WorldWideScience

Sample records for black college women

  1. Black and White College Women's Perceptions of Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, J. Nicole; Chavous, Tabbye M.

    1999-01-01

    Examined how racial factors influence college women's perceptions of sexual harassment with samples of 46 black and 89 white women. Data suggest that sexual harassment between black women and black men is trivialized compared to sexual behavior between black women and white men. Discusses implications for the study of sexual harassment. (SLD)

  2. The Effects of HIV/AIDS on the Retention of Black Women in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2013-01-01

    Although only contributing approximately 12% to the United States population, Black Americans account for the majority (51%) of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in this country. Black women in college between the ages of 18 and 24 fall directly in the center of these alarming statistics. These young women are faced with the psychosocial manifestations of…

  3. The Sexual Assault of Undergraduate Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate…

  4. Disclosure of Sexual Assault Experiences among Undergraduate Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P.; Settles-Reaves, Beverlyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To document the sexual assault disclosure experiences of historically black college or university (HBCU) students. Participants: A total of 3,951 female, undergraduate students at 4 HBCUs. Methods: All women at the participating schools were recruited in November 2008 to participate in a Web-based survey including both closed- and…

  5. Intimate partner violence victimization among undergraduate women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P; Lindquist, Christine H

    2013-08-01

    Despite the evidence that young and minority women may be particularly vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV), there is little research on the IPV experiences of minority undergraduate women. This study addresses this gap by estimating the prevalence of IPV and examining factors associated with experiencing IPV among undergraduate women attending Historically Black Colleges or Universities (HBCUs). Findings suggest alarmingly high victimization rates; however, factors associated with IPV among HBCU women are similar to those found in prior research with women in the general population. The results also suggest that some risk factors are differentially associated with experiencing specific types of IPV.

  6. Hip-Hop Feminism: A Standpoint to Enhance the Positive Self-Identity of Black College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of hip-hop among young Black college women, coupled with the deluge of negative and positive messages in this culture regarding these women's identity, signals an opportunity for the arrival of a contemporary, culturally relevant epistemology--hip-hop feminism. Through the lens of Black feminist theory, this article explores hip-hop…

  7. Fit and Phat: Black College Women and Their Relationship with Physical Activity, Obesity and Campus Recreation Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Francique, Akilah R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to recognize factors that contribute to Black female college students adoption of physically active behaviors. In addition, this paper acknowledges the prevalence of obesity in the United States for Black women, and examines the relationship between body mass index, physical activity and use of campus recreation…

  8. The association of perceived stress, contextualized stress, and emotional eating with body mass index in college-aged Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggins, Allyson; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl; Waters, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of literature supports the association between adverse stress experiences and health inequities, including obesity, among African American/Black women. Adverse stress experiences can contribute to poor appetite regulation, increased food intake, emotional eating, binge eating, and sedentary behavior, all of which can contribute to weight gain and obesity. Most research studies concerning the effect of psychological stress on eating behaviors have not examined the unique stress experience, body composition, and eating behaviors of African American/Black women. Even fewer studies have examined these constructs among Black female college students, who have an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity compared to their counterparts. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to examine the associations among emotional eating, perceived stress, contextualized stress, and BMI in African American female college students. All participants identified as African American or Black (N=99). The mean age of the sample was 19.4 years (SD=1.80). A statistically significant eating behavior patterns×perceived stress interaction was evident for body mass index (BMI) (β=0.036, S.E.=.0118, peating behavior patterns×contextualized stress interaction was observed for BMI (β=0.007, S.E.=.0027, p=.015). Findings from this study demonstrate that the stress experience interacts with emotional eating to influence BMI. Based on these findings, culturally relevant interventions that target the unique stress experience and eating behavior patterns of young African American women are warranted. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Perceptions of Black College Women on Barriers to HIV-Risk Reduction and Their HIV Prevention Intervention Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Rasheeta; Anstey, Erica H; Ross, Henry; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevention interventions can help college students engage in safe sexual behaviors. We used the Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills model to frame four focus group discussions with Black women (n = 32) attending a historically Black college/university or a traditional university to understand their HIV prevention needs. Participants wanted clear information about sexually transmitted infections/HIV and access to contraception. Motivators for practicing safe sex were related to cultural and religious expectations, desire to avoid pregnancy, and conscious efforts to defy racial stereotypes. Barriers to practicing safe sex included issues of accountability, stigma associated with accessing HIV testing/prevention services, and media influences. We found general consensus about the need to develop skill-building HIV prevention interventions focused on communication skills, condom negotiation, access to services, and empowerment. We offer insight into culture- and age-appropriate HIV prevention for Black college women to guide the development of future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The politics of particularism: HBCUs, Spelman College, and the struggle to educate Black women in science, 1950--1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Olivia A.

    Since the close of World War II, higher education has been central to the growth of U.S. science, but the role of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) has been under-explored within this narrative. The nation's 105 HBCUs constitute less than one percent of the U.S. higher education community, but consistently have served as a major conduit for the production of African Americans in the sciences, technology, mathematics and engineering. National Science Foundation data reflect an average 29 percent share for the period 1994-2001. The output is even more striking when examined by degrees awarded in disciplinary clusters---50 percent in the agricultural sciences, 45 percent in the physical sciences and mathematics, and 42 percent in the biological sciences. This research explores the role of HBCUs in educating African Americans in science from the boosterism period shortly following World War II, through affirmative action legislation of the 1960s and 1970s, and concluding with current federal policies. A particular analysis is undertaken of Spelman College, a private liberal arts college founded by New England missionaries in the South during the late 19th century as a seminary for former slave women and girls. Spelman presents a unique case to analyze the particularistic characteristics of race, gender and institutional setting within the context of a so-called normative structure of science. Over a 25-year period, Spelman was able to rise beyond the structural limitations of its position as a Black college, a women's college, and a southern college to become one of the single most productive undergraduate institution for African American women earning the baccalaureate degree in science. What new perspectives might the Spelman story specifically and the history of HBCUs generally offer about the history of U.S. science, the notion that careers be open to talent, and current public policy discourse regarding efforts to increase the participation of

  11. Adapting an Evidence-Based HIV Intervention for At-Risk African American College Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities Who Use Alcohol and Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla Marie Sawyer-Kurian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of the high prevalence of HIV incidence among African American adolescent and adult women along with substance use and risky sexual behavior among university students necessitates the development of a HIV intervention specifically addressing culture, gender, and college factors for female African American university students. The woman-focused HIV intervention was chosen for adaptation because it has been shown to be efficacious with reducing risk for African American women who use alcohol and drugs, and has been successfully adapted 7 times. The target population was African American college women enrolled at a historically Black university who use alcohol and other drugs, and who engaged in risky sex behaviors. To understand and assess the needs of this population, we conducted four focus groups with African American college women, two in-depth interviews with faculty, and a combination of in-depth interviews and focus groups with student affairs and health staff that were analyzed using content analysis. From this analysis, several themes emerged that were used to adapt the intervention. Emerging themes included challenges related to identity and societal stereotypes, lack of knowledge about sexual health (i.e., negotiating safer sex and the function of female and male anatomies, high incidents of pregnancy, negative consequences related to alcohol and marijuana use, and the need to incorporate testimonies from college students, media enhancements, and role-plays to convey intervention messages. After the preliminary adaptation, 11 college women reviewed the adapted intervention and provided positive feedback. Plans for future research are discussed.

  12. Black Students, Black Colleges: An African American College Choice Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Patricia M.; Antonio, Anthony Lising; Trent, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Explores African Americans' college choice decisions, based on a national sample of 220,757 freshmen. Independent of gender, family income, or educational aspiration, the most powerful predictors for choosing historically black colleges and universities are geography, religion, the college's academic reputation, and relatives' desires. The top…

  13. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  14. Marital Happiness of Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Essie M.

    According to a study of 256 black married women between the ages of 26 and 60 living with their spouses, marital happiness is more common among black women than marital unhappiness. This finding is based on the secondary analysis of a sample of data collected in Detroit in 1968-1969. Variables statistically significant to the marital happiness of…

  15. Black Colleges: An Alternative Strategy for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Albert N.

    1988-01-01

    Joseph Perkins argued in the "Wall Street Journal" that one-third of the 100 traditionally Black colleges should become two-year institutions. This rebuttal suggests that Black institutions' survival involves planning for new and broader missions in an unsheltered, integrated, competitive environment. (MLW)

  16. Education in Action: The Work of Bennett College for Women, 1930-1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Deidre Bennett

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of Bennett College for Women (Bennett College), one of two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) whose mission continues to be the provision of higher education to Black women in America. It is one of just over one hundred HBCUs still operating in the United States. This dissertation tells the story of…

  17. Tough Questions Facing Women's Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzok, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Since their creation in the latter part of the nineteenth century, women's colleges in America have undergone many significant changes. In 1960, over 230 women's colleges were in operation; over the next forty years more than 75 percent chose to admit men or shut their doors entirely (Miller-Bernal, 2006a). This chapter will shed light on the…

  18. The Effectiveness of a Case Study-Based First-Year Biology Class at a Black Women's College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; Benning, Tracy; Woods, Natasha; McGinnis, Gene; Chu, Joanne; Netherton, Josh; Bauerle, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The authors used a case study-based approach in the introductory biology course at Spelman College. The course taught to entering freshmen was divided into three modules--ecology, evolution, and biodiversity, each designed around a case study. They noted that (1) case study teaching was dramatically more effective than the traditional lecture…

  19. College Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets and brochures. See a list of participating schools. Other Resources for College Students FDA on Pinterest 6 Ways to Start Fresh This Semester from Womenshealth.gov College Health and Safety - CDC College-Age & Young Adults - NIH National Institute ...

  20. Nutritional Lifestyles of College Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    ...., second only to smoking. The purpose of this study is to explore the nutritional lifestyle of college women, and to determine if there are differences in nutritional lifestyle, as well as, perception of health status...

  1. Nutritional Lifestyles of College Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    .... The instruments used to collect the data were the Health-Promotion Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) and a background questionnaire The sample included data collected from 340 South Carolinian college women...

  2. Essence of Black Colleges in Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Assistance Consortium To Improve Coll. Services, Washington, DC.

    The response of black colleges and universities in the area of community development are discussed in relation to management and organization development, telecommunication, human resource development, educational innovations, and environmental services. Management and organization development encompasses small business development, public service…

  3. Minority College Women's Views on Condom Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Lashley, Maudry-Beverly; Marshall, Vanessa

    2015-12-22

    This study utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to (1) investigate the relationship between frequency of condom use and negotiation strategies and (2) evaluate experiences with condom negotiations among sexually active, heterosexual, African American college women. One hundred female students from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) completed a questionnaire that included the Condom Influence Strategies Scale (CIS) and participated in a focus group. An ANOVA was conducted to compare differences between never, inconsistent, and consistent condom users. Consistent condom users scored higher than never users on the "withholding sex" subscale of the CIS (4.88 vs. 3.55; p condom with their partner. Other key concepts that contribute to condom negotiation are the views that condoms are a male's responsibility and stigma of women who carry condoms.

  4. My Rock: Black Women Attending Graduate School at a Southern Predominantly White University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Quentin R.; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Participants in this phenomenological study were 11 Black women who received an undergraduate degree from a historically Black college or university and were currently attending graduate school at a southern predominantly White university. This study investigated the adjustment experiences of these women to life on a southern predominantly White…

  5. The Black Student Experience at Predominantly White Colleges: Implications for School and College Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiffrida, Douglas A.; Douthit, Kathryn Z.

    2010-01-01

    Research from higher education and cultural studies that has examined the Black college student experience at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) is presented to assist counselors in understanding how Black college students' relationships with faculty, family, friends from home, and peers in Black student organizations can become assets or…

  6. College Women and Alcohol: A Relational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Nancy A.

    1994-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to college women's drinking. For women, drinking is often a way of making friends and establishing intimate relationships. Peer influence is a strong persuader. College women who are careless in using alcohol may encounter additional problems like increased stress, depression, and sexual dysfunction. (SM)

  7. A Black Perspective on "The Case against College."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, Israel, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Concerned about Blacks and other minority groups, the author counters arguments such as the "Bird hypothesis" that college may not be worth costs and results to the individual and society. Examines Black higher education enrollment trends. Advocates higher education for Blacks to promote leadership, upward mobility, and achievement. (CSS)

  8. Institutional Diversity in the U.S.: A Study of How a Historically Black College, Women's College, and Evangelical Christian College Contribute to the Social, Political, and Economic Fabric of a Diverse Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millora, Melissa Lansang

    2013-01-01

    This study was primarily a multiple-case study that incorporated descriptive statistical analysis to examine the contributions that three niche institutions play in the diverse democracy of the U.S. A "niche institution" is a college or university whose role in U.S. higher education is to meet the needs of a specific group and whose…

  9. Ain't I Black Too: Counterstories of Black Atheists in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Jeremy T.

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly Black college students are identifying as atheist, however few empirical studies in higher education and student affairs are exploring the phenomenon. This dissertation examines the question, "How do Black atheist understand their identity in college?" Using Higginbotham's Politics of Respectability and tenants of Critical…

  10. Complicated Contradictions Amid Black Feminism and Millennial Black Women Teachers Creating Curriculum for Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachae, Tiffany M.

    2016-01-01

    Millennial Black women teachers wrestle with two simultaneous burdens: disrupting the racist and sexist status quo of schooling through curriculum, and employing tactics to survive school politics among their majority White women colleagues. This article describes how the "Sisters of Promise" (SOP) curriculum aligned with Black feminism…

  11. Mentorship of College Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Samia

    2008-01-01

    A professor at a college for women recently was named a recipient of the U.S. Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring. Her innovations in mentoring college women in science are the focus of this case study. Using data collected from faculty interviews, classroom observations, student feedback sheets,…

  12. Swept under the Rug? A Historiography of Gender and Black Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasman, Marybeth

    2007-01-01

    This historiography of gender and black colleges uncovers the omission of women and gender relations. It uses an integrative framework, conceptualized by Evelyn Nakano Glenn, that considers race and gender as mutually interconnected, revealing different results than might be seen by considering these issues independently. The article is…

  13. Prevalent Vertebral Fractures in Black Women and White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Cauley, Jane A; Palermo, Lisa; Vogt, Molly; Ensrud, Kristine E; Ewing, Susan; Hochberg, Marc; Nevitt, Michael C; Black, Dennis M

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture. Hip and clinical fractures are less common in black women, but there is little information on vertebral fractures. We studied 7860 white and 472 black women ≥65 yr of age enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Prevalent vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs using vertebral morphometry and defined if any vertebral height ratio was >3 SD below race-specific means for each vertebral level. Infor...

  14. Associating with Occupational Depictions: How African American College Women Are Influenced by the Portrayals of Women in Professional Careers on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…

  15. Leadership, Governance, and Sustainability of Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzell, Jack L., Jr.; Schexnider, Alvin J.

    2010-01-01

    A topic of continuing interest in American higher education and society is the future of historically black colleges and universities, commonly referred to as HBCUs. The nation's public and private black institutions of higher education have proved their mettle, and yet they face persistent challenges to survive. A huge part of the challenge black…

  16. Denying Diversity: Perceptions of Beauty and Social Comparison Processes among Latina, Black, and White Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poran, Maya A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated Hispanic, black, and white women's conceptions of beauty and perceptions of cultural standards of beauty, noting whether they were engaged in similar social comparison processes (denial of personal disadvantage). Surveys of female college students highlighted major differences in the women's relationships with their bodies and their…

  17. Black Women with Multiple Sex Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Stephanie; Benoit, Ellen; Dunlap, Eloise

    2017-01-01

    Motivations of low-income substance using heterosexual Black women in New York City for having multiple sexual partners are explored in this paper. Analysis of in-depth interviews with 50 study participants demonstrates that their relationships consisted of those who had: (1) a main sex partner and a secondary sex partner; or (2) two or more “casual” partners. Individual-level motivations for extra relational sex fell into four dominant themes: sexual pleasure, partner infidelity, sex exchange and past main partners. Using a Black feminist framework, we describe how participants displayed considerable autonomy by actively forming and withdrawing from sexual relationships with men. However, women described low rates of condom use with main partners and inconsistent use of condoms with more casual sexual partners. This contradiction becomes an important area for sexual health interventions. Women who had sexual relations with only one current mate in the past two years were recruited as a monogamous comparison group. PMID:28730162

  18. Black and White Women's Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to literature on ethnic identity and experiences in the workplace leadership and identity by examining how race, gender and class may confer disadvantage or bestow privilege in accessing leadership positions and enacting the role of leader. We interviewed 130 white and BME women leaders in public and private sector organisations in the UK to gather their reflections on how they defined leadership, how their identities as leaders had developed and their experiences of en...

  19. Retelling the educational pathways of Black women physicists: Stories of experiencing and overcoming obstacles in life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Felicia

    This is an empirical study on the underrepresentation of people of color in scientific careers. Grounded in critical race theory, the paper examines the lived experiences of six Black women physicists and addresses obstacles faced in their career paths and strategies used to overcome these obstacles. Data for this study were collected through semi-structured interviews and coded for emergent themes. The findings reveal that college recruitment and funding were fundamental for these women to choose physics over other STEM fields. In addition, Black women experience unique challenges of socialization in STEM, particularly by exclusion of study groups. We suggest physics departments provide a more inclusive environment to support Black women in science. CAPES, the Fulbright Program, Comissão Fulbright Brasil, and the Office of Diversity at Teachers College, Columbia University.

  20. Affirmative action and the Black women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serote, P

    1994-02-01

    An overview was given of how affirmative action for Blacks and women in South Africa in fact marginalizes Black women. The definition of the problem influences the solution; affirmative action obscures the complex nature of discrimination experienced by Black women by class, role, and culture and focuses only on gender and race. Secondly, the power of White women and Black men supercede the power of Black women. Apartheid benefitted White women over Black men. Affirmative action, as shifting power between groups, would solidify White women's power. The debates have taken place within university and academic contexts, a place where Black women have been excluded and the dominant groups are White men, followed by White women, and then Black men. The debate in the private sector also is devoid of Black women's voices; multinationals began to hire and train Black male managers, and there was criticism that standards were falling. Recruitment of Black women is unknown, but only 1.1% of managers are Black. Visibility within the academic and private sector debates has excluded Black women. In the articulation of ideas, most literature has been written by White men. The intersection of power and privilege belongs to males and White women as part of the larger dominant ideology. Black women's marginalization means their issues will not be addressed. The people who stand to benefit the most from affirmative action are those who are in need of improved living conditions, literacy, and employment, or those excluded from jobs and position in spite of being qualified. Black women without a societal power base have no bargaining power. To insure that Black women benefit, there is need to treat Black women as a distinctive group with priority. There is also a need to examine the myths that have been spun around Black women, their needs, abilities, and controlling images. There is a need to integrate Black womens ideas into the mainstream and recognize that maybe Black women need

  1. African American College Student Retention and the Ecological Psychology of Historically Black Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. Christopher, II

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the dominant historic, economic, political, and social issues which affect the retention of African American college students through studies on ecological psychology. Considers the behaviors demonstrated by historically Black colleges which translate into effective retention policies or practices for predominantly White institutions.…

  2. Representation of Black women in advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Tiphaine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This project aims to confirm the assumption that L’Oreal over represents beauty standards in its advertising. From a social constructivist approach, and using advertising theories, this study explores the marks left by colonialism and post colonialism in the beauty context of black women. This research is based upon L’Oreal’s TV Commercial 2008, Féria coloration promoted by the singer Beyoncé Knowles. This commercial portrays the celebrity straightened and fair haired. It is uncommo...

  3. Reconceptualizing Successful Aging Among Black Women and the Relevance of the Strong Black Woman Archetype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Mingo, Chivon A.; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman’s ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. PMID:25416685

  4. Self-defense training for college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, N

    1992-01-01

    This article explores the effectiveness of self-defense training for college women. Advocates of self-defense training believe these courses will not only provide women with the physical survival techniques necessary to repel attacks effectively, but that this kind of training will also help to prevent future violence by developing traits such as assertiveness and confidence in individuals. There is evidence that women who convey such characteristics are less likely to be victimized. Opponents argue that self-defense training does not properly prepare women for an attack, does not adequately address acquaintance rape threats, and can provide a dangerous false sense of security to students. This article reviews the relevant literature, outlines practical suggestions for initiatives in this area, and describes a model self-defense course at one university. Guidelines for evaluation and implications for university policy and program decisions that address violence against women on college campuses are included.

  5. High risk of metabolic syndrome among black South African women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI ...

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Black College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A.; Lowing, Larry

    1997-01-01

    This study examined cardiovascular risk factors in Black first-year college students (N=238). Students completed surveys about blood pressure, cholesterol level, smoking, and physical activity. Results found low rates of high blood pressure, low awareness of cholesterol levels, and low numbers of students who smoked. Females had lower physical…

  7. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  8. Historically Black Colleges and Teacher Accreditation: Successes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of African-American presence in teacher education programs in American's Predominately White Institutions (PWI) has not changed since the initial increase following "Brown v. Board of Education," 1954 (National Council for Educational Statistics, 2011). Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) continue to…

  9. Light except Lupita: The representation of Black women in magazines

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowski, G; Tshuma, S; Tshuma, S; Hylton, M

    2017-01-01

    Psychology is dominated by White Westerners. Subsequently researchers have minimised or ignored Black women’s body dissatisfaction. This study sought to account for the intersection of racism and body dissatisfaction by coding the representation of Black women, the number of appearance adverts and articles across 8 issues of mainstream women’s magazines (Elle, Vogue) and Black women’s magazines (Essence and Ebony) from 2015/16. The majority of Black women featured in the magazines (N = 539) w...

  10. Counseling Implications of Black Women's Market Position, Aspirations and Expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurin, Patricia; Pruitt, Anne

    The major premise of this paper is that career and educational counseling for women, and particularly for black women, needs to be based on an understanding of their market position. Data on black women's options and choices in a discriminatory market, on their occupational and educational aspirations, and on the role of expectations in their work…

  11. Legal Abortion: Are American Black Women Healthier Because of It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Willard, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews various aspects of legal abortion, including attitudes, practices, mortality and effects, as they relate to black American women. States that black women have shared in the health benefits accompanying the increased availability of legal abortion, probably to an even greater extent than white women. (Author/GC)

  12. JOB HORIZONS FOR COLLEGE WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARSKY, LILLIAN; TERLIN, ROSE

    DETAILED INFORMATION IS PROVIDED ON A VARIETY OF PROFESSIONS FOR WOMEN. EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS, JOB OPPORTUNITIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES, ESTIMATED SALARIES, AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADVANCEMENT ARE DISCUSSED IN SUCH OCCUPATIONS AS ACCOUNTANT, HOME ECONOMIST, ENGINEER, OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST, NURSE, SCIENTIST, REAL ESTATE AGENT AND BROKER,…

  13. Exploring Black College Females' Perceptions Regarding HIV Prevention Message Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler-Coley, Rasheeta; Ross, Henry; Ozoya, Oluwatobi; Lescano, Celia; Flannigan, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    Media messages can facilitate the delivery of accurate information related to HIV and sexually transmitted infection. This study's purpose was to examine preexisting media campaigns from the iMPPACS study to assess age-, gender-, and culturally appropriate components identified by African American females who attend historically Black colleges/universities. In 3 separate focus group sessions, 31 Black female college students (M age = 20) viewed 4 vignettes and heard 3 audio-only clips, then ranked and commented on them based on perceived satisfaction with HIV prevention content and appropriateness of delivery. Conventional qualitative analysis using NVivo software was performed until saturation of content was achieved and themes derived. Six major themes emerged and were designated as (a) social media; (b) mirror image; (c) visually dynamic advertisements; (d) the real world; (e) people, place, things; and (f) HIV knowledge. Visually stimulating content (i.e., graphics) was found to be most appealing in marketing HIV prevention, with brief monologue/dialogue from scenarios that resemble daily life. Socially and culturally relevant HIV prevention messages are important to Black college female students. Participants recommended creating short audiovisual messages that encompass familiar contexts like dorm rooms and appealing graphics for HIV health promotion messages, such as emojis. Future audio-only prevention advertisements for this population should use recognizable voices (e.g., celebrities). Finally, messaging should be promoted on open and closed circuit social media platforms.

  14. Black women and breast health: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Maggi

    2011-02-01

    In the UK, it is known that screening inequalities exist involving ethnic minority groups such as Black women (Patnick, 2009). To date, there is limited UK data on Black British women and breast health awareness. Black British women appear to be an underrepresented group in breast cancer studies (Breast Cancer Care, 2004, 2005). This literature review aimed to explore Black women's perceptions of breast health and factors that influence breast cancer screening practices. A literature search for the period 1994 to September 2009 was undertaken using BNI, CINAHL, PubMed, OSH-ROM, PsyInfo, Google scholar, and Scopus databases. Key words used included: breast cancer, breast health, African American women, Black British women, black women, breast cancer screening, qualitative studies. Hand-searching was also done, and reference lists of papers were examined for relevant studies. Black women hold a variety of views and perceptions on the risk that breast cancer poses. These perceptions are strongly related to existing knowledge, related stigmatization, spiritual and religious beliefs, all of which can adversely influence motivation to engage in self-breast examination and breast cancer screening. US based studies identified several influential factors: religion, educational awareness of breast cancer screening, breast health awareness. Breast health interventions and research are needed to increase breast health awareness in Black British women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Black Male College Achievers and Resistant Responses to Racist Stereotypes at Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Shaun R. Harper investigates how Black undergraduate men respond to and resist the internalization of racist stereotypes at predominantly White colleges and universities. Prior studies consistently show that racial stereotypes are commonplace on many campuses, that their effects are usually psychologically and academically…

  16. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  18. African American College Women's Body Image: An Examination of Body Mass, African Self-Consciousness, and Skin Color Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Jameca Woody; Neville, Helen A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the general and cultural factors associated with body image perceptions of African American female college students. Data from surveys of 124 women at a historically black college indicated that African self-consciousness, skin color satisfaction, and body mass index collectively accounted for significant variance in dimensions of…

  19. Institutional Administrator's Beliefs about Accreditation at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeples, Renard

    2016-01-01

    Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU) continue to face challenges maintaining institutional accreditation in comparison to Predominately White Institutions (PWI). Historically Black colleges and universities represent 16% of the SACS membership, but accounted for 50% of the colleges and universities that lost accreditation over a…

  20. Direct Effects of Assets and Savings on the College Progress of Black Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, William; Nam, Ilsung

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White young adults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black young adults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black young adults, in particular, is a growing…

  1. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due at least partially to long-held gender stereotypes: women are to prepare themselves for marriage and homemaking at a two-year college. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of motherhood and womanhood.…

  2. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. "It's about time": College women's perceptions of gynecologic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Mary K; Carr, Jeanine; Wohlberg, Jeri

    2005-06-01

    To examine college women's perceptions of gynecologic health, with a particular emphasis on healthcare decision making. Women's perceptions of health promotion efforts that would influence gynecologic health were also examined. Verbatim transcripts of individual and focus group interviews from 34 college women, 18-25 years of age, were thematically analyzed. Questions related to women's decisions to seek gynecologic health care and their healthcare experiences with providers. Three themes were identified: (dis)connecting with their changing bodies, experiencing the healthcare encounter, and making healthcare decisions. Results suggest that college can be "the time" when college women begin to think about and act on decisions about gynecologic health. Implications for practice By acknowledging college women's multidimensional definitions of health and knowledge of healthy behaviors, advanced practice nurses can assist women in developing strategies for enacting these definitions and integrating desired healthy behaviors into their busy college lives.

  4. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine and Pap Tests on College Campuses: How Do Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HSBCUs) Measure Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Kierra S.; Shoben, Abigail B.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Reiter, Paul L.; Paskett, Electra D.; Katz, Mira L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The availability of cervical cancer prevention services at college health centers was compared between historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and non-HBCUs. Methods: Four-year, non-primarily distant learning colleges, matching HBCUs with randomly selected non-HBCUs within the same states (N = 136) were examined. Data were…

  5. Student Attrition among Women at a Liberal Arts College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, John P.; Creswell, John W.

    1980-01-01

    A profile of exit prone students evolved from the application of a model of dropout among liberal arts college women. Findings indicate family responsibilities make women more likely to leave; college's perceived practical value makes women less likely to leave. (Author)

  6. The angry black woman: the impact of pejorative stereotypes on psychotherapy with black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In the aftermath of slavery and the resulting social, economic, and political effects, Black women have become the victims of negative stereotyping in mainstream American culture. Such stereotypes include the myth of the angry Black woman that characterizes these women as aggressive, ill tempered, illogical, overbearing, hostile, and ignorant without provocation. Symptoms presented by Black women during mental health treatment may reinforce this myth. However, many of the negative characteristics of the angry Black woman developed in response to external stressors and historical factors. Black women also have a unique experience with and expressions of anger that shape the presenting symptoms interpreted by the mental health clinician. This myth and corresponding negative stereotypes significantly affect Black women intrapsychically, interpersonally, and are likely to influence the efficacy of mental health treatment. Understanding and treatment of Black women in a mental health context should be influenced by the cultural norms and sociopolitical dynamics affecting these clients. Successful mental health treatment requires cultural competence and clinicians who are well prepared to navigate the inherent complexities of culture with clients. Awareness of the angry Black woman mythology, including its genesis, manifestations, and the unique experiences of Black women, may raise the standards of cultural competence for clinicians and provide more successful treatment outcomes in working with this population. A case example illustrates the assiduity essential to practicing in a culturally competent manner. A client is presented from a traditional psychotherapeutic perspective and then viewed through a lens that integrates psychotherapeutic practice with conscious awareness of the mythology and stereotypes impacting Black women. Implications for culturally relevant practice are discussed.

  7. Difficulties encountered by black women entrepreneurs in accessing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long period of colonialism and apartheid, imposed oppression and exploitation on women especially black African women, meant that they could not own property in their own rights or enter into a contract. The dawn of democracy brought about changes in the role played by women. They have emerged significantly ...

  8. Rural black women's agency within intimate partnerships amid the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The HIV pandemic reveals the contradictions between women's legal rights and the persistence of women's cultural and sexual subordination. It reflects the impact of poverty, gender roles, culture and religion. Although HIV and AIDS cuts across class, South African rural black women's infection risk seems particularly high ...

  9. How Black women make sense of 'White' and 'Black' fashion magazines: a qualitative think aloud study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Russell, Sheriden

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative think aloud study explored how Black women (n = 32) processed information from a White or Black fashion magazine. Comments to the 'White' magazine were characterised by rejection, being critical of the media and ambivalence, whereas they responded to the 'Black' magazine with celebration, identification and a search for depth. Transcending these themes was their self-identity of being a Black woman that was brought to the fore either by a sense of exclusion (White magazine) or engagement (Black magazine). Such an identity provides resilience against the media's thin ideals by minimising the processes of social comparison and internalisation.

  10. Educational pathways of Black women physicists: Stories of experiencing and overcoming obstacles in life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Katemari

    2017-01-01

    This talk presents an empirical study on the underrepresentation of people of color in scientific careers. Grounded in Critical Race Theory, the presentation examines the lived experiences of six Black women physicists in the United States, addresses obstacles faced in their career paths, and strategies used to overcome these obstacles. Data for this study were collected through semi-structured interviews and coded for emergent themes, which are invitation to engage in science, communities of science practices, and isolation in the academy. The findings reveal that college recruitment and funding were fundamental for these women to choose Physics over other STEM fields. The analysis shows Physics can be a hostile environment for these women. In addition, Black women experience unique challenges of socialization in Physics, particularly by exclusion of study groups. In this talk, suggestions will be presented to make Physics departments a more inclusive space to support Black women in science. This presentation is based on work supported by the Brazilian government through CAPES (BEX1907-07-7), the Fulbright Program, Comissño Fulbright Brasil, and the Office of Diversity at Teachers College, Columbia University.

  11. Exploring Black College Females’ Perceptions Regarding HIV Prevention Message Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Rasheeta; Ross, Henry; Ozoya, Oluwatobi; Lescano, Celia; Flannigan, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Media messages can facilitate delivery of accurate HIV/STI-related information. This study’s purpose was to examine pre-existing media campaigns from the iMPPACS study to assess age, gender, and culturally appropriate components identified by African American females who attend HBCUs. In three separate focus group sessions, 31 Black female college students (M age=20) viewed four vignettes and heard three audio-only clips, then ranked and commented on them based on perceived satisfaction of HIV prevention content and appropriateness of delivery. Conventional qualitative analysis, using NVivo software, was employed until saturation of content was achieved and themes derived. Six major themes emerged and were designated as: 1) Social media; 2) Mirror Image; 3) Visually dynamic Advertisements; 4) The Real World; 5) People, Place, Things; and 6) HIV Knowledge. Visually-stimulating content (i.e. graphics) was found to be most appealing in marketing HIV prevention, with brief monologue/dialogue from scenarios that resemble daily life. Socially and culturally relevant HIV prevention messages are important to Black college female students. Participants recommended creating short audio-visual messages that encompass familiar contexts like dorm rooms and appealing graphics for HIV health promotion messages, such as emojis. Future audio-only prevention advertisements for this population should employ recognizable voices (e.g. celebrity). Finally, messaging should be promoted on open and close circuited social media platforms. PMID:28098500

  12. Correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Russell, R; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine health and psychosocial correlates of persistent thinness in black and white young adult women. Research Methods and Procedures: 1830 females (n = 988 black, n = 842 white) who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study were asked to

  13. Head Impact Biomechanics in Women's College Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynall, Robert C; Clark, Michael D; Grand, Erin E; Stucker, Jaclyn C; Littleton, Ashley C; Aguilar, Alain J; Petschauer, Meredith A; Teel, Elizabeth F; Mihalik, Jason P

    2016-09-01

    There are limited nonlaboratory soccer head impact biomechanics data. This is surprising given soccer's global popularity. Epidemiological data suggest that female college soccer players are at a greater concussion injury risk than their male counterparts. Therefore, the purposes of our study were to quantify head impact frequency and magnitude during women's soccer practices and games in the National Collegiate Athletic Association and to characterize these data across event type, playing position, year on the team, and segment of game (first and second halves). Head impact biomechanics were collected from female college soccer players (n = 22; mean ± SD age = 19.1 ± 0.1 yr, height = 168.0 ± 3.5 cm, mass = 63.7 ± 6.0 kg). We employed a helmetless head impact measurement device (X2 Biosystems xPatch) before each competition and practice across a single season. Peak linear and rotational accelerations were categorized based on impact magnitude and subsequently analyzed using appropriate nonparametric analyses. Overall, women's college soccer players experience approximately seven impacts per 90 min of game play. The overwhelming majority (~90%) of all head impacts were categorized into our mildest linear acceleration impact classification (10g-20g). Interestingly, a higher percentage of practice impacts in the 20g-40g range compared with games (11% vs 7%) was observed. Head impact biomechanics studies have provided valuable insights into understanding collision sports and for informing evidence-based rule and policy changes. These have included changing the football kickoff, ice hockey body checking ages, and head-to-head hits in both sports. Given soccer's global popularity, and the growing public concern for the potential long-term neurological implications of collision and contact sports, studying soccer has the potential to impact many athletes and the sports medicine professionals caring for them.

  14. Review of Army Research Laboratory Programs for Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Review of Army Research Laboratory Programs for Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions" examines the ways in which historically black colleges and universities and minority institutions have used the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) funds to enhance the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  15. 77 FR 59283 - National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The founders of our Nation's first colleges and universities for African Americans... path to freedom, independence, and success. More than 150 years later, America's Historically Black...

  16. The Relationship between Identity-Related Constructs and Positive Mental Health in Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushonga, Dawnsha R.

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional, exploratory study examined positive mental health (PMH) in 156 Black college students, ages 18-25, attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). In addition, identity-related constructs such as spirituality, self-esteem, social support, life satisfaction, racial…

  17. Young, Depressed, and Black: A Comparative Exploration of Depressive Symptomatology among Black and White Collegiate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Robinson, Ruthie

    2018-01-01

    This comparative study explored the rates of depression and psychosocial correlates for 369 collegiate White and Black females. Women between the ages of 18 and 25 were recruited to participate in this anonymous online survey. Black females reported significantly greater amounts of depressive symptomatology (M = 24.61) in comparison to the White…

  18. Feeling to See: Black Graduate Student Women (Re)Membering Black Womanhood through Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Qiana

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative research study illuminates the lived experiences of Black graduate student women who study abroad. I provide insights on how these students made meaning of themselves through study abroad. I utilized sista circle methodology, a culturally responsive methodology, to examine the study abroad experiences of 23 Black graduate student…

  19. Overweight and Obesity in Lesbian and Bisexual College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struble, Corrie Barnett; Lindley, Lisa L.; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James; Burcin, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate and compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity among self-identified lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual college age women. Methods: A secondary analysis of the Spring 2006 National College Health Assessment was conducted with 31,500 female college students (aged 18 to 25 years) to compare body mass index (calculated…

  20. College Women's Experiences and Perceptions of Drinking: A Phenomenological Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likis-Werle, Elizabeth; Borders, L. DiAnne

    2017-01-01

    College women's drinking rates are increasing, yet there is limited research on what is contributing to this phenomenon. In this study, the authors explored a fuller picture of how college women experience and perceive drinking situations. Qualitative data from 2 focus groups of high-risk and low-risk drinkers were analyzed with interpretative…

  1. Hip-Hop's Influence on the Identity Development of Black Female College Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.; West, Nicole M.; Jackson, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This article explores unique issues regarding the effects of hip-hop culture on the identity development of young Black female college students. Through the lenses of womanist and Black feminist perspectives, the intersecting impact of race and gender are reviewed within the context of the competing influences of hip-hop on Black female identity.…

  2. Lessons Learned: The Role of the Classics at Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goings, Kenneth W.; O'Connor, Eugene M.

    2010-01-01

    This article applies the paradigm of Black insurgency and social uplift to the teaching of the Greek and Latin classics at Black colleges and universities during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It demonstrates how study of the classics helped construct the tools of Black agency by imparting three important lessons: the knowledge that…

  3. HIV prevention for Black women: structural barriers and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A; Williams, Charmaine C; Massaquoi, Notisha; Brown, Marsha; Logie, Carmen

    2008-08-01

    Black women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in North America. The purpose of this investigation was to explore Black Canadian women's perspectives on HIV risk and prevention. Four 90-minute focus groups (n=26) and six key informant interviews were conducted in Toronto with Black women of African and Caribbean descent and low socioeconomic status. Data analysis revealed a number of potent barriers to existing HIV preventive interventions: stigma, cultural disconnections, lack of engagement of Black religious institutions, and multiple intersecting forms of discrimination. Recommended HIV prevention opportunities included the Black church, mainstreaming, health care providers, and ethno-specific agencies. HIV prevention strategies for North American Black women, rather than focusing on HIV and individual risk behaviors, may benefit from a primary focus on social and structural factors (e.g., promoting gender equality, economic opportunity, women-controlled prevention technologies and combating racism in health care) thereby integrating HIV prevention into the larger context of community health and survival.

  4. Decolonised Sexualities : The Lived Experiences of Black Township Women Who Love Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbasalaki, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis centres the lived experiences of black township women in same-sex relationships in Cape Town and Johannesburg. The main question—‘How do black township women construct their same-sex sexuality?’—called for a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative data. Set against

  5. Free Women and the Antebellum Black Press: Gender Oppression Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Frankie

    Black newspapers and journals published between 1827 and 1860, such as "Freedom's Journal,""The Weekly Advocate," and the "Mirror of Liberty," worked to dispel negative images and to set the record straight about women of color, in contrast to the unfounded hyperboles against these women which had been pervasive…

  6. Preventing Depression: Culturally Relevant Group Work with Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lani V.

    2008-01-01

    Recent estimates indicate that 10% to 25% of women in the United States report clinically significant depressive symptoms and that Black women are less likely to obtain care for depression and to receive appropriate treatment when they do seek care. Current mental and social health services necessitate a search for strength-based treatment models…

  7. Elderly Black Farm Women: A Population at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton-LaNey, Iris

    1992-01-01

    Elderly black farm women are neglected segment of elderly population. Their self-reliance, mutual support, and rurality have helped keep them isolated and underserved. Ten such women recalled their productive lifestyles in oral-history interviews and described problems faced because of their advancing age, poor health, caregiving responsibilities,…

  8. White Corporate Philanthropy and Its Support of Private Black Colleges in the 1960s and 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasman, Marybeth; Drezner, Noah D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper traces the rise of corporate philanthropy in terms of its support of Black colleges, explores financial support overall of Black colleges during the 1960s and 1970s, and describes the relationships between corporations and private Black college leaders.

  9. Stress and preterm labor and birth in Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Susan; Shults, Justine; Garry, David J

    2008-01-01

    To examine (a) 3 commonly used measures of stress during pregnancy, (b) changes in stress over time to determine when stress is highest, and (c) whether any of the stress measures predict who will deliver preterm in pregnant Black women. Prospective descriptive study. Perinatal evaluation center and outpatient clinics of a teaching hospital in the northeast. Fifty-nine Black women: 39 were recruited in preterm labor from a Perinatal Evaluation Center, and 20 experiencing healthy pregnancies were recruited from the prenatal clinic. Stress was measured using 2 paper and pencil tests (the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale) and corticotropin-releasing hormone. There was not a high correlation between stress measures. Stress at 28 weeks as measured by Prenatal Distress Questionnaire and Perceived Stress Scale was at its highest, but corticotropin-releasing hormone increased to 32 weeks and then decreased. Perceived stress, prenatal distress, and corticotropin-releasing hormone do not all appear to be measuring the same phenomenon. Screening for stress in Black women at 28 weeks requires further research as perceived stress levels in Black women experiencing preterm labor around 28 weeks differentiated women who delivered preterm infants from Black women who delivered at term.

  10. Sexual Debut of Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women: Implications for STI/HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Tina M.; Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Valenti, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Young Black women continue to be at high risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, little is known about the risks specifically to young Black women who primarily have sex with women (YWSW). As part of a larger sexual health project, in-depth qualitative interviews were completed with 14 Black women ages 16-24, who…

  11. Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Improving Operations through an Enterprise Resource Planning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    There are a variety of challenges facing colleges and universities today. With shrinking public funding, many colleges and universities must rethink their operations to ensure that they are operating efficiently. Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have an even more daunting task in a downturned economy because they are often…

  12. The Effect of College Selection Factors on Persistence: An Examination of Black and Latino Males in the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Luke; Harris, Frank, III

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship (if any) between college selection factors and persistence for Black and Latino males in the community college. Using data derived from the Educational Longitudinal Study, backwards stepwise logistic regression models were developed for both groups. Findings are contextualized in light…

  13. The Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Black Women Leaders in Fortune 500 Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, LaTonya R.

    2012-01-01

    Black women are underrepresented in leadership positions within organizations. The extent to which self-efficacy influences the advancement potential of Black females is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of black women in leadership positions and to determine how Black women leaders' careers are…

  14. Black women talk about workplace stress and how they cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J Camille; Everett, Joyce E; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie

    2012-01-01

    Black women face the same struggles as White women; however, they have to face issues of diversity on top of inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore work-related stressors that affect the lives of Black women and how they cope with them. Using an exploratory design with grounded-theory methods, five basic themes emerged that identify when racism and sexism are experienced as stressors for African American women in the workplace. The themes are: (1) being hired or promoted in the workplace, (2) defending one’s race and lack of mentorship, (3) shifting or code switching to overcome barriers to employment, (4) coping with racism and discrimination, and (5) being isolated and/or excluded. The results from this study indicate African American women use emotion- and problem-focused coping responses to manage stress (e.g., racism and sexism) in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of practice implications of these findings.

  15. Libraries of Two Women's Colleges in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the current status of higher education for women in Saudi Arabia and discusses the special problems of access to library materials encountered by women in this society, focusing on the collections, services, and administration of two women's colleges' libraries. A proposed national educational development plan is briefly described. (CLB)

  16. Stereotypes of Black American Women Related to Sexuality and Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target’s race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes. PMID:27821904

  17. Married Black Men's Opinions as to Why Black Women Are Disproportionately Single: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Tera R; McElroy, Stacey E; Sheats, Kameron J; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M

    2014-03-01

    This study's purpose was to explore the reasons Black women are disproportionately single according to the unique viewpoint of married Black men. The sample comprised 52 married Black men who resided in northeast Georgia (mean age = 43). Qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010 as part of the Pathways to Marriage study. The authors analyzed the data in a collaborative fashion and utilized content analyses to explore the relationships in the data which were derived from qualitative interviews with the men. Findings on the reasons for the disproportionality of singlehood among Black women reflected these four themes: gender relations, marriage education and socialization, individual development, and a preference for gay/lesbian relationships. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

  18. Black/White Differences in Perceived Weight and Attractiveness among Overweight Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chithambo, Taona P.; Huey, Stanley J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that Black women are more satisfied with their bodies than White women. The buffering hypothesis suggests that aspects of Black culture protect Black women against media ideals that promote a slender female body type; therefore, Black women are expected to exhibit higher body esteem than White women. To test this hypothesis, the current study aimed to assess the influence of race on weight perception, perceived attractiveness, and the interrelations between body...

  19. Black Women: A Trajectory of Creativity, Determination and Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Ribeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article “Black Women: A Trajectory of Creativity, Determination and Organization” seeks to make a brief account, focusing on the process of black women’s organization in dialogue with the following: the inclusion of gender and race in public policies; the holding of International Conferences — in particular, the World Conference on Women and the 3rd World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance; the Post-Durban period: action and monitoring; and the 120 years since the abolition of slavery. Lastly, some challenges are formulated as to the struggle for equality and social justice.

  20. Black Women's Recommendations for Developing Effective Type 2 Diabetes Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Tera R; Seawell, Asani H; Cutrona, Carolyn; O'Connor, Margaret C; Camp, Randie D; Duran, Roxanne; Elderts, Reid; Green, Chrishelda; Hara, Vanessa; Pattee, Jenna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn from 29 Black women how to develop effective Type 2 diabetes programming. Three focus groups were held in Des Moines, Iowa, during fall 2012. Results highlighted themes related to diabetes knowledge, diabetes management and prevention, physical activity, diet, and diabetes management programming. Opinions were shared as to whether family members should be included in programs for supporting those diagnosed with diabetes. These results provided guidance and ideas to scholars and health care professionals aiming to improve effectiveness of diabetes programs for Black women and families.

  1. Centering perspectives on Black women, hair politics, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H Shellae

    2014-05-01

    As researchers categorize issues facing Black women's health, obesity and physical exercise continue to be significant topics of debate. General interventions targeted toward Black women to address obesity and increase physical exercise have been largely ineffective. In this article, I situate the current public health discourse on obesity and related interventions within a sociocultural context of body appearance, with a specific focus on hair. Why do some African American women feel such strong ties to their hair that they will avoid exercise? What can be done to understand this phenomenon and address alternatives that may make both hair maintenance and regular exercise feasible? I map a theoretical argument for why hair matters for some women, and discuss how physical activity intervention strategies might be improved by considering such complexities.

  2. Sexual safety and sexual security among young Black women who have sex with women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F

    2014-01-01

    To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Secondary qualitative content analysis. We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. Dieting Behaviors of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health epidemic in the United States. During the past decade, obesity has increased across all education levels, including college graduates. The purpose of this research was to study the health decisions that young women, post-college graduation make regarding their food intake. The subjects in this study completed a…

  4. Starring Students: Gender Performance at a Women's College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jeni; Lester, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to better understand how gender is constructed at a women's college. Specifically, the researchers use Judith Butler's (1990) work on performativity to frame how members of the campus community perceive transgender students are integrated into the college. Through semi-structured interviews with faculty,…

  5. Behold, she stands at the door: Reentry, black women and the black church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn V. Stanley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the African American church’s response to the special problems of African American women who reenter the community post-incarceration. The first portion of the paper examines the impact of criminal justice policies on women of color and the attending problems of reentry which resulted. It then surveys the black church’s response to returning citizens, especially women. It concludes by proposing shifts in perspectives and theologies which create barriers to successful reintegration into the community at large, and the church in particular. The intended audience is individuals and faith communities who seek to work effectively with returning women.

  6. Assessing peripheral arteries in South African black women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing peripheral arteries in South African black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. ... Palpation of the pedal pulses, Doppler derived ankle brachial systolic blood pressure indices, photo plethysmographic-derived toe brachial systolic blood pressure indices and antero-posterior radiographs of both feet. Results.

  7. Anthropometric and biochemical profiles of black south african women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines anthropometric and biochemical profiles and the association between these parameters in pre-menopausal, post-pubertal black South African women. A representative sample of 500 participants, randomly selected in Mangaung, Bloemfontein in the Free State Province, using township maps obtained ...

  8. "Let's Do This!": Black Women Teachers' Politics and Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Adrienne D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined how contemporary African American women teachers continued the tradition of political involvement, noting the extent to which issues of race, class, and gender identity informed their pedagogy and situating their activities in a black feminist activist tradition. Interviews with two elementary teachers indicated that while they did not…

  9. Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…

  10. Ethnic Identity and Body Image among Black and White College Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Eboni; Mullis, Ron; Mullis, Ann; Hicks, Mary; Peterson, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines ethnic identity and body image in black and white college females. Participants: Researchers surveyed 118 students at 2 universities, 1 traditionally white and 1 historically black. Methods: Correlations and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between race, ethnic…

  11. Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Bringing a Tradition of Engagement into the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    For historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), engagement is not an enhancement of their curriculum but part of their birthright. Founded in the Civil War/Reconstruction era, HBCUs had as their core mission educating freed slaves and other free black people to participate in the economy. Later, during the Jim Crow era, HBCUs educated…

  12. Accuracy of Black and White College Students' In-Group and Out-Group Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Carey S.

    1996-01-01

    Examined accuracy of black and of white students' in-group and out-group stereotypes by comparing judgments of stereotypicality and dispersion of black and of white first-year college students (N=100) with stereotypicality and dispersion of self-ratings provided by random samples of group members. Consistent with social identity theory,…

  13. Molding Men: At Morehouse College, Middle Class Blacks Are Taught to Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda

    1987-01-01

    Morehouse College, which has played a central role in shaping the nation's black middle class leadership, is valued as a producer of positive counterpoints to a society with negative images of black males. The academic program and current endowment goals of its new president are described. (MLW).

  14. Willingness to Participate in Organ Donation among Black Seventh-Day Adventist College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Malcolm; Cort, David

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors studied a group of black and white Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) college students (N = 334) to compare the power of religious socialization with racial socialization. Methods: The authors compared the levels of willingness to donate organs between black and nonblack students in an availability sample. Results:…

  15. Women's Ways of Drinking: College Women, High-Risk Alcohol Use, and Negative Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Margaret A.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore college women's high-risk alcohol use and related consequences. This study employed a qualitative approach to understand and provide visibility for a gender-related perspective on college women's alcohol experiences and related outcomes. Data were collected from interviews with 10 undergraduate females at a…

  16. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. © 2013.

  17. Successful Teaching Strategies: Instruction for Black and Hispanic Students in the California Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Olivia; And Others

    In response to the growing concern over the significant underrepresentation, underpreparation, and enrollment decline of minority students, the chancellor's office of the California Community Colleges prepared this report to identify community college instructional programs designed specifically for Blacks and Hispanics. Sections 1 through 3…

  18. 75 FR 9747 - Promoting Excellence, Innovation, and Sustainability at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... education, strengthen the capacity of historically black colleges and universities to provide the highest quality education, increase opportunities for these institutions to participate in and benefit from... Colleges and Universities (Initiative), to be housed in the Department of Education (Department). (b...

  19. Fewer Resources, More Debt: Loan Debt Burdens Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine M.; Williams, Krystal L.; Smith, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Student loans have become an increasingly important way for students and their families to pay for college, but for students at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), student loan debt is a substantial burden. Students who attend these institutions--many of whom are low-income and first-generation--must borrow at higher rates and,…

  20. Exploring the Impact of Historically Black Colleges in Promoting the Development of Undergraduates' Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.; Milem, Jeffrey F.

    2000-01-01

    Study explores how institutional context affects the development of self-concept in a sample of 273 African American college students. Findings suggest that students attending church affiliated historically Black colleges develop significantly higher self-ratings in three domains of self-concept-psychosocial wellness, academic, and achievement…

  1. Perceived Norms and Marijuana Use at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Wahesh, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the extent of marijuana use and related risk-taking behavior by college students on historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Undergraduate students (N = 212) from an HBCU in the southern region of the United States completed anonymous questionnaires that assessed their marijuana-related behaviors and…

  2. Ethnic Differences in Alcohol Use: A Comparison of Black and White College Students in a Small Private University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Kristie S.

    2010-01-01

    An identified gap in the literature associated with college student alcohol use is the exploration of the problem based on ethnicity, specifically possible differences in use between Black and White college students. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in alcohol use for Black and White college students at a small private…

  3. Understanding and Responding to Eating Disorders among College Women during the First-College Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzer, Alan M.; Rodriguez, Leigh Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Examined the college adjustment demands and developmental tasks unique to college women with eating disorders. Their issues included problematic perfectionism associated with academic and personal adjustment; managing the health consequences, dysfunctional behavior, and stress of eating problems; and social support needs. They also tended to share…

  4. Academic Leaderships Views of School Psychology and Black Students: The Case of Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeks, Amirah; Graves, Scott L., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand academic leadership's views of the field of school psychology. This is the first study that has attempted to incorporate the views of historically Black college and university (HBCU) Psychology Department Chairs' regarding the field of school psychology and the potential development of school psychology…

  5. Educating in a "Regressive Era": Exploring the Race-Full Ideological Standpoint of Black Women Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Wanda

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-year phenomenological study was to build on the legacy of Black women educators before and after "Brown v. Board of Education" and examine the ideological standpoint of early career Black women educators from the millennial generation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three Black women educators…

  6. Beliefs and Values of Women in Community College Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.; Creswell, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the beliefs and values of women in two-year college departmental chair positions. Finds that dominant beliefs are related to educational philosophies and program outcomes, while secondary beliefs and values are related to student-centered issues, suggesting that women in chair positions have a traditional view of themselves as internal…

  7. Eating Concerns in College Women across Sexual Orientation Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloch, Janelle K.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    This study found that treatment-seeking sexual minority college women evidenced serious eating concerns. Regardless of sexual orientation and compared with those with low levels of eating concerns, women with high levels of eating concerns evidenced increased depression, increased generalized anxiety, and a greater likelihood of experiencing…

  8. Community College Organizational Climate for Minorities and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the issues of what would constitute a positive organizational climate for women and minorities within the community college setting and ways in which such a climate might be achieved. It first describes some traditional or standard measures of a positive organizational climate for women and minorities and then evaluates how…

  9. Predicting College Women's Career Plans: Instrumentality, Work, and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savela, Alexandra E.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how college women's instrumentality and expectations about combining work and family predicted early career development variables. Specifically, 177 undergraduate women completed measures of instrumentality (i.e., traits such as ambition, assertiveness, and risk taking), willingness to compromise career for family, anticipated…

  10. Reproductive coercion and partner violence among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Melissa A; Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Fontenot, Holly

    2015-01-01

    To examine reproductive coercion and partner violence among college women. Cross-sectional, descriptive. A large public university in the Northeast United States. Inclusion criteria were college women age 18 to 25, enrolled either full- or part-time, English speaking, and screened positive for relationship. Data from 972 women were analyzed. An e-mail invitation to participate in an electronic survey was sent to undergraduate and graduate female students. A web link to the informed consent and inclusion criteria were provided. Students who affirmed they met inclusion criteria could proceed to the survey. Completion of the survey implied consent. Nearly 8% of participants (n = 76) reported reproductive coercion, including pregnancy coercion, birth control sabotage, or both. Women reported more pregnancy coercion (6.8%) than birth control sabotage (3.9%). Being told not to use any birth control was the most commonly reported act (6.8%, n = 62). Of women reporting reproductive coercion (n = 76), 57% also screened for positive relationship violence (95% confidence interval [CI] [2.74, 7.29]). Pregnancy coercion and birth control sabotage occur among college women, and higher rates were reported among women with histories of partner violence. In addition to screening and counseling for partner violence, college health providers should assess for reproductive coercion and tailor contraceptive counseling discussions accordingly. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  11. Women Engineering Transfer Students: The Community College Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    An interpretative philosophical framework was applied to a case study to document the particular experiences and perspectives of ten women engineering transfer students who once attended a community college and are currently enrolled in one of two university professional engineering programs. This study is important because women still do not earn…

  12. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.

  13. Political activism and mental health among Black and Latinx college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Elan C; Velez, Gabriel; Offidani-Bertrand, Carly; Keels, Micere; Durkee, Myles I

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigates the utility of political activism as a protective factor against experiences of racial/ethnic (R/E) discrimination that negatively affect stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among Black and Latinx college freshmen at predominately White institutions. Data come from the Minority College Cohort Study, a longitudinal investigation of Black and Latinx college students (N = 504; 44% Black). We conducted multiple regression analyses for each mental health indicator and tested for interaction effects. For Black and Latinx students, the relationship between R/E microaggressions and end of freshman year stress varied by political activism. For Black students, the relationship between R/E microaggressions and end of the year anxiety varied by political activism. There was a significant interaction effect for depressive symptoms among Latinx students. Political activism serves as a protective factor to mitigate the negative effect of R/E discrimination on stress and depressive symptoms for Latinx students. For Black students, higher levels of political activism may exacerbate experiences of R/E microaggressions and relate to more stress and anxiety compared with Black students who are less politically involved. Findings point to the need for a deeper understanding of phenomenological variation in experiences of microaggressions among R/E minorities and how students leverage political activism as an adaptive coping strategy to mitigate race-related stress during college. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Asian American college women's body image: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Allison S M; Lum, Sharilyn K; Chronister, Krista M; Forrest, Linda

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of values acculturation and the influence of media on Asian American college women's overall body image. A sample of 59 Asian American women from two large universities completed self-report surveys, which included questions regarding values acculturation, media internalization, and overall body satisfaction. Results showed that Asian American women who identified more strongly with traditional Asian values reported higher levels of body image dissatisfaction. Further, Asian American women who reported higher internalization of media portrayals of beauty ideals reported higher body image dissatisfaction. Research and clinical recommendations are made to enhance psychologists' understanding of Asian American women's body image and acculturation.

  15. Keeping Senior Women at Your College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Sylvia; DeAngelo, Linda

    2009-01-01

    While women have made progress in many areas of higher education, institutions still need to focus attention on the advancement and retention of women at the highest academic ranks. According to data from the U.S. Department of Education's 2005 Fall Staff Survey, women represent only 40.6 percent of full-time faculty and 25.1 percent of full…

  16. The personality typology of black college students: evidence for a characteristic cognitive style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, O W; Clark, J L

    1993-06-01

    This study examined the distributions across personality types (as assessed by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) of two samples of black college students (ns = 315 and 447) in comparison to norming data from two manuals. Major differences were found between the black and white samples with regard to the proportions classified as Extroversion-Intuition-Feeling-Perception (ENFP) and Introversion-Sensing-Thinking-Judging (ISTJ). Much higher proportions of the black samples were also clustered at the sensing pole of the perceptual dimension. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the existence of a unique black "cognitive style."

  17. Normative Ideals, “Alternative” Realities: Perceptions of Interracial Dating among Professional Latinas and Black Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Garcia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Family types continue to expand in the U.S., yet normative patterns of endogamy and the privileging of nuclear families persist. To understand how professional women of color navigate endogamy and family ideals, I draw on 40 in-depth interviews of professional Black women and Latinas to ask how they construct partner preferences. I find that professional Latinas and Black women prefer same-race, similarly educated partners but report significant barriers to satisfying these desires. Respondents’ experiences with racism, the rejection of ethno-racial and cultural assimilation, gendered racism from men of color, and the college gender gap emerge as mechanisms for endogamous preferences. These preferences resist and support hegemonic family formation, an ideological and behavioral process that privileges, white, middle class, endogamous, heteronormative ideals for families comprising courtship, marriage, and biological childbearing. By challenging the racial devaluation of people of color while preferring the normativity that endogamy offers, the women in this study underscore the fluidity embedded in endogamy.

  18. Black/White Differences in Perceived Weight and Attractiveness among Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taona P. Chithambo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have reported that Black women are more satisfied with their bodies than White women. The buffering hypothesis suggests that aspects of Black culture protect Black women against media ideals that promote a slender female body type; therefore, Black women are expected to exhibit higher body esteem than White women. To test this hypothesis, the current study aimed to assess the influence of race on weight perception, perceived attractiveness, and the interrelations between body mass index (BMI and perceived attractiveness among overweight and obese women. Participants were 1,694 respondents of Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health ( years. Black ( or White ( obese or overweight women were included in the current study. As expected, Black women reported lower perceived weight and higher attractiveness than White women, despite higher body mass for Black women. Furthermore, race moderated the relationship between BMI and perceived attractiveness; for White women, a negative relationship existed between BMI and attractiveness, whereas for Black women, BMI and attractiveness were not related. The study findings provide further support for the buffering hypothesis, indicating that despite higher body mass, overweight Black women are less susceptible to thin body ideals than White women.

  19. Romanticism and Eroticism among Black and White College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Lawrence N.

    1981-01-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 1,142 Black and White university students of both sexes in an effort to determine the relationship between eroticism, romanticism and sexual identity. Results indicated that males were more erotic, females more romantic, and that the discrepancy was greater for Blacks than for Whites. (Author/CM)

  20. Domestic abuse: Black and minority-ethnic women's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellock, Vanda K

    2010-04-01

    domestic abuse affects one in three women in the UK and can have long-term consequences for those concerned and their families. Guidelines suggest that all women should be asked about domestic abuse, and the Department of Health has suggested ways of supporting this issue. Health-care professionals could find themselves with a woman who cannot speak English, and may require the support of an interpreter. Current guidelines are not suitable for Black and minority-ethnic women, and midwives may not have enough cultural awareness to support these women. to interview bilingual women in the community to explore: (1) how domestic abuse is viewed in their culture; and (2) who should be questioning women about this sensitive issue. a qualitative phenomenological study using semi-structured interviews with non-pregnant bilingual workers within the local community. women's lives were influenced by their in-laws and family, status, attitudes to marriage arrangements and gossiping in the community. All of these factors affected disclosure. health-care professionals must understand that women take serious measures to hide the fact that they are victims of abuse in order to preserve family honour. Divulging information to interpreters or relatives is a problem because of lack of confidentiality and gossiping in the community. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sweeping out Home Economics: Curriculum Reform at Connecticut College for Women, 1952-1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthers, Paul Philip

    2011-01-01

    At the moment of its founding in 1911, Connecticut College for Women exhibited a curricular tension between an emphasis on the liberal arts, which mirrored the elite men's and women's colleges of the day, and vocational aspects, which made it a different type of women's college, one designed to prepare women for the kind of lives they would lead…

  2. College Women's Female Friendships: A Longitudinal View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a longitudinal qualitative study of the cognitive value of female friendships formed in college and seeks to appraise the meaning of the phenomenon for the participants. To grasp the temporal effects of the longitudinal data in this study, the author examines and assesses the relevant developmental literature, particularly…

  3. Exploring the Perceptions of Study Abroad among Black Undergraduates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Nykia Dionne

    2012-01-01

    International education helps students become more engaged within the United States and abroad. Black undergraduates continue to be underrepresented in study abroad despite two decades of increased enrollment by Black students in higher education in the United States. This study had three purposes: (1) to explore how Black undergraduates attending…

  4. Developing a Policy on Institutional Research for Black Hawk College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quayle, Thomas; Stevens, Mary A.

    In order to study the general objectives, methods, and provisions for institutional research in the community college, this document surveys the pertinent literature and reviews institutional research practices at selected community colleges. In general, three basic governance structure models are identified which represent varying relationships…

  5. Television and College Football: In Black and White

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Jomills Henry, II

    1978-01-01

    This article's basic aim is to examine empirical evidence bearing upon the question of the relative competitive superiority of the predominantly white Division I football teams over the predominantly black Division II teams. (Author)

  6. College Women: Eating Behaviors and Help-Seeking Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Anne M.; Protinsky, Howard O.; Canady, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Late adolescent college women (N=578) were surveyed regarding eating disorders. Participants found to have eating disorders were younger and more likely to be white, in a sorority, and Christian. Additionally, they were most likely to say that they would prefer a close friend to support them when dealing with disordered eating, followed by their…

  7. Mentoring Asian and Euro-American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Belle; Tracy, Allison; Kauh, Tina; Taylor, Catherine; Williams, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines differences in the mentoring relationships of Asian American and Euro-American college women. Findings showed that the groups view mentoring as equally important but that fewer Asians report having a mentor. However, those who have mentors find them to be just as valuable as do their Euro-American counterparts. (Contains 2…

  8. It's Not about Me: College Women and Unplanned Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jayne W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of single college women who had an unplanned pregnancy while attending a small private four-year university in the upper midwest. The conceptual framework used to provide direction for this study was social constructivism. A phenomenological approach was used to seek the reality…

  9. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  10. Analysis of Daily Life Time in Women's Junior College Students

    OpenAIRE

    樫村, 修生

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was understand the correlationship between the energy expenditure of living activity and body structure or physical fitness in the students of a women's junior college. The resulut were as follows; It was shown that the physical activites in the daily life was necessary for prevention of obesity in the students.

  11. A STUDY OF THE ASPIRATIONS OF MARRIED WOMEN COLLEGE GRADUATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYON, RHEE

    THE PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO DETERMINE WHAT HAPPENS TO CAREER AMBITIONS AFTER THE COLLEGE GIRL MARRIES, WHETHER INTERESTS AND AMBITIONS CHANGE IN SPECIFIC DIRECTIONS DURING MARRIAGE, AND IN WHAT WAYS MARRIED WOMEN WITH CAREER AMBITIONS DIFFER FROM THOSE WITH NONE. RESPONDENTS TO A FORCED-CHOICE QUESTIONNAIRE WERE 310 MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN…

  12. Managing Stress among Adult Women Students in Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lorraine G.; Schwartz, Robert A.; Bower, Beverly L.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature and a campus-based study found high levels of stress resulting from parenting, financial, age and health concerns for adult women students enrolled at community colleges. Presents recommendations and suggestions to help: day care, orientation, academic and financial aid advising, peer advisers, healthy…

  13. Reporting Rape in a National Sample of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to…

  14. Attachment Styles, Social Skills, and Depression in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Van Buren, Amy; Cole, Steven P.

    2010-01-01

    Attachment styles, social skills, and depression were studied in 3 college women using the Relationship Questionnaire (K. Bartholomew & L. M. Horowitz, 1991), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996), and the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire (D. Buhrmester, W. Furman, M. T. Wittenberg, & H.…

  15. Cultural Contexts of Exclusion: Women College Band Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    Despite gender affirmative employment practices, women constitute little more than 5% of all U.S. college band directors. Researchers have investigated this situation in terms of historical precedent, traditional socialization, discrimination, segregation, professional identity, and lack of role models. They have not, however, addressed the…

  16. Mortality Risk Among Black and White Working Women: The Role of Perceived Work Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Tetyana P.; Rinaldo, Lindsay; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors examine the relationship between perceived work trajectories and mortality risk among Black and White women over 36 years. Method Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003) are used to evaluate how objective and subjective elements of work shape mortality risk for Black and White women born between 1923 and 1937. Results Estimates from Cox proportional hazards models reveal that Black working women manifest higher mortality risk than White working women even after accounting for occupation, personal income, and household wealth. Perceived work trajectories were also associated with mortality risk for Black women but not for White women. Discussion The findings reveal the imprint of women’s work life on mortality, especially for Black women, and illustrate the importance of considering personal meanings associated with objective work characteristics. PMID:21956101

  17. Sassin' through Sadhana: Learned Leadership Journeys of Black Women in Holistic Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Women of color, especially Black women, are underrepresented in the extant literature and research of adult development and mind, body, spirit leadership. This in-depth qualitative portraiture study explored the lives of three Black women who have been leading their communities as adult educators of mind, body, spirit practices. This examination…

  18. The Voices of Black and White Rural Battered Women in Domestic Violence Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, April L.

    2005-01-01

    Very little research has examined the experiences of Black and White rural battered women. In this exploratory study of 88 participants, 30 rural battered women who sought assistance from domestic violence shelters in southwest Virginia were interviewed. Black and White rural women's experiences in the shelters, helpseeking, and perceived social…

  19. Food prices and food shopping decisions of black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSantis, Katherine I; Grier, Sonya A; Oakes, J Michael; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-06-01

    Identifying food pricing strategies to encourage purchases of lower-calorie food products may be particularly important for black Americans. Black children and adults have higher than average obesity prevalence and disproportionate exposure to food marketing environments in which high calorie foods are readily available and heavily promoted. The main objective of this study was to characterize effects of price on food purchases of black female household shoppers in conjunction with other key decision attributes (calorie content/healthfulness, package size, and convenience). Factorial discrete choice experiments were conducted with 65 low- and middle-/higher-income black women. The within-subject study design assessed responses to hypothetical scenarios for purchasing frozen vegetables, bread, chips, soda, fruit drinks, chicken, and cheese. Linear models were used to estimate the effects of price, calorie level (or healthfulness for bread), package size, and convenience on the propensity to purchase items. Moderating effects of demographic and personal characteristics were assessed. Compared with a price that was 35% lower, the regular price was associated with a lesser propensity to purchase foods in all categories (β = -0.33 to -0.82 points on a 1 to 5 scale). Other attributes, primarily calorie content/healthfulness, were more influential than price for four of seven foods. The moderating variable most often associated with propensity to pay the regular versus lower price was the reported use of nutrition labels. Price reductions alone may increase purchases of certain lower-calorie or more healthful foods by black female shoppers. In other cases, effects may depend on combining price changes with nutrition education or improvements in other valued attributes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Springboards to Mortarboards: Women's College Foundings in Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer-Ellis, Erich M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of foundings of four-year women's colleges in three states, 1855-1968, reveals that institutional forces (presence of elite women's colleges, development of Catholic women's colleges, and enactment of the suffrage amendment) increased the founding rate, but rising organizational density later decreased the rate. Argues that…

  1. Examining Suicide Protective Factors among Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Chuan; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Tran, Kimberly K.; Bonaparte, Taria S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to the nascent literature on resilience and suicidality among Black Americans by examining factors that may predict less suicidal behavior among this population. The authors hypothesized that reasons for living, life satisfaction, and religious awareness would account for unique variance in suicidal…

  2. The Agony of Education. Black Students at White Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, Joe R.; Vera, Hernan; Imani, Nikitah

    This book examines the barriers that African American students encounter in colleges that are predominantly white. Although many people, and much of the media, have presented a picture of U.S. universities as strongholds of multiculturalism that are devoted to racial equality. Interviews with 36 randomly selected black juniors and seniors at a…

  3. The Relationship between Fundraising Practice and Job Satisfaction at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Natalie T. J.; Waters, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Fundraising, as studied from a communications/public relations perspective, is an understudied function. This research examines fundraising at public and private historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), specifically exploring how these fundraisers incorporate various fundraising strategies into their communication outreach programs…

  4. Tuskegee's Robert R. Moton and the Travails of the Early Black College President.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Adam

    2001-01-01

    Presidents of historically black colleges were once expected to teach their students that they would advance through industrial education and the benevolent guidance of white foundations funding the schools. Focuses on Tuskegee Institute's Robert Moton, who accommodated to southern segregation but never accepted the racist rationale for Jim Crow…

  5. Cultural Diversity in Introductory Psychology Textbook Selection: The Case for Historically Black Colleges/Universities (HBCUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Clay, William A. L.; Broussard, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes a culturally relevant approach to introductory psychology textbook selection for students attending a historically Black college/university (HBCU). The following multistage procedure was used: (1) a survey of HBCU psychology departments was conducted to ascertain how they selected their introductory psychology…

  6. Negotiating Race and Sexual Orientation in the College Choice Process of Black Gay Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Dian D.; Mobley, Steve D., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the college choice process for Black gay males and what factors played significant roles in why they chose to attend either HBCUs or PWIs. Findings revealed that these students considered race and sexual orientation in different ways when deciding to attend either an HBCU or PWI. Implications for high school counselors and…

  7. Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Resource Dependence: A Chow Test of Production Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupet, Jason

    2013-01-01

    While several studies have examined the impact of expenditures on graduation rates in higher education institutions, historically Black colleges and universities have strong government dependencies that suggest that these links might be different than for other universities. This paper investigates these links by estimating the production function…

  8. Depressive Symptoms, Stress, and Social Support among Dental Students at a Historically Black College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Brian; Williams, Carla; Eiland, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors measured the prevalence of depressive symptoms among dental students at a historically black college in the United States to determine how depressive symptoms, stress, and social support influence each other within this student population. Participants: Dental students (n = 143) completed a self-administered survey to assess…

  9. Visions and Vanities: John Andrew Rice of Black Mountain College. Southern Biography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Katherine Chaddock

    This biography presents the life of John Andrew Rice, who founded Black Mountain College (North Carolina) in 1933 to implement his philosophy of education, including the centrality of artistic experience and emotional development to learning in all disciplines and the need for democratic governance shared between faculty and students. Born in…

  10. Teaching Speech Communication in a Black College: Does Technology Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwadike, Fellina O.; Ekeanyanwu, Nnamdi T.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching a speech communication course in typical HBCUs (historically black colleges and universities) comes with many issues, because the application of technology in some minority institutions differs. The levels of acceptability as well as affordability are also core issues that affect application. Using technology in the classroom means many…

  11. 75 FR 56459 - National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... America A Proclamation Early in our Nation's history, higher education was not possible for most African... (HBCUs) have been valued resources for our country since their inception before the Civil War... National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, we honor these pillars of higher education in...

  12. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Academic Motivation Scale with Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) was examined with a sample of 578 Black college students. A confirmatory factor analysis of the AMS was conducted. Results indicated that the hypothesized seven-factor model did not fit the data. Implications for future research with the AMS are discussed.

  13. Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Honoring the Past, Engaging the Present, Touching the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Walter R.; Jewell, Joseph O.; Griffin, Kimberly A.; Wolf, De'Sha S.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the history, present, and future of historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). We begin with a brief review of the existing literature on HBCUs, considering common themes and how these institutions changed over time within a broader socio-historical landscape. In addition to historical information, we use a…

  14. Exploring Perspectives of Transitional Leadership Styles at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Melvin L.

    2017-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) continue to strive for academic relevance in spite of the national problem of the misalignment of mission and values among their institutional leadership. The national problem was important to both the HBCU institutions and the entire academic community to establish global relevancy. The…

  15. Hope and Life Satisfaction in Black College Students Coping with Race-Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Prelow, Hazel M.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the effects of hope and coping with race-related stress on life satisfaction in Black college students. Findings indicated that students with high hope had greater coping efficacy and used more problem-focused coping than students with low hope. Neither coping nor hope had a direct effect on life satisfaction.…

  16. 76 FR 58713 - National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... today. During National Historically Black Colleges and Universities Week, we pay homage to the daring..., and their place in the American narrative. They have produced many of our Nation's leaders in business, government, academia, and the military. Today, we recognize them as the crucibles of learning, where a young...

  17. Sexual victimization history predicts academic performance in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Majel R; Frazier, Patricia A; Greer, Christiaan; Paulsen, Jacob A; Howard, Kelli; Meredith, Liza N; Anders, Samantha L; Shallcross, Sandra L

    2016-11-01

    College women frequently report having experienced sexual victimization (SV) in their lifetime, including child sexual abuse and adolescent/adult sexual assault. Although the harmful mental health sequelae of SV have been extensively studied, recent research suggests that SV is also a risk factor for poorer college academic performance. The current studies examined whether exposure to SV uniquely predicted poorer college academic performance, even beyond contributions from three well-established predictors of academic performance: high school rank, composite standardized test scores (i.e., American College Testing [ACT]), and conscientiousness. Study 1 analyzed longitudinal data from a sample of female college students (N = 192) who were assessed at the beginning and end of one semester. SV predicted poorer cumulative end-of-semester grade point average (GPA) while controlling for well-established predictors of academic performance. Study 2 replicated these findings in a second longitudinal study of female college students (N = 390) and extended the analyses to include follow-up data on the freshmen and sophomore students (n = 206) 4 years later. SV predicted students' GPA in their final term at the university above the contributions of well-established academic predictors, and it was the only factor related to leaving college. These findings highlight the importance of expanding the scope of outcomes of SV to include academic performance, and they underscore the need to assess SV and other adverse experiences on college campuses to target students who may be at risk of poor performance or leaving college. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Smoking cessation advantage among adult initiators: does it apply to black women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Azure B; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Messeri, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Smokers who initiate as adults are more likely to quit than those who initiate as adolescents. Black women are more likely than White women to initiate smoking in adulthood and are less likely to quit. There is a paucity of research examining whether the smoking cessation advantage among adult initiators applies to Black women. The study objective is to examine race differences in the effect of developmental stage of smoking initiation on number of years until cessation among Black and White women. Data were extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, a national cohort of women between the ages of 49 and 61 years in 2003. The analytic sample comprised 1,008 White women and 271 Black women with a history of smoking. Survival analysis procedures were utilized to address the study objective. Racial disparities in smoking cessation were most evident among women who initiated smoking as adults. White young adult initiators had a 31% increased hazard of smoking cessation advantage (adjusted hazards ratio [HR]: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.04-1.65) over adolescent initiators, whereas Black young adult initiators had no smoking cessation advantage (adjusted HR: 0.85, CI: 95% 0.55-1.30) over adolescent initiators. Prior observations that smoking initiation in adulthood is associated with high rates of cessation do not apply to black women. To contribute to the reduction of disparities in women's cessation efforts to prevent initiation should target young adult women, particularly Black young adult women.

  19. Why Not Academia?--The Streamlined Career Choice Process of Black African Women Engineers: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlambo, Yeukai Angela

    2017-01-01

    Black African women are grossly underrepresented as academic staff in engineering programs at South African universities. The problem is exacerbated at historically White institutions (HWI) where Black women are simply absent as engineering research and teaching staff. The absence of Black African women in the academy occurs despite Black African…

  20. Satellite Data, Women Defectors and Black Markets in North Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Maximilian; Jurowetzki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    markets, which serves as a proxy for market activity, and investigates the correlation of this market activity with the number of female North Korean defectors arriving in South Korea. The hypothesis is that increased market activity, including cross border trade with China, will result in more North...... Koreans crossing the border into China, and eventually more North Koreans reaching South Korea. Findings - The findings of this paper are that there is a statistical significant correlation of the number of women that arrive in South Korea and the night-time lights emitted by a black market in Sinuiju......, at the Chinese border. Since luminosity of markets can be assumed as a proxy for market activity, the conclusion can be made that the reason for the high number of North Korean women arriving in South Korea is related to their higher mobility due to their leading role on the North Korean markets. Practical...

  1. Attitudes of White College Education Seniors Toward Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, David L.

    This study attempted to assess the racial attitudes of white college education seniors and to study the relationship between racial prejudice and the following predictor variables: personal contact, change orientation, religiosity, and efficacy. Three research instruments were used to assess racial attitudes and predictor variables: The Attitude…

  2. Facebook Use and Disordered Eating in College-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Morgan; Thornton, Laura; De Choudhury, Munmun; Teevan, Jaime; Bulik, Cynthia M; Levinson, Cheri A; Zerwas, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior-dieting, laxative use, fasting, binge eating-is common in college-aged women (11%-20%). A documented increase in the number of young women experiencing eating psychopathology has been blamed on the rise of engagement with social media sites such as Facebook. We predicted that college-aged women's Facebook intensity (e.g., the amount of time spent on Facebook, number of Facebook friends, and integration of Facebook into daily life), online physical appearance comparison (i.e., comparing one's appearance to others' on social media), and online "fat talk" (i.e., talking negatively about one's body) would be positively associated with their disordered eating behavior. In an online survey, 128 college-aged women (81.3% Caucasian, 6.7% Asian, 9.0% African-American, and 3.0% Other) completed items, which measured their disordered eating, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, online fat talk, body mass index, depression, anxiety, perfectionism, impulsivity, and self-efficacy. In regression analyses, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, and online fat talk were significantly and uniquely associated with disordered eating and explained a large percentage of the variance in disordered eating (60%) in conjunction with covariates. However, greater Facebook intensity was associated with decreased disordered eating behavior, whereas both online physical appearance comparison and online fat talk were associated with greater disordered eating. College-aged women who endorsed greater Facebook intensity were less likely to struggle with disordered eating when online physical appearance comparison was accounted for statistically. Facebook intensity may carry both risks and benefits for disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fear of rape among college women: a social psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Douglas W; Hughes, Marion R

    2013-01-01

    This article examines social psychological underpinnings of fear of rape among college women. We analyze data from a survey of 1,905 female undergraduates to test the influence of 5 subjective perceptions about vulnerability and harm: unique invulnerability, gender risk, defensibility, anticipatory shame, and attribution of injury. We include 3 sources of crime exposure in our models: past sexual victimization, past noncontact violent victimization, and structural risk measured by age, parent's income, and race. Separate measures of fear of stranger and acquaintance rape are modeled, including variables tapping current versus anticipatory fear, fear on campus versus everywhere, and fear anytime versus at night. The data show that fear of rape among college women appears more grounded in constructed perceptions of harm and danger than in past violent experiences.

  4. The Black Church and Millennial Philanthropy: Influences on College Student Prosocial Behaviors at a Church-Affiliated Black College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Noah D.

    2013-01-01

    Colleges and universities are increasingly relying on philanthropic contributions to allow them to continue to provide high-quality education. Christian higher education is no different. African Americans give a larger percentage of their disposable income to nonprofits than any other racial group; this giving is primarily directed to the Black…

  5. Factors associated with college women's labeling of sexual victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchowski, Lindsay M; Untied, Amy S; Gidycz, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    Despite high rates of sexual assault among college women, most victims do not label the experience as sexual assault or rape. Prior research examining labeling of sexual victimization has focused on women's characterization of rape experiences as either not victimization or victimization. This study extends prior research by exploring factors associated with labeling various forms of sexual victimization as "not victimization," a "serious miscommunication," or a "sexual assault, date rape, rape, or crime." A sample of 1,060 college women reported on their experiences of sexual victimization since the age of 14 years. Women who reported experiences of prior sexual victimization (n = 371) indicated their level of acquaintance with the assailant, assault disclosure, substance use at time of assault, attributions of self- and perpetrator-blame for the assault, and labeling of the experience. Most women who reported experiences of sexual victimization did not self-identify as victims, and 38% labeled sexual victimization as a serious miscommunication. Greater acquaintance with the perpetrator, higher behavioral self-blame, and victim substance use at the time of the assault were associated with labeling sexual assault experiences as a serious miscommunication. Implications are discussed.

  6. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  7. Health risk behaviors of black male college students: seat belt use, smoking, and obesity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibade, Phoebe Butler

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined health behaviors (seatbelt use, tobacco use, and obesity status) of 127 black male college students using data obtained from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey. The majority of the participants were freshmen and sophomores (70%), full time students (95%), and lived on campus (85%). The results indicated that black males often failed to use seatbelts while riding as a passenger (69%) or driving (48%). Although 15% of the students smoked, 1/3 of the smokers began smoking during college. Approximately 50% of the students were overweight or obese; among students attempting to lose weight, exercise versus nutrient intake was used as a means to lose weight. The study recommendations included the need to increase educational efforts to alert black males to their risks for a premature death, and to provide programming/mentoring initiatives to assist males in dealing with stress and discrimination that may impact their health-related decision making. The implications of this study suggest that even educated black males are at risk for premature disease and disability as a result of their health behaviors.

  8. The Measured Black-White Wage Gap among Women Is Too Small.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Derek

    2004-01-01

    Existing work suggests that black-white gaps in potential wages are much larger among men than women and further that black-white differences in patterns of female labor supply are unimportant. However, panel data on wages and income sources demonstrate that the modal young black woman who does not engage in market work is a single mother…

  9. African American College Students at Predominantly White and Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to more fully understand the socialization experiences of African American college students, and to investigate and/or uncover new information that can offer meaningful insight for transforming institutional barriers that interfere with the success of African American college students. The existing literature…

  10. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Design In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. Participants 94 women aged 33–91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Setting Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012–2013. Results There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Conclusions Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma

  11. Validation of physical activity instruments: Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Makambi, Kepher; Lewis, Shantell; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported on the validity of physical activity measures in African Americans. The present study was designed to determine the validity of a self-administered physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) that was used in a large prospective study of African American women in the United States against an accelerometer (actigraph), an objective assessment of movement, and a seven-day activity diary. The study was conducted among 101 women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) cohort who resided in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area, representing 11.2% (101/900) of this sample. Physical activity levels were obtained from the parent BWHS PAQ (eg, 1997 and 1999) and repeated in the present study. This information entailed hours per week of participation in walking for exercise, hours per week of moderate activity (eg, housework, gardening, and bowling), and hours per week of strenuous activity (eg, basketball, swimming, running, and aerobics) during the previous year. The participants were required to wear actigraphs for seven days and then record their physical activities in their diaries (seven-day physical activity diary) during this time. The diaries were used to record the amount and pattern of daily energy expenditure. Significant positive correlations were seen between the BWHS PAQ and the actigraph for total activity, r=.28; walking, r=.26; and vigorous activity, r=.40, PPAQ also demonstrated significant correlations for total (r=0.42, PPAQ is a useful measure of physical activity in the BWHS cohort and thus has utility in prospective epidemiologic research.

  12. Racial differences in predictors of college women's body image attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S M

    1994-01-01

    African-American and Euro-American women from three predominantly Euro-American colleges in the southeast U.S. between 17 and 23 years of age completed instruments assessing body image attitudes, social competence, sex-role attitudes, racial identity, and a measure of family and personal characteristics. Analyses revealed race differences on all body image measures with the exception of appearance evaluation which was influenced by family income and race. Specifically, African-American women reported more satisfaction with and positive feelings towards their bodies and less dissatisfaction than Euro-American women. Unlike Euro-Americans, African-American women attached importance to fitness and health. The relationship between personal/physical factors and body image was stronger for African-American than Euro-American women. Additionally, personal/physical characteristics were the best model of appearance evaluation for African-American women, whereas personal/physical and sociodemographic factors best predicted this measure for Euro-American women. The results are discussed in relation to body image norms and standards of the African-American subculture and middle-class, Euro-American mainstream culture.

  13. Cultural Parallax and Content Analysis: Images of Black Women in High School History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyshner, Christine; Schocker, Jessica B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the representation of Black women in high school history textbooks. To examine the extent to which Black women are represented visually and to explore how they are portrayed, the authors use a mixed-methods approach that draws on analytical techniques in content analysis and from visual culture studies. Their findings…

  14. Black Women's Faculty Voices in New Mexico: Invisible Assets Silent No More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Xeturah Monique

    2014-01-01

    There continues to exist a lack of Black women faculty at institutions of higher education (Moses, 1989; Collins, 1991; Gregory, 2001). Although we can see an increase in the number of research projects focused on Black women faculty there still remains a significant gap in the research (Glover, 2006; Foster-Williamson, 2002; Thomas &…

  15. The "Black Women's Gathering Place": Reconceptualising a Curriculum of Place/Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Arianna; Patterson, Ashley; Kinloch, Valerie; Burkhard, Tanja; Randall, Ryann

    2016-01-01

    This article de-centres imperialist, capitalist, patriarchal traditions of critical approaches in Curriculum Studies via an examination of experiences shared at the "Black Women's Gathering Place" (BWGP), a non-traditional space where a diverse, intergenerational group of Black women engage with each other through the sharing of stories.…

  16. Career Aspirations versus Career Actualizations of African American Executive Level Administrators in Higher Education at Historically Black Colleges and Universities in a State in the Southeast: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Kristen LeToria

    2013-01-01

    Despite affirmative action, gender inequities persist at institutions of higher learning in the United States. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the perceptions of African American women serving in executive-level leadership positions at historically black colleges and universities in a state the Southeast. Participants…

  17. College Readiness: The Evaluation of Students Participating in the Historically Black College and University Program in Pre-Calculus and the Calculus Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Angela Renee

    2011-01-01

    This investigative research focuses on the level of readiness of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students entering Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) in the college Calculus sequence. Calculus is a fundamental course for STEM courses. The level of readiness of the students for Calculus can very well play a…

  18. College Women's Rape Awareness and Use of Commonly Advocated Risk Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Jodie; Yeilding, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Despite national efforts to create awareness about acquaintance rape and substance- facilitated sexual assault on college campuses, little empirical research investigates whether college women are incorporating these messages into their social behavior. This exploratory study adds to the existing literature by investigating college women's…

  19. Socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural determinants of obesity in black South African women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklesfield, Lisa K; Lambert, Estelle V; Hume, David John; Chantler, Sarah; Pienaar, Paula R; Dickie, Kasha; Goedecke, Julia H; Puoane, Thandi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Abstract South Africa (SA) is undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition and has the highest prevalence of obesity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with black women being the most affected (obesity prevalence 31.8%). Although genetic factors are important, socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural factors, as well as the influence of socio-economic status, more likely explain the high prevalence of obesity in black SA women. This review examines these determinants in black SA women, and compares them to their white counterparts, black SA men, and where appropriate, to women from SSA. Specifically this review focuses on environmental factors influencing obesity, the influence of urbanisation, as well as the interaction with socio-cultural and socio-economic factors. In addition, the role of maternal and early life factors and cultural aspects relating to body image are discussed. This information can be used to guide public health interventions aimed at reducing obesity in black SA women. PMID:24051701

  20. Stereotype Threat Among Black and White Women in Health Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Fingerhut, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat—the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes—to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one’s ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women. PMID:25045944

  1. The Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions Environmental Technology and Waste Management Consortium annual report, 1990--1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    The HBCU/MI Environmental Technology and Waste Management Consortium was established in January 1990, through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) among the member institutions. This group of research-oriented Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions (HBCU/MI) agreed to work together to initiate research, technology development and education programs to address the nation`s critical environmental problems. As a group the HBCU/MI Consortium is uniquely positioned to reach women and the minority populations of African Americans, Hispanics and American Indians. As part of their initial work, they developed the Research, Education, and Technology Transfer (RETT) Plan to actualize the Consortium`s guiding principles. In addition to developing a comprehensive research agenda, four major programs were begun to meet these goals. This report summarizes the 1990--1991 progress.

  2. African American college women: constructing a hierarchy of sexual arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, F E

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the safer sex decision-making processes of a group of African American college women. The study participants consisted of 15 women aged 19 to 33, who were full-time students attending a four-year university in Texas. The women self-identified as having been sexually active with at least one male partner within the past year. Semi-structured in-depth interviews lasting approximately 1.5 hours provided data. Theme and domain analysis of the interviews and field notes revealed that women employed both emotional and philosophical strategies to determine their safer sex behaviour. These strategies involved the use of a 'self-defined' sexual arrangements hierarchy. This hierarchy served to define the way women ordered and valued different types of sexual arrangement, from casual to committed. The resulting hierarchy also guided the safer sex behaviour of these women. The implications for intervention programmes that are targeted at increasing safer sex behaviour and HIV risk reduction are discussed in light of these findings.

  3. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women.

  4. Historically Black Colleges and Universities Radioactive Waste Management Research Program: Summary of activities, 1985-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the 1985 to 1986 activities of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) Radioactive Waste Management Research Program sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The first set of three awards was made in September,1984. In September, 1985, two of these projects were renewed and a new proposal was funded. The program has been enthusiastically received by the community of HBCUs and the program sponsor

  5. Married Black Men’s Opinions as to Why Black Women Are Disproportionately Single: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Tera R.; McElroy, Stacey E.; Sheats, Kameron J.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2015-01-01

    This study’s purpose was to explore the reasons Black women are disproportionately single according to the unique viewpoint of married Black men. The sample comprised 52 married Black men who resided in northeast Georgia (mean age = 43). Qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010 as part of the Pathways to Marriage study. The authors analyzed the data in a collaborative fashion and utilized content analyses to explore the relationships in the data which were derived from qualitative interviews with the men. Findings on the reasons for the disproportionality of singlehood among Black women reflected these four themes: gender relations, marriage education and socialization, individual development, and a preference for gay/lesbian relationships. Recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26082674

  6. Correlates of suicidal ideation in college women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Neha J; Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Flatt, Rachael E; Trockel, Mickey; Balantekin, Katherine N; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Monterubio, Grace E; Firebaugh, Marie-Laure; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E; Taylor, C Barr

    2018-04-06

    To identify the correlates of suicidal ideation (SI) in a large sample of college women with eating disorders (EDs). A total of 690 female college students from 28 US colleges who screened positive for an ED, with the exception of anorexia nervosa, were assessed for SI. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine independent correlates of SI. Measures included: ED psychopathology, ED behaviors (i.e., binge eating, vomiting, laxatives, compulsive exercise), current co-morbid psychopathology (i.e., depression, anxiety, insomnia), weight/shape concerns, ED-related clinical impairment, and body mass index (BMI). All significant variables were included in a backward binary multivariate logistic regression model to determine which variables were most strongly associated with SI. A total of 25.6% of the sample reported SI. All variables examined were significantly independently associated with SI, with the exception of compulsive exercise. Depression, anxiety, and vomiting remained as significant correlates of SI in the multivariate logistic regression model. ED screening on college campuses should assess for suicidality, and prevention and treatment efforts should target vomiting and co-morbid depression and anxiety symptoms to reduce risk of SI for high-risk individuals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Mortality among African American women with sarcoidosis: data from the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukey, M H; Berman, J S; Boggs, D A; White, L F; Rosenberg, L; Cozier, Y C

    2013-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that disproportionately affects black females.  Few studies have specifically addressed causes of death in this population. To assess rates and causes of death among women with sarcoidosis in a prospective cohort study of U.S. black women. The Black Women's Health Study is a follow-up study of 59,000 U.S. black women aged 21-69 (median age 38) at entry in 1995.  Data on demographic and lifestyle factors and medical conditions, including sarcoidosis, were obtained through biennial questionnaires.  Deaths and causes of death from 1995 through 2009 among study subjects were identified from National Death Index data. We assessed mortality rates among women with and without a history of sarcoidosis.  Poisson regression models were used to estimate age-adjusted mortality rates. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for mortality and 95% confidence intervals. A total of 121 deaths occurred among 1,192 women with a history of sarcoidosis and 2813 deaths among women without sarcoidosis.  Mortality was greater at every age among women with sarcoidosis and the overall multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio was 2.44 (95% CI 2.03-2.93, p<0.0001). Of the deaths among women with sarcoidosis, 24.7% were directly attributable to sarcoidosis. In the Black Women's Health Study, women with sarcoidosis were more than twice as likely to die as women without the disease, with many of the deaths directly attributable to sarcoidosis.  Sarcoidosis is an important cause of premature death among black women with the disease.

  8. Stalking Victimization among College Women and Subsequent Help-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhi, Eric R.; Clayton, Heather; Surrency, Heather Hepler

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the incidence of stalking victimization and subsequent help-seeking behaviors among college women. Participants and Methods: A stratified random sample of college women (N = 391) completed an anonymous Internet-based questionnaire in spring 2006. Results: One-fifth of women reported stalking victimization while…

  9. The Violent and Sexual Victimization of College Women: Is Repeat Victimization a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Leah E.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Cullen, Francis T.

    2008-01-01

    Little attention has been given to repeat violent and sexual victimization among college women. Using two national-level data sets, the authors find that a small proportion of college women experience a large proportion of violent and sexual victimizations. Women are more likely to experience repeat sexual victimization than repeat violence…

  10. Black Consciousness, Self-Esteem, and Satisfaction with Physical Appearance among African-American Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lori R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The extent to which black consciousness and self-esteem are associated with satisfaction with physical appearance is explored for 152 African-American female college students. Satisfaction with overall physical appearance and black consciousness have a moderate relationship. A strong relationship exists for self-esteem and satisfaction with facial…

  11. Scholarly Productivity of Social Work Faculty at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Are h-Index Scores a Suitable Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Isiah, Jr.; Smith, Belinda Davis; Green, Makeba T.; Anderson, Brian; Harry, Sonja V.; Byrd, Yolanda M.; Pratt-Harris, Natasha C.; Bolden, Errol S.; Hill, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Faculty scholarship at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU) has in the past served as a blueprint for the Black masses. Even today, HBCU faculty scholarship continues to be an informative source to communicate accurate information regarding marginalized groups. This study examines h-index scores of 65 faculty members at five…

  12. Effects of Aerobic Dancing and Yogic Practice on Psychological Variables among College Women Students

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. R. Kalaiarasi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out the effects of aerobic dancing and yogic practice on psychological variables among college women students. To achieve this purpose of the study, sixty college women students of Arulmigu Palani Andavar Arts College for Women, Palani, Tamilnadu, were selected as subjects, and their age was between eighteen to twenty five years. The selected sixty students were divided into three equal groups, the experimental group – 1 (n = 20 AD) underwent Aerobic Dancin...

  13. College Presidents and Black Student Protests: A Historical Perspective on the Image of Racial Inclusion and the Reality of Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Eddie R.

    2018-01-01

    This essay revisits college presidents during the early 1960s to investigate the long history of how academic leaders manage racial unrest on college campuses. Throughout time, the concept of a welcoming and inclusive climate for black students on majority-white campuses has functioned as an illusion alongside the prevailing reality of racism on…

  14. Connecting Self-Esteem and Achievement: Diversity in Academic Identification and Dis-Identification Patterns among Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Elan C.; Chavous, Tabbye M.; Jagers, Robert J.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Using a person-oriented approach, we explored patterns of self-esteem and achievement among 324 Black college students across the freshman college year and identified four academic identification profiles. Multivariate analyses revealed profile differences in academic and psychological outcomes at beginning and end of freshman year (academic…

  15. Obesity Status and Body Satisfaction: Are There Differences between African American College Females at Black and White Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Bonds, Jennifer R.

    2006-01-01

    The goals of this project were to 1) assess obesity status and body satisfaction among African American college students, and 2) to compare differences in these variables between students at a predominantly white university (PWU) and a historically black college and university (HBCU). Four hundred and two undergraduate females completed a…

  16. To "Bring the Race Along Rapidly": Sport, Student Culture, and Educational Mission at Historically Black Colleges during the Interwar Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patrick B.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role and impact of college athletics at historically black colleges during the period between the two world wars. Maintains that sports became a source of pride and a vehicle for social change. Concludes, however, that there is substantial reason to be skeptical about the efficacy of sport to overcome racial prejudice. (CFR)

  17. VERANO DE 1948. BUCKMINSTER FULLER EN BLACK MOUNTAIN COLLEGE. LA ARQUITECTURA COMO ACONTECIMIENTO / Summer 1948. Buckminster Fuller at Black Mountain college. Architecture as an event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Muñoz Jiménez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. El paso de Buckminster Fuller por Black Mountain College, y que ha asociado permanentemente su nombre al de esta institución de North Carolina, se concentra y se limita a tres episodios: el experimento fracasado de erigir una cúpula geodésica con ayuda de los estudiantes en el verano de 1948, su participación en la obra de Eric Satie promovida por Cage y Cunnigham ese mismo verano, y su nuevo experimento con una cúpula geodésica en 1949, esta vez sí conseguido con ayuda del equipo de ingenieros que había realizado los cálculos estructurales. Es cierto que la mayoría del tiempo pasado en North Carolina fue dedicado por Fuller a sus conferencias y conversaciones con profesores y alumnos, a exponer sus teorías sobre los temas más diversos e incluso a la lectura de sus poemas. Pero queda en la memoria colectiva únicamente el dato de que fue allí, en Black Mountain, donde Buckminster Fuller erigió la primera cúpula geodésica de su carrera, una de las construcciones más identificadas con él y cuya ambición de cubrir grandes espacios, o incluso ciudades enteras, estaba muy lejos de lo limitado de ese primer ensayo con una burbuja de vinilo multicolor que no sobrepasaba las dimensiones de una cabaña. SUMMARY. The time spent by Buckminster Fuller at Black Mountain College, and which has permanently associated his name to this North Carolina institution, is focused upon, and limited to, three episodes: the failed experiment to erect a geodesic dome with the help of the students during the summer of 1948; his participation in the work of Eric Satie promoted by Cage and Cunningham that same summer; and, his new experiment with a geodesic dome in 1949, this time with the help of the engineering team which had made the structural calculations. Most of the time spent by Fuller in North Carolina was dedicated to his lectures and conversations with teachers and students, to expound his theories on the most diverse subjects and even

  18. Mentoring college-age women: a relational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Belle; Tracy, Allison J; Taylor, Catherine A; Williams, Linda M

    2002-04-01

    Despite the popularity of mentoring programs, the relational dimension of mentoring has not been elucidated. Traditional conceptions of mentoring may exclude factors that are particularly important for women and girls, thus limiting the efficacy of mentoring programs for female adolescents. We suggest that the presence of relational qualities in the mentoring relationship (e.g., empathy, engagement, authenticity, and empowerment) strongly influences the success of mentoring in the lives of young women. In this study, we use a promising new measure of mentoring, the Relational Health Index - Mentor, to explore the impact of relational aspects of mentoring in female college students. We found that mentoring relationships high in relational qualities were associated with higher self-esteem and less loneliness

  19. Lifetime marijuana use and sexually transmitted infection history in a sample of Black college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Larry; Blanden, Gwenna; Rehmani, Nasreen

    2016-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and marijuana use are more prevalent in African Americans/Blacks (Blacks) than any other ethnicity in the United States. Given the significant health care costs and deleterious health correlates of using marijuana or contracting a STI, it is imperative to examine their association, especially in the vulnerable and underrepresented group of young adult Blacks. The current study examines the association between lifetime marijuana use on history of STI diagnosis in a sample of Black college students. Approximately 81% of the 213 participants were female, with approximately 81% also being 21years of age or younger. Alcohol (88%) led the prevalence of substances ever used, followed by marijuana (75%), and cigarettes (57%). When including demographic and substance use covariates, lifetime marijuana use (AOR=2.51; 95% CIs, 1.01, 6.21) and age (AOR=2.72; 95% CIs, 1.32, 5.64) were associated with history of STI. These findings will inform intervention and prevention methods used to reduce STI prevalence and marijuana use among Black young adults. Both epidemiological and biological foundations will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. School Climate and College Attendance for Black Adolescents: Moving Beyond College-Going Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kelly A; Benner, Aprile D

    2018-03-01

    Understanding how contexts promote positive educational outcomes is a critical objective of adolescent research. This study provides support for the established link between school climate and educational outcomes and expands our understanding of this association by examining multiple aspects of school climate in a sample of Black adolescents in the United States (N = 1,740). Data were drawn from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, and multinomial logistic regression and multiple group modeling in a structural equation modeling framework revealed that Black high school students' perceptions of school safety, school liking, and academic press were associated with enrollment in higher education. Null moderation results suggest that these facets of school climate operate similarly for all students regardless of their gender or socioeconomic status. © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  1. Employment gains and wage declines: the erosion of black women's relative wages since 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Becky; Ewert, Stephanie

    2009-08-01

    Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions have been arguably less progressive for black women's employment and earnings: through the 1980s, 1990s, and the first half of the 2000s, the wage gap between black and white women widened considerably. Using data from the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-MORG), this article documents the racial wage gap among women in the United States from 1979 to 2005. We investigate how demographic and labor market conditions influence employment and wage inequality among black and white women over the period. Although shifts in labor supply influence the magnitude of the black-white wage gap among women, structural disadvantages faced by black women help explain the growth in the racial wage gap.

  2. The High Fertility of College Educated Women in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available College education has a positive impact on birth rates, net of age and duration since previous birth, according to models estimated separately for second and third births. There are also indications of such effects on first-birth rates, in the upper 20s and 30s. Whereas a high fertility among the better-educated perhaps could be explained by socioeconomic or ideational factors, it might just as well be a result of selection. When all three parity transitions are modelled jointly, with a common unobserved factor included, negative effects of educational level appear. On the whole, the effects are less clearly negative for women born in the 1950s than for those born in the 1940s or late 1930s. The cohorts from the 1950s show educational differentials in completed fertility that are quite small and to a large extent stem from a higher proportion of childlessness among the better-educated. Second-birth progression ratios are just as high for the college educated as for women with only compulsory education, and the third-birth progression ratios differ very little. This reflects weakly negative net effects of education after first birth and spill-over effects from the higher age at first birth, counterbalanced by differential selectivity of earlier parity transitions.

  3. Self-objectification, body shame, and disordered eating: Testing a core mediational model of objectification theory among White, Black, and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lauren M; Burke, Natasha L; Calogero, Rachel M; Menzel, Jessie E; Krawczyk, Ross; Thompson, J Kevin

    2018-03-01

    Objectification theory asserts that self-objectification, which manifests as self-surveillance, leads to increased body shame and subsequent eating pathology. Although evidence supports the core mediational model, the majority of this work utilizes primarily White samples, limiting generalizability to other ethnic groups. The current study examined whether the core tenets of objectification theory generalize to Black and Hispanic women. Participants were 880 college women from the United States (71.7% White, 15.1% Hispanic, 13.2% Black) who completed self-report measures of self-surveillance, body shame, and disordered eating. Multivariate analysis of variance tests indicated lower levels of self-surveillance and disordered eating among Black women. Moreover, body shame mediated the relationship between self-surveillance and disordered eating for White and Hispanic women, but not for Black women. These analyses support growing evidence for the role of body shame as a mediator between body surveillance and eating pathology, but only for women in certain ethnic groups. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Inner City Women in White Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bernice J.

    1973-01-01

    Overviews the recent movement toward career education within continuing education at the higher educational level, addressing the needs of Black people and particularly those of mature Black women in a college setting. (Author/JM)

  5. The Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions Environmental Technology Consortium annual report 1994--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The HBCU/MI ET Consortium was established in January 1990, through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) among its member institutions. This group of research oriented Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions (HBCU/MIs) agreed to work together to initiate or revise education programs, develop research partnerships with public and private sector organizations, and promote technology development to address the nation`s critical environmental contamination problems. The Consortium`s Research, Education and Technology Transfer (RETT) Plan became the working agenda. The Consortium is a resource for collaboration among the member institutions and with federal an state agencies, national and federal laboratories, industries, (including small businesses), majority universities, and two and four-year technical colleges. As a group of 17 institutions geographically located in the southern US, the Consortium is well positioned to reach a diverse group of women and minority populations of African Americans, Hispanics and American Indians. This Report provides a status update on activities and achievements in environmental curriculum development, outreach at the K--12 level, undergraduate and graduate education, research and development, and technology transfer.

  6. Sex Ratio at Birth and Racial Differences: Why Do Black Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    KEY WORDS: Birth, Race, Sex ratio, Sub-Saharan black women. 1Dr. Amadu Jacky ... in the majority of countries or societies in the world. .... Caribbean nations with majority Black populations is 1.03, the same as the average for all of Africa and for African. Americans. 1. The two important questions then that will be asked in ...

  7. Who Should Mentor Me? Giving a Voice to Black Women Athletic Training Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siple, Bonnie J.; Hopson, Rodney K.; Sobehart, Helen C.; Turocy, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Black women are dramatically underrepresented in the health care profession of athletic training. It may be theorized that one of the reasons more black female students are not entering into the profession of athletic training is that they do not have adequate mentors to successfully guide them. Objective: The purpose of our qualitative…

  8. Utilisation of maternity services by black women in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the. Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (fanns) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...

  9. Utilisation of maternity services by black women in rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to evaluate the utilisation of maternal services for black women in the Orange Free State. Two hundred and forty clusters were selected from the rural (farms) and urban (local authorities) black population and eight households were interviewed in each cluster. Information was ...

  10. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  11. Leadership Development for Health Researchers at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Braithwaite, Kisha; Oliver, Desiree; Holliday, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) have traditionally been a magnet for Black students at all levels nationwide and have been an exemplar of mentorship models for preparing leaders in many fields. A research career development program for junior faculty scholars that leverages the unique strengths of HBCUs has the potential to promote diverse leadership in health research and advance practical understanding of how to address HIV/AIDS and related health challenges that ravage vulnerable communities. A program that creates institutional bonds between HBCUs and other academic institutions can create a groundbreaking framework for more-effective community-based participatory research. We present a rationale for supporting an HBCU-led collaborative research program, one that both advances junior faculty and explores the interrelationship between HIV/AIDS, mental health, and substance abuse through research in correctional facilities. PMID:19246669

  12. Storytellers: The Image of the Two-Year College in American Fiction and in Women's Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPaglia, Nancy

    Finding that community colleges and their female students are rarely and disparagingly depicted in fiction motivated this study of the image of community colleges in literature, movies, and television. The study also sought to compare this image with that emerging from the journal entries of 23 women community college students and 14 faculty…

  13. Factors Influencing Japanese Women to Choose Two-Year Colleges in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges in Japan have traditionally absorbed the major portion of female college entrants due to long-held gender stereotypes. Recently, Japanese women began to explore selfhood outside the traditional realm of marriage and motherhood. However, two-year colleges in Japan today continue to enroll mostly female students and few male…

  14. The State of Black Education: The Politics of Educating African American Students at Colleges and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earnest N. Bracey, Ph.D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In terms of higher education for African American students, the “school-to-prison pipeline” or Prison Industrial Complex must be totally dismantled in order to focus entirely on academic performance at colleges and universities and HBCUs. Additionally, mentors should be identified to tutor and guide and help black youngsters overcome their fear of learning and going to school, so that our whole society can benefit and improve academically. Finally, in this respect, we-the-people can move our nation forward by graduating people of color at higher institutions of learning, while providing them with a more productive life, and social advancement.

  15. Severe physical violence and Black women's health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Krim K; Sears, Karen Powell; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the association between intimate partner violence and the mental and physical health status of US Caribbean Black and African American women. We used 2001 to 2003 cross-sectional data from the National Survey of American Life-the most detailed study to date of physical and mental health disorders of Americans of African descent. We assessed participants' health conditions by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (Washington, DC; American Psychological Association) Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We found differences in health conditions between abused African American and Caribbean Black women. There were increased risks for lifetime dysthymia, alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and poor perceived health for African American victims of partner abuse, and binge eating disorder was associated with partner violence among Caribbean Black women. Severe intimate partner violence was associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes for US Black women, with different patterns between African American and Caribbean Blacks. Understanding intimate partner violence experiences of US Black women requires recognition of key intragroup differences, including nativity and immigrant status, and their differential relationships to women's health.

  16. College Women's Reactions to Sexual Assault Research Participation: Is It Distressing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M.; Kearns, Megan C.; Calhoun, Karen S.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed college women's reactions to participating in sexual assault research. Women with sexual victimization histories reported more negative emotional reactions than nonvictimized women, but also greater benefits. Benefits to research participation outweighed costs for both women with and without sexual victimization histories.…

  17. Report on the Status of Women Faculty at Boston State College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ad Hoc Committee on the Status of Women, Boston State Coll., MA.

    Since 1948 when the first two male students were admitted to the previously all female Boston State College, the status, number and percentage of women at the college has declined considerably both in student and faculty ratios. Hiring and promotion practices at BSC have been such that a clear pattern of discriminatory practices against women can…

  18. Cultural Values, Counseling Stigma, and Intentions to Seek Counseling among Asian American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miville, Marie L.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2007-01-01

    The authors explored the extent to which Asian American college women's perceived stigma about counseling mediated the relationship between their adherence to Asian cultural values and intentions to seek counseling, Participants, 201 Asian American college women (age range = 18-24 years), completed measures of Asian cultural values, perceived…

  19. Eating Disorder Symptomotology: The Role of Ethnic Identity in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avina, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    A relative large number of women on college campuses report experiencing eating afflictions. About 61% of college women indicated that they either occasionally or regularly used extreme measures to control their weight (Mintz & Betz, 1988). No clear consensus on the relative prevalence of eating disorder symptoms across ethnic groups has…

  20. Using a Reasoned Action Approach to Examine US College Women's Intention to Get the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although at high risk of contracting the human papillomavirus (HPV), less than one-half of US college women have been vaccinated. The purpose of this study was to identify underlying factors influencing college women's intention to get the HPV vaccine via developing an instrument using the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA). Setting: Data…

  1. A Qualitative Study of African American Women in Engineering Technology Programs in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…

  2. A Pilot Study Applying Social Cognitive Theory to Predict HPV Vaccination Intentions of Unvaccinated College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Hannah Priest; Knowlden, Adam P.; Sharma, Manoj; Franzidis, Alexia

    2016-01-01

    Although college-aged women are at high risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, many college women remain unvaccinated against HPV. Testing health behavior theory can assist sexuality educators in identifying behavioral antecedents to promote behavior change within an intervention. The purpose of this pilot study was to utilize social…

  3. Hispanic Parents' Conflict Tactics Influence on College Women's Verbal Aggression Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Shannon M.; Stephens, Dionne P.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research has shown that college women in the United States are experiencing significantly high rates of verbal aggression (VA); approximately 20% to 30% of college women experience VA in their intimate relationships. Research has shown that familial conflict experiences directly influence these outcomes. Unfortunately, studies focusing on…

  4. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Effect of Social Interaction Anxiety on Sexual Victimization Risk among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…

  5. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrated by College Women within the Context of a History of Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Kelly N.; Sechrist, Stacy M.; White, Jacquelyn W.; Paradise, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, the current study explored intimate partner violence perpetration among 1,300 college women within the context of one's history of physical and sexual victimization across 4 years of college. Structural equation modeling indicated that sexual victimization does not predict concurrent use of women's intimate partner…

  6. Status of underrepresented minority and female faculty at medical schools located within Historically Black Colleges and in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Mader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To assess the impact of medical school location in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU and Puerto Rico (PR on the proportion of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM and women hired in faculty and leadership positions at academic medical institutions. Method: AAMC 2013 faculty roster data for allopathic medical schools were used to compare the racial/ethnic and gender composition of faculty and chair positions at medical schools located within HBCU and PR to that of other medical schools in the United States. Data were compared using independent sample t-tests. Results: Women were more highly represented in HBCU faculty (mean HBCU 43.5% vs. non-HBCU 36.5%, p=0.024 and chair (mean HBCU 30.1% vs. non-HBCU 15.6%, p=0.005 positions and in PR chair positions (mean PR 38.23% vs. non-PR 15.38%, p=0.016 compared with other allopathic institutions. HBCU were associated with increased African American representation in faculty (mean HBCU 59.5% vs. non-HBCU 2.6%, p=0.011 and chair (mean HBCU 73.1% vs. non-HBCU 2.2%, p≤0.001 positions. PR designation was associated with increased faculty (mean PR 75.40% vs. non-PR 3.72%, p≤0.001 and chair (mean PR 75.00% vs. non-PR 3.54%, p≤0.001 positions filled by Latinos/Hispanics. Conclusions: Women and African Americans are better represented in faculty and leadership positions at HBCU, and women and Latino/Hispanics at PR medical schools, than they are at allopathic peer institutions.

  7. Status of underrepresented minority and female faculty at medical schools located within Historically Black Colleges and in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Emily M.; Rodríguez, José E.; Campbell, Kendall M.; Smilnak, Timothy; Bazemore, Andrew W.; Petterson, Stephen; Morley, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives To assess the impact of medical school location in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) and Puerto Rico (PR) on the proportion of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) and women hired in faculty and leadership positions at academic medical institutions. Method AAMC 2013 faculty roster data for allopathic medical schools were used to compare the racial/ethnic and gender composition of faculty and chair positions at medical schools located within HBCU and PR to that of other medical schools in the United States. Data were compared using independent sample t-tests. Results Women were more highly represented in HBCU faculty (mean HBCU 43.5% vs. non-HBCU 36.5%, p=0.024) and chair (mean HBCU 30.1% vs. non-HBCU 15.6%, p=0.005) positions and in PR chair positions (mean PR 38.23% vs. non-PR 15.38%, p=0.016) compared with other allopathic institutions. HBCU were associated with increased African American representation in faculty (mean HBCU 59.5% vs. non-HBCU 2.6%, p=0.011) and chair (mean HBCU 73.1% vs. non-HBCU 2.2%, p≤0.001) positions. PR designation was associated with increased faculty (mean PR 75.40% vs. non-PR 3.72%, p≤0.001) and chair (mean PR 75.00% vs. non-PR 3.54%, p≤0.001) positions filled by Latinos/Hispanics. Conclusions Women and African Americans are better represented in faculty and leadership positions at HBCU, and women and Latino/Hispanics at PR medical schools, than they are at allopathic peer institutions. PMID:26968254

  8. Improving body image and sexual health behaviors among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Stephanie L; Campagna, Bianca; Brochu, Hadley; Odermatt, Meline; Annunziato, Rachel A

    2018-03-22

    To conduct a pilot test to determine if the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program, was able to reduce risky sexual behaviors. Twenty college-age women ages 18-21 (in March, 2015) who endorsed both body image dissatisfaction and previous or current sexual activity. Participants were randomized to the Body Project or psychoeducational control group, and completed baseline, post-test, and 6-month follow-up measures assessing body image concerns, eating behaviors, and sexual behaviors and attitudes. An intervention manipulation check demonstrated that body image variables were in expected directions, though were not significant by group. There was a significant interaction across group and time for "unanticipated sexual encounters," which decreased in the Body Project group. This pilot study supports the feasibility of using an eating disorder prevention program to reduce other risky behaviors, specifically risky sexual behavior.

  9. HIV sexual risk behavior in older black women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanyka K; Larson, Elaine L

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major public health concern in the United States, particularly among older Black women who comprise approximately 40% of the newly diagnosed cases among women. This systematic review sought to answer the research question: What are the sexual practices in older Black women associated with HIV risk? CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Knowledge electronic databases were searched for English-language research studies published between 2003 and 2013 that focused on the HIV sexual risk practices of Black women over the age of 50. Using PRISMA guidelines, two reviewers independently reviewed and appraised the quality of relevant articles; agreement of select studies was achieved by consensus. Among the 3,167 articles surveyed, 9 met inclusion criteria. The majority (88%) were quantitative, observational studies. All nine articles addressed at least one of three factors that contribute to HIV sexual risk: Behavioral (inconsistent condom use and multiple sexual partners), psychological (risk perception, depression/stress, trauma, and self-esteem issues), and social factors (economics, education, and drugs/alcohol use). Outcome measures varied across studies. Although this systematic review appraised few studies, findings suggest that many older Black women are engaged in HIV risk-taking practices. Clinicians and researchers need to be aware of the HIV risk practices of older Black women to improve health outcomes through education, effective communication and risk appraisal. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-03-13

    Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. 94 women aged 33-91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012-2013. There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma, raise awareness, increase discussion of breast cancer and promote

  11. The Church: Black Catholic Women Religious in Antebellum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the formation of the Oblate Sisters of Providence and the Congregation of the Holy Family, two orders of Black nuns founded in the American South prior to the Civil War for the purposes of educating Black children and caring for orphans and elderly, abandoned slaves. (GC)

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about contraceptive and sexual consent negotiation among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Sutherland, Melissa A; Fontenot, Holly; Ierardi, Janet A

    2014-01-01

    College women have the highest rates of sexual violence, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy compared with women in all other age groups. Although much is known about sexual risk behaviors among college women, less is known about how women negotiate consent for contraceptive use during sexual encounters. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore college women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about contraceptive and sexual consent during dating relationships. Twenty-six women participated in five focus groups on two college campuses in the northeastern United States. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. The three main categories that emerged from the analysis included the influence of alcohol on sexual behaviors, lack of negotiation for sexual consent and contraceptive use, and fear of pregnancy. The results of this study highlight the complex social interactions and norms that college women encounter when making decisions regarding sexual activity and contraceptive use. The results of this study can inform the role of college health providers and forensic nurses to promote sexual health and safety when they interact with college women.

  13. From Mammy to Superwoman: Images that Hinder Black Women's Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Dobbs, Wendy; Thomas, Kecia M.; Harrison, Matthew S.

    2008-01-01

    Black women, like other women of color, find themselves at the intersection of both racism and sexism in the workplace. Due to their unique dual status as racial and gender minorities, they encounter unique and unexplored barriers that inhibit their career as well as leadership development. The goal of this article is to highlight the emerging…

  14. Sex ratio at birth and racial differences: Why do Black women give ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two important questions that this paper will attempt to answer are: (1) why is it that regardless of race/ethnicity or geographic location, the sex ratio data at birth show more males than females?; and (2) Why is it that regardless of geographic location compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Black women or Women of ...

  15. Toward the Development of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Witherspoon, Karen McCurtis; Speight, Suzette L.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary findings on the validation of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale (SRBWS) are presented. A sample of 186 African American women took the SRBWS along with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B. A confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor structure of the scale, and moderate…

  16. Equity Issues and Black-White Differences in Women's ERA Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Susan E.

    1990-01-01

    Using data from 1982 National Opinion Research (NORC) General Social Survey, examines women's support for the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) by analyzing attitudes about gender and racial equality, and socioeconomic status. Explains Black women's higher ERA approval as deriving from gender-role attitudes, but more important, from experience with,…

  17. Black and white women in Maryland receive different treatment for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Saroj; Schluterman, Nicholas H; Tracy, J Katthleen; Temkin, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Despite an overall decrease in incidence, the death rate from cervical cancer in the United States remains higher in black women than their white counterparts. We examined the Maryland Cancer Registry (MCR) to determine treatment factors that may explain differences in outcomes between races in the state of Maryland. Incident cervical cancers in the MCR 1992-2008 were examined. Demographics, tumor characteristics and treatments were compared between races and over time. Our analysis included 2034 (1301 white, 733 black) patients. Black women were more likely to have locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis (p<0.01). They were more likely to receive any radiation or chemotherapy combined with radiation and less likely to receive surgery (p<0.01). When adjusted for stage and insurance status black women had 1.50 (95% CI 1.20-1.87) times the odds of receiving radiation and 1.43 (95% CI 1.11-1.82) times the odds of receiving chemotherapy. Black women with cervical cancer had 0.51 times the adjusted odds (95% CI 0.41-0.65) of receiving surgery compared to white women. Racial differences in treatment did not change significantly over time. Surgical treatment for newly diagnosed cervical cancer in the state of Maryland was significantly less common amongst black women than white during our study period. Equivalent treatments are not being administered to white and black patients with cervical cancer in Maryland. Differences in care may contribute to racial disparities in outcomes for women with cervical cancer.

  18. Vignettes of scholars: A case study of black male students at a STEM early college high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Tempestt Richardson

    Ensuring students graduate high school ready to enter college or the workforce has become a prime focus within secondary education. High school graduates are often ill-prepared for college-level work and often have to register for remedial courses before they can take standard college level courses (Southern Regional Education Board, 2010). Serving as both a solution to this concern and an alternative to traditional high schools, early college high schools were created to focus on increasing the number of students graduating from high school and enrolling in college. Early college high schools seek to serve students who have traditionally underperformed in school and those who are underrepresented in higher education including students of color, first-generation college students, students from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and English language learners (Barnett, Bucceri, Hindo, Kim, 2013; "Overview & FAQS," 2013). In efforts to learn more about how early colleges are meeting the needs of students, this dissertation examines the experiences, identity construction, and perceptions of Black male students at a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) based early college high school. Using a qualitative case study design, participants were eight Black male upperclassmen enrolled in a STEM early college high school, located on the campus of a four-year university. Data was collected through focus groups and individual interviews and data was analyzed thematically. Findings suggest students in this study have largely positive experiences at their early college high school. Despite some challenges, the early college high school environment helps facilitate scholar identities, and the STEM focus of the school helps students learn more about their strengths and weaknesses. The implications of the research, recommendations for educational stakeholders, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  19. Physical dating violence victimization in college women in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2010-05-01

    There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n = 441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of

  20. Rape Myths, Rape Scripts, and Common Rape Experiences of College Women: Differences in Perceptions of Women Who Have Been Raped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn

    2016-03-01

    Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. The College Choice Process of the Women Who Gender Integrated America's Military Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Stacy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1976 and again in 1995, several brave women chose to enroll at--and thereby to "gender integrate"--America's military colleges. In 1976, women were admitted to the Department of Defense (DOD) service academies after an Act of Congress changed a law so as to allow for their matriculation. Beginning in 1995, women were admitted to state-supported…

  2. Body Objectification, Social Pressure, and Disordered Eating Behavior in College Women: The Role of Sorority Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Foran, Kelly A.; Bookwala, Jamila

    2007-01-01

    Social pressure to conform to the thin ideal is believed to play a decisive role in the development of eating disorders. In this field study at a college with only sophomore rush, 99 sorority women, 80 nonsorority women past their first year, and 86 first-year women completed three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (Garner, 1991), the…

  3. Changing Lives and Potential Leadership: A Study of West Virginian Women Returning to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicke-Nelson, Rita; Ewen, Lynda Ann

    1997-01-01

    An exploratory study examined the characteristics and attitudes of 78 West Virginia women, age 25 and older, who enrolled in a state college after an absence from schooling. The women were embedded in traditional Appalachian networks of family, church, and community but demonstrated quite liberal social attitudes toward women's roles, abortion,…

  4. Sacralized Citizenship: Women Making Known Selves in an Islamic Teachers' College in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdreich, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in an Islamic teachers' college in Israel and interviews with women lecturers, this article explores how the women combine education and religion to create a revitalized self and sense of belonging despite lived experiences of structural racial, national, and gender inequalities. The women's experience is understood…

  5. The Role of Women's Colleges and Universities in Providing Access to Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Kristen A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on a qualitative, comparative, multiple case study of the contributions and status of 21st century women's colleges and universities, this article analyzes the topic of women's access to postsecondary education in ten nations. Despite decreasing numbers of women-only institutions in some regions (e.g., North America), the sector is growing…

  6. A Preliminary Probe into the Difficulties College Women Encounter in Job Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guilin

    1989-01-01

    Investigates factors contributing to difficulties faced by China's female college graduates seeking a job. Suggests publicizing the idea of women's liberation while increasing the training of women, correcting the expectations of the traditional role, eliminating the idea of child rearing as a personal matter, and protecting women in the course of…

  7. College Women's Aggression in Relationships: The Role of Childhood and Adolescent Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M.; Desai, Angeli D.; Gidycz, Christine A.; VanWynsberghe, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Despite growing evidence suggesting that women engage in verbal and physical dating aggression, there is a dearth of research examining the predictors of women's engagement in these behaviors. Utilizing a college sample, the purpose of the current study was to explore women's perpetration of dating aggression within the context of victimization…

  8. A Sprinkle of Pepper: The State of Black Influence in White Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Frank W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of Blacks in white institutions of higher education is no more than a sprinkling of pepper. The article discusses some problems facing the Black students, Black faculty and Black administrators at these schools. (Author/HMV)

  9. High risk of metabolic syndrome among black South African women with severe mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamima Saloojee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI globally. The prevalence of MetS is higher in black women compared to black men from South Africa. Aim: To compare the prevalence of MetS between black South African men and women with SMI taking antipsychotic medication. Further, this prevalence was compared to the prevalence in a matched control group of black South African men and women without SMI. Setting: A general hospital psychiatric unit. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare the prevalence of MetS in a group of multi-ethnic participants with SMI treated with antipsychotic medication and a matched control group without SMI, applying the 2009 Joint Interim Statement (JIS criteria. Here, we included only the black African participants to compare MetS prevalence between men and women. Results: There were 232 participants in the group with SMI (male 155 and female 77 and without SMI (male 156 and female 76. The prevalence of MetS was more than three times higher in women with SMI compared to men with SMI (37.7% vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of MetS in men or women between the groups with and without SMI. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female gender (odds ratio [OR] 7.66, advancing age (OR 1.08 and longer duration of illness (OR = 1.15 were significant risk factors for MetS in SMI. Conclusion: In black South Africans with SMI on antipsychotic medication, there is a higher prevalence and risk for MetS in women compared to men.

  10. Sociological Perspectives on College Women's Pathways to Persistence in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Felkner, Lara

    2014-03-01

    While there have been notable gains made by some STEM disciplines in closing the gender gap, physics is among the few fields where gender disparities persist. Drawing on both original and secondary data analyses, the speaker will explain how background characteristics and school environments shape persistence on the track to careers in physics and related majors (e.g., engineering and computer science). Recent sociological findings will be emphasized, with particular attention to the speaker's current and published findings from nationally-representative U.S. cohorts and case studies from U.S. high schools and universities, Cambodian universities, and cross-national comparisons. Using a longitudinal framework, the speaker will discuss potential interventions to keep women on the path to physics degrees through secondary school, the transition to college, and undergraduate study. The presentation will additionally discuss how students' racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status and university type influence variation in the scope of gender disparities in entry to scientific career fields, of particular note as the demographics of the undergraduate population and the labor force become increasingly diverse and increasingly less dependent on training within traditional four-year institutions. Emerging evidence across these types of data indicate that the persistent sex segregation in physics is not attributable to biological nor academic factors; rather, these traditional explanations consistently fail to explain the gap. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of potential interventions that faculty, institutions, and the field can draw upon to promote women's persistence in physics degrees and careers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants Nos. 0129365 and 0815295, and a grant from the American Educational Research Association, under NSF Grant No. DRL-0941014, and the Pathways to Adulthood Program.

  11. Anginal symptoms, coronary artery disease, and adverse outcomes in Black and White women: the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Johnson, B Delia; Rutledge, Thomas; Bittner, Vera; Whittaker, Kerry S; Krantz, David S; Cornell, Carol E; Eteiba, Wafia; Handberg, Eileen; Vido, Diane; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2013-09-01

    Black women are less likely to be evaluated and treated for anginal symptoms, despite a higher premature cardiac mortality rate compared to white women. Our objective was to compare angina symptoms in black versus white women regarding (1) angina symptoms characterization; (2) relationship with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD); and (3) relationship with subsequent mortality. A cohort of 466 women (69 black and 397 white) undergoing coronary angiography for suspected ischemia and without prior history of CAD completed symptom checklists. Four symptom clusters (CHEST, UPPER, STOMACH, and TYPICAL TRIGGERS) were derived by factor analysis. All angiograms were analyzed by core lab. Mortality data over 10 years were obtained from National Death Index. (1) Black women had lower mean CHEST cluster scores (0.60±0.30 vs. 0.73±30, p=0.002), but higher STOMACH scores (0.41±0.25 vs. 0.30±0.25, p=0.011) than white women. (2) Prevalence and severity of CAD did not differ in black and white women and was not predicted by symptom cluster scores. (3) All-cause mortality rates were 24.9% in blacks versus 14.5% in whites, p=0.007; and cardiovascular mortality 22.5% vs.8.8%, p=0.001. Symptom clusters were not predictive of adverse events in white women. However, black women with a low TYPICAL score had significantly higher mortality compared to those with a high TYPICAL score (43% vs. 10%, p=0.006). Among women undergoing coronary angiography, black women report fewer chest-related and more stomach-related symptoms, regardless of presence or severity of CAD, and these racial symptom presentation differences are linked with the more adverse prognosis observed in the black women. Atypical symptom presentation may be a barrier to appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment and contribute to poorer outcomes for black women.

  12. Black, queer, and looking for a job: an exploratory study of career decision making among self-identified sexual minorities at an urban historically black college/university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Latashia N

    2014-01-01

    This thematically analyzed study seeks to explore the career decision perceptions of sexual minority college students at an urban historically black college/university (HBCU). This qualitative focus group study delved into how sexual minorities feel their visible variables of race, gender expression, and degree of disclosure influence their career thought process. Theories relative to the study included Krumboltz's social learning theory of career decision-making, gender role theory, racial socialization, Cass's homosexual identity model, and impression management. Though participants initially proclaimed they did not allow their sexual minority identity to affect their career decisions, their overall responses indicated otherwise.

  13. Perspectives of Fitness and Health in College Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Jennifer J.; Dieser, Rodney B.

    2010-01-01

    Because many college students engage in low levels of physical activity, the current study used a qualitative framework to interview 11 college students to examine the meaning physically active college students assign to the practice of fitness and health. Students discussed the importance of healthy eating, but that it was difficult to accomplish…

  14. Angiogenic imbalance as a contributor to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia among black African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeme, Allen; Buga, Geoffrey A; Mammen, MaryKutty; Namugowa, Ambrose V

    2017-06-01

    The pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains unclear despite extensive research. Altered angiogenic balance has been hypothesized to play a significant role in the clinical manifestations of this syndrome. However this imbalance has not been investigated extensively among black African women. The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal levels of the angiogenic factors soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFLT1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) among black African women with preeclampsia. A case control study was conducted in the Mthatha hospital complex in South Africa including 51 women with preeclampsia and 82 women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Blood samples were drawn from participants and serum was used to assess sFLT1, and PlGF levels quantified using specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Non- parametric statistics were used for analysis. Black African women with preeclampsia were found to have significantly lower levels of PlGF (90.3 ± 8.9 pg/ml versus 172.8 ± 20.2 pg/ml; p preeclampsia among black African women as reported in other populations.

  15. Do Cultural Attitudes Matter? The Role of Cultural Orientation on Academic Self-Concept among Black/African College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendi S.; Chung, Y. Barry

    2013-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between academic self-concept and noncognitive variables (i.e., Africentric cultural orientation, academic class level, gender, and involvement in culturally relevant school and community activities) among Black/African college students. Results indicated that Africentric cultural orientation and academic…

  16. Reimagining the Historically Black College and University (HBCU) Environment: Exposing Race Secrets and the Binding Chains of Respectability and Othermothering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, Nadrea; Butler, Malika; Beatty, Cameron C.

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how the intersections of gender, race, policy, and student differences at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) can impact student experience. Such an environment can displace and penalize those who do not adhere to the uniformity of heteronormative gender roles or respectability politics. Using…

  17. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  18. A safety app to respond to dating violence for college women and their friends: the MyPlan study randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Clough, Amber; Case, James; Hanson, Ginger; Barnes-Hoyt, Jamie; Waterbury, Amy; Alhusen, Jeanne; Ehrensaft, Miriam; Grace, Karen Trister; Perrin, Nancy

    2015-09-08

    Research demonstrates high rates of physical and sexual victimization of women by intimate partners on college campuses (Black et al. 2001). College women in abusive relationships must weigh complex factors (health, academics, economics, and social stigma) during critical decision-making regarding the relationship. Rather than access formal support systems (e.g., campus security, administrators, counselors), research indicates abused college women most often turn to informal networks; specifically friends (Perspect Psychiatr Care 41:162-171, 2005), who often lack the knowledge or resources to provide effective support (Nurs Res 54(4):235-242, 2005). Decision aids have been shown to assist with health-related decisions by improving knowledge, creating realistic expectations, and resolving decisional conflict (Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:1-332, 2014). This study is a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of an interactive safety decision aid web-based and smartphone application (App) for abused college women and their friends. Three hundred female college students experiencing abuse and three hundred friends of female college students experiencing abuse will be recruited in Maryland and Oregon and randomized to either the intervention safety decision aid, accessible by website or smartphone App, or a usual safety planning control website/App. The intervention App allows users to enter information on: a) relationship health; b) safety priorities; and c) severity of violence/danger in relationship. The App uses this information to provide personalized safety planning information and resources. Self-reported outcome measures for abused college women on safety seeking behaviors, decisional conflict, IPV exposure and mental health will be collected at baseline, six, and 12-months post-baseline via the study App/website. Outcomes measured for friends are IPV awareness, confidence to intervene, supportive behaviors and decisional conflict. Protocols for

  19. Black women queering the mic: Missy Elliott disturbing the boundaries of racialized sexuality and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Nikki

    2011-01-01

    Though there were and always have been djs, dancers, graffiti artists, and rappers who were Black women, they are placed on the periphery of hip-hop culture; their voices, along with "gay rappers" and "white rappers" devalued and their contribution to the global rise of hip-hop either forgotten or eschewed. This article is an attempt to articulate the existence of Black women who work outside of the paradigms of the "silence, secrecy, and a partially self-chosen invisibility" that Evelynn Hammonds describes. At the center of this article lies an attempt to locate a new configuration and expression of desire and sexuality, opening a door, wide open, to gain a different view of Black women, their sexuality, their expression of it, and the complexities that arise when they attempt to express it in hip hop nation language.

  20. The association of alcohol consumption with tobacco use in Black and White college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Steven C; Stevens, Susanna R; Werch, Chudley E; Carlson, Joan M; Schroeder, Darrell R; Kiros, Gebre-Egziabher; Kershaw, Josephine; Patten, Christi A; Ebbert, Jon O; Offord, Kenneth P

    2010-06-01

    This study explored the association of alcohol and tobacco use among college students. A survey was administered in 2004 to 2,189 Black and White students from the southeastern United States. The prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use, tobacco use characteristics according to level of alcohol consumed, and percentage of students using tobacco according to type of alcoholic beverages consumed were evaluated. The interaction of race and gender with alcohol and tobacco use was explored. Our findings extend prior investigations that have found alcohol use associated with smoking and suggest attention be paid to the relation of alcohol to other forms of tobacco. Racial and gender differences are highlighted. This study was funded by Mayo Clinic. The study's limitations were noted.

  1. TRAIT ANXIETY AND GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN PEOPLE WITHOUT DIABETES: VULNERABILITIES AMONG BLACK WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsenkova, Vera K.; Albert, Michelle A.; Georgiades, Anastasia; Ryff, Carol D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We examined whether the relationship between anxiety and indicators of glucose metabolism in people without diabetes varies by race and gender. Methods Participants were 914 adults (777 white, 137 black) without diabetes in the MIDUS II study. Glucose metabolism was characterized by fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. Hierarchical linear regressions stratified by race and gender examined whether anxiety was associated with glucose metabolism. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, positive relationships between anxiety and fasting glucose (p=.04), insulin (p=.01), and HOMA-IR (p=.02) but not HbA1c, were observed in black women only. Conclusions Our findings extend prior evidence about the links between psychosocial vulnerabilities and impaired glucose metabolism in black women, by documenting significant associations between anxiety and clinical indicators of glycemic control among black women without diabetes. Thus, anxiety might constitute an intervention target in black women, a subgroup disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes, its complications, and premature mortality. PMID:22587407

  2. I'm a Jesus girl: coping stories of Black American women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Godfrey

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most diagnosed cancer for all women, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, in the United States. Incidence rates are 1 in 8 for an American woman being diagnosed. Moreover, statistics indicate that every 13 min an American woman dies from complications related to breast cancer. Despite all the gains made in the area of cancer research, Black American women continue to have a 67% higher mortality rate than their White counterparts. There is no preparation for a diagnosis of breast cancer. Upon hearing the words: you have breast cancer, a woman's life is forever altered. The woman's initial reactions of denial and/or anger yield to strategic responses. These responses may strengthen the woman's resiliency both during and following treatments. Research indicates that Black Americans, specifically Black American women, exhibit greater religiosity/spirituality than do other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, the use of religiosity/spirituality by Black Americans increases during a crisis. This qualitative study examines how religiosity/spirituality was utilized as a coping mechanism by a group of Black American women following their diagnoses of breast cancer.

  3. The association between trust in health care providers and medication adherence among Black women with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie M. Abel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Black women have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world. Reasons for this disparity are poorly understood. The historical legacy of medical maltreatment of Blacks in the U.S. provides some insight into distrust in the medical profession, refusal of treatment, and poor adherence to treatment regimens.Methods: Black women (N=80 who were prescribed antihypertensive medications were recruited from urban communities in North Carolina. Study participants completed the Trust in Physician and Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy questionnaires. An exact discrete-event model was used to examine the relationship between trust and medication adherence.Results: Mean age of study participants was 48 ± 9.2 years. The majority of participants (67% were actively employed and 30% had incomes at or below the federal poverty level. Increasing levels of trust in the health care provider was independently associated with greater medication adherence (PTrend=0.015.Conclusions: Black women with hypertension who trusted their health care providers were more likely to be adherent with their prescribed antihypertensive medications than those who did not trust their health care providers. Findings suggest that trusting relationships between Black women and health care providers are important to decreasing disparate rates of hypertension.

  4. A Longitudinal Perspective on Dating Violence Among Adolescent and College-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paige Hall; White, Jacquelyn W.; Holland, Lindsay J.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated physical assault in dating relationships and its co-occurrence with sexual assault from high school through college. Methods. Two classes of university women (n = 1569) completed 5 surveys during their 4 years in college. Results. Women who were physically assaulted as adolescents were at greater risk for revictimization during their freshman year (relative risk = 2.96); each subsequent year, women who have experienced violence remained at greater risk for revictimization than those who have not. Across all years, women who were physically assaulted in any year were significantly more likely to be sexually assaulted that same year. Adolescent victimization was a better predictor of college victimization than was childhood victimization. Conclusions. There is a need for dating violence prevention/intervention programs in high school and college and for research on factors that reduce revictimization. PMID:12835193

  5. The Definition and Treatment of Bulimarexia in College Women--A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskind-Ledahl, Marlene; White, William C., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A study of college women suffering from bulimarexia, a cyclical eating disorder characterized by bingeing/purging behaviors and abnormally low self-esteem, indicates the importance of sociocultural factors in female role definition. (JMF)

  6. Women in Physical Education and Sports at Centre College from 1860 to 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kitty R.

    This brief history of women's participation in college sports at Centre College in Danville, Kentucky, is divided into four sections. The first period prior to 1901 coincides with the later Victorian era. The second period from 1901 to 1926 includes the first World War and the passage of the 19th amendment. The years from 1926 to 1959 are spanned…

  7. Classroom Approach for Managing Dietary Restraint, Negative Eating Styles, and Body Image Concerns among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Steven R.; Madanat, Hala; Smith, TeriSue; De La Cruz, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In this exploratory study, the authors evaluated the impact of an elective college course on dieting levels, eating styles, and body image among college women. Participants: Participants were a convenience sample of 29 self-selected female students at a western university who were mostly white, normal-weight seniors with significant…

  8. Maladaptive Perfectionism and Disordered Eating in College Women: The Mediating Role of Self-Compassion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Disordered eating has been recognized as a concern on college campuses, particularly among college women. Maladaptive perfectionism has consistently been identified as a risk factor for disordered eating, and may present challenges to effective treatment and intervention. As a result, increased effort has gone into developing intervention…

  9. The Culture of Femininity in Women's Teaching Training Colleges, 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Compares the experience of 3 women's training colleges in Great Britain during the first half of the 20th century. Concludes that the training college culture, with its combination of individual enrichment and collective stagnation, is important to the history feminism. (CFR)

  10. Initial Characteristics and Mentoring Satisfaction of College Women Mentoring Youth: Implications for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foukal, Martha D.; Lawrence, Edith C.; Williams, Joanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Being a youth mentor is popular among college students, yet little is known about how their initial characteristics are related to mentoring satisfaction. Survey data from college women enrolled in a youth mentoring program (n = 158) and a comparison group (n = 136) were analyzed to determine how initial characteristics of youth mentors (a) differ…

  11. A Pilot Examination of Self-Esteem, Depression, and Sleep in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Jessica R.; Adams, Sue K.; Kisler, Tiffani S.

    2014-01-01

    While sleep deficits in adulthood are common and worsening, college women experience significantly more sleep problems and depression than their male counterparts. In recent years, sleep has been investigated as one of the primary contributors to college functioning and GPA. No known study, however, has investigated the connection between…

  12. Higher Education Institutional Affiliation and Satisfaction among Feminist Professors: Is There an Advantage to Women's Colleges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel; Kmeic, Julie; Worell, Judith; Crosby, Faye

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether feminist professors of psychology at women's colleges derived more job satisfaction than feminist professors at coed colleges. Surveys and interviews indicated that feminist professors were generally satisfied with their pedagogical situations and generally dedicated to and successful at teaching. Institutional affiliation…

  13. Sexual Victimization and Health-Risk Behaviors: A Prospective Analysis of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidycz, Christine A.; Orchowski, Lindsay M.; King, Carrie R.; Rich, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study utilizes the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors and sexual victimization among a sample of college women. A prospective design is utilized to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors as measured at baseline and sexual victimization during a 3-month…

  14. Social Mobility and the Single Black Woman: Perspectives on Marital Options and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    An examination was made of the antecedents to singlehood for black women, based upon questionnaire and interview data from a larger study of 56 black women who graduated from predominantly white colleges in a northeastern city between 1968 and 1970. During the past few decades, researchers have found that a high percentage of educated black women…

  15. Social Anxiety as a Risk Factor of Sexual Victimization in College Women

    OpenAIRE

    Schry, Amie Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Sexual victimization is a significant problem on college and university campuses, and it is important to evaluate risk factors for sexual victimization in order to attempt to reduce womenâ s risk of victimization. This study investigated social interaction anxiety as a risk factor for sexual victimization. It was hypothesized that social interaction anxiety may increase risk of sexual victimization by decreasing sexual assertiveness and increasing alcohol-related problems. College women (...

  16. ARE YOUNG ARAB WOMEN EATING A HEALTHY DIET? A QUALITATIVE DIETARY STUDY AMONG COLLEGE HOSTEL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rasheed, Parveen; Al-Kunji, Aisha A.; Al-Saffar, Basma M.; Al-Abdul Karim, Hanan M.; Al-Thawadi, Maysoon I.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Two recent studies conducted on young College Arab Women showed a trend towards over nutrition. It is well known that good eating habits adopted early in life not only improve health and control obesity in the youthful years but also promote healthy eating behaviours in later life. Objective: To investigate the dietary habits of young college women and identify specific areas for nutrition education. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire containing 20 items related to qualita...

  17. Alcohol Use and Mental Health Conditions Among Black College Males: Do Those Attending Postsecondary Minority Institutions Fare Better Than Those at Primarily White Institutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Jackson, Zachary; Watkins, Daphne C; Goodwill, Janelle R; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2017-07-01

    While there is a sizeable body of research examining the association between alcohol use and mental health conditions among college students, there are sparse investigations specifically focusing on these associations among Black college students. This is concerning given Black college students face different stressors compared with their non-Black peers. Black males appear especially at risk, exhibiting increased susceptibility to mental health issues and drinking in greater quantities and more frequently than Black females. This investigation examined the association between alcohol consumption and mental health conditions among Black men attending institutions of higher education in the United States and sought to determine differences between Black men attending predominantly White institutions (PWIs) compared with those attending postsecondary minority institutions. Final sample included 416 Black men, 323 of which attended a PWI. Data were from the National College Health Assessment. Black men attending a PWI reported significantly greater levels of alcohol consumption and significantly more mental health conditions. Attendance at a minority-serving institution was associated with fewer mental health conditions among Black men. Future studies should seek to replicate these findings and conduct culturally sensitive and gender-specific research examining why Black men at PWIs report greater alcohol consumption and more mental health conditions than their peers attending postsecondary minority institutions.

  18. Correlates of rape while intoxicated in a national sample of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Dowdall, George W; Koss, Mary P; Wechsler, Henry

    2004-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use is widespread among college students, particularly in those social situations where the risk of rape rises. Few studies have provided information on rapes of college women that occur when they are intoxicated. The purpose of the present study was to present prevalence data for rape under the condition of intoxication when the victim is unable to consent and to identify college and individual-level risk factors associated with that condition. The study utilizes data from 119 schools participating in three Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study surveys. The analytic sample of randomly selected students includes 8,567 women in the 1997 survey, 8,425 in the 1999 survey, and 6,988 in the 2001 survey. Roughly one in 20 (4.7%) women reported being raped. Nearly three quarters (72%) of the victims experienced rape while intoxicated. Women who were under 21, were white, resided in sorority houses, used illicit drugs, drank heavily in high school and attended colleges with high rates of heavy episodic drinking were at higher risk of rape while intoxicated. The high proportion of rapes found to occur when women were intoxicated indicates the need for alcohol prevention programs on campuses that address sexual assault, both to educate men about what constitutes rape and to advise women of risky situations. The findings that some campus environments are associated with higher levels of both drinking and rape will help target rape prevention programs at colleges.

  19. A Study of the Demonization of Black Women and the Myth of Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the image of the black Brazilian woman (slave and ex-slave) depicted in this literature is full of stereotypical notions about her comportment and sexuality: devilishness, animality, a sexual/sensual creature par excellence, etc. The study discloses the realities behind the racial stereotypes, which are masked and ...

  20. Exploring the Experience of Life Stress Among Black Women with a History of Fetal or Infant Death: a Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyrah K; Lewis, Rhonda K; Baumgartner, Elizabeth; Schunn, Christy; Maryman, J'Vonnah; LoCurto, Jamie

    2017-06-01

    Disparate birth outcomes among Black women continue to be a major public health problem. Whereas prior research has investigated the influence of stress on Black women's birth outcomes, few studies have explored how stress is experienced among Black women across the life course. The objectives of this study were to describe the experience of stress across the life course among Black women who reported a history of fetal or infant death and to identify stressful life events (SLE) that may not be represented in the widely used SLE inventory. Using phenomenological, qualitative research design, in-depth interviews were conducted with six Black women in Kansas who experienced a fetal or infant death. Analyses revealed that participants experienced multiple, co-occurring stressors over the course of their lives and experienced a proliferation of stress emerging in early life and persisting into adulthood. Among the types of stressors cited by participants, history of sexual assault (trauma-related stressor) was a key stressful life event that is not currently reflected in the SLE inventory. Our findings highlight the importance of using a life-course perspective to gain a contextual understanding of the experiences of stress among Black women, particularly those with a history of adverse birth outcomes. Further research investigating Black women's experiences of stress and the mechanisms by which stress impacts their health could inform efforts to reduce disparities in birth outcomes. An additional focus on the experience and impact of trauma-related stress on Black women's birth outcomes may also be warranted.

  1. We Walk by Faith, Not by Sight: An Inquiry of Spirituality and Career Development of Black Women Leaders in Academe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown McManus, Kecia Chivonne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore, with eleven Black women leaders in higher education, their perception of spirituality and its impact on their career development. A purposive sample of Black women leaders at research-intensive institutions along the Eastern seaboard was examined in order to understand: (1) How do participants define…

  2. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women

    OpenAIRE

    Loutfy, Mona; Tharao, Wangari; Logie, Carmen; Aden, Muna A; Chambers, Lori A; Wu, Wei; Abdelmaseh, Marym; Calzavara, Liviana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effe...

  3. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

  4. Reproductive factors and incidence of endometrial cancer in U.S. black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponholtz, Todd R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Wise, Lauren A

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that reproductive history is a strong determinant of endometrial cancer risk among white women. Less is known about how reproductive history affects endometrial cancer risk among black women, whose incidence and mortality differ from white women. We investigated the associations of age at menarche, parity, timing of births, and menopausal age with endometrial cancer in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study. Every 2 years from 1995 to 2013, 47,555 participants with intact uteri at baseline in 1995 completed questionnaires on reproductive and medical history, and lifestyle factors. Self-reported cases of endometrial cancer were confirmed by medical record, cancer registry, or death certificate when available. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During 689,501 person-years of follow-up, we identified 300 incident cases of endometrial cancer. The strongest associations with endometrial cancer were found for early age at menarche (black women were generally consistent with those in studies of white women.

  5. Black Feminism: What Women of Color Went Through in Toni Morrison’s Selected Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Rahmani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two of Toni Morrison’s novels, The Bluest Eye and Beloved in the lights of black feminism, racism, realism and naturalism. It is an attempt to reflect the powerlessness, inhumanity, and pains that women of color went through.  By using a feminist racist and naturalist filter,  a descriptive-analytical method of study and by analyzing the situations, the characters and themes, the status of women of color  in Literature based on Morrison’s selected  novels are revealed and represented. Morrison very well describes how different women characters react and respond differently to the injustice and the inhumanity imposed on them through for example the contrasting nature of Sethe in Beloved and Pauline in The Bluest Eye. She depicts the bravery and courage in Sethe , the self-absorbedness in Pauline and the passiveness in Pecola all of which raise powerful questions regarding black-women’s self-identity, self-concept, and  struggles to achieve freedom as a living being if not a human being: a path which will deepen our understanding of  women issues in general. The researcher believes that a womanish and racist study of the selected novels would contribute to broaden our views of humanity. The researcher selected women of color because she thinks the sorrows of black women, and the pains and toils they went through have always been deeper than those of the white ones.

  6. Estrogen alone and health outcomes in black women by African ancestry: a secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebowski, Rowan T; Barrington, Wendy; Aragaki, Aaron K; Manson, JoAnn E; Sarto, Gloria; OʼSullivan, Mary J; Wu, Daniel; Cauley, Jane A; Qi, Lihong; Wallace, Robert L; Prentice, Ross L

    2017-02-01

    In postmenopausal black women in the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial, estrogen alone reduced breast cancers but its comprehensive influence on health outcomes in black women is unknown. Therefore, we examined this issue in the Women's Health Initiative overall and by African ancestry. A total of 1,616 black women with prior hysterectomy, including 1,061 with percent African ancestry determination, at 40 US centers were randomly assigned to conjugated equine estrogen (0.625 mg/d) or placebo for 7.2 years' (median) intervention with 13 years' cumulative follow-up. Coronary heart disease (CHD) and breast cancer were primary efficacy and safety outcomes, respectively. A global index also included stroke, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, pulmonary embolism, and death. Black women in the estrogen-alone group compared with black women in the placebo group had fewer breast cancers (17 vs 40, hazard ratio [HR] 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.82). In women with more than 80% African ancestry, breast cancer HR was lower (0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.86, trend P = 0.04 for ancestry effect). Most other outcomes including CHD, stroke, hip fracture, and the global index were null with estrogen use in black women; a global index effect was more favorable in younger black women (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.98). In black postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy, estrogen alone significantly reduced breast cancer incidence with no adverse influence on CHD, venous thromboembolism, or all-cause mortality. Favorable estrogen-alone global index effects in younger black women warrant further study.

  7. Victimization and perpetration of sexual violence in college-aged men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jodi L; Amar, Angela Frederick; Sutherland, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual violence is a significant public health issue on college campuses. Much of the research to date has focused on sexual violence victimization with less data on perpetration of sexual violence. This analysis describes sexual violence victimization and perpetration experiences in a sample of college students. We sought to recruit college students attending three universities in the United States. A cross-sectional survey design was used to contact students through e-mail or voluntary gatherings. Each participant completed a questionnaire focused on experiences of sexual violence. A total of 1,978 students consented to participate in the study with 1,829 completing the questions related to victimization experiences and 1,479 completing the questions related to perpetration experiences. Thirty-eight percent (n = 700) of the sample (men and women) reported sexual violence victimization. Victimization among women and men was 42.6% and 28.7%, respectively. Almost 6% (n = 100) of the sample reported sexual violence perpetration. Men reported a higher rate of perpetration, 14.5% (n = 60), compared to women, 3.8% (n = 40). This study provides data on both victimization and perpetration experiences of college students. Both college men and women reported experiences of being victimized as well as perpetrating sexual violence. Understanding victimization and perpetration on college campuses will increase awareness, thus piercing the silence, of unwanted sexual experiences and help move college campuses toward a response.

  8. Racial Discrimination in Health Care Is Associated with Worse Glycemic Control among Black Men but Not Black Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Lee, Daniel B; Nicklett, Emily Joy; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Piette, John D; Aikens, James E

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that racial discrimination may affect the health of Black men and Black women differently. This study examined Black patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in order to test gender differences in (1) levels of perceived racial discrimination in health care and (2) how perceived discrimination relates to glycemic control. A total of 163 Black patients with type 2 DM (78 women and 85 men) provided data on demographics (age and gender), socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination in health care, self-rated health, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Data were analyzed using linear regression. Black men reported more racial discrimination in health care than Black women. Although racial discrimination in health care was not significantly associated with HbA1c in the pooled sample ( b  = 0.20, 95% CI = -0.41 -0.80), gender-stratified analysis indicated an association between perceived discrimination and higher HbA1c levels for Black men ( b  = 0.86, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.01-1.73) but not Black women ( b  = -0.31, 95% CI = -1.17 to -0.54). Perceived racial discrimination in diabetes care may be more salient for glycemic control of Black men than Black women. Scholars and clinicians should take gender into account when considering the impacts of race-related discrimination experiences on health outcomes. Policies should reduce racial discrimination in the health care.

  9. Racial Discrimination in Health Care Is Associated with Worse Glycemic Control among Black Men but Not Black Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA growing body of research suggests that racial discrimination may affect the health of Black men and Black women differently.AimsThis study examined Black patients with diabetes mellitus (DM in order to test gender differences in (1 levels of perceived racial discrimination in health care and (2 how perceived discrimination relates to glycemic control.MethodsA total of 163 Black patients with type 2 DM (78 women and 85 men provided data on demographics (age and gender, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination in health care, self-rated health, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c. Data were analyzed using linear regression.ResultsBlack men reported more racial discrimination in health care than Black women. Although racial discrimination in health care was not significantly associated with HbA1c in the pooled sample (b = 0.20, 95% CI = −0.41 −0.80, gender-stratified analysis indicated an association between perceived discrimination and higher HbA1c levels for Black men (b = 0.86, 95% confidence intervals (CI = 0.01–1.73 but not Black women (b = −0.31, 95% CI = −1.17 to −0.54.ConclusionPerceived racial discrimination in diabetes care may be more salient for glycemic control of Black men than Black women. Scholars and clinicians should take gender into account when considering the impacts of race-related discrimination experiences on health outcomes. Policies should reduce racial discrimination in the health care.

  10. The role of minority stress in second-generation Black emerging adult college students' high-risk drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Delishia M; Cho Kim, Sara; Hunter, Carla D; Obasi, Ezemenari M

    2017-07-01

    This study used a minority stress framework to investigate the relationships between multiple stressors (e.g., general life stress, race related stress, and acculturative stress) and high-risk drinking behaviors in a sample of second-generation Black emerging adult college students across the United States. Participants (n = 148) were recruited from U.S. colleges and universities as part of a large, multiwave cross-sectional study. Findings from this study mirrored those in the extant literature: the positive relationship between race-related stress and high-risk drinking behaviors found in other marginalized groups. However, when all stressors were entered into the model, acculturative stress accounted for significant variance in high-risk drinking behaviors above and beyond general life and race-related stressors in second generation Black emerging adult college students. Findings underscore the need to better understand the influence of acculturative stress on high-risk drinking behaviors among second-generation Black emerging adult college students: an understudied population in both the acculturation and alcohol use literatures. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Metabolic syndrome among students attending a historically black college: prevalence and gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topè Avinash M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence rate of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS among college students attending any Historically Black College and University (HBCU, which are mostly attended by young African Americans (AA. We report the prevalence and gender differences in the components of MetS in a sample population from an HBCU campus. Methods Three hundred and seventy six (218 females and 158 males first year college students (average age 19.8 years, attending Kentucky State University, Frankfort with no prior diagnosis of illness participated in the cross sectional study. Anthropometric screenings included measurement of height, weight, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI. The clinical screenings included measurement of blood pressure and determination of fasting lipid and glucose concentrations. The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III and International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions for MetS were applied. Statistics: Analysis of variance (ANOVA scores on the Means procedure were used to examine differences between genders for all anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters. Fisher’s exact chi-square tests were used to analyze the prevalence of MetS criteria per gender, the number of MetS criteria per BMI category and the prevalence of MetS criteria. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 for all tests. Results Prevalence rates for MetS criteria varied depending on the definition used. According to the NCEP ATP definition, 31.4% of the sample population had at least 1 criterion for MetS, while 20.7% had 2 criteria. When IDF definition was applied, 21.3% sample population had 1 criterion and 17.5% had at least two criteria. Prevalence was highest for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (37.3% and elevated fasting glucose (22.1%. On the basis of the NCEP ATP and IDF definitions, overall prevalence of MetS in the total sample was 12%, and 9

  12. The Spirit Bears Witness: Reflections of Two Black Women's Journey in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generett, Gretchen Givens; Cozart, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article describes our evolution as two Black American women academics who, after years of dealing with our community's marginalization and our own marginalization in the academy, began to employ research as a way of surviving. To share the significance of this experience, we first reflect on our understandings of our positionality within the…

  13. Market Movements and the Dispossessed: Race, Identity, and Subaltern Agency among Black Women Voucher Advocates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroni, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Critical educational researchers in the United States and elsewhere are missing something essential in their inattention to considerable support among Black urban women for market-based educational reforms, including vouchers. While the educational left has engaged in important empirical and theoretical work demonstrating the particularly negative…

  14. Who's that Girl: Television's Role in the Body Image Development of Young White and Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, Deborah; Ward, L. Monique; Merriwether, Ann; Caruthers, Allison

    2004-01-01

    Although findings indicate a connection between frequent media use and greater body dissatisfaction, little attention has focused on the role of race. Accordingly, this study investigates the relation between television viewing and body image among 87 Black and 584 White women. Participants reported monthly viewing amounts of mainstream and…

  15. The Role of Fathers in the Lives of Black Women of Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Charles V.; Lane, Jolene A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated fathers' roles in the lives of successful black women using life history case studies. Fathers were proud of and confident in their daughters, and most performed the role of mentor. Fathers gave daughters a sense of security that helped them succeed because they were not afraid to risk failure. Most fathers were interested in…

  16. The metabolic syndrome in black hypertensive women - Waist circumference more strongly related than body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rheeder, P; Stolk, RP; Veenhouwer, JF; Grobbee, DE

    Objective. To examine the association between measures of. obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome in treated. black female hypertensive subjects. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. An urban primary health care centre in Mamelodi, Pretoria. Subjects. Women with hypertension and without

  17. Prevalence and comorbidity of major depressive disorder in young black and white women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Thompson, D; Barton, BA; Dohm, FA; Kraemer, HC; Iachan, R; Crawford, PB; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective This study reports the prevalence and comorbidity of depression in two large samples of black and white young adult women. Method Clinical interviews of participants in a follow-up study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS-Wave II; N = 378) were

  18. This Bridge Called My Leadership: An Essay on Black Women as Bridge Leaders in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to contextualize the existing research literature on leadership for diversity, equity, and social justice in education with "bridge leadership" as historically practiced by Black women leaders in the USA. Its primary aim is to demonstrate how the intersection of race and gender as experienced by the Black…

  19. Race differences in accuracy of self-reported childhood body size among white and black women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, AE; Franko, DL; Striegel-Moore, RH; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value

    Objective: To assess the relation of self-reported current and recalled preadolescent body size to measured BMI (kilograms per meter squared) and interviewer's assessment of body size. 4Research Methods and Procedures: This was a prospective cohort study of 1890 white and black women who were 9 to

  20. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  1. Sexual-Minority College Women's Experiences with Discrimination: Relations with Identity and Collective Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…

  2. Literacy Events and Practices That Position Hmong Women to Meet Academic Success in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jody C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the literacy events and practices of Hmong women achieving academic success at a community college. Three women participants were interviewed regarding their past and present literacy events and practices. In addition, each participant took photographs of their own literacy events for five weeks. The photographs provided…

  3. The Relationship between Objectified Body Consciousness and Wellness in a Group of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Stacey L.; Myers, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Objectified body consciousness theory provides a framework for understanding young women's negative body experiences and their impact on well-being. This study examined the impact of body surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs, the 3 components of objectified body consciousness, on wellness in college women. Data indicated a…

  4. Application of a Relational Model to Understanding Body Image in College Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Ryan, William J.; Pierce, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Relational cultural theory was examined in relation to body image in two samples of college women (n = 102) and men (n = 78) from a Midwestern university. Participants completed measures of mutuality and body image satisfaction. Results revealed that low mutuality with mothers and fathers predicted body dissatisfaction in both men and women, and…

  5. Factors Influencing Condom Use and STD Acquisition among African American College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lisa M.; Melton, Richard S.; Succop, Paul A.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed 123 sexually experienced African-American college women at a state university to identify factors influencing their condom use and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The women who were older, had initiated sex earlier, or had more recent sexual partners were more likely than others to report a history of an STD.…

  6. A Mixed-Methodological Examination of Investment Model Variables among Abused and Nonabused College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Christina M.; Kelley, Erika L.; Edwards, Katie M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed abused and nonabused women's perceptions of Investment Model (IM) variables (ie, relationship investment, satisfaction, commitment, quality of alternatives) utilizing a mixed-methods design. Participants: Participants included 102 college women, approximately half of whom were in abusive dating relationships.…

  7. The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…

  8. Modeling College Women's Perceptions of Elite Leadership Positions with Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeagley, Emily E.; Subich, Linda M.; Tokar, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) for predicting college women's interests and goals for positions of elite leadership was examined with 156 undergraduate women at a public university. They completed measures of elite leadership self-efficacy expectations, outcome expectations, interests, and goals.…

  9. Depression and Relational Health in Asian American and European American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Terese J.; Chan, Pauline; Liang, Belle

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates elevated rates of depression among college-aged women, yet evidence of racial differences in depression among this population are poorly understood. Moreover, the correlates of depression among Asian American women are also understudied. In this exploratory analysis, we examined mean differences in depression…

  10. Effects of a Rape Awareness Program on College Women: Increasing Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foubert, John D.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Brasfield, Hope; Hill, Brent

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault risk-reduction program on 279 college women that focused on learning characteristics of male perpetrators and teaching bystander intervention techniques. After seeing The Women's Program, participants reported significantly greater bystander efficacy and significantly greater…

  11. Osteoporosis Prevention in College Women: Application of the Expanded Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2002-01-01

    Examined personal characteristics and expanded health belief model (EHBM) constructs associated with osteoporosis- protective behaviors among college women. Survey results indicated that the EHBM was useful in evaluating osteoporosis- protective behavior. High numbers of women did not meet current exercise and calcium guidelines. Exercise…

  12. 2003 Carolyn Sherif Award Address: What College Women Do and Do Not Experience as Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Arnold S.

    2004-01-01

    College women who did (n=33) and did not (n=56) label their sexual assault experience as rape provided written descriptions of their sexual assaults. From these descriptions we identified eight different sexual assault situations. Women who labeled their experience as rape were most likely to have been assaulted forcefully by an acquaintance,…

  13. College Women's Fears and Precautionary Behaviors Relating to Acquaintance Rape and Stranger Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Susan E.; Muehlenhard, Charlene L.

    1997-01-01

    Studied the fears, beliefs, and behaviors of 139 college women about acquaintance and stranger rape. Women were more afraid of stranger rape and took more precautions against it but paradoxically believed that acquaintance rape was more common. Precautionary behaviors were best predicted by level of fear. Theoretical and educational implications…

  14. Vocational Aspirations and Japanese Women: The Case of a Junior College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yukiko

    2005-01-01

    With the end of high growth in the Japanese economy, the women of Japan face a new challenge. Many of them have to be breadwinners as well as homemakers. The purpose of this study was to analyze and to synthesize the life course plans of contemporary Japanese women from essays written by junior college students. A typical woman of this sample…

  15. [National Association for Physical Education of College Women. Report of the 1976 Conference, June 3-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This report is comprised of papers written for the 1976 conference of the National Association for Physical Education of College Women. The central theme of the conference was changing trends in physical education for women, how they influence the teaching of physical education in college, and their impact on attitudes toward women in sports. (JD)

  16. Sexuality, Substance Use, and Susceptibility to Victimization: Risk for Rape and Sexual Coercion in a Prospective Study of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Coates, Aubrey A.; Gaffey, Kathryn J.; Johnson, Carrie F.

    2008-01-01

    An 8-month prospective study examined behavioral, personality, and psychological variables thought to increase vulnerability for college women's experience of rape and verbal sexual coercion. Participants were 276 college women who completed self-report surveys. During 1 academic year, 9.5% of women were raped and 11.7% reported verbal sexual…

  17. Progression of coronary artery calcification in black and white women: do the stresses and rewards of multiple roles matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H; Jasielec, Mateusz S; Matthews, Karen A; Hollenberg, Steven M; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Everson-Rose, Susan A

    2012-02-01

    Black women experience higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than white women, though evidence for racial differences in subclinical CVD is mixed. Few studies have examined multiple roles (number, perceived stress, and/or reward) in relation to subclinical CVD, or whether those effects differ by race. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple roles on 2-year progression of coronary artery calcium. Subjects were 104 black and 232 white women (mean age 50.8 years). Stress and reward from four roles (spouse, parent, employee, caregiver) were assessed on five-point scales. Coronary artery calcium progression was defined as an increase of ≥10 Agatston units. White women reported higher rewards from their multiple roles than black women, yet black women showed cardiovascular benefits from role rewards. Among black women only, higher role rewards were related significantly to lower progression of coronary artery calcium, adjusting for body mass index, blood pressure, and other known CVD risk factors. Blacks reported fewer roles but similar role stress as whites; role number and stress were unrelated to coronary artery calcium progression. Rewarding roles may be a novel protective psychosocial factor for progression of coronary calcium among black women.

  18. Perspectives on HIV prevention among urban black women: a potential role for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flash, Charlene A; Stone, Valerie E; Mitty, Jennifer A; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Hall, Kathryn T; Krakower, Douglas; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2014-12-01

    Limited data exist regarding attitudes and acceptability of topical and oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among US black women. This investigation explored interest in HIV chemoprophylaxis and modes of use. Five focus groups enrolled 26 black women recruited from an inner-city community health center and affiliated HIV testing sites. Thematic analysis utilized Atlas.ti. Most women expressed interest in PrEP, as many reported condom failure concerns. Most women preferred a pill formulation to intravaginal gel because of greater perceived privacy and concerns about vaginal side effects and gel leakage. Women who had taken pills previously advocated daily dosing and indicated adherence concerns about episodic or post-coital PrEP. Many women desired prophylactic strategies that included partner testing. Urban black women are interested in utilizing PrEP; however, misgivings exist about gel inconvenience and potential side effects for themselves and their partners. Most women preferred oral PrEP, dosed daily.

  19. National Prevalence of PTSD Among Sexually Revictimized Adolescent, College, and Adult Household-Residing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2012-01-01

    Context Despite empirical links between sexual revictimization (i.e., experiencing two or more sexual assaults) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), no epidemiological studies document the prevalence of sexual revictimization and PTSD. Establishing estimates is essential to determine the scope, public health impact, and psychiatric sequelae of sexual revictimization. Objective Estimate the prevalence of sexual revictimization and PTSD among three national female samples (adolescent, college, adult household probability). Design Surveys were used to collect data from The National Women’s Study – Replication (2006; college) as well as household probability samples from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (2005) and the National Women’s Study-Replication (2006; household probability). Setting Households and college campuses across the U.S. Participants 1,763 adolescent girls, 2,000 college women, and 3,001 household-residing adult women. Main Outcomes Behaviorally specific questions assessed unwanted sexual acts occurring over the lifespan due to use of force, threat of force, or incapacitation via drug or alcohol use. PTSD was assessed with a module validated against the criterion standard, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Results 52.7% of victimized adolescents, 50.0% of victimized college women, and 58.8% of victimized household-residing women reported sexual revictimization. Current PTSD was reported by 20.0% of revictimized adolescents, 40.0% of revictimized college women, and 27.2% of revictimized household-residing women. Compared to non-victims, odds of meeting past 6-month PTSD were 4.3–8.2 times higher for revictimized respondents and 2.4–3.5 times higher for single victims. Conclusions Population prevalence estimates suggest that 769,000 adolescent girls, 625,000 college women, and 13.4 million women in US households reported sexual revictimization. Further, 154,000 sexually revictimized adolescents, 250,000 sexually

  20. Evaluation of energy and macronutrient intake of black women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... cereals and grains consumed by these women were in the refined form. The beneficial metabolic effects of a high-fibre diet (Insel et al., 2001) are widely advocated, and the deficient intake may reflect in the health profile of those participating in the present study. The consumption of vegetable oils (Popkin ...

  1. Evaluation of energy and macronutrient intake of black women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macronutrient intake was determined using a validated Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (QFFQ). Median macronutrient intake was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) as applicable. Median energy, macronutrient and cholesterol intake of younger and older women was compared using ...

  2. Four Criteria for Labeling Black Women and Their Community as 'Others' in Toni Morrison's Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Herminingrum

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Black women's life, from Slavery Era to Women Rights Movement in 1980-s, highlighted by Morrison in The Bluest Eyes, Sula, Song of Solomon, Tar Baby, Beloved, Jazz, Paradise, and Love is cultural expression which is in a non-exclusive territory. By applying interdisciplinary approach - integrating theories and perspectives of some disciplines, including the intersectional zone of the study of gender, sexuality, race, and ethnicity - to research these eight novels, it was discovered that there are four points engendering Black women regarded as 'other'. (1 Mother-centered culture practice. (2 Double lives for racism and sexim. (3 The impact of White culture invasion. (4 The struggle for building self dignity.

  3. Black Women with Multiple Sex Partners: The Role of Sexual Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Stephanie; Benoit, Ellen; Dunlap, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    Motivations of low-income substance using heterosexual Black women in New York City for having multiple sexual partners are explored in this paper. Analysis of in-depth interviews with 50 study participants demonstrates that their relationships consisted of those who had: (1) a main sex partner and a secondary sex partner; or (2) two or more "casual" partners. Individual-level motivations for extra relational sex fell into four dominant themes: sexual pleasure, partner infidelity, sex exchange and past main partners. Using a Black feminist framework, we describe how participants displayed considerable autonomy by actively forming and withdrawing from sexual relationships with men. However, women described low rates of condom use with main partners and inconsistent use of condoms with more casual sexual partners. This contradiction becomes an important area for sexual health interventions. Women who had sexual relations with only one current mate in the past two years were recruited as a monogamous comparison group.

  4. Lung cancer risk and workplace exposures in black men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, J E; Stellman, S D; Richie, J P; Wynder, E L

    1998-02-01

    There are little data on workplace exposures and lung cancer risk in blacks. An ongoing case-control study of lung cancer that included 550 black men and women with lung cancer and 386 age-matched controls was examined by reported occupational exposures and job titles. In men, significant associations were observed with reported exposure to asbestos [odds ratio (OR), 1.8; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.03-3.1] and coal dust (OR, 2.8; 95% CI 1.1-7.0). Elevated but nonsignificant risks of 1.4 or more were detected for the following occupations: police/security guards, farmers/farm workers, laborers, and motor-vehicle drivers. In women, nonsignificant increased risks were found with reported exposure to paint (OR, 1.8) and gas fumes (OR, 4.9). Women employed as farmers/farm workers and building maintenance workers had elevated but nonsignificant risks.

  5. Disclosure of sexual preference to physicians by black lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, S D; Mays, V M

    1988-01-01

    Physicians' ability to diagnose and treat health care problems, particularly those with a psychosocial component, is facilitated by accurate information concerning the life-styles of their patients. White lesbians have been shown to be generally reluctant to disclose sexual orientation to their physicians, but little, if anything, is known about black lesbians. Black women, self-identified as bisexuals (N = 65) and lesbians (N = 529), were asked whether they had disclosed their homosexual behavior to their physicians. In the sample, only a third of the women had. Previous sexual experiences, both heterosexual and homosexual, were also queried to illuminate patterns of gynecologic health risk factors. Nearly all of the women reported previous heterosexual experiences. PMID:3250107

  6. Women Benefit More Than Men in Response to College-based Meditation Training

    OpenAIRE

    Rahil Rojiani; Juan F. Santoyo; Juan F. Santoyo; Hadley Rahrig; Harold D. Roth; Harold D. Roth; Willoughby B. Britton; Willoughby B. Britton

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: While recent literature has shown that mindfulness training has positive effects on treating anxiety and depression, there has been virtually no research investigating whether effects differ across genders—despite the fact that men and women differ in clinically significant ways. The current study investigated whether college-based meditation training had different effects on negative affect for men and women.Methods: Seventy-seven university students (36 women, age = 20.7 ± 3.0 y...

  7. Factors Affecting Women Enrolment In Technical Institutions In Tanzania A Case Study Of Arusha Technical College

    OpenAIRE

    Glory B. Kaaya; Dr. Esther Waiganjo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical Institutions in Tanzania by focusing on the women. The study examined in detail the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical institutions and Arusha Technical College in particular as well as exploring sexual dynamics within Technical Institutions. Moreover a number of theoretical frameworks were concerned basing on the objectives a case study design was employed involving both qua...

  8. Women Benefit More Than Men in Response to College-based Meditation Training

    OpenAIRE

    Rojiani, Rahil; Santoyo, Juan F.; Rahrig, Hadley; Roth, Harold D.; Britton, Willoughby B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: While recent literature has shown that mindfulness training has positive effects on treating anxiety and depression, there has been virtually no research investigating whether effects differ across genders—despite the fact that men and women differ in clinically significant ways. The current study investigated whether college-based meditation training had different effects on negative affect for men and women. Methods: Seventy-seven university students (36 women, age = 20.7 ± 3...

  9. Self-Objectification and Its Psychological Outcomes for College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Saris-Baglama, Renee N.

    2002-01-01

    The objectification of women by our society can become internalized by women, resulting in negative psychological outcomes. Using Fredrickson and Roberts' (1997) objectification theory, we tested a model of the relationships between self-objectification and disordered eating and depressive symptoms in a sample of undergraduate women (n = 384). One…

  10. Women's Sports Media, Self-Objectification, and Mental Health in Black and White Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2003-01-01

    Considers that sports media exposure may be linked to female adolescents' body perceptions. Tests this relationship from the perspective of objectification theory. Finds that self-objectification appears to be as problematic for adolescent girls as for college women, regardless of race or body mass. Focuses on self-objectification in adolescents…

  11. Substance use problems reported by historically Black college students: combined marijuana and alcohol use versus alcohol alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Warren A; Peters, Ronald J; Perrino, Carrol S; Bryant, Sharronne

    2008-06-01

    Using secondary data analysis,this study compares alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems experienced by African-American students attending a historically Black university who use alcohol only versus those who use alcohol plus marijuana. Results indicate that students who used marijuana plus alcohol experienced more AOD problems than their counterparts who used alcohol only. The current findings are similar to previous research with a majority White college student population.

  12. Prevalence estimates of violence in the dating experiences of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Angela Frederick

    2004-12-01

    Young women are vulnerable to experiencing psychological, physical, and sexual violence and stalking through dating experiences. This study used a correlational design to report prevalence estimates of psychological, physical, and sexual violence and stalking that occur within the dating experiences of college women. This study also compared prevalence estimates of violence between African-American and White college women. A convenience sample of 863 (N = 863) women between 18 and 25 years of age from a private, historically African-American college in the south and a private, historically primarily White college in the mid-Atlantic completed the Abuse Assessment Screen, and a background data sheet. All participants had the option of completing a narrative note. Data analysis consisted of frequencies, and chi2. Almost half of the total sample 48% (n = 412) reported the experience of violence and of these, 39% (n = 160) reported more than one form of violence. Specific prevalence was as follows: psychological violence 22% (n = 190), stalking or harassment 31% (n = 266), physical violence 12% (n = 99), and all unwanted sexual activity 9% (n = 80). Prevalence estimates were consistent for African-American and White college students in all types of violence except in reporting threats of physical violence and threats plus actual physical violence. Study findings highlight the need for nurses to routinely screen and assess all young women for psychological, physical, and sexual violence and stalking Surveillance efforts will help identify victims and potential victims so that appropriate referrals for treatment and support can be made.

  13. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  14. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B

    2015-09-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  15. Assessment of the DOE/NREL Historically Black College and University Photovoltaic Research Associates Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posey-Eddy, F.; McConnell, R. D.

    2002-08-01

    This report details the DOE/NREL Historically Black College and University (HBCU) Photovoltaic Research Associates Program, a small but remarkable program that directly affected dozens of minority undergraduate students in ways that changed many of their lives. The progress and accomplishments of undergraduates within the nine participating universities were monitored and assessed through their presentations at an annual NREL-sponsored HBCU conference. Although the funding was small, typically $400,000 per year, the money made a significant impact. The best students sometimes went on to the nation's top graduate schools (e.g., MIT) or important management positions in large companies. Other students had opportunities to learn how renewable energy could positively affect their lives and their neighbors' lives. A few were lucky enough to install photovoltaic lighting and water-pumping systems in Africa, and to see and feel firsthand the technical and emotional benefits of this technology for families and villages. Two of the schools, Texas Southern University and Central State University, were particularly successful in leveraging their DOE/NREL funding to obtain additional funding for expanded programs.

  16. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.

  17. Racial discrimination, binge drinking, and negative drinking consequences among black college students: serial mediation by depressive symptoms and coping motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalu, Jessica M; Kim, Jueun; Zaso, Michelle J; Corriders, Sydnee R; Loury, Jacoby A; Minter, Monique L; Park, Aesoon

    2017-09-21

    Experiences of racial discrimination have been associated with diverse negative health outcomes among racial minorities. However, extant findings of the association between racial discrimination and alcohol behaviors among Black college students are mixed. The current study examined mediating roles of depressive symptoms and coping drinking motives in the association of perceived racial discrimination with binge drinking and negative drinking consequences. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of Black college students attending a predominantly White institution in the northeastern US (N = 251, 66% female, mean age = 20 years). Results from path analysis showed that, when potential mediators were not considered, perceived racial discrimination was positively associated with negative drinking consequences but not frequency of binge drinking. Serial multiple mediation analysis showed that depressive symptoms and in turn coping drinking motives partially mediated the associations of perceived racial discrimination with both binge drinking frequency and negative drinking consequences (after controlling for sex, age, and negative life events). Perceived racial discrimination is directly associated with experiences of alcohol-related problems, but not binge drinking behaviors among Black college students. Affective responses to perceived racial discrimination experiences and drinking to cope may serve as risk mechanisms for alcohol-related problems in this population. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.

  18. Early Elective Delivery Disparities between Non-Hispanic Black and White Women after Statewide Policy Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Muoto, Ifeoma; Darney, Blair G; Caughey, Aaron B; Snowden, Jonathan M

    2017-12-19

    In 2011, Oregon implemented a policy that reduced the state's rate of early (before 39 weeks' gestation) elective (without medical need) births. This analysis measured differential policy effects by race, examining whether Oregon's policy was associated with changes in non-Hispanic Black-White disparities in early elective cesarean and labor induction. We used Oregon birth certificate data, defining prepolicy (2008-2010) and postpolicy (2012-2014) periods, including non-Hispanic Black and White women who gave birth during these periods (n = 121,272). We used longitudinal spline models to assess policy impacts by race and probability models to measure policy-associated changes in Black-White disparities. We found that the prepolicy Black-White differences in early elective cesarean (6.1% vs. 4.3%) were eliminated after policy implementation (2.8% vs. 2.5%); adjusted models show decreases in the odds of elective early cesarean among Black women after the policy change (adjusted odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-1.00; p = .050) and among White women (adjusted odds ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.93; p = .006). Adjusted probability models indicated that policy implementation resulted in a 1.75-percentage point narrowing (p = .011) in the Black-White disparity in early elective cesarean. Early elective induction also decreased, from 4.9% and 4.7% for non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White women to 3.8% and 2.5%, respectively; the policy was not associated with a statistically significant change in disparities. A statewide policy reduced racial disparities in early elective cesarean, but not early elective induction. Attention to differential policy effects by race may reveal changes in disparities, even when that is not the intended focus of the policy. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV and STI Risk for Young Blacks in High Prevalence Areas: Implications for Health Equity in Communities Hosting Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Tanya Telfair; Sutton, Madeline Y; Thomas, Peter; Duffus, Wayne A

    2014-01-01

    Every year, thousands of young black, high school graduates who are seeking higher education, attend one of the 105 historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) located primarily in the south and east. The objective of the research was to examine the geographic proximity of HBCUs to areas of high HIV and STI disease burden among college age people to assess infectivity of potential sex partners in the areas surrounding HBCUs. We examined the 14 states reporting the greatest HIV diagnoses burden among persons age 20-24 years old and STI burden among persons age 15 to 24 years old available for 2010. The Geographic Information System was used to create a spatially referenced data base of state level HIV and STI disease rates and HBCU zip codes to answer the question "How many HBCUs are in this location?" Maps were created to show HBCU locations in states along with the associated HIV and STI disease burden. Results suggest high HIV and STI disease burden in the general population of persons ages 15-24 in 10 states with 4 or more Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) and an overall high rate of HIV and STI exposure in the pool of potential sex partners. Less risky behavior by minority young adults attending HBCUs could potentially translate to high risk for contracting the diseases because of high prevalence in surrounding communities. Public health agencies may want to consider prioritizing HBCUs for enhanced HIV and STI prevention collaborative efforts in those areas with a high burden of HIV and other STIs.

  20. Social anxiety and alcohol-related sexual victimization: A longitudinal pilot study of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R; Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W

    2016-10-01

    We sought to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Women (Time 1: n = 574; Time 2: n = 88) who reported consuming alcohol at least once during the assessment timeframe participated. Social anxiety, alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, and sexual victimization were assessed twice, approximately two months apart. Logistic regressions were used to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization at both time points. Longitudinally, women high in social anxiety were approximately three times more likely to endorse unwanted alcohol-related sexual experiences compared to women with low to moderate social anxiety. This study suggests social anxiety, a modifiable construct, increases risk for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Implications for clinicians and risk-reduction program developers are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Insomnia symptoms and repressive coping in a sample of older Black and White women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Jessy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined whether ethnic differences in insomnia symptoms are mediated by differences in repressive coping styles. Methods A total of 1274 women (average age = 59.36 ± 6.53 years participated in the study; 28% were White and 72% were Black. Older women in Brooklyn, NY were recruited using a stratified, cluster-sampling technique. Trained staff conducted face-to-face interviews lasting 1.5 hours acquiring sociodemographic data, health characteristics, and risk factors. A sleep questionnaire was administered and individual repressive coping styles were assessed. Fisher's exact test and Spearman and Pearson analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The rate of insomnia symptoms was greater among White women [74% vs. 46%; χ2 = 87.67, p 1,1272 = 304.75, p s = -0.43, p s = -0.18, p Conclusion Relationships between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms are jointly dependent on the degree of repressive coping, suggesting that Black women may be reporting fewer insomnia symptoms because of a greater ability to route negative emotions from consciousness. It may be that Blacks cope with sleep problems within a positive self-regulatory framework, which allows them to deal more effectively with sleep-interfering psychological processes to stressful life events and to curtail dysfunctional sleep-interpreting processes.

  2. Racism, segregation, and risk of obesity in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozier, Yvette C; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F; Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of "everyday" racism (e.g., "people act as if you are dishonest") and of "lifetime" racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women.

  3. Discrimination and Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy Among Black and Latina Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. Objective We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Method Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Results Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Conclusion Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. PMID:27038321

  4. Psychological Predictors of Sexual Intimate Partner Violence against Black and Hispanic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Preiser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners’ depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner’s depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners’ depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.

  5. Psychological Predictors of Sexual Intimate Partner Violence against Black and Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiser, Brianna; Assari, Shervin

    2017-12-27

    Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV) tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners' depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM) to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner's depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners' depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.

  6. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona; Tharao, Wangari; Logie, Carmen; Aden, Muna A; Chambers, Lori A; Wu, Wei; Abdelmaseh, Marym; Calzavara, Liviana

    2015-01-01

    Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma experienced by this population. The Cochrane methodology was used to develop a search strategy in consultation with a librarian scientist. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Ovid EMBASE, PsycInfo, and 10 others. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for potential relevance and conducted the Cochrane grading of RCTs to assess risk of bias and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Eligible papers were selected if they employed an intervention design with African/Black diasporic women living with HIV as the target population and had a primary outcome of stigma reduction. Of the five studies that met all of the eligibility criteria, four demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing HIV-related stigma. Only two of the five studies were designed specifically for HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. Limitations included the absence of interventions addressing other forms of stigma and discrimination (e.g. gender discrimination, racism, heterosexism). Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women.

  7. Developmental Networks, Black Feminist Thought, and Black Women Federal Senior Executives: A Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Easley, Brian Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Private and public sector organizations have become increasingly interested in promoting diversity. Due to barriers attributed to race and gender, women and minorities often find it hard to break through the glass ceiling. Mentoring is a tool to assist with breaking through the glass ceiling. This interest has led to extensive growth in mentoring research and the design of a more expanded concept, developmental networks. Little empirical research informs our understanding of B...

  8. Predictors of Sexual Hookups: A Theory-Based, Prospective Study of First-Year College Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Walsh, Jennifer L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Hooking up, or engaging in sexual interactions outside of committed relationships, has become increasingly common among college students. This study sought to identify predictors of sexual hookup behavior among first-year college women using a prospective longitudinal design. We used problem behavior theory (Jessor, 1991) as an organizing conceptual framework and examined risk and protective factors for hooking up from three domains: personality, behavior, and perceived environment. Participa...

  9. Labor force plans and labor force status: U.S. women of the college class of 1957

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Leppel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Many U.S. women who were in their late 60s at the turn of the century were still employed. These women graduated from college in the 1950s, an era when women's labor force participation was low. Data from the U.S. Department of Labor Women's Bureau Survey of the college class of 1957 was used to examine labor force expectations of these women when they completed college. Logit analysis was applied to four labor force categories: full-time, part-time, unemployed, and not in the labor force. In 1957, many women underestimated their future labor force participation. By 1964, though, the trend toward increasing future work expectations may have begun. After examining the retirement literature and factors encouraging older women to continue working, Current Population Survey data on college-educated women aged 65 to 69 in 2003 were used to explore the labor force participation of this cohort later in life.

  10. The Association of Endothelin-1 with Markers of Arterial Stiffness in Black South African Women: The SABPA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Susara du Plooy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited data exist regarding endothelin-1 (ET-1, a vasoactive contributor in vascular tone, in a population subjected to early vascular deterioration. We compared ET-1 levels and explored its association with markers of arterial stiffness in black and white South Africans. Methodology. This cross-sectional substudy included 195 black (men: n=99; women: n=95 and 197 white (men: n=99; women: n=98 South Africans. Serum ET-1 levels were measured as well as markers of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and arterial compliance. ET-1 levels were higher in black men and white women compared to their counterparts after adjusting for C-reactive protein. In both single and partial (adjusting for body mass index and gamma glutamyl transferase regression analyses ET-1 correlated with age, interleukin-6, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity in black women. In multivariate regression analyses the independent association of ET-1 with systolic blood pressure (Adj. R2=0.13; β=0.28, p<0.01 and pulse pressure (Adj. R2=0.11; β=0.27, p<0.01 was confirmed in black women only. ET-1 additionally associated with interleukin-6 in black women (p<0.01. Conclusion. Our result suggests that ET-1 and its link with subclinical arteriosclerosis are potentially driven by low-grade inflammation as depicted by the association with interleukin-6 in the black female cohort.

  11. A longitudinal analysis of drinking and victimization in college women: is there a reciprocal relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kathleen A; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Taggart, Caroline; Bradizza, Clara M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between drinking and severe physical and sexual victimization in a sample of 989 college women over 5 years. Participants completed a Web-based survey each fall semester, beginning as first-time incoming freshman, and continuing each year for 5 years. The survey was comprehensive in assessing drinking, victimization, and relevant covariates. Women were followed whether they remained at university or not. Prior year same type of severe victimization predicted current year victimization, both severe physical and sexual. However, prior year drinking did not predict current year severe victimization. Prior year severe sexual victimization predicted current year drinking. Our findings of a longitudinal relationship between severe sexual victimization and subsequent increases in drinking suggests that college women may be drinking to cope with negative sequelae that they experience as a result of the victimization. We did not find the same longitudinal relationship between drinking and severe physical or sexual victimization, suggesting that a reciprocal relationship does not exist between drinking and victimization among college women. We did find that severe sexual victimization decreased across college, suggesting that the year prior to and the first year of college may be a critical period for intervening to reduce risk for severe victimization.

  12. Adlerian Therapy with Recently Romantically Separated College-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinehart, Alessandra; Gibbons, Melinda M.

    2017-01-01

    Most female students in college will experience the breakup of a romantic relationship. Romantic separation can negatively affect their emotional state, social relationships, and understanding of personal identity. Adler's theory of individual psychology (IP), with its focus on social interest and personal worldview, is a useful theoretical…

  13. Identity and Dating Commitment among Women and Men in College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Kathleen E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Relative contributions of young adults' gender role attitudes, educational aspirations, certainty about careers, and importance of work and marriage as a life satisfaction source to their concurrent involvement in a dating relationship were explored for 56 male and 167 female college students. Results concern Erikson's identity development stages.…

  14. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women for risk reduction focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.

  15. Weight gain prevention among black women in the rural community health center setting: The Shape Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Perry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 60% of black women are obese. Despite their increased risk of obesity and associated chronic diseases, black women have been underrepresented in clinical trials of weight loss interventions, particularly those conducted in the primary care setting. Further, existing obesity treatments are less effective for this population. The promotion of weight maintenance can be achieved at lower treatment intensity than can weight loss and holds promise in reducing obesity-associated chronic disease risk. Weight gain prevention may also be more consistent with the obesity-related sociocultural perspectives of black women than are traditional weight loss approaches. Methods/Design We conducted an 18-month randomized controlled trial (the Shape Program of a weight gain prevention intervention for overweight black female patients in the primary care setting. Participants include 194 premenopausal black women aged 25 to 44 years with a BMI of 25–34.9 kg/m2. Participants were randomized either to usual care or to a 12-month intervention that consisted of: tailored obesogenic behavior change goals, self-monitoring via interactive voice response phone calls, tailored skills training materials, 12 counseling calls with a registered dietitian and a 12-month YMCA membership. Participants are followed over 18 months, with study visits at baseline, 6-, 12- and 18-months. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, and self-administered surveys are collected at each visit. Accelerometer data is collected at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, participants were an average of 35.4 years old with a mean body mass index of 30.2 kg/m2. Participants were mostly employed and low-income. Almost half of the sample reported a diagnosis of hypertension or prehypertension and 12% reported a diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes. Almost one-third of participants smoked and over 20% scored above the clinical threshold

  16. The relationship between selected social factors and the clothing buying behavior patterns of black college students

    OpenAIRE

    Legette, Dana Denise

    1994-01-01

    Blacks have been noted as being one of the largest consumer groups in the United States. In general, Black consumers have been portrayed in the literature as a single, undifferentiated "Black Market" which consists of economically deprived consumers who have a uniform set of consumer needs; however, little is known about influences and behavior of segments of the Black market in reference to the external factors which influence their clothing buying behavior patterns. The purpose ...

  17. Physical and emotional abuse in romantic relationships: motivation for perpetration among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisring, Penny A

    2013-05-01

    Intimate partner violence is extremely common in college samples. To inform prevention and intervention efforts, understanding the motivation for engaging in partner aggression is critically important. The predominant view in the domestic violence field has been that women's use of intimate partner violence occurs in the context of self-defense. However, there has been a dearth of solid evidence to support this claim. The present study explored the motivations for the perpetration of minor and severe physical aggression and for three types of emotional abuse (restrictive engulfment, denigration, and dominance/intimidation) among college women. A detailed definition of self-defense was used and motivations for women who were sole perpetrators of physical violence as well as motivations for women who had been aggressed against in their romantic relationships were examined. Anger, retaliation for emotional hurt, to get partner's attention, jealousy, and stress were all common reasons for perpetrating partner violence among college women. Few women indicated that self-defense was a motive for their abusive behavior. The results suggest that prevention and intervention efforts to reduce partner violence perpetration by women should include anger and stress management.

  18. A unicorn's tale: Examining the experiences of Black women in engineering industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Monique S

    2016-01-01

    Black women have recently been identified as the most educated demographic in the United States, and yet they are grossly underrepresented in engineering. They comprise 6.4 % of the U.S. population and only 0.72 % of engineering industry. Meanwhile, engineers have been identified as the key to the United States’ ability to maintain its prominence and leadership in a competitive global economy due to their contribution to maintaining and improving our infrastructures and standard of living. Th...

  19. Self-collected vaginal swabs for HPV screening: An exploratory study of rural Black Mississippi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Crosby

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Black rural women from the deep-south are generally comfortable self-collecting cervico-vaginal swabs for HPV testing. Given that nearly 30% tested positive for oncogenic HPV, and that fatalism as well a lack of trust in doctors predicted prevalence, a reasonable screening alternative to Pap testing may be community-based testing for HPV using self-collected vaginal swabs.

  20. Black Women with Multiple Sex Partners: The Role of Sexual Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Stephanie; Benoit, Ellen; Dunlap, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    Motivations of low-income substance using heterosexual Black women in New York City for having multiple sexual partners are explored in this paper. Analysis of in-depth interviews with 50 study participants demonstrates that their relationships consisted of those who had: (1) a main sex partner and a secondary sex partner; or (2) two or more “casual” partners. Individual-level motivations for extra relational sex fell into four dominant themes: sexual pleasure, partner infidelity, sex exchang...

  1. Participation in Black Lives Matter and Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals: Modern Activism among Black and Latino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Elan C.; Keels, Micere; Durkee, Myles I.

    2016-01-01

    Political activism is one way racially/ethnically marginalized youth can combat institutional discrimination and seek legislative change toward equality and justice. In the current study, we examine participation in #BlackLivesMatter (BLM) and advocacy for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) as political activism popular among youth.…

  2. Are young arab women eating a healthy diet? A qualitative dietary study among college hostel students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, P; Al-Kunji, A A; Al-Saffar, B M; Al-Abdul Karim, H M; Al-Thawadi, M I

    1999-07-01

    Two recent studies conducted on young College Arab Women showed a trend towards over nutrition. It is well known that good eating habits adopted early in life not only improve health and control obesity in the youthful years but also promote healthy eating behaviours in later life. To investigate the dietary habits of young college women and identify specific areas for nutrition education. A self-administered questionnaire containing 20 items related to qualitative dietary history was distributed to all the college (King Faisal University, Dammam) women residing in the hostel during a one-week period in April 1998. Out of a total of 56 women, 50.7% frequently missed out on breakfast and lunch. To satisfy their state of hunger, frequent snacking with deserts/carbohydrate-rich food items (21.4%) and consumption of regular cola drinks (32.1%) was common. Fast food rich in fat and calories from restaurants was popular among a majority (98.2%) of the students. On the other hand, there was a deficient intake of protective foods and nutrients for repair, maintenance and growth, such as fruits (73.2%), vegetables (85.6%), milk and milk products (66.1%) and protein-rich foods (82.1%). To decrease the risk of malnutrition among young college women, there is a need to target them for nutrition education and adoption of healthy eating practices within the context of a healthy life style.

  3. To Address Suffering That the Majority Can't See: Lessons from Black Women's Leadership in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Cynthia B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores how both historically and in contemporary times of escalating violence against our bodies, minds, and spirits worldwide, Black women lead, love, and live within contexts of suffering.

  4. The Allure of the Freshman Girl: Peers, Partying, and the Sexual Assault of First-Year College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Brian N.

    2011-01-01

    Although sexual assault has long been recognized as a problem among college students, little attention has been paid to why first-year women are the most likely to be assaulted. In this article the author drew on two studies of college students to analyze peer culture and the organization of gender and sexuality within a college party scene.…

  5. Drexel University and Drexel University College of Medicine: an overview of their commitment to women through education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erica; Follen, Michele

    2012-02-01

    The Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania was a groundbreaking institution and an ancestor to the Drexel University College of Medicine. The tradition of the Woman's Medical College lives on in the form of education and leadership programs dedicated to medical training for women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction between the ADH1B*3 allele and drinking motives on alcohol use among Black college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaso, Michelle J; Desalu, Jessica M; Kim, Jueun; Suryadevara, Kavita; Belote, John M; Park, Aesoon

    2017-06-29

    Black young adults have lower rates of alcohol use than other racial groups. Genetic factors may protect against drinking. Specifically, the ADH1B*3 allele is present almost exclusively in Black populations and has been protective against alcohol use and alcohol use disorder. The protective effects of the ADH1B*3 allele, however, may differ as a function of alcohol-promoting cognitions. The current study examined whether ADH1B*3 moderated relations of drinking motives with alcohol consumption among Black college drinkers. Participants were 241 undergraduate students of self-identified Black race (mean age = 20 years; 66% female) who reported consuming alcohol at least once in the past 30 days. ADH1B*3 was not significantly associated with drinking motives or drinking behaviors. However, significant, albeit small, interaction effects of ADH1B*3 with drinking motives on drinking behavior were found; the presence of an ADH1B*3 allele protected against greater drinking quantity among students with high social motives (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.95, 95% CI [0.92, 0.99]) and against frequent drinking among students with low coping motives (IRR = 1.06, 95% CI [1.01, 1.11]). These findings represent a novel demonstration of genetic modulation of alcohol-related cognitions within Black college drinkers, although replication is needed. Results represent an initial step toward better characterizing individual differences in associations of drinking motives with drinking behavior, with potential implications for interventions aimed at motivational processes in alcohol use.

  7. The sexual behavior of American college women: an empirical study and an historical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, M B

    1965-01-01

    A ramdom sample of 49 seniors at an Eastern women's college is used as the basis for a study on the sexual behavior of college women. The women, who were primarily from the upper middle classes, were interviewed several times a year beginning in their freshman year. Sexual behavior was placed into 5 catagories: limited experience, restricted petting, extensive petting, intercourse confined to serious relationships, and uninhibited behavior. Only 6% exhibited unhibited behavior. 16% had had intercourse with 1 or 2 men with whom they had ha d serious relationships. 41% indulged in extensive petting; 27% in restricted petting; and 10% had had limited experience, which is described as simply kissing. Most of the subjects were content with their status quo. Many experienced a liberalization of their attitudes toward sexual behavior for others during the 4-year college experience, but not for themselves. Reasons for remaining a virgin were practical. There was a singular lack of abstract moral or ethical considerations. The only personality scale that related significantly to the catagories for both freshmen and seniors was the Impulse Expression scale--at the .01 level for freshmen and the .05 level for seniors. The data presented are consistent with those of other studies which report the incidence of nonvirginity among college women to be 25% or lower. The incidence of nonvirginity has changed little since the 1930s. However, the incidence of female homosexuality among college women has decreased sharply since the 1920s. It is concluded that American college students may have evolved patterns of sexual behavior that will remain stable. This behavior consists of petting, intercourse among some engaged couples, and early marriage.

  8. Living in a World with Eyeballs: How Women Make Meaning of Body Image in the College Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Chrystal Ann

    2013-01-01

    Negative body image is pervasive among traditional, college-age women and takes a heavy toll on women's economic, personal, and political lives. Previous research has indicated that a large percentage of women hold negative views of their body. Women embarking on higher education are not exempt from these negative views. Conversely, college…

  9. CLINICAL AND SOCIO - ECONOMIC PROFILE OF BLACK WOMEN PRONE MATERNAL DEATH: ASSISTANCE TO WOMEN IN A UNIT OF PUBLIC DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Aparecida Trevisan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sample survey conducted in the Public Health Unit of the Federal District, with only blackwomen pregnant. Aims to verify the compliance of specific group and degree of receptivityand awareness on health pregnancy. The study area lies in women's health and training ofhealth professionals in nursing.The analyzed result goes against the interests of publicmanagement in health through compliance with international agreements established in theMillennium Development Goals to reduce maternal and infant death and the eradication ofracism-4th 5th and 9th MDG / UN. He attempts to verify the paucity of nursing actions inthe face of known pre-existing impairment of hypertension, abortions, sickle cell anemia, pre-eclampsia in women of black ethnic group, living in communities of less infrastructure andless education. Registers the range, in the Federal District, the public health policies aimed atfulfilling agreements for equality and reducing child mortality and achieving the targets for2015 of reducing the maternal and infant mortality, according tothe United Nations, which isthe 5th goal millennium.Keywords: Women's Health, the black population, the UnitedNations

  10. Will that Be One Mentor or Two? A Cross-Sectional Study of Women's Mentoring during College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Becky Wai-Ling; Walsh, Lynn; Seidenberg, Shana

    2004-01-01

    College women are positioned at the juncture of adolescence and adulthood, as well as school and work. This study sought to identify whether the structural model underlying the mentoring of college women is dyadic in nature, as it is in adolescence and school settings, or networking in nature, as it is in adulthood and workplace settings.…

  11. A longitudinal analysis of drinking and victimization in college women: Is there a reciprocal relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Taggart, Caroline; Bradizza, Clara M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between drinking and severe physical and sexual victimization in a sample of 989 college women over five years. Participants completed a web-based survey each fall semester, beginning as first time incoming freshman, and continuing each year for five years. The survey was comprehensive in assessing drinking, victimization, and relevant covariates. Women were followed whether they remained at university or not. Prior year same typ...

  12. 75 FR 60778 - Announcement of Funding Awards for Fiscal Year 2010 Historically Black Colleges and Universities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... University, 601 South Martin Luther King, Jr. Drive, Winston Salem, NC 27110. Grant: $800,000. 2. Benedict College, Dr. David Swinton, Benedict College, 1600 Harden Street, Columbia, SC, 29204-1086. Grant: $800...

  13. Exercise Training in "at Risk" Black and White Women: A Comparative Cohort Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdon, Megan; Marcovitz, Pamela; Jain, Susanna K; Boura, Judith; Liroff, Kaitlin G; Franklin, Barry A

    2018-02-16

    Few data are available regarding the impact of exercise interventions in black women at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Women ≥18 years without known CVD with ≥1 coronary risk factor were enrolled in a community-based exercise program ≥3 days per/week for ≥30 min/session for 6 months. Exercise training intensity ~50[FIGURE DASH]80% of functional capacity, using heart rate (HR) and/or rating of perceived exertion (RPE) as the primary intensity modulators. Pre-versus post conditioning quality of life (QOL) assessments (depression and level of daytime sleepiness), dietary fat intake, Duke Activity Status Index (DASI score), changes in cardiovascular efficiency (systolic/diastolic blood pressure [SBP/DBP], HR, RPE during a standardized submaximal workload), and anthropometric measures, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference, were evaluated. Of 556 volunteers, 143 were excluded, leaving 413 women (222 white, 191 black; mean ± SD age = 61 ± 9) who met compliance criteria. Both groups demonstrated significant (P <0.05) post-conditioning decreases in BMI, waist circumference, resting SBP/DBP, total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, reductions in HR, SBP/DBP, and RPE at a fixed submaximal workload, and in fat screener, depression, and sleep scores. DASI scores increased significantly (P <0.0001) for both groups, signifying increases in self-reported functional capacity. Although 87 women (21%) experienced a musculoskeletal injury/discomfort during the program, there were no exercise-related cardiovascular events. A progressive moderate-to-vigorous exercise intervention without preliminary exercise testing elicited comparable improvements in coronary risk factors, anthropometric and QOL measures, and cardiovascular efficiency in 'at risk' black and white women. These adaptations were achieved at exercise levels below those recommended in contemporary physical activity guidelines.

  14. Patterns, levels and correlates of self-reported physical activity in urban black Soweto women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Crowther, Nigel J; Chirwa, Esnat D; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-09-08

    Urban black South African women have a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity patterns of a cohort of middle-aged urban-dwelling black African women and to determine if physical activity is associated with anthropometric measures and metabolic outcomes in this population. Physical activity and sitting time were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a cross-sectional study of 977 black African women (mean age 41.0 ± 7.84 years) from the Birth to Twenty study based in Soweto, Johannesburg. Anthropometric outcomes were measured and fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile were analysed to determine metabolic disease risk and prevalence. Sixty-seven percent of the population were classified as active according to GPAQ criteria, and the domain that contributed most to overall weekly physical activity was walking for travel. Only 45.0% of women participated in leisure time activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 40.0%, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.2% and 48.0%, respectively. Women who reported owning a motor vehicle walked for travel less, and participated in more leisure-time activity (both p travel (both p travel is a major contributor to physical activity, future research should attempt to determine whether the intensity of this activity plays a role in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

  15. Female peer mentors early in college increase women's positive academic experiences and retention in engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Tara C; Dasgupta, Nilanjana

    2017-06-06

    Scientific and engineering innovation is vital for American competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. However, too few American students, especially women, pursue these fields. Although this problem has attracted enormous attention, rigorously tested interventions outside artificial laboratory settings are quite rare. To address this gap, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment investigating the effect of peer mentoring on women's experiences and retention in engineering during college transition, assessing its impact for 1 y while mentoring was active, and an additional 1 y after mentoring had ended. Incoming women engineering students ( n = 150) were randomly assigned to female or male peer mentors or no mentors for 1 y. Their experiences were assessed multiple times during the intervention year and 1-y postintervention. Female (but not male) mentors protected women's belonging in engineering, self-efficacy, motivation, retention in engineering majors, and postcollege engineering aspirations. Counter to common assumptions, better engineering grades were not associated with more retention or career aspirations in engineering in the first year of college. Notably, increased belonging and self-efficacy were significantly associated with more retention and career aspirations. The benefits of peer mentoring endured long after the intervention had ended, inoculating women for the first 2 y of college-the window of greatest attrition from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Thus, same-gender peer mentoring for a short period during developmental transition points promotes women's success and retention in engineering, yielding dividends over time.

  16. The Link Between ADHD and the Risk of Sexual Victimization Among College Women: Expanding the Lifestyles/Routine Activities Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jamie A

    2015-11-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample of college women, the current study examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a potential risk factor in the prediction of sexual victimization among college women and as an extension of the lifestyles/routine activities framework. The findings indicate that college women with ADHD experienced sexual victimization at significantly higher rates than college women without ADHD. Furthermore, ADHD emerged as a significant predictor of sexual victimization across models. The lifestyles/routine activities theory also received general support, particularly for the concepts of exposure, proximity, and guardianship. This research suggests that other risk factors outside the lifestyles/routine activities framework are important in the prediction of sexual victimization in college women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Broad and Narrow Personality Traits of Women's College Students in Relation to Early Departure from College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sarah E.; Scepansky, James A.; Lounsbury, John W.; Gibson, Lucy W.

    2010-01-01

    Personality traits of coeducational students have been shown to correlate with early withdrawal intention from college (Lounsbury, Saudargas, & Gibson, 2004). The current study investigated the relationship between the Big Five personality traits as well as seven narrow personality traits in relation to withdrawal intention among 103 female…

  18. Mortality risk of black women and white women with invasive breast cancer by hormone receptors, HER2, and p53 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Huiyan; Folger, Suzanne G; Simon, Michael S; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Press, Michael F; Bernstein, Leslie; Lu, Yani; Malone, Kathleen E; Marchbanks, Polly A; Deapen, Dennis M; Spirtas, Robert; Burkman, Ronald T; Strom, Brian L; McDonald, Jill A

    2013-01-01

    Black women are more likely than white women to have an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is associated with higher mortality and this may contribute to the observed black-white difference in mortality. However, few studies have investigated the black-white disparity in mortality risk stratified by breast cancer subtype, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Furthermore, it is not known whether additional consideration of p53 protein status influences black-white differences in mortality risk observed when considering subtypes defined by ER, PR and HER2 status. Four biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast tumor tissue from 1,204 (523 black, 681 white) women with invasive breast cancer, aged 35–64 years at diagnosis, who accrued a median of 10 years’ follow-up. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit to assess subtype-specific black-white differences in mortality risk. No black-white differences in mortality risk were observed for women with triple negative (ER-negative [ER-], PR-, and HER2-) subtype. However, older (50–64 years) black women had greater overall mortality risk than older white women if they had been diagnosed with luminal A (ER-positive [ER+] or PR+ plus HER2-) breast cancer (all-cause hazard ratio, HR, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.18 to 2.99; breast cancer-specific HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.74). This black-white difference among older women was further confined to those with luminal A/p53- tumors (all-cause HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.79; breast cancer-specific HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.93 to 3.86). Tests for homogeneity of race-specific HRs comparing luminal A to triple negative subtype and luminal A/p53- to luminal A/p53+ subtype did not achieve statistical significance, although statistical power was limited. Our findings suggest that the subtype-specific black-white difference in

  19. Physiological and behavioral factors related to physical activity in black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nancy A; Melkus, Gail D; Chyun, Deborah A

    2011-10-01

    To describe relationships among physical activity (PA), physiological factors, and psychological factors in Black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-sectional design was used (N = 109). Data were collected on PA(activity/inactivity, TV hours, bed confinement), physiology (blood pressure, lipids, hemoglobin A1c), psychology (anxiety,emotional distress, physical functioning, bodily pain, vitality), and health care provider (HCP) support. Walking was the preferred PA; TV viewing averaged 3.7 hours/day, and 24% reported confinement to bed >1 week in the last year. Inactive women had greater physiological and psychological problems than active women. Women watching TV >2 hours/day had more physiological problems than women watching TV Women reporting >1 week of confinement to bed in the last year had more physiological and psychological problems than those confined to bed women with T2DM should promote walking, address TV viewing time, incorporate HCP’s role of PA counseling/support,and address several psychological factors.

  20. Physical and Emotional Abuse in Romantic Relationships: Motivation for Perpetration among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisring, Penny A.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is extremely common in college samples. To inform prevention and intervention efforts, understanding the motivation for engaging in partner aggression is critically important. The predominant view in the domestic violence field has been that women's use of intimate partner violence occurs in the context of self-defense.…

  1. Eating disorder-related social comparison in college women's everyday lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E

    2017-08-01

    This study examined: frequency of upward and downward body, eating, and exercise comparisons; context in which these comparisons occur; and body, eating, and exercise comparison direction as predictors of concurrent body dissatisfaction and disordered eating thoughts, urges, and behaviors in college women's everyday lives using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Participants were 232 college women who completed a two-week EMA protocol, using their personal electronic devices to answer questions three times per day. First, body, eating, and exercise comparisons were common. Second, when these comparisons were made, they were typically upward. Third, body comparisons were most oftentimes made about weight and shape and eating comparisons about healthiness and amount of food. Exercise comparisons were made on a wider variety of dimensions. Fourth, most body and eating comparisons were made with strangers and close friends, respectively, while exercise comparisons were made with a variety of individuals. Upward comparisons were usually made with acquaintances and strangers. Fifth, results shed light on where college women compare themselves. Sixth, upward comparisons were found to have negative consequences, and downward comparisons were generally not found to have a buffering effect on eating pathology. Results suggest targeting not only body but also eating and exercise comparisons in intervention. Also, prevention/intervention approaches should not promote engagement in downward comparisons, as they were not found to be protective and were even harmful at times. Clinicians should be attuned to the categories on which, with whom, and where college women are most likely to compare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Relationship among Family, Peer Networks and Bulimic Symptomatology in College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Brian Scott; Daniels, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Tests explanatory power of a sociocultural model in predicting bulimic symptomatology in a sample of college women (N=141). High scores on the Bulimia Test were negatively correlated with scores on the cohesion subscale of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale. Pressures to diet from family and friends were also found to be…

  3. Risk Perception, Rape, and Sexual Revictimization: A Prospective Study of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Brown, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    Risk perception was examined in relation to sexual victimization among 262 college women. Participants were presented with written vignettes that described hypothetical situations with a stranger and with an acquaintance. Participants' hypothetical decision to leave a potentially risky situation with an acquaintance predicted rape and…

  4. Behavioral and Emotional Antecedents and Consequences of Binge Eating in Bulimic and Binge Eating College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Melanie A.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.

    Recent studies have indicated that bulimia, characterized by binge eating followed by depressed mood and purging, is increasing. To investigate the behavioral and emotional antecedents and consequences of binge eating in women, 22 female college students (14 diagnosed bulimics, 8 binge eaters) completed self-monitoring forms for four binges.…

  5. Confirmation among College Women: The Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified Diagnostic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzer, Alan; Hatfield, Tammy; Jones, Angela R.; Duggan, Molly H.; Jurgens, Jill; Winninger, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Previously, the researchers proposed and tested a diagnostic framework for women with eating-related concerns who seek college health and mental health treatment. The framework emphasized moderate problems characterized by frequent binging, occasional purging, and frequent exercise; rumination; body image and self-esteem concerns; ambivalence…

  6. Characteristics of Aggressors against Women: Testing a Model Using a National Sample of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamuth, Neil M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used structural equation modeling to study characteristics of college men (n=2,652) who aggressed against women either sexually, nonsexually, or both. Model saw hostile childhood experiences affecting involvement in delinquency and leading to aggression through two paths: hostile attitudes and personality resulting in coerciveness and sexual…

  7. Toward Reducing Risk for Eating Disorders and Obesity in Latina College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L.; Jenkins, Amy; Rodgers, Rachel F.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of 2 computer-based programs was tested with Latina college women (N = 64). Compared with participants in the control group, intervention participants improved their motivation to eat fruits and vegetables (F&V; p = 0.042) and to participate in physical activity (p = 0.023) and significantly increased their F&V intake (pre- to…

  8. Women in physics: Reducing the gender gap at the college level

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Christine; Cunningham, Beth

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, too few women in college obtain physics degrees. This policy analysis examines different strategies for addressing the gap through improving physics courses and providing additional support to students. It re-commends that, although several options could be effective, stakeholders should prioritize implementing psychological interventions, and they should collaborate with groups from other STEM fields, humanities, and other interests.

  9. "Never Enough": Bridging the Chasm between College Women's Achievements and Their Anguish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Laura H. Choate demonstrates a disconnect between what female undergraduates are achieving and how they actually feel about themselves and their accomplishments; she suggests a variety of interventions to counterbalance the cultural pressures that undermine college women's overall self-esteem and mental health.

  10. Women in Technology: College Experiences That Are Correlated with Long-Term Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Melissa Gearhart

    2017-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in technology careers because they pursue technology degrees less frequently and leave technology careers at greater numbers than do men. By analyzing a representative dataset of college graduates with degrees in computer science, computer engineering, and management information systems, this study identified…

  11. Relational Variables and Life Satisfaction in African American and Asian American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…

  12. Predictors of Obligatory Exercise among Undergraduates: Differential Implications for Counseling College Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Holly M.; Miller, Sarah E.; Roach, Megan E.; Schultheis, Kara S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined predictors of obligatory exercise in college undergraduates ("N"= 172). Regression models indicated that internalization of Western attitudes toward appearance predicted exercise fixation and commitment in women, whereas perceived pressure from dating partners predicted exercise commitment in men. Findings suggest…

  13. University Health Center Providers' Beliefs about Discussing and Recommending Sexual Health Prevention to Women College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Geshnizjani, Alireza; Middlestadt, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual health concerns such as sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy remain substantial health problems faced by young adults, especially college women. University healthcare providers may be instrumental in increasing female patients' involvement in preventative sexual health behaviors, however little research has examined this…

  14. Why Are Women Underrepresented in Elite Colleges and Universities? A Non-Linear Decomposition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielby, Rob; Posselt, Julie Renee; Jaquette, Ozan; Bastedo, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    The emerging female advantage in education has received considerable attention in the popular media and recent research. We examine a persistent exception to this trend: women's underrepresentation in America's most competitive colleges and universities. Using nationally generalizable data spanning four decades, we evaluate evidence for…

  15. Counseling College Women Experiencing Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: A Cognitive Behavior Therapy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…

  16. Perceptions of Sexual Discrimination among College Women in Latin America and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espin, Oliva M.

    1980-01-01

    In a comparative analysis of 400 college women's perceptions of incidents of sexual discrimination in Latin America and the U.S., significant differences were noted. Most incidents from Latin America regarded social conventions, those from the U.S. involved personal advancement in such matters as jobs or educational opportunities. (DS)

  17. Acceptability of Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Using Self-Collected Vaginal Swabs among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the acceptability of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing using self-collected vaginal swabs (SCVS) among college women. Participants: First-year female students ("N" = 483). Methods: Participants were offered free testing for 3 STIs using SCVS in April 2010 and later completed a survey regarding their…

  18. Media Literacy as an Educational Method for Addressing College Women's Body Image Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Karen L.; Alexander, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of media literacy in the college classroom by comparing two modalities of learning, watching a video versus reading a text. The research questions guiding this project are: as teachers can we facilitate critical awareness among our students in order to alter the way women appropriate media images to evaluate…

  19. "Good" Places to Work: Women Faculty, Community Colleges, Academic Work, and Family Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kelly; Wolf-Wendel, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This chapter draws on a longitudinal study about women faculty, work-family, and career advancement in community colleges. The study found that the participants, though highly satisfied with their careers and qualified for administration, are largely uninterested in moving to more senior administrative positions.

  20. Women in Community College: Factors Related to Intentions to Pursue Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; O'Connor, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges (CC) are obvious places to recruit more women into computer science. Enrollment at CCs has grown in response to a struggling economy, and students are more likely to be from underrepresented groups than students enrolled in 4-year universities (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008). However, we know little about why so…

  1. Acceptability of Marital Violence among College Men and Women: Does Gender and Current Relationship Status Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Michael J.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of gender, current relationship status, and the interaction between gender and relationship status on the acceptability of marital violence among college men and women. Participants completed a questionnaire containing measures of marital violence acceptability and current relationship status.…

  2. The Correlates of Childhood Father Absence in College-aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Louise; Feig, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Personality and attitudinal correlates of father absence early (before age 5) or late (between 5 and 11) in childhood were studied in a sample of college- aged women. Father absence was due to either death or divorce. Results showed few differences between father-absent subjects and father-present controls. (Author/JMB)

  3. An Intersectional Analysis of Latin@ College Women's Counter-Stories in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the intersectionality of mathematics experiences for two Latin@ college women pursuing mathematics-intensive STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors at a large, predominantly White university. The author employs intersectionality and poststructural theories to explore and make meaning…

  4. Praying for Mr. Right? Religion, Family Background, and Marital Expectations among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Burdette, Amy M.; Glenn, Norval D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between multiple aspects of religious involvement--affiliation, church attendance, subjective religiosity--and marital expectations among college women. In addition, the authors investigate whether religious involvement mediates the link between family background and marital expectations. These issues are…

  5. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  6. Instrumentality, Expressivity, and Relational Qualities in the Same-Sex Friendships of College Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Lisa L.; Beesley, Denise; Hurst, Rebecca; Saldana, Star; Licuanan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Using the relational-cultural model (Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver, & Surrey, 1991), the authors hypothesized that instrumentality, expressivity, and the individual affective experience of same-sex friendships would predict increased relationship mutuality, with college women and men showing different predictive patterns. Overall, results…

  7. The Relationship of Body Size and Adiposity to Source of Self-Esteem in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncur, Breckann; Bailey, Bruce W.; Lockhart, Barbara D.; LeCheminant, James D.; Perkins, Annette E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies looking at self-esteem and body size or adiposity generally demonstrate a negative relationship. However, the relationship between the source of self-esteem and body size has not been examined in college women. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body size and adiposity to source of…

  8. The Delicate Balancing Act: Challenges and Successes Facing College Student Women in Formal Leadership Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber-Curran, Paige

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the successes and challenges experienced by four undergraduate college women while holding top leadership roles in student organizations. Interpretive and descriptive qualitative research methods were employed with aspects of case study and phenomenological approaches of inquiry. Data were collected through…

  9. Bone mineral density levels of college-aged women in northwest Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Kate; Ford, Mary Allison; Turner, Lori Waite; Denny, George

    2003-11-01

    Osteoporosis has affected more than 20 million American, women, completely altering their way of life. Osteoporosis is highly preventable if steps are taken to build healthy bone; however, many college students do not have lifestyle habits that have a positive effect on their bones. For this study, a questionnaire was used to investigate childhood dairy consumption, high school sport participation, dieting behaviors, eating behaviors and bone mineral density levels of college women at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville. Eighty percent of the participants were Caucasian or of Asian descent, while 20% were of other races; 34% of the participants consumed three or more servings of milk a day as children, while current calcium consumption was at an average of 16 servings a week. Many of the participants were active in high school, as 67% participated in high school sports. Fifty-two percent of the college women in the sample had dieted in the past year, and 44% perceived they were not at a desirable weight. Forty-five percent skip more than three meals a week. Of the participants, two had osteoporosis and 23 had osteopenia. Clearly, development of osteoporosis is not limited to older adults, and college women are in need of education related to bone health.

  10. Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Related Risk Factors among College Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Jesse S.; Lofgren, Ingrid E.; Burke, Joanne D.; Reilly, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome (MbS) and its criteria, and nutrient intakes of college-age men and women via a large-scale screening. Participants and Methods: From August 2005 to July 2008, 2,722 subjects were recruited for the ongoing, cross-sectional…

  11. Mutuality as an Aspect of Family Functioning in Predicting Eating Disorder Symptoms in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Cameron, Rebecca P.; Tantillo, Mary; Heigel, Caron P.; Martin, David Myron; Sippel-Silowash, Julie Ann; Taggart, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    We examined mutuality, an aspect of Relational Cultural Theory, in an ethnically diverse sample of 397 college women from Midwestern and Western universities. We hypothesized that mutuality would predict scores on an eating disorder scale after controlling for traditional family variables, such as expressed emotion. As predicted, mutuality, as…

  12. Beyond a High School Diploma: The Motivations of Adult African American Women Returning to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Trenia L.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify adult African American women undergraduate students' motivations for enrolling in college as measured by Boshier's (1982) Education Participation Scale (EPS). The secondary purpose was to determine if there were differences in motivations based on choice of institutional enrollment and if…

  13. Determined to Make a Difference: A Qualitative Study of College Women Student Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Heather Yattaw

    2017-01-01

    While research has grown related to the experiences of gender and leadership in the workplace, little research exists on the experiences of gender and leadership in collegiate student organization settings. This study explores the experiences of college women holding executive leadership roles in highly visible on-campus registered student…

  14. Eating Disorder Quality of Life Scale (EDQLS) in ethnically diverse college women: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoury, Liya M; Rozalski, Vincent; Barchard, Kimberly A; Warren, Cortney S

    2018-03-01

    Extant research suggests that disordered eating is common in college women and is associated with decreased quality of life. The Eating Disorder Quality of Life Scale (EDQLS) examines impairment to disordered eating-related quality of life, but has not been validated in college women. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the EDQLS in a diverse sample of 971 college women. Students from a large United States university completed questionnaires examining disordered eating and the EDQLS online. The EDQLS demonstrated excellent internal consistency and good convergent validity with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ). Contrary to the original 12-domain design of the EDQLS, principal component analyses suggested five factors that mapped onto the following constructs: (1) Positive Emotionality; (2) Body/Weight Dissatisfaction; (3) Disordered Eating Behaviors; (4) Negative Emotionality; and (5) Social Engagement. However, 15 of the 40 items loaded onto multiple factors. Total scores on the EDQLS are reliable and valid when used with diverse samples of college women, but some revisions are needed to create subscales than can justifiably be used in clinical practice.

  15. Substance Use and PTSD Symptoms Impact the Likelihood of Rape and Revictimization in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Ward, Rose Marie; Brown, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study utilized a mixed retrospective and prospective design with an 8-month follow-up period to test a model of revictimization that included multiple childhood (i.e., child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse) and situational variables (i.e., substance use, sexual behavior) for predicting rape among 276 college women. It was of…

  16. The Supervision and Career Advancement of Women in Community College Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue-Mendoza, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the specific issue of supervision as an important administrative gate keeping function that facilitates or impedes women's career advancement, and promotes gender equity at the executive leadership level in community colleges. The very nature of supervision mirrors the historical purpose of higher education, employee learning…

  17. Ecological analysis of college women's physical activity and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Dunn, Jacqueline; Morrow, James; Greenleaf, Christy

    2018-03-01

    Despite significant health benefits of regular physical activity, over 60 percent of college women do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines to promote their health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), a comprehensive construct including physical and psychosocial health functioning. The major purpose of this study was to examine the influences of individual (e.g., self-efficacy, enjoyment), social (e.g., family and friend support), and physical environmental factors (e.g., crime safety) on college women's physical activity and HRQoL. Participants were 235 (Mean age = 21.0 years) college women from a public research university located in the southwest region of the United States. They completed validated surveys assessing their perceptions of physical activity, HRQoL, and social ecological factors during the spring semester of 2012. The findings of three multiple linear regressions, entering individual factors first, followed by social and physical environmental factors, revealed that self-efficacy and crime safety were significantly related to physical activity. For HRQoL-physical functioning, significant factors were self-efficacy, enjoyment, and crime safety. Enjoyment was the only factor related to HRQoL-psychosocial functioning. These findings indicated that physical activity professionals need to foster safe environments, enhance self-efficacy, and provide enjoyable activities to promote college women's physical activity and HRQoL.

  18. College women's experiences of sexual coercion: a review of cultural, perpetrator, victim, and situational variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Curtis, Leah E; Forbes, Gordon B

    2004-04-01

    The literature on college women's experiences with sexual coercion is reviewed, with an emphasis on work published since 1990. Sexual coercion is defined as any situation in which one person uses verbal or physical means (including the administration of drugs or alcohol, with or without the other person's consent) to obtain sexual activity against consent. We argue that coercive sexual behavior among college students can best be understood within the context of other sexual behaviors and values on college campuses. Significant definitional and methodological problems are identified and discussed. Important victim, perpetrator, and situational variables are identified and discussed. These include attitudes toward women, beliefs about sexual behavior (including rape-supporting beliefs and values), communication problems, coercion-supporting peer groups (including fraternities and athletics), concepts of masculinity and femininity, sexual promiscuity, and alcohol.

  19. A Clinical Validation of Self-Reported Periodontitis Among Participants in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Brenda; Gordon, Nicholas B; Garcia, Raul I; Rosenberg, Lynn; Rich, Sharron; Fox, Matthew P; Cozier, Yvette C

    2017-06-01

    There is a paucity of data on the validity of self-report of periodontal disease in African Americans. The Black Women's Health Study (BWHS), a United States national cohort study of 59,000 black women followed via mailed questionnaires since 1995, offered the opportunity to clinically validate self-reported periodontitis among a sample of participants. Oral health questionnaires were sent to study participants residing in Massachusetts. Respondents living in the Boston metro area were invited for clinical examination. Self-reports were compared with clinical data obtained from the 77 women (mean age: 59 years) who were examined. The authors examined the predictive ability of individual and combined questionnaire items with respect to clinical periodontal disease severity. Validation parameters were calculated for each question, and receiver operating characteristic statistics were generated to compare questionnaire items. Periodontitis prevalence in the validation sample was 24% for severe periodontitis and 61% for moderate disease. Performance of individual questionnaire items with respect to predicting periodontitis was better for severe compared with moderate disease. Combinations of questionnaire items improved the predictive ability with respect to severe disease beyond that of individual questionnaire items. Prevalence of severe periodontitis was similar to other age-comparable populations, without regard for race or sex, whereas prevalence of total periodontitis (moderate and severe) among women of similar age and/or race was much higher. Predictive ability of questionnaire items assessed in the BWHS was similar to that in other studies.

  20. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women’s birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black preg...

  1. College women's experiences with rape disclosure: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-04-01

    Disclosure of a rape to informal support sources (e.g., friends) is a relatively common experience, but it is not well understood. This study expands our limited knowledge of the characteristics and life experiences of disclosure recipients among a national sample of 2,000 female college students. Over 40% of respondents reported having received a rape disclosure, and more than two thirds of these recipients encouraged victims to formally report their rapes to the police or other authorities. Correlates of disclosure receipt and encouragement of reporting, including personal assault history, mental health history, and substance use, are presented and discussed.

  2. General and abdominal obesity and risk of death among black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Deborah A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Cozier, Yvette C; Wise, Lauren A; Coogan, Patricia F; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Palmer, Julie R

    2011-09-08

    Recent pooled analyses show an increased risk of death with increasing levels of the body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 25.0 or higher in populations of European ancestry, a weaker association among East Asians, and no association of an increased BMI with an increased risk of death among South Asians. The limited data available on blacks indicate that the risk of death is increased only at very high levels of BMI (≥35.0). We prospectively assessed the relation of both BMI and waist circumference to the risk of death among 51,695 black women with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease who were 21 to 69 years of age at study enrollment. Our analysis was based on follow-up data from 1995 through 2008 in the Black Women's Health Study. Multivariable proportional-hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of 1773 deaths identified during follow-up, 770 occurred among 33,916 women who had never smoked. Among nonsmokers, the risk of death was lowest for a BMI of 20.0 to 24.9. For a BMI above this range, the risk of death increased as the BMI increased. With a BMI of 22.5 to 24.9 as the reference category, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.44) for a BMI of 25.0 to 27.4, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.72) for a BMI of 27.5 to 29.9, 1.27 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.64) for a BMI of 30.0 to 34.9, 1.51 (95% CI, 1.13 to 2.02) for a BMI of 35.0 to 39.9, and 2.19 (95% CI, 1.62 to 2.95) for a BMI of 40.0 to 49.9 (Pdeath from any cause among women with a BMI of less than 30.0. The risk of death from any cause among black women increased with an increasing BMI of 25.0 or higher, which is similar to the pattern observed among whites. Waist circumference appeared to be associated with an increased risk of death only among nonobese women. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute.).

  3. Influence of Body Size and Body Fat Distribution on Risk of Uterine Leiomyomata in U.S. Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lauren A.; Palmer, Julie R.; Spiegelman, Donna; Harlow, Bernard L.; Stewart, Elizabeth A.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Background Uterine leiomyomata are a major source of morbidity in black women. We prospectively investigated the risk of self-reported uterine leiomyomata in relation to body mass index (BMI), weight change, height, waist and hip circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio in a large cohort of U.S black women. Methods Data were derived from the Black Women’s Health Study, a U.S. prospective cohort study of black women who complete biannual mailed health questionnaires. From 1997 through 2001, we followed 21,506 premenopausal women with intact uteri and no prior diagnosis of uterine leiomyomata. Cox regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results After 70,345 person-years of follow up, 2146 new cases of uterine leiomyomata confirmed by ultrasound (n = 1885) or hysterectomy (n = 261) were self-reported. Compared with the thinnest women (BMI uterine leiomyomata in the Black Women’s Health Study. The BMI association was inverse J-shaped and findings were stronger in parous women. Weight gain was positively associated with risk among parous women only. PMID:15824551

  4. Rural black women's agency within intimate partnerships amid the South African HIV epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thege, Britta

    2009-12-01

    In a particular way, the HIV pandemic exposes the prevailing gender relations and the definitions of male and female gender roles, both in intimate relationships and in the wider society. The HIV pandemic reveals the contradictions between women's legal rights and the persistence of women's cultural and sexual subordination. It reflects the impact of poverty, gender roles, culture and religion. Although HIV and AIDS cuts across class, South African rural black women's infection risk seems particularly high since they suffer notably from subordination and socio-economic hardships. Negotiating safer sex in marriage or intimate partnerships is very difficult for them in view of the traditional spaces in which they find themselves, where patriarchal structures are pervasive. Based on data obtained from a case study, this paper examines socio-cultural constraints to rural women's sexual agency in a patriarchal social order. These rules are based on a patriarchal code of respect, which is still pervasive in many aspects of the community under investigation. In terms of gender relations, the patriarchal code of respect is founded on an assumed 'naturalisation' of the two genders and the natural superiority of the male over the female. In terms of sexuality it is translated into male sex-right. The fear of HIV infection is omnipresent and results in unmarried women engaging in the negotiation of their wants and needs. Owing to the patriarchal code of respect, married women are perceived as having no choice in negotiating safer sex and are forced to put their lives at risk in contracting HIV. Unmarried women have greater although not endless choices in this regard. Although the study participants unexpectedly displayed a rather negative perception of other women, in order to strengthen women in their proximal environment the HIV epidemic may be seen as a vehicle for building solidarity among women in the community.

  5. Comparing Autocratic and Democratic Leadership Techniques for College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, Thomas W.

    1970-01-01

    Questionnaires assessed attitudes of women living in an apartment building off campus, in regard to feelings of freedom and responsibility when they created their own them. Responses support contention that housing is an educational facility which through its environment may enhance intellectual activity. (Author/CJ)

  6. Multiracial Women Students and Racial Stereotypes on the College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jessica C.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have explored how multiracial women students encounter different racialized experiences when compared to their monoracial peers and multiracial men on campus, suggesting that their experiences with racial stereotypes may also diverge from both of these populations. Guided by critical race theory, in this study I explored 10 multiracial…

  7. Conference for Women Administrators: Financial Management of Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    The process for organizing and conducting a conference of finance and budgeting in higher education is described in this manual designed for use by groups interested in developing successful conferences in their regions. The manual is an outgrowth of a series of conferences sponsored by the Committee for the Concerns of Women in New England…

  8. Examining impulsivity as a moderator of the relationship between body shame and bulimic symptoms in Black and White young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M K; Lin, Stacy L; Alvarez, Alexandra; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2015-06-01

    Impulsivity has been linked to bulimic symptomatology in a number of studies; however, few have examined this relationship among Black women. We investigated the correlations between impulsivity and bulimic symptoms, and tested impulsivity as a moderator of the body shame/bulimic symptoms relationship among a sample of female undergraduates (N=276; 97 Blacks, 179 Whites). These participants provided data on body shame, impulsivity, and bulimic symptoms (EDE-Q binge eating frequency, BULIT-R, EDI-Bulimia). Among Blacks, impulsivity was significantly positively associated with all bulimic symptoms measures; among Whites, impulsivity was only positively correlated with binge eating frequency. Furthermore, among Blacks, the combination of high body shame and high impulsivity was associated with the highest levels of bulimic symptoms; these findings were not observed among Whites. This study highlights the importance of impulsivity and body shame in identifying bulimic symptomatology among Black women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. "A triumph of brains over brute": women and science at the Horticultural College, Swanley, 1890-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Donald L

    2013-03-01

    The founding of Britain's first horticultural college in 1889 advanced a scientific and coeducational response to three troubling national concerns: a major agricultural depression; the economic distress of single, unemployed women; and imperatives to develop the colonies. Buoyed by the technical instruction and women's movements, the Horticultural College and Produce Company, Limited, at Swanley, Kent, crystallized a transformation in the horticultural profession in which new science-based, formalized study threatened an earlier emphasis on practical apprenticeship training, with the effect of opening male-dominated trades to women practitioners. By 1903, the college closed its doors to male students, and new pathways were forged for women students interested in pursuing further scientific study. Resistance to the Horticultural College's model of science-based women's horticultural education positioned science and women as contested subjects throughout this period of horticulture's expansion in the academy.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1677 women aged 16-40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income >$30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Indoor radon measurements in the Women College, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qahtani, Mona; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman

    2005-01-01

    Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, were used in the indoor radon survey of the College of Science for Girls in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 95 dosimeters were distributed in the academic departments and the administrative building in the College. The exposure time in all the buildings was one complete lunar year in the period October 2001-October 2002 to get the average annual indoor radon concentration. All the buildings were constructed with ready-made concrete, except the administrative building which constructed with ordinary concrete bricks. A significant difference in the average indoor radon concentrations in the two types of buildings was found. The average indoor radon concentration in the ready-made concrete buildings was 6+/-2Bqm -3 whereas that for the ordinary concrete brick building was 24+/-2Bqm -3 . This could be due to the fact that ready-made concrete has a significantly less voids for the radon to emanate compared with ordinary concrete bricks. The indoor radon concentration in the ground floor is slightly higher than that in the first and second floors

  12. The Relationship between College Experience at a Historically Black College and Students' Critical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Irene Pruitt

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the relationship between college experience at a HBCU and students' critical thinking skills. The theoretical framework included Astin's theory of involvement and Facione's taxonomy of critical thinking. The research site was a private four-year HBCU in the state of Alabama. The…

  13. Breast Cancer Estrogen Receptor by Biological Generation: US Black & White Women, Born 1915-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Waterman, Pamela D; Chen, Jarvis T

    2017-09-20

    Evidence suggests contemporary population distributions of breast cancer estrogen receptor (ER) status may be shaped by earlier major societal events, such as the 1965 abolition of Jim Crow (legal racial discrimination in the US) and the Great Famine in China (1959-1961). We accordingly analyzed changes in ER status in relation to Jim Crow birth place among the 46,417 black and 339,830 white US-born non-Hispanic women in the 13 SEER Registry Group who were born between 1915 and 1979 and diagnosed (age 25-84, inclusive) between 1992-2012. We grouped the cases by birth cohort and quantified the rate of change using the haldane (which scales change in relation to biological generation). The % of ER+ cases rose by birth cohort (1915-1919 to 1975-1979) only among women diagnosed before age 55. Changes by biological generation were greater for black vs. white women, and among black women, were greatest among those born in Jim Crow vs. non-Jim Crow states, with this group the only one to exhibit high haldanes (>|0.3|, indicating high rate of change). Our study's analytic approach and findings underscore the need to consider history and societal context when analyzing breast cancer ER status and racial/ethnic inequities in its distribution. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. History of uterine leiomyoma and risk of endometrial cancer in black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Lauren A; Sponholtz, Todd R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Kuohung, Wendy; LaValley, Michael P; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have found an association between uterine leiomyomata (UL) and uterine malignancies. This relation has not been studied in black women, who are disproportionately affected by UL. We investigated prospectively the association between self-reported physician-diagnosed UL and endometrial cancer in the Black Women's Health Study. During 1995-2013, 47,267 participants with intact uteri completed biennial health questionnaires. Reports of endometrial cancer were confirmed by pathology data from medical records and cancer registries. Cox regression was used to derive incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were 300 incident endometrial cancer cases during 689,546 person-years of follow-up. In multivariable models, UL history was associated with a 42% greater incidence of endometrial cancer compared with no such history (95% CI 1.12-1.80). IRRs for cancer diagnosed 0-2, 3-9, and ≥10 years after UL diagnosis were 3.20 (95% CI 2.06-4.98), 0.95 (95% CI 0.60-1.52), and 1.35 (95% CI 1.03-1.77), respectively. Stronger overall associations between UL history and endometrial cancer were observed for later stages at cancer diagnosis (IRR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.09-4.63) and type II/III cancers (IRR = 3.13, 95% CI 1.64-5.99). In this large cohort of black women, a history of UL was positively associated with endometrial cancer, particularly type II/III tumors. The strongest association was observed for cancer diagnosed within 2 years of UL diagnosis, a finding that might be explained by greater surveillance of women with UL or misdiagnosis of cancer as UL. However, an association was also observed for cancer reported ≥10 years after UL diagnosis.

  15. Latina and Black Women's Perceptions of the Dietetics Major and Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Megan

    Racial and ethnic groups remain underrepresented in undergraduate health profession education programs and careers, such as nutrition and dietetics (Sullivan, 2004). Overwhelmingly, 82 percent of dietitians are White, three percent are Latino/Latina, and less than three percent are Black (Commission on Dietetic Registration, 2016). While the calls to increase recruitment of underrepresented minorities are plentiful and federal dollars are allotted to the effort, a critical lens is necessary to investigate the complexity of factors that impact the decision to pursue a career within dietetics. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate how Latina and Black women enrolled in an undergraduate Health Career Opportunity Program (HCOP) narrated and reflected upon the dietetics profession. Through the lens of Critical Race Theory and situated learning, I sought to understand the sociocultural and historical underpinnings that hinder or promote career selection. Data collection methods included participant observation, interviews, artifacts, and reflexive journaling. Data were analyzed using inductive coding techniques. My findings revealed the ways in which Latina and Black women believed dietitians must match the socially constructed role model for body image, physical fitness, and healthy eating to be effective in practice. Using a critical media analysis to confront the stereotypical images of dietitians, the women used cliche messages as a selected discourse to mask perceptions of barriers to the dietetics field. Finally, the women believed a dietitian's professional role was to give diet advice which presented a barrier to the profession. Based on my findings I support early introduction to nutrition science as a means to empower individuals to support their health and the health of their community. Recruitment efforts must explicitly address the culture of dietetics which has embraced the stereotypical image. Collectively, the dietetics field must

  16. Factors that promote success in women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural North Carolina community colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Shannon D.

    Women have historically been underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM fields). The underrepresentation of women in STEM may be attributable to a variety of factors. These may include different choices men and women typically make in response to incentives in STEM education. For example, STEM career paths may be less accommodating to people who are less resilient. Another factor may be that there are relatively few female STEM role models. Perhaps strong gender stereotypes discourage women from pursuing STEM education and STEM jobs. The factors that contribute to success and the barriers that impeded success must be identified before any steps can be taken to improve the educational outcomes for women in STEM disciplines. Consequently, relatively little is known about the role of resilience in academically successful adult women in rural community colleges enrolled in STEM disciplines and the mechanisms that underlie the performance deficits that occur as a result of stereotype threat effect. This mixed method study addressed those knowledge gaps by determining: (1) if high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and (2) if stereotype threat effect is a risk factor for these women. Quantitative data were collected by using "The Resilience Scale" (Wagnild & Young, 1987) and through examination of grade point average of students from Datatel data management software. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews. Findings from this study indicate high resilience is positively correlated to high grade point average for women enrolled in STEM disciplines in rural community colleges in North Carolina, and stereotype threat effect was a risk factor for low-scoring women (i.e. those women who reported resilience scores less than 121 and grade point averages lower than 2.70) and was not a

  17. Effect of Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga Racemosa) on Vasomotor Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Nahaee, Jila; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Bayatipayan, Somaye

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:Hot flash is considered to be an early and common symptom of menopause. The present study aimed to determine the impact of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods:This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. This study was performed on 84 postmenopausal women. The participants were randomly divided into control and intervention groups. The participants of the intervention group received one black cohosh tablet per day and the control group received one placebo tablet per day for eight weeks. The severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes were recorded during the pre-intervention phase, and 4 and 8 weeks after the intervention. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and ANCOVA tests. The level of significance was considered lower than 0.05. Results:There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of severity and number of hot flashes in weeks 4 and 8 by controlling the intensity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes before the intervention. Moreover, using repeated measures ANOVA, the intergroup comparison indicated a significant difference in bothgroups (the test and control groups) in terms of severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of hot flashes. Conclusion:According to the findings of the study, it seems that black cohosh can be used as an effective alternative medicine in relieving menopausal vasomotor symptoms. PMID:25276716

  18. Disordered eating among Asian American college women: A racially expanded model of objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Tran, Alisia G T T; Miyake, Elisa R; Kim, Helen Youngju

    2017-03-01

    Objectification theory has been applied to understand disordered eating among college women. A recent extension of objectification theory (Moradi, 2010) conceptualizes racism as a socialization experience that shapes women of color's objectification experiences, yet limited research has examined this theoretical assertion. The present study proposed and examined a racially expanded model of objectification theory that postulated perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing as correlates of Asian American college women's (N = 516) self-objectification processes and eating disorder symptomatology. Perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing were indirectly associated with eating disordered symptomatology through self-objectification processes of internalization of media ideals of beauty (media internalization), body surveillance, and body shame. Results support the inclusion of racial stressors as contexts of objectification for Asian American women. The present findings also underscore perceived racial discrimination, racial/ethnic teasing, and perpetual foreigner racism as group-specific risk factors with major theoretical, empirical, and clinical relevance to eating disorder research and treatment with Asian American college women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Tracking the dissemination of a culturally targeted brochure to promote awareness of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer among Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Courtney Lynam; Bomboka, Linda; Nelson, Alison; Pal, Tuya; Vadaparampil, Susan Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Black women have a higher rate of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) mutations, compared with other populations, that increases their risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, Black women are less likely to know about HBOC and genetic testing. Based on a request from a community advisory panel of breast cancer survivors, community leaders and healthcare providers in the Black community, our team developed a culturally targeted educational brochure to promote awareness of HBOC among Black women. To reach the target population we utilized a passive dissemination strategy. Using Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) as a framework, we traced dissemination of the brochure over a five year period using self-addressed postcards contained inside the brochure that included several open-ended questions about the utility of the brochure, and a field for written comments. Closed-ended responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis was conducted on the open-ended responses. DOI captured the proliferation of the brochure among Black women across the US. The use of passive dissemination strategies among pre-existing social networks proved to be a useful and sustainable method for increasing knowledge of HBOC among Black women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Examination of weight control practices in a non-clinical sample of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, S; Napolitano, M A

    2012-09-01

    The current study examined healthy weight control practices among a sample of college women enrolled at an urban university (N=715; age=19.87±1.16; 77.2% Caucasian; 13.4% African American, 7.2% Asian, 2.2% other races). Participants completed measures as part of an on-line study about health habits, behaviors, and attitudes. Items from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire were selected and evaluated with exploratory factor analysis to create a healthy weight control practices scale. Results revealed that college women, regardless of weight status, used a comparable number (four of eight) of practices. Examination of racial differences between Caucasian and African American women revealed that normal weight African American women used significantly fewer strategies than Caucasian women. Of note, greater use of healthy weight control practices was associated with higher cognitive restraint, drive for thinness, minutes of physical activity, and more frequent use of compensatory strategies. Higher scores on measures of binge and disinhibited eating, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and depressive symptoms were associated with greater use of healthy weight control practices by underweight/normal weight but not by overweight/obese college women. Results suggest that among a sample of college females, a combination of healthy and potentially unhealthy weight control practices occurs. Implications of the findings suggest the need for effective weight management and eating disorder prevention programs for this critical developmental life stage. Such programs should be designed to help students learn how to appropriately use healthy weight control practices, as motivations for use may vary by weight status.

  1. Diamonds in the Rough: Examining a Case of Successful Black Male Student Athletes in College Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Clark, Langston

    2013-01-01

    Ailing academic performances of Black male student athletes have been an impetus for a search of recourse by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amid the volume of these academic underperformances, particularly in revenue-generating sports, there are Black male student athletes who achieve a level of success in the classroom that rivals…

  2. The Same... But Different: Examining Background Characteristics among Black Males in Public Two-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined background characteristics among Black males in public two-year and four-year institutions. This study sought to uncover whether significant differences existed among this sub-group by institutional type. Data were derived from 533 Black male students participating in the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study. The…

  3. What Black Women Know and Want to Know About Counseling and Testing for BRCA1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Inez; Christopher, Juleen; Williams, Karen Patricia; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2015-06-01

    Black women are just as likely to have hereditary breast cancer mutations as White women, yet their participation in genetic counseling and testing is substantially lower. This study sought to describe Black women's awareness and perceptions of BRCA1/2 testing and to identify barriers and motivators to seeking BRCA1/2 services. Fifty intercept interviews were conducted with Black women in public places (a professional women's basketball game, a grocery store, a faith-based community event, and the waiting area at a breast care clinic) in Washington, DC. More than half of the women (54%) were aware that genetic tests to determine risk for certain breast and ovarian cancers exist, but the majority (88%) had never heard of BRCA1/2, specifically. After hearing a description of BRCA1/2 genetic markers, 82% stated that they would agree to BRCA1/2 testing if it was offered to them. Perceived advantages of testing included cancer prevention and the ability to share information with family members. Perceived disadvantages included emotional distress associated with identification of the mutation and the potential misuse of results to deny healthcare or employment. Physician recommendation, self-care, and known family history were among the motivators for testing. Women listed possible media and venues for intervention. In spite of low rates of BRCA1/2 testing in the Black community, women in this sample were open to the idea. Interventions that address barriers and include cultural tailoring are necessary.

  4. Incapacitated and forcible rape of college women: prevalence across the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kate B; Durney, Sarah E; Shepardson, Robyn L; Carey, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the point and cumulative prevalence of incapacitated rape (IR) and forcible rape (FR) among first-year college women. Female students (N = 483) completed a health questionnaire (1) on arrival on campus; (2) at the end of the fall semester; (3) at the end of the spring semester; and (4) at the end of the summer following their first year of college. Before entering college, 18% reported IR (attempted and/or completed), and 15% reported FR (attempted and/or completed). During the first year of college, 15% reported IR (attempted or completed) and 9% reported FR (attempted or completed). By the start of the second year (lifetime prevalence), 26% and 22% had experienced IR and FR (attempted or completed), respectively. Both incapacitated and forcible sexual assaults and rape have reached epidemic levels among college women. Interventions to address sexual violence on campus are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Effects of lavender aromatherapy on insomnia and depression in women college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Inn-Sook; Lee, Gyung-Joo

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of the lavender fragrance on sleep and depression in women college students. Forty-two women college students who complained of insomnia were studied during a four-week protocol(control treatment week, 60% lavender fragrance treatment week, washout week, 100% lavender fragrance treatment week). All subjects were in the department of nursing in "K" college and the study was a single blind repeated measurements experiment. For the duration of the study, weekly evaluations of sleep, patterns of sleep disturbance, severity of insomnia scale, self satisfaction with sleep, and severity of depression were performed. Among sleep variables, length of time taken to fall asleep, severity of insomnia, and self satisfaction with sleep were improved for the 60%(p=.000, p=.000, p=.000) and 100%(p=.000, p=.000, p=.000) week while the severity of depression was improved only for the 100%(p=.002) week. According to the study results, it can be concluded that the lavender fragrance had a beneficial effect on insomnia and depression in women college students. Repeated studies are needed to confirm effective proportions of lavender oil and carrier oil for insomnia and depression.

  6. An Exploration of Sexual Victimization and Academic Performance Among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Carol E; Combs, Jessica L; Smith, Gregory T

    2014-07-01

    The literature has documented the widespread nature of sexual assault victimization among college women. While the aftermath of violence against university women has also received focus, that is, documenting trauma-related sequelae; risk factors; reporting patterns; and legal interventions, the impact on academic performance has not received adequate attention in the literature. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the association of rape and sexual assault with academic performance among college women. Its specific aims included the following: to compare high school and college sexual assault experiences with collegiate grade point averages (GPAs) at key points in time; to examine any differences in GPA by type of sexual assault; to urge researchers studying retention and persistence patterns or sexual assault among college students to ensure that the relationship between the two is included in research designs; and to recommend that academic institutions expand programming on retention to include rape and sexual assault among the risk factors associated with a lack of persistence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Incongruence in body image and body mass index: A surrogate risk marker in Black women for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynal Devanathan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI. Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV. Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.

  8. Incongruence in body image and body mass index: A surrogate risk marker in Black women for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynal Devanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden.Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM.Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI.Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV.Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.

  9. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. College Women's Experiences with Physically Forced, Alcohol- or Other Drug-Enabled, and Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault before and since Entering College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Lindquist, Christine H.; Warner, Tara D.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown associations between college women's alcohol and/or drug consumption and the risk of sexual assault, but few studies have measured the various means by which sexual assault is achieved. Participants: The authors' Campus Sexual Assault Study obtained self-report data from a random sample of undergraduate women (N =…

  11. Cognitive Performance in College Women Throughout the Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Gustavo Manrique-Abril

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether fluctuations of estrogen levels across the menstrual cycle influence cognitive performance, 13 university women between 20 and 23 years old were tested in four cognitive tasks; verbal memory, visuospatial ability, short term memory and visuo-motor coordination, three times across a menstrual cycle. Radioimmunoassay tests were performed in order to determine the hormonal state. Significant differences were not found in visuo-spatial ability and visuo-motor coordination performance, but results suggest a better verbal memory performance associated with high estrogen levels; short term memory performance didn’t show to be sensitive to fluctuations in estrogen levels.

  12. Body iron is associated with cognitive executive planning function in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Cynthia A; Green, Michael W; Kretsch, Mary J

    2013-03-14

    Evidence of the relationship between altered cognitive function and depleted Fe status is accumulating in women of reproductive age but the degree of Fe deficiency associated with negative neuropsychological outcomes needs to be delineated. Data are limited regarding this relationship in university women in whom optimal cognitive function is critical to academic success. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body Fe, in the absence of Fe-deficiency anaemia, and neuropsychological function in young college women. Healthy, non-anaemic undergraduate women (n 42) provided a blood sample and completed a standardised cognitive test battery consisting of one manual (Tower of London (TOL), a measure of central executive function) and five computerised (Bakan vigilance task, mental rotation, simple reaction time, immediate word recall and two-finger tapping) tasks. Women's body Fe ranged from - 4·2 to 8·1 mg/kg. General linear model ANOVA revealed a significant effect of body Fe on TOL planning time (P= 0·002). Spearman's correlation coefficients showed a significant inverse relationship between body Fe and TOL planning time for move categories 4 (r - 0·39, P= 0·01) and 5 (r - 0·47, P= 0·002). Performance on the computerised cognitive tasks was not affected by body Fe level. These findings suggest that Fe status in the absence of anaemia is positively associated with central executive function in otherwise healthy college women.

  13. Problematic alcohol use and sexting as risk factors for sexual assault among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dir, Allyson L; Riley, Elizabeth N; Cyders, Melissa A; Smith, Gregory T

    2018-02-06

    Sexual assault is a major public health concern and college women are four times more likely to experience sexual assault than any other group. We investigated whether sexting is a mechanism by which alcohol use increases risk for college women to be targeted for sexual assault. We hypothesized that sexting would mediate the relationship between problem drinking and sexual assault, such that drinking (T1 = beginning fall semester) would contribute to increased sexting (T2 = end fall semester), and in turn increase the risk of being targeted for sexual assault (T3 = end spring semester). Among 332 undergraduate women (M(SD)age = 19.15(1.69), 76.9% Caucasian), sexting (T2) predicted sexual assault (T3; b = 3.98, p = .05), controlling for baseline sexual assault (b = 0.82, p sexting (T2) mediated the relationship between problem drinking (T1) and sexual assault (T3) (b = 0.04, CI[.004,.12]). Findings suggest that sexting is one mechanism through which drinking increases the risk of college women being targeted for sexual assault.

  14. Sexual aggression among Brazilian college students: prevalence of victimization and perpetration in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abreu, Lylla Cysne Frota; Krahé, Barbara; Bazon, Marina Rezende

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increased attention devoted to sexual aggression among college students in the international research literature, Brazil has no systematic studies on the prevalence of sexual aggression in college populations. The present research measured the prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization since age 14 among 742 first-year college students in Brazil (411 women). A Portuguese version of the Short Form of the Sexual Experiences Survey (Koss et al., 2007 ) was administered to collect information from men and women as both victims and perpetrators of sexual aggression. The overall prevalence rate of victimization was 27% among men and 29% among women. Except for sexual coercion and attempted sexual coercion, there were no significant gender differences in victimization rates concerning nonconsensual sexual acts and aggressive strategies. In contrast, perpetration rates were significantly higher among men (33.7%) than among women (3%). The findings challenge societal beliefs that men are unlikely to be sexually coerced. Explanations are proposed for the disparity between male victimization and female perpetration rates based on traditional gender roles in Brazil.

  15. An Investigation of How Black STEM Faculty at Historically Black Colleges and Universities Approach the National Science Foundation Merit Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, Falcon

    This qualitative inquiry explored the ways in which US-born, Black faculty member participants in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) interact with the National Science Foundation (NSF). Eight Black HBCU STEM faculty members with a range of involvement in NSF-related activities were individually interviewed. Topics of discussion with participants included their prior experiences with NSF, their understanding of the merit review process, and their understanding of their personal and institutional relationships with NSF and the STEM community. Two broad findings emerged from the conversations. The first was that issues of communities and social identity were important to the participants' work as research scientists. Participants prioritized advancing people and communities over advancing the knowledge of ambiguous, disembodied scientific disciplines, and some participants were motivated by interests in social justice. However, participants maintained strong identities as scientists and the discussions provided no evidence that other social factors influenced their application of the scientific method. The second major finding dealt with the role participants perceived their institutions playing in their involvement with NSF. All participants described challenges associated with pursuing research in HBCU environments and, in some cases, the institutional challenges served as the motivation for participants' projects, with varying consequences. The participants' discussions about their institutions also raised important questions about how well-aligned participants' visions are with the visions of their institutional leadership, regarding how research should be incorporated into the HBCU mission. Finally, this study developed and refined a theoretical framework for explaining the underrepresentation of HBCUs in NSF funding streams. In developing this framework, a brief history of

  16. Gender Differences in Food Selections of Students at a Historically Black College and University (HBCU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Antonia S.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of proper nutrition and physical activity can lead to increased weight gain and development of chronic diseases. Studies show a nationwide trend in the number of college aged individuals being classified as overweight according to BMI calculations. College is a time of transition from adolescence to adulthood where habits that began in…

  17. Mental Health Service Usage by Students Attending an Historically Black College/University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Floyd T., II; Geyen, Dashiel; Rouce, Sandra D.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The advent of a changing world market and global economy has intensified the pressure experienced by today's college students. Competition for jobs, admittance into graduate school programs, and membership into prestigious honor societies led Dr. Richard Kadison, chief of mental health services at Harvard University and author of "College of the…

  18. Eating behaviors and negative affect in college women's everyday lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Kristin E; Scott, Stacey B; Sliwinski, Martin J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of research seeks to understand the relationship between mood and eating behaviors. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methods provide a method for assessing these processes in natural settings. We used EMA to examine the relationship between mood and eating behaviors in everyday life among women with subclinical disordered eating behaviors. Participants (N = 127, age M = 19.6 years, BMI M = 25.5) completed five daily EMA reports on palmtop computers for 1 week. Assessments included measures of negative affect (NA) and eating-related behavior during eating (eating large amounts of food, loss of control over eating, and restricting food intake) and noneating episodes (skip eating to control weight/shape). Time-lagged multilevel models tested mood-eating behavior relationships. Higher NA did not precede any unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors. However, NA was higher when women reported eating large quantities of food, losing control over eating, and restricting food intake during their most recent eating episode, but not after skipping eating to control weight/shape. These findings elucidate the processes in daily life that may influence the development and maintenance of unhealthy eating and weight control behaviors that, in turn, can inform interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Body Image and Dieting Failure in College Men and Women: Examining Links between Depression and Eating Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Linda J.; Wasserman, Erika L.

    1995-01-01

    Explored whether the links of depression, eating problems, and body image that apply to women also apply to men. A study of 234 male and female college students showed depression was higher in those with negative body image for both men and women. Depression accounted for significant variability in eating problems only in women. (GR)

  20. How older black women perceive the effects of stigma and social support on engagement in HIV care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDoom, M Maya; Bokhour, Barbara; Sullivan, Meg; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2015-02-01

    As black women over age 50 represent a growing share of women living with HIV, understanding what helps them persist and engage in ongoing HIV care will become increasingly important. Delineating the specific roles of social support and stigma on HIV care experiences among this population remains unclear. We qualitatively examined how experiences with stigma and social support either facilitated or inhibited engagement in HIV care, from the perspective of older black women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 older black women currently receiving HIV care at primary care clinics in the Metropolitan Boston area. Women expressed that experiences with stigma and seeking support played an important role in evaluating the risks and benefits of engaging in care. Social support facilitated their ability to engage in care, while stigma interfered with their ability to engage in care throughout the course of their illness. Providers in particular, can facilitate engagement by understanding the changes in these women's lives as they struggle with stigma and disclosure while engaging in HIV care. The patient's experiences with social support and stigma and their perceptions about engagement are important considerations for medical teams to tailor efforts to engage older black women in regular HIV care.

  1. Stigma and Postpartum Depression Treatment Acceptability Among Black and White Women in the First Six-Months Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar-Deren, Susan; Benn, E K T; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, E A

    2017-07-01

    Objective To measure stigma associated with four types of postpartum depression therapies and to estimate the association between stigma and the acceptance of these therapies for black and white postpartum mothers. Methods Using data from two postpartum depression randomized trials, this study included 481 black and white women who gave birth in a large urban hospital and answered a series of questions at 6-months postpartum. Survey items included socio demographic and clinical factors, attitudes about postpartum depression therapies and stigma. The associations between race, stigma, and treatment acceptability were examined using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Black postpartum mothers were less likely than whites to accept prescription medication (64 vs. 81%, p = 0.0001) and mental health counseling (87 vs. 93%, p = 0.001) and more likely to accept spiritual counseling (70 vs. 52%, p = 0.0002). Women who endorsed stigma about receipt of postpartum depression therapies versus those who did not were less likely to accept prescription medication, mental health and spiritual counseling for postpartum depression. Overall black mothers were less likely to report stigma associated with postpartum depression therapies. In adjusted models, black women versus white women remained less likely to accept prescription medication for postpartum depression (OR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.72) and stigma did not explain this difference. Conclusions Although treatment stigma is associated with lower postpartum depression treatment acceptance, stigma does not explain the lower levels of postpartum depression treatment acceptance among black women. More research is needed to understand treatment barriers for postpartum depression, especially among black women.

  2. From Field Days to Olympic Gold: How Black Women Revitalized Track and Field in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilreath, Erin Lea; Zupin, Dagny; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2017-01-01

    The sport of track and field in the United States has a storied but tumultuous past, especially in women's collegiate athletics. In the late 19th century, it was enjoyed by women at elite colleges in the form of a "field day," but would have trouble surpassing that level, among middle class Whites especially. This hurdle in large part…

  3. Navigating Underrepresented STEM Spaces: Experiences of Black Women in U.S. Computing Science Higher Education Programs Who Actualize Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleston, LaVar J.; George, Phillis L.; Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; Berhanu, Jonathan; Amechi, Mauriell H.

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States have long been underrepresented in computing science disciplines across college campuses and in industry alike (Hanson, 2004; Jackson & Charleston, 2012). This disparity is exacerbated when African American women are scrutinized. Additionally, prior research (e.g., Hanson, 2004; Jackson & Charleston, 2012;…

  4. The development of SisterTalk: a cable TV-delivered weight control program for black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Lovell, H Joan; Risica, Patricia M; Goldman, Roberta; Odoms-Young, Angela; Strolla, Leslie O; Decaille, Donna O; Caron, Colleen; Lasater, Thomas M

    2003-12-01

    Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with black women disproportionately affected. SisterTalk is a weight control program designed specifically for delivery to black women via cable TV. The theoretical and conceptual frameworks and formative research that guided the development and cultural tailoring of SisterTalk are described. Social Action Theory was applied in the development of SisterTalk along with a detailed behavioral analysis of the way that black women view weight and weight loss within the context of their cultural and social realities. The entire intervention development process was framed using this information, rather than by changing only superficial aspects of program delivery. Community networking and both qualitative and quantitative interview techniques from the fields of social marketing and cultural anthropology were used to involve black women from Boston in the design and implementation of a program that would be practical, appealing, and culturally sensitive. Also discussed are strategies for evaluating the program, and lessons learned that might have broader applicability are highlighted. The development of the SisterTalk program could provide a useful starting point for development of successful weight control programs for black women in other parts of the United States as well as for other ethnic and racial groups.

  5. College Men and Women and Their Intent to Receive Genital Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Richards

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study set out to investigate what influences the intentions of college students to get vaccinated against genital human papillomavirus (HPV. College men and women were surveyed to understand their intentions. Regression was used and supported that the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as well as gender, norms, and information seeking contributed to predicting intent to receive the HPV vaccine, R2 = .61, F(6, 159 = 39.41, p < .001. Benefits and barriers were the most influential variable, and men were more likely to intend to receive the vaccine. The findings should be applied to future campaigns aimed at increasing preventive health behaviors, especially vaccinations among college students.

  6. College Graduation Reduces Vulnerability to STIs / HIV among African-American Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; DePadilla, Lara M.; Simpson-Robinson, LaShun

    2012-01-01

    African-American women are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that economic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (N=848) aged 18–29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, GA. Data collection included 1) a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and 2) self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared to participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the Sexual Division of Power and the Structure of Cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural level interventions, emphasizing both high-school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. PMID:22555218

  7. Facebook use and negative body image among U.S. college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Petya; Kalyango, Yusuf; Paasch, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    Young women increasingly spend time on social media, but the relationship of this exposure to body image is still in the initial stages of exploration. In this study the authors used social comparison theory to examine the relationship between time spent on Facebook and body image. A survey of 881 U.S. college women was conducted in April-May 2013. Findings showed that 10.1% had posted about weight, body image, exercise, or dieting, and 27.4% had commented on friends' posts or photos. More time on Facebook related to more frequent body and weight comparisons, more attention to the physical appearance of others, and more negative feelings about their bodies for all women. For women who wanted to lose weight, more time on Facebook also related to more disordered eating symptoms.

  8. Trends of racial disparities in assisted reproductive technology outcomes in black women compared with white women: Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology 1999 and 2000 vs. 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifer, David B; Zackula, Rosey; Grainger, David A

    2010-02-01

    To determine trends in assisted reproductive technology (ART) in black and white women by comparing Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) database outcomes for 2004-2006 with previously reported outcomes for 1999 and 2000. Retrospective, cohort study. The SART member clinics that performed at least 50 cycles of IVF and reported race in more than 95% of cycles. Women receiving 158,693 IVF cycles. In vitro fertilization using nondonor embryos. Live birth rate per cycle started. Reporting of race increased from 52% to 60%. The proportion of black, non-Hispanic (BNH) women increased from 4.6% to 6.5%. For BNH women using fresh embryos and no prior ART, significant increasing trends were observed for older age, male factor, uterine factor, diminished ovarian reserve, and ovulation disorders. The BNH women were 2.5 times more likely to have tubal factor for those cycles with no prior ART. The proportion of live births per cycle started increased across all groups over time, although greater increases occurred for white women. There seems to be widening disparities in IVF outcomes between BNH and white women, perhaps attributable to poor prognostic factors among black women. Race continues to be a marker for prognosis for ART outcomes and should be reported. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of childhood sexual abuse on neuropsychological and cognitive function in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalta, Carryl P; Polcari, Ann; Webster, Danielle M; Boghossian, Ani; Teicher, Martin H

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-six college women with a history of repeated childhood sexual abuse were recruited from the community and compared with 19 healthy female collegiate subjects on neurocognitive measures. Abused subjects showed increased response latency variability and diminished inhibitory capacity during a GO/NO-GO/STOP vigilance task. A strong association was found between duration of abuse and memory impairments. Math Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores were significantly lower in abused subjects when matched against comparison subjects and when compared to their own Verbal SAT scores. Childhood sexual abuse appears to be associated with a constellation of neuropsychological deficiencies even in a group of relatively healthy women.

  10. Blackout Drinking Predicts Sexual Revictimization in a College Sample of Binge-Drinking Women

    OpenAIRE

    Valenstein-Mah, Helen; Larimer, Mary; Zoellner, Lori; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent on U.S. college campuses. Some women experience multiple sexual victimizations with heightened risk among those with prior victimization histories. One risk factor for sexual revictimization is alcohol use. Most research has focused on associations between alcohol consumption and revictimization. The current study’s objective was to understand potential mechanisms by which drinking confers risk for revictimization. We hypothesized that specific drinking conse...

  11. Mother of a New World? Stereotypical Representations of Black Women in Three Postapocalyptic Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima K. Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores three cinematic representations of Black matriarchs who play prophetic roles in redeeming humanity in the midst of apocalyptic change: Ika (Quest for Fire, Kee (Children of Men, and The Oracle (The Matrix trilogy. Not only do these courageous women resist the politics of domination, rebelling against a dying status quo, but they "give birth" to the leaders needed to rebuild a world in chaos and decay. One film ends with a pregnant woman rubbing her belly as she stands on the precipice of evolutionary change; another positions a mother and newborn adrift, waiting to be found by leaders of a new world order; in the third, a character sacrifices herself to empower resistance fighters with ideas and the means to choose their survival in a postapocalyptic world. Defying the politics of an annihilating patriarchy, these women portend a return to a naturally evolving world. However, despite their powerful influence, they can be understood, problematically, as modern-day reinventions of Black female stereotypes—Ika as Jezebel, Kee as Hagar, the Oracle as Mammy—because they, and the indices for understanding their roles in the community, are wedded to White patriarchs and to their own gendered functions as nurturing or sexual(ized beings.

  12. A White President of a Predominantly Black College Speaks Out About Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschechtelin, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that racism and white supremacy are threatening America's social, economic, and political stability. Suggests that inviting community dialog on these taboo topics may lead to solutions, and recounts such steps taken at Baltimore City Community College. (VWC)

  13. A produção escrita das mulheres negras The written production of black women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Lopes Fontoura

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo faz uma análise dos escritos publicados por Maria Mulher – Organização de Mulheres Negras, tendo em vista atender a sua missão institucional.Inicialmente, é feita uma apresentação da forma como a organização presta informações para as mulheres, em especial, as negras, visando ao combate às discriminações sexista, de raça/etnia e de classe social dentro dos programas que desenvolve. O texto faz também referência à falta de organizações que incentivem a produção intelectual de entidades feministas negras. Finalmente, para aumentar o número de publicações das organizações de mulheres negras, o trabalho aponta para a produção de obras em conjunto, as quais abordarão temas de acordo com a vocação de cada instituição.The paper presents an analysis of the articles published for Maria Mulher Organização de Mulheres Negras, in order of taking care of its institucional mission. Initially it is made a presentation of the form that the organization gives information for the women, in special, for the blacks, in order to combat the discriminations by sex, of race/ethnic and of social class, in the programs that develops. The text also makes reference to the lack of organizations that stimulates the intellectual production of entities black feminists. Finally, the work points to the production of workmanships in order to increase the number of publications from the black women organizations, in accordance with the vocation of each institution.

  14. Development of a culturally tailored genetic counseling booklet about hereditary breast and ovarian cancer for Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rumphs, Alnecia; Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Pal, Tuya

    2010-04-01

    Printed educational materials (PEM) can serve as important tools to enhance and reinforce information presented during genetic counseling (GC) for BRCA1/2 testing, yet few such materials have been specifically developed for the Black community. The goal of the current study was to develop a BRCA1/2 genetic education booklet for Black women at increased risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). Investigators identified available PEM about BRCA1/2 targeted toward Blacks. To obtain possible perspectives of the target population regarding modified and newly developed materials, a Community Advisory Panel (CAP) comprising breast cancer survivors, advocates, and community leaders was convened. While the CAP felt PEM were an important adjunct to GC, the panel recommended developing materials that were more personalized and relevant to Black women. A 12-page booklet that follows the flow of a standard GC session was developed; it includes a limited amount of technical information, incorporates familiar terms and images to describe key concepts, and contains vignettes and photographs of Black women. Upon review of the newly developed booklet, CAP members agreed their input had been well implemented, and only had minor suggestions. The booklet is currently being used in a population-based study of BRCA1/2 mutations among Black women diagnosed with early-onset breast cancer. Involving members of the target community is critical to the development of culturally tailored PEM. Further evaluation of the utility of our booklet in increasing awareness and understanding of HBOC and promoting informed decision-making regarding genetic testing and medical management among Black women is needed. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Racism in the form of micro aggressions and the risk of preterm birth among black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Helmkamp, Laura; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Osypuk, Theresa L; Platt, Robert W; Straughen, Jennifer K; Dailey-Okezie, Rhonda K; Abeysekara, Purni; Misra, Dawn P

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine whether perceived interpersonal racism in the form of racial micro aggressions was associated with preterm birth (PTB) and whether the presence of depressive symptoms and perceived stress modified the association. Data stem from a cohort of 1410 black women residing in Metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, enrolled into the Life-course Influences on Fetal Environments (LIFE) study. The Daily Life Experiences of Racism and Bother (DLE-B) scale measured the frequency and perceived stressfulness of racial micro aggressions experienced during the past year. Severe past-week depressive symptomatology was measured by the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) dichotomized at ≥ 23. Restricted cubic splines were used to model nonlinearity between perceived racism and PTB. We used the Perceived Stress Scale to assess general stress perceptions. Stratified spline regression analysis demonstrated that among those with severe depressive symptoms, perceived racism was not associated with PTB. However, perceived racism was significantly associated with PTB among women with mild to moderate (CES-D score ≤ 22) depressive symptoms. Perceived racism was not associated with PTB among women with or without high amounts of perceived stress. Our findings suggest that racism, at least in the form of racial micro aggressions, may not further impact a group already at high risk for PTB (those with severe depressive symptoms), but may increase the risk of PTB for women at lower baseline risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceived racism and incident diabetes in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Kathryn L; Stuver, Sherri O; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A

    2017-11-01

    Our aim was to assess the association of perceived racism with type 2 diabetes, and the possible mediating influence of diet and BMI. The Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up of 59,000 African-American women, began in 1995. Over 16 years 5344 incident cases of diabetes occurred during 576,577 person-years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimated HRs and 95% CIs for categories of 'everyday racism' (interpersonal racism in daily life) and 'lifetime racism' (reporting ever treated unfairly due to race with respect to police, housing or work) and incident type 2 diabetes. Models were adjusted for age, questionnaire cycle, marital status, socioeconomic status, education, family history of diabetes, physical activity, alcohol use and smoking status, with and without inclusion of terms for dietary patterns and adult BMI. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of exposure, women in the highest quartile of exposure to everyday racism had a 31% increased risk of diabetes (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.20, 1.42) and women with the highest exposure to lifetime racism had a 16% increased risk (HR 1.16; 95% CI 1.05, 1.27). Mediation analysis estimated that BMI accounted for half of the association between either the everyday or lifetime racism measure and incident diabetes. Perceived everyday and lifetime racism were associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in this cohort of African-American women and appear to be at least partly mediated by BMI.

  17. Where the Women Aren't: Gender Differences in the Use of LGBT Resources on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    LGBT campus resources are vital for many LGBT college students' wellbeing and academic success. In this article, I explore what factors may cause different groups under the LGBT umbrella to be included in or excluded from use of LGBT campus resources. I examine patterns of participation at two college campuses: one where women wanted access to…

  18. Self-Rated Health in Relation to Rape and Mental Health Disorders in a National Sample of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to employ a multivariate approach to examine the correlates of self-rated health in a college sample of women, with particular emphasis on sexual assault history and related mental health outcomes. Participants: A national sample of 2,000 female college students participated in a structured phone interview…

  19. Romance and help-seeking among college women: "it hurts so much to care".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riessman, C K; Whalen, M H; Frost, R O; Morgenthau, J E

    1991-01-01

    Although previous research shows that adult women in intimate relations tend to enjoy better health than women without partners, this study finds the opposite tends to be true for late adolescent women. We followed a college entering class prospectively for 4 years and measured romantic involvement and various aspects of health and illness behavior in a questionnaire. Health service use was determined from the medical record, and disaggregated into distress and health maintenance visits, as well as visits expressly for psychological counseling. First year students who were romantically involved had more physical symptoms, more medical visits, but not more counseling visits, than non-involved women. At senior year, they continued to have more health maintenance, more counseling, but not more distress visits, and they tended to experience greater interference in social role performance due to illness when compared to non-involved women. When several mediators of the relationship between romantic involvement and health service use were controlled-number and intensity of physical symptoms, sexual activity, stress in the relationship, and social network characteristics--the differences persisted. Romance appears to motivate help-seeking among late adolescent women for reasons that are not easily explained empirically. Recent work on adolescent women's development offers theoretical leads that can guide future investigations.

  20. Responsible men, blameworthy women: Black heterosexual men's discursive constructions of safer sex and masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Heckert, Andrea L; Brown, Tia L; Massie, Jenné S

    2015-04-01

    Although Black heterosexual men (BHM) in the United States rank among those most affected by HIV, research about how safer sex messages shape their safer sex behaviors is rare, highlighting the need for innovative qualitative methodologies such as critical discursive psychology (CDP). This CDP study examined how: (a) BHM construct safer sex and masculinity; (b) BHM positioned themselves in relation to conventional masculinity; and (c) discursive context (individual interview vs. focus group) shaped talk about safer sex and masculinity. Data included individual interviews (n = 30) and 4 focus groups (n = 26) conducted with 56 self-identified Black/African American heterosexual men, ages 18 to 44. Analyses highlighted 5 main constructions: (a) condoms as signifiers of "safe" women; (b) blaming women for STI/responsibility for safer sex; (c) relationship/trust/knowledge; (d) condom mandates; and (e) public health safer sex. Discourses positioned BHM in terms of conventional masculinity when talk denied men's agency for safer sex and/or contraception, or positioned women as deceitful, or apathetic about sexual risk and/or pregnancy. Notably, discourses also spotlighted alternative masculinities relevant to taking responsibility for safer sex or sexual exclusivity. Discursive context, namely the homosocial nature of focus group discussions, shaped how participants conversed about safer sex, and masculinity but not the content of that talk. In denying BHM's responsibility for safer sex, BHM's discourses about safer sex and masculinity often mirror public health messages, underscoring a critical need to sync these discourses to reduce sexual risk, and develop gender-transformative safer sex interventions for BHM. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).