthracis and Rickettsia prowazekii failed. Suicide PCR avoids any risk of contamination as it uses a single-shot primer—its specificity is absolute. We believe that we can end the controversy: Medieval Black Death was plague. PMID:11058154

  10. Locked in but Locked Out: Death Sentence for the Higher Education of Black Prison Inmates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Robert Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Argues that, although there are presently over 20,000 prison inmates, the largest of whom are black, enrolled in higher education programs, by 1996, there may be none. The author provides justification for prisoner rehabilitation, revealing the inadequacy of harsh punishment in stemming crime, and presents reasons why higher education in prisons…

  11. Black Duck Mortality in the Parker River Region, Winter 1949-1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the first 10 days of- March, 1950;, after a period of cold weather had sheathed: the tidal flats in ice, there was a moderate loss of wintering Black Ducks in...

  12. Mortality Rates Among Arab Americans in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Dallo, Florence J.; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, ...

  13. Cause of Death and Predictors of All‐Cause Mortality in Anticoagulated Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: Data From ROCKET AF

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorney, Sean D; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Patel, Manesh R.; Pieper, Karen S.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Günter; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A A

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is associated with higher mortality. Identification of causes of death and contemporary risk factors for all‐cause mortality may guide interventions. Methods and Results In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) study, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were randomized to rivaroxaban or dose‐adjusted warfarin. Cox prop...

  14. Cause of Death and Predictors of All‐Cause Mortality in Anticoagulated Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: Data From ROCKET AF

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorney, Sean D; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Patel, Manesh R.; Pieper, Karen S.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Breithardt, Günter; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hacke, Werner; Becker, Richard C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Fox, Keith A A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atrial fibrillation is associated with higher mortality. Identification of causes of death and contemporary risk factors for all‐cause mortality may guide interventions. Methods and Results: In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) study, patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation were randomized to rivaroxaban or dose‐adjusted warfarin. Cox pr...

  15. Collecting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Suicide and Other Violent Deaths: A Step Towards Identifying and Addressing LGBT Mortality Disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Ann P.; Lane, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Sexual orientation and gender identity (SO/GI) are not systematically recorded at time of death, limiting identification of mortality disparities in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. LGBT populations are thought to have elevated risk of suicide based on high rates of reported lifetime suicide attempts. Lack of data on suicide deaths, however, hinders understanding of the prevalence and patterns of suicide among LGBT populations and development of targeted interventions an...

  16. Blacks' Death Rate Due to Circulatory Diseases Is Positively Related to Whites' Explicit Racial Bias: A Nationwide Investigation Using Project Implicit

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of racial bias have been linked to poorer circulatory health among Blacks compared with Whites. However, little is known about whether Whites' actual racial bias contributes to this racial disparity in health. We compiled racial-bias data from 1,391,632 Whites and examined whether racial bias in a given county predicted Black-White disparities in circulatory-disease risk (access to health care, diagnosis of a circulatory disease; Study 1) and circulatory-disease-related death rate...

  17. Trends in educational mortality differentials in Austria between 1981/82 and 2001/2002: A study based on a linkage of census data and death certificates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Doblhammer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background -- Many studies for European populations found an increase in socio-economic mortality differentials during the last decades of the 20th century, at least in relative terms. The aim of our paper is to explore the situation in Austria, for a wide age range, over a period of 20 years. Methods -- Based on a linkage of census information and death certificates, we computed age and education specific death rates. We calculate life expectancies at age 35 by educational level as well as regression-based measures of absolute (SII and relative (RII inequality, for the periods 1981/82, 1991/92, and 2001/2002. Results -- Life expectancy increased faster for the higher educated in the 1980s, whereas this trend reversed in the following decade. For males at working ages an increase in relative mortality differentials was observed during the 1980s. Absolute mortality differentials decreased among elderly females in the 1990s, particularly for circulatory disease mortality. Altogether the educational pattern of mortality was rather stable in Austria at the end of the 20th century. Conclusions -- Compared with results from other countries, trends in educational mortality differentials seem to be rather favorable in Austria in the 1990s. A stable health care system, the healthy migrant effect, and relatively low unemployment rates may have contributed to stable mortality differentials. However, an important explanation is also the inclusion of higher ages in our study

  18. Trends in AIDS Deaths, New Infections and ART Coverage in the Top 30 Countries with the Highest AIDS Mortality Burden; 1990–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Reuben; Gupta, Somya; Hersh, Bradley; Williams, Brian; Montaner, Julio; Young, Benjamin; Zuniga, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, mortality and transmission. We assess the impact of expanded HIV treatment for the prevention of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths and simulate four treatment scenarios for Nigeria and South Africa. Methods For 1990–2013, we used the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) database to examine trends in AIDS deaths, HIV incidence and prevalence, ART coverage, annual AIDS death rate, AIDS death-to-treatment and HIV infections to treatment ratios for the top 30 countries with the highest AIDS mortality burden and compare them with data from high-income countries. We projected the 1990–2020 AIDS deaths for Nigeria and South Africa using four treatment scenarios: 1) no ART; 2) maintaining current ART coverage; 3) 90% ART coverage based on 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines by 2020; and 4) reaching the United Nations 90-90-90 Target by 2020. Findings In 2013, there were 1.3 million (1.1 million–1.6 million) AIDS deaths in the top 30 countries representing 87% of global AIDS deaths. Eight countries accounted for 58% of the global AIDS deaths; Nigeria and South Africa accounted for 27% of global AIDS deaths. The highest death rates per 1000 people living with HIV were in Central African Republic (91), South Sudan (82), Côte d’Ivoire (75), Cameroon (72) and Chad (71), nearly 8–10 times higher than the high-income countries. ART access in 2013 has averted as estimated 1,051,354 and 422,448 deaths in South Africa and Nigeria, respectively. Increasing ART coverage in these two countries to meet the proposed UN 90-90-90 Target by 2020 could avert 2.2 and 1.2 million deaths, respectively. Interpretation Over the past decade the expansion of access to ART averted millions of deaths. Reaching the proposed UN 90-90-90 Target by 2020 will prevent additional morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Despite progress

  19. Mortality among blood donors seropositive and seronegative for Chagas disease (1996-2000) in São Paulo, Brazil: A death certificate linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuani, Ligia; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Pereira Alencar, Airlane; Mendrone, Alfredo; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Custer, Brian; P Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Cerdeira Sabino, Ester

    2017-05-01

    Individuals in the indeterminate phase of Chagas disease are considered to have mortality rates similar to those of the overall population. This study compares mortality rates among blood donors seropositive for Chagas disease and negative controls in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study of blood donors from 1996 to 2000: 2842 seropositive and 5684 seronegative for Chagas disease. Death status was ascertained by performing probabilistic record linkage (RL) with the Brazil national mortality information system (SIM). RL was assessed in a previous validation study. Cox Regression was used to derive hazard ratios (HR), adjusting for confounders. RL identified 159 deaths among the 2842 seropositive blood donors (5.6%) and 103 deaths among the 5684 seronegative (1.8%). Out of the 159 deaths among seropositive donors, 26 had the 10th International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) indicating Chagas disease as the underlying cause of death (B57.0/B57.5), 23 had ICD-10 codes (I42.0/I42.2/I47.0/I47.2/I49.0/I50.0/I50.1/ I50.9/I51.7) indicating cardiac abnormalities possibly related to Chagas disease listed as an underlying or associated cause of death, with the others having no mention of Chagas disease in part I of the death certificate. Donors seropositive for Chagas disease had a 2.3 times higher risk of death due to all causes (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI), 1.8-3.0) than seronegative donors. When considering deaths due to Chagas disease or those that had underlying causes of cardiac abnormalities related to Chagas disease, seropositive donors had a risk of death 17.9 (95% CI, 6.3-50.8) times greater than seronegative donors. There is an excess risk of death in donors seropositive blood for Chagas disease compared to seronegative donors. Chagas disease is an under-reported cause of death in the Brazilian mortality database.

  20. Collecting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Suicide and Other Violent Deaths: A Step Towards Identifying and Addressing LGBT Mortality Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Ann P; Lane, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Sexual orientation and gender identity (SO/GI) are not systematically recorded at time of death, limiting identification of mortality disparities in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. LGBT populations are thought to have elevated risk of suicide based on high rates of reported lifetime suicide attempts. Lack of data on suicide deaths, however, hinders understanding of the prevalence and patterns of suicide among LGBT populations and development of targeted interventions and prevention programs. This report describes recent efforts to address this knowledge gap by systematically collecting SO/GI information in the investigation of suicide and other violent deaths.

  1. Audit of maternal mortality ratio and causes of maternal deaths in the largest maternity hospital in Cairo, Egypt (Kasr Al Aini) in 2008 and 2009: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Wael F; Ragab, Wael S; Aboulgheit, Samah S

    2013-09-01

    This study examined maternal deaths at Cairo University Maternity Hospital between January 2008 and December 2009. The aim was to calculate Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) as well as identify the causes and predisposing factors to maternal deaths. Data were collected from the files of the hospitalized pregnant women in the hospital. There were 38 maternal deaths and MMR was 79 per 100,000 live births for the two years examined. The main causes of death were obstetric hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and cardiac arrest. Substandard medical care and the delay in seeking of medical advice were two contributing factors to maternal deaths recorded. The need for audit and publication of all obstetric hospitals MMR to compare and identify areas of improvements is recommended.

  2. The Pretreatment Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio Is Associated with All-Cause Mortality in Black and White Patients with Non-metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, Joseph; Campbell, Jeff; Kim, Jae Hee; Tang, Shou-Ching; Kim, Sangmi

    2016-01-01

    The pretreatment neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived from differential white blood cell counts, has been previously associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Little data exist, however, concerning this association in Black patients, who are known to have lower neutrophil counts than other racial groups. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 236 Black and 225 non-Hispanic White breast cancer patients treated at a single institution. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were obtained from electronic medical records. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality in relation to pretreatment NLR. Overall, there were no associations between an elevated pretreatment NLR (NLR ≥3.7) and all-cause or breast cancer-specific mortality. Among patients without metastasis at the time of diagnosis, an elevated pretreatment NLR was independently associated with all-cause mortality, with a multivariable HR of 2.31 (95% CI: 1.10-4.86). Black patients had significantly lower NLR values than White patients, but there was no evidence suggesting racial heterogeneity of the prognostic utility of NLR. Pretreatment NLR was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality but not breast cancer-specific mortality in non-metastatic breast cancer patients.

  3. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background

    Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188

  4. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background

    Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countrie

  5. Comparison of cardiovascular mortality in the Great East Japan and the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquakes - a large-scale data analysis of death certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, Misa; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Nakai, Michikazu; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Ogawa, Hisao; Hirata, Ken-Ichi; Toh, Ryuji; Morino, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Naito, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Large earthquakes have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. In Japan, the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji (H-A) Earthquake was an urban-underground-type earthquake, whereas the 2011 Great East Japan (GEJ) Earthquake was an ocean-trench type. In the present study, we examined how these different earthquake types affected CVD mortality. We examined death certificate data from 2008 to 2012 for 131 municipalities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures (n=320,348) and from 1992 to 1996 for 220 municipalities in Hyogo, Osaka, and Kyoto prefectures (n=592,670). A Poisson regression model showed significant increases in the monthly numbers of acute myocardial infarction (AMI)-related deaths (incident rate ratio [IRR] GEJ=1.34, P=0.001; IRR of H-A=1.57, Pearthquakes. Two months after the earthquakes, AMI deaths remained significant only for H-A (IRR=1.13, P=0.029). When analyzing the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) after the earthquakes using the Cochran-Armitage trend test, seismic intensity was significantly associated with AMI mortality for 2 weeks after both the GEJ (P for trend=0.089) and H-A earthquakes (P for trend=0.005). Following the GEJ and H-A earthquakes, there was a sharp increase in CVD mortality. The effect of the disaster was sustained for months after the H-A earthquake, but was diminished after the GEJ Earthquake.

  6. Medical Care or Disciplinary Discourses? Preventive Measures against the Black Death in Late Medieval Paris: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong Jin; Park, Sam Hun

    2017-03-01

    This paper examined the political and social implications of the Compendium de epidemia prescription written by the Masters of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Paris in the mid-14th century during the Black Death. This study aimed to examine how the effects of power as a discourse owned by medical knowledge are revealed. This paper outlines the composition of the contents based on the 1888 edition edited and translated by Émile H. Rébouis and notes the features of the prescription examined by the existing study of medical history rather than the causes of diseases. Compendium de epidemia seems to have been written primarily for the royal family and nobles who ordered them when looking at prescription-related technologies. At the same time, under the influence of Islamic-Arabic academia, it clearly distinguishes the world of faith and the world of academia (intelligence), explaining the pathogenesis and infection pathways based on causality. The onset substrate is due to heat and humidity, and the prescription is to prevent the two from overdoing in the body. In particular, issues related to heat are criticized in connection with the value of life of knight-noblesse. This is in response to political criticism of the ineffectual French royal family and nobility at the beginning of the Hundred Years' War and shows why this tract sets the utilitas publica at the forefront as an important purpose. The conclusion has shown how medical knowledge produced on the Black Death pandemic how they function as discourses that have a sort of power effect on the value of life of knight-noblesse. It is necessary to conduct if these phenomena can be found in other contemporary medical writings.

  7. Trends in aortic aneurysm- and dissection-related mortality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 1985–2009: multiple-cause-of-death analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Augusto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic aneurysm and dissection are important causes of death in older people. Ruptured aneurysms show catastrophic fatality rates reaching near 80%. Few population-based mortality studies have been published in the world and none in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to use multiple-cause-of-death methodology in the analysis of mortality trends related to aortic aneurysm and dissection in the state of Sao Paulo, between 1985 and 2009. Methods We analyzed mortality data from the Sao Paulo State Data Analysis System, selecting all death certificates on which aortic aneurysm and dissection were listed as a cause-of-death. The variables sex, age, season of the year, and underlying, associated or total mentions of causes of death were studied using standardized mortality rates, proportions and historical trends. Statistical analyses were performed by chi-square goodness-of-fit and H Kruskal-Wallis tests, and variance analysis. The joinpoint regression model was used to evaluate changes in age-standardized rates trends. A p value less than 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results Over a 25-year period, there were 42,615 deaths related to aortic aneurysm and dissection, of which 36,088 (84.7% were identified as underlying cause and 6,527 (15.3% as an associated cause-of-death. Dissection and ruptured aneurysms were considered as an underlying cause of death in 93% of the deaths. For the entire period, a significant increased trend of age-standardized death rates was observed in men and women, while certain non-significant decreases occurred from 1996/2004 until 2009. Abdominal aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections prevailed among men and aortic dissections and aortic aneurysms of unspecified site among women. In 1985 and 2009 death rates ratios of men to women were respectively 2.86 and 2.19, corresponding to a difference decrease between rates of 23.4%. For aortic dissection, ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms, the

  8. Decomposing Black-White Disparities in Heart Disease Mortality in the United States, 1973-2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael R; Valderrama, Amy L; Casper, Michele L

    2015-08-15

    Against the backdrop of late 20th century declines in heart disease mortality in the United States, race-specific rates diverged because of slower declines among blacks compared with whites. To characterize the temporal dynamics of emerging black-white racial disparities in heart disease mortality, we decomposed race-sex-specific trends in an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of US mortality data for all diseases of the heart among adults aged ≥35 years from 1973 to 2010. The black-white gap was largest among adults aged 35-59 years (rate ratios ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 for men and from 2.3 to 4.0 for women) and widened with successive birth cohorts, particularly for men. APC model estimates suggested strong independent trends across generations ("cohort effects") but only modest period changes. Among men, cohort-specific black-white racial differences emerged in the 1920-1960 birth cohorts. The apparent strength of the cohort trends raises questions about life-course inequalities in the social and health environments experienced by blacks and whites which could have affected their biomedical and behavioral risk factors for heart disease. The APC results suggest that the genesis of racial disparities is neither static nor restricted to a single time scale such as age or period, and they support the importance of equity in life-course exposures for reducing racial disparities in heart disease.

  9. SOME REASONS OF DISPLACES OF THE NOMADIC TRIBES IN EURASIA AND EXAMPLE OF THE BLACK DEATH IN CAFFA, 1346

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet TEZCAN

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The nomadic tribes in Eurasian steppes, adopted a manner oflife in nomadism, were scarcely abandoning their own residences, towhich caused some factors like generally epidemics, famines, locustattacks, or dangerous foreign threats just as oppressions by theXiongnu (to the Yuezhi or the Chinese (to the Xiongnu etc. Beingone of the reasons which led the nomadic tribes as far as to theWestern Asia and the Middle Europe, the epidemics appeared also inEurasia from the very beginnings of the history and during the MiddleAges, and spread out in the Central Asia that was on the greatcommercial routes, through the great Silk Roads in general.The epidemic named as “Black Death” appeared north of theBlack Sea in Caffa in 1346 and very influenced Medieval Europenegatively, which, there existed the period of the “Hundred Years’War”. However, there is not any exact information about its origin.According to the available information and the report by Gabriele de’Mussi, it occurred first in China in 1320s, and expanded into the NearEast rapidly through the invasion routes of the Mongol armies andcommercial ones. When Janibek Khan, the khan of the Golden Hordebegan again to besiege Caffa in 1345, the Black Death occurredamong the Mongol army. And the two Genoese ships, departed fromCaffa and came in the Mediterranean Sea in 1347, caused itsexpansion to the whole European countries, except for only Polandand Czechoslovakia, in 1348-49, and then, to Russia in 1351-53.Consequently, thirty per cent of the European population perished.As to how the epidemic influenced the nomadic world inEurasia, there is not enough information about it. However, thanks toit, we can reach to some interesting valuable data about Mongolstrategies of warfare: upon that many Mongolian soldiers of theMongolian army died due to this epidemic, the Mongol khan heldresponsible the Genoese in Caffa for the death. He made their corpses thrown into the citadel by catapults, and then

  10. Assessing electronic death registration and american red cross systems for mortality surveillance during Hurricane Sandy, October 29-November 10, 2012, New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Renata E; Madsen, Ann M; Nicaj, Leze; Noe, Rebecca S; Casey-Lockyer, Mary; Begier, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    We briefly describe 2 systems that provided disaster-related mortality surveillance during and after Hurricane Sandy in New York City, namely, the New York City Health Department Electronic Death Registration System (EDRS) and the American Red Cross paper-based tracking system. Red Cross fatality data were linked with New York City EDRS records by using decedent name and date of birth. We analyzed cases identified by both systems for completeness and agreement across selected variables and the time interval between death and reporting in the system. Red Cross captured 93% (41/44) of all Sandy-related deaths; the completeness and quality varied by item, and timeliness was difficult to determine. The circumstances leading to death captured by Red Cross were particularly useful for identifying reasons individuals stayed in evacuation zones. EDRS variables were nearly 100% complete, and the median interval between date of death and reporting was 6 days (range: 0-43 days). Our findings indicate that a number of steps have the potential to improve disaster-related mortality surveillance, including updating Red Cross surveillance forms and electronic databases to enhance timeliness assessments, greater collaboration across agencies to share and use data for public health preparedness, and continued expansion of electronic death registration systems.

  11. Mortality from and incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea: findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between 2006 and 2010.

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    Eun Shil Cha

    Full Text Available Pesticide poisoning has been recognized as an important public health issue around the world. The objectives of this study were to report nationally representative figures on mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics. We calculated the age-standardized rates of mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea by gender and region from 2006 through 2010 using registered death data obtained from Statistics Korea and national healthcare utilization data obtained from the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of South Korea. During the study period of 2006 through 2010, a total of 16,161 deaths and 45,291 patients related to pesticide poisoning were identified, marking respective mortality and incidence rates of 5.35 and 15.37 per 100,000 population. Intentional self-poisoning was identified as the major cause of death due to pesticides (85.9% and accounted for 20.8% of all recorded suicides. The rates of mortality due to and incidence of pesticide poisoning were higher in rural than in urban areas, and this rural-urban discrepancy was more pronounced for mortality than for incidence. Both the rate of mortality due to pesticide poisoning and its incidence rate increased with age and were higher among men than women. This study provides the magnitude and epidemiologic characteristics for mortality from and the incidence of pesticide poisoning at the national level, and strongly suggests the need for further efforts to prevent pesticide self-poisonings, especially in rural areas in South Korea.

  12. Mortality in patients with HIV-1 and tuberculosis co-infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - associated factors and causes of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Escada, Rodrigo Otavio; Velasque, Luciane; Ribeiro, Sayonara Rocha; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Marins, Luana Monteiro Spindola; Grinsztejn, Eduarda; da Silva Lourenço, Maria Cristina; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves

    2017-05-30

    Tuberculosis is the most frequent opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death among persons living with HIV in several low and middle-income countries. Mortality rates during tuberculosis treatment and death causes among HIV-1/TB co-infected patients may differ based on the immunosuppression severity, timing of diagnosis and prompt initiation of tuberculosis and antiretroviral therapy. This was a retrospective observational study conducted in the clinical cohort of patients with HIV-1/Aids of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. All HIV-1 infected patients who started combination antiretroviral therapy up to 30 days before or within 180 days after the start of tuberculosis treatment from 2000 to 2010 were eligible. Causes of death were categorized according to the "Coding Causes of Death in HIV" (CoDe) protocol. The Cox model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of selected mortality variables. A total of 310 patients were included. Sixty-four patients died during the study period. Mortality rate following tuberculosis treatment initiation was 44 per 100 person-years within the first 30 days, 28.1 per 100 person-years within 31 and 90 days, 6 per 100 person-years within 91 and 365 days and 1.6 per 100 person-years after 365 days. Death probability within one year from tuberculosis treatment initiation was approximately 13%. In the adjusted analysis the associated factors with mortality were: CD4 ≤ 50 cells/mm3 (HR: 3.10; 95% CI: 1.720 to 5.580; p = 0.00); mechanical ventilation (HR: 2.81; 95% CI: 1.170 to 6.760; p = 0.02); and disseminated tuberculosis (HR: 3.70; 95% CI: 1.290 to 10.590, p = 0.01). Invasive bacterial disease was the main immediate cause of death (46.9%). Our results evidence the high morbidity and mortality among patients co-infected with HIV-1 and tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During the first year following tuberculosis diagnosis, mortality was the highest

  13. Risk of Mortality (Including Sudden Cardiac Death and Major Cardiovascular Events in Atypical and Typical Antipsychotic Users: A Study with the General Practice Research Database

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    Tarita Murray-Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Antipsychotics have been associated with increased cardiac events including mortality. This study assessed cardiac events including mortality among antipsychotic users relative to nonusers. Methods. The General Practice Research Database (GPRD was used to identify antipsychotic users, matched general population controls, and psychiatric diseased nonusers. Outcomes included cardiac mortality, sudden cardiac death (SCD, all-cause mortality (excluding suicide, coronary heart disease (CHD, and ventricular arrhythmias (VA. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for age, dose, duration, antipsychotic type, and psychiatric disease. Results. 183,392 antipsychotic users (115,491 typical and 67,901 atypical, 544,726 general population controls, and 193,920 psychiatric nonusers were identified. Nonusers with schizophrenia, dementia, or bipolar disorder had increased risks of all-cause mortality compared to general population controls, while nonusers with major depression had comparable risks. Relative to psychiatric nonusers, the adjusted relative ratios (aRR of all-cause mortality in antipsychotic users was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.64–1.87; cardiac mortality 1.72 (95% CI: 1.42–2.07; SCD primary definition 5.76 (95% CI: 2.90–11.45; SCD secondary definition 2.15 (95% CI: 1.64–2.81; CHD 1.16 (95% CI: 0.94–1.44; and VA 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.31. aRRs of the various outcomes were lower for atypical versus typical antipsychotics (all-cause mortality 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80–0.85; cardiac mortality 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82–0.97; and SCD secondary definition 0.76 (95% CI: 0.55–1.04. Conclusions. Antipsychotic users had an increased risk of cardiac mortality, all-cause mortality, and SCD compared to a psychiatric nonuser cohort.

  14. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    in those with below-average blood pressure; at older ages (70-89 years) and, particularly, for those with systolic blood pressure over about 145 mm Hg, total cholesterol was negatively related to haemorrhagic and total stroke mortality. The results for other vascular mortality were intermediate between......BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and blood pressure could modify the associations of total cholesterol (and its main two fractions, HDL and LDL cholesterol) with vascular mortality. This meta-analysis combined prospective studies of vascular mortality that recorded both blood pressure and total cholesterol...... and blood pressure. During nearly 12 million person years at risk between the ages of 40 and 89 years, there were more than 55,000 vascular deaths (34,000 ischaemic heart disease [IHD], 12,000 stroke, 10,000 other). Information about HDL cholesterol was available for 150,000 participants, among whom...

  15. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth

    2015-01-01

    the prominent role of reductions in age-standardised death rates for cardiovascular diseases and cancers in high-income regions, and reductions in child deaths from diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and neonatal causes in low-income regions. HIV/AIDS reduced life expectancy in southern sub-Saharan Africa...... disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus......BACKGROUND: Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries...

  16. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2015-01-01

    the prominent role of reductions in age-standardised death rates for cardiovascular diseases and cancers in high-income regions, and reductions in child deaths from diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and neonatal causes in low-income regions. HIV/AIDS reduced life expectancy in southern sub-Saharan Africa...... disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus......Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries...

  17. Changes in mortality rates and causes of death in a population-based cohort of persons living with and without HIV from 1996 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyawo, Oghenowede; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Hull, Mark W; Nohpal, Adriana; Samji, Hasina; Sereda, Paul; Lima, Viviane D; Shoveller, Jeannie; Moore, David; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S

    2017-02-27

    Non-HIV/AIDS-related diseases are gaining prominence as important causes of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare changes over time in mortality rates and causes of death among a population-based cohort of persons living with and without HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada. We analysed data from the Comparative Outcomes And Service Utilization Trends (COAST) study; a retrospective population-based study created via linkage between the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS and Population Data BC, and containing data for HIV-infected individuals and the general population of BC, respectively. Our analysis included all known HIV-infected adults (≥ 20 years) in BC and a random 10% sample of uninfected BC adults followed from 1996 to 2012. Deaths were identified through Population Data BC - which contains information on all registered deaths in BC (BC Vital Statistics Agency dataset) and classified into cause of death categories using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9/10 codes. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and mortality rate ratios were calculated. Trend test were performed. 3401 (25%), and 47,647 (9%) individuals died during the 5,620,150 person-years of follow-up among 13,729 HIV-infected and 510,313 uninfected individuals, respectively. All-cause and cause-specific mortality rates were consistently higher among HIV-infected compared to HIV-negative individuals, except for neurological disorders. All-cause ASMR decreased from 126.75 (95% CI: 84.92-168.57) per 1000 population in 1996 to 21.29 (95% CI: 17.79-24.79) in 2011-2012 (83% decline; p people living with HIV.

  18. Early mortality and primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder: a retrospective cohort study.

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    Jenny Fairthorne

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mothers of children with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder (ASD have poorer health than other mothers. Yet no research has explored whether this poorer health is reflected in mortality rates or whether certain causes of death are more likely. We aimed to calculate the hazard ratios for death and for the primary causes of death in mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. METHODS: The study population comprised all mothers of live-born children in Western Australia from 1983-2005. We accessed state-wide databases which enabled us to link socio-demographic details, birth dates, diagnoses of intellectual disability or ASD in the children and dates and causes of death for all mothers who had died prior to 2011. Using Cox Regression with death by any cause and death by each of the three primary causes as the event of interest, we calculated hazard ratios for death for mothers of children intellectual disability or ASD compared to other mothers. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: During the study period, mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD had more than twice the risk of death. Mothers of children with intellectual disability were 40% more likely to die of cancer; 150% more likely to die of cardiovascular disease and nearly 200% more likely to die from misadventure than other mothers. Due to small numbers, only hazard ratios for cancer were calculated for mothers of children with ASD. These mothers were about 50% more likely to die from cancer than other mothers. Possible causes and implications of our results are discussed. CONCLUSION: Similar studies, pooling data from registries elsewhere, would improve our understanding of factors increasing the mortality of mothers of children with intellectual disability or ASD. This would allow the implementation of informed services and interventions to improve these mothers' longevity.

  19. Air Pollution and Deaths among Elderly Residents of São Paulo, Brazil : An Analysis of Mortality Displacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Amine Farias; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Ponce de Leon, Antônio Cm

    BACKGROUND: Evaluation of short-term mortality displacement is essential to accurately estimate the impact of short-term air pollution exposure on public health. OBJECTIVES: To quantify mortality displacement by estimating single-day lag effects and cumulative effects of air pollutants on mortality

  20. Effect of vitamin B supplementation on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality: A PRISMA-compliant cumulative meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sui-Liang; Chen, Ting-Song; Ma, Chen-Yun; Meng, Yong-Bin; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Chen, Yi-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Hao

    2016-08-01

    Observational studies have suggested that vitamin B supplementation is associated with cancer risk, but this association remains controversial. A pooled data-based meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of vitamin B supplementation on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality. PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify trials to fit our analysis through August 2015. Relative risk (RR) was used to measure the effect of vitamin B supplementation on the risk of cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality using a random-effect model. Cumulative meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, heterogeneity tests, and tests for publication bias were also conducted. Eighteen RCTs reporting the data on 74,498 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Sixteen of these trials included 4103 cases of cancer; in 6 trials, 731 cancer-related deaths occurred; and in 15 trials, 7046 deaths occurred. Vitamin B supplementation had little or no effect on the incidence of cancer (RR: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-1.10; P = 0.216), death due to cancer (RR, 1.05; 95% CI: 0.90-1.22; P = 0.521), and total mortality (RR, 1.00; 95% CI: 0.94-1.06; P = 0.952). Upon performing a cumulative meta-analysis for cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality, the nonsignificance of the effect of vitamin B persisted. With respect to specific types of cancer, vitamin B supplementation significantly reduced the risk of skin melanoma (RR, 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23-0.94; P = 0.032). Vitamin B supplementation does not have an effect on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, or total mortality. It is associated with a lower risk of skin melanoma, but has no effect on other cancers.

  1. Suboptimal care and maternal mortality among foreign-born women in Sweden: maternal death audit with application of the 'migration three delays' model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esscher, Annika; Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Bødker, Birgit; Högberg, Ulf; Mulic-Lutvica, Ajlana; Essén, Birgitta

    2014-04-12

    Several European countries report differences in risk of maternal mortality between immigrants from low- and middle-income countries and host country women. The present study identified suboptimal factors related to care-seeking, accessibility, and quality of care for maternal deaths that occurred in Sweden from 1988-2010. A subset of maternal death records (n = 75) among foreign-born women from low- and middle-income countries and Swedish-born women were audited using structured implicit review. One case of foreign-born maternal death was matched with two native born Swedish cases of maternal death. An assessment protocol was developed that applied both the 'migration three delays' framework and a modified version of the Confidential Enquiry from the United Kingdom. The main outcomes were major and minor suboptimal factors associated with maternal death in this high-income, low-maternal mortality context. Major and minor suboptimal factors were associated with a majority of maternal deaths and significantly more often to foreign-born women (p = 0.01). The main delays to care-seeking were non-compliance among foreign-born women and communication barriers, such as incongruent language and suboptimal interpreter system or usage. Inadequate care occurred more often among the foreign-born (p = 0.04), whereas delays in consultation/referral and miscommunication between health care providers where equally common between the two groups. Suboptimal care factors, major and minor, were present in more than 2/3 of maternal deaths in this high-income setting. Those related to migration were associated to miscommunication, lack of professional interpreters, and limited knowledge about rare diseases and pregnancy complications. Increased insight into a migration perspective is advocated for maternity clinicians who provide care to foreign-born women.

  2. Cancer-specific mortality, cure fraction, and noncancer causes of death among diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients in the immunochemotherapy era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlader, Nadia; Mariotto, Angela B; Besson, Caroline; Suneja, Gita; Robien, Kim; Younes, Naji; Engels, Eric A

    2017-09-01

    Survival after the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been increasing since 2002 because of improved therapies; however, long-term outcomes for these patients in the modern treatment era are still unknown. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, this study first assessed factors associated with DLBCL-specific mortality during 2002-2012. An epidemiologic risk profile, based on clinical and demographic characteristics, was used to stratify DLBCL cases into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups. The proportions of DLBCL cases that might be considered cured in these 3 risk groups was estimated. Risks of death due to various noncancer causes among DLBCL cases versus the general population were also calculated with standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Overall, 8274 deaths were recorded among 18,047 DLBCL cases; 76% of the total deaths were attributed to DLBCL, and 24% were attributed to noncancer causes. The 10-year survival rates for the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups were 80%, 60%, and 36%, respectively. The estimated cure proportions for the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups were 73%, 49%, and 27%, respectively; however, these cure estimates were uncertain because of the need to extrapolate the survival curves beyond the follow-up time. Mortality risks calculated with SMRs were elevated for conditions including vascular diseases (SMR, 1.3), infections (SMR, 3.1), gastrointestinal diseases (SMR, 2.5), and blood diseases (SMR, 4.6). These mortality risks were especially high within the initial 5 years after the diagnosis and declined after 5 years. Some DLBCL patients may be cured of their cancer, but they continue to experience excess mortality from lymphoma and other noncancer causes. Cancer 2017;123:3326-34. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Mortality rates among Arab Americans in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallo, Florence J; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans were in the range of whites and blacks. However, Arab American men had lower mortality rates from cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease compared to both whites and blacks. Among women, Arab Americans had lower mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes than whites and blacks. Arab Americans are growing in number. Future study should focus on designing rigorous separate analyses for this population.

  4. Where do the elderly die? The impact of nursing home utilisation on the place of death. Observations from a mortality cohort study in Flanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hecke Ettiene

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the research concerning place of death focuses on terminally ill patients (cancer patients while the determinants of place of death of the elderly of the general population are not intensively studied. Studies showed the influence of gender, age, social-economical status and living arrangements on the place of death, but a facet not taken into account so far is the influence of the availability of nursing homes. Methods We conducted a survey of deaths, between January 1999 and December 2000 in a small densely populated area in Belgium, with a high availability of nursing homes (within 5 to 10 km of the place of residence of every elderly. We determined the incidence of total mortality (of subjects >60 years from local official death registers that we consulted via the priest or the mortician of the local parish, to ask where the decedent had died and whether the deceased had lived in a nursing home. We compared the distribution of the places of death between parishes with a nursing home and with parishes without nursing home. Results 240 women and 217 men died during the two years study period. Only 22% died at home, while the majority (78% died in an institutional setting, either a hospital (50% or a nursing home (28%. Place of death was influenced by individual factors (age and gender and the availability of a nursing home in the 'own' parish. The chance of in-hospital death was 65% higher for men (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 14 to 138%; p = 0.008 and decreased by 4% (CI: -5.1% to -2.5%; p Conclusion Demographic, but especially social-contextual factors determine where elderly will end their life. The majority of elderly in Flanders die in an institution. Age, gender and living situation are predictors of the place of death but the embedment of a nursing home in the local community seems to be a key predictor.

  5. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  6. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    and blood pressure. During nearly 12 million person years at risk between the ages of 40 and 89 years, there were more than 55,000 vascular deaths (34,000 ischaemic heart disease [IHD], 12,000 stroke, 10,000 other). Information about HDL cholesterol was available for 150,000 participants, among whom......). Total cholesterol was weakly positively related to ischaemic and total stroke mortality in early middle age (40-59 years), but this finding could be largely or wholly accounted for by the association of cholesterol with blood pressure. Moreover, a positive relation was seen only in middle age and only......BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and blood pressure could modify the associations of total cholesterol (and its main two fractions, HDL and LDL cholesterol) with vascular mortality. This meta-analysis combined prospective studies of vascular mortality that recorded both blood pressure and total cholesterol...

  7. Disparities in death: Inequality in cause-specific infant and child mortality in Stockholm, 1878-1926

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molitoris, Joseph John

    2017-01-01

    socioeconomic groups. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to examine the development of socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific infant and child mortality during Stockholm’s demographic transition. METHODS Using an individual-level longitudinal population register for Stockholm, Sweden between 1878 and 1926......Abstract BACKGROUND The decline of child mortality during the late nineteenth century is one of the most significant demographic changes in human history. There is evidence, however, suggesting the substantial reductions in mortality during the era did little to reduce mortality inequality between...

  8. Trauma-related mortality among adults in Rural Western Kenya: characterising deaths using data from a health and demographic surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank O Odhiambo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Information on trauma-related deaths in low and middle income countries is limited but needed to target public health interventions. Data from a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS were examined to characterise such deaths in rural western Kenya. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Verbal autopsy data were analysed. Of 11,147 adult deaths between 2003 and 2008, 447 (4% were attributed to trauma; 71% of these were in males. Trauma contributed 17% of all deaths in males 15 to 24 years; on a population basis mortality rates were greatest in persons over 65 years. Intentional causes accounted for a higher proportion of male than female deaths (RR 2.04, 1.37-3.04 and a higher proportion of deaths of those aged 15 to 65 than older people. Main causes in males were assaults (n=79, 25% and road traffic injuries (n=47, 15%; and falls for females (n=17, 13%. A significantly greater proportion of deaths from poisoning (RR 5.0, 2.7-9.4 and assault (RR 1.8, 1.2-2.6 occurred among regular consumers of alcohol than among non-regular drinkers. In multivariate analysis, males had a 4-fold higher risk of death from trauma than females (Adjusted Relative Risk; ARR 4.0; 95% CI 1.7-9.4; risk of a trauma death rose with age, with the elderly at 7-fold higher risk (ARR 7.3, 1.1-49.2. Absence of care was the strongest predictor of trauma death (ARR 12.2, 9.4-15.8. Trauma-related deaths were higher among regular alcohol drinkers (ARR 1.5, 1.1-1.9 compared with non-regular drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: While trauma accounts for a small proportion of deaths in this rural area with a high prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, preventive interventions such as improved road safety, home safety strategies for the elderly, and curbing harmful use of alcohol, are available and could help diminish this burden. Improvements in systems to record underlying causes of death from trauma are required.

  9. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth

    2015-01-01

    disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus......BACKGROUND: Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries......, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were...

  10. Temporal Trends in Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Mortality in China, 1973–2005: An Analysis of Nationwide Surveys on Cause of Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changfa Xia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To describe geographical variation in breast cancer mortality over time, we analysed breast cancer mortality data from three retrospective national surveys on causes of death in recent decades in China. We first calculated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR for each of the 31 provinces in mainland China stratified by survey period (1973–1975, 1990–1992 and 2004–2005. To test whether the geographical variation in breast cancer mortality changed over time, we then estimated the rate ratio (RR for the aggregated data for seven regions and three economic zones using generalized linear models. Finally, we examined the correlation between mortality rate and several macro-economic measures at the provincial level. We found that the overall ASMR increased from 2.98 per 100,000 in 1973–1975 to 3.08 per 100,000 in 1990–1992, and to 3.85 per 100,000 in 2004–2005. Geographical variation in breast cancer mortality also increased significantly over time at the regional level (p = 0.002 but not at the economic zone (p = 0.089 level, with RR being generally lower for Western China (Northwest and Southwest and higher in Northeast China over the three survey periods. These temporal and spatial trends in breast cancer mortality were found to be correlated with per capita gross domestic product, number of hospitals and health centres’ beds per 10,000 population and number of practicing doctors per 10,000 population, and average number of live births for women aged 15–64. It may be necessary to target public health policies in China to address the widening geographic variation in breast cancer mortality, and to take steps to ensure that the ease of access and the quality of cancer care across the country is improved for all residents.

  11. Temporal Trends in Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Mortality in China, 1973–2005: An Analysis of Nationwide Surveys on Cause of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Changfa; Kahn, Clare; Wang, Jinfeng; Liao, Yilan; Chen, Wanqing; Yu, Xue Qin

    2016-01-01

    To describe geographical variation in breast cancer mortality over time, we analysed breast cancer mortality data from three retrospective national surveys on causes of death in recent decades in China. We first calculated the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for each of the 31 provinces in mainland China stratified by survey period (1973–1975, 1990–1992 and 2004–2005). To test whether the geographical variation in breast cancer mortality changed over time, we then estimated the rate ratio (RR) for the aggregated data for seven regions and three economic zones using generalized linear models. Finally, we examined the correlation between mortality rate and several macro-economic measures at the provincial level. We found that the overall ASMR increased from 2.98 per 100,000 in 1973–1975 to 3.08 per 100,000 in 1990–1992, and to 3.85 per 100,000 in 2004–2005. Geographical variation in breast cancer mortality also increased significantly over time at the regional level (p = 0.002) but not at the economic zone (p = 0.089) level, with RR being generally lower for Western China (Northwest and Southwest) and higher in Northeast China over the three survey periods. These temporal and spatial trends in breast cancer mortality were found to be correlated with per capita gross domestic product, number of hospitals and health centres’ beds per 10,000 population and number of practicing doctors per 10,000 population, and average number of live births for women aged 15–64. It may be necessary to target public health policies in China to address the widening geographic variation in breast cancer mortality, and to take steps to ensure that the ease of access and the quality of cancer care across the country is improved for all residents. PMID:27690073

  12. Growth and mortality of black bass, Micropterus salmoides (Pisces, Centrachidae; Lacapède, 1802 in a reservoir in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Schulz

    Full Text Available The black bass, Micropterus salmoides, was introduced to Brazil from North America in 1922. Since then the species has been reared in aquaculture facilities intended to stock reservoirs as additions to native stocks available for angling. At present no scientific information on the biology of black bass in Brazilian waters is available. Since black bass dispersion may cause severe impacts on native Brazilian fish fauna, information on the basic biological parameters of this species is necessary. The objective of the present study is to provide information on the growth, age structure, and mortality of the species in a small reservoir in southern Brazil, where the species reproduces regularly. Based on scale readings, the von Bertalanffy growth curve was calculated and compared to the length-frequency distribution of the population. Both methods showed similar results. Maximum length was about 44 cm. The mean length at the end of the first year was 23.1 cm (s.d. = 13.88; at that of the second, 37.3 cm (s.d. = 12.52; and 41.4 cm (s.d. = 9.92 at the third. Oldest fish were three years old. The growth performance index ø' was 3.28 cm year-1. Mortality increased from 0.16 year-1 between the first and the second cohort, to 0.8 year-1 between the second and third. The results show that black bass in Brazil grows faster than in its area of origin, but longevity is shorter and body shape, stouter. The cause of high mortality at a relatively early age may be connected with the loss of genetic diversity due to inbreeding of the Brazilian stocks, which originated from few introduced individuals a long time ago. The fact that black bass reproduces in reservoirs and grows rapidly may be considered a threat to conserving fish diversity in Brazilian ecosystems.

  13. 黑死病的社会结果(1348-1351)%The Consequences of the Black Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少斌

    2011-01-01

    In the middle of the 14th century the black death has a lasting influence on the European society.The Black Death resulted in the population decline,changed the European social and economic structure,which had a far-reaching infect on the value of people.%十四世纪中叶的黑死病对欧洲社会产生了深远的影响。黑死病的结果不仅仅是人口数量的下降,改变了欧洲的社会经济结构,并且对时人的价值观念产生了深远的影响。

  14. A placental cause of intra-uterine fetal death depends on the perinatal mortality classification system used

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, F.J.; Gordijn, S.J.; Timmer, A.; Holm, J.P.; Ravise, J.M.; Erwich, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Different classification systems for the cause of intra-uterine fetal death (IUFD) are used internationally. About two thirds of these deaths are reported as unexplained and placental causes are often not addressed. Differences between systems could have consequences for the validity of vital statis

  15. Cancer mortality patterns among hairdressers and barbers in 24 US states, 1984 to 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, A B; Ward, M H; Weeks, J L; Dosemeci, M

    2001-03-01

    We evaluated cancer mortality patterns among hairdressers and barbers, according to occupation, coded on 7.2 million death certificates in 24 states from 1984 to 1995. Of the 38,721 deaths among white and black hairdressers and barbers of both sexes, 9495 were from all malignant neoplasms. Mortality odds ratios were significantly elevated for all malignant neoplasms, lung cancer, and all lymphatic and hemopoietic cancers among black and white female hairdressers. White female hairdressers had significant excess mortality from cancers of the stomach, colon, pancreas, breast, and bladder and from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphoid leukemia; mortality from these cancers was also elevated among black female hairdressers. White male hairdressers had significantly elevated mortality from non-melanoma skin cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mortality from all malignant neoplasms, although significantly elevated among both white and black female hairdressers, was significantly below the null for white male hairdressers. Black and white male barbers had significantly elevated mortality from stomach and pharyngeal cancer, respectively. A significant deficit in mortality from all neoplasms and cancers of the pancreas, lung, and prostate was noted for white male barbers. This large study of cancer mortality among hairdressers and barbers showed some differences in mortality patterns by gender and race. Further studies are required to determine if specific occupational exposures may explain some of the elevated cancer rates.

  16. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-16

    Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year. YLLs were calculated from the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. We used the GBD cause of death database composed of: vital registration (VR) data corrected for under-registration and garbage coding; national and subnational verbal autopsy (VA) studies corrected for garbage coding; and other sources including surveys and surveillance systems for specific causes such as maternal mortality. To facilitate assessment of quality, we reported on the fraction of deaths assigned to GBD Level 1 or Level 2 causes that cannot be underlying causes of death (major garbage codes) by location and year. Based on completeness, garbage coding, cause list detail, and time periods covered, we provided an overall data quality rating for each location with scores ranging from 0 stars (worst) to 5 stars (best). We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to generate estimates for each location, year, age, and sex. We assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific deaths in relation to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of average income per capita, educational attainment, and total fertility, with locations grouped into quintiles by SDI. Relative to GBD 2015, we expanded the GBD cause hierarchy by 18 causes of death for GBD 2016. The quality of available data varied by location. Data quality

  17. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, Rafael; Naghavi, Mohsen; Foreman, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21...... regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs), separately by age and sex....

  18. The Black Death

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For example, in 1940, the Imperial Japanese Army. Air Service ... During the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials, the accused, such as ... two regions: 1) northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, .... severe cases, a 2-drug regimen should be used.

  19. The Procedural Index for Mortality Risk (PIMR: an index calculated using administrative data to quantify the independent influence of procedures on risk of hospital death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Jenna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgeries and other procedures can influence the risk of death in hospital. All published scales that predict post-operative death risk require clinical data and cannot be measured using administrative data alone. This study derived and internally validated an index that can be calculated using administrative data to quantify the independent risk of hospital death after a procedure. Methods For all patients admitted to a single academic centre between 2004 and 2009, we estimated the risk of all-cause death using the Kaiser Permanente Inpatient Risk Adjustment Methodology (KP-IRAM. We determined whether each patient underwent one of 503 commonly performed therapeutic procedures using Canadian Classification of Interventions codes and whether each procedure was emergent or elective. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to measure the association of each procedure-urgency combination with death in hospital independent of the KP-IRAM risk of death. The final model was modified into a scoring system to quantify the independent influence each procedure had on the risk of death in hospital. Results 275 460 hospitalizations were included (137,730 derivation, 137,730 validation. In the derivation group, the median expected risk of death was 0.1% (IQR 0.01%-1.4% with 4013 (2.9% dying during the hospitalization. 56 distinct procedure-urgency combinations entered our final model resulting in a Procedural Index for Mortality Rating (PIMR score values ranging from -7 to +11. In the validation group, the PIMR score significantly predicted the risk of death by itself (c-statistic 67.3%, 95% CI 66.6-68.0% and when added to the KP-IRAM model (c-index improved significantly from 0.929 to 0.938. Conclusions We derived and internally validated an index that uses administrative data to quantify the independent association of a broad range of therapeutic procedures with risk of death in hospital. This scale will improve risk

  20. Post-death cloning of endangered Jeju black cattle (Korean native cattle): fertility and serum chemistry in a cloned bull and cow and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Song, Dong Hwan; Park, Min Jee; Park, Hyo Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Choi, Hyun Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Kim, Young Hoon; Mun, Seong Ho; Oh, Chang Eon; Ko, Moon Suck; Lee, Dong Sun; Riu, Key Zung; Park, Se Pill

    2013-12-17

    To preserve Jeju black cattle (JBC; endangered native Korean cattle), a pair of cattle, namely a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a previous study. In the present study, we examined the in vitro fertilization and reproductive potentials of these post-death cloned animals. Sperm motility, in vitro fertilization and developmental capacity were examined in a post-death cloned bull (Heuk Oll Dolee) and an extinct nuclear donor bull (BK94-13). We assessed reproductive ability in another post-death cloned cow (Heuk Woo Sunee) using cloned sperm for artificial insemination (AI). There were no differences in sperm motility or developmental potential of in vitro fertilized embryos between the post-death cloned bull and its extinct nuclear donor bull; however, the embryo development ratio was slightly higher in the cloned sperm group than in the nuclear donor sperm group. After one attempt at AI, the post-death cloned JBC cow became pregnant, and gestation proceeded normally until day 287. From this post-death cloned sire and dam, a JBC male calf (Heuk Woo Dolee) was delivered naturally (weight, 25 kg). The genetic paternity/maternity of the cloned JBC bull and cow with regard to their offspring was confirmed using International Society for Animal Genetics standard microsatellite markers. Presently, Heuk Woo Dolee is 5 months of age and growing normally. In addition, there were no significant differences in blood chemistry among the post-death cloned JBC bull, the cow, their offspring and cattle bred by AI. This is the first report showing that a pair of cattle, namely, a post-death cloned JBC bull and cow, had normal fertility. Therefore, SCNT can be used effectively to increase the population of endangered JBC.

  1. Effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on overall mortality and mode of death: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rivero-Ayerza (Maximo); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); H. Boersma (Eric); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAims: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to improve symptoms and exercise tolerance in patients with advanced heart failure (HF). However, studies were underpowered to address its effect on overall mortality. To evaluate whether CRT alone (without a combined defibrill

  2. Pre-impact forest composition and ongoing tree mortality associated with sudden oak death in the Big Sur region; California

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.W. Davis; M.I. Borchert,; R.K. Meentemeyer; A. Flint; D.M. Rizzo

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-evergreen forests of central coastal California are being severely impacted by the recently introduced plant pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum. We collected forest plot data using a multi-scale sampling design to characterize pre-infestation forest composition and ongoing tree mortality along environmental and time-since-fire gradients. Vegetation pattern was...

  3. Exposure to nitrosamines, carbon black, asbestos, and talc and mortality from stomach, lung, and laryngeal cancer in a cohort of rubber workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straif, K; Keil, U; Taeger, D; Holthenrich, D; Sun, Y; Bungers, M; Weiland, S K

    2000-08-15

    There is sufficient evidence for an excess occurrence of stomach and lung cancer among rubber workers. However, evidence for causal associations with specific exposures is still limited. A cohort of 8,933 male German rubber workers was followed for mortality from January 1, 1981 through December 31, 1991. Work histories were reconstructed using routinely documented cost center codes. For each cost center code, calendar time-and plant-specific levels of exposure to nitrosamines, asbestos, talc (low, medium (m), and high (h)), and carbon black (two levels) were estimated by industrial hygienists. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models, with the lowest exposure level used as the reference category. Exposure was lagged 10 years to account for latency. Exposure-response relations between exposure to asbestos and lung cancer mortality (RRm = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.9; RRh = 2.0, 95% CI: 0.9, 4.1) and between exposure to dust (talc and asbestos combined) and stomach cancer mortality (RRm = 1.8, 95% CI: 0.9, 3.8; RRh = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 7.1) were observed. Exposure to nitrosamines was not associated with mortality from stomach or lung cancer. These results suggest that the increased mortality from lung and stomach cancer among rubber workers is associated with exposure to asbestos and dust, respectively.

  4. Postoperative Morbidity and Mortality of Perforated Peptic Ulcer: Retrospective Cohort Study of Risk Factors among Black Africans in Côte d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gona, Soro Kountele; Marcellin, Koffi Gnangoran; Adama, Coulibaly; Toussaint, Assohoun; Manuela, Ehua Adjoba; Sylvain, Seu Gagon; Anthony, Afum-Adjei Awuah; Francis, Ehua Somian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical treatment of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is a challenge for surgeons in Africa. Aim. To determine risk factors of postoperative complications or mortality among black Ivoirian patients with PPU. Methods. All 161 patients (median age = 34 years, 90.7 male) operated on for PPU in the visceral and general surgery unit were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study. Variables were studied with Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. Results. Among 161 patients operated on for PPU, 36 (27.5%) experienced complications and 31 (19.3%) died. Follow-up results were the incidence of complications and mortality of 6.4 (95% CI: 4.9–8.0) per 100 person-days and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.9–4.0) per 100 person-days for incidence of mortality. In multivariate analysis, risk factors of postoperative complications or mortality were comorbidities (HR = 2.1, P = 0.03), tachycardia (pulse rate > 100/minutes) (HR = 2.4, P = 0.02), purulent intra-abdominal fluid collection (HR = 2.1, P = 0.04), hyponatremia (median value ≤ 134 mEq/L) (HR = 2.3, P = 0.01), delayed time of hospital admission > 72 hours (HR = 2.6, P < 0.0001), and delayed time of surgical intervention between 24 and 48 hours (HR = 3.8, P < 0.0001). Conclusion. The delayed hospital admission or surgical intervention and hyponatremia may be considered as additional risk of postoperative complications or mortality in Black African patients with PPU. PMID:26925099

  5. Postoperative Morbidity and Mortality of Perforated Peptic Ulcer: Retrospective Cohort Study of Risk Factors among Black Africans in Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soro Kountele Gona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical treatment of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU is a challenge for surgeons in Africa. Aim. To determine risk factors of postoperative complications or mortality among black Ivoirian patients with PPU. Methods. All 161 patients (median age = 34 years, 90.7 male operated on for PPU in the visceral and general surgery unit were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study. Variables were studied with Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. Results. Among 161 patients operated on for PPU, 36 (27.5% experienced complications and 31 (19.3% died. Follow-up results were the incidence of complications and mortality of 6.4 (95% CI: 4.9–8.0 per 100 person-days and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.9–4.0 per 100 person-days for incidence of mortality. In multivariate analysis, risk factors of postoperative complications or mortality were comorbidities (HR = 2.1, P=0.03, tachycardia (pulse rate > 100/minutes (HR = 2.4, P=0.02, purulent intra-abdominal fluid collection (HR = 2.1, P=0.04, hyponatremia (median value ≤ 134 mEq/L (HR = 2.3, P=0.01, delayed time of hospital admission > 72 hours (HR = 2.6, P<0.0001, and delayed time of surgical intervention between 24 and 48 hours (HR = 3.8, P<0.0001. Conclusion. The delayed hospital admission or surgical intervention and hyponatremia may be considered as additional risk of postoperative complications or mortality in Black African patients with PPU.

  6. Clean birth and postnatal care practices to reduce neonatal deaths from sepsis and tetanus: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Annually over 520,000 newborns die from neonatal sepsis, and 60,000 more from tetanus. Estimates of the effect of clean birth and postnatal care practices are required for evidence-based program planning. Objective To review the evidence for clean birth and postnatal care practices and estimate the effect on neonatal mortality from sepsis and tetanus for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods We conducted a systematic review of multiple databases. Data were abstracted into standard tables and assessed by GRADE criteria. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were undertaken. For interventions with low quality evidence but a strong GRADE recommendation, a Delphi process was conducted. Results Low quality evidence supports a reduction in all-cause neonatal mortality (19% (95% c.i. 1–34%)), cord infection (30% (95% c.i. 20–39%)) and neonatal tetanus (49% (95% c.i. 35–62%)) with birth attendant handwashing. Very low quality evidence supports a reduction in neonatal tetanus mortality with a clean birth surface (93% (95% c.i. 77-100%)) and no relationship between a clean perineum and tetanus. Low quality evidence supports a reduction of neonatal tetanus with facility birth (68% (95% c.i. 47-88%). No relationship was found between birth place and cord infections or sepsis mortality. For postnatal clean practices, all-cause mortality is reduced with chlorhexidine cord applications in the first 24 hours of life (34% (95% c.i. 5–54%, moderate quality evidence) and antimicrobial cord applications (63% (95% c.i. 41–86%, low quality evidence). One study of postnatal maternal handwashing reported reductions in all-cause mortality (44% (95% c.i. 18–62%)) and cord infection ((24% (95% c.i. 5-40%)). Given the low quality of evidence, a Delphi expert opinion process was undertaken. Thirty experts reached consensus regarding reduction of neonatal sepsis deaths by clean birth practices at home (15% (IQR 10–20)) or in a facility (27% IQR 24–36)), and by clean

  7. On Relating Health Care Policy to the Provision of Health Care to Black Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darity, William A.

    This paper addresses health and social issues as well as other socioeconomic problems which affect the black family, and the development of appropriate policy and programs to deal with those problems. Data on infant mortality, life expectancy, maternal mortality, physician and dental visits, and some selected death rates from specific causes are…

  8. Care during labor and birth for the prevention of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Neil F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to estimate the effect of various childbirth care packages on neonatal mortality due to intrapartum-related events (“birth asphyxia” in term babies for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies or reviews of childbirth care packages as defined by United Nations norms (basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care, skilled care at birth. We also reviewed Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA training. Data were abstracted into standard tables and quality assessed by adapted GRADE criteria. For interventions with low quality evidence, but strong GRADE recommendation for implementation, an expert Delphi consensus process was conducted to estimate cause-specific mortality effects. Results We identified evidence for the effect on perinatal/neonatal mortality of emergency obstetric care packages: 9 studies (8 observational, 1 quasi-experimental, and for skilled childbirth care: 10 studies (8 observational, 2 quasi-experimental. Studies were of low quality, but the GRADE recommendation for implementation is strong. Our Delphi process included 21 experts representing all WHO regions and achieved consensus on the reduction of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths by comprehensive emergency obstetric care (85%, basic emergency obstetric care (40%, and skilled birth care (25%. For TBA training we identified 2 meta-analyses and 9 studies reporting mortality effects (3 cRCT, 1 quasi-experimental, 5 observational. There was substantial between-study heterogeneity and the overall quality of evidence was low. Because the GRADE recommendation for TBA training is conditional on the context and region, the effect was not estimated through a Delphi or included in the LiST tool. Conclusion Evidence quality is rated low, partly because of challenges in undertaking RCTs for obstetric interventions, which are considered standard of care. Additional challenges for

  9. Care during labor and birth for the prevention of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Our objective was to estimate the effect of various childbirth care packages on neonatal mortality due to intrapartum-related events (“birth asphyxia”) in term babies for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies or reviews of childbirth care packages as defined by United Nations norms (basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care, skilled care at birth). We also reviewed Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA) training. Data were abstracted into standard tables and quality assessed by adapted GRADE criteria. For interventions with low quality evidence, but strong GRADE recommendation for implementation, an expert Delphi consensus process was conducted to estimate cause-specific mortality effects. Results We identified evidence for the effect on perinatal/neonatal mortality of emergency obstetric care packages: 9 studies (8 observational, 1 quasi-experimental), and for skilled childbirth care: 10 studies (8 observational, 2 quasi-experimental). Studies were of low quality, but the GRADE recommendation for implementation is strong. Our Delphi process included 21 experts representing all WHO regions and achieved consensus on the reduction of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths by comprehensive emergency obstetric care (85%), basic emergency obstetric care (40%), and skilled birth care (25%). For TBA training we identified 2 meta-analyses and 9 studies reporting mortality effects (3 cRCT, 1 quasi-experimental, 5 observational). There was substantial between-study heterogeneity and the overall quality of evidence was low. Because the GRADE recommendation for TBA training is conditional on the context and region, the effect was not estimated through a Delphi or included in the LiST tool. Conclusion Evidence quality is rated low, partly because of challenges in undertaking RCTs for obstetric interventions, which are considered standard of care. Additional challenges for evidence interpretation

  10. A Probe into the English Peasantry before and after the Black Death%黑死病前后英国农民阶层新探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎

    2015-01-01

    The Black Death was an important watershed in the development of society of medieval England and had an important influence on the transition from the traditional to the modern society. It is an important factor to of the collapse of British serfdom and deepened the British Society's feudalist crisis. But the changes in British society did not begin with“shock”transformation of the Black Death,but were the results of the long term development of the society before and after it. The farmers were set free from the control of the traditional lords. They came to the historical stage from the bottom of the society. They became one of the main forces of social development and promoted the overall transformation of British society. The changes of the English peasantry's social life before and after the Black Death were elaborated from the angle of the long period of historical research. The relation between the Black Death and the British social development was explored for verification from the scholars in this field.%黑死病是中世纪英国社会发展的重要分水岭,对英国社会由传统向现代转型具有重要影响,它是英国社会农奴制瓦解的重要因素,导致了英国社会封建主义危机的加深。但英国社会的变迁不是始于黑死病的“休克”转型,而是其前后社会发展长期演变的结果,农民从传统领主势力的控制之下解放出来,从社会底层逐渐走入历史发展的舞台,演变为社会发展的主导力量之一,促进了英国社会的整体转型。本文从长时段历史研究的视角阐述黑死病前后英国农民阶层的社会生活变化,探析黑死病与英国社会发展的影响关系,以求教于业内方家。

  11. Mortality in over 350,000 Insured Swedish Dogs from 1995–2000: II. Breed-Specific Age and Survival Patterns and Relative Risk for Causes of Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson P

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study continues analysis from a companion paper on over 350,000 insured Swedish dogs up to 10 years of age contributing to more than one million dog-years at risk during 1995–2000. The age patterns for total and diagnostic mortality and for general causes of death (trauma, tumour, locomotor, heart and neurological are presented for numerous breeds. Survival estimates at five, eight and 10 years of age are calculated. Survival to 10 years of age was 75% or more in Labrador and golden retrievers, miniature and toy poodles and miniature dachshunds and lowest in Irish wolfhounds (91% dead by 10 years. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the relative risk for general and more specific causes of death between breeds accounting for gender and age effects, including two-way interactions. Older females had tumour as a designated cause of death more often than males in most breeds, but not in the Bernese mountain dog. Information presented in this and the companion paper inform our understanding of the population level burden of disease, and support decision-making at the population and individual level about health promotion efforts and treatment and prognosis of disease events.

  12. Effects of environmental factors on growth and mortality of raft cultivated mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis L. cultivated in lantern nets in Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yesim Celik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One-year old rope grown mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis L. were held in three experimental lantern nets in raft system outside of Sinop Harbour. Mortality and growth were monitored from May 2005 to May 2006. Water temperature, salinity, transparency and food availability (total particulate matter, particulate organic matter, particulate inorgnic matter and Chlorophyll-a were also determined. The monthly specific growth rate (SGR% ranged 1.50-5.72% with a mean of 2.59±0.30%. Shell length increment was found as 13.67 mm and reached to 51.20±0.50 mm. The live weight increment was found 7.91 g, and mussels reached to 12.61±0.39 g. Meat yield ranged from 17.51 to 24.25% with a mean of 21.12±0.63%. Cumulative mortality was higher in winter than spring and summer. Monthly mortality was found maximum with 5.2% in October. This study is the first known experiment to collect data on effect of environmental factors on mussel growth and natural mortality in lantern nets and raft system in the Black Sea.

  13. Hurricane Katrina deaths, Louisiana, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Joan; Namulanda, Gonza; Ratard, Raoult

    2008-12-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck the US Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, causing unprecedented damage to numerous communities in Louisiana and Mississippi. Our objectives were to verify, document, and characterize Katrina-related mortality in Louisiana and help identify strategies to reduce mortality in future disasters. We assessed Hurricane Katrina mortality data sources received in 2007, including Louisiana and out-of-state death certificates for deaths occurring from August 27 to October 31, 2005, and the Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Team's confirmed victims' database. We calculated age-, race-, and sex-specific mortality rates for Orleans, St Bernard, and Jefferson Parishes, where 95% of Katrina victims resided and conducted stratified analyses by parish of residence to compare differences between observed proportions of victim demographic characteristics and expected values based on 2000 US Census data, using Pearson chi square and Fisher exact tests. We identified 971 Katrina-related deaths in Louisiana and 15 deaths among Katrina evacuees in other states. Drowning (40%), injury and trauma (25%), and heart conditions (11%) were the major causes of death among Louisiana victims. Forty-nine percent of victims were people 75 years old and older. Fifty-three percent of victims were men; 51% were black; and 42% were white. In Orleans Parish, the mortality rate among blacks was 1.7 to 4 times higher than that among whites for all people 18 years old and older. People 75 years old and older were significantly more likely to be storm victims (P Hurricane Katrina was the deadliest hurricane to strike the US Gulf Coast since 1928. Drowning was the major cause of death and people 75 years old and older were the most affected population cohort. Future disaster preparedness efforts must focus on evacuating and caring for vulnerable populations, including those in hospitals, long-term care facilities, and personal residences. Improving mortality reporting timeliness will

  14. Towards an Inclusive and Evidence-Based Definition of the Maternal Mortality Ratio: An Analysis of the Distribution of Time after Delivery of Maternal Deaths in Mexico, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Montoya, Alejandra; Fritz, Jimena; Olvera, Marisela; Torres, Luis M; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Progress towards the Millennium Development Goal No. 5 was measured by an indicator that excluded women who died due to pregnancy and childbirth after 42 days from the date of delivery. These women suffered from what are defined as late deaths and sequelae-related deaths (O96 and O97 respectively, according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision). Such deaths end up not being part of the numerator in the calculation of the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), the indicator that governments and international agencies use for reporting. The issue is not trivial since these deaths account for a sizeable fraction of all maternal deaths in the world and show an upward trend over time in many countries. The aim of this study was to analyze empirical data on maternal deaths that occurred between 2010 and 2013 in Mexico, linking databases of the Deliberate Search and Reclassification of Maternal Deaths (BIRMM) and the Birth Information Subsystem (SINAC) of the Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed by negative binomial regression, survival analysis and multiple cause analysis. While the reported MMR decreased by 5% per year between 2010 and 2013, the MMR due to late and sequelae-related deaths doubled from 3.5 to 7 per 100,000 live-births in 2013 (p maternal mortality by including all deaths due to pregnancy and childbirth into the Maternal Death definition.

  15. Sudden Oak Death-Induced Tanoak Mortality in Coast Redwood Forests: Current and Predicted Impacts to Stand Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L. O’Hara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus syn. Lithocarpus densiflorus is one of the most widespread and abundant associates of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens, but little is known about the structural relationships between these two species. Knowledge of such relationships is essential for a thorough understanding of the impacts of sudden oak death (caused by the exotic pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, which is currently decimating tanoak populations throughout the redwood range. In this study, we utilized a stratified plot design and a stand reconstruction technique to assess structural impacts, at present and in the future, of this emerging disease. We found that residual trees in diseased plots were more aggregated than trees in unaffected plots, and we predicted that the loss of tanoak will lead to the following short-term changes: greater average diameter, height, height-to-live-crown, and crown length, as well as an increase in average nearest neighbor differences for diameter, height, and crown length. In addition, plots lacking tanoak (living or dead—as compared to plots with tanoak—exhibited greater average diameter and increased nearest neighbor differences with regard to diameter, height, and crown length. We also conducted a preliminary exploration of how sudden oak death-induced structural changes compare with typical old-growth characteristics, and how this disease may affect the structure of old-growth forests.

  16. Black disease (Terpios hoshinota): a probable cause for the rapid coral mortality at the northern reef of Yongxing Island in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Liu, Guo Hui; Yan, Hong Qiang; Zhang, Hui Ling

    2012-07-01

    The northern reef of Yongxing Island, the largest reef island of the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea, was in good condition with significant cover of scleractinian corals until 2002. Surveys in 2008 and 2010, however, found that coral coverage had declined rapidly and severely, implying that catastrophic coral mortality occurred during the past 8 years. A blackish mat was observed covering live and dead corals in both 2008 and 2010 that was identified as an encrusting sponge, Terpios hoshinota, by special surface morphology and spicule structure. In addition, spicule residues were found on the surface of long-dead corals, indicating a previous invasion of T. hosinota. T. hoshinota is referred to as the "black disease" because it rapidly overgrows and kills corals. Our evidence indicates that outbreaks of black disease are at least partially responsible for the massive coral mortality at the northern reef of Yongxing Island over the past 8 years, although human activities and heat-related coral bleaching cannot be discounted as minor causes for this coral decline.

  17. Targeted enrichment of ancient pathogens yielding the pPCP1 plasmid of Yersinia pestis from victims of the Black Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Bos, Kirsten; DeWitte, Sharon; Schmedes, Sarah; Jamieson, Joslyn; Mittnik, Alissa; Forrest, Stephen; Coombes, Brian K; Wood, James W; Earn, David J D; White, William; Krause, Johannes; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2011-09-20

    Although investigations of medieval plague victims have identified Yersinia pestis as the putative etiologic agent of the pandemic, methodological limitations have prevented large-scale genomic investigations to evaluate changes in the pathogen's virulence over time. We screened over 100 skeletal remains from Black Death victims of the East Smithfield mass burial site (1348-1350, London, England). Recent methods of DNA enrichment coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing subsequently permitted reconstruction of ten full human mitochondrial genomes (16 kb each) and the full pPCP1 (9.6 kb) virulence-associated plasmid at high coverage. Comparisons of molecular damage profiles between endogenous human and Y. pestis DNA confirmed its authenticity as an ancient pathogen, thus representing the longest contiguous genomic sequence for an ancient pathogen to date. Comparison of our reconstructed plasmid against modern Y. pestis shows identity with several isolates matching the Medievalis biovar; however, our chromosomal sequences indicate the victims were infected with a Y. pestis variant that has not been previously reported. Our data reveal that the Black Death in medieval Europe was caused by a variant of Y. pestis that may no longer exist, and genetic data carried on its pPCP1 plasmid were not responsible for the purported epidemiological differences between ancient and modern forms of Y. pestis infections.

  18. Mutual Mortality of Great Horned Owl and Southern Black Racer: a Potential Risk of Raptors Preying on Snakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roger W. Perry; Raymond E. Brown; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    .... There are previous reports of intense physical struggle between Great Horned Owls (and other raptors) and large constrictors but this is the first documented report of mutual mortality between a Great Horned Owl and a snake.

  19. The increase of diabetes mortality burden among Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valeria Maria Azeredo; Almeida, Suzanne Kelly Ferreira; Assis, Tiago Duarte

    2007-10-01

    To estimate diabetes-related deaths among Brazilian adults between 1999 and 2003 and to investigate demographic factors associated with reporting diabetes as an associated cause of death. All deaths with diabetes as the underlying or associated cause were identified using the Brazilian Mortality Data System. Analysis was performed by sex, age, year, state of residence, and place of death. Mortality rates were age standardized by the 2000 Brazilian population. A total of 237 946 deaths (8.8%) were related to diabetes; in 4.2% of deaths it was the underlying cause and in 4.6% it was an associated cause. Between 1999 and 2003, age-standardized mortality rates for diabetes as the underlying cause increased 14% among males and 9% among females, while mortality with diabetes as an associated cause increased 22% and 28%, respectively. Diabetes appeared more often as an associated cause in death certificates among older individuals and in those residing in São Paulo State; it appeared less often as an associated cause among women, brown- and black-skinned populations, and in deaths occurring outside hospitals. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for 54.5% of the underlying causes of death when diabetes was an associated cause. Diabetes was related to almost 9% of the deaths in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Mortality from diabetes is increasing, especially deaths with diabetes as an associated cause. The probability of having diabetes as the underlying cause of death is greater among women and nonwhite individuals. Our results reinforce the importance of using multiple causes of death to monitor diabetes, because half the individuals with the disease will die of another cause, especially cardiovascular diseases.

  20. A elaboração de estatísticas de mortalidade segundo causas múltiplas Mortality statistics according to multiple causes of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Laurenti

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma das possibilidades permitidas pelo avanço tecnológico é o estudo da mortalidade por causas múltiplas em contraposição à estatística feita por uma única causa, a chamada causa básica de morte. O conhecimento das várias doenças que contribuem para uma morte permite que seja avaliada a importância das causas que normalmente não estariam privilegiadas nas estatísticas porque são doenças não caracterizadas como causa básica. Um exemplo é a mortalidade por infarto do miocárdio em pessoas com diabetes mellitus. Este último, neste caso e em outros semelhantes, poderá não ser considerado nas estatísticas, enquanto o infarto o será. Desta forma, no exemplo citado, analisando apenas a causa básica, perde-se a informação sobre a magnitude do diabetes e sua relação com as complicações que levam à morte. A idéia da elaboração de estatísticas de mortalidade segundo causas múltiplas não é nova. No entanto não é realizada de forma sistemática, ainda que vários estudos mostrem suas vantagens. Entre essas vantagens estão a possibilidade de descobrir novas associações de doenças; conhecer informações sobre a natureza das lesões em casos de morte por causas externas (acidentes e violências, entre outras. A existência de computadores e de programas específicos para a elaboração das estatísticas de mortalidade, atualmente em uso, deve permitir que essa idéia seja colocada em prática e que, a partir das estatísticas de mortalidade por causas múltiplas, possibilite melhores e mais específicas ações de saúde.The introduction of new technology has made it possible to study multiple causes of death as opposed to mortality statistics based only on the underlying cause of death. The knowledge of all diseases that contribute to one death allows the assessment of the importance of causes that frequently do not appear in mortality statistics, because of those diseases that are not characterized as the

  1. Matter of Life & Death : The impact of environmental conditions on the origins of stars and supermassive black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Borm, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that some very large supermassive black holes (SMBHs) already existed less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang. Explaining the formation and growth of the 'seeds' of these SMBHs is quite challenging. We explore the formation of such seeds in the direct collapse scenario. Us

  2. "I 'See' Trayvon Martin": What Teachers Can Learn from the Tragic Death of a Young Black Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bettina L.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine the racially hostile environment of U.S. public schooling towards Black males. Drawing on the work of Foucault ("Discipline and punish. The birth of the prison," Penguin Books, London, 1977; "Michel Foucault: beyond structuralism and hermeneutics," The Harvester Press, Brighton, 1982)…

  3. "I 'See' Trayvon Martin": What Teachers Can Learn from the Tragic Death of a Young Black Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bettina L.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to examine the racially hostile environment of U.S. public schooling towards Black males. Drawing on the work of Foucault ("Discipline and punish. The birth of the prison," Penguin Books, London, 1977; "Michel Foucault: beyond structuralism and hermeneutics," The Harvester Press, Brighton, 1982)…

  4. Morte por AIDS ou morte materna: a classificação da mortalidade como prática social Death by AIDS or maternal death: classification of mortality as a social practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Dalva F. Bonciani

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata da decisão de inclusão ou exclusão de óbitos de mulheres em idade fértil, com HIV/AIDS, nas estatísticas de mortalidade materna. Foram analisados os casos referentes ao ano de 1998, investigados pelo Comitê Central de Mortalidade Materna do Município de São Paulo (CCMM-MSP. Tendo como enquadre a abordagem construcionista, a pesquisa utilizou como fonte de dados, relatórios e entrevistas com o presidente do CCMM-MSP e membros de um comitê municipal regional. Buscou-se apontar aspectos presentes na seleção, investigação e classificação final das mortes maternas investigadas, focalizando os espaços de negociação entre os vários atores envolvidos no processo. A análise sugere que, quando se trata de óbitos de mulheres com HIV/AIDS, interferem ainda outros fatores como a precedência do status soropositivo para o HIV e os aspectos morais e simbólicos da AIDS. Concluiu-se que o aperfeiçoamento das estatísticas por meio da melhor compreensão da decisão de inclusão ou exclusão de casos é apenas um lado da questão; faz-se necessário também, melhorar a qualidade da assistência ao ciclo gravídico-puerperal para evitar a ocorrência dessas mortes.This paper analyzes the decision on whether to include deaths of HIV+ pregnant women in the classification of maternal mortality. The study focuses on deaths of childbearing-age women in São Paulo in 1998, investigated by the State's Central Committee on Maternal Mortality (CCMM. Working from a social constructionist perspective, the research was based on documental analysis and interviews with the president of the CCMM and members of one regional committee. The analysis focused on the selection, investigation, and classification of maternal death, with special attention to the negotiation among various actors involved in the classificatory procedures. The data suggest that in the deaths of HIV+ women, other factors are present including the precedence of HIV

  5. Deindustrialization, Disadvantage and Suicide among Young Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrin, Charis Elizabeth; Wadsworth, Thomas P.; DiPietro, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Wilson's deindustrialization thesis has been the focus of much recent research. This study is the first to empirically test his thesis as it relates to suicide among young black males, which has increased dramatically over the past two decades. Using 1998-2001 Mortality Multiple Cause-of-Death Records and 2000 census data, we examine the influence…

  6. Effect of amiodarone therapy on mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction and asymptomatic complex ventricular arrhythmias: Argentine Pilot Study of Sudden Death and Amiodarone (EPAMSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garguichevich, J J; Ramos, J L; Gambarte, A; Gentile, A; Hauad, S; Scapin, O; Sirena, J; Tibaldi, M; Toplikar, J

    1995-09-01

    The efficiency of prophylactic antiarrhythmic treatment with amiodarone in reducing 1-year mortality in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction ( < 35%) and asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmias (Lown classes 2 and 4) was investigated in a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled study. Among 127 patients who entered the study, 61 were assigned to no antiarrhythmic therapy (control group [CG] and 66 to amiodarone treatment (amiodarone group [AG]). Amiodarone was administered at a dosage of 800 mg/day for 2 weeks followed by 400 mg/day thereafter. A 12-month follow-up was completed for 106 patients (57 in the AG and 49 in the CG). Amiodarone reduced the overall mortality rate, which was 10.5% in the AG versus 28.6% in the CG (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10 to 0.84; log-rank test 0.02) and sudden death rate, which was 7.0% in the AG versus 20.4% in the CG (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.08 to 1.00; log-rank test 0.04). Side effects were rare, and in only three patients did amiodarone treatment have to be discontinued.

  7. Anticitrullinated protein antibodies and rheumatoid factor are associated with increased mortality but with different causes of death in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a longitudinal study in three European cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajeganova, S; Humphreys, J H; Verheul, M K; van Steenbergen, H W; van Nies, J A B; Hafström, I; Svensson, B; Huizinga, T W J; Trouw, L A; Verstappen, S M M; van der Helm-van Mil, A H M

    2016-11-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related autoantibodies have an increased mortality rate. Different autoantibodies are frequently co-occurring and it is unclear which autoantibodies associate with increased mortality. In addition, association with different causes of death is thus far unexplored. Both questions were addressed in three early RA populations. 2331 patients with early RA included in Better Anti-Rheumatic Farmaco-Therapy cohort (BARFOT) (n=805), Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) (n=678) and Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic cohort (EAC) (n=848) were studied. The presence of anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticarbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies was studied in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality, obtained from national death registers. Cox proportional hazards regression models (adjusted for age, sex, smoking and inclusion year) were constructed per cohort; data were combined in inverse-weighted meta-analyses. During 26 300 person-years of observation, 29% of BARFOT patients, 30% of NOAR and 18% of EAC patients died, corresponding to mortality rates of 24.9, 21.0 and 20.8 per 1000 person-years. The HR for all-cause mortality (95% CI) was 1.48 (1.22 to 1.79) for ACPA, 1.47 (1.22 to 1.78) for RF and 1.33 (1.11 to 1.60) for anti-CarP. When including all three antibodies in one model, RF was associated with all-cause mortality independent of other autoantibodies, HR 1.30 (1.04 to 1.63). When subsequently stratifying for death cause, ACPA positivity associated with increased cardiovascular death, HR 1.52 (1.04 to 2.21), and RF with increased neoplasm-related death, HR 1.64 (1.02 to 2.62), and respiratory disease-related death, HR 1.71 (1.01 to 2.88). The presence of RF in patients with RA associates with an increased overall mortality rate. Cause-specific mortality rates differed between autoantibodies: ACPA associates with increased cardiovascular death and RF with death related to neoplasm

  8. Towards an Inclusive and Evidence-Based Definition of the Maternal Mortality Ratio: An Analysis of the Distribution of Time after Delivery of Maternal Deaths in Mexico, 2010-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Lamadrid-Figueroa

    Full Text Available Progress towards the Millennium Development Goal No. 5 was measured by an indicator that excluded women who died due to pregnancy and childbirth after 42 days from the date of delivery. These women suffered from what are defined as late deaths and sequelae-related deaths (O96 and O97 respectively, according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. Such deaths end up not being part of the numerator in the calculation of the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR, the indicator that governments and international agencies use for reporting. The issue is not trivial since these deaths account for a sizeable fraction of all maternal deaths in the world and show an upward trend over time in many countries. The aim of this study was to analyze empirical data on maternal deaths that occurred between 2010 and 2013 in Mexico, linking databases of the Deliberate Search and Reclassification of Maternal Deaths (BIRMM and the Birth Information Subsystem (SINAC of the Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed by negative binomial regression, survival analysis and multiple cause analysis. While the reported MMR decreased by 5% per year between 2010 and 2013, the MMR due to late and sequelae-related deaths doubled from 3.5 to 7 per 100,000 live-births in 2013 (p <0.01. A survival analysis of all maternal deaths revealed nothing particular around the 42 day threshold, other than the exclusion of 18% of women who died due to childbirth in 2013. The multiple cause analysis showed a strong association between the excluded deaths and obstetric causes. It is suggested to review the construction of the MMR to make it a more inclusive and dignified measurement of maternal mortality by including all deaths due to pregnancy and childbirth into the Maternal Death definition.

  9. Black hole horizon as an entanglement shield: implication from the life and death of quantum entanglement in three accelerating qubits coupled with scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Yue; Shi, Yu

    2015-01-01

    We consider quantum entanglement of three accelerating qubits, each of which is locally coupled with a real scalar field, without causal influence among the qubits or among the fields. The initial state is assumed to be the GHZ or the W state, the two representative three-partite entangled states. For each initial state, we study how various kinds of entanglement depend on the accelerations of the three qubits. All kinds of entanglement eventually suddenly die if at least two of three qubits have large enough accelerations. This result implies eventual sudden death of all kinds of entanglement among field-coupled particles sufficiently close to the horizon of a black hole, which is thus an entanglement shield.

  10. Black Soybean Seed Coat Extract Prevents Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Cell Death via Extracellular Signal-Related Kinase Signalling in HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Naoto; Oki, Tomoyuki; Sasaki, Kazunori; Suda, Ikuo; Okuno, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress reduces cell viability and contributes to disease processes. Flavonoids including anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins reportedly induce intracellular antioxidant defence systems. Thus, in this study, we examined the antioxidant effects of a commercial extract from black soybean seed coats (BE), which are rich in anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin, and investigated the associated intracellular mechanisms in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide (HPO) showed 60% viability, whereas pretreatment with BE-containing media for 2 h ameliorated HPO-mediated cell death by up to 90%. Pretreatment with BE for 2 h partially blocked HPO-mediated activation of ERK in HepG2 cells, and that for 1 h led to a 20% increase in intracellular total protein phosphatase (PP) activity, which is known to deactivate protein kinases. These results indicate that BE prevents HPO-mediated cell damage by inhibiting ERK signalling, potentially via PPs.

  11. Use of verbal autopsy in a national health information system: Effects of the investigation of ill-defined causes of death on proportional mortality due to injury in small municipalities in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Maria de Fátima M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mortality Information System (MIS in Brazil records mortality data in hospitals and civil registries with the responsibility of compiling underlying cause of death. Despite continuous improvements in the MIS, some areas still maintain a high proportion of deaths assigned to ill-defined causes. Deaths coded to this category have most likely been considered as miscoded deaths from communicable and noncommunicable diseases. However, some local studies have provided evidence of underreporting of injury in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate ill-defined causes of death using the verbal autopsy (VA method to estimate injury-specific mortality fraction in small municipalities in northeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods A sample size of reported death certificates with ill-defined conditions in a random sample of 10 municipalities was obtained, and then trained interviewers questioned family members using a standardized VA questionnaire to elicit information on symptoms experienced by the deceased before death. All attempts were made to collect existing information about the disease or death using health facilities records. Probable causes of death were assigned by a physician after review of the completed questionnaires following rules of the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. Results Of 202 eligible ill-defined deaths, 151 were investigated using the VA methodology, and 12.6% had injury as the underlying cause of death. The proportional mortality fraction from injury among all causes of death increases from 4.4% to 8.2% after investigation. Different specific injury category causes were observed between recorded injury causes and those detected by VA. Drowning was the top specific injury cause detected after investigation. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the use of VA in the investigation of registered ill-defined conditions in an existing MIS can furnish

  12. The lowest-mass stellar black holes: catastrophic death of neutron stars in gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Belczynski, K; Kalogera, V; Rasio, F; Taam, R; Bulik, T

    2007-01-01

    Mergers of double neutron stars are considered the most likely progenitors for short gamma-ray bursts. Indeed such a merger can produce a black hole with a transient accreting torus of nuclear matter and the conversion of the torus mass-energy to radiation can power a gamma-ray burst. Using available binary pulsar observations supported by our extensive evolutionary calculations of double neutron star formation, we demonstrate that the fraction of mergers that can form a black hole -- torus system depends very sensitively on the (largely unknown) maximum neutron star mass. We show that the available observations and models put a very stringent constraint on this maximum mass under the assumption that a majority of short gamma-ray bursts originate in double neutron star mergers. Specifically, we find that the maximum neutron star mass must be within 2--2.5 Msun. Moreover, a single unambiguous measurement of a neutron star mass above 2.5 Msun would exclude double neutron star mergers as short gamma-ray burst pr...

  13. Matter of Life & Death: The impact of environmental conditions on the origins of stars and supermassive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Van Borm, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that some very large supermassive black holes (SMBHs) already existed less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang. Explaining the formation and growth of the 'seeds' of these SMBHs is quite challenging. We explore the formation of such seeds in the direct collapse scenario. Using 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we investigate the impact of turbulence and rotation on the fragmentation behavior of collapsing primordial gas in the presence of a strong UV radiation background, which keeps the gas hot. Additionally, we explore different ways in which the collapsing gas may be able to stay hot, and thus limit fragmentation. Using a one-zone model, we examine the interplay between magnetic fields, turbulence, and a UV radiation background. Feedback processes from stars and black holes shape the interstellar medium (ISM) out of which new generations of luminous objects form. To understand the properties of these objects, e.g. the stellar initial mass function, it is vital to have knowledge of th...

  14. Trends in Pulmonary Hypertension Mortality and Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alem Mehari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Few reports have been published regarding surveillance data for pulmonary hypertension, a debilitating and often fatal condition. Aims. We report trends in pulmonary hypertension. Settings and Design. United States of America; vital statistics, hospital data. Methods and Material. We used mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS for 1999–2008 and hospital discharge data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS for 1999–2009. Statistical Analysis Used. We present age-standardized rates. Results. Since 1999, the numbers of deaths and hospitalizations as well as death rates and hospitalization rates for pulmonary hypertension have increased. In 1999 death rates were higher for men than for women; however, by 2002, no differences by gender remained because of the increasing death rates among women and the declining death rates among men; after 2003 death rates for women were higher than for men. Death rates throughout the reporting period 1999–2008 were higher for blacks than for whites. Hospitalization rates in women were 1.3–1.6 times higher than in men. Conclusions. Pulmonary hypertension mortality and hospitalization numbers and rates increased from 1999 to 2008.

  15. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naghavi, Mohsen; Wang, Haidong; Lozano, Rafael; Davis, Adrian; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Vollset, Stein Emil; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abdalla, Safa; Abd-Allah, Foad; Aziz, Muna I. Abdel; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abuabara, Katrina E.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfi Na; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Adsuar, Jose C.; Aernlov, Johan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Akena, Dickens; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Al Lami, Faris; Allebeck, Peter; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alviz-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Hassan; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H. Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Apfel, Henry; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Al Artaman, Ali; Asad, Majed Masoud; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Atkinson, Charles; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed Omar; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref; Biryukov, Stan; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Borges, Guilherme; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R.; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Brainin, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Bui, Linh Ngoc; Bukhman, Gene; Burch, Michael; Nonato, Ismael Ricardo Campos; Carabin, Helesne; Cardenas, Rosario; Carapetis, Jonathan; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catala-Lopez, Ferrn; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona C.; Che, Xuan; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Yingyao; Chen, Jian Sheng; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A.; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M.; Coffeng, Luc Edgar; Coggeshall, Megan S.; Cohen, Aaron; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Colomar, Mercedes; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; Coppola, Luis M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville, Karen; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C.; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dansereau, Emily; Dargan, Paul I.; Dayama, Anand; De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa; de la Vega, Shelley F.; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Jarlais, Don C. Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh; Diaz-Ortega, Jose-Luis; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Duber, Herbert C.; Durrani, Adnan M.; Ebel, Beth E.; Edmond, Karen M.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elshrek, Yousef; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fuerst, Thomas; Fahimi, Saman; Fahrion, Anna S.; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F. J.; Feigl, Andrea B.; Feigin, Valery L.; Felicio, Manuela Mendonca; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Fra Paleo, Urbano; Franklin, Richard C.; Futran, Neal D.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gambashidze, Ketevan; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Garcia-Guerra, Francisco Armando; Garcia, Ana Cristina; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Gilmour, Stuart; Abdelmageem, Ibrahim; Ginawi, Mohamed; Giroud, Maurice; Glaser, Elizabeth L.; Goenka, Shifalika; Dantes, Hector Gomez; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez-Medina, Diego; Guinovart, Caterina; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gowda, Hube N.; Graetz, Nicholas; Greenwell, K. Fern; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gunnell, David; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hansen, Gillian M.; Harb, Hilda L.; Harewood, Heather; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hay, Simon I.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Pi, Ileana B. Heredia; Heuton, Kyle R.; Heydarpour, Pouria; Higashi, Hideki; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J.; Huffman, Mark D.; Hughes, Andrew J.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huynh, Chantal; Iannarone, Marissa; Iburg, Kim M.; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jassal, Simerjot; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Joseph, Jonathan; Juel, Knud; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karimkhani, Chante; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazanjan, Konstantin; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmed; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Kieling, Christian; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Sowarta; Kotagal, Meera; Kravchenko, Michael A.; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Krueger, Hans; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B.; Kwan, Gene F.; Kyu, Hmwe; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Lavados, Pablo M.; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E. B.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leinsalu, Mall; Leung, Ricky; Levitz, Carly; Li, Bin; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liddell, Chelsea; Lim, Stephen S.; de Lima, Graca Maria Ferreira; Lind, Maggie L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Lofgren, Katherine T.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J.; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco Manuel Pedro; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Mackay, Mark T.; MacLachlan, Jennifer H.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher Chabila; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B.; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Masci, Joseph R.; Mashal, Mohammad Taufi Q.; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopolous, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; McGrath, John J.; Mckay, Abigail C.; Mckee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis A.; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh K.; Mock, Charles N.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen Liddell; Monasta, Lorenzo; Monis, Jonathan de la Cruz; Hernandez, Julio C. Montaez; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Moore, Ami R.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moran, Andrew E.; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister Nyaora; Moyer, Madeline L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C.; Murray, Joseph; Mustapha, Adetoun; Naghavi, Paria; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nash, Denis; Nasher, Jamal; Nejjari, Chakib; Nelson, Robert G.; Neuhouser, Marian; Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Newcomb, Polly A.; Newman, Lori; Newton, Charles R.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Nguyen, Grant; Nhung Thi Trang Nguyen, [Unknown; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Odell, Shaun; O'Donnell, Martin; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Ortblad, Katrina F.; Ortiz, Alberto; Otayza, Maria Lourdes K.; Pain, Amanda W.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin; Panniyammakal, Jeemon; Papachristou, Christina; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris; Pearce, Neil; Pellegrini, Carlos A.; Pereira, David M.; Peresson, Sophie C.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando P.; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Bryan K.; Phillips, David E.; Phillips, Michael R.; Plass, Dietrich; Piel, Frederic Bernard; Poenaru, Dan; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Qato, Dima; Quezada, Amado D.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rabito, Felicia; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad U. R.; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Refaat, Amany; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ricci, Stefano; Riccio, Patricia M.; Richardson, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Roberts, Bayard; Roberts, D. Allen; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rothstein, David H.; Rowley, Jane Tf; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Rushton, Lesley; Sambandam, Sankar; Soreide, Kjetil; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sahle, Berhe Weldearegawi; Salomon, Joshua A.; Salvo, Deborah; Samonte, Genesis May J.; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete; Scarborough, Peter; Schoettker, Ben; Schmidt, Juergen C.; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schumacher, Austin E.; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Shakh-Nazarova, Marina; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shepard, Donald S.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shinohara, Yukito; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shivakoti, Rupak; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Andrea P.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Lavanya; Sioson, Edgar; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; So, Samuel; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Soshnikov, Sergey S.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stanaway, Jeff Rey D.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Steenland, Kyle; Stein, Claudia; Steiner, Caitlyn; Stevens, Antony; Stoeckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tan, Feng; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Ao, Braden Te; Teixeira, Carolina Maria; Templin, Tara; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tirschwell, David L.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Truelsen, Thomas; Trujillo, Ulises; Trillini, Matias; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Ubeda, Clotilde; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Vallely, Andrew J.; van de Vijver, Steven; van Gool, Coen H.; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Vavilala, Monica S.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Wagner, Gregory R.; Waller, Stephen G.; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, XiaoRong; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati Suryati; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Wenzhi, Wang; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K. Ryan R.; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Thomas Neil; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Wolock, Timothy M.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wong, John Q.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Wulf, Sarah; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yang, Yang C.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zamakhshary, Mohammed Fouad; Zeeb, Hajo; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zonies, David; Zou, Xiao Nong; Zunt, Joseph R.; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specifi c all-cause and cause-specifi c mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries betwe

  16. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naghavi, Mohsen; Wang, Haidong; Lozano, Rafael; Davis, Adrian; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Vollset, Stein Emil; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abdalla, Safa; Abd-Allah, Foad; Aziz, Muna I. Abdel; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abuabara, Katrina E.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfi Na; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Adsuar, Jose C.; Aernlov, Johan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Akena, Dickens; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Al Lami, Faris; Allebeck, Peter; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alviz-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Hassan; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H. Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Apfel, Henry; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Al Artaman, Ali; Asad, Majed Masoud; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Atkinson, Charles; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed Omar; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref; Biryukov, Stan; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Borges, Guilherme; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R.; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Brainin, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Bui, Linh Ngoc; Bukhman, Gene; Burch, Michael; Nonato, Ismael Ricardo Campos; Carabin, Helesne; Cardenas, Rosario; Carapetis, Jonathan; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catala-Lopez, Ferrn; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona C.; Che, Xuan; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Yingyao; Chen, Jian Sheng; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A.; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M.; Coffeng, Luc Edgar; Coggeshall, Megan S.; Cohen, Aaron; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Colomar, Mercedes; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; Coppola, Luis M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville, Karen; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C.; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dansereau, Emily; Dargan, Paul I.; Dayama, Anand; De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa; de la Vega, Shelley F.; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Jarlais, Don C. Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh; Diaz-Ortega, Jose-Luis; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Duber, Herbert C.; Durrani, Adnan M.; Ebel, Beth E.; Edmond, Karen M.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elshrek, Yousef; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fuerst, Thomas; Fahimi, Saman; Fahrion, Anna S.; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F. J.; Feigl, Andrea B.; Feigin, Valery L.; Felicio, Manuela Mendonca; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Fra Paleo, Urbano; Franklin, Richard C.; Futran, Neal D.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gambashidze, Ketevan; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Garcia-Guerra, Francisco Armando; Garcia, Ana Cristina; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Gilmour, Stuart; Abdelmageem, Ibrahim; Ginawi, Mohamed; Giroud, Maurice; Glaser, Elizabeth L.; Goenka, Shifalika; Dantes, Hector Gomez; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez-Medina, Diego; Guinovart, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specifi c all-cause and cause-specifi c mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries

  17. Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naghavi, Mohsen; Wang, Haidong; Lozano, Rafael; Davis, Adrian; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Vollset, Stein Emil; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abdalla, Safa; Abd-Allah, Foad; Aziz, Muna I. Abdel; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abuabara, Katrina E.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Ademi, Zanfi Na; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Adsuar, Jose C.; Aernlov, Johan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Akena, Dickens; Al Khabouri, Mazin J.; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Al Lami, Faris; Allebeck, Peter; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alviz-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Hassan; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H. Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Apfel, Henry; Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Al Artaman, Ali; Asad, Majed Masoud; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Atkinson, Charles; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed Omar; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref; Biryukov, Stan; Blore, Jed D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Borges, Guilherme; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R.; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Brainin, Michael; Brauer, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Bui, Linh Ngoc; Bukhman, Gene; Burch, Michael; Nonato, Ismael Ricardo Campos; Carabin, Helesne; Cardenas, Rosario; Carapetis, Jonathan; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catala-Lopez, Ferrn; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona C.; Che, Xuan; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Yingyao; Chen, Jian Sheng; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A.; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M.; Coffeng, Luc Edgar; Coggeshall, Megan S.; Cohen, Aaron; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Colomar, Mercedes; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cooper, Cyrus; Coppola, Luis M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville, Karen; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Leite, Iuri da Costa; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C.; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dansereau, Emily; Dargan, Paul I.; Dayama, Anand; De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa; de la Vega, Shelley F.; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Jarlais, Don C. Des; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh; Diaz-Ortega, Jose-Luis; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Duber, Herbert C.; Durrani, Adnan M.; Ebel, Beth E.; Edmond, Karen M.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elshrek, Yousef; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fuerst, Thomas; Fahimi, Saman; Fahrion, Anna S.; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F. J.; Feigl, Andrea B.; Feigin, Valery L.; Felicio, Manuela Mendonca; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Fra Paleo, Urbano; Franklin, Richard C.; Futran, Neal D.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gambashidze, Ketevan; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Garcia-Guerra, Francisco Armando; Garcia, Ana Cristina; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Gilmour, Stuart; Abdelmageem, Ibrahim; Ginawi, Mohamed; Giroud, Maurice; Glaser, Elizabeth L.; Goenka, Shifalika; Dantes, Hector Gomez; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez-Medina, Diego; Guinovart, Caterina; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gowda, Hube N.; Graetz, Nicholas; Greenwell, K. Fern; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gunnell, David; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hansen, Gillian M.; Harb, Hilda L.; Harewood, Heather; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Hay, Simon I.; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Pi, Ileana B. Heredia; Heuton, Kyle R.; Heydarpour, Pouria; Higashi, Hideki; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hornberger, John C.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J.; Huffman, Mark D.; Hughes, Andrew J.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huynh, Chantal; Iannarone, Marissa; Iburg, Kim M.; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jassal, Simerjot; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Joseph, Jonathan; Juel, Knud; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karimkhani, Chante; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazanjan, Konstantin; Kazi, Dhruv S.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kereselidze, Maia; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmed; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Kieling, Christian; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Sowarta; Kotagal, Meera; Kravchenko, Michael A.; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Krueger, Hans; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Ravi B.; Kwan, Gene F.; Kyu, Hmwe; Lai, Taavi; Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larson, Heidi J.; Larsson, Anders; Lavados, Pablo M.; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E. B.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leinsalu, Mall; Leung, Ricky; Levitz, Carly; Li, Bin; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liddell, Chelsea; Lim, Stephen S.; de Lima, Graca Maria Ferreira; Lind, Maggie L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Lofgren, Katherine T.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J.; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan Anthony; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco Manuel Pedro; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Mackay, Mark T.; MacLachlan, Jennifer H.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher Chabila; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B.; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Masci, Joseph R.; Mashal, Mohammad Taufi Q.; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Matzopolous, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; McGrath, John J.; Mckay, Abigail C.; Mckee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis A.; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh K.; Mock, Charles N.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen Liddell; Monasta, Lorenzo; Monis, Jonathan de la Cruz; Hernandez, Julio C. Montaez; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Moore, Ami R.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moran, Andrew E.; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister Nyaora; Moyer, Madeline L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C.; Murray, Joseph; Mustapha, Adetoun; Naghavi, Paria; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nash, Denis; Nasher, Jamal; Nejjari, Chakib; Nelson, Robert G.; Neuhouser, Marian; Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Newcomb, Polly A.; Newman, Lori; Newton, Charles R.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Nguyen, Grant; Nhung Thi Trang Nguyen, [Unknown; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Odell, Shaun; O'Donnell, Martin; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Omer, Saad B.; Opio, John Nelson; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Ortblad, Katrina F.; Ortiz, Alberto; Otayza, Maria Lourdes K.; Pain, Amanda W.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin; Panniyammakal, Jeemon; Papachristou, Christina; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris; Pearce, Neil; Pellegrini, Carlos A.; Pereira, David M.; Peresson, Sophie C.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando P.; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Bryan K.; Phillips, David E.; Phillips, Michael R.; Plass, Dietrich; Piel, Frederic Bernard; Poenaru, Dan; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Qato, Dima; Quezada, Amado D.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rabito, Felicia; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad U. R.; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Refaat, Amany; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ricci, Stefano; Riccio, Patricia M.; Richardson, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Roberts, Bayard; Roberts, D. Allen; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rothstein, David H.; Rowley, Jane Tf; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Rushton, Lesley; Sambandam, Sankar; Soreide, Kjetil; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sahle, Berhe Weldearegawi; Salomon, Joshua A.; Salvo, Deborah; Samonte, Genesis May J.; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete; Scarborough, Peter; Schoettker, Ben; Schmidt, Juergen C.; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schumacher, Austin E.; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Shakh-Nazarova, Marina; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shepard, Donald S.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shinohara, Yukito; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shivakoti, Rupak; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Andrea P.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Lavanya; Sioson, Edgar; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; So, Samuel; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Soshnikov, Sergey S.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stanaway, Jeff Rey D.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki Kalliopi; Steenland, Kyle; Stein, Claudia; Steiner, Caitlyn; Stevens, Antony; Stoeckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tan, Feng; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Ao, Braden Te; Teixeira, Carolina Maria; Templin, Tara; Tenkorang, Eric Yeboah; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tirschwell, David L.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Truelsen, Thomas; Trujillo, Ulises; Trillini, Matias; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Ubeda, Clotilde; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Vallely, Andrew J.; van de Vijver, Steven; van Gool, Coen H.; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Vavilala, Monica S.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Wagner, Gregory R.; Waller, Stephen G.; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, XiaoRong; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati Suryati; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Wenzhi, Wang; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K. Ryan R.; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Thomas Neil; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Wolock, Timothy M.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wong, John Q.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Wulf, Sarah; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yang, Yang C.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa; Yu, Chuanhua; Jin, Kim Yun; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zamakhshary, Mohammed Fouad; Zeeb, Hajo; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zonies, David; Zou, Xiao Nong; Zunt, Joseph R.; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specifi c all-cause and cause-specifi c mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries betwe

  18. Trends, productivity losses, and associated medical conditions among toxoplasmosis deaths in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000-2010. A matched case-control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups.

  19. Religious Affiliation, Religious Service Attendance, and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Smith, Tom W; Kang, Jeong-han

    2015-12-01

    Very few studies have examined the effects of both religious affiliation and religiosity on mortality at the same time, and studies employing multiple dimensions of religiosity other than religious attendance are rare. Using the newly created General Social Survey-National Death Index data, our report contributes to the religion and mortality literature by examining religious affiliation and religiosity at the same time. Compared to Mainline Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and other religious groups have lower risk of death, but Black Protestants, Evangelical Protestants, and even those with no religious affiliation are not different from Mainline Protestants. While our study is consistent with previous findings that religious attendance leads to a reduction in mortality, we did not find other religious measures, such as strength of religious affiliation, frequency of praying, belief in an afterlife, and belief in God to be associated with mortality. We also find interaction effects between religious affiliation and attendance. The lowest mortality of Jews and other religious groups is more apparent for those with lower religious attendance. Thus, our result may emphasize the need for other research to focus on the effects of religious group and religious attendance on mortality at the same time.

  20. Mortalidad materna en Guatemala: diferencias entre muerte hospitalaria y no hospitalaria Maternal mortality in Guatemala: differences between hospital and non-hospital deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marina Tzul

    2006-06-01

    Guatemala during 2000, comparing characteristics of intra- and extra-hospital maternal deaths. Multivariate statistical analysis was conducted using Stata 7.0 software RESULTS: Out of 649 registered MM cases, 270 (41.6% were classified as intra-hospital MM and 379 (58.4% as extra-hospital MM. A larger proportion of deaths occurred in women over 35 years of age (29.28%, those of indigenous ethnicity (65.49%, married or cohabiting (87.83%, who had unpaid employment (94.78%, and without formal education (66.56%. Compared with intra-hospital MM cases, the risk of extra-hospital MM was greater among indigenous women (OR 3.4; CI95% 2.8-5.3, those who had unpaid employment (OR 8.95; CI95% 1.7-46.4, a low level of formal education (OR 1.96; CI95% 1.0-3.8 and hemorrhaging as the immediate cause of death (OR 4.28; CI95% 2.3-7.9. CONCLUSIONS: Although some characteristics of intra- and extra-hospital MM cases are similar, a greater proportion of deaths were extra-hospital. This could be related to the high percentage of the population that lives in rural or marginalized areas, which in addition to certain cultural aspects (related to the fact that most of the population is indigenous may impede access to health services. The results of this study can be useful for determining intervention strategies to prevent maternal mortality in intra- and extra-hospital contexts in Guatemala.

  1. Maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Dildy, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    Hemorrhage remains as one of the top 3 obstetrics related causes of maternal mortality, with most deaths occurring within 24-48 hours of delivery. Although hemorrhage related maternal mortality has declined globally, it continues to be a vexing problem. More specifically, the developing world continue to shoulder a disproportionate share of hemorrhage related deaths (99%) compared with industrialized nations (1%). Given the often preventable nature of death from hemorrhage, the cornerstone of effective mortality reduction involves risk factor identification, quick diagnosis, and timely management. In this monograph we will review the epidemiology, etiology, and preventative measures related to maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

  2. 河南省烟草低头黑病的病原鉴定%Identification of Pathogen Causing T obacco Black Death Disease in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛; 苗圃; 李淑君; 赵丹; 白静科; 康业斌

    2013-01-01

    为了明确引起河南省烟草低头黑病的病原菌,在襄城、舞阳两县采集表现烟草低头黑病症状的病株,采用组织分离与单孢分离相结合的方法分别获得Ⅰ号和Ⅱ号2个菌株。形态学鉴定结果表明:在PDA培养基上,菌落正面初期呈白色、黄色或灰色等变化,但后期均能产生分生孢子盘、刚毛、分生孢子梗与分生孢子。rDNA ITS序列分析结果表明,菌株Ⅰ号和菌株Ⅱ号属于同一个种,其序列与序列号为DQ286158.1和 HM231266.1的辣椒炭疽菌(Colletotrichum capsici)ITS序列同源性分别均为100%和99%。因此,河南省烟草低头黑病的病原菌可确定为辣椒炭疽菌[Colletotrichum capsici(Syd .) Butler & Bisby ]。%In order to identify the pathogen causing tobacco black death disease in Henan prov-ince ,two strains were isolated from the disease infected plants in Xiangcheng and Wuyang by the methods of tissue separation and single spore isolation .The pathogens were identified based on their morphological characteristics and ITS sequences .Studies on the pathogens showed that colo-nies were initially white ,yellow or gray on PDA medium ,and they all produced acervuli ,bristles , conidiophores ,and conidia .Two strains were identified as the same species based on their rDNA-ITS ,which displayed 100% and 99% identities with DQ286158 .1 and HM231266 .1 ,respectively . It is confirmed that Colletotrichum capsici(Syd .) Butler & Bisby is the causal organism of tobac-co black death disease in Henan province .

  3. Advance Report of Final Mortality Statistics, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthly Vital Statistics Report, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This document presents mortality statistics for 1985 for the entire United States. Data analysis and discussion of these factors is included: death and death rates; death rates by age, sex, and race; expectation of life at birth and at specified ages; causes of death; infant mortality; and maternal mortality. Highlights reported include: (1) the…

  4. Mortality investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife mortality events usually occur unannounced and may find management agencies unaware. These events can become highly visible and politically charged affairs, depending upon the scale or species involved. The public, media, and (or) politicians may pressure managers, field investigators, and diagnosticians to quickly identify the cause or to comment on potential causes, the significance of the event, what is being done about it, and a resolution. It may be common during such events for speculation to rage, and for conflicting theories to be advanced to explain either the environmental conditions that led to the mortality or the actual cause of death.

  5. Dairy cattle mortality in an organized herd in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Hossain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find out the causes and factors affecting the dairy cattle mortality. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of dairy cattle mortality on the Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm (CCBDF in Bangladesh was carried out between 1992 and 2007. Sixteen years of data on mortality of dairy cattle were analyzed for the effects of year, season, age, sex, breed, and etiology on mortality rate. Results: The average overall mortality rate was 5.60% and on average, female cattle (55.71% were found to die more than males (44.29%. Mortality was more in crossbred cattle than in indigenous breed. Higher mortality of cattle was observed in rainy season (37.98% followed by winter (33.03% and summer (28.99%. The major causes of death were diseases of the respiratory tract, mainly pneumonia (39.91%. Tuberculosis was the second most common cause of mortality accounting for 20.58% of deaths. The other major cause of death was disease of the alimentary tract, mainly enteritis (15.58%. Other causes of death occurred in the following frequencies: malnutrition (5.91%, debility (4.43%, hairball (3.35%, tympanitis (2.56%, babesiosis (2.27%, internal haemorrhage (2.16%, black quarter (1.76%, and foot and mouth disease (1.48%. Conclusions: Of the four potential risk factors investigated, age was the most important factor and significantly associated with mortality. During the first month of life, calves had a higher risk of mortality than adults.

  6. Occupational Mortality, Background on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    The study of occupational mortality involves the systematic tabulation of mortality by occupational or socioeconomic groups. Three main methods are used to conduct these studies: cross-sectional studies, death certificate studies, and follow-up studies. Cross-sectional studies were undertaken in ...... the mortality rates of blue- and white-collar workers....

  7. Banting Memorial Lecture 2010^. Type 2 diabetes as an 'infectious' disease: is this the Black Death of the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, D R; Matthews, P C

    2011-01-01

    We are currently facing a global pandemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes. In some settings, the population prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is 50%, and half of those affected will die from diabetes-related complications. Eight centuries ago, an epidemic of bubonic plague swept across Europe, killing at least half of its victims. We here draw comparisons between these two pandemics, proposing close analogies between the 'Black Death' of the 14th century and the modern-day equivalent of Type 2 diabetes. Both diseases can be considered in terms of an aetiological agent, a reservoir, a vector and a predisposing toxic environment; populations can be considered as highly susceptible to the transmissable agents of Type 2 diabetes in the setting of calorie excess, inadequate food labelling, poorly regulated advertising and sedentary lifestyles. As for tackling a pandemic of a contagious microbial pathogen, we believe that breaking the cycle of transmission in the diabetes epidemic must be underpinned by political will and prompt, decisive legislation backed by the medical community. Far from fearing that such measures edge us towards a 'nanny state', we believe individuals should expect a responsible government to safeguard them from the toxic milieu that puts them at risk of obesity and its complications, and that communities and populations have the right to have their health protected. © 2010 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2010 Diabetes UK.

  8. Camphor—A Fumigant during the Black Death and a Coveted Fragrant Wood in Ancient Egypt and Babylon—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Viljoen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The fragrant camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora and its products, such as camphor oil, have been coveted since ancient times. Having a rich history of traditional use, it was particularly used as a fumigant during the era of the Black Death and considered as a valuable ingredient in both perfume and embalming fluid. Camphor has been widely used as a fragrance in cosmetics, as a food flavourant, as a common ingredient in household cleaners, as well as in topically applied analgesics and rubefacients for the treatment of minor muscle aches and pains. Camphor, traditionally obtained through the distillation of the wood of the camphor tree, is a major essential oil component of many aromatic plant species, as it is biosynthetically synthesised; it can also be chemically synthesised using mainly turpentine as a starting material. Camphor exhibits a number of biological properties such as insecticidal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticoccidial, anti-nociceptive, anticancer and antitussive activities, in addition to its use as a skin penetration enhancer. However, camphor is a very toxic substance and numerous cases of camphor poisoning have been documented. This review briefly summarises the uses and synthesis of camphor and discusses the biological properties and toxicity of this valuable molecule.

  9. The Impacts of Black Death on the Development of Western Medicine%试论黑死病对西方医学发展的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建红

    2015-01-01

    14世纪在欧洲爆发的黑死病是人类经历的一场沉重灾难,但它却在客观上推动了西方医学的发展和现代医疗体系的兴起.首先,传统的希波克拉底和盖伦学说的权威性受到质疑,医学思想开始发生变化.其次,医生经济收入普遍提高,外科医生社会地位上升.再次,公共卫生制度出现.最后,医院功能发生变化.%The Black Death in the 14th century in Europe was a great disaster for humans,but it promot-ed the development of western medicine and the beginning of modern medical system. First,the traditional medi-cal theory of Hippocrates and Galen has been questioned. Second, the income of medical practitioners was gen-erally increased and the surgeons had a rise in the social status. Third, the public health system appeared. Last, the functions of hospital changed.

  10. The role of population change in the increased economic differences in mortality: a study of premature death from all causes and major groups of causes of death in Spain, 1980-2010

    OpenAIRE

    MARTÍNEZ, DAVID; Giráldez García, Carolina; Miqueleiz Autor, Estrella; Calle, María; Santos, Juana M.; Regidor, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Background: An increase has been observed in differences in mortality between the richest and poorest areas of rich countries. This study assesses whether one of the proposed explanations, i.e., population change, might be responsible for this increase in Spain. Methods: Observational study based on average income, population change and mortality at provincial level. The premature mortality rate (ages 0-74 years) was estimated for all causes and for cancer, cardiovascular disease and external...

  11. Racial disparities in diabetes mortality in the 50 most populous US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Summer; Whitman, Steve; West, Joseph F; Balkin, Michael

    2014-10-01

    While studies have consistently shown that in the USA, non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) have higher diabetes prevalence, complication and death rates than non-Hispanic Whites (Whites), there are no studies that compare disparities in diabetes mortality across the largest US cities. This study presents and compares Black/White age-adjusted diabetes mortality rate ratios (RRs), calculated using national death files and census data, for the 50 most populous US cities. Relationships between city-level diabetes mortality RRs and 12 ecological variables were explored using bivariate correlation analyses. Multivariate analyses were conducted using negative binomial regression to examine how much of the disparity could be explained by these variables. Blacks had statistically significantly higher mortality rates compared to Whites in 39 of the 41 cities included in analyses, with statistically significant rate ratios ranging from 1.57 (95 % CI: 1.33-1.86) in Baltimore to 3.78 (95 % CI: 2.84-5.02) in Washington, DC. Analyses showed that economic inequality was strongly correlated with the diabetes mortality disparity, driven by differences in White poverty levels. This was followed by segregation. Multivariate analyses showed that adjusting for Black/White poverty alone explained 58.5 % of the disparity. Adjusting for Black/White poverty and segregation explained 72.6 % of the disparity. This study emphasizes the role that inequalities in social and economic determinants, rather than for example poverty on its own, play in Black/White diabetes mortality disparities. It also highlights how the magnitude of the disparity and the factors that influence it can vary greatly across cities, underscoring the importance of using local data to identify context specific barriers and develop effective interventions to eliminate health disparities.

  12. Trends in mortality burden of hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis, and fulminant hepatitis before and after roll-out of the first pilot vaccination program against hepatitis B in Peru: An analysis of death certificate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Soto, Max Carlos; Ortega-Cáceres, Gutia; Cabezas, César

    2017-07-05

    The first pilot vaccination program against hepatitis B in Peru was implemented in the hyperendemic Abancay province in 1991. To assess the impact of vaccination on mortality rates of hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis, and fulminant hepatitis, we compared mortality trends before (1960-1990) and after (1991-2012) roll-out of the vaccination program, using death certificate data from the Municipalidad Provincial de Abancay. Our results showed that, following program roll-out, the overall mortality rates (per 100,000 population) decreased from 9.20 to 3.30 for HCC (95% CI, 1.28-10.48%; P<0.014), from 16.0 to 6.3 for cirrhosis (95% CI, 3.20-16.10%; P<0.004), and from 34.80 to 1.28 for fulminant hepatitis (95% CI, 16.70-50.30%; P<0.001). The absolute number of deaths attributable to cirrhosis (10 [8.80%] vs. 0.0%; P<0.001) and fulminant hepatitis (83 [40.0%] vs. 5 [19.20%]; P<0.026) decreased in 5-14-year-old children following vaccination. These findings showed reduced mortality rates of hepatitis B-related liver diseases, particularly cirrhosis and fulminant hepatitis in children under 15years, following implementation of the vaccination program against hepatitis B. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaohui; Han, Fei; Li, Xiayu; He, Xuelin; Li, Qun; Chen, Jianghua

    2014-05-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) may have different effects on cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). To conduct a meta-analysis to separately evaluate the effects of ACEIs and ARBs on all-cause mortality, CV deaths, and major CV events in patients with DM. DATA SOURCES Data sources included MEDLINE (1966-2012), EMBASE (1988-2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, conference proceedings, and article reference lists. We included randomized clinical trials reporting the effects of ACEI and ARB regimens for DM on all-cause mortality, CV deaths, and major CV events with an observation period of at least 12 months. Studies were excluded if they were crossover trials. Dichotomous outcome data from individual trials were analyzed using the risk ratio (RR) measure and its 95% CI with random-effects models. We estimated the difference between the estimates of the subgroups according to tests for interaction. We performed meta-regression analyses to identify sources of heterogeneity. Primary end points were all-cause mortality and death from CV causes. Secondary end points were the effects of ACEIs and ARBs on major CV events. Twenty-three of 35 identified trials compared ACEIs with placebo or active drugs (32,827 patients) and 13 compared ARBs with no therapy (controls) (23,867 patients). When compared with controls (placebo/active treatment), ACEIs significantly reduced the risk of all-cause mortality by 13% (RR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.98), CV deaths by 17% (0.83; 0.70-0.99), and major CV events by 14% (0.86; 0.77-0.95), including myocardial infarction by 21% (0.79; 0.65-0.95) and heart failure by 19% (0.81; 0.71-0.93). Treatment with ARBs did not significantly affect all-cause mortality (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.82-1.08), CV death rate (1.21; 0.81-1.80), and major CV events (0.94; 0.85-1.01) with the exception of heart failure (0.70; 0.59-0.82). Both ACEIs and ARBs were

  14. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Allen, Christine; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Zian; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fraser, Maya S.; Pullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hay, Simon I.; Huynh, Chantal; Johnson, Catherine; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kulikoff, Xie Rachel; Kutz, Michael; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Larson, Heidi J.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lind, Margaret; Lozano, Rafael; Marquez, Neal; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Roth, Gregory A.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Silpakit, Naris; Sligar, Amber; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Steiner, Caitlyn; Teeple, Stephanie; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Troeger, Christopher; VanderZanden, Amelia; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wanga, Valentine; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wolock, Timothy; Zoeckler, Leo; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abreu, Daisy M. X.; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola Lukman; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Agarwal, Arnav; Agrawal, Anurag; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ajala, Oluremi N.; Akanda, All Shafqat; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Alabed, Samer; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Alasfoor, Deena; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Aldridge, Robert William; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alexander, Lily T.; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Martin, Elena Alvarez; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Andersen, Hjalte H.; Anderson, Benjamin; Anderson, Gregory M.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Aregay, Atsede Fantahun; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Al Artaman, Ali; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atique, Suleman; Arthur Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.; Awasthi, Ashish; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barac, Aleksandra; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barnighausen, Till; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Belay, Haileeyesus Adamu; Bell, Brent; Bell, Michelle L.; Bello, Aminu K.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabe, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Biroscak, Brian J.; Biryukov, Stan; Bjertness, Espen; Blore, Jed D.; Blosser, Christopher D.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Borschmann, Rohan; Bose, Dipan; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Brainin, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brenner, Hermann; Brewer, Jerry D.; Brown, Alexandria; Brown, Jonathan; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buckle, Geoffrey Colin; Butt, Zahid A.; Calabria, Bianca; Campos-Novato, Ismael Ricardo; Campuzano, Julio Cesar; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Castaneda-Oquela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Cercy, Kelly; Cerda, Jorge; Chen, Wanqing; Chew, Adrienne; Chiang, Peggy Pei -Chia; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cirillo, Massimo; Cohen, Aaron J.; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cortinovis, Monica; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Crump, John A.; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Rakhi; Daoud, Farah; Darby, Sarah C.; Dargan, Paul I.; das Neves, Jose; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian C.; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; de Castro, E. Filipa; de Jager, Pieter; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Deribew, Amare; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dhillon, Preet K.; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Ding, Eric L.; dos Santos, Kadine Priscila Bender; Dossou, Edem; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Dubey, Manisha; Bartholow, Bruce; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Lycke, Christian; Elyazar, Iqbal; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Faghmous, Imad D. A.; Fahimi, Saman; Jose, Emerito; Farid, Talha A.; Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia e; Faro, Andre; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph R. A.; Flaxman, Abraham; Foigt, Nataliya; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Franca, Elisabeth Barboza; Franklin, Richard C.; Friedman, Joseph; Frostad, Joseph; Hirst, Thomas; Futran, Neal D.; Gall, Seana L.; Gambashidze, Ketevan; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Ganguly, Parthasarathi; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Gebre, Teshome; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tsewelde; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Gebru, Alemseged Aregay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gillum, Richard F.; Gilmour, Stuart; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Giroud, Maurice; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Giussani, Giorgia; Glaser, Elizabeth; Godwin, William W.; Gomez-Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Greaves, Felix; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Vipin; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Haile, Demewoz; Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hancock, Jamie; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Heckbert, Susan R.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hilderink, Henk B. M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Hogg, Robert S.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Htet, Aung Soe; Than Htike, Maung Maung; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Cheng; Huang, Hsiang; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huybrechts, Inge; Huynh, Grace; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Iyer, Veena J.; Jacobs, Troy A.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; James, Peter; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jibat, Tariku; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Jonas, Jost B.; Joshi, Tushar Kant; Kabir, Zubair; Karnak, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Kant, Surya; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karimkhani, Chante; Karletsos, Dimitris; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kasaeian, Amir; Katibeh, Marzieh; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kayibanda, Jeanne Francoise; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemmer, Laura; Kemp, Andrew Haddon; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Kereselidze, Maia; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khera, Sahil; Muthafer Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yun Jin; Kissela, Brett M.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Kopec, Jacek A.; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kudom, Andreas A.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kwan, Gene F.; Lal, Aparna; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lam, Hilton; Lam, Jennifer O.; Langan, Sinead M.; Lansingh, Van C.; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis Odai; Latif, Asma Abdul; Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena Beatriz; Leigh, James; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yongmei; Lindsay, M. Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Patrick Y.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lo, Loon-Tzian; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Ma, Stefan; Pedro Machado, Vasco Manuel; Mackay, Mark T.; MacLachlan, Jennifer H.; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Abd El Razek, Mohammed Magdy; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ayele Manamo, Wondimu Ayele; Mandisarisa, John; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Chabila C.; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David Joel; Martin, Gerard Robert; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Massano, Joao; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; McGarvey, Stephen Theodore; McGrath, John J.; Mckee, Martin; McMahon, Brian J.; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehari, Alem; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mena-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R.; Mirarefin, Mojde; Misganaw, Awoke; Mock, Charles N.; Abdulmuhsin Mohammad, Karzan; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mola, Glen Liddell D.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Montero, Pablo; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Morawska, Lidia; Morgan, Katherine; Mori, Rintaro; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich; Satyanarayana Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata; Murthy, Srinivas; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Nachega, Jean B.; Nagel, Gabriele; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naik, Nitish; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Nash, Denis; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Subas; Newton, Charles R.; Newton, John N.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Quyen Le Nguyen, [Unknown; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nkamedjie Pete, Patrick Martial; Nomura, Marika; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Paul E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ojelabi, Foluke Adetola; Olivares, Pedro R.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Osman, Majdi; Ota, Erika; Ozdemir, Raziye; Pa, Mahesh; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Pant, Puspa Raj; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Park, Jae-Hyun; Parry, Charles D.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pearce, Neil; Pedro, Joao Mario; Stokic, Ljiljana Pejin; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Piel, Frederic B.; Pillay, Julian David; Plass, Dietrich; Platts-Mills, James A.; Polinder, Suzanne; Pope, C. Arden; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Qorbani, Mostafa; Quame-Amaglo, Justice; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajavi, Zhale; Rajsic, Sasa; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M.; Ranabhat, Chhabi L.; Rangaswamy, Thara; Rao, Puja; Rao, Sowmya R.; Refaat, Amany H.; Rehm, Jurgen; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikofff, Serge; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ricci, Stefano; Blancas, Maria Jesus Rios; Roberts, Bayard; Roca, Anna; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Roy, Ambuj; Roy, Nawal K.; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Sagar, Rajesh; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sanchez-Nino, Maria Dolores; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Santos, Itamar S.; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savic, Miloje; Sawhney, Monika; Schaub, Michael P.; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schottker, Ben; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya A.; Shaddick, Gavin; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shakh-Nazarova, Marina; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shen, Jiabin; Shen, Ziyan; Shepard, Donald S.; Sheth, Kevin N.; Shetty, Balakrishna P.; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Min-Jeong; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves; Silverberg, Jonathan I.; Simard, Edgar P.; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Om Prakash; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Virendra; Soneji, Samir; Soreide, Kjetil; Soriano, Joan B.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Stranges, Saverio; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Sur, Patrick; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Takala, Jukka S.; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tandon, Nikhil; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Taylor, Hugh R.; Ao, Braden J. Te; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Tefera, Worku Mekonnen; Ten Have, Margreet; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tirschwell, David L.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Topouzis, Fotis; Nx, Jeffrey Allen Towb; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach Xuan; Truelsen, Thomas; Trujillo, Ulises; Tura, Abera Kenay; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Van Dingenen, Rita; Van Donkelaar, Aaron; Vasankari, Tommi; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria Nogales; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vidavalur, Ramesh; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Wagner, Joseph A.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Wallin, Mitchell T.; Wang, Linhong; Watkins, David A.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; White, Richard A.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Hywel C.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Won, Sungho; Wong, John Q.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Xavier, Denis; Xiao, Qingyang; Xu, Gelin; Yakob, Bereket; Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Ye, Pengpeng; Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin; Yip, Paul; Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yonga, Gerald; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Shicheng; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zannad, Faiez; Zavala, Diego E.; Zeeb, Hajo; Zeleke, Berihun M.; Zhang, Hao; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zonies, David; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes

  15. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography–year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality...

  16. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haidong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Allen, Christine; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Zian; Coates, Matthew M.; Coggeshall, Megan; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Foreman, Kyle; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fraser, Maya S.; Pullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hay, Simon I.; Huynh, Chantal; Johnson, Catherine; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kulikoff, Xie Rachel; Kutz, Michael; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Larson, Heidi J.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lind, Margaret; Lozano, Rafael; Marquez, Neal; Mensah, George A.; Mikesell, Joe; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Roth, Gregory A.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Silpakit, Naris; Sligar, Amber; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Steiner, Caitlyn; Teeple, Stephanie; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Troeger, Christopher; VanderZanden, Amelia; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wanga, Valentine; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wolock, Timothy; Zoeckler, Leo; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abreu, Daisy M. X.; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola Lukman; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Agarwal, Arnav; Agrawal, Anurag; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ajala, Oluremi N.; Akanda, All Shafqat; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Alabed, Samer; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Alasfoor, Deena; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Aldridge, Robert William; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alexander, Lily T.; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Martin, Elena Alvarez; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Andersen, Hjalte H.; Anderson, Benjamin; Anderson, Gregory M.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Aregay, Atsede Fantahun; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Al Artaman, Ali; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atique, Suleman; Arthur Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.; Awasthi, Ashish; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barac, Aleksandra; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barnighausen, Till; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Belay, Haileeyesus Adamu; Bell, Brent; Bell, Michelle L.; Bello, Aminu K.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabe, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A.; Biroscak, Brian J.; Biryukov, Stan; Bjertness, Espen; Blore, Jed D.; Blosser, Christopher D.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Borschmann, Rohan; Bose, Dipan; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Brainin, Michael; Brayne, Carol E. G.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brenner, Hermann; Brewer, Jerry D.; Brown, Alexandria; Brown, Jonathan; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buckle, Geoffrey Colin; Butt, Zahid A.; Calabria, Bianca; Campos-Novato, Ismael Ricardo; Campuzano, Julio Cesar; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Castaneda-Oquela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Cercy, Kelly; Cerda, Jorge; Chen, Wanqing; Chew, Adrienne; Chiang, Peggy Pei -Chia; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cirillo, Massimo; Cohen, Aaron J.; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Leslie Trumbull; Cortinovis, Monica; Cowie, Benjamin C.; Crump, John A.; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Rakhi; Daoud, Farah; Darby, Sarah C.; Dargan, Paul I.; das Neves, Jose; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian C.; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; de Castro, E. Filipa; de Jager, Pieter; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Deribew, Amare; Dharmaratne, Samath D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes

  17. Deaths from necrotizing fasciitis in the United States, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, N; Yousfi, S; Vinnard, C

    2016-04-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a life-threatening infection requiring urgent surgical and medical therapy. Our objective was to estimate the mortality burden of NF in the United States, and to identify time trends in the incidence rate of NF-related mortality. We obtained data from the National Center for Health Statistics, which receives information from death certificates from all states, including demographic information and cause of death. The U.S. Multiple Cause of Death Files were searched from 2003 to 2013 for a listing of NF (ICD-10 code M72.6) as either the underlying or contributing cause of death. We identified a total of 9871 NF-related deaths in the United States between 2003 and 2013, corresponding to a crude mortality rate of 4·8 deaths/1,000,000 person-years, without a significant time trend. Compared to white individuals, the incidence rate of NF-associated death was greater in black, Hispanic, and American Indian individuals, and lower in Asian individuals. Streptococcal infection was most commonly identified in cases where a pathogen was reported. Diabetes mellitus and obesity were more commonly observed in NF-related deaths compared to deaths due to other causes. Racial differences in the incidence of NF-related deaths merits further investigation.

  18. Plague mortality and demographic depression in later medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poos, L R

    1981-01-01

    Both direct and indirect evidence implies that England experienced a lengthy period of stagnant or declining population during the later fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Black Death of 1348-1349 had brought about profound changes in England's agrarian economy, and this subsequent demographic depression is most commonly interpreted by historians as the result of plague mortality, recurring in severe outbreaks after the disease's introduction into the country. This paper reviews the evidence and assumptions behind this interpretation, in light of recent research by historical demographers and epidemiologists into bubonic plague epidemics and general mortality crises during the post-medieval period.

  19. Therapeutic milestone: stroke declines from the second to the third leading organ- and disease-specific cause of death in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towfighi, Amytis; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2010-03-01

    Stroke mortality rates declined for much of the second half of the 20th century, but recent trends and their relation to other organ- and disease-specific causes of death have not been characterized. Using the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data, leading organ- and disease-specific causes of death were assessed for the most recent 10-year period (1996 to 2005) in the United States with a specific focus on stroke deaths. Age-adjusted stroke death rates declined by 25.4%; as a result, lung cancer (which only declined by 9.2%) surpassed stroke as the second leading cause of death in 2003. Despite a 31.9% decline in age-adjusted ischemic heart disease death rates, it remains the leading cause of death. Stroke is now the fifth leading cause of death in men and the fourth leading cause of death in whites but remains the second leading cause of death in women and blacks. With stroke death rates decreasing substantially in the United States from 1996 to 2005, stroke moved from the second to the third leading organ- and disease-specific cause of death. Women and blacks may warrant attention for targeted stroke prevention and treatment because they continue to have disproportionately high stroke death rates.

  20. Stillbirths and infant deaths among migrants in industrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Alexander, Sophie; MacFarlane, Alison; Small, Rhonda; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Zimbeck, Megan; Gagnon, Anita

    2009-01-01

    The relation of migration to infant outcomes is unclear. There are studies which show that some migrant groups have similar or even better outcomes than those from the receiving country. Equally, raised risk of adverse outcomes for other migrant groups has been reported. We sought to determine (1) if migrants in western industrialized countries have consistently higher risks of stillbirth, neonatal mortality, or infant mortality, (2) if there are migrant sub-groups at potentially higher risk, and (3) what might be the explanations for any risk differences found. Systematic review of the literature on perinatal health outcomes among migrants in western industrialized countries. Drawing on a larger systematic review of perinatal outcomes and migration, we reviewed studies including mortality outcomes (stillbirths and infant deaths). Eligible studies gave conflicting results. Half (53%) reported worse mortality outcomes, one third (35%) reported no differences and a few (13%) reported better outcomes for births to migrants compared to the receiving country population. Refugees were the most vulnerable group. For non-refugees, non-European migrants in Europe and foreign-born blacks in the United States had the highest excess mortality. In general, adjustment of background factors did not explain the increased mortality rate among migrants. Regarding causes of death, higher preterm birth rates explained the increased mortality figures among some migrant groups. The increased mortality from congenital anomalies may be related to restricted access to screening, but also to differing attitudes to screening and termination of pregnancy. Mortality risk among babies born to migrants is not consistently higher, but appears to be greatest among refugees, non-European migrants to Europe, and foreign-born blacks in the US. To understand this variation better, more information is needed about migrant background, such as length of time in receiving country and receiving country

  1. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  2. [Infant mortality by cause of death in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, 1976-1986: association with socioeconomic, climatic and air pollution variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchiade, M P; Beltrao, K I

    1992-01-01

    The Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (RMR) consists of the capital (the city of Rio de Janeiro) and 13 surrounding cities. The city of Rio de Janeiro itself was divided into 24 rather heterogeneous administrative regions (RAS) based on the income level of their inhabitants, the supply of public services such as water and sewerage, and population density or air pollution. Three different socioeconomic covariables were selected in three residential zones (ZONA) or subareas: the central rich nucleus, the intermediary zone of transition, and the distant periphery. As dependent variables the specific rate of infant, neonatal, or postneonatal mortality were considered for causes. The RMRJ Civil Register mortality data were utilized. A factor of correction was estimated according to the technique of Brass using the fertility rate and the rate of delivery for specific 5-year age groups of mothers. A multivariate analysis, the adjusted generalized linear model (MLG), was used for studying associations between socioeconomic, climatic, and air pollution variables and the levels of mortality. The MLG was formulated by means of the statistical package, GLIM or Generalized Linear Interactive Modelling. Analysis of infant mortality trends during 1976-1986 for the large subareas of RMRJ and the outlying region showed that the peak months of total neonatal and perinatal mortality were March and February, while the lowest months were November and October. May and June represented maximum rates of postneonatal mortality for pneumonia, diarrhea, other respiratory infections, malnutrition, and other diseases. MLG indicated that there was a statistically significant association between the annual mortality rate for selected causes and socioeconomic indicators (INS, FS and Zona); the rates of mortality also varied depending on time (ANO and ANOQ); and the mortality rates also appeared to be associated with the variations of the log of average pollution (LPM).

  3. Insight into the Female Longevity Puzzle: Using Register Data to Analyse Mortality and Cause of Death Behaviour Across Socio-economic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.

    been driving the standstill for Danish women and within each socio-economic group we further analyse the cause of death pattern. Further, we compare the forecast performance of the Lee-Carter model with the multi-population Li and Lee model. The decline in life expectancy for Danish women is present...... for all subgroups, however with particular large decreases for the low-middle and middle affluence groups. We find that causes of deaths related to smoking partly contribute to the slowdown in female longevity. However the lack of improvements in deaths relating to ischemic heart diseases is dominant...

  4. Trend in rates for deaths with mention of schizophrenia on death certificates of US residents, 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polednak, Anthony P

    2014-07-01

    Trends in mortality rates for schizophrenia using multiple causes of death (including contributory causes) coded on death certificates in the US resident population apparently have not been reported. Age-standardized rates for deaths per 100,000 in 1999-2010 at age 15+ years (and for 15-64 and 65+ years) with mention of schizophrenia were examined for the US resident population, including variation by age, gender, race (blacks/African Americans and whites) and region. Deaths at age 15+ years coded with schizophrenia as underlying cause were only 12 % of all deaths with mention of schizophrenia, for which the rate declined from 1.58 in 1999 (3,407 deaths) to 1.32 in 2010 (3,422 deaths) (percentage change or PC = -16 %). Declines were larger in females than males, in whites than blacks, and occurred in the Northeast, Midwest and South but not the West. The rate increased for age 15-64 years (PC = +28 %) (mainly in males), however, while declining for age 65+ years (PC = -35 %). For deaths at age 15-64 years with schizophrenia coded as other than the underlying cause, the largest continuous increase was for endocrine-metabolic diseases (predominantly diabetes mellitus) as underlying cause, with smaller increases in males for cardiovascular diseases, external causes and neoplasms. Trends in the US rate for deaths with mention of schizophrenia varied among the sociodemographic groups examined. The lack of decline for age 15-64 years requires further study especially with regard to mediators (e.g., obesity) of excess mortality in schizophrenia identified from cohort studies.

  5. Hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer mortality rates reveal a larger racial disparity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, Anna L; Gravitt, Patti E; Rositch, Anne F

    2017-05-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the age-standardized and age-specific annual US cervical cancer mortality rates after correction for the prevalence of hysterectomy and to evaluate disparities by age and race. Estimates for deaths due to cervical cancer stratified by age, state, year, and race were derived from the National Center for Health Statistics county mortality data (2000-2012). Equivalently stratified data on the prevalence of hysterectomy for women 20 years old or older from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were used to remove women who were not at risk from the denominator. Age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates were computed, and trends in mortality rates were analyzed with Joinpoint regression. Age-standardized rates were higher for both races after correction. For black women, the corrected mortality rate was 10.1 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.6-10.6), whereas the uncorrected rate was 5.7 per 100,000 (95% CI, 5.5-6.0). The corrected rate for white women was 4.7 per 100,000 (95% CI, 4.6-4.8), whereas the uncorrected rate was 3.2 per 100,000 (95% CI, 3.1-3.2). Without the correction, the disparity in mortality between races was underestimated by 44%. Black women who were 85 years old or older had the highest corrected rate: 37.2 deaths per 100,000. A trend analysis of corrected rates demonstrated that white women's rates decreased at 0.8% per year, whereas the annual decrease for black women was 3.6% (P cervical cancer mortality rates are underestimated, particularly in black women. The highest rates are seen in the oldest black women, and public health efforts should focus on appropriate screening and adequate treatment in this population. Cancer 2017;123:1044-50. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Widening Socioeconomic and Racial Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States, 1969-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined trends and socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality in the United States between 1969 and 2013. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate racial/ethnic and area- and individual-level socioeconomic disparities in CVD mortality over time. Rate ratios and log-linear regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. Results: Between 1969 and 2013, CVD mortality rates decreased by 2.66% per year for whites and 2.12% for blacks. Racial disparities and socioeconomic gradients in CVD mortality increased substantially during the study period. In 2013, blacks had 30% higher CVD mortality than whites and 113% higher mortality than Asians/Pacific Islanders. Compared to those in the most affluent group, individuals in the most deprived area group had 11% higher CVD mortality in 1969 but 40% higher mortality in 2007-2011. Education, income, and occupation were inversely associated with CVD mortality in both men and women. Men and women with low education and incomes had 46-76% higher CVD mortality risks than their counterparts with high education and income levels. Men in clerical, service, farming, craft, repair, construction, and transport occupations, and manual laborers had 30-58% higher CVD mortality risks than those employed in executive and managerial occupations. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Socioeconomic and racial disparities in CVD mortality are marked and have increased over time because of faster declines in mortality among the affluent and majority populations. Disparities in CVD mortality may reflect inequalities in the social environment, behavioral risk factors such as smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, disease prevalence, and healthcare access and treatment. With rising prevalence of many chronic disease risk factors, the global burden of cardiovascular diseases is

  7. Abortion-Related Mortality in the United States: 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Suzanne; Creanga, Andreea A; Berg, Cynthia J; Pazol, Karen; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Callaghan, William M

    2015-08-01

    To examine characteristics and causes of legal induced abortion-related deaths in the United States between 1998 and 2010. Abortion-related deaths were identified through the national Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System with enhanced case-finding. We calculated the abortion mortality rate by race, maternal age, and gestational age and the distribution of causes of death by gestational age and procedure. During the period from 1998-2010, of approximately 16.1 million abortion procedures, 108 women died, for a mortality rate of 0.7 deaths per 100,000 procedures overall, 0.4 deaths for non-Hispanic white women, 0.5 deaths for Hispanic women, and 1.1 deaths for black women. The mortality rate increased with gestational age, from 0.3 to 6.7 deaths for procedures performed at 8 weeks or less and at 18 weeks or greater, respectively. A majority of abortion-related deaths at 13 weeks of gestation or less were associated with anesthesia complications and infection, whereas a majority of abortion-related deaths at more than 13 weeks of gestation were associated with infection and hemorrhage. In 20 of the 108 cases, the abortion was performed as a result of a severe medical condition where continuation of the pregnancy threatened the woman's life. Deaths associated with legal induced abortion continue to be rare events-less than 1 per 100,000 procedures. Primary prevention of unintended pregnancy, including those in women with serious pre-existing medical conditions, and increased access to abortion services at early gestational ages may help to further decrease abortion-related mortality in the United States. III.

  8. Abortion-Related Mortality in the United States 1998–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Suzanne; Creanga, Andreea A.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Pazol, Karen; Suchdev, Danielle B.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Callaghan, William M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine characteristics and causes of legal induced abortion–related deaths in the United States between 1998 and 2010. METHODS Abortion-related deaths were identified through the national Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System with enhanced case-finding. We calculated the abortion mortality rate by race, maternal age, and gestational age and the distribution of causes of death by gestational age and procedure. RESULTS During the period from 1998–2010, of approximately 16.1 million abortion procedures, 108 women died, for a mortality rate of 0.7 deaths per 100,000 procedures overall, 0.4 deaths for non-Hispanic white women, 0.5 deaths for Hispanic women, and 1.1 deaths for black women. The mortality rate increased with gestational age, from 0.3 to 6.7 deaths for procedures performed at 8 weeks or less and at 18 weeks or greater, respectively. A majority of abortion-related deaths at 13 weeks of gestation or less were associated with anesthesia complications and infection, whereas a majority of abortion-related deaths at more than 13 weeks of gestation were associated with infection and hemorrhage. In 20 of the 108 cases, the abortion was performed as a result of a severe medical condition where continuation of the pregnancy threatened the woman’s life. CONCLUSION Deaths associated with legal induced abortion continue to be rare events—less than 1 per 100,000 procedures. Primary prevention of unintended pregnancy, including those in women with serious pre-existing medical conditions, and increased access to abortion services at early gestational ages may help to further decrease abortion-related mortality in the United States. PMID:26241413

  9. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-04-19

    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies', to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental 'law of mortality' has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  10. Cause-Specific Deaths in Non-Dialysis-Dependent CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, Sankar D; Schold, Jesse D; Arrigain, Susana; Jolly, Stacey E; Nally, Joseph V

    2015-10-01

    CKD is associated with higher risk of death, but details regarding differences in cause-specific death in CKD are unclear. We examined the leading causes of death among a non-dialysis-dependent CKD population using an electronic medical record-based CKD registry in a large healthcare system and the Ohio Department of Health mortality files. We included 33,478 white and 5042 black patients with CKD who resided in Ohio between January 2005 and September 2009 and had two measurements of eGFRCauses of death (before ESRD) were classified into cardiovascular, malignancy, and non-cardiovascular/non-malignancy diseases and non-disease-related causes. During a median follow-up of 2.3 years, 6661 of 38,520 patients (17%) with CKD died. Cardiovascular diseases (34.7%) and malignant neoplasms (31.8%) were the leading causes of death, with malignancy-related deaths more common among those with earlier stages of kidney disease. After adjusting for covariates, each 5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) decline in eGFR was associated with higher risk of death due to cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR], 1.10; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.08 to 1.12) and non-cardiovascular/non-malignancy diseases (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.14) but not to malignancy. In the adjusted models, blacks had overall-mortality hazard ratios similar to those of whites but higher hazard ratios for cardiovascular deaths. Further studies to confirm these findings and explain the mechanisms for differences are warranted. In addition to lowering cardiovascular burden in CKD, efforts to target known risk factors for cancer at the population level are needed.

  11. Results and observations from the reconstruction of continuous time series of mortality by cause of death: Case of West Germany, 1968-1997.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketa Pechholdova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Though many countries have been collecting cause-of-death information from death certificates for more than a century, these valuable data sources remain underexplored. This is certainly due in part to the frequent revisions of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, which have caused breaks in data continuity. This paper describes the methodological background and the results of the transition between the eighth and the ninth revision of ICD for the territory of former West Germany. Using practical examples, we examine the difficulties encountered and discuss the solutions applied.

  12. Mortality in ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exarchou, Sofia; Lie, Elisabeth; Lindström, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Information on mortality in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is scarce. Our study therefore aimed to assess: (1) mortality in AS versus the general population, and (2) predictors of death in the AS population. METHODS: Nationwide cohorts of patients with AS diagnosed at rheumatology...

  13. Comorbidities, mortality and causes of death among patients with tuberculosis in Denmark 1998–2010: a nationwide, register-based case–control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Hilberg, Ole; Wejse, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of comorbidities, age and clinical presentation of TB on mortality among Danish patients with TB. Methods: Danish patients with an ICD-10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision) diagnosis of TB in 1998–2010...

  14. What is operative mortality? Defining death in a surgical registry database : A report of the STS Congenital Database Taskforce and the Joint EACTS-STS Congenital Database Committee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, JP; Mavroudis, C; Jacobs, ML; Maruszewski, B; Tchervenkov, CI; Lacour-Gayet, FG; Clarke, DR; Yeh, T; Walters, HL; Kurosawa, H; Stellin, G; Ebels, T; Elliott, MJ

    The most concrete and universal outcome measure used in databases, whether governmental, professional society, research, or third-party payer, is operative mortality. To assure congruous data entry by multiple users of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the European Association for Cardiothoracic

  15. Mortality in American Hip-Hop and Rap Recording Artists, 1987-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Carl J

    2015-12-01

    The deaths of American hip-hop and rap recording artists often receive considerable media attention. However, these artists' deaths have not been examined as a distinct group like the deaths of rock, classical, jazz, and pop music artists. This is a seminal epidemiological analysis on the deaths of an understudied group, American hip-hop and rap music recording artists. Media reports were analyzed of the deaths of American hip-hop and rap music recording artists that occurred from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014. The decedents' age, sex, race, cause of death, stage names, and city and state of death were recorded for analysis. The most commonly reported cause of death was homicide. The 280 deaths were categorized as homicide (55%), unintentional injury (13%), cardiovascular (7%), undetermined/undisclosed (7%), cancer (6%), other (5%), suicide (4%), and infectious disease (3%). The mean reported age at death was 30 yrs (range 15-75) and the median was 29 yrs; 97% were male and 92% were black. All but one of the homicides were committed with firearms. Homicide was the most commonly reported cause of death. Public health focus and guidance for hip-hop and rap recording artists should mirror that for African-American men and adolescent males ages 15-54 yrs, for whom the leading causes of death are homicide, unintentional injury, and heart disease. Given the preponderance of homicide deaths in this analysis, premature mortality reduction efforts should focus on violence prevention and conflict mitigation.

  16. Mortality Attributable to Low Levels of Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Patrick M.; Tran, Melanie K.; Hummer, Robert A.; Chang, Virginia W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Educational disparities in U.S. adult mortality are large and have widened across birth cohorts. We consider three policy relevant scenarios and estimate the mortality attributable to: (1) individuals having less than a high school degree rather than a high school degree, (2) individuals having some college rather than a baccalaureate degree, and (3) individuals having anything less than a baccalaureate degree rather than a baccalaureate degree, using educational disparities specific to the 1925, 1935, and 1945 cohorts. Methods We use the National Health Interview Survey data (1986–2004) linked to prospective mortality through 2006 (N=1,008,949), and discrete-time survival models, to estimate education- and cohort-specific mortality rates. We use those mortality rates and data on the 2010 U.S. population from the American Community Survey, to calculate annual attributable mortality estimates. Results If adults aged 25–85 in the 2010 U.S. population experienced the educational disparities in mortality observed in the 1945 cohort, 145,243 deaths could be attributed to individuals having less than a high school degree rather than a high school degree, 110,068 deaths could be attributed to individuals having some college rather than a baccalaureate degree, and 554,525 deaths could be attributed to individuals having anything less than a baccalaureate degree rather than a baccalaureate degree. Widening educational disparities between the 1925 and 1945 cohorts result in a doubling of attributable mortality. Mortality attributable to having less than a high school degree is proportionally similar among women and men and among non-Hispanic blacks and whites, and is greater for cardiovascular disease than for cancer. Conclusions Mortality attributable to low education is comparable in magnitude to mortality attributable to individuals being current rather than former smokers. Existing research suggests that a substantial part of the association between

  17. Environmental temperature and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Näyhä, Simo

    2005-01-01

    In Finland, mortality increases steeply in autumn, reaches a peak during the Christhmas holidays and declines slowly towards a trough in August. The relative excess in daily mortality (peak vs. trough) is 30% for coronary heart disease, 40% for cerebral vascular accidents and 90% for diseases of the respiratory organs. There is a secondary peak in Midsummer, especially in coronary deaths of working aged men. Mortality is lowest at mean daily temperature of +14 degrees C, and it increases slow...

  18. General practitioner awareness of preferred place of death and correlates of dying in a preferred place: a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarshi, E.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Donker, G.; Echteld, M.; Block, L. van den; Deliens, L.

    2009-01-01

    To improve the quality of end-of-life care, general practitioner (GP) awareness of where their patients prefer to die is important. To examine GP awareness of patients' preferred place of death (POD), associated patient- and care-related characteristics, and the congruence between preferred and actu

  19. GP awareness of preferred place of death and correlates of dying in a preferred place: a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarshi, E.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Donker, G.; Echteld, M.; Block, L. van den; Deliens, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To improve the quality of end-of-life care, general practitioner (GP) awareness of where their patients prefer to die is important. Objective: To examine GP awareness of patients’ preferred place of death (POD), associated patient and care-related characteristics, and the congruence betw

  20. General practitioner awareness of preferred place of death and correlates of dying in a preferred place: a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarshi, E.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Donker, G.; Echteld, M.; Block, L. van den; Deliens, L.

    2009-01-01

    To improve the quality of end-of-life care, general practitioner (GP) awareness of where their patients prefer to die is important. To examine GP awareness of patients' preferred place of death (POD), associated patient- and care-related characteristics, and the congruence between preferred and actu

  1. GP awareness of preferred place of death and correlates of dying in a preferred place: a nationwide mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarshi, E.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Donker, G.; Echteld, M.; Block, L. van den; Deliens, L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To improve the quality of end-of-life care, general practitioner (GP) awareness of where their patients prefer to die is important. Objective: To examine GP awareness of patients’ preferred place of death (POD), associated patient and care-related characteristics, and the congruence betw

  2. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2015-01-01

    disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus...

  3. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2015-01-01

    disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus...

  4. Factors related to shell deaths during artificial incubation of ostrich eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available he ostrich industry experiences a high rate of embryonic mortalities during artificial incubation of eggs. Embryonic deaths were studied from data recorded on 37 740 fertile eggs incubated artificially during the 1998-2005 breeding seasons. Roughly 10 000 eggs that sustained embryonic mortalities were classified according to the stage and nature of death, i.e. before 21 days of incubation, after 21 days of incubation, deaths after pipping and rotten eggs. Although infection may have played a role in ~1300 rotten eggs, no detailed knowledge of the pathogens involved was available. The remainder of deaths could not be related to pathogens and the deaths were thus generally referred to as non-infectious. The overall level of embryonic mortality in all the eggs studied was 28.5 %. Overall embryonic mortality was affected by incubator, with higher levels (57.0 % found in eggs incubated in an African Incubator(R and also in eggs that were transferred between incubators during incubation (38.1 %. Overall embryonic mortality also increased in eggs produced by older females. Eggs produced in the autumn had the highest level of embryonic mortality at 53.6 %, whereas eggs produced in the winter had a marginally higher level of embryonic mortalities of 29.2 % compared with eggs produced during summer (27.4 %. Eggs produced by South African (SA Black males crossed to Zimbabwean Blue females had high levels of embryonic losses of 45.7 %. The embryonic mortality of eggs produced by SA Blacks or Zimbabwean Blue breeding birds subjected to pure breeding was similar at ~33-34 %, but embryonic mortality was improved in eggs produced by Zimbabwean Blue males crossed to SA Black females (27 %. Embryonic mortality was increased in eggs that were set directly (32.0 % or subjected to longer than 6 days of storage (43.5 %. Embryonic mortality was affected by year. The results that were obtained will assist in determining non-infectious factors that have a negative

  5. Mortality table construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  6. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  7. Serum Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and risk of death from cardiovascular diseases among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balluz Lina S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C measures all atherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and predicts risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The association of non-HDL-C with risk of death from CVD in diabetes is not well understood. This study assessed the hypothesis that, among adults with diabetes, non-HDL-C may be related to the risk of death from CVD. Methods We analyzed data from 1,122 adults aged 20 years and older with diagnosed diabetes who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study (299 deaths from CVD according to underlying cause of death; median follow-up length, 12.4 years. Results Compared to participants with serum non-HDL-C concentrations of 35 to 129 mg/dL, those with higher serum levels had a higher risk of death from total CVD: the RRs were 1.34 (95% CI: 0.75-2.39 and 2.25 (95% CI: 1.30-3.91 for non-HDL-C concentrations of 130-189 mg/dL and 190-403 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.003 for linear trend after adjustment for demographic characteristics and selected risk factors. In subgroup analyses, significant linear trends were identified for the risk of death from ischemic heart disease: the RRs were 1.59 (95% CI: 0.76-3.32 and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.28-4.89 (P = 0.006 for linear trend, and stroke: the RRs were 3.37 (95% CI: 0.95-11.90 and 5.81 (95% CI: 1.96-17.25 (P = 0.001 for linear trend. Conclusions In diabetics, higher serum non-HDL-C concentrations were significantly associated with increased risk of death from CVD. Our prospective data support the notion that reducing serum non-HDL-C concentrations may be beneficial in the prevention of excess death from CVD among affected adults.

  8. Mortality after shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Alexander; Rasmussen, Jeppe Vejlgaard; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The primary aim was to quantify the 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year mortality rates after primary shoulder replacement. The secondary aims were to assess the association between mortality and diagnoses and to compare the mortality rate with that of the general population. METHODS: The study...... included 5853 primary operations reported to the Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry between 2006 and 2012. Information about deaths was obtained from the Danish Cause of Death Register and the Danish Civil Registration System. Age- and sex-adjusted control groups were retrieved from Statistics Denmark...

  9. An experimental study on the causes of sex-biased mortality in the black-headed gull − the possible role of testosterone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Wendt; Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Eising, Corine M.; Dijkstra, Cor

    2005-01-01

    1. During early development male offspring in avian species often suffer from enhanced mortality compared to female offspring. This has been attributed to different nutritional requirements, as sex-biased mortality has been reported particularly in sexually size-dimorphic species. However, other tra

  10. 高死亡率地区早产儿死亡的路径分析%Pathway analysis of premature death in areas with high neonatal mortality rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艺; 李丽娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解高死亡率地区早产儿死亡的死亡路径及就医情况。方法采用典型抽样的方法在新生儿高死亡率地区的4个县开展调查,对死亡早产儿的看护人进行一对一的问卷调查。结果266例新生儿死亡中有110例(41.4%)为早产儿,这些早产儿平均死亡年龄为2.5天。89.1%的早产儿出生在医疗机构,但是大部分死于家中(45.4%),其次是县级医疗机构(27.3%)。结论加强孕期保健工作,预防早产发生,提高县级医疗机构对早产儿的护理和抢救水平是降低早产儿死亡率的主要措施。%Objective To investigate the pathway of premature death and medical care seeking behavior in areas with high mortality rate . Methods Typical sampling was used in this survey .Four counties with high neonatal mortality rate were sampled out .Caregivers of the premature death were interviewed face-to-face.Results There were 110 preterm births among 266 (41.4%) neonatal deaths .The median death age was 2.5 days.Totally 89.1% preterm infants were born in health facilities, but most of them died at home (45.4%) and secondly at the county-leveled hospitals (27.3%).Conclusion Strengthening pregnancy health care, preventing premature birth, and improving premature infant care and rescue level of county medical institutions are the main measures to reduce the mortality of premature infants.

  11. Effect of maternal death reviews and training on maternal mortality among cesarean delivery : post-hoc analysis of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zongo, A.; Dumont, Alexandre; Fournier, P.; Traore, M.; Kouanda, S.; B. Sondo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the differential effect of a multifaceted intervention on hospital-based maternal mortality between patients with cesarean and vaginal delivery in low-resource settings. Study design: We reanalyzed the data from a major cluster-randomized controlled trial, QUARITE (Quality of care, Risk management and technology in obstetrics). These subgroup analyses were not prespecified and were treated as exploratory. The intervention consisted of an initial interactive workshop and...

  12. Excess Mortality Attributable to Clostridium difficile and Risk Factors for Infection in an Historic Cohort of Hospitalised Patients Followed Up in the United Kingdom Death Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Reacher

    Full Text Available We compared time from hospital admission to death in a probability sample of 100 Clostridium difficile infected cases and a probability sample of 98 non-cases admitted to an English teaching hospital between 2005 and 2007 with follow up in the UK national death register using survival analysis.Clostridium difficile infection was associated with a 50% increased risk of death (Hazard Ratio 1.51 (95% CI: 1.05-2.19 p = 0.03 at between five to eight years in Cox Regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index, diagnosis of a malignant condition and insertion of a nasogastric tube during admission. Acquisition of Clostridium difficile infection was independently associated with an almost six fold higher odds of being admitted with a diagnosis of infection of any other type (OR 5.79 (2.19, 15.25 p<0.001.Our results strongly support continued priority being given to improve prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection in the English National Health Service particularly in patients admitted with an infection. Our results may be applicable to other health systems.

  13. Mortalidade infantil no Brasil e óbitos, na mesma geração, por infarto agudo do miocárdio Infant mortality in Brazil and deaths from acute myocardial infarction in the same generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Bezerra Alves

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Baixo peso ao nascer, fator de risco recentemente descrito para as doenças cardiovasculares, está associado com mortalidade infantil elevada. Foram comparadas as taxas de mortalidade por infarto agudo do miocárdio no ano 2000, registradas nas regiões Nordeste e Sul do Brasil, com os coeficientes de mortalidade infantil entre os anos 1930/1950. Entre os anos 1930/1950, o Nordeste apresentava um coeficiente médio de mortalidade infantil de 185 por mil nascidos vivos, e a Região Sul, 116 por mil nascidos vivos. Observou-se uma maior mortalidade por infarto agudo do miocárdio na Região Sul (coeficientes ajustados de 60,8 e 41,2 vs. 26,4 e 19,2 por 100 mil habitantes, respectivamente para o sexo masculino e feminino. A desigualdade entre as taxas de mortalidade infantil no Nordeste e Sul no período estudado, ao lado de que o fenômeno da redução da mortalidade infantil não ter representado melhorias importantes das condições de vida, impediu a avaliação do impacto do baixo peso ao nascer sobre as taxas de mortalidade por infarto agudo do miocárdio na vida adulta.Low birth weight is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which constitute the main causes of death both in Brazil and worldwide. High infant mortality rates are associated with low birth weight. The aim of this study was to compare mortality from acute myocardial infarction in 2000 in the Northeast and South of Brazil, regions with different infant mortality rates from 1930 to 1950. Mortality from acute myocardial infarction was higher in southern Brazil, with an adjusted coefficient per 100,000 of 60.8 in males and 41.2 in females (South versus 26.4 in males and 19.2 in females (Northeast. Similar results were found for lung cancer: 22.8 in males and 8.9 in females (South versus 5.3 in males and 2.8 in females (Northeast. The persistence of different socioeconomic conditions and infant mortality rates between the two regions and the fact that the phenomenon of infant

  14. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

    2015-01-01

    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’, to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental ‘law of mortality’ has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750242

  15. [Reliability of cancer as the underlying cause of death according to the Mortality Information System and Population-Based Cancer Registry in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Patricia Pereira Vasconcelos de; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Curado, Maria Paula; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Moura, Lenildo de

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the reliability of cancer as the underlying cause of death using probabilistic linkage between the Mortality Information System and Population-Based Cancer Registry (PBCR) in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil, from 2000 to 2005. RecLink III was used for probabilistic linkage, and reliability was assessed by Cohen's kappa and prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). In the probabilistic linkage, 2,874 individuals were identified for the reliability analysis. Cohen's kappa ranged from 0.336 to 0.846 and PABAK from 0.810 to 0.990 for 14 neoplasm groups defined in the study. For reliability of the 35 leading cancers, 12(34.3%) presented kappa values under 0.600 and PABAK over 0.981. Among the neoplasms common to both sexes, crude agreement ranged from 0.672 to 0.790 and adjusted agreement from 0.894 to 0.961. Sixty-seven percent of cases classified by the Mortality Information System as "cancer of ill-defined sites" were reclassified according to the PBCR. This study was useful for the classification of cancer mortality estimates in areas covered by the PBCR.

  16. Mortality and potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries in Brazil, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; de Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries three years after the beginning of the Decade of Action for Traffic Safety. METHODS We analyzed the data of the Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM – Mortality Information System) related to road traffic injuries, in 2013. We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates for Brazil and geographic regions. We calculated, for the Country, the proportional mortality according to age groups, education level, race/skin color, and type or quality of the victim while user of the public highway. We estimated the potential years of life lost according to sex. RESULTS The mortality rate in 2013 was of 21.0 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants for the Country. The Midwest region presented the highest rate (29.9 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants). Most of the deaths by road traffic injuries took place with males (34.9 deaths per 100,000 males). More than half of the people who have died because of road traffic injuries were of black race/skin color, young adults (24.2%), individuals with low schooling (24.0%), and motorcyclists (28.5%). The mortality rate in the triennium 2011-2013 decreased 4.1%, but increased among motorcyclists. Across the Country, more than a million of potential years of life were lost, in 2013, because of road traffic injuries, especially in the age group of 20 to 29 years. CONCLUSIONS The impact of the high mortality rate is of over a million of potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries, especially among adults in productive age (early mortality), in only one year, representing extreme social cost arising from a cause of death that could be prevented. Despite the reduction of mortality by road traffic injuries from 2011 to 2013, the mortality rates increased among motorcyclists. PMID:27706375

  17. Mortality and potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries in Brazil, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries three years after the beginning of the Decade of Action for Traffic Safety. METHODS We analyzed the data of the Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM – Mortality Information System related to road traffic injuries, in 2013. We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates for Brazil and geographic regions. We calculated, for the Country, the proportional mortality according to age groups, education level, race/skin color, and type or quality of the victim while user of the public highway. We estimated the potential years of life lost according to sex. RESULTS The mortality rate in 2013 was of 21.0 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants for the Country. The Midwest region presented the highest rate (29.9 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. Most of the deaths by road traffic injuries took place with males (34.9 deaths per 100,000 males. More than half of the people who have died because of road traffic injuries were of black race/skin color, young adults (24.2%, individuals with low schooling (24.0%, and motorcyclists (28.5%. The mortality rate in the triennium 2011-2013 decreased 4.1%, but increased among motorcyclists. Across the Country, more than a million of potential years of life were lost, in 2013, because of road traffic injuries, especially in the age group of 20 to 29 years. CONCLUSIONS The impact of the high mortality rate is of over a million of potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries, especially among adults in productive age (early mortality, in only one year, representing extreme social cost arising from a cause of death that could be prevented. Despite the reduction of mortality by road traffic injuries from 2011 to 2013, the mortality rates increased among motorcyclists.

  18. Comparing pandemic to seasonal influenza mortality: moderate impact overall but high mortality in young children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaard, C.C. van den; Asten, L. van; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Pelt, W. van; Nagelkerke, N.J.D.; Wielders, C.C.H.; Lier, A. van; Hoek, W. van der; Meijer, A.; Donker, G.A.; Dijkstra, F.; Harmsen, C.; Sande, M.A.B. van der; Kretzschmar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We assessed the severity of the 2009 influenza pandemic by comparing pandemic mortality to seasonal influenza mortality. However, reported pandemic deaths were laboratory-confirmed - and thus an underestimation - whereas seasonal influenza mortality is often more inclusively estimated. F

  19. Macro-economic conditions and infant health: a changing relationship for black and white infants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Chiara; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    We study whether the relationship between the state unemployment rate at the time of conception and infant health, infant mortality and maternal characteristics in the United States has changed over the years 1980-2004. We use microdata on births and deaths for years 1980-2004 and find that the relationship between the state unemployment rate at the time of conception and infant mortality and birthweight changes over time and is stronger for blacks than whites. For years 1980-1989 increases in the state unemployment rate are associated with a decline in infant mortality among blacks, an effect driven by mortality from gestational development and birth weight, and complications of placenta while in utero. In contrast, state economic conditions are unrelated to black infant mortality in years 1990-2004 and white infant mortality in any period, although effects vary by cause of death. We explore potential mechanisms for our findings and, including mothers younger than 18 in the analysis, uncover evidence of age-related maternal selection in response to the business cycle. In particular, in years 1980-1989 an increase in the unemployment rate at the time of conception is associated with fewer babies born to young mothers. The magnitude and direction of the relationship between business cycles and infant mortality differs by race and period. Age-related selection into motherhood in response to the business cycle is a possible explanation for this changing relationship.

  20. What diagnoses may make patients more seriously ill than they first appear? Mortality according to the Simple Clinical Score Risk Class at the time of admission compared to the observed mortality of different ICD9 codes identified on death or discharge.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kellett, John

    2009-01-01

    The Simple Clinical Score (SCS) determined at the time of admission places acutely ill general medical patients into one of five risk classes associated with an increasing risk of death within 30 days. The cohort of acute medical patient that the SCS was derived from had, on average, four combinations of 74 groupings of ICD9 codes. This paper reports the ICD9 codes associated with the different SCS risk classes and identifies those ICD9 codes with a greater observed mortality than that of other patients in the same SCS risk class.

  1. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Parakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common cause of mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical science, there is little improvement in the sudden cardiac death related mortality. Coronary artery disease is the most common etiology behind sudden cardiac death, in the above 40 years population. Even in the apparently healthy population, there is a small percentage of patients dying from sudden cardiac death. Given the large denominator, this small percentage contributes to the largest burden of sudden cardiac death. Identification of this at risk group among the apparently healthy individual is a great challenge for the medical fraternity. This article looks into the causes and methods of preventing SCD and at some of the Indian data. Details of Brugada syndrome, Long QT syndrome, Genetics of SCD are discussed. Recent guidelines on many of these causes are summarised.

  2. Cancer mortality among laundry and dry cleaning workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J T; Burnett, C A; Lalich, N R; Sestito, J P; Halperin, W E

    1997-12-01

    A cancer mortality study of 8,163 deaths occurring among persons formerly employed as laundering and dry cleaning workers in 28 states is described. Age-adjusted sex-race cause-specific proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) and proportionate cancer mortality ratios (PCMRs) were computed for 1979 through 1990, using the corresponding 28-state mortality as the comparison. For those aged 15-64 years, there were excesses in black men for total cancer mortality (PMR = 130, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 105-159) and cancer of the esophagus 1 (PMR = 215, 95% CI = 111-376), and in white men for cancer of the larynx (PMR = 318, 95% CI = 117-693). For those aged 65 years and over, there were statistically nonsignificant excesses for cancer of the trachea, bronchus, and lung in black women (PMR = 128, CI = 94-170) and for cancer of other and unspecified female genital organs in white women (PMR = 225, CI = 97-443). The results of this and other studies point to the need for the effective implementation of available control measures to protect laundry and dry cleaning workers.

  3. [AIDS mortality in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, F; Maguin, P; Nicaud, V; Renaud, G

    1986-01-01

    A study about mortality by AIDS had been undertaken since July 1st 1983, in the Service of Information on Medical causes of Death (INSERM SC8), which is in charge of developing mortality statistics in France. From July 1st 1983 to September 30th 1985, 243 deaths due to AIDS were recorded. Only the cases where this diagnosis was clearly mentioned were selected; more than 90% were notified by hospitals and mainly by highly specialized services. The number of deaths, which was low and varied rather irregularly at the beginning, then increased by successive stages. The first year, during which a tenth of deaths was recorded every three months, was followed by a great increase, doubling, then tripling the initial numbers. Lastly, a second and sudden rise occurred during the third trimester of 1985, the trimestrial number of deaths due to AIDS reaching 80.

  4. Propuesta de un certificado de defunción para mejorar el registro y reporte de la muerte en el periodo perinatal Proposal for a death certificate to improve recording and reporting of perinatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Contreras-Lemus

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Analizar la forma en que se registran los nacimientos y la muerte en el periodo perinatal, en el Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, y documentar si el registro de la muerte, en este periodo, es adecuado. Material y métodos. Entre enero y marzo de 2000, se aplicó una encuesta en las 37 delegaciones del IMSS, para conocer, del año 1999, el total de nacimientos vivos y muertos, las defunciones ocurridas antes del séptimo día, considerando su edad gestacional y peso al nacimiento. Con estos datos se analizó la mortalidad hebdomadal e infantil y se calcularon las tasas correspondientes, incluyendo o desagregando a los niños con o = 28 semanas de gestación. Antes de la primera semana de vida extrauterina fallecieron 4 556 niños, de los cuales 1 385 (30.4% pesaron http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To analyze perinatal births and deaths recording at the Mexican Institute of Social Security (MISS, and to evaluate the correct classification of perinatal deaths. Material and methods. From January to March 2000, data were collected from the 37 MISS districts on the total number of births and deaths occurring during 1999, deaths occurring before the seventh day of life, and gestational age and weight at birth. Early neonatal and infant mortality rates were analyzed including or separating newborns with or = 28 gestation weeks. There were 4 556 newborns who died before the seventh day of extrauterine life; 1 385 of them (30.4% weighed less than 1 000 g and had a gestational age http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  5. The business of preventing African-American infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates-Williams, J; Jackson, M N; Jenkins-Monroe, V; Williams, L R

    1992-09-01

    African-American women are twice as likely as women from other ethnic groups to have babies with low birth weights and to experience the loss of infant death. The problem is so endemic in black communities in Alameda County, California, that numerous programs have been developed over the past decade to reduce maternal risk factors and eliminate barriers to prenatal care. Despite these efforts, African-American ethnicity continues to be a major risk factor for infant mortality for reasons that are poorly understood. We take a critical look at 3 types of studies characteristic of infant mortality research: epidemiologic, studies that advocate prenatal care, and ethnomedical (cultural). We argue that the assumptions informing this research restrict the thinking about infant mortality and the political issues involved in how prevention programs are developed and structured. The persistent focus on maternal behavioral characteristics limits more in-depth analysis of the micropolitics of perinatal bureaucracies established in response to this ongoing crisis.

  6. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  7. Thermal and barometric constraints on the intrusive and unroofing history of the Black Mountains: Implications for timing, initial dip, and kinematics of detachment faulting in the Death Valley Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Daniel K.; Snow, J. Kent; Lux, Daniel R.

    1992-06-01

    Unroofing of the Black Mountains, Death Valley, California, has resulted in the exposure of 1.7 Ga crystalline basement, late Precambrian amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks, and a Tertiary magmatic complex. The 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages, obtained from samples collected across the entire length of the range (>55 km), combined with geobarometric results from synextensional intrusions, provide time-depth constraints on the Miocene intrusive history and extensional unroofing of the Black Mountains. Data from the southeastern Black Mountains and adjacent Greenwater Range suggest unroofing from shallow depths between 9 and 10 Ma. To the northwest in the crystalline core of the range, biotite plateau ages from ˜13 to 6.8 Ma from rocks making up the Death Valley turtlebacks indicate a midcrustal residence (with temperatures >300°C) prior to extensional unroofing. Biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages from both Precambrian basement and Tertiary plutons reveal a diachronous cooling pattern of decreasing ages toward the northwest, subparallel to the regional extension direction. Diachronous cooling was accompanied by dike intrusion which also decreases in age toward the northwest. The cooling age pattern and geobarometric constraints in crystalline rocks of the Black Mountains suggest denudation of 10-15 km along a northwest directed detachment system, consistent with regional reconstructions of Tertiary extension and with unroofing of a northwest deepening crustal section. Mica cooling ages that deviate from the northwest younging trend are consistent with northwestward transport of rocks initially at shallower crustal levels onto deeper levels along splays of the detachment. The well-known Amargosa chaos and perhaps the Badwater turtleback are examples of this "splaying" process. Considering the current distance of the structurally deepest samples away from moderately to steeply east tilted Tertiary strata in the southeastern Black Mountains, these data indicate an average initial

  8. Mortal assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Geoffrey R.; Zablotska, Lydia B.; Fix, John J.; Egel, John N.; Buchanan, Jeffrey A.

    2005-11-01

    Workers employed in 15 utilities that generate nuclear power in the United States have been followed for up to 18 years between 1979 and 1997. Their cumulative dose from whole-body ionizing radiation has been determined from the dose records maintained by the facilities themselves and the REIRS and REMS systems maintained by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy, respectively. Mortality in the cohort from a number of causes has been analyzed with respect to individual radiation doses. The cohort displays a very substantial healthy worker effect, i.e. considerably lower cancer and noncancer mortality than the general population. Based on 26 and 368 deaths, respectively, positive though statistically nonsignificant associations were seen for mortality from leukemia (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and all solid cancers combined, with excess relative risks per sievert of 5.67 (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.56, 30.4) and 0.596 (95% CI -2.01, 4.64), respectively. These estimates are very similar to those from the atomic bomb survivors study, though the wide confidence intervals are also consistent with lower or higher risk estimates. A strong positive and statistically significant association between radiation dose and deaths from arteriosclerotic heart disease including coronary heart disease was also observed in the cohort, with an ERR of 8.78 (95% CI 2.10, 20.0). Whle associations with heart disease have been reported in some other occupational studies, the magnitude of the present association is not consistent with them and therefore needs cautious interpretation and merits further attention. At present, the relatively small number of deaths and the young age of the cohort (mean age at end of follow-up is 45 years) limit the power of the study, but further follow-up is 45 years) limit the power of the study, but further follow-up and the inclusion of the present data in an ongoing IARC combined analysis of nuclear workers from 15

  9. Precisely Tracking Childhood Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Tamer H; Koplan, Jeffrey P; Breiman, Robert F; Madhi, Shabir A; Heaton, Penny M; Mundel, Trevor; Ordi, Jaume; Bassat, Quique; Menendez, Clara; Dowell, Scott F

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting a new surveillance system called the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance network, which will determine cause of death using MITS in combination with other information, and yield cause-specific population-based mortality rates, eventually in up to 12-15 sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. However, the Gates Foundation funding alone is not enough. We call on governments, other funders, and international stakeholders to expand the use of pathology-based cause of death determination to provide the information needed to end preventable childhood mortality.

  10. Leprosy-related mortality in Brazil: a neglected condition of a neglected disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Assunção-Ramos, Adriana Valéria; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Wand-Del-Rey de Oliveira, Maria Leide; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-10-01

    Leprosy is a public health problem and a neglected condition of morbidity and mortality in several countries of the world. We analysed time trends and spatiotemporal patterns of leprosy-related mortality in Brazil. We performed a nationwide population-based study using secondary mortality data. We included all deaths that occurred in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which leprosy was mentioned in any field of death certificates. Leprosy was identified in 7732/12 491 280 deaths (0.1%). Average annual age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.43 deaths/100 000 inhabitants (95% CI 0.40-0.46). The burden of leprosy deaths was higher among males, elderly, black race/colour and in leprosy-endemic regions. Lepromatous leprosy was the most common clinical form mentioned. Mortality rates showed a significant nationwide decrease over the period (annual percent change [APC]: -2.8%; 95% CI -4.2 to -2.4). We observed decreasing mortality rates in the South, Southeast and Central-West regions, while the rates remained stable in North and Northeast regions. Spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk clusters for leprosy-related deaths were distributed mainly in highly endemic and socio-economically deprived regions. Leprosy is a neglected cause of death in Brazil since the disease is preventable, and a cost-effective treatment is available. Sustainable control measures should include appropriate management and systematic monitoring of leprosy-related complications, such as severe leprosy reactions and adverse effects to multidrug therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Gallstone disease and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this cohort study was to determine whether subjects with gallstone disease identified by screening of a general population had increased overall mortality when compared to gallstone-free participants and to explore causes of death. METHODS: The study population (N...... = 5928) was examined 1982-1992 and included an abdominal ultrasound examination to assess gallstone status, a physical examination, blood samples, and a questionnaire about medical history. Participants were followed up through national registers until 2015. Multiple adjusted Cox regression models were...... built. RESULTS: Gallstone disease was present in 10%. Mortality was 46% during median 24.7 years of follow-up with 1% lost. Overall mortality and death from cardiovascular diseases were significantly associated to gallstone disease. Death from unknown causes was significantly associated to gallstone...

  12. Death by suicide long after electroconvulsive therapy. Is the sense of coherence test of Antonovsky a predictor of mortality from depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Erik Berg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of increased risk of suicide is difficult. We had the opportunity to follow up 20 patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT because of severe depression. They filled in the Antonovsky sense of coherence test (SOC and Beck depression inventory (BDI before and after a series of ECT treatments. Seventeen surviving patients had a mean observation time of 20.6 months, whereas the three deceased patients had 11.3 months. There was a lower mean age at onset of illness and a longer mean duration of disease in the deceased. Other clinical parameters did not differ. The surviving patients had a significant decrease on the BDI from 35 to 18 (P less than 0.001 and an increase on the SOC test after ECT from 2.45 to 3.19 (P less than 0.001, indicating both less depression and better functioning in life. The deceased had a larger change on the BDI from 32 to 13, not attaining significance because of the low number of deceased. The SOC test, however, did not increase to a purported normal level; that is, from 2.43 to 2.87. Although the SOC scale has been shown to predict mortality in substance abusers, the SOC test has not been part of earlier reviews of predictive power. Tentatively, a low pathological score on the SOC test may indicate low sense of coherence in life that might increase the propensity for suicide. These preliminary results need replication in larger studies.

  13. 孤独个体与向死而生--多元文化社会中《凡人》的身份认同%Lonely individual and living towards death---Identity of MORTAL in a Multicultural Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄浩

    2015-01-01

    美国犹太裔作家菲利普·罗斯的《凡人》讲述了一个关于失去与孤独、疾病与死亡的故事。主人公作为一个犹太裔美国人,因其身份的特殊性与美国主流文化格格不入,显得格外孤独与痛苦,这种孤独个体的特性也贯穿了其一生。与此同时,在他的一生中无时无刻不在与疾病和死亡作斗争,体现了向死而生的特点,即在绝望中蕴含着希望。在美国多元文化社会中,主人公追寻的身份认同正是当代美国人普遍的生存状况,表现了普遍的生存困境。%MORTAL of American Jewish writer Philip Ross tells about lost and lonely,disease and death.The hero as a Jewish American,because of their confliction of special identity and American main-stream culture,especially of loneliness and pain throughout its lifetime.At the same time,in all his life he fights against the disease and death,which embodies the characteristics of living towards death,that is, there is hope in despair.In an American multicultural society,the identity of protagonist pursuing is just contemporary American’s general living conditions,and reflects the living dilemma.

  14. HIV and maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Eva; Jamieson, Denise J; Danel, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    The majority of the 17 million women globally that are estimated to be infected with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, HIV-related causes contributed to 19 000-56 000 maternal deaths in 2011 (6%-20% of maternal deaths). HIV-infected pregnant women have two to 10 times the risk of dying during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with uninfected pregnant women. Many of these deaths can be prevented with the implementation of high-quality obstetric care, prevention and treatment of common co-infections, and treatment of HIV with ART. The paper summarizes what is known about HIV disease progression in pregnancy, specific causes of HIV-related maternal deaths, and the potential impact of treatment with antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality. Recommendations are proposed for improving maternal health and decreasing maternal mortality among HIV-infected women based on existing evidence.

  15. BMI and all cause mortality: systematic review and non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of 230 cohort studies with 3.74 million deaths among 30.3 million participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Dagfinn; Sen, Abhijit; Prasad, Manya; Norat, Teresa; Janszky, Imre; Tonstad, Serena; Romundstad, Pål; Vatten, Lars J

    2016-05-04

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of body mass index (BMI) and the risk of all cause mortality, and to clarify the shape and the nadir of the dose-response curve, and the influence on the results of confounding from smoking, weight loss associated with disease, and preclinical disease. PubMed and Embase databases searched up to 23 September 2015. Cohort studies that reported adjusted risk estimates for at least three categories of BMI in relation to all cause mortality. Summary relative risks were calculated with random effects models. Non-linear associations were explored with fractional polynomial models. 230 cohort studies (207 publications) were included. The analysis of never smokers included 53 cohort studies (44 risk estimates) with >738 144 deaths and >9 976 077 participants. The analysis of all participants included 228 cohort studies (198 risk estimates) with >3 744 722 deaths among 30 233 329 participants. The summary relative risk for a 5 unit increment in BMI was 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.15 to 1.21; I(2)=95%, n=44) among never smokers, 1.21 (1.18 to 1.25; I(2)=93%, n=25) among healthy never smokers, 1.27 (1.21 to 1.33; I(2)=89%, n=11) among healthy never smokers with exclusion of early follow-up, and 1.05 (1.04 to 1.07; I(2)=97%, n=198) among all participants. There was a J shaped dose-response relation in never smokers (Pnon-linearity <0.001), and the lowest risk was observed at BMI 23-24 in never smokers, 22-23 in healthy never smokers, and 20-22 in studies of never smokers with ≥20 years' follow-up. In contrast there was a U shaped association between BMI and mortality in analyses with a greater potential for bias including all participants, current, former, or ever smokers, and in studies with a short duration of follow-up (<5 years or <10 years), or with moderate study quality scores. Overweight and obesity is associated with increased risk of all cause mortality and the nadir of the curve

  16. Óbitos neonatais precoces: análise de causas múltiplas de morte pelo método Grade of Membership Early neonatal mortality: an analysis of multiple causes of death by the Grade of Membership method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Freitas Drumond

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de base populacional para determinar perfis de óbitos neonatais precoces ocorridos em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 2000 a 2003. A defini��ão dos perfis de causas amplia possibilidade de análise sob enfoque de evitabilidade, justificada pela persistência de altas taxas de mortalidade neonatal precoce. Três perfis foram gerados, a partir do enfoque de causas múltiplas, sob a perspectiva dos conjuntos nebulosos ("fuzzy sets", utilizando-se técnica Grade of Membership. Relacionaram-se esses perfis ao peso de nascimento e a natureza jurídica do hospital de ocorrência do óbito. Nos hospitais da rede privada ocorreram "óbitos dificilmente preveníveis, com menção de malformação congênita" (perfil 2. Aos hospitais do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS associaram-se dois perfis distintos. Nos hospitais contratados/conveniados ocorreram os "óbitos passíveis de prevenção" (perfil 1 e na rede própria os "óbitos de prematuros" (perfil 3. A tipologia observada aponta para necessidade de adoção de políticas diferenciadas na rede SUS: prioritariamente, na rede contratada/conveniada, ações voltadas para credenciamento e avaliação da qualidade da assistência; e, em toda rede, adoção rotineira de protocolos assistenciais e medidas profiláticas, redutores da morbimortalidade neonatal.This population-based study aimed to determine the profile of early neonatal deaths in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2000 to 2003. Profiles were analyzed from the perspective of avoidability, justified by persistently high early neonatal mortality rates in the city. Three profiles were generated for multiple causes of death from the perspective of fuzzy sets, using the Grade of Membership method. Birth weight and the hospital's corporate status were also related to the three profiles. Private hospitals were characterized by so-called "difficult-to-prevent deaths, with mention of congenital malformations" (profile 2. The

  17. On the transmission of Black Death in Italy and its impact on Italian literature%论黑死病在意大利的传播及对意大利文学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢征

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of the Black Death in the 14th century swept across Europe, and Italy was not escaped. This plague was transmitted in Italy from different directions and posed a very profound impact on all aspects of society, economy and culture. From the literature point of view, although it has experienced a downturn for some time, the Black Death has also played an important role in the development of colloquial literature in the long run, which became catalyst for the rapid development of Italian literature during renaissance of the 15th,16th century.%14世纪爆发的黑死病席卷了整个欧洲,意大利也难以幸免。这场瘟疫从不同方向传入意大利,并对意大利的社会、经济、文化等各方面造成了非常深远的影响。从文学领域来看,虽受到黑死病的负面影响经历了一段时间的低迷期,但从长远来看,黑死病对意大利文学尤其是俗语文学的发展起到了不可忽视的推动作用,成为15、16世纪文艺复兴时期意大利文学迅速发展的催化剂。

  18. Serum aldosterone and death, end-stage renal disease, and cardiovascular events in blacks and whites: findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Rajat; Yang, Wei; Khan, Abigail M; Bansal, Nisha; Zhang, Xiaoming; Leonard, Mary B; Keane, Martin G; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Steigerwalt, Susan; Townsend, Raymond R; Shlipak, Michael G; Feldman, Harold I

    2014-07-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that elevated aldosterone concentrations are an independent risk factor for death in patients with cardiovascular disease. Limited studies, however, have evaluated systematically the association between serum aldosterone and adverse events in the setting of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the association between serum aldosterone and death and end-stage renal disease in 3866 participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. We also evaluated the association between aldosterone and incident congestive heart failure and atherosclerotic events in participants without baseline cardiovascular disease. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate independent associations between elevated aldosterone concentrations and each outcome. Interactions were hypothesized and explored between aldosterone and sex, race, and the use of loop diuretics and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors. During a median follow-up period of 5.4 years, 587 participants died, 743 developed end-stage renal disease, 187 developed congestive heart failure, and 177 experienced an atherosclerotic event. Aldosterone concentrations (per SD of the log-transformed aldosterone) were not an independent risk factor for death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-1.12), end-stage renal disease (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.17), or atherosclerotic events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.18). Aldosterone was associated with congestive heart failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.35). Among participants with chronic kidney disease, higher aldosterone concentrations were independently associated with the development of congestive heart failure but not for death, end-stage renal disease, or atherosclerotic events. Further studies should evaluate whether mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists may reduce adverse events in individuals with

  19. Detection of IMBHs with ground-based gravitational wave observatories: A biography of a binary of black holes, from birth to death

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2009-01-01

    Even though the existence of intermediate-mass black holes has not yet been corroborated observationally, these objects are of high interest for astrophysics. Our understanding of formation and evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs), as well as galaxy evolution modeling and cosmography would dramatically change if an IMBH was observed. The prospect of detection and, possibly, observation and characterization of an IMBH has good chances in lower-frequency gravitational-wave (GW) astrophysics with ground-based detectors such as LIGO, Virgo and the future Einstein Telescope (ET). We present an analysis of the signal of a system of a binary of IMBHs based on a waveform model obtained with numerical relativity simulations coupled with post-Newtonian calculations at the highest available order so as to extend the waveform to lower frequencies. We find that initial LIGO and Virgo are in the position of detecting IMBHs with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of $\\sim 10$ for systems with total mass between 100 and ...

  20. Coffee and Tea Consumption Are Inversely Associated with Mortality in a Multiethnic Urban Population123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener, Hannah; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Sacco, Ralph L.

    2013-01-01

    Coffee and tea are commonly consumed beverages. Inverse associations with mortality have been suggested for coffee and tea, but the relationships with cause-specific mortality are not well understood. We examined regular and decaffeinated coffee and tea in relation to mortality due to all causes, vascular, nonvascular, and cancer in the multi-ethnic, prospective, population-based Northern Manhattan Study. The study population included 2461 participants with diet data who were free of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cancer at baseline (mean age 68.30 ± 10.23 y, 36% men, 19% white, 23% black, 56% Hispanic). During a mean follow-up of 11 y, we examined the associations between coffee and tea consumption, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and 863 deaths (342 vascular related and 444 nonvascular including 160 cancer deaths) using multivariable-adjusted Cox models. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with all-cause mortality [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.99); P = 0.02]. Caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, driven by a strong protection among those who drank ≥4 cups/d. An inverse dose-response relationship between tea and all-cause mortality was suggested [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.99); P = 0.01]. Coffee consumption ≥4/d was protective against nonvascular death [vs. coffee and vascular-related mortality among Hispanics only. Further study is needed, including investigation into the mechanisms and compounds in coffee and tea responsible for the inverse associations with mortality. The differential relationship between coffee and vascular death across race/ethnicity underscores the need for research in similar multi-ethnic cohorts including Hispanics. PMID:23784068

  1. O sistema de informações sobre mortalidade: problemas e propostas para o seu enfrentamento I - Mortes por causas naturais The national mortality information system: problems and proposals for solving them I - Deaths by natural causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Prado de Mello Jorge

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available As estatísticas de mortalidade representam importante subsídio para a maioria dos indicadores de saúde. No Brasil, esses dados são produzidos pelo Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde (SIM/MS, implantado em 1975/76, e vêm desde então aumentando sua abrangência. Entretanto, várias situações (a existência de óbitos cujas causas básicas sejam mal definidas ou diagnósticos incompletos ou presumíveis de Aids ou maternas levam a lacunas no conhecimento da sua real distribuição segundo as causas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o SIM/MS dos pontos de vista quantitativo e qualitativo e o ganho possível, diante de método simples de resgate/recuperação de informação. Foram estudados 618 óbitos classificados em uma das quatro situações referidas, ocorridos no último trimestre de 2000 em quinze municípios com características demográficas e socioeconômicas heterogêneas, de Sergipe, São Paulo, e Mato Grosso. Foram feitas entrevistas em domicílios, hospitais, Institutos de Medicina Legal, com a utilização de formulários específicos. Como resultado, dos 294 óbitos por causas mal definidas, excluindo as 38 perdas, em 71% houve possibilidade de melhorar o diagnóstico; das 172 mortes com diagnóstico incompleto, 51,2% passaram a ter diagnóstico bem definido. Foi possível acrescentar sete óbitos aos quatro já classificados como causa materna (fator de correção igual a 2,75 ao serem estudados aqueles de mulheres de 10 a 49 anos, e três novos casos de Aids foram informados. Os achados do trabalho, para o conjunto dos municípios, evidenciam que o SIM/MS pode ser aprimorado, com ganho apreciável na qualidade da sua informação, resultando de adoção de metodologia simples, acessível e exeqüível.Mortality statistics play a key role in the estimation of health indexes. In Brazil, the source of these data is the System on Mortality Information of the Ministry of Health (SIM

  2. Maternal mortality in Bijapur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya A. Thobbi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study is to evaluate the incidence of maternal deaths, causes responsible for maternal mortality, direct and indirect factors, and various preventable methods to reduce maternal mortality rate. Background: 95% of maternal deaths occur in Asia and Africa. The need for undertaking this study is to know the maternal mortality rate, analyze the causes and preventable factors of death occurring in the district of Bijapur, Karnataka, India. Methodology: It is a study of 2years from the Records of District Health Office and Institutions on maternal mortality from June 2011 to May 2013 in Bijapur. Results: In two years there were fifty eight maternal deaths and seventy nine thousand five hundred and sixty six live births, hence maternal mortality ratio was seventy three per lakh live births. Eighty two percent of maternal deaths occurred in families who belonged to Below Poverty Line. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was 79.3%. Severe anemia (Hemoglobin <7g% seen in 5.1% was the most common indirect cause of death. Forty three percent of the deaths occurred at private setups. Hemorrhage, Septicemia and Preeclampsia & Eclampsia were responsible for 44.82%, 15.51% and 6.89% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of the maternal deaths are preventable if these four delays are avoided: a Delay in identifying the problem. b Delay in seeking care. c Delay in reaching the referral institute. d Delay in getting treatment on reaching the referral institute.

  3. Strict blood pressure control associates with decreased mortality risk by APOL1 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Elaine; Lipkowitz, Michael S; Appel, Lawrence J; Parsa, Afshin; Gassman, Jennifer; Glidden, David V; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Although APOL1 high-risk genotype partially accounts for the increased susceptibility of blacks to chronic kidney disease (CKD), whether APOL1 associates differentially with mortality risk remains controversial. Here we evaluate the association between APOL1 genotype and risk of death and determine whether APOL1 status modifies the association between strict versus usual blood pressure control and mortality risk. We performed a retrospective analysis of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension trial that randomized black participants with CKD to strict versus usual blood pressure control from 1995 to 2001. This included 682 participants with known APOL1 genotype (157 with high-risk genotype) previously assigned to either strict (mean arterial pressure [MAP] 92 mm Hg or less) versus usual blood pressure control (MAP 102-107 mm Hg) during the trial. During a median follow-up of 14.5 years, risk of death did not differ between individuals with high- versus low-risk APOL1 genotypes (unadjusted hazard ratio 1.00 [95% confidence interval 0.76-1.33]). However, a significant interaction was detected between the APOL1 risk group and blood pressure control strategy. In the APOL1 high-risk group, the risk of death was 42% lower comparing strict versus usual blood pressure control (0.58 [0.35-0.97]). In the APOL1 low-risk group, the risk of death comparing strict versus usual blood pressure control was not significantly different (1.09 [0.84-1.43]). Thus, strict blood pressure control during CKD associates with a lower risk of death in blacks with the high-risk CKD APOL1 genotype. Knowledge of APOL1 status could inform selection of blood pressure treatment targets in black CKD patients. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Weight loss from maximum body weight and mortality: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, D D; Mussolino, M E

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationship between weight loss from maximum body weight, body mass index (BMI), and mortality in a nationally representative sample of men and women. Longitudinal cohort study. In all, 6117 whites, blacks, and Mexican-Americans 50 years and over at baseline who survived at least 3 years of follow-up, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality Files (1988-1994 with passive mortality follow-up through 2000), were included. Measured body weight and self-reported maximum body weight obtained at baseline. Weight loss (maximum body weight minus baseline weight) was categorized as or=15%. Maximum BMI (reported maximum weight (kg)/measured baseline height (m)(2)) was categorized as healthy weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (>or=30.0). In all, 1602 deaths were identified. After adjusting for age, race, smoking, health status, and preexisting illness, overweight men with weight loss of 15% or more, overweight women with weight loss of 5-weight loss of 15% or more were at increased risk of death from all causes compared with those in the same BMI category who lost Weight loss of 5-Weight loss of 15% or more from maximum body weight is associated with increased risk of death from all causes among overweight men and among women regardless of maximum BMI.

  5. HSMR : Comparing Death Rates Across UK Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Frans; Teeuwen, Ben; Ngo, Thuy

    2011-01-01

    The Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio (HSMR) is a measurement tool that shows hospitals’ death rates. The HSMR compares deaths that occur in hospitals with death ratios that one would normally expect based on patients’ diseases. It is used as a benchmark for adjusted hospital death rates. These

  6. Death Cafe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Lizzy; Corr, Charles A

    2017-06-01

    This article explains the meaning of the phrase Death Cafe and describes what typically occurs at a Death Cafe gathering. The article traces the history of the Death Cafe movement, explores some reasons why people take part in a Death Cafe gathering, and gives examples of what individuals think they might derive from their participation. In addition, this article notes similarities between the Death Cafe movement and three other developments in the field of death, dying, and bereavement. Finally, this article identifies two provisional lessons that can be drawn from Death Cafe gatherings and the Death Cafe movement itself.

  7. Mortality Among Teenagers Aged 12-19 Years: United States, 1999-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... third of all deaths. Among teenagers, non-Hispanic black males have the highest death rate (94.1 deaths per 100,000 population). ... white teenagers. The death rate for non-Hispanic black teenagers is 64.5 deaths per 100,000 population compared with 47.1 ...

  8. O sistema de informações sobre mortalidade: problemas e propostas para o seu enfrentamento II - Mortes por causas externas The national mortality information system: problems and proposals for solving them II - Deaths due to external causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Prado de Mello Jorge

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available As causas externas representam importante fator na mortalidade do Brasil. Conhecer quem é vulnerável e quais os motivos disso constituem um elemento fundamental para políticas de prevenção de acidentes e violências. Para que esses programas sejam efetivos, é necessário um detalhamento sobre as reais causas de morte. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar, dentre as declarações de óbito (DO por causas externas, aquelas que poderiam ter causas básicas melhor descritas, bem como o ganho possível diante de metodologia do resgate/recuperação da informação. Foram estudados 320 óbitos do último trimestre de 2000, de quinze cidades com características demográficas e socioeconômicas heterogêneas. A metodologia baseou-se em visitas aos Institutos de Medicina Legal e Delegacias de Polícia (com consulta aos laudos e Boletins de Ocorrência e aos domicílios dos falecidos. Do total, 164 (51,3% já poderiam ser considerados bem definidos, em uma primeira análise; dos demais, 83 constituíam óbitos por causa externa do tipo ignorado e 73, diagnóstico incompleto de causa externa. Após a investigação houve mudanças apreciáveis na distribuição dessas mortes: o total de homicídios foi cinco vezes maior; os suicídios dobraram sua freqüência; e os acidentes de transporte tornaram-se 90% a mais do que os informados pelas DO originais, diminuindo sensivelmente as mortes por causas externas de tipo ignorado. Embora se reconheça que as mortes por violências e acidentes sejam melhor informadas do que as naturais, há ainda muito a ser feito enquanto os legistas não alcançarem um patamar ideal no preenchimento das DO. A adoção desta metodologia, simples, acessível e exeqüível, possibilita o desejado aprimoramento das estatísticas de mortalidade.Given that the importance of morbidity and mortality due to accidents and violence is increasing in Brazil and that, coroners frequently do not fill out the death certificate (DC

  9. MATERNAL MORTALITY IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Maternal Mortality in A Tertiary Care Centre. OBJECTIVE: To study maternal mortality and the complications leading to maternal death. METHODS: A retrospective study of hospital record to study maternal mortality and its causes over 3 years from January 2010 to December 2012. RESULTS: There were a total of 58 maternal deaths out of 2823 live births giving a maternal mortality ratio of 2054.55 per one lakh live births. Unbooked and late referrals account for 77.58% of maternal deaths. The majority of deaths around 75.86% were in 20-30 years age group. Haemorrhage was the commonest causes of death (24.12% followed by sepsis (18.96% and pregnancy induced hypertension 15.51% Anemia contributed to the most common indirect cause of maternal morality. CONCLUSION: Haemorrhage, sepsis and pregnancy induced hypertension including eclampsia were the direct major causes of death. Anaemia and cardiac diseases were other indirect causes of death.

  10. On Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangyan

    2016-01-01

    Death is not a terrible word, but a provoking one. Different people have different opinions, but no one can convince others of what death really means. This article made a tentative and superficial analysis on death according to the true feeing and experiences of the author. In her opinion, we needn’t consider more about death; the important for the death is how to live meaningfully.

  11. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  12. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  13. Mortality of a cohort of workers in the styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing industry (1943-1982)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matanoski, G.M.; Santos-Burgoa, C.; Schwartz, L. (Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-06-01

    A cohort of 12,110 male workers employed 1 or more years in eight styrene-butadiene polymer (SBR) manufacturing plants in the United States and Canada has been followed for mortality over a 40-year period, 1943 to 1982. The all-cause mortality of these workers was low (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.81) compared to that of the general population. However, some specific sites of cancers had SMRs that exceeded 1.00. These sites were then examined by major work divisions. The sites of interest included leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in whites. The SMRs for cancers of the digestive tract were higher than expected, especially esophageal cancer in whites and stomach cancer in blacks. The SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease in black workers was significantly higher than would be expected based on general population rates. Employees were assigned to a work area based on job longest held. The SMRs for specific diseases differed by work area. Production workers showed increased SMRs for hematologic neoplasms and maintenance workers, for digestive cancers. A significant excess SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease occurred only in black maintenance workers, although excess mortality from this disease occurred in blacks regardless of where they worked the longest. A significant excess SMR for rheumatic heart disease was associated with work in the combined, all-other work areas. For many causes of death, there were significant deficits in the SMRs.

  14. Mortality of a cohort of workers in the styrene-butadiene polymer manufacturing industry (1943-1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanoski, G M; Santos-Burgoa, C; Schwartz, L

    1990-01-01

    A cohort of 12,110 male workers employed 1 or more years in eight styrene-butadiene polymer (SBR) manufacturing plants in the United States and Canada has been followed for mortality over a 40-year period, 1943 to 1982. The all-cause mortality of these workers was low [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.81] compared to that of the general population. However, some specific sites of cancers had SMRs that exceeded 1.00. These sites were then examined by major work divisions. The sites of interest included leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in whites. The SMRs for cancers of the digestive tract were higher than expected, especially esophageal cancer in whites and stomach cancer in blacks. The SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease in black workers was significantly higher than would be expected based on general population rates. Employees were assigned to a work area based on job longest held. The SMRs for specific diseases differed by work area. Production workers showed increased SMRs for hematologic neoplasms and maintenance workers, for digestive cancers. A significant excess SMR for arteriosclerotic heart disease occurred only in black maintenance workers, although excess mortality from this disease occurred in blacks regardless of where they worked the longest. A significant excess SMR for rheumatic heart disease was associated with work in the combined, all-other work areas. For many causes of death, there were significant deficits in the SMRs. PMID:2401250

  15. NCHS - Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas, United States, 2005-2015. Mortality data for U.S....

  16. Mortality related to tuberculosis-HIV/AIDS co-infection in Brazil, 2000-2011: epidemiological patterns and time trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricélia da Silveira Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract: Co-infection of tuberculosis (TB-HIV/AIDS is a persistent public health problem in Brazil. This study describes epidemiological patterns and time trends of mortality related to TB-HIV/AIDS co-infection. Based on mortality data from 2000-2011 (almost 12.5 million deaths, 19,815 deaths related to co-infection were analyzed. The average age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.97 deaths/100,000 inhabitants. The highest mortality rates were found among males, those in economically productive age groups, black race/color and residents of the South region. There was a significant reduction in the mortality coefficient at the national level (annual average percent change: -1.7%; 95%CI: -2.4; -1.0, with different patterns among regions: increases in the North, Northeast and Central regions, a reduction in the Southeast and a stabilization in the South. The strategic integration of TB-HIV/AIDS control programmes is fundamental to reduce the burden of mortality related to co-infection in Brazil.

  17. Racial differences in breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality among women with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Amy; F Cole, Bernard; Ades, Philips A; Dickey, Samantha; Higgins, Stephen T; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L; Lakoski, Susan G

    2014-11-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast represents 15-20% of new breast cancer diagnoses in the US annually. However, long-term competing risks of mortality, as well as racial differences in outcomes among US women with DCIS, are unknown. Case data from the years 1978-2010 were obtained using SEER*Stat software available through the National Cancer Institute from the 2010 SEER registries. Included were all women aged 40 and over with newly diagnosed DCIS. There were 67,514 women in the analysis, including 54,518 white women and 6,113 black women. A total of 12,173 deaths were observed over 607,287 person-years of follow-up. The 20-year cumulative incidence of all-cause death among women with DCIS was 39.6% (CI 38.9-40.3). The corresponding 20-year rates for breast cancer death and CVD death were 3.2% (CI 3.0-3.4) and 13.2% (CI 12.8-13.7), respectively. Black women with DCIS had a higher risk of death compared to white women, with these hazard ratios elevated throughout the entire study period. For example, between 1990 and 2010, black women had a higher risk of all-cause death (HR 3.06, CI 2.39-3.91), breast cancer death (HR 5.78, CI 3.16-10.57), and CVD death (HR 6.43, CI 3.61-11.45) compared to white women diagnosed between 50 and 59 years of age. The risk of all-cause and CVD death was greater than breast cancer death among women diagnosed with DCIS over 20 years. Black women had higher risks of dying from all-causes compared to white women. These differences persisted into the modern treatment era.

  18. Mortality among ethylene oxide workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R W; Claxton, K W; Divine, B J; Kaplan, S D; Harris, V B

    1981-11-01

    Because of reports linking an increased risk of leukemia with exposure to ethylene oxide, a mortality study of workers with potential exposure to ethylene oxide at the Texaco Chemical Company Plant in Port Neches, Tex., was undertaken. A total of 767 males with potential exposure to ethylene oxide were identified. Forty-six deaths occurred in this cohort with 80 expected (standardized mortality ratio; SMR = 58). No deaths from leukemia were seen, nor were there any statistically significant excesses from any specific causes of death.

  19. VSRR - Quarterly provisional estimates for infant mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provisional estimates of infant mortality (deaths of infants under 1 year per 1,000 live births), neonatal mortality (deaths of infants aged 0-27 days per 1,000 live...

  20. Mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, L; Stenager, E; Boldsen, J

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: After the introduction of L-dopa the mortality rate in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has changed, but is still higher than in the background population. MATERIAL & METHODS: Mortality, age at death and cause of death in a group of PD patients compared with the background population...

  1. Deliberating death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing a particular case study of a woman attempting to come to terms with her death, this article explores the difficult metaphors of death present within the Christian tradition. Tracing a Christian understanding of death back to the work of Augustine, the case study is utilized to highlight the difficulties presented by past and present theology embracing ideas of punishment within death. Following the trajectory of the case study, alternative understandings of death present in recent Christian theology and within Native American spirituality are presented in an attempt to find room for a fuller meaning of death post-reconciliation, but premortem.

  2. Relationship between Race and the Effect of Fluids on Long-term Mortality after Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Secondary Analysis of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Sarah E; Hough, Catherine L; Clermont, Gilles; Hayden, Douglas; Hou, Suqin; Schoenfeld, David; Smith, Nicholas L; Thompson, Boyd Taylor; Bernard, Gordon R; Angus, Derek C

    2017-09-01

    Short-term follow-up in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT) suggested differential mortality by race with conservative fluid management, but no significant interaction. In a post hoc analysis of FACTT including 1-year follow-up, we sought to estimate long-term mortality by race and test for an interaction between fluids and race. We performed a post hoc analysis of FACTT and the Economic Analysis of Pulmonary Artery Catheters (EAPAC) study (which included 655 of the 1,000 FACTT patients with near-complete 1-year follow up). We fit a multistate Markov model to estimate 1-year mortality for all non-Hispanic black and white randomized FACTT subjects. The model estimated the distribution of time from randomization to hospital discharge or hospital death (available on all patients) and estimated the distribution of time from hospital discharge to death using data on patients after hospital discharge for patients in EAPAC. The 1-year mortality was found by combining these estimates. Non-Hispanic black (n = 217, 25%) or white identified subjects (n = 641, 75%) were included. There was a significant interaction between race and fluid treatment (P = 0.012). One-year mortality was lower for black subjects assigned to conservative fluids (38 vs. 54%; mean mortality difference, 16%; 95% confidence interval, 2-30%; P = 0.027 between conservative and liberal). Conversely, 1-year mortality for white subjects was 35% versus 30% for conservative versus liberal arms (mean mortality difference, -4.8%; 95% confidence interval, -13% to 3%; P = 0.23). In our cohort, conservative fluid management may have improved 1-year mortality for non-Hispanic black patients with ARDS. However, we found no long-term benefit of conservative fluid management in white subjects.

  3. Black Americans and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV-related deaths (44%) than any other racial/ethnic group in the U.S. 2 , 3 , 4 Among Black ... for their respective counterparts in any other racial/ethnic group. 21 HIV death rates are highest among Blacks. ...

  4. Mortalidade feminina em idade reprodutiva no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 1991-1995: causas básicas de óbito e mortalidade materna Female mortality in reproductive age in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 1991-1995: underlying causes of death and maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib Haddad

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a mortalidade materna no período reprodutivo (15 a 49 anos no Estado de São Paulo, de 1991 a 1995, segundo grupos etários e causas básicas de óbito. MÉTODOS: Foi fornecida pela Fundação Seade a listagem dos óbitos, com as causas básicas codificadas pela Classificação Internacional de Doenças, 9ª Revisão, utilizando-se o programa "Automated Classification of Medical Entities", as estimativas da população feminina segundo grupos etários e os números de nascidos vivos. Foram calculados coeficientes específicos por 100.000 mulheres, mortalidade materna por 100.000 nascidos vivos e percentagens de óbitos por subgrupos. Foram calculadas medianas dos coeficientes do quinquênio, para comparação das principais causas agrupadas nos capítulos. RESULTADOS: De 1991 a 1995 houve aumento da mortalidade por deficiência da imunidade celular a partir de 25 anos, parecendo traduzir um paralelismo com a curva ascendente da epidemia de AIDS em mulheres. Lesões e envenenamentos predominam nas mais jovens, porém a partir de 35 anos as doenças do aparelho circulatório e neoplasmas passaram a ser preponderantes. Doenças infecciosas e parasitárias ocupam a sétima ou oitava posição, em todas as idades. Acidentes e homicídios e suicídios foram elevados. A mortalidade materna variou de 43,7 a 49,6 por 100.000 nascidos vivos. CONCLUSÕES: Houve grande exposição das mulheres em idade fértil a fatores associados a causas externas, doenças crônicas e AIDS. A maioria das causas apontadas de mortalidade materna podem ser prevenidas e, portanto, revelam insuficiência de assistência pré-natal adequada e extensiva, bem como deficiências no atendimento ao parto e puerpério.OBJECTIVE: To describe female mortality in the reproductive age (15 to 49 years old in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, from 1991 to 1995, according to the age and underlying causes of death. METHODS: Underlying causes of death, according to the

  5. Cot Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Shelagh

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the tragedy of crib deaths, giving particular attention to causes, prevention, and medical research on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Gives anecdotal accounts of coping strategies used by parents and families of SIDS infants. (DT)

  6. Prognostic Contribution of Exercise Capacity, Heart Rate Recovery, Chronotropic Incompetence, and Myocardial Perfusion Single-Photon Emission Computerized Tomography in the Prediction of Cardiac Death and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbit, Boris; Azarbal, Babak; Hayes, Sean W; Gransar, Heidi; Germano, Guido; Friedman, John D; Thomson, Louise; Berman, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    Chronotropic incompetence, measured by the percentage (%) of heart rate (HR) reserve achieved (%HR reserve), abnormal HR recovery, reduced exercise capacity (EC), and myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT MPS) abnormalities are known predictors of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiac death (CD). The aim of this study was to determine if EC, %HR reserve, and HR recovery add incremental value to MPS in the prediction of ACM and CD. A total of 11,218 patients without valvular disease and not on β blockers underwent symptom-limited exercise MPS. %HR reserve was (peak HR - rest HR)/(220 - age - rest HR) × 100, with %HR reserve recovery was peak HR - recovery HR. An HR recovery recovery, χ(2) = 18.45; diabetes, χ(2) = 17.75; and previous coronary artery disease, χ(2) = 11.85 (p ≤0.0006). The independent predictors of CD were SSS, χ(2) = 54.25; EC, χ(2) = 49.34; age, χ(2) = 46.45; abnormal electrocardiogram at rest, χ(2) = 30.60; previous coronary artery disease, χ(2) = 20.69; Duke treadmill score, χ(2) = 19.50; %HR reserve, χ(2) = 11.43; diabetes, χ(2) = 10.23 (all p ≤0.0014); and HR recovery, χ(2) = 5.30 (p = 0.0214). The exercise variables showed increases in Harrell's C static and net improvement reclassification, with EC showing the strongest incremental improvement in predicting ACM and CD (respective C-index 76.5% and 83.3% and net reclassification index 0.3201 and 0.4996). In conclusion, EC, %HR reserve, and HR recovery are independent predictors of ACM and CD and add incremental prognostic value to extent and severity of MPS.

  7. Occupational mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to present the methods and main results from the Danish occupational mortality studies, and to set the Danish studies into the international context of occupational mortality studies. RESEARCH TOPICS: The first Danish occupational mortality study from 1970...

  8. Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lane

    The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for transcendent…

  9. Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lane

    The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for…

  10. Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lane

    The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for…

  11. Under-5-mortality rate and causes of death in China, 2000 to 2010%中国2000-2010年5岁以下儿童死亡率和死亡原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯江; 袁秀琴; 朱军; 李小洪; 缪蕾; 何春花; 王艳萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估2000-2010年中国5岁以下儿童死亡率(U5MR)及主要死因别死亡率的变化,评价实现《中国儿童发展纲要(2001-2010年)》(纲要)目标的进展.方法 采用全国5岁以下儿童死亡监测网收集的2000-2010年以人群为基础的监测资料,计算不同地区的婴儿死亡率(IMR)、U5MR及其主要死因别死亡率.结果 2010年全国IMR和U5MR较2000年分别下降59.3%和58.7%,城市IMR和U5MR分别下降50.8%和47.1%,农村IMR和U5MR分别下降56.5%和56.0%.与2000年相比,2010年全国5岁以下儿童主要疾病的死因别死亡率均有下降,但城乡下降程度不同.位于前五位的死因是早产或低出生体重、肺炎、出生窒息、先天性心脏病和意外窒息,城乡儿童主要疾病顺位不完全相同.2010年农村IMR和U5MR均是城市的2.8倍,中、西部地区的IMR分别是东部的1.5倍和2.3倍,U5MR分别是东部的1.5倍和2.2倍.结论 2000-2010年全国IMR、U5MR及主要死因别死亡率有明显下降趋势,且实现了纲要中提出的目标,但缩小地区和人群差异是今后促进儿童健康面临的重大挑战.%Objective To assess the changes and the leading cause of deaths for children under 5 years old,in China,during 2000-2010,with the aim of evaluation on the progress in achieving the relative goal set by "National Program of Action for Child Development in China (2001-2010)",and understanding the related challenges.Methods Data used in this study were collected from the population-based National Maternal and Child' s Health Surveillance Network of China.Infant Mortality Rate (IMR),Under-5-mortality rate (U5MR) and the leading cause of deaths for under-5 children were analyzed.Results Nationwide IMR and U5MR in 2010 dropped by 59.3%and 58.7% respectively,compared to that in 2000.Decreases by 50.8% and 47.1% in IMR and U5MR were observed in urban areas,and 56.5% and 56.0% in rural areas during this period.Compared with data from 2000

  12. Impact on the livelihood of the medieval Black Death Britain under microscopic vision%论微观视野下中世纪英国黑死病对民生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎

    2014-01-01

    1348年,黑死病由欧洲大陆渡过英吉利海峡传入大不列颠,并迅速蔓延开来,造成英国人口锐减、社会环境急剧恶化、社会群体心态被改变。在微观视野下考察,瘟疫过后,社会迅速恢复,民众生活实际比之前得到改善,并为英国社会的转型提供了条件。%1348 Black Death in Europe through the English Channel from the mainland of Great Britain passed ,and quickly spread ,causing the British population decline ,a sharp deterioration in the social environment ,social group mentality is changed .Under microscopic vision ,rapid recovery after the plague society ,people's lives actually improved than before ,for the transformation of British society provided the conditions .

  13. Redefining Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The results of 20 years of research on brain death will be released to the public, the Chinese Ministry of Health reported in early April. A special ministry team has drafted the criteria for brain death in Criteria for the Diagnosis of Brain Death in Adults (Revised Edition) and Technical Specifications for the Diagnosis

  14. Mortality at an automotive stamping and assembly complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R; Krebs, J; Mirer, F

    1994-10-01

    Mortality among workers with 2 or more years employment at an automotive stamping and assembly complex was analyzed using standardized mortality ratio (SMR), proportional mortality ratio (PMR), and mortality odds ratio (MOR) methods. The stamping plant all-cause SMR was considerably less than expected (for white men, SMR = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54, 0.79; for black men, SMR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.45, 1.13), indicating a strong "healthy worker effect." However, six stomach cancer deaths produced an SMR of 4.4 (95% CI = 1.62, 9.6) and a PMR of 6.8 (95% CI = 2.5, 15). Based on small numbers of cases, stomach cancer risk increased with duration in stamping and tool and die departments where exposures included drawing compound and other metalworking fluids. Stamping plant lung cancer mortality was elevated among production welders (MOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.3), and increased with duration. Welding was performed on sheet metal sometimes coated with drawing compound, primer, or epoxy resin adhesive. As was observed for the stamping plant, the all-cause SMR for the two assembly plants was unusually low (for white men, SMR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.56, 0.73; for black men, SMR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43, 0.75). The lung cancer SMR was not elevated but the MOR was (MOR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.4) and increased with assembly plant duration (MOR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02, 3.1, at mean duration of cases). In the assembly plants, paint oven stack emissions had been reintroduced into the plant by the ventilation system.

  15. Death preparedness: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod-Sordjan, Renee

    2014-05-01

    To report analysis of the concept death preparedness in the context of end-of-life shared decisions and communication. Forty percent of older people require decision-making and communication in the final days of life. Elaborate defence mechanisms have yielded a public consciousness that no longer passively views death acceptance, but instead has a defensive orientation of preparedness. The term 'death preparedness' depicts this death attitude. Concept analysis. Data were collected over 3 months in 2013. A series of searches of scholarly peer-reviewed literature published in English were conducted of multiple databases. Specific keywords included such phrases as: death acceptance, death avoidance, death rejection, death preparedness, resolution of life, breaking bad news and readiness to die. Walker and Avant's method was chosen as a deductive method to distinguish between the defining attributes of death preparedness and its relevant attributes. Death preparedness involves a transition of facilitated communication with a healthcare provider that leads to awareness and/or acceptance of end of life, as evidenced by an implementation of a plan. An appraisal of attitudes towards death and one's mortality precedes the concept, followed by an improved quality of death and dignity at end of life. The concept of death preparedness in the process of dying should be the focus of research to explore areas to improve advanced directive planning and acceptance of palliation for chronic health conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Increasing US mortality due to accidental poisoning: the role of the baby boom cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miech, Richard; Koester, Steve; Dorsey-Holliman, Brook

    2011-04-01

    In this study we examine whether the recent, sharp increase in mortality in the United States due to accidental poisoning since 2000 is the result of the aging of the baby boom cohort or, instead, a historical trend apparent among decedents of all ages. We conducted an age-period-cohort analysis using data from the US Vital Statistics and the US Census covering the period 1968-2007. The United States population aged 15-64 years. Cause of death and demographic data as recorded on death certificates. The increase in mortality due to accidental poisoning since the year 2000 stems primarily from a historical period effect across all ages for whites, but results in large part from a rate spike in the baby boom cohort among blacks. For all demographic groups baby boomers had higher odds of death due to accidental poisoning than the cohorts that came before and after them. Historical influences acting across all ages led to an increase in accidental poisoning mortality that was almost 10-fold for whites and threefold for blacks over the study period. While the recent, sharp increase in accidental poisoning mortality stems in part from the aging of the baby boom cohort, substantially more of the increase results from influences unique to recent years that have affected all age groups. These results point to the need to bolster overdose prevention programs and policies as the historical increase in accidental poisoning mortality appears to continue unabated. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. The injury mortality burden in Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Mamady Keita; Yao Hongyan; Zhang Xujun; Xiang Huiyun; Tan Hongzhuan; Hu Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The injury mortality burden of Guinea has been rarely addressed. The paper aimed to report patterns of injury mortality burden in Guinea. Methods We retrieved the mortality data from the Guinean Annual Health Statistics Report 2007. The information about underlying cause of deaths was collected based on Guinean hospital discharge data, Hospital Mortuary and City Council Mortuary data. The causes of death are coded in the 9th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9)...

  18. Disparities in Mortality Rates Among US Infants Born Late Preterm or Early Term, 2003–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazmararian, Julie A.; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify disparities in neonatal, post-neonatal, and overall infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm (34–36 weeks gestation) and early term (37–38 weeks gestation) by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. In analyses of 2003–2005 data from US period linked birth/infant death datasets, we compared infant mortality rates by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality among infants born late preterm or early term and also determined the leading causes of death among these infants. Among infants born late preterm, infants born to American Indian/Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic black, or teenage mothers had the highest infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births (14.85,9.90, and 11.88 respectively). Among infants born early term, corresponding mortality rates were 5.69, 4.49, and 4.82, respectively. Among infants born late preterm, singletons had a higher infant mortality rate than twins (8.59 vs. 5.62), whereas among infants born early term, the rate was higher among twins (3.67 vs. 3.15). Congenital malformations and sudden infant death syndrome were the leading causes of death among both late preterm and early term infants. Infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm or early term varied substantially by maternal race/ ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. Information about these disparities may help in the development of clinical practice and prevention strategies targeting infants at highest risk. PMID:23519825

  19. Black Holes: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Offers a selected bibliography pertaining to black holes with the following categories: introductory books; introductory articles; somewhat more advanced articles; readings about Einstein's general theory of relativity; books on the death of stars; articles on the death of stars; specific articles about Supernova 1987A; relevant science fiction…

  20. Tarantula bite leads to death and gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Kalyan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Chilobrachys hardwikii-giant black hairy spider bite produced two deaths, one case of gangrene of the foot and urticarial rashes in another person in a remote village of Churulia 30 km from Asansol.

  1. Deciphering infant mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  2. Mortality in spondylarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Clément; Claudepierre, Pascal; Pham, Thao; Wendling, Daniel

    2011-10-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease that can lead to chronic pain in axial and peripheral joints and to functional impairments after several years. Excess mortality has been reported in patients with AS. We reviewed recent studies of patients with AS who were treated and monitored according to the improved methods developed in the past few years, without radiation therapy. Our results do not support excess mortality in these patients. Long-term follow-up data from patients enrolled in biologics registries will provide additional information. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with AS, as in the general population. However, the cardiovascular mortality rate may be slightly increased in patients with AS, probably as a result of dyslipidemia and early endothelial dysfunction. Similarly, and as expected, there is excess mortality related to the spinal disease itself and to renal and gastrointestinal disease. More surprisingly, alcohol abuse and injury or suicide cause excess mortality compared to the general population. In the absence of radiation or radium-224 therapy, and regardless of the other treatments used, the evidence does not support an increased rate of lymphoma or other malignancies compared to the general population. In this review, we discuss the causes and rates of mortality in patients with AS.

  3. Poverty and death in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, R A; Eaker, E D; Barker, N D; Teutsch, S M; Sosniak, W A; Krieger, N

    1996-01-01

    The authors conducted a survival analysis to determine the effect of poverty on mortality in a national sample of blacks and whites, 25 to 74 years of age (the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-1) and NHANES-1 Epidemiologic Follow up Study). They estimated the proportion of mortality associated with poverty during 1971-1984 and in 1991 by calculating population attributable risk and assessed confounding by major known risk factors (e.g., smoking, cholesterol levels, and physical inactivity). In 1973, 6.0 percent of U.S. mortality among black and white persons 25 to 74 years of age was attributable to poverty; in 1991, the proportion was 5.9 percent. In 1991, rates of mortality attributable to poverty were lowest for white women, 2.2 times as high for white men, 8.6 times as high for black men, and 3.6 times as high for black women. Adjustment for all these potential confounders combined had little effect on the hazard ratio among men, but reduced the effect of poverty on mortality among women by 42 percent. The proportion of mortality attributable to poverty among U.S. black and white adults has changed only minimally in recent decades. The effect of poverty on mortality must be largely explained by conditions other than commonly recognized risk factors.

  4. Sudden unexpected death caused by stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågesen, Frederik Nybye; Risgaard, Bjarke; Zachariasardóttir, Sára

    2017-01-01

    Background Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in young individuals globally. Data on the burden of sudden death by stroke are sparse in the young. Aims The aim of this study was to report mortality rates, cause of death, stroke subtype, and symptoms in children and young adults who suffered...... sudden death by stroke. Methods We conducted a retrospective, nationwide study including all deaths within Danish borders between 2000-2009 and 2007-2009 in persons aged 1-35 years and 36-49 years, respectively. Two physicians identified all sudden death cases through review of all death certificates....... All available autopsy reports and records from hospitals and general practitioners were retrieved and a neurologist identified all sudden death by stroke cases. Results Of the 14,567 deaths in the 10-year period, there were 1,698 sudden death cases, of which 52 (3%) were sudden death by stroke...

  5. Child health and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Arifeen, Shams

    2008-09-01

    Bangladesh is currently one of the very few countries in the world, which is on target for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 relating to child mortality. There have been very rapid reductions in mortality, especially in recent years and among children aged over one month. However, this rate of reduction may be difficult to sustain and may impede the achievement of MDG 4. Neonatal deaths now contribute substantially (57%) to overall mortality of children aged less than five years, and reductions in neonatal mortality are difficult to achieve and have been slow in Bangladesh. There are some interesting attributes of the mortality decline in Bangladesh. Mortality has declined faster among girls than among boys, but the poorest have not benefited from the reduction in mortality. There has also been a relative absence of a decline in mortality in urban areas. The age and cause of death pattern of under-five mortality indicate certain interventions that need to be scaled up rapidly and reach high coverage to achieve MDG 4 in Bangladesh. These include skilled attendance at delivery, postnatal care for the newborn, appropriate feeding of the young infant and child, and prevention and management of childhood infections. The latest (2007) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey shows that Bangladesh has made sustained and remarkable progress in many areas of child health. More than 80% of children are receiving all vaccines. The use of oral rehydration solution for diarrhoea is high, and the coverage of vitamin A among children aged 9-59 months has been consistently increasing. However, poor quality of care, misperceptions regarding the need for care, and other social barriers contribute to low levels of care-seeking for illnesses of the newborns and children. Improvements in the health system are essential for removing these barriers, as are effective strategies to reach families and communities with targeted messages and information. Finally, there are

  6. The mortality of companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daepp, Madeleine I. G.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; West, Geoffrey B.; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms. PMID:25833247

  7. Maternal mortality due to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Vivian Carolina; Pearlman, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Maternal mortality is an important indicator of adequacy of health care in our society. Improvements in the obstetric care system as well as advances in technology have contributed to reduction in maternal mortality rates. Trauma complicates up to 7% of all pregnancies and has emerged as the leading cause of maternal mortality, becoming a significant concern for the public health system. Maternal mortality secondary to trauma can often be prevented by coordinated medical care, but it is essential that caregivers recognize the unique situation of providing simultaneous care to 2 patients who have a complex physiologic relationship. Optimal management of the pregnant trauma victim requires a multidisciplinary team, where the obstetrician plays a central role. This review focuses on the incidence of maternal mortality due to trauma, the mechanisms involved in traumatic injury, the important anatomic and physiologic changes that may predispose to mortality due to trauma, and finally, preventive strategies that may decrease the incidence of traumatic maternal death.

  8. Mortality in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Although the general trend in mortality between 1950 and 1975 in South and East Asia has been downward, there is considerable country-to-country variation in the rate of decline. In countries where combined economic, social, and political circumstances resulted in controlling the disease spectrum (e.g., China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka), mortality levels declined to those seen in low-mortality countries. In most of the large countries of the region however, mortality declined at a slower rate, even slowing down considerably in the 1970's while the death rates remained high (e.g., India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Philippines); this slowing down of mortality level is attributed essentially to the poverty-stricken masses of society which were not able to take advantage of social, technological, and health-promoting behavioral changes conducive to mortality decline. Infant mortality levels, although declining since 1950, followed the same dismal pattern of the general mortality level. The rate varies from less than 10/1000 live births (Japan) to more than 140/1000 (Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal). Generally, rural areas exhibited higher infant mortality than urban areas. The level of child mortality declines with increases in the mother's educational level in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The largest decline in child mortality occurs when at least 1 parent has secondary education. The premature retardation of mortality decline is caused by several factors: economic development, nutrition and food supply, provision and adequacy of health services, and demographic trends. The outlook for the year 2000 for most of Asia's countries will depend heavily on significant population increases. In most countries, particularly in South Asia, population is expected to increase by 75%, much of it in rural areas and among poorer socioeconomic groups. In view of this, Asia's health planners and policymakers will have to develop health policies which will strike a balance

  9. Increased mortality in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Black, Jed; Lai, Chinglin; Eller, Mark; Guinta, Diane; Bhattacharyya, Arun

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the mortality rate in patients with narcolepsy. Data were derived from a large database representative of the US population, which contains anonymized patient-linked longitudinal claims for 173 million individuals. Symphony Health Solutions (SHS) Source Lx, an anonymized longitudinal patient dataset. All records of patients registered in the SHS database between 2008 and 2010. None. Identification of patients with narcolepsy was based on ≥ 1 medical claim with the diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD-9 347.xx) from 2002 to 2012. Dates of death were acquired from the Social Security Administration via a third party; the third party information was encrypted in the same manner as the claims data such that anonymity is ensured prior to receipt by SHS. Annual all-cause mortality rates for 2008, 2009, and 2010 were calculated retrospectively for patients with narcolepsy and patients without narcolepsy in the database, and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated. Mortality rates were also compared with the general US population (Centers for Disease Control data). SMRs of the narcolepsy population were consistent over the 3-year period and showed an approximate 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. The narcolepsy population had consistently higher mortality rates relative to those without narcolepsy across all age groups, stratified by age decile, from 25-34 years to 75+ years of age. The SMR for females with narcolepsy was lower than for males with narcolepsy. Narcolepsy was associated with approximately 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. While the cause of this increased mortality is unknown, these findings warrant further investigation.

  10. The Medieval Church of England on the Reaction and Coping Measures of the Black Death%中世纪英国教会对黑死病的反应及应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎

    2014-01-01

    The Black Death plague is one of the many harmful plagues in human history, and it is one of the worst ecological disasters in medieval history. It brought serious effects to the medieval British society: many people died, the social and economic havoc, and the residents' psychological causing severe damage, caused different levels of panic and chaos the whole society. An outbreak of plague, the Church of England has made all sorts of measures, although the effect was not ideal, and there was a great limitation, but it was at that time the social objective to develop horizontal place decision.%黑死病是人类历史上众多瘟疫中危害很大的瘟疫之一,它是中世纪历史上的一次惨重的生态灾难。中世纪英国黑死病给社会带来严重的影响:造成人口大量死亡、社会经济的严重破坏,并对居民心理造成了严重的伤害,引起了整个社会不同程度的恐慌和混乱。黑死病爆发后,上帝在人间的代理者--英国教会作出了种种的应对措施,尽管成效不够理想,而且存在着较大的局限性,但这是由当时社会客观的发展水平所决定的。

  11. Infant mortality in twin pregnancies following in-utero demise of the co-twin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boubakari Ibrahimou; Hamisu M Salihu; Muktar H Aliyu; Gary English; Getachew Dagne

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess whether conversion from twin to singleton pregnancy following the demise of a co-twin influences survival.Methods:This retrospective study compared the risk for neonatal, post-neonatal and infant death for converted co-twins versus unconverted co-twins using the US matched multiple file dataset for the period 1995-2000. We also examined the same risks for converted versus same-quantile co-twins, hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using Cox Proportional Hazards models.Results:The risk for neonatal (HR=0.18, 95%CI: 0.09-0.34 andHR=0.69, 95%CI: 0.50- 0.96) and infant death (HR=0.22, 95%CI: 0.12-0.42 andHR=0.57, 95%CI: 0.42-0.77) were significantly lower for converted twins than for unconverted twins and same-quantile twins, respectively. For black compared to white, the risk for post-neonatal death increased by 89% (HR=1.89, 95%CI= 1.03, 3.48), and 79% (HR=1.79, 95%CI=1.53, 2.09) for convertedvs. unconverted and convertedvs. same-quantile, respectively. For converted black, the risk for neonatal death decreased by 17% (HR=0.83, 95%CI=0.73-0.93) as compared to unconverted.Conclusions: Risks for all mortality types were lower among converted co-twins than their unconverted or same-quantile counterparts. The lower neonatal and higher post-neonatal mortality among black require future research.

  12. The law of mortality revisited: interspecies comparisons of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, S J

    2010-01-01

    In 1825 the British actuary Benjamin Gompertz believed he had discovered a consistency in the timing of death in people that was so important that he labelled his observation a 'law of mortality'. To Gompertz, this 'law' was equivalent in importance to Newton's law of gravity because he believed it would be observed in all living things. Gompertz's quest for the 'law' eventually failed, as did similar efforts by other scientists in the 19th and most of the 20th century. However, the search for the law of mortality was successfully resolved in 1996 when my colleagues and I discovered that the only way to 'see' Gompertz's law expressed as common age patterns of death across species was to partition total mortality into its intrinsic and extrinsic components, and examine mortality schedules on a uniform time scale. Scientists had been unable to reveal the law of mortality in the past not only because they could not partition total mortality, but also because of the previous anthropocentric perspective that forced some scientists to view duration of life along a single time scale - one based on human measurements of chronological time. The law of mortality is relevant today not only because it links the epidemiology of disease, ageing and death across species, but because it creates a window into the future for those who study disease epidemiology in animals that now live long enough in protected environments to experience the biological consequences of ageing. In this paper I summarize the historical search for the law of mortality, explain why the solution could only be found by linking two seemingly unconnected scientific disciplines (evolution biology and actuarial/demographics), explain why age patterns of disease and death in humans may be used to understand and predict disease epidemiology in other species, and describe how a new scientific discipline has arisen in the modern era as a result of this research.

  13. Methodological systematic review: mortality in elderly patients with cervical spine injury: a critical appraisal of the reporting of baseline characteristics, follow-up, cause of death, and analysis of risk factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Albert, T.J.; Veth, R.P.H.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Methodologic systematic review. OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of reported risk factors for mortality in elderly patients with cervical spine injury. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In elderly patients with cervical spine injury, mortality has frequently been associated with the type

  14. Methodological systematic review: mortality in elderly patients with cervical spine injury: a critical appraisal of the reporting of baseline characteristics, follow-up, cause of death, and analysis of risk factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Albert, T.J.; Veth, R.P.H.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Methodologic systematic review. OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of reported risk factors for mortality in elderly patients with cervical spine injury. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In elderly patients with cervical spine injury, mortality has frequently been associated with the type

  15. Explaining the recent decrease in US infant mortality rate, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, William M; MacDorman, Marian F; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Barfield, Wanda D

    2017-01-01

    The US infant mortality rate has been steadily decreasing in recent years as has the preterm birth rate; preterm birth is a major factor associated with death during the first year of life. The degree to which changes in gestational age-specific mortality and changes in the distribution of births by gestational age have contributed to the decrease in the infant mortality rate requires clarification. The objective of the study was to better understand the major contributors to the 2007-2013 infant mortality decline for the total population and for infants born to non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic women. We identified births and infant deaths from 2007 and 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Vital Statistics System's period linked birth and infant death files. We included all deaths and births for which there was a reported gestational age at birth on the birth certificate of 22 weeks or greater. The decrease in the infant mortality rate was disaggregated such that all of the change could be attributed to improvements in gestational age-specific infant mortality rates and changes in the distribution of gestational age, by week of gestation, using the Kitagawa method. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for records in which the obstetric estimate of gestational age was missing and for deaths and births less than 22 weeks' gestation. Maternal race and ethnicity information was obtained from the birth certificate. The infant mortality rates after exclusions were 5.72 and 4.92 per 1000 live births for 2007 and 2013, respectively, with an absolute difference of -0.80 (14% decrease). Infant mortality rates declined by 11% for non-Hispanic whites, by 19% for non-Hispanic blacks, and by 14% for Hispanics during the period. Compared with 2007, the proportion of births in each gestational age category was lower in 2013 with the exception of 39 weeks during which there was an increase in the proportion of births from 30.1% in

  16. Digital Death in the Age of Narcissism

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Vrtačič; Anamarija Šporčič

    2010-01-01

    Pathological narcissism represents the dominant form of subjectivity in post-industrial society and its consumerist ideals. The fear one feels in connection with one’s death, fear that is typical of pathological narcissism, frequently manifests itself as absolute denial of the idea of a mortal Self. According to Freud, primary narcissism prevents one from imagining or even thinking about one’s own death. In the realm of the Unconscious, death does not exist. Death is absent from cyberspace in...

  17. Natural death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M; Meissner, C

    2000-01-01

    The increasing age of every human being is the beginning of the end of life, an obviously natural process, but any attempt to define the term 'natural death' soon encounters difficulties in defining what is meant by 'natural'. In the industrialized countries of the West, for example 'natural death' is thought of as the opposite of non-natural types of death such as accidental death, suicide, and homicide. The aim of our present survey is to discuss the meaning of the term 'natural death' under a clinical, a forensic and a scientific point of view with regard to recent developments especially in molecular biology. If there are 'external' physical influences, a medical-technical manipulation, a therapeutic or molecular biological intervention cannot be definitely ruled out as the cause of death, then use of the term 'natural death' in general is open to question. It will only remain meaningful if it can be applied with a specific meaning in definite practical situations. Current research and medical technology, however, do not allow use of the term 'natural death' in its conventional sense: it can thus be stricken from the medical vocabulary. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Are major behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors for mortality additive or multiplicative in their effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil; Preston, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    All individuals are subject to multiple risk factors for mortality. In this paper, we consider the nature of interactions between certain major sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors associated with all-cause mortality in the United States. We develop the formal logic pertaining to two forms of interaction between risk factors, additive and multiplicative relations. We then consider the general circumstances in which additive or multiplicative relations might be expected. We argue that expectations about interactions among socio-demographic variables, and their relation to behavioral variables, have been stated in terms of additivity. However, the statistical models typically used to estimate the relation between risk factors and mortality assume that risk factors act multiplicatively. We examine empirically the nature of interactions among five major risk factors associated with all-cause mortality: smoking, obesity, race, sex, and educational attainment. Data were drawn from the cross-sectional NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 1999-2010 surveys, linked to death records through December 31, 2011. Our analytic sample comprised 35,604 respondents and 5369 deaths. We find that obesity is additive with each of the remaining four variables. We speculate that its additivity is a reflection of the fact that obese status is generally achieved later in life. For all pairings of socio-demographic variables, risks are multiplicative. For survival chances, it is much more dangerous to be poorly educated if you are black or if you are male. And it is much riskier to be a male if you are black. These traits, established at birth or during childhood, literally result in deadly combinations. We conclude that the identification of interactions among risk factors can cast valuable light on the nature of the process being studied. It also has public health implications by identifying especially vulnerable groups and by properly identifying the proportion of deaths

  19. Mortality and potential years of life lost attributable to alcohol consumption by race and sex in the United States in 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Shield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol has been linked to health disparities between races in the US; however, race-specific alcohol-attributable mortality has never been estimated. The objective of this article is to estimate premature mortality attributable to alcohol in the US in 2005, differentiated by race, age and sex for people 15 to 64 years of age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mortality attributable to alcohol was estimated based on alcohol-attributable fractions using indicators of exposure from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and risk relations from the Comparative Risk Assessment study. Consumption data were corrected for undercoverage (the observed underreporting of alcohol consumption when using survey as compared to sales data using adult per capita consumption from WHO databases. Mortality data by cause of death were obtained from the US Department of Health and Human Services. For people 15 to 64 years of age in the US in 2005, alcohol was responsible for 55,974 deaths (46,461 for men; 9,513 for women representing 9.0% of all deaths, and 1,288,700 PYLL (1,087,280 for men; 201,420 for women representing 10.7% of all PYLL. Per 100,000 people, this represents 29 deaths (29 for White; 40 for Black; 82 for Native Americans; 6 for Asian/Pacific Islander and 670 PYLL (673 for White; 808 for Black; 1,808 for Native American; 158 for Asian/Pacific Islander. Sensitivity analyses showed a lower but still substantial burden without adjusting for undercoverage. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of mortality attributable to alcohol in the US is unequal among people of different races and between men and women. Racial differences in alcohol consumption and the resulting harms explain in part the observed disparities in the premature mortality burden between races, suggesting the need for interventions for specific subgroups of the population such as Native Americans.

  20. Discrepant comorbidity between minority and white suicides: a national multiple cause-of-death analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stack Steven

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinician training deficits and a low and declining autopsy rate adversely impact the quality of death certificates in the United States. Self-report and records data for the general population indicate that proximate mental and physical health of minority suicides was at least as poor as that of white suicides. Methods This cross-sectional mortality study uses data from Multiple Cause-of-Death (MCOD public use files for 1999–2003 to describe and evaluate comorbidity among black, Hispanic, and white suicides. Unintentional injury decedents are the referent for multivariate analyses. Results One or more mentions of comorbid psychopathology are documented on the death certificates of 8% of white male suicides compared to 4% and 3% of black and Hispanic counterparts, respectively. Corresponding female figures are 10%, 8%, and 6%. Racial-ethnic discrepancies in the prevalence of comorbid physical disease are more attenuated. Cross-validation with National Violent Death Reporting System data reveals high relative underenumeration of comorbid depression/mood disorders and high relative overenumeration of schizophrenia on the death certificates of both minorities. In all three racial-ethnic groups, suicide is positively associated with depression/mood disorders [whites: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 31.9, 95% CI = 29.80–34.13; blacks: AOR = 60.9, 95% CI = 42.80–86.63; Hispanics: AOR = 34.7, 95% CI = 23.36–51.62] and schizophrenia [whites: AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.07–2.86; blacks: AOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.73–6.37; Hispanics: AOR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.01–8.22]. Suicide is positively associated with cancer in whites [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.69–1.93] and blacks [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.36–2.48], but not with HIV or alcohol and other substance use disorders in any group under review. Conclusion The multivariate analyses indicate high consistency in predicting suicide-associated comorbidities across racial-ethnic groups using MCOD data

  1. How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of 1.117 years in life expectancy for black males. Lower death rates for black males due to suicide, unintentional ... of 0.995 years in life expectancy for black females. Lower death rates for black females due to Chronic lower ...

  2. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States, 1999–2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Injury mortality in the United States from 1999 through 2014. Mortality is characterized using the underlying cause of death which, for injury deaths, refers to the...

  3. Child mortality after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Robert K

    2010-03-01

    Age-specific pediatric health consequences of community disruption after Hurricane Katrina have not been analyzed. Post-Katrina vital statistics are unavailable. The objectives of this study were to validate an alternative method to estimate child mortality rates in the greater New Orleans area and compare pre-Katrina and post-Katrina mortality rates. Pre-Katrina 2004 child mortality was estimated from death reports in the local daily newspaper and validated by comparison with pre-Katrina data from the Louisiana Department of Health. Post-Katrina child mortality rates were analyzed as a measure of health consequences. Newspaper-derived estimates of mortality rates appear to be valid except for possible underreporting of neonatal rates. Pre-Katrina and post-Katrina mortality rates were similar for all age groups except infants. Post-Katrina, a 92% decline in mortality rate occurred for neonates (Katrina decline in infant mortality rate exceeds the pre-Katrina discrepancy between newspaper-derived and Department of Health-reported rates. A declining infant mortality rate raises questions about persistent displacement of high-risk infants out of the region. Otherwise, there is no evidence of long-lasting post-Katrina excess child mortality. Further investigation of demographic changes would be of interest to local decision makers and planners for recovery after public health emergencies in other regions.

  4. Snakebite Mortality in India: A Nationally Representative Mortality Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Bijayeeni; Warrell, David A.; Suraweera, Wilson; Bhatia, Prakash; Dhingra, Neeraj; Jotkar, Raju M.; Rodriguez, Peter S.; Mishra, Kaushik; Whitaker, Romulus; Jha, Prabhat

    2011-01-01

    Background India has long been thought to have more snakebites than any other country. However, inadequate hospital-based reporting has resulted in estimates of total annual snakebite mortality ranging widely from about 1,300 to 50,000. We calculated direct estimates of snakebite mortality from a national mortality survey. Methods and Findings We conducted a nationally representative study of 123,000 deaths from 6,671 randomly selected areas in 2001–03. Full-time, non-medical field workers interviewed living respondents about all deaths. The underlying causes were independently coded by two of 130 trained physicians. Discrepancies were resolved by anonymous reconciliation or, failing that, by adjudication. A total of 562 deaths (0.47% of total deaths) were assigned to snakebites. Snakebite deaths occurred mostly in rural areas (97%), were more common in males (59%) than females (41%), and peaked at ages 15–29 years (25%) and during the monsoon months of June to September. This proportion represents about 45,900 annual snakebite deaths nationally (99% CI 40,900 to 50,900) or an annual age-standardised rate of 4.1/100,000 (99% CI 3.6–4.5), with higher rates in rural areas (5.4/100,000; 99% CI 4.8–6.0), and with the highest state rate in Andhra Pradesh (6.2). Annual snakebite deaths were greatest in the states of Uttar Pradesh (8,700), Andhra Pradesh (5,200), and Bihar (4,500). Conclusions Snakebite remains an underestimated cause of accidental death in modern India. Because a large proportion of global totals of snakebites arise from India, global snakebite totals might also be underestimated. Community education, appropriate training of medical staff and better distribution of antivenom, especially to the 13 states with the highest prevalence, could reduce snakebite deaths in India. PMID:21532748

  5. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  6. Analysis on change trend of maternal mortality and constitution of death causes in Pingliang city of Gansu province from 2001 to 2010%2001~2010年甘肃省平凉市孕产妇死亡率变化趋势及死因构成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉利群; 王莉; 李世雄; 刘兴荣; 范瑞; 刘茜锋; 张士东

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析平凉市2001 ~2010年孕产妇死亡率变化趋势、主要死亡原因及变化特征,为进一步降低孕产妇死亡率提供科学依据.方法:对131例死亡孕产妇观察资料进行回顾性调查,分析孕产妇死亡率变化及死亡原因.结果:平凉市孕产妇死亡率从2001年的69.84/10万下降到2010年的37.35/10万,降幅为46.52%;产科出血(46.56%)、妊娠合并内科疾病(23.66%)、妊娠期高血压疾病(15.27%)、羊水栓塞(6.87%)等是造成孕产妇死亡的主要原因.结论:2001~ 2010年平凉市孕产妇死亡率整体呈下降趋势,产科出血为导致孕产妇死亡的主要原因.%Objective; To analyze the change trend of maternal mortality, major causes of death, and change characteristics in Pingliang city from 2001 to 2010, and provide scientific basis for further reducing maternal mortality. Methods; The clinical data of 131 maternal deaths were investigated retrospectively, the change and causes of maternal death were analyzed. Results: The maternal mortality rate in Pingliang city reduced from 69. 84 per 100 000 in 2001 to 37. 35 per 100 000 in 2010, the decreasing amplitude was 46. 52% ; obstetric hemorrhage (46.56%), pregnancy combined with medical diseases (23.66%), hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP) (15. 27% ) , and amniotic fluid embolism (6. 87% ) were the main causes of inducing maternal death. Conclusion; The maternal mortality in Pingliang city from 2001 to 2010 showed a decreasing trend on the whole, obstetric hemorrhage was one of the main causes inducing maternal death.

  7. Differentiating cause-of-death terminology for deaths coded as sudden infant death syndrome, accidental suffocation, and unknown cause: an investigation using US death certificates, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Y; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Chu, Susan Y; Camperlengo, Lena T; Anderson, Robert N

    2012-03-01

    We compared written text on infant death certificates for deaths coded as sudden infant death syndrome (R95), unknown cause (R99), and accidental suffocation (W75). Using US mortality files supplemented with the death certifiers' written text for all infant deaths with International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 assigned codes R95, R99, and W75, we formed cause-of-death subcategories from common themes identified from the written text. Among all infant deaths in 2003-2004, the underlying cause of death was listed as R99 for 2128 deaths, R95 for 4408 deaths, and W75 for 931 deaths. Among the postneonatal deaths, the differences in subcategories varied between assigned ICD-10 codes: for R99-coded deaths, 45.8% were categorized as "Unknown" and 48.6% as "Pending"; for R95-coded deaths, 67.7% were categorized as "sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)"; and for W75-coded deaths, 76.4% were categorized as "Suffocation." Examination of the written text on the death certificates demonstrates variability in the assigned ICD-10 codes which could have an important effect on the estimates of SIDS cases in the United States.

  8. Mortality in people with type 2 diabetes in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulnier, H.E.; Seaman, H.E.; Raleigh, V.S.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Colhoun, H.M.; Lawrenson, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aims Under-reporting of diabetes on death certificates contributes to the unreliable estimates of mortality as a result of diabetes. The influence of obesity on mortality in Type 2 diabetes is not well documented. We aimed to study mortality from diabetes and the influence of obesity on mortality in

  9. Contributions to Racial Disparity in Mortality among Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Stephanie L; Esbensen, Anna J; Hopkin, Robert J; Hendershot, Lesly; Hickey, Francis; Patterson, Bonnie

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate whether racial differences across a variety of medical factors collected in a longitudinal clinical database at a specialty clinical for children with Down syndrome provide insight into contributors to racial disparity in mortality. Comprehensive medical histories of 763 children receiving medical care at a Down syndrome specialty clinic were retrospectively reviewed regarding prenatal, postnatal, and medical issues, as well as subspecialty referrals. Frequency calculations and logistic regression were performed. The National Death Index was used to query death record databases to correlate medical histories with mortality data. Prenatal drug use and intubation were significantly more frequent, but hyperbilirubinemia was significantly less frequent, in black children compared with white children with Down syndrome. Among children with Down syndrome aged Down syndrome and review of death records. Referrals to cardiology might be a clue to the underlying cause, perhaps as an indicator of access to care, but cardiac disease does not account for the disparity in mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal mortality in a Transitional Hospital in Enugu, South East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality in a Transitional Hospital in Enugu, South East Nigeria. ... deaths at Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Parklane, over its 5 year transition period ... There were 7146 live births and 60 maternal deaths giving an overall ...

  11. Neonatal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a premature baby include pneumonia (a lung infection), sepsis (a blood infection) and meningitis (an infection in the fluid around the brain and spinal cord). What birth defects most often cause neonatal death? The most common birth defects that cause ...

  12. Doenças cerebrovasculares como causa múltipla de morte em Salvador: magnitude e diferenças espaciais da mortalidade omitida nas estatísticas oficiais Spacial differences in the mortality by cerebrovascular disease as underlying and as associated cause of death, Salvador - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lessa

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Através de estudo descritivo de agregado (ecológico espacial foram determinadas as desigualdades sociais da mortalidade por doenças cerebrovasculares (DCV em Salvador, quantificada a parcela da mortalidade omitida nas estatísticas oficiais e identificadas zonas prioritárias para intensificação de ações preventivas. Foram incluídos no estudo todos os óbitos de adultos, de 1988, com menção de DCV como causa básica e como causa associada de morte, distribuídas conforme procedência por 66 zonas da cidade. Com a inclusão das DCV associadas detectou-se aumento de 29,10% na mortalidade. Os coeficientes variaram entre 22,94 a 376,62/100000 adultos e a variação média do excesso de mortalidade ficou entre 16,12 e 33,72%. Das 16 zonas com mortalidade elevada e prioritárias para intensificação de intervenções preventivas, 7 foram consideradas com mortalidade excepcionalmente elevada por terem ultrapassado o coeficiente de Salvador em 1,64 vezes o seu desvio» padrão corrigido. Os autores sugerem possíveis explicações para as desigualdades espaciais da mortalidade pelas DCV.Social inequalities and the excess (% in mortality by cerebrosvascular diseases (CVD unregistered in the official death statistics were studied in Salvador, Brazil, 1988. In an ecological spacial (aggregate desing, all death mentioning CVD as basic and as associated cause of death were reviewed and distributed, according to their addresses by 66 geographical zones. The mortality nates by CVD (basie+associated ranged from 22.94 to 376.62/ 100000 adults. The mortality fraction not included in the official statistics was 29.1% for Salvador with means between 16.12 and 33.72% in the group of zones of very low to those in the high mortality levels. Seven out of 16 zones included in the 4th quantil showed exceptionally high mortality rates (above those of Salvador + 1.64 X standard deviation corrected by the zones population. The authors discuss possible

  13. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    telomeres predicted the death of the first co-twin better than the mTRFL did (mTRFL: 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.63; mTRFL(50): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; mTRFL(25): 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.66; MTRFL: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.53, 0.67). The telomere-mortality association was stronger in years 3-4 than......Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...... analysis in 548 same-sex Danish twins (274 pairs) aged 73-94 years, of whom 204 pairs experienced the death of one or both co-twins during 9-10 years of follow-up (1997-2007). From the terminal restriction fragment length (TRFL) distribution, the authors obtained the mean TRFL (mTRFL) and the mean values...

  14. Predictors of maternal mortality in institutional deliveries in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    7. Hospital Services Management Board, Katsina, Nigeria. 8. Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, ... Key words: maternal mortality; maternal death; predictors .... instrumental delivery, symphysiotomy, or assisted ..... For this reason,.

  15. Antenatal cardiotocography and intrauterine death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solum, T; Sjöberg, N O

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the reliability of antenatal cardiotocography (CTG) in predicting fetal death. During a 4-year period, 1 455 patients eith risk pregnancies have been routinely monitored with antenatal CTG. The total number of tracings amounted to more than 10 000. Five cases of fetal death occurred, in all of which pathological CTG patterns were found. Our experience in the present study indicates that antenatal CTG is a reliable technique for the predicting of fetal death and its use should reduce fetal mortality rates.

  16. Vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in observational studies. The specific causes of death underlying this association lack clarity. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality.......Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in observational studies. The specific causes of death underlying this association lack clarity. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality....

  17. Vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta;

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in observational studies. The specific causes of death underlying this association lack clarity. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality.......Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in observational studies. The specific causes of death underlying this association lack clarity. We investigated the association between vitamin D status and cause-specific mortality....

  18. NCHS - Age-adjusted Death Rates for the Top 10 Leading Causes of Death: United States, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Age-adjusted death rates for the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States, including mortality patterns from 1999 through 2013, and by state of residence...

  19. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  20. Stressful social relations and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationship between stressful social relations in private life and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between stressful social relations (with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively) and all...... men and women aged 36-52 years, linked to the Danish Cause of Death Registry for information on all-cause mortality until 31 December 2011. Associations between stressful social relations with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively, and all-cause mortality were examined...... hazards model. RESULTS: Frequent worries/demands from partner or children were associated with 50-100% increased mortality risk. Frequent conflicts with any type of social relation were associated with 2-3 times increased mortality risk. Interaction between labour force participation and worries...

  1. Sex effects on life span and senescence in the wild when dates of birth and death are unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajitschek, Felix; Brassil, Chad E; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Males and females allocate and schedule reproductive effort in very different ways. Because the timing and amount of reproductive effort influence survival and thus the optimization of life histories, mortality and senescence are predicted to be sex specific. However, age-specific mortality rates of wild animals are often difficult to quantify in natural populations. Studies that report mortality rates from natural populations are, therefore, almost entirely confined to long-lived, easy-to-track species such as large mammals and birds. Here, we empl