WorldWideScience

Sample records for black carbon mass

  1. Commuter exposure to black carbon, carbon monoxide, and noise in the mass transport khlong boats of Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A. D.; Velasco, E.; Ho, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Khlong (canal) boats are a unique mass transport alternative in the congested city of Bangkok. Canals and rivers provide exclusive transit-ways for reducing the commuting time of thousands of city residents daily. However, as a consequence of the service characteristics and boats design and state of repair, they can represent a potential public health risk and an important source of black carbon and greenhouse gases. This work quantifies commuter exposure to black carbon, CO and noise when waiting for and travelling in these diesel fueled boats. Exposure to toxic pollutants and acute noise is similar or worse than for other transportation modes. Mean black carbon concentrations observed at one busy pier and along the main canal were much higher than ambient concentrations at sites impacted by vehicular traffic. Concentrations of CO were similar to those reported for roadside areas of Bangkok. The equivalent continuous sound levels registered at the landing pier were similar to those reported for roadsides, but values recorded inside the boats were significantly higher. We believe that the boat service is a viable alternative mode of mass transport, but public safety could be improved to provide a high quality service, comparable to modern rail systems or emerging bus rapid transit systems. These investments would also contribute to reduce the emission of black carbon and other greenhouse and toxic pollutants.

  2. Aircraft observations of enhancement and depletion of black carbon mass in the springtime Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Spackman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes controlling black carbon (BC in the Arctic is crucial for evaluating the impact of anthropogenic and natural sources of BC on Arctic climate. Vertical profiles of BC mass loadings were observed from the surface to near 7-km altitude in April 2008 using a Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2 during flights on the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft from Fairbanks, Alaska. These measurements were conducted during the NOAA-sponsored Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC project. In the free troposphere, the Arctic air mass was influenced by long-range transport from biomass-burning and anthropogenic source regions at lower latitudes especially during the latter part of the campaign. Average BC mass mixing ratios peaked at about 150 ng BC (kg dry air −1 near 5.5 km altitude in the aged Arctic air mass and 250 ng kg−1 at 4.5 km in biomass-burning influenced air. BC mass loadings were enhanced by up to a factor of 5 in biomass-burning influenced air compared to the aged Arctic air mass. At the bottom of some of the profiles, positive vertical gradients in BC were observed over the sea-ice. The vertical profiles generally occurred in the vicinity of open leads in the sea-ice. In the aged Arctic air mass, BC mass loadings more than doubled with increasing altitude within the ABL and across the boundary layer transition while carbon monoxide (CO remained constant. This is evidence for depletion of BC mass in the ABL. BC mass loadings were positively correlated with O3 in ozone depletion events (ODEs for all the observations in the ABL. Since bromine catalytically destroys ozone in the ABL after being released as molecular bromine in regions of new sea-ice formation at the surface, the BC–O3 correlation suggests that BC particles were removed by a surface process such as dry deposition. We develop a box model to estimate the dry deposition flux of BC

  3. Joint measurements of black carbon and particle mass for heavy-duty diesel vehicles using a portable emission measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The black carbon (BC) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles(HDDVs) is an important source of urban atmospheric pollution and createsstrong climate-forcing impacts. The emission ratio of BC to totalparticle mass (PM) (i.e., BC/PM ratio) is an essential variable used toestimate t...

  4. Laboratory Validation of Four Black Carbon Measurement Methods for Determination of the Nonvolatile Particulate Matter (nvPM) Mass Emissions from Commercial Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four candidate black carbon (BC) measurement techniques have been identified by the SAE International E-31 Committee for possible use in determining nonvolatile particulate matter (nvPM) mass emissions during commercial aircraft engine certification. These techniques are carbon b...

  5. Determinants of black carbon, particle mass and number concentrations in London transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Ioar; Kumar, Prashant; Hagen-Zanker, Alex; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Slovic, Anne Dorothee; Pritchard, John P.; Geurs, Karst T.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the determinants of personal exposure concentrations of commuters' to black carbon (BC), ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC), and particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) in different travel modes. We quantified the contribution of key factors that explain the variation of the previous pollutants in four commuting routes in London, each covered by four transport modes (car, bus, walk and underground). Models were performed for each pollutant, separately to assess the effect of meteorology (wind speed) or ambient concentrations (with either high spatial or temporal resolution). Concentration variations were mainly explained by wind speed or ambient concentrations and to a lesser extent by route and period of the day. In multivariate models with wind speed, the wind speed was the common significant predictor for all the pollutants in the above-ground modes (i.e., car, bus, walk); and the only predictor variable for the PM fractions. Wind speed had the strongest effect on PM during the bus trips, with an increase in 1 m s-1 leading to a decrease in 2.25, 2.90 and 4.98 μg m-3 of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in car trips were better explained by ambient concentrations with high temporal resolution although from a single monitoring station. On the other hand, ambient concentrations with high spatial coverage but lower temporal resolution predicted better the concentrations in bus trips, due to bus routes passing through streets with a high variability of traffic intensity. In the underground models, wind speed was not significant and line and type of windows on the train explained 42% of the variation of PNC and 90% of all PM fractions. Trains in the district line with openable windows had an increase in concentrations of 1 684 cm-3 for PNC and 40.69 μg m-3 for PM2.5 compared with trains that had non-openable windows. The results from this work can be used to target efforts to reduce personal exposures of

  6. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  7. Laboratory Measurements of Mass Specific Absorption Spectra for Suites of Black Carbon-like, Biomass Burning and Mineral Dust Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radney, J.; Zangmeister, C.

    2017-12-01

    Light-absorbing atmospheric aerosols can be grouped into three categories: black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC) or mineral dust (MD). In many cases, the absorption of these species is best quantified using a mass-specific absorption cross section (MAC) since the particles are in the Rayleigh regime (BC) or optically thin (BrC and MD); notably, MAC values are both traceable to the SI and transferrable between photoacoustic spectroscopy and filter-based absorption measurements. Here, we present laboratory measurements of MAC for all three light-absorbing aerosol classes. Particles were size- and mass-selected using a differential mobility analyzer and aerosol particle mass analyzer, respectively, with absorption coefficients (αabs) and number concentrations (N) being measured by a broadband photoacoustic spectrometer and condensation particle counter, respectively. This suite of instrumentation allows for direct quantification of MAC from the measured parameters (MAC = αabs/Nmp). Further, the measurements contained > 8 data points spanning λ = 405 nm to 840 nm allowing for spectral curvatures (i.e. the Absorption Angstrom Exponent or AAE) to be fit from many data points versus the more common 2-point interpolations. For the carbonaceous, BC-like aerosols - five samples generated from flames, spark discharge soot (i.e. fullerene soot), graphene, reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and fullerene (C60) - we found: 1) measured MAC ranged between 2.4 m2 g-1 and 8.6 m2 g-1 at λ = 550 nm, 2) most AAEs ranged between 0.5 and 1.3; C60 AAE was 7.5 ± 0.9 and 3) MAC spectra were dependent on fuel type and formation conditions. For BrC particles generated from smoldering combustion of 3 hardwood (Oak, Hickory and Mesquite) and 3 softwood species (Western redcedar, Blue spruce and Baldcypress), we found: 1) median MAC values ranged from 1.4 x 10-2 m2 g-1 to 7.9 x 10-2 m2 g-1 at λ = 550 nm, 2) AAE values ranged between 3.5 and 6.2, and 3) Oak, Western redcedar and Blue spruce

  8. Mass, black carbon and elemental composition of PM{sub 2.5} at an industrial site in Kingston, Jamaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Johan, E-mail: johan.boman@chem.gu.se; Gaita, Samuel M.

    2015-11-15

    An estimated three million premature deaths yearly can be attributed to ambient particulate pollution, a majority of them in low and middle income countries. The rapid increase in the vehicle fleet in urban areas of the Caribbean countries have experienced contributes to the bad urban air quality. In this study aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than, or equal to, 2.5 μm (PM{sub 2.5}) were collected over 24 h at a site along Spanish Town Road, one of the main commuter roads in Kingston, Jamaica. The study was aimed at determining the mass, black carbon and elemental composition of PM{sub 2.5} in Kingston. Although lead in the gasoline was phased out in the year 2000, up to 5000 ppm of sulfur is still allowed in the diesel, leading to an extensive secondary particle formation. PM{sub 2.5} samples were collected using a Mini-vol sampler between 12 December 2013 and 21 March 2014 and analyzed for trace elements using the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) facility at Lund University, Sweden. Concentrations of Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. Elemental concentrations showed a high temporal variation and the average PM{sub 2.5} concentration (44 μg m{sup −3}) is higher than the air quality standards that apply in the European Union (25 μg m{sup −3}) and in the USA (12 μg m{sup −3}). From this we can conclude that the air quality in the area is severely influenced by PM{sub 2.5} pollution and that there is a need to develop plans for improving the air quality in Kingston city.

  9. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (M~3 20 M⊙), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (M~106 1010 M⊙), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with M~102 104 M⊙. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work that will help clarify numerous outstanding questions about these objects.

  10. Black carbon in aerosol during BIBLE B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liley, J. Ben; Baumgardner, D.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Koike, M.; Machida, T.; Takegawa, N.; Kawakami, S.; Shirai, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-02-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment (BIBLE) A and B campaigns over the tropical western Pacific during springtime deployed a Gulfstream-II aircraft with systems to measure ozone and numerous precursor species. Aerosol measuring systems included a MASP optical particle counter, a condensation nucleus (CN) counter, and an absorption spectrometer for black carbon. Aerosol volume was very low in the middle and upper troposphere during both campaigns, and during BIBLE A, there was little aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer away from urban areas. In BIBLE B, there was marked aerosol enhancement in the lowest 3 km of the atmosphere. Mixing ratios of CN in cloud-free conditions in the upper troposphere were in general higher than in the boundary layer, indicating new particle formation from gaseous precursors. High concentrations of black carbon were observed during BIBLE B, with mass loadings up to 40 μg m-3 representing as much as one quarter of total aerosol mass. Strong correlations with hydrocarbon enhancement allow the determination of a black carbon emission ratio for the fires at that time. Expressed as elemental carbon, it is about 0.5% of carbon dioxide and 6% of carbon monoxide emissions from the same fires, comparable to methane production, and greater than that of other hydrocarbons.

  11. Carbon black vs. black carbon and other airborne materials containing elemental carbon: Physical and chemical distinctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Christopher M.; Nascarella, Marc A.; Valberg, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne particles containing elemental carbon (EC) are currently at the forefront of scientific and regulatory scrutiny, including black carbon, carbon black, and engineered carbon-based nanomaterials, e.g., carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and graphene. Scientists and regulators sometimes group these EC-containing particles together, for example, interchangeably using the terms carbon black and black carbon despite one being a manufactured product with well-controlled properties and the other being an undesired, incomplete-combustion byproduct with diverse properties. In this critical review, we synthesize information on the contrasting properties of EC-containing particles in order to highlight significant differences that can affect hazard potential. We demonstrate why carbon black should not be considered a model particle representative of either combustion soots or engineered carbon-based nanomaterials. Overall, scientific studies need to distinguish these highly different EC-containing particles with care and precision so as to forestall unwarranted extrapolation of properties, hazard potential, and study conclusions from one material to another. -- Highlights: •Major classes of elemental carbon-containing particles have distinct properties. •Despite similar names, carbon black should not be confused with black carbon. •Carbon black is distinguished by a high EC content and well-controlled properties. •Black carbon particles are characterized by their heterogenous properties. •Carbon black is not a model particle representative of engineered nanomaterials. -- This review demonstrates the significant physical and chemical distinctions between elemental carbon-containing particles e.g., carbon black, black carbon, and engineered nanomaterials

  12. Black Hole Area Quantization rule from Black Hole Mass Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the black hole mass distribution function that follows from the random emission of quanta by Hawking radiation and with this function we calculate the black hole mass fluctuation. From a complete different perspective we regard the black hole as quantum mechanical system with a quantized event horizon area and transition probabilities among the various energy levels and then calculate the mass dispersion. It turns out that there is a perfect agreement between the statistical and ...

  13. Black-hole masses of distant quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview of the methods commonly used to determine or estimate the black hole mass in quiescent or active galaxies is presented and it is argued that the use of mass-scaling relations is both a reliable and the preferred method to apply to large samples of distant quasars. The method uses...... that the black hole masses are very large, of order 1 to 10 billion solar masses, even at the highest redshifts of 4 to 6. The black holes must build up their mass very fast in the early universe. Yet they do not grow much larger than that: a maximum mass of about 10 billion solar masses is also observed....... Preliminary mass functions of active black holes are presented for several quasar samples, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Finally, common concerns related to the application of the mass scaling relations, especially for high redshift quasars, are briefly discussed....

  14. Integrated emission inventory and modeling to assess distribution of particulate matter mass and black carbon composition in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Permadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This is part of a research study addressing the potential co-benefits associated with selected black carbon (BC emission reduction measures on mitigation of air pollution and climate forcing in Southeast Asia (SEA. This paper presents details of emission inventory (EI results and WRF–CHIMERE model performance evaluation. The SEA regional emissions for 2007 were updated with our EI results for Indonesia, Thailand, and Cambodia and used for the model input. WRF–CHIMERE-simulated 2007 PM10, PM2.5, and BC over the SEA domain (0.25° × 0.25° and the results were evaluated against the available meteorology and air quality monitoring data in the domain. WRF hourly simulation results were evaluated using the observed data at eight international airport stations in five SEA countries and showed a satisfactory performance. WRF–CHIMERE results for PM10 and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal influence of biomass open burning while the BC distribution showed the influence of urban activities in big SEA cities. Daily average PM10 constructed from the hourly concentrations were obtained from the automatic monitoring stations in three large SEA cities, i.e., Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, and Surabaya, for model evaluation. The daily observed PM2.5 and BC concentrations obtained from the Improving Air Quality in Asian Developing Countries (AIRPET project for four cities (i.e., Bangkok, Hanoi, Bandung, and Manila were also used for model evaluation. In addition, hourly BC concentrations were taken from the measurement results of the Asian Pacific Network (APN project at a suburban site in Bangkok. The modeled PM10 and BC satisfactorily met all suggested statistical criteria for PM evaluation. The modeled PM2.5∕PM10 ratios estimated for four AIRPET sites ranged between 0.47 and 0.59, lower than observed values of 0.6–0.83. Better agreement was found for BC∕PM2.5 ratios with the modeled values of 0.05–0.33 as compared to the observation values of 0

  15. Integrated emission inventory and modeling to assess distribution of particulate matter mass and black carbon composition in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustian Permadi, Didin; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Vautard, Robert

    2018-02-01

    This is part of a research study addressing the potential co-benefits associated with selected black carbon (BC) emission reduction measures on mitigation of air pollution and climate forcing in Southeast Asia (SEA). This paper presents details of emission inventory (EI) results and WRF-CHIMERE model performance evaluation. The SEA regional emissions for 2007 were updated with our EI results for Indonesia, Thailand, and Cambodia and used for the model input. WRF-CHIMERE-simulated 2007 PM10, PM2.5, and BC over the SEA domain (0.25° × 0.25°) and the results were evaluated against the available meteorology and air quality monitoring data in the domain. WRF hourly simulation results were evaluated using the observed data at eight international airport stations in five SEA countries and showed a satisfactory performance. WRF-CHIMERE results for PM10 and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal influence of biomass open burning while the BC distribution showed the influence of urban activities in big SEA cities. Daily average PM10 constructed from the hourly concentrations were obtained from the automatic monitoring stations in three large SEA cities, i.e., Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, and Surabaya, for model evaluation. The daily observed PM2.5 and BC concentrations obtained from the Improving Air Quality in Asian Developing Countries (AIRPET) project for four cities (i.e., Bangkok, Hanoi, Bandung, and Manila) were also used for model evaluation. In addition, hourly BC concentrations were taken from the measurement results of the Asian Pacific Network (APN) project at a suburban site in Bangkok. The modeled PM10 and BC satisfactorily met all suggested statistical criteria for PM evaluation. The modeled PM2.5/PM10 ratios estimated for four AIRPET sites ranged between 0.47 and 0.59, lower than observed values of 0.6-0.83. Better agreement was found for BC/PM2.5 ratios with the modeled values of 0.05-0.33 as compared to the observation values of 0.05-0.28. AODEM (extended aerosol optical

  16. On the Mass Distribution of Stellar-Mass Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkov O. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The observational stellar-mass black hole mass distribution exhibits a maximum at about 8 M⊙. It can be explained via the details of the massive star evolution, supernova explosions, or consequent black hole evolution. We propose another explanation, connected with an underestimated influence of the relation between the initial stellar mass and the compact remnant mass. We show that an unimodal observational mass distribution of black holes can be produced by a power-law initial mass function and a monotonic “remnant mass versus initial mass” relation.

  17. Comparison of Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particle Data with Modelled Atmospheric Black Carbon Concentration and Deposition and Air Mass Sources in Northern Europe, 1850–2010

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    Meri Ruppel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCP are a well-defined fraction of black carbon (BC, produced only by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil. Their past concentrations have been studied using environmental archives, but, additionally, historical trends of BC concentration and deposition can be estimated by modelling. These models are based on BC emission inventories, but actual measurements of BC concentration and deposition play an essential role in their evaluation and validation. We use the chemistry transport model OsloCTM2 to model historical time series of BC concentration and deposition from energy and industrial sources and compare these to sedimentary measurements of SCPs obtained from lake sediments in Northern Europe from 1850 to 2010. To determine the origin of SCPs we generated back trajectories of air masses to the study sites. Generally, trends of SCP deposition and modelled results agree reasonably well, showing rapidly increasing values from 1950, to a peak in 1980, and a decrease towards the present. Empirical SCP data show differences in deposition magnitude between the sites that are not captured by the model but which may be explained by different air mass transport patterns. The results highlight the need for numerous observational records to reliably validate model results.

  18. Mass formula for quasi-black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-01-01

    A quasi-black hole, either nonextremal or extremal, can be broadly defined as the limiting configuration of a body when its boundary approaches the body's quasihorizon. We consider the mass contributions and the mass formula for a static quasi-black hole. The analysis involves careful scrutiny of the surface stresses when the limiting configuration is reached. It is shown that there exists a strict correspondence between the mass formulas for quasi-black holes and pure black holes. This perfect parallelism exists in spite of the difference in derivation and meaning of the formulas in both cases. For extremal quasi-black holes the finite surface stresses give zero contribution to the total mass. This leads to a very special version of Abraham-Lorentz electron in general relativity in which the total mass has pure electromagnetic origin in spite of the presence of bare stresses.

  19. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near source concentrations of air pollutants. They also support integrated Agency research programs (e.g., source to health outcomes) and the development of databases and inventories that assist Federal, state, and local air quality managers and industry implement and comply with air pollution standards. EM research underway in NRMRL supports the Agency's efforts to accurately characterize, analyze, measure and manage sources of air pollution. This pamphlet focuses on the EM research that NRMRL researchers conduct related to black carbon (BC). Black Carbon is a pollutant of concern to EPA due to its potential impact on human health and climate change. There are extensive uncertainties in emissions of BC from stationary and mobile sources. Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD)

  20. Comparison of carbon onions and carbon blacks as conductive additives for carbon supercapacitors in organic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, N.; Weingarth, D.; Zeiger, M.; Aslan, M.; Grobelsek, I.; Presser, V.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates carbon onions (∼400 m2 g-1) as a conductive additive for supercapacitor electrodes of activated carbon and compares their performance with carbon black with high or low internal surface area. We provide a study of the electrical conductivity and electrochemical behavior between 2.5 and 20 mass% addition of each of these three additives to activated carbon. Structural characterization shows that the density of the resulting film electrodes depends on the degree of agglomeration and the amount of additive. Addition of low surface area carbon black (∼80 m2 g-1) enhances the power handling of carbon electrodes but significantly lowers the specific capacitance even when adding small amounts of carbon black. A much lower decrease in specific capacitance is observed for carbon onions and the best values are seen for carbon black with a high surface area (∼1390 m2 g-1). The overall performance benefits from the addition of any of the studied additives only at either high scan rates and/or electrolytes with high ion mobility. Normalization to the volume shows a severe decrease in volumetric capacitance and only at high current densities nearing 10 A g-1 we can see an improvement of the electrode capacitance.

  1. Estimation of the mass absorption cross-section of the black and brown carbon aerosols during GoPoEx 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, M.; Gustafsson, O.; Fang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a major contributor to the atmospheric heating by absorbing the solar radiation. According to recent studies, the solar absorption of brown carbon (BrC) is not negligible and even comparable to that of BC at visible to UV wavelengths, but most optical instruments that quantify light absorption are unable to distinguish each other. Thus, light absorption properties of BC or BrC usually have been studied through modeling researches by using mass absorption cross-section (MAC). Although MAC has a large spatial and temporal variability, most modeling studies have used a specific value of BC MAC and even the absorption by BrC is seldom considered in most chemical and climate models. The generalization of modeling research can lead to serious errors of radiative forcing by BC and BrC. In this study, MAC of BC and BrC are separately determined and the contribution of BC and BrC on aerosol light absorption are estimated from co-located simultaneous in-situ measurements, COSMOS, CLAP and Sunset EC/OC analyzer, at Gosan climate observatory, Korea during Gosan Pollution Experiment in January 2014 (GoPoEx 2014). At 565 nm, MAC of BC is found to be about 6.4±1.5 m2 g-1 from COSMOS and Sunset EC/OC analyzer measurements. This value is similar to those from previous studies in China (Cui et al., STE, 2016), but lower than those observed to be ranged 10-18 m2 g-1 in America or Europe (Lack et al., PNAS, 2012). Aerosol absorption coefficient (AAC) and BC mass concentration from COSMOS, meanwhile, are approximately 15-20% lower than those of CLAP. This difference can be attributable to the contribution of BrC. The MAC of BrC was calculated using the absorption coefficient of BrC and by the following three methods: (1) the difference of mass concentration from Aethalometer and COSMOS applied new BC MAC of this study, (2) The mass concentration of water-soluble organic carbon, (3) a method using the mass concentration of organic carbon suggested by Chung et al

  2. Mass inflation in the loop black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Eric G.; Mann, Robert; Modesto, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    In classical general relativity the Cauchy horizon within a two-horizon black hole is unstable via a phenomenon known as mass inflation, in which the mass parameter (and the spacetime curvature) of the black hole diverges at the Cauchy horizon. Here we study this effect for loop black holes - quantum gravitationally corrected black holes from loop quantum gravity - whose construction alleviates the r=0 singularity present in their classical counterparts. We use a simplified model of mass inflation, which makes use of the generalized Dray-'t Hooft relation, to conclude that the Cauchy horizon of loop black holes indeed results in a curvature singularity similar to that found in classical black holes. The Dray-'t Hooft relation is of particular utility in the loop black hole because it does not directly rely upon Einstein's field equations. We elucidate some of the interesting and counterintuitive properties of the loop black hole, and corroborate our results using an alternate model of mass inflation due to Ori.

  3. Mass of a Black Hole Firewall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, M. A.; Kluźniak, W.; Lasota, J.-P.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum entanglement of Hawking radiation has been supposed to give rise to a Planck density "firewall" near the event horizon of old black holes. We show that Planck density firewalls are excluded by Einstein's equations for black holes of mass exceeding the Planck mass. We find an upper limit of 1/(8πM) to the surface density of a firewall in a Schwarzschild black hole of mass M, translating for astrophysical black holes into a firewall density smaller than the Planck density by more than 30 orders of magnitude. A strict upper limit on the firewall density is given by the Planck density times the ratio MPl/(8πM).

  4. Immersion microcalorimetry of a carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelbaum, Georges

    1966-01-01

    This research thesis first reports a detailed bibliographical study on various topics (fabrication of carbon black, oxidation, immersion heat, adsorptions, main existing theories, and thermodynamics) and then the development of immersion and adsorption microcalorimetry apparatuses aimed at studying the surface of a carbon black and the influence of the oxidation of this carbon black on the adsorption of polar and non-polar solvents. Immersion heats of a raw or oxidised carbon black have been measured in water, in cyclohexane and in methanol. The adsorption of methanol at 20 C and that of nitrogen at -196 C have also been measured. The author outlines that degassing conditions had to be taken into account before performing measurements [fr

  5. Structure and properties of carbon black particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    Structure and properties of carbon black particles were investigated using atomic force microscopy, gas adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Supplementary information was obtained using TEM and neutron scattering. The AFM imaging of carbon black aggregates provided qualitative visual information on their morphology, complementary to that obtained by 3-D modeling based on TEM images. Our studies showed that carbon black aggregates were relatively flat. The surface of all untreated carbon black particles was found to be rough and its fractal dimension was 2.2. Heating reduced the roughness and fractal dimension for all samples heat treated at above 1300 K to 2.0. Once the samples were heat treated rapid cooling did not affect the surface roughness. However, rapid cooling reduced crystallite sizes, and different Raman spectra were obtained for carbon blacks of various history of heat treatment. By analyzing the Raman spectra we determined the crystallite sizes and identified amorphous carbon. The concentration of amorphous carbon depends on hydrogen content. Once hydrogen was liberated at increased temperature, the concentration of amorphous carbon was reduced and crystallites started to grow. Properties of carbon blacks at high pressure were also studied. Hydrostatic pressure did not affect the size of the crystallites in carbon black particles. The pressure induced shift in Raman frequency of the graphitic component was a result of increased intermolecular forces and not smaller crystallites. Two methods of determining the fractal dimension, the FHH model and the yardstick technique based on the BET theory were used in the literature. Our study proved that the FHH model is sensitive to numerous assumptions and leads to wrong conclusions. On the other hand the yardstick method gave correct results, which agreed with the AFM results.

  6. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, Will M.; Sravan, Niharika; Kalogera, Vicky; Cantrell, Andrew; Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D.; Mandel, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    We perform a Bayesian analysis of the mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes using the observed masses of 15 low-mass X-ray binary systems undergoing Roche lobe overflow and 5 high-mass, wind-fed X-ray binary systems. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, we model the mass distribution both parametrically—as a power law, exponential, Gaussian, combination of two Gaussians, or log-normal distribution—and non-parametrically—as histograms with varying numbers of bins. We provide confidence bounds on the shape of the mass distribution in the context of each model and compare the models with each other by calculating their relative Bayesian evidence as supported by the measurements, taking into account the number of degrees of freedom of each model. The mass distribution of the low-mass systems is best fit by a power law, while the distribution of the combined sample is best fit by the exponential model. This difference indicates that the low-mass subsample is not consistent with being drawn from the distribution of the combined population. We examine the existence of a 'gap' between the most massive neutron stars and the least massive black holes by considering the value, M 1% , of the 1% quantile from each black hole mass distribution as the lower bound of black hole masses. Our analysis generates posterior distributions for M 1% ; the best model (the power law) fitted to the low-mass systems has a distribution of lower bounds with M 1% >4.3 M sun with 90% confidence, while the best model (the exponential) fitted to all 20 systems has M 1% >4.5 M sun with 90% confidence. We conclude that our sample of black hole masses provides strong evidence of a gap between the maximum neutron star mass and the lower bound on black hole masses. Our results on the low-mass sample are in qualitative agreement with those of Ozel et al., although our broad model selection analysis more reliably reveals the best-fit quantitative description of the underlying mass

  7. Graft-copolymerization onto carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakase, Yoshiaki; Nishii, Masanobu; Kijima, Toshiyuki; Kato, Hiroshi.

    1988-07-01

    Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl monomer onto carbon black was performed. During the γ-ray- and electron beam-induced polymerization (In-source), or the electron beam post-polymerization, the graft-copolymerization behavior was affected by the kinds of both carbon blacks and monomers, i.e. the smaller the size of carbon black particles, the higher the apparent grafted fraction. Homopolymer in the grafted carbon black samples was washed out by the solvent of the polymer, and the extracted polymer seemed to be dimer or trimer of the used monomer. In the case of the post-polymerization with the pre-irradiation doses of 50 Mrad, homopolymer was hardly observed. The polymer sheets of plastics or rubbers with grafted carbon black had an electrical conductivity unalterable considerably by the heating cycles. The particles of grafted carbon black in the sheet might be kept much more at the surface layer within 100 nm depth than at the inner layer. (author)

  8. Mass inflation inside black holes revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav I

    2014-01-01

    The mass inflation phenomenon implies that black hole interiors are unstable due to a back-reaction divergence of the perturbed black hole mass function at the Cauchy horizon. The mass inflation was initially derived by using the generalized Dray–’t Hooft–Redmount (DTR) relation in the linear approximation of the Einstein equations near the perturbed Cauchy horizon of the Reissner–Nordström black hole. However, this linear approximation for the DTR relation is improper for the highly nonlinear behavior of back-reaction perturbations at the black hole horizons. An additional weak point in the standard mass inflation calculations is in a fallacious using of the global Cauchy horizon as a place for the maximal growth of the back-reaction perturbations instead of the local inner apparent horizon. It is derived the new spherically symmetric back-reaction solution for two counter-streaming light-like fluxes near the inner apparent horizon of the charged black hole by taking into account its separation from the Cauchy horizon. In this solution the back-reaction perturbations of the background metric are truly the largest at the inner apparent horizon, but, nevertheless, remain small. The back reaction, additionally, removes the infinite blue-shift singularity at the inner apparent horizon and at the Cauchy horizon. (paper)

  9. Comparative DEMS study on the electrochemical oxidation of carbon blacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Sean James; Arenz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Publication year: 2012 Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 217 Sean J. Ashton, Matthias Arenz The intention of the study presented here is to compare the electrochemical oxidation tendencies of a pristine Ketjen Black EC300 high surface area (HSA) carbon black, and four graphitised counterparts...... heat-treated between 2100 and 3200 °C, such as those typically used as corrosion resistant carbon (CRC) supports for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. A methodology combining cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) is used, which allows......; however, CRC samples graphitised =2800 °C did not exhibit this same behaviour. Highlights ¿ We quantitatively determine electrooxidation of carbon support materials. ¿ We can distinguish between the total and partial electrooxidation. ¿ Non or mildly heat treated carbon forms passivating layer. ¿ Heat...

  10. Pyrolytic carbon black composite and method of making the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Bi, Zhonghe

    2016-09-13

    A method of recovering carbon black includes the step of providing a carbonaceous source material containing carbon black. The carbonaceous source material is contacted with a sulfonation bath to produce a sulfonated material. The sulfonated material is pyrolyzed to produce a carbon black containing product comprising a glassy carbon matrix phase having carbon black dispersed therein. A method of making a battery electrode is also disclosed.

  11. Characteristics of Ambient Black Carbon Mass and Size-Resolved Particle Number Concentrations during Corn Straw Open-Field Burning Episode Observations at a Rural Site in Southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Yang, Li-Sing

    2016-07-08

    Information on the effect of open-field burning of agricultural residues on ambient black carbon (BC) mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations is scarce. In this study, to understand the effect of such open-field burning on short-term air quality, real-time variations of the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations were monitored before and during a corn straw open-field burning episode at a rural site. Correlations between the BC mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations during the episode were investigated. Moreover, the particle number size distribution and absorption Ångström exponent were determined for obtaining the characteristics of aerosol emissions from the corn straw open-field burning. The results can be used to address public health concerns and as a reference for managing similar episodes of open-field burning of agricultural residues.

  12. Studies of activated carbon and carbon black for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richner, R; Mueller, S; Koetz, R; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Carbon Black and activated carbon materials providing high surface areas and a distinct pore distribution are prime materials for supercapacitor applications at frequencies < 0.5 Hz. A number of these materials were tested for their specific capacitance, surface and pore size distribution. High capacitance electrodes were manufactured on the laboratory scale with attention to ease of processability. (author) 1 fig., 1 ref.

  13. Electrical conductivity of conductive carbon blacks: influence of surface chemistry and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantea, Dana; Darmstadt, Hans; Kaliaguine, Serge; Roy, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Conductive carbon blacks from different manufacturers were studied in order to obtain some insight into the relation between their electrical conductivity and their surface properties. The surface chemistry was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), whereas the topology of the carbon black surface was investigated using low-pressure nitrogen adsorption. All these techniques yield information on the graphitic character of the surface. In general, the electrical conductivity of the conductive blacks increases with the graphitic character of the surface. For low surface area conductive blacks, the electrical conductivity correlates well with the surface chemistry. In the case of the XPS and SIMS data, this correlation is also valid when other types of carbon blacks such as thermal and furnace blacks are included, confirming the determining influence of the carbon black surface chemistry on the electrical conductivity

  14. 129 Xe-NMR of carbon black filled elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling-Ischinsky, K.; Veeman, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that 129 Xe-NMR is a powerful tool to investigate carbon black and carbon black filled elastomers. For the carbon black material itself the 129 Xe chemical shift of xenon adsorbed at the surface of carbon black aggregates yields information about the relative average pore size of the carbon black aggregates. The experimental 129 Xe-NMR results of carbon black filled ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) can be explained when it is assumed that the xenon atoms in the bound EPDM fraction exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale between a state where they are adsorbed on the carbon black surface and a state in which they are absorbed in the EPDM layer. This would imply that the carbon black aggregates are not completely covered with EPDM chains. (author)

  15. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  16. Black carbon: The reverse of its dark side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Cornelissen, G.; Bucheli, T.D.; Noort, van P.C.M.; Gustafsson, O.

    2006-01-01

    The emission of black carbon is known to cause major environmental problems. Black carbon particles contribute to global warming, carry carcinogenic compounds and cause serious health risks. Here, we show another side of the coin. We review evidence that black carbon may strongly reduce the risk

  17. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jenny E

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism.

  18. Stellar-Mass Black Holes and their Progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.; Uttley, [No Value; Nandra, [No Value; Barret, [No Value; Matt, [No Value; Paerels, [No Value; Mendez, [No Value; Diaz-Trigo, [No Value; Cappi, [No Value; Kitamoto, [No Value; Nowak, [No Value; Wilms, [No Value; Rothschild, [No Value; Smith, [No Value; Weisskopf, [No Value; Terashima, [No Value; Ueda, [No Value

    2009-01-01

    If a black hole has a low spin value, it must double its mass to reach a high spin parameter (Volonteri et al. 2005). Although this is easily accomplished through mergers or accretion in the case of supermassive black holes in galactic centers, it is impossible for stellar-mass black holes in X-ray

  19. Carbon nanotube-based black coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, J.; Yung, C.; Tomlin, N.; Conklin, D.; Stephens, M.

    2018-03-01

    Coatings comprising carbon nanotubes are very black, that is, characterized by uniformly low reflectance over a broad range of wavelengths from the visible to far infrared. Arguably, there is no other material that is comparable. This is attributable to the intrinsic properties of graphitic material as well as the morphology (density, thickness, disorder, and tube size). We briefly describe a history of other coatings such as nickel phosphorous, gold black, and carbon-based paints and the comparable structural morphology that we associate with very black coatings. The need for black coatings is persistent for a variety of applications ranging from baffles and traps to blackbodies and thermal detectors. Applications for space-based instruments are of interest and we present a review of space qualification and the results of outgassing measurements. Questions of nanoparticle safety depend on the nanotube size and aspect ratio as well as the nature and route of exposure. We describe the growth of carbon nanotube forests along with the catalyst requirements and temperature limitations. We also describe coatings derived from carbon nanotubes and applied like paint. Building the measurement apparatus and determining the optical properties of something having negligible reflectance are challenging and we summarize the methods and means for such measurements. There exists information in the literature for effective media approximations to model the dielectric function of vertically aligned arrays. We summarize this along with the refractive index of graphite from the literature that is necessary for modeling the optical properties. In our experience, the scientific questions can be overshadowed by practical matters, so we provide an appendix of recipes for making as-grown and sprayed coatings along with an example of reflectance measurements.

  20. Characterization of black carbon in the ambient air of Agra, India: Seasonal variation and meteorological influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratima; Singh, Shalendra Pratap; Jangid, Ashok; Kumar, Ranjit

    2017-09-01

    This study characterizes the black carbon in Agra, India home to the Taj Mahal—and situated in the Indo-Gangetic basin. The mean black carbon concentration is 9.5 μg m-3 and, owing to excessive biomass/fossil fuel combustion and automobile emissions, the concentration varies considerably. Seasonally, the black carbon mass concentration is highest in winter, probably due to the increased fossil fuel consumption for heating and cooking, apart from a low boundary layer. The nocturnal peak rises prominently in winter, when the use of domestic heating is excessive. Meanwhile, the concentration is lowest during the monsoon season because of the turbulent atmospheric conditions and the process of washout by precipitation. The ratio of black carbon to brown carbon is less than unity during the entire study period, except in winter (December). This may be because that biomass combustion and diesel exhaust are major black carbon contributors in this region, while a higher ratio in winter may be due to the increased consumption of fossil fuel and wood for heating purposes. ANOVA reveals significant monthly variation in the concentration of black carbon; plus, it is negatively correlated with wind speed and temperature. A high black carbon mass concentration is observed at moderate (1-2 m s-1) wind speed, as compared to calm or turbulent atmospheric conditions.

  1. Accretion onto stellar mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    I present work on the accretion onto stellar mass black holes in several scenarios. Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes are expected to form high density cusps in the inner parsec of our Galaxy. These compact remnants may be accreting cold dense gas present there, and give rise to potentially observable X-ray emission. I build a simple but detailed time-dependent model of such emission. Future observations of the distribution and orbits of the gas in the inner parsec of Sgr A* will put tighter constraints on the cusp of compact remnants. GRS 1915+105 is an LMXB, whose large orbital period implies a very large accretion disc and explains the extraordinary duration of its current outburst. I present smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of the accretion disc. The models includes the thermo-viscous instability, irradiation from the central object and wind loss. I find that the outburst of GRS 1915+105 should last a minimum of 20 years and up to ˜ 100 years if the irradiation is playing a significant role in this system. The predicted recurrence times are of the order of 104 years, making the duty cycle of GRS 1915+105 to be a few 0.1%. I present a simple analytical method to describe the observable behaviour of long period black hole LMXBs, similar to GRS 1915+105. Constructing two simple models for the surface density in the disc, outburst and quiescence times are calculated as a function of orbital period. LMXBs are an important constituent of the X-ray light function (XLF) of giant elliptical galaxies. I find that the duty cycle can vary considerably with orbital period, with implications for modelling the XLF.

  2. Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: Particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Hanna; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, Ernie P.; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Fischer, Paul H.; van der Zee, Saskia C.; de Hartog, Jeroen J.; Hoek, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Policies to reduce outdoor air pollution concentrations are often assessed on the basis of the regulated pollutants. Whether these are the most appropriate components to assess the potential health benefits is questionable, as other health-relevant pollutants may be more strongly related to traffic. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast in concentration between major roads and (sub)urban background for a large range of pollutants and to analyze the magnitude of the measured difference in the street - background for major streets with different street configurations. Measurements of PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentrations (PNC), black carbon (BC), elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and NO x were conducted simultaneously in eight major streets and nine (sub)urban background locations in the Netherlands. Measurements were done six times for a week during a six month period in 2008. High contrasts between busy streets and background locations in the same city were found for chromium, copper and iron (factor 2-3). These elements were especially present in the coarse fraction of PM. In addition, high contrasts were found for BC and NO x (factor 1.8), typically indicators of direct combustion emissions. The contrast for PNC was similar to BC. NO 2 contrast was lower (factor 1.5). The largest contrast was found for two street canyons and two streets with buildings at one side of the street only. The contrast between busy streets and urban background in NO 2 was less than the contrast found for BC, PNC and elements indicative of non-exhaust emissions, adding evidence that NO 2 is not representing (current) traffic well. The study supports a substantial role for non-exhaust emissions including brake- and tyre wear and road dust in addition to direct combustion emissions. Significant underestimation of disease burden may occur when relying too much on the regulated components.

  3. Black carbon network in Mexico. First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Valter; Peralta, Oscar; Granado, Karen; Ortinez, Abraham; Alvarez-Ospina, Harry; Espinoza, Maria de la Luz; Castro, Telma

    2017-04-01

    After the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change celebrated in Paris 2016, many countries should adopt some mechanisms in the next years to contribute to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development. Mexico Government has adopted an unconditional international commitment to carry out mitigation actions that would result in the reduction of 51% in black carbon (BC) emissions by year 2030. However, many BC emissions have been calculated by factor emissions. Since optical measurements of environmental BC concentrations can vary according the different components and their subsequence wavelength measure, it's important to obtain more accurate values. BC is formally defined as an ideally light-absorbing substance composed by carbon (Bond et al., 2013), and is the second main contributor (behind Carbon Dioxide; CO2) to positive radiative forcing (Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008). Recently, BC has been used as an additional indicator in air quality management in some cities because is emitted from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel and biomass burning in both anthropogenic and it is always emitted with other particles and gases, such as organic carbon (OC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Black Carbon, PM2.5 and pollutant gases were measured from January 2015 to December 2015 at three main cities in Mexico, and two other places to evaluate the BC concentration levels in the country. The urban background sites (Mexico City, Monterrey, Guadalajara, MXC-UB, GDL-UB, MTY-UB), a sub-urban background site (Juriquilla, Queretaro, JUR-SUB) and a regional background site (Altzomoni, ALT-RB). Results showed the relationship between BC and PM2.5 in the 3 large cities, with BC/PM2.5 ratios near 0.14 to 0.09 and a high BC-CO relationship in all the year in Mexico City, who showed that mobile sources are a common, at least in cities with a non-significant biomass burning emission related to agriculture or coal

  4. Graft polymerization of vynil monomers at carbon black surface (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryono Arumbinang.

    1976-01-01

    Effect of aromatic condensates containing functional group on carbon black surface, effect of pH condensates on carbon black chemisorption, analysis and configuration of functional group, the crystal structure, property measurement standard, particle diameter measurement, oil adsorption, colour capacity, volatile acid content, electric resistence and the volume of the granular or carbon black dust, are given. Electron paramagnetic resonance determination of the amount of free radicals on carbon black surface, its oxidation and effects on the surface and inner structure of carbon black, and graft polymerization by radiation copolymerization, are discussed. Experiments on radiation graft copolymerization by acrylic acid, methacrylate, and glycidol methacrylate, in a vacuum condition, have been carried out. It is concluded that further research on the modification and configuration of carbon black should be developed. (author)

  5. Einstein's Gift: Stellar Mass Black Holes in the LIGO Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadonati, Laura; Georgia Institute of Technology, LIGO-Virgo Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational waves from the coalescence of black hole binary systems in LIGO has provided the first evidence for heavy stellar mass black holes. In this talk, I will review the observational evidence for black holes in LIGO data, its astrophysical implications and the plans for the near and long term future of ground based gravitational wave detection of black hole binary coalescences.

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Carbon Black (Printex 90)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Maternal pulmonary exposure to ultrafine particles during pregnancy may affect the health of the child. Developmental toxicity of carbon black (Printex 90) nanoparticles was evaluated in a mouse model. Time-mated mice were intratracheally instilled with Printex 90 dispersed in Millipore water on ...... on gestation days (GD) 7, 10, 15 and 18, with total doses of 11, 54 and 268 mu g Printex 90/animal. The female offspring prenatally exposed to 268 mu g Printex 90/animal displayed altered habituation pattern during the Open field test....

  7. Characteristics of black carbon in snow from Laohugou No. 12 glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Li, Chaoliu; Gao, Tanguang; Cong, Zhiyuan; Sprenger, Michael; Liu, Yajun; Li, Xiaofei; Guo, Junming; Sillanpää, Mika; Wang, Kun; Chen, Jizu; Li, Yang; Sun, Shiwei

    2017-12-31

    Black carbon (BC) emitted from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel impacts the climate system, cryospheric change, and human health. This study documents black carbon deposition in snow from a benchmark glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Significant seasonality of BC concentrations indicates different input or post-depositional processes. BC particles deposited in snow had a mass volume median diameter slightly larger than that of black carbon particles typically found in the atmosphere. Also, unlike black carbon particles in the atmosphere, the particles deposited in snow did not exhibit highly fractal morphology by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope. Footprint analysis indicated BC deposited on the glacier in summer originated mainly from Central Asia; in winter, the depositing air masses generally originated from Central Asia and Pakistan. Anthropogenic emissions play an important role on black carbon deposition in glacial snow, especially in winter. The mass absorption efficiency of BC in snow at 632nm exhibited significantly seasonality, with higher values in summer and lower values in winter. The information on black carbon deposition in glacial snow provided in this study could be used to help mitigate the impacts of BC on glacier melting on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Black hole masses in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Kelly D.

    2010-11-01

    We present the complete results from two, high sampling-rate, multi-month, spectrophotometric reverberation mapping campaigns undertaken to obtain either new or improved Hbeta reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have reliably measured the time delay between variations in the continuum and Hbeta emission line in seven local Seyfert 1 galaxies. These measurements are used to calculate the mass of the supermassive black hole at the center of each of these AGNs. We place our results in context to the most current calibration of the broad-line region (BLR) RBLR-L relationship, where our results remove many outliers and significantly reduce the scatter at the low-luminosity end of this relationship. A detailed analysis of the data from our high sampling rate, multi-month reverberation mapping campaign in 2007 reveals that the Hbeta emission region within the BLRs of several nearby AGNs exhibit a variety of kinematic behaviors. Through a velocity-resolved reverberation analysis of the broad Hbeta emission-line flux variations in our sample, we reconstruct velocity-resolved kinematic signals for our entire sample and clearly see evidence for outflowing, infalling, and virialized BLR gas motions in NGC 3227, NGC 3516, and NGC 5548, respectively. Finally, we explore the nature of systematic errors that can arise in measurements of black hole masses from single-epoch spectra of AGNs by utilizing the many epochs available for NGC 5548 and PG1229+204 from reverberation mapping databases. In particular, we examine systematics due to AGN variability, contamination due to constant spectral components (i.e., narrow lines and host galaxy flux), data quality (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio, S/N), and blending of spectral features. We investigate the effect that each of these systematics has on the precision and accuracy of single-epoch masses calculated from two commonly-used line-width measures by comparing these

  9. Black carbon and mineral dust in snow cover on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Sprenger, Michael; Cong, Zhiyuan; Gao, Tanguang; Li, Chaoliu; Tao, Shu; Li, Xiaofei; Zhong, Xinyue; Xu, Min; Meng, Wenjun; Neupane, Bigyan; Qin, Xiang; Sillanpää, Mika

    2018-02-01

    Snow cover plays a key role for sustaining ecology and society in mountainous regions. Light-absorbing particulates (including black carbon, organic carbon, and mineral dust) deposited on snow can reduce surface albedo and contribute to the near-worldwide melting of snow and ice. This study focused on understanding the role of black carbon and other water-insoluble light-absorbing particulates in the snow cover of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The results found that the black carbon, organic carbon, and dust concentrations in snow cover generally ranged from 202 to 17 468 ng g-1, 491 to 13 880 ng g-1, and 22 to 846 µg g-1, respectively, with higher concentrations in the central to northern areas of the TP. Back trajectory analysis suggested that the northern TP was influenced mainly by air masses from Central Asia with some Eurasian influence, and air masses in the central and Himalayan region originated mainly from Central and South Asia. The relative biomass-burning-sourced black carbon contributions decreased from ˜ 50 % in the southern TP to ˜ 30 % in the northern TP. The relative contribution of black carbon and dust to snow albedo reduction reached approximately 37 and 15 %, respectively. The effect of black carbon and dust reduced the snow cover duration by 3.1 ± 0.1 to 4.4 ± 0.2 days. Meanwhile, the black carbon and dust had important implications for snowmelt water loss over the TP. The findings indicate that the impacts of black carbon and mineral dust need to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections, particularly in the high-altitude cryosphere.

  10. Black Carbon Measurements From Ireland's Transboundary Network (TXB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, T. K.; Martin, D.; O'Dowd, C. D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is carbonaceous aerosol formed by incomplete fossil fuel combustion. Named for its light absorbing properties, it acts to trap heat in the atmosphere, thus behaving like a greenhouse gas, and is considered a strong, short-lived climate forcer by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Carbonaceous aerosols from biomass burning (BB) such as forest fires and residential wood burning, also known as brown carbon, affect the ultra violet (UV) light absorption in the atmosphere as well. In 2016 a three node black carbon monitoring network was established in Ireland as part of a Transboundary Monitoring Network (TXB). The three sites (Mace Head, Malin Head, and Carnsore Point) are coastal locations on opposing sides of the country, and offer the opportunity to assess typical northern hemispheric background concentrations as well national and European pollution events. The instruments deployed in this network (Magee Scientific AE33) facilitate elimination of the changes in response due to `aerosol loading' effects; and a real-time calculation of the `loading compensation' parameter which offers insights into aerosol optical properties. Additionally, these instruments have an inbuilt algorithm, which estimates the difference in absorption in the ultraviolet wavelengths (mostly by brown carbon) and the near infrared wavelengths (only by black carbon).Presented here are the first results of the BC measurements from the three Irish stations, including instrument validation, seasonal variation as well as local, regional, and transboundary influences based on air mass trajectories as well as concurrent in-situ observations (meteorological parameters, particle number, and aerosol composition). A comparison of the instrumental algorithm to off-line sensitivity calculations will also be made to assess the contribution of biomass burning to BC pollution events.

  11. Exploration of biodegradation mechanisms of black carbon-bound nonylphenol in black carbon-amended sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Guanghuan; Sun, Mingyang; Ge, Xinlei; Xu, Xinhua; Lin, Qi; Lou, Liping

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate biodegradation mechanisms of black carbon (BC)-bound contaminants in BC-amended sediment when BC was applied to control organic pollution. The single-point Tenax desorption technique was applied to track the species changes of nonylphenol (NP) during biodegradation process in the rice straw carbon (RC)-amended sediment. And the correlation between the biodegradation and desorption of NP was analyzed. Results showed that microorganisms firstly degraded the rapid-desorbing NP (6 h Tenax desorption) in RC-amended sediment. The biodegradation facilitated the desorption of slow-desorbing NP, which was subsequently degraded as well (192 h Tenax desorption). Notably, the final amount of NP degradation was greater than that of NP desorption, indicating that absorbed NP by RC amendment can be degraded by microorganisms. Finally, the residual NP amount in RC-amended sediment was decided by RC content and its physicochemical property. Moreover, the presence of the biofilm was observed by the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) so that microorganisms were able to overcome the mass transfer resistance and directly utilized the absorbed NP. Therefore, single-point Tenax desorption alone may not be an adequate basis for the prediction of the bioaccessibility of contaminants to microorganisms or bioremediation potential in BC-amended sediment. - Highlights: • Biodegradation mechanism of RC-bound NP in sediment was examined. • The microbe prioritized the degradation of NP in desorption fraction. • The microbe formed the biofilm to directly degrade part of non-desorbable NP. • Residual NP amount was decided by RC content and physicochemical property. • Quantifying biodegradation by bioavailability will underestimate the actual outcomes. - The microbes directly degrade the non-desorbable NP bound to amended RC, so quantifying the biodegradation only by desorption will underestimate the

  12. Influence of public transport in black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Y.; Oyola, P.; Gramsch, E. V.; Moreno, F.; Rubio, M.

    2013-05-01

    As a consequence of poor air quality in Santiago de Chile, several measures were taken by the local authorities to improve the environmental conditions and protect the public health. In year 2005 the Chilean government implemented a project called "Transantiago" aimed to introduce major modifications in the public transportation system. The primary objectives of this project were to: provide an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable service and improve the quality of service without increasing fares. In this work we evaluate the impact of the Transantiago system on the black carbon pollution along four roads directly affected by the modification to the transport system. The black carbon has been used to evaluate changes in air quality due to changes in traffic. The assessment was done using measurements of black carbon before Transantiago (June-July 2005) and after its implementation (June-July 2007). Four sites were selected to monitor black carbon at street levels, one site (Alameda) that represents trunk-bus streets, i.e., buses crossing the city through main avenues. Buses using these streets had an important technological update with respect to 2005. Two streets (Usach and Departamental) show a mixed condition, i.e., they combine feeder and trunk buses. These streets combine new EURO III buses with old buses with more than 3 years of service. The last street (Eliodoro Yañez) represent private cars road without public transportation and did not experience change. Hence, the results from the years 2005 and 2007 can be directly compared using an appropriate methodology. To ensure that it was not the meteorological conditions that drive the trends, the comparison between year 2005 and 2007 was done using Wilcoxon test and a regression model. A first assessment at the four sites suggested a non decrease in black carbon concentration from 2005 to 2007, except for Alameda. A first statistical approach confirmed small increases in BC in Usach and E

  13. High Altitude Emissions of Black Carbon Aerosols: Potential Climate Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Synthesizing a series of ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosols over the Indian region during summer and pre-monsoon seasons have revealed the persistence of elevated absorbing aerosol layers over most of the Indian region; more than 50% of which located above clouds. Subsequent, in situ measurements of black carbon (BC) using high-altitude balloons, showed surprising layers with high concentrations in the middle and upper troposphere even at an altitude of 8 to 10 kms. Simultaneous measurements of the vertical thermal structure have shown localized warming due to BC absorption leading to large reduction in lapse rate and sharp temperature inversion, which in turn increases the atmospheric stability. This aerosol-induced stable layer is conducive for maintaining the black carbon layer longer at that level, leading thereby to further solar absorption and subsequently triggering dry convection. These observations support the `solar escalator' concept through which absorption-warming-convection cycles lead to self-lifting of BC to upper troposphere or even to lower stratosphere under favorable conditions in a matter of a few days. Employing an on-line regional chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem), incorporating aircraft emissions, it is shown that emissions from high-flying aircrafts as the most likely source of these elevated black carbon layers. These in-situ injected particles, produce significant warming of the thin air in those heights and lift these layers to even upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric heights, aided by the strong monsoonal convection occurring over the region, which are known to overshoot the tropical tropopause leading to injection of tropospheric air mass (along with its constituent aerosols) into the stratosphere, especially during monsoon season when the tropical tropopause layer is known to be thinnest. These simulations are further supported by the CALIPSO space-borne LIDAR derived extinction coefficient profiles. Based on

  14. Can the graviton have a large mass near black holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2018-04-01

    The mass of the graviton, if nonzero, is usually considered to be very small, e.g., of the Hubble scale, from several observational constraints. In this paper, we propose a gravity model where the graviton mass is very small in the usual weak gravity environments, below all the current graviton mass bounds, but becomes much larger in the strong gravity regime such as a black hole's vicinity. For black holes in this model, significant deviations from general relativity emerge very close to the black hole horizon and alter the black hole quasinormal modes, which can be extracted from the ringdown wave form of black hole binary mergers. Also, the enhancement of the graviton mass near the horizon can result in echoes in the late-time ringdown, which can be verified in the upcoming gravitational wave observations of higher sensitivity.

  15. Chemically treated carbon black waste and its potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Pengwei; Maneerung, Thawatchai; Ng, Wei Cheng; Zhen, Xu [NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 1 Create Way, Create Tower #15-02, 138602 (Singapore); Dai, Yanjun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tong, Yen Wah [NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 1 Create Way, Create Tower #15-02, 138602 (Singapore); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Ting, Yen-Peng [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Koh, Shin Nuo [Sembcorp Industries Ltd., 30 Hill Street #05-04, 179360 (Singapore); Wang, Chi-Hwa, E-mail: chewch@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Neoh, Koon Gee, E-mail: chenkg@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Hazardous impurities separated from carbon black waste with little damage to solid. • Heavy metals were effectively removed from carbon black waste by HNO{sub 3} leaching. • Treated carbon black waste has high adsorption capacity (∼356.4 mg{sub dye}/g). • Carbon black waste was also found to show high electrical conductivity (10 S/cm). - Abstract: In this work, carbon black waste – a hazardous solid residue generated from gasification of crude oil bottom in refineries – was successfully used for making an absorbent material. However, since the carbon black waste also contains significant amounts of heavy metals (especially nickel and vanadium), chemical leaching was first used to remove these hazardous impurities from the carbon black waste. Acid leaching with nitric acid was found to be a very effective method for removal of both nickel and vanadium from the carbon black waste (i.e. up to 95% nickel and 98% vanadium were removed via treatment with 2 M nitric acid for 1 h at 20 °C), whereas alkali leaching by using NaOH under the same condition was not effective for removal of nickel (less than 10% nickel was removed). Human lung cells (MRC-5) were then used to investigate the toxicity of the carbon black waste before and after leaching. Cell viability analysis showed that the leachate from the original carbon black waste has very high toxicity, whereas the leachate from the treated samples has no significant toxicity. Finally, the efficacy of the carbon black waste treated with HNO{sub 3} as an absorbent for dye removal was investigated. This treated carbon black waste has high adsorption capacity (∼361.2 mg {sub dye}/g {sub carbonblack}), which can be attributed to its high specific surface area (∼559 m{sup 2}/g). The treated carbon black waste with its high adsorption capacity and lack of cytotoxicity is a promising adsorbent material. Moreover, the carbon black waste was found to show high electrical conductivity (ca. 10 S

  16. Particulate Matter and Black Carbon Concentration Levels in Ashaiman, a Semi-Urban Area of Ghana, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sam-Quarcoo Dotse; Joshua Kwame Asane; F.G. Ofosu

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter and black carbon concentration levels in Ashaiman, a semi-urban area of Ghana was assessed. Using IVL PM2.5 and PM10 particle samplers, airborne particulate matter was sampled on Teflon filters for a period of three months. In addition to determination of particulate mass in the two fractions by gravimetrical method, aerosol filters were analyzed to determine Black Carbon (BC) concentration levels using the black smoke method. BC fractions in fine and coarse, together with ...

  17. Thermal properties of carbon black aqueous nanofluids for solar absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dongxiao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, carbon black nanofluids were prepared by dispersing the pretreated carbon black powder into distilled water. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were explored. The photothermal properties, optical properties, rheological behaviors, and thermal conductivities of the nanofluids were also investigated. The results showed that the nanofluids of high-volume fraction had better photothermal properties. Both carbon black powder and nanofluids had good absorption in the whole wavelength ranging from 200 to 2,500 nm. The nanofluids exhibited a shear thinning behavior. The shear viscosity increased with the increasing volume fraction and decreased with the increasing temperature at the same shear rate. The thermal conductivity of carbon black nanofluids increased with the increase of volume fraction and temperature. Carbon black nanofluids had good absorption ability of solar energy and can effectively enhance the solar absorption efficiency.

  18. Black hole mass and angular momentum in topologically massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchareb, Adel; Clement, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    We extend the Abbott-Deser-Tekin approach to the computation of the Killing charge for a solution of topologically massive gravity (TMG) linearized around an arbitrary background. This is then applied to evaluate the mass and angular momentum of black hole solutions of TMG with non-constant curvature asymptotics. The resulting values, together with the appropriate black hole entropy, fit nicely into the first law of black hole thermodynamics

  19. Black hole mass and angular momentum in topologically massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchareb, Adel; Clement, Gerard [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique LAPTH (CNRS), BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux cedex (France)

    2007-11-21

    We extend the Abbott-Deser-Tekin approach to the computation of the Killing charge for a solution of topologically massive gravity (TMG) linearized around an arbitrary background. This is then applied to evaluate the mass and angular momentum of black hole solutions of TMG with non-constant curvature asymptotics. The resulting values, together with the appropriate black hole entropy, fit nicely into the first law of black hole thermodynamics.

  20. PRECISE BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM MEGAMASER DISKS: BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS AT LOW MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M BH ∼>10 8 M sun ) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L 2 O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B and C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M BH -σ * relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M BH and σ * seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M BH -σ * relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M BH -σ * relation in this low-mass regime.

  1. Seasonal features of black carbon measured at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, K.; Osada, K.; Yabuki, M.; Shiobara, M.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is one of important aerosol constituents because the strong light absorption ability. Low concentrations of aerosols and BC let BC make insignificant contribution to aerosol radiative forcing in the Antarctica at the moment. Because of less or negligible source strength of BC in the Antarctic circle, BC can be used as a tracer of transport from the mid-latitudes. This study aims to understand seasonal feature, transport pathway, and origins of black carbon in the Antarctic coats. Black carbon measurement has been made using 7-wavelength aethalometer at Syowa Station, Antarctica since February, 2005. Mass BC concentrations were estimated from light attenuation by Weingartner's correction procedure (Weingartner et al., 2003) in this study. Detection limit was 0.2 - 0.4 ng/m3 in our measurement conditions (2-hour resolution and flow rate of ca. 10LPM). BC concentrations ranged from near detection limit to 55.7 ng/m3 at Syowa Station, Antarctica during the measurements. No trend has been observed since February, 2005. High BC concentrations were coincident with poleward flow from the mid-latitudes under the storm conditions by cyclone approach, whereas low BC concentrations were found in transport from coastal regions and the Antarctic continent. Considering that outflow from South America and Southern Africa affect remarkably air quality in the Southern Ocean of Atlantic and Indian Ocean sectors, BC at Syowa Station might be originated from biomass burning and human activity on South America and Southern Africa. Seasonal features of BC at Syowa Station shows maximum in September - October and lower in December - April. Spring maximum in September - October was obtained at the other Antarctic stations (Neumayer, Halley, South pole, and Ferraz). Although second maximum was found in January at the other stations, the maximum was not observed at Syowa Station.

  2. Characterization of Black and Brown Carbon Concentrations and Sources during winter in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Caiqing; Liu, Yue; Hansen, Anthony D. A.; Močnik, Griša; Zheng, Mei

    2017-04-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols, including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), play important roles in air quality, human health, and climate change. A better understanding of sources of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol (including black carbon and brown carbon) is particular critical for formulating emission-based control strategies and reducing uncertainties in current aerosol radiative forcing estimates. Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced serious air pollution problems and high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in recent years, especially during heating seasons. During November and December of 2016, several severe haze episodes occurred in Beijing, with hourly average PM2.5 mass concentration up to 400 μg/m3. In this study, concentration levels and sources of black carbon and brown carbon were investigated based on 7-wavelength Aethalometer (AE-33) with combination of other PM2.5 chemical composition information. Contributions of traffic and non-traffic emissions (e.g., coal combustion, biomass burning) were apportioned, and brown carbon was separated from black carbon. Our preliminary results showed that (1) Concentrations of BC were around 5.3±4.2 μg/m3 during the study period, with distinct diurnal variations during haze and non-haze days. (2) Traffic emissions contributed to about 37±17% of total BC, and exhibited higher contributions during non-haze days compared to haze days. (3) Coal combustion was a major source of black carbon and brown carbon in Beijing, which was more significant compared to biomass burning. Sources and the relative contributions to black carbon and brown carbon during haze and non-haze days will be further discussed.

  3. From X-ray binaries to quasars black holes on all mass scales black holes on all mass scales

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, L C; Maccarone, T J

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together contributions from many of the world's leading authorities on black hole accretion. The papers within represent part of a new movement to make use of the relative advantages of studying stellar mass and supermassive black holes and to bring together the knowledge gained from the two approaches. The topics discussed here run the gamut of the state of the art in black hole observational and theoretical work-variability, spectroscopy, disk-jet connections, and multi-wavelength campaigns on black holes are all covered. Reprinted from ASTROPHYSICS AND SPACE SCIENCE, 300:1-3 (2005)

  4. The mass formula for an exotic BTZ black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Baocheng, E-mail: zhangbc.zhang@yahoo.com

    2016-04-15

    An exotic Bañados–Teitelboim–Zanelli (BTZ) black hole has an angular momentum larger than its mass in three dimension (3D), which suggests the possibility that cosmic censorship could be violated if angular momentum is extracted by the Penrose process. In this paper, we propose a mass formula for the exotic BTZ black hole and show no violation of weak cosmic censorship in the gedanken process above by understanding properly its mass formula. Unlike the other black holes, the total energy of the exotic BTZ black hole is represented by the angular momentum instead of the mass, which supports a basic point of view that the same geometry should be determined by the same energy in 3D general relativity whose equation of motion can be given either by normal 3D Einstein gravity or by exotic 3D Einstein gravity. However, only the mass of the exotic black hole is related to the thermodynamics and other forms of energy are “dumb”, which is consistent with the earlier thermodynamic analysis about exotic black holes.

  5. The mass formula for an exotic BTZ black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Baocheng

    2016-01-01

    An exotic Bañados–Teitelboim–Zanelli (BTZ) black hole has an angular momentum larger than its mass in three dimension (3D), which suggests the possibility that cosmic censorship could be violated if angular momentum is extracted by the Penrose process. In this paper, we propose a mass formula for the exotic BTZ black hole and show no violation of weak cosmic censorship in the gedanken process above by understanding properly its mass formula. Unlike the other black holes, the total energy of the exotic BTZ black hole is represented by the angular momentum instead of the mass, which supports a basic point of view that the same geometry should be determined by the same energy in 3D general relativity whose equation of motion can be given either by normal 3D Einstein gravity or by exotic 3D Einstein gravity. However, only the mass of the exotic black hole is related to the thermodynamics and other forms of energy are “dumb”, which is consistent with the earlier thermodynamic analysis about exotic black holes.

  6. Reinforcement of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube in Nitrile Rubber: In Comparison with Carbon Black, Conductive Carbon Black, and Precipitated Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atip Boonbumrung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of nitrile rubber (NBR reinforced by multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT, conductive carbon black (CCB, carbon black (CB, and precipitated silica (PSi were investigated via viscoelastic behavior, bound rubber content, electrical properties, cross-link density, and mechanical properties. The filler content was varied from 0 to 15 phr. MWCNT shows the greatest magnitude of reinforcement considered in terms of tensile strength, modulus, hardness, and abrasion resistance followed by CCB, CB, and PSi. The MWCNT filled system also exhibits extremely high levels of filler network and trapped rubber even at relatively low loading (5 phr leading to high electrical properties and poor dynamic mechanical properties. Although CCB possesses the highest specific surface area, it gives lower level of filler network than MWCNT and also gives the highest elongation at break among all fillers. Both CB and PSi show comparable degree of reinforcement which is considerably lower than CCB and MWCNT.

  7. Estimation of Black Carbon Emissions from Dry Dipterocarp Forest Fires in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubonwan Chaiyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the estimation of black carbon emissions from dry dipterocarp forest fires in Thailand. Field experiments were set up at the natural forest, Mae Nam Phachi wildlife sanctuary, Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. The dead leaves were the main component consumed of the surface biomass with coverage higher than 90% in volume and mass. The dead leaves load was 342 ± 190 g∙m−2 and followed by a little mass load of twig, 100 g∙m−2. The chemical analysis of the dead leaves showed that the carbon content in the experimental biomass fuel was 45.81 ± 0.04%. From the field experiments, it was found that 88.38 ± 2.02% of the carbon input was converted to carbon released to the atmosphere, while less than 10% were left in the form of residues, and returned to soil. The quantity of dead leaves consumed to produce each gram of carbon released was 2.40 ± 0.02 gdry biomass burned. From the study, the emissions factor of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter (PM2.5 and black carbon amounted 1329, 90, 26.19 and 2.83 g∙kg−1dry biomass burned, respectively. In Thailand, the amount of black carbon emissions from dry dipterocarp forest fires amounted 17.43 tonnes∙y−1.

  8. Black carbon sequestration as an alternative to bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowles, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    Most policy and much research concerning the application of biomass to reduce global warming gas emissions has concentrated either on increasing the Earth's reservoir of biomass or on substituting biomass for fossil fuels, with or without CO 2 sequestration. Suggested approaches entail varied risks of impermanence, delay, high costs, and unknowable side-effects. An under-researched alternative approach is to extract from biomass black (elemental) carbon, which can be permanently sequestered as mineral geomass and may be relatively advantageous in terms of those risks. This paper reviews salient features of black carbon sequestration and uses a high-level quantitative model to compare the approach with the alternative use of biomass to displace fossil fuels. Black carbon has been demonstrated to produce significant benefits when sequestered in agricultural soil, apparently without bad side-effects. Black carbon sequestration appears to be more efficient in general than energy generation, in terms of atmospheric carbon saved per unit of biomass; an exception is where biomass can efficiently displace coal-fired generation. Black carbon sequestration can reasonably be expected to be relatively quick and cheap to apply due to its short value chain and known technology. However, the model is sensitive to several input variables, whose values depend heavily on local conditions. Because characteristics of black carbon sequestration are only known from limited geographical contexts, its worldwide potential will not be known without multiple streams of research, replicated in other contexts. (author)

  9. Low-temperature atmospheric oxidation of mixtures of titanium and carbon black or brown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizarova, V.A.; Babaitsev, I.V.; Barzykin, V.V.; Gerusova, V.P.; Rozenband, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    This article reports on the thermogravimetric investigation of mixtures of titanium no. 2 and carbon black with various mass carbon contents. Adding carbon black (as opposed to boron) to titanium leads to an increase in the rate of heat release of the oxidation reaction. An attempt is made to clarify the low-temperature oxidation mechanism of titanium mixtures in air. An x-ray phase and chemical (for bound carbon) analysis of specimens of a stoichiometric Ti + C mixture after heating in air to a temperature of 650 0 C at the rate of 10 0 /min was conducted. The results indicate that the oxidation of the titanium-carbon mixture probably proceeds according to a more complex mechanism associated with the transport of the gaseous carbon oxidation products and their participation in the titanium oxidation

  10. Source attribution of black carbon in Arctic snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Dean A; Warren, Stephen G; Grenfell, Thomas C; Doherty, Sarah J; Larson, Timothy V; Clarke, Antony D

    2009-06-01

    Snow samples obtained at 36 sites in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean in early 2007 were analyzed for light-absorbing aerosol concentration together with a suite of associated chemical species. The light absorption data, interpreted as black carbon concentrations, and other chemical data were input into the EPA PMF 1.1 receptor model to explore the sources for black carbon in the snow. The analysis found four factors or sources: two distinct biomass burning sources, a pollution source, and a marine source. The first three of these were responsible for essentially all of the black carbon, with the two biomass sources (encompassing both open and closed combustion) together accounting for >90% of the black carbon.

  11. Molecular simulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sorption to black carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.; Govers, H.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Strong sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants to soot or black carbon (BC) is an important environmental process limiting the bioremediation potential of contaminated soils and sediments. Reliable methods to predict BC sorption coefficients for organic contaminants are therefore required. A

  12. Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Ferrara, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The most massive black holes observed in the universe weigh up to ∼10 10 M ⊙ , nearly independent of redshift. Reaching these final masses likely required copious accretion and several major mergers. Employing a dynamical approach that rests on the role played by a new, relevant physical scale—the transition radius—we provide a theoretical calculation of the maximum mass achievable by a black hole seed that forms in an isolated halo, one that scarcely merged. Incorporating effects at the transition radius and their impact on the evolution of accretion in isolated halos, we are able to obtain new limits for permitted growth. We find that large black hole seeds ( M • ≳ 10 4 M ⊙ ) hosted in small isolated halos ( M h ≲ 10 9 M ⊙ ) accreting with relatively small radiative efficiencies ( ϵ ≲ 0.1) grow optimally in these circumstances. Moreover, we show that the standard M • – σ relation observed at z ∼ 0 cannot be established in isolated halos at high- z , but requires the occurrence of mergers. Since the average limiting mass of black holes formed at z ≳ 10 is in the range 10 4–6 M ⊙ , we expect to observe them in local galaxies as intermediate-mass black holes, when hosted in the rare halos that experienced only minor or no merging events. Such ancient black holes, formed in isolation with subsequent scant growth, could survive, almost unchanged, until present.

  13. Effects of black carbon on bioturbination-induced benthic fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether carbonaceous geosorbents, such as black carbon (BC) affect bioturbation by benthic invertebrates, thereby possibly affecting sediment–water exchange of sediment-bound contaminants. Here, we assess the effects of oil soot on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mass transfer from

  14. Black carbon radiative forcing at TOA decreased during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Cheng, Tianhai; Zheng, Lijuan; Chen, Hao

    2016-12-05

    During aging processing, black carbon (also called soot) particles may tend to be mixed with other aerosols, and highly influence their radiative forcing. In this study, freshly emitted soot particles were simulated as fractal aggregates composed of small spherical primary monomers. After aging in the atmosphere, soot monomers were coated by a thinly layer of sulfate as thinly coated soot particles. These soot particles were entirely embedded into large sulfate particle by further aging, and becoming heavily coated soot particles. In clear-sky conditions, black carbon radiative forcing with different aging states were investigated for the bottom and top of atmosphere (BOA and TOA). The simulations showed that black carbon radiative forcing increased at BOA and decreased at TOA after their aging processes. Thinly and heavily coated states increased up to ~12% and ~35% black carbon radiative forcing at BOA, and black carbon radiative forcing at TOA can reach to ~20% and ~100% smaller for thinly and heavily coated states than those of freshly emitted states, respectively. The effect of aging states of black carbon radiative forcing was varied with surface albedo, aerosol optical depth and solar zenith angles. These findings would be helpful for the assessments of climate change.

  15. Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vignati

    2010-03-01

    magnitude.

    The sensitivity to wet scavenging has been tested by varying in-cloud and below-cloud removal. BC lifetime increases by 10% when large scale and convective scale precipitation removal efficiency are reduced by 30%, while the variation is very small when below-cloud scavenging is zero.

    Since the emission inventories are representative of elemental carbon-like substance, the model output should be compared to elemental carbon measurements and if known, the ratio of black carbon to elemental carbon mass should be taken into account when the model is compared with black carbon observations.

  16. Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube from different grades of carbon black using arc discharge method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Neha, E-mail: n4neha31@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Sharma, N. N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Director, School of Automobile, Mechanical & Mechatronics, Manipal University,Jaipur,India (India)

    2016-04-13

    This paper describes the synthesis of nanotube from different grades (Tread * A(non-ASTM), N134,N121,N660 and N330)of carbon black using DC arc discharge method at 40A current for 60sec. Carbon black samples of different grades were procured from industry (Aditya Birla Science and Technology Limited, India). Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM) of the deposited carbon nanostructures suggests that MWCNTs are formed at 40A and for a minimal exposure time of 60sec.The result formed indicates the N330 grade of carbon black gets converted to MWCNTs (Multiwall Carbon nanotube) as compared to other grades.

  17. Black hole mass formula in the membrane paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2018-03-01

    The membrane paradigm approach adopts a timelike surface, stretched out off the null event horizon, to study several important black hole properties. We use this powerful tool to give a direct derivation of the black hole mass formula in the static and stationary cases without and with electric field. Since here the membrane is a self-gravitating material system, we go beyond the usual applicability on test particles and test fields of the paradigm.

  18. Black hole constraints on the running-mass inflation model

    OpenAIRE

    Leach, Samuel M; Grivell, Ian J; Liddle, Andrew R

    2000-01-01

    The running-mass inflation model, which has strong motivation from particle physics, predicts density perturbations whose spectral index is strongly scale-dependent. For a large part of parameter space the spectrum rises sharply to short scales. In this paper we compute the production of primordial black holes, using both analytic and numerical calculation of the density perturbation spectra. Observational constraints from black hole production are shown to exclude a large region of otherwise...

  19. Adsorption of Remazol Black B dye on Activated Carbon Felt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnaperna Lucio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Remazol Black B (anionic dye on a microporous activated carbon felt is investigated from its aqueous solution. The surface chemistry of activated carbon is studied using X-ray microanalysis, "Boehm" titrations and pH of PZC measurements which indicates that the surface oxygenated groups are mainly acidic in nature. The kinetics of Remazol Black B adsorption is observed to be pH dependent and governed by the diffusion of the dye molecules. The experimental data can be explained by "intra-particle diffusion model". For Remazol Black B, the Khan model is best suited to simulate the adsorption isotherms.

  20. Black hole fusion in the extreme mass ratio limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emparan, Roberto; Martínez, Marina; Zilhão, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    We present a simple, general, and accurate construction of the event horizons for the fusion of two neutral, rotating black holes with arbitrary orientation and values of their spins, in the extreme mass ratio limit where one black hole is much larger than the other. We compute several parameters that characterize the fusion and investigate their dependence on the black hole spin and orientation axis. We also exhibit and study the appearance of transient toroidal topology of the horizon. An earlier conjecture about universal critical exponents before and after an axisymmetric pinch is proven.

  1. Hydrogen and Carbon Black Production from Thermal Decomposition of Sub-Quality Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Javadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is computational investigation of the hydrogen and carbon black production through thermal decomposition of waste gases containing CH4 and H2S, without requiring a H2S separation process. The chemical reaction model, which involves solid carbon, sulfur compounds and precursor species for the formation of carbon black, is based on an assumed Probability Density Function (PDF parameterized by the mean and variance of mixture fraction and β-PDF shape. The effects of feedstock mass flow rate and reactor temperature on hydrogen, carbon black, S2, SO2, COS and CS2 formation are investigated. The results show that the major factor influencing CH4 and H2S conversions is reactor temperature. For temperatures higher than 1100° K, the reactor CH4 conversion reaches 100%, whilst H2S conversion increases in temperatures higher than 1300° K. The results reveal that at any temperature, H2S conversion is less than that of CH4. The results also show that in the production of carbon black from sub-quality natural gas, the formation of carbon monoxide, which is occurring in parallel, play a very significant role. For lower values of feedstock flow rate, CH4 mostly burns to CO and consequently, the production of carbon black is low. The results show that the yield of hydrogen increases with increasing feedstock mass flow rate until the yield reaches a maximum value, and then drops with further increase in the feedstock mass flow rate.

  2. Study of black carbon levels in city centers and industrial centers in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasha, K.M.; Almomani, M.S.; Abu-Allaban, M.; Arnott, W. P.

    2010-01-01

    Light absorption coefficients of black carbon (B abc ) were measured at serveral urban and industrial locations in Jordan during summer of 2007 and winter of 2008 using the photoacoustic instrument at a wavelength of 870 nm. Black carbon mass concentration (BC) was calculated using B abc .Black carbon levels at urban locations in the summer of 2007 were higher than those obtained at industrial centers.Zarqa had the highest value of BC in summer (29.24μg/m 3 ) and in winter (13.27μg/m 3 ). Ibbeen and Irbid city center had relatively high values of BC in winter: 11.75μg/m 3 and 12.48μg/m 3 , respectively. (authors).

  3. Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the definition and measurement techniques for atmospheric 'black carbon' ('BC' or 'elemental carbon'' ('EC' have long been subjects of scientific controversy, the recent discovery of light-absorbing carbon that is not black ('brown carbon, Cbrown' makes it imperative to reassess and redefine the components that make up light-absorbing carbonaceous matter (LAC in the atmosphere. Evidence for the atmospheric presence of Cbrown comes from (1 spectral aerosol light absorption measurements near specific combustion sources, (2 observations of spectral properties of water extracts of continental aerosol, (3 laboratory studies indicating the formation of light-absorbing organic matter in the atmosphere, and (4 indirectly from the chemical analogy of aerosol species to colored natural humic substances. We show that brown carbon may severely bias measurements of 'BC' and 'EC' over vast parts of the troposphere, especially those strongly polluted by biomass burning, where the mass concentration of Cbrown is high relative to that of soot carbon. Chemical measurements to determine 'EC' are biased by the refractory nature of Cbrown as well as by complex matrix interferences. Optical measurements of 'BC' suffer from a number of problems: (1 many of the presently used instruments introduce a substantial bias into the determination of aerosol light absorption, (2 there is no unique conversion factor between light absorption and 'EC' or 'BC' concentration in ambient aerosols, and (3 the difference in spectral properties between the different types of LAC, as well as the chemical complexity of Cbrown, lead to several conceptual as well as practical complications. We also suggest that due to the sharply increasing absorption of Cbrown towards the UV, single-wavelength light absorption measurements may not be adequate for the assessment of absorption of solar radiation in the troposphere. We discuss the possible consequences of these effects for our

  4. Estimation of black carbon content for biomass burning aerosols from multi-channel Raman lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talianu, Camelia; Marmureanu, Luminita; Nicolae, Doina

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning due to natural processes (forest fires) or anthropical activities (agriculture, thermal power stations, domestic heating) is an important source of aerosols with a high content of carbon components (black carbon and organic carbon). Multi-channel Raman lidars provide information on the spectral dependence of the backscatter and extinction coefficients, embedding information on the black carbon content. Aerosols with a high content of black carbon have large extinction coefficients and small backscatter coefficients (strong absorption), while aerosols with high content of organic carbon have large backscatter coefficients (weak absorption). This paper presents a method based on radiative calculations to estimate the black carbon content of biomass burning aerosols from 3b+2a+1d lidar signals. Data is collected at Magurele, Romania, at the cross-road of air masses coming from Ukraine, Russia and Greece, where burning events are frequent during both cold and hot seasons. Aerosols are transported in the free troposphere, generally in the 2-4 km altitude range, and reaches the lidar location after 2-3 days. Optical data are collected between 2011-2012 by a multi-channel Raman lidar and follows the quality assurance program of EARLINET. Radiative calculations are made with libRadTran, an open source radiative model developed by ESA. Validation of the retrievals is made by comparison to a co-located C-ToF Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Keywords: Lidar, aerosols, biomass burning, radiative model, black carbon Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by grants of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, Programme for Research- Space Technology and Advanced Research - STAR, project no. 39/2012 - SIAFIM, and by Romanian Partnerships in priority areas PNII implemented with MEN-UEFISCDI support, project no. 309/2014 - MOBBE

  5. A Community Network of 100 Black Carbon Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Kirchstetter, T.; Caubel, J.; Cados, T.; Keeling, C.; Chang, S.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a low-cost black carbon sensor, field tested its performance, and then built and deployed a network of 100 sensors in West Oakland, California. We operated the network for 100 days beginning mid-May 2017 to measure spatially resolved black carbon concentrations throughout the community. West Oakland is a San Francisco Bay Area mixed residential and industrial community that is adjacent to regional port and rail yard facilities and surrounded by major freeways. As such, the community is affected by diesel particulate matter emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks, locomotives, and ships associated with freight movement. In partnership with Environmental Defense Fund, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, and the West Oakland Environmental Indicators Project, we deployed the black carbon monitoring network outside of residences and business, along truck routes and arterial streets, and at upwind locations. The sensor employs the filter-based light transmission method to measure black carbon and has good precision and correspondence with current commercial black carbon instruments. Throughout the 100-day period, each of the 100 sensors transmitted data via a cellular network. A MySQL database was built to receive and manage the data in real-time. The database included diagnostic features to monitor each sensor's operational status and facilitate the maintenance of the network. Spatial and temporal patterns in black carbon concentrations will be presented, including patterns around industrial facilities, freeways, and truck routes, as well as the relationship between neighborhood concentrations and the BAAQMD's monitoring site. Lessons learned during this first of its kind black carbon monitoring network will also be shared.

  6. Mass accretion rate fluctuations in black hole X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapisarda, S.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is about the first systematic and quantitative application of propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations models to black hole X-ray binaries. Black hole X-ray binaries are systems consisting of a solar mass star orbiting around a stellar mass black hole. Eventually, the black hole

  7. Time-resolved analysis of particle emissions from residential biomass combustion - Emissions of refractory black carbon, PAHs and organic tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg E.; Eriksson, Axel C.; Lindgren, Robert; Martinsson, Johan; Nyström, Robin; Nordin, Erik Z.; Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Boman, Christoffer; Nøjgaard, Jacob K.; Pagels, Joakim

    2017-09-01

    Time-resolved particle emissions from a conventional wood stove were investigated with aerosol mass spectrometry to provide links between combustion conditions, emission factors, mixing state of refractory black carbon and implications for organic tracer methods. The addition of a new batch of fuel results in low temperature pyrolysis as the fuel heats up, resulting in strong, short-lived, variable emission peaks of organic aerosol-containing markers of anhydrous sugars, such as levoglucosan (fragment at m/z 60). Flaming combustion results in emissions dominated by refractory black carbon co-emitted with minor fractions of organic aerosol and markers of anhydrous sugars. Full cycle emissions are an external mixture of larger organic aerosol-dominated and smaller thinly coated refractory black carbon particles. A very high burn rate results in increased full cycle mass emission factors of 66, 2.7, 2.8 and 1.3 for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon, total organic aerosol and m/z 60, respectively, compared to nominal burn rate. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are primarily associated with refractory black carbon-containing particles. We hypothesize that at very high burn rates, the central parts of the combustion zone become air starved, leading to a locally reduced combustion temperature that reduces the conversion rates from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to refractory black carbon. This facilitates a strong increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions. At nominal burn rates, full cycle emissions based on m/z 60 correlate well with organic aerosol, refractory black carbon and particulate matter. However, at higher burn rates, m/z 60 does not correlate with increased emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon and organic aerosol in the flaming phase. The new knowledge can be used to advance source apportionment studies, reduce emissions of genotoxic compounds and model the climate impacts of

  8. Magnetic Origin of Black Hole Winds Across the Mass Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Shrader, Chris; Behar, Ehud; Tombesi, Francesco; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Black hole accretion disks appear to produce invariably plasma outflows that result in blue-shifted absorption features in their spectra. The X-ray absorption-line properties of these outflows are quite diverse, ranging in velocity from non-relativistic (approx. 300 km/sec) to sub-relativistic (approx. 0.1c where c is the speed of light) and a similarly broad range in the ionization states of the wind plasma. We report here that semi-analytic, self-similar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind models that have successfully accounted for the X-ray absorber properties of supermassive black holes, also fit well the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the accreting stellar-mass black hole, GRO J1655-40. This provides an explicit theoretical argument of their MHD origin (aligned with earlier observational claims) and supports the notion of a universal magnetic structure of the observed winds across all known black hole sizes.

  9. Neutron scattering analysis of rubber carbon black composite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Wampler, W.A.; Gerspacher, M.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the uses of small-angle neutron scattering to dissect component form, structure and distribution in carbon black-reinforced rubber by varying the contrast of the system relative to some fluid by changing the fluid scattering-length density. This is the method of contrast variation. Contrast variation allows us to separate scattering contributions from the different components. Here, we extend our studies on high surface area (HSA) carbon black suspended in cyclohexane/deuterocyclohexane to HSA mixed with polyisoprene as a gel of ''bound'' rubber swollen with the same solvent mixtures. Contrast variation of swollen composite gels shows that there are two length scales in the gel structure. Above 1 nm fluctuations in the carbon black predominate. Interactions with elastomer hold the HSA aggregates appart. Below 1 nm the scattering is largely from the elastomer. The smooth surface structure of the carbon black is unaltered by the interactions with elastomer and appears smooth over length scales above about 1 nm. These results show that contrast variation can provide information on composite structure that is not available by other means. This information relates to the reinforcement mechanism of elastomers by carbon blacks

  10. Gravimetric determination of the iodine number of carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, L.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a gravimetric method for the determination of the iodine adsorption number of carbon black. It comprises determining the concentration of an accurately weighed iodine blank solution by adding a standardized titrant to the iodine solution until a titration endpoint is reached and determining the concentration of the iodine solution by accurately weighing the amount of the standardized titrant necessary to reach the endpoint, accurately weighing an amount of carbon black and adding an appropriate amount of an accurately weighed portion of the iodine solution, equilibrating the carbon black-iodine solution mixture, adding the standardized titrant to an accurately weighed portion of the supernatant from the carbon black-iodine mixture until a titration endpoint is reached and determining the concentration of the supernatant by accurately weighing the amount of the standardized titrant necessary to reach the endpoint, wherein the titration endpoint of the supernatant is obtained using an indicating and a reference electrode, and calculating the iodine adsorption number of the carbon black based on the gravimetrically determined concentration of the titrant, the iodine solution, and the supernatant

  11. Effective photon mass from black-hole formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slava Emelyanov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We compute the value of effective photon mass mγ at one-loop level in QED in the background of small (1010 g≲M≪1016 g spherically symmetric black hole in asymptotically flat spacetime. This effect is associated with the modification of electron/positron propagator in presence of event horizon. Physical manifestations of black-hole environment are compared with those of hot neutral plasma. We estimate the distance to the nearest black hole from the upper bound on mγ obtained in the Coulomb-law test. We also find that corrections to electron mass me and fine structure constant α at one-loop level in QED are negligible in the weak gravity regime.

  12. Feedback Limits to Maximum Seed Masses of Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacucci, Fabio; Natarajan, Priyamvada [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Ferrara, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    The most massive black holes observed in the universe weigh up to ∼10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, nearly independent of redshift. Reaching these final masses likely required copious accretion and several major mergers. Employing a dynamical approach that rests on the role played by a new, relevant physical scale—the transition radius—we provide a theoretical calculation of the maximum mass achievable by a black hole seed that forms in an isolated halo, one that scarcely merged. Incorporating effects at the transition radius and their impact on the evolution of accretion in isolated halos, we are able to obtain new limits for permitted growth. We find that large black hole seeds ( M {sub •} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ⊙}) hosted in small isolated halos ( M {sub h} ≲ 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙}) accreting with relatively small radiative efficiencies ( ϵ ≲ 0.1) grow optimally in these circumstances. Moreover, we show that the standard M {sub •}– σ relation observed at z ∼ 0 cannot be established in isolated halos at high- z , but requires the occurrence of mergers. Since the average limiting mass of black holes formed at z ≳ 10 is in the range 10{sup 4–6} M {sub ⊙}, we expect to observe them in local galaxies as intermediate-mass black holes, when hosted in the rare halos that experienced only minor or no merging events. Such ancient black holes, formed in isolation with subsequent scant growth, could survive, almost unchanged, until present.

  13. Tidal disruption of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling ultra-close encounters between a white dwarf and a spinning, intermediate mass black hole requires a full general relativistic treatment of gravity. This paper summarizes results from such a study. Our results show that the disruption process and prompt accretion of the debris strongly depend on the magnitude and orientation of the black hole spin. On the other hand, the late-time accretion onto the black hole follows the same decay, Ṁ ∝  t−5/3, estimated from Newtonian gravity disruption studies. The spectrum of the fallback material peaks in the soft X-rays and sustains Eddington luminosity for 1–3 yrs after the disruption. The orientation of the black hole spin has also a profound effect on how the outflowing debris obscures the central region. The disruption produces a burst of gravitational radiation with characteristic frequencies of ∼3.2 Hz and strain amplitudes of ∼10−18 for galactic intermediate mass black holes.

  14. Mass and free energy of Lovelock black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie; Ray, Sourya

    2011-01-01

    An explicit formula for the ADM mass of an asymptotically AdS black hole in a generic Lovelock gravity theory is presented, identical in form to that in Einstein gravity, but multiplied by a function of the Lovelock coupling constants and the AdS curvature radius. A Gauss' law-type formula relates the mass, which is an integral at infinity, to an expression depending instead on the horizon radius. This and other thermodynamic quantities, such as the free energy, are then analyzed in the limits of small and large horizon radius, yielding results that are independent of the detailed choice of Lovelock couplings. In even dimensions, the temperature diverges in both limits, implying the existence of a minimum temperature for black holes. The negative free energy of sufficiently large black holes implies the existence of a Hawking-Page transition. In odd dimensions, the temperature still diverges for large black holes, which again have negative free energy. However, the temperature vanishes as the horizon radius tends to zero and sufficiently small black holes have positive specific heat.

  15. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Dan A. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laing, James R. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran through 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO

  16. Evaluating the capabilities of portable black carbon monitors and photometers for measuring airborne carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Ogura, Isamu, E-mail: i-ogura@aist.go.jp; Kotake, Mari; Kishimoto, Atsuo; Honda, Kazumasa [Technology Research Association for Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (TASC) (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    For daily monitoring of occupational exposure to aerosolized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) where CNTs are manufactured and handled, inexpensive real-time measuring methods are preferable. In this study, we evaluated the capabilities of a portable black carbon monitor (BCM; also called an aethalometer) and a light-scattering aerosol photometer in detecting airborne CNTs. The responses of these instruments to airborne CNTs, aerosolized through vortex shaking, were evaluated by comparing the measurements of CNT mass concentrations made by these instruments to those determined through thermal carbon analysis. Results showed that their raw readings underestimated CNT mass concentrations in most cases. Their sensitivities depended on the type of CNTs and decreased with the particle sizes of aerosolized CNT clumps. We also found that the sensitivity of the BCM tended to substantially decrease with increasing filter load, even before the point at which the filter should be replaced as recommended by the manufacturer, which could be attributed to a clean environmental condition (i.e., the absence of ubiquitous light-scattering material). As an example of the use of these instruments for measuring airborne CNTs in the presence of background aerosols, a CNT-handling simulation was also conducted. Although both the BCM and the photometer could detect CNT emissions, the BCM was more sensitive to the detection of emitted CNTs in the presence of background aerosols. The correction factors obtained from the response evaluations could enhance the measurement accuracy of these instruments, which will be helpful for the daily monitoring of CNTs at workplaces.

  17. Evaluating the capabilities of portable black carbon monitors and photometers for measuring airborne carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Ogura, Isamu; Kotake, Mari; Kishimoto, Atsuo; Honda, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    For daily monitoring of occupational exposure to aerosolized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) where CNTs are manufactured and handled, inexpensive real-time measuring methods are preferable. In this study, we evaluated the capabilities of a portable black carbon monitor (BCM; also called an aethalometer) and a light-scattering aerosol photometer in detecting airborne CNTs. The responses of these instruments to airborne CNTs, aerosolized through vortex shaking, were evaluated by comparing the measurements of CNT mass concentrations made by these instruments to those determined through thermal carbon analysis. Results showed that their raw readings underestimated CNT mass concentrations in most cases. Their sensitivities depended on the type of CNTs and decreased with the particle sizes of aerosolized CNT clumps. We also found that the sensitivity of the BCM tended to substantially decrease with increasing filter load, even before the point at which the filter should be replaced as recommended by the manufacturer, which could be attributed to a clean environmental condition (i.e., the absence of ubiquitous light-scattering material). As an example of the use of these instruments for measuring airborne CNTs in the presence of background aerosols, a CNT-handling simulation was also conducted. Although both the BCM and the photometer could detect CNT emissions, the BCM was more sensitive to the detection of emitted CNTs in the presence of background aerosols. The correction factors obtained from the response evaluations could enhance the measurement accuracy of these instruments, which will be helpful for the daily monitoring of CNTs at workplaces

  18. Carbon-cluster mass calibration at SHIPTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Ankur

    2007-01-01

    A carbon-cluster ion source has been installed and tested at SHIPTRAP, the Penning-trap mass spectrometer for mass measurements of heavy elements at GSI/Darmstadt, Germany. A precision mass determination is carried out by measuring the ion cyclotron frequency ω c =qB=m, where q/m is the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion and B is the magnetic field. The mass of the ion of interest is obtained from the comparison of its cyclotron frequency ω c with that of a well-known reference ion. Carbon clusters are the mass reference of choice since the unified atomic mass unit is defined as 1/12 of the mass of the 12 C atom. Thus the masses of carbon clusters 12 C n , n=1,2,3,.. are multiples of the unified atomic mass unit. Carbon-cluster ions 12 C n + , 5≤n≤23, were produced by laser-induced desorption and ionization from a carbon sample. Carbon clusters of various sizes ( 12 C 7 + , 12 C 9 + , 12 C 10 + , 12 C 11 + , 12 C 12 + , 12 C 15 + , 12 C 18 + , 12 C 19 + , 12 C 20 + ) were used for an investigation of the accuracy of SHIPTRAP covering a mass range from 84 u to 240 u. To this end the clusters were used both as ions of interest and reference ions. Hence the true values of the frequency ratios are exactly known. The mass-dependent uncertainty was found to be negligible for the case of (m-m ref ) -8 was revealed. In addition, carbon clusters were employed for the first time as reference ions in an on-line studies of short-lived nuclei. Absolute mass measurements of the radionuclides 144 Dy, 146 Dy and 147 Ho were performed using 12 C 11 + as reference ion. The results agree with measurements during the same run using 85 Rb + as reference ion. The investigated radionuclides were produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction 92 Mo( 58 Ni,xpyn) at SHIP (Separator for Heavy Ion reaction Products) at GSI. Among the measured nuclei 147 Ho has the lowest half life (5.8 s). A relative mass uncertainty of 5 x 10 -8 was obtained from the mass measurements using carbon clusters

  19. Automatic Method for Controlling the Iodine Adsorption Number in Carbon Black Oil Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous of different inlet process factors in carbon black oil furnaces which must be continuously and automatically adjusted, due to stable quality of final product. The most important six inlet process factors in carbon black oil-furnaces are:1. volume flow of process air for combustion2. temperature of process air for combustion3. volume flow of natural gas for insurance the necessary heat for thermal reaction of conversionthe hydrocarbon oil feedstock in oil-furnace carbon black4. mass flow rate of hydrocarbon oil feedstock5. type and quantity of additive for adjustment the structure of oil-furnace carbon black6. quantity and position of the quench water for cooling the reaction of oil-furnace carbon black.The control of oil-furnace carbon black adsorption capacity is made with mass flow rate of hydrocarbon feedstock, which is the most important inlet process factor. Oil-furnace carbon black adsorption capacity in industrial process is determined with laboratory analyze of iodine adsorption number. It is shown continuously and automatically method for controlling iodine adsorption number in carbon black oil-furnaces to get as much as possible efficient control of adsorption capacity. In the proposed method it can be seen the correlation between qualitatively-quantitatively composition of the process tail gasses in the production of oil-furnace carbon black and relationship between air for combustion and hydrocarbon feedstock. It is shown that the ratio between air for combustion and hydrocarbon oil feedstock is depended of adsorption capacity summarized by iodine adsorption number, regarding to BMCI index of hydrocarbon oil feedstock.The mentioned correlation can be seen through the figures from 1. to 4. From the whole composition of the process tail gasses the best correlation for continuously and automatically control of iodine adsorption number is show the volume fraction of methane. The volume fraction of methane in the

  20. Effect of sterilization on mineralization of straw and black carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Bobul'ská, Lenka; Bruun, Sander; Fazekašová, Danica

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the role of microorganisms in the degradation of BC (black carbon). CO evolution was measured under sterilized and non-sterilized soil using BC and straw amendments. Black carbon and straw were produced from homogenously C labelled roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) with a specific activity 2.9 MBq g C. Production of BC was implemented at 300 °C for 24 h in a muffle oven, incubated in soil and C in the evolved CO was measured after 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 26 a...

  1. REDSHIFT EVOLUTION IN BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS: TESTING C IV-BASED BLACK HOLE MASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Ludwig, Randi R.

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine claims for redshift evolution in black hole-bulge scaling relations based on lensed quasars. In particular, we refine the black hole (BH) mass estimates using measurements of Balmer lines from near-infrared spectroscopy obtained with Triplespec at Apache Point Observatory. In support of previous work, we find a large scatter between Balmer and UV line widths, both Mg IIλλ2796, 2803 and C IVλλ1548, 1550. There is tentative evidence that C III]λ1909, despite being a blend of multiple transitions, may correlate well with Mg II, although a larger sample is needed for a real calibration. Most importantly, we find no systematic changes in the estimated BH masses for the lensed sample based on Balmer lines, providing additional support to the interpretation that black holes were overly massive compared to their host galaxies at high redshift.

  2. Determining Central Black Hole Masses in Distant Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    An empirical relationship, of particular interest for studies of high redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars, between the masses of their central black-holes and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) parameters measured in single-epoch AGN spectra is presented. This relationship is calibrated...... black-hole demographics at high redshift as well as to statistically study the fundamental properties of AGNs. The broad line region size - luminosity relationship is key to the calibrations presented here. The fact that its intrinsic scatter is also the main source of uncertainty in the calibrations...

  3. Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Anderson, Scott F.; Kelly, Brandon C.; Körding, Elmar; Trager, Scott C.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Belloni, Tomaso

    Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole

  4. Testing the blazar sequence and black hole mass scaling with BL Lac objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, R.M.; Markoff, S.; Anderson, S.F.; Kelly, B.C.; Körding, E.; Trager, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Jets from accreting black holes appear remarkably similar over eight orders of magnitude in black hole mass, with more massive black holes generally launching more powerful jets. For example, there is an observed correlation, termed the fundamental plane of black hole accretion, between black hole

  5. Electrical conductivity of compacts of graphene, multi-wall carbon nanotubes, carbon black, and graphite powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinho, B.; Gomes Ghislandi, M.; Tkalya, E.; Koning, C.E.; With, de G.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of different carbon materials (multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon black and graphite), widely used as fillers in polymeric matrices, was studied using compacts produced by a paper preparation process and by powder compression. Powder pressing assays show that

  6. Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100-450 solar Mass and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88 + 88 solar Mass , for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc(exp 3) per Myr at the 90% confidence level.

  7. Using measurements for evaluation of black carbon modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gilardoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing use of air quality and climate model assessments to underpin economic, public health, and environmental policy decisions makes effective model evaluation critical. This paper discusses the properties of black carbon and light attenuation and absorption observations that are the key to a reliable evaluation of black carbon model and compares parametric and nonparametric statistical tools for the quantification of the agreement between models and observations. Black carbon concentrations are simulated with TM5/M7 global model from July 2002 to June 2003 at four remote sites (Alert, Jungfraujoch, Mace Head, and Trinidad Head and two regional background sites (Bondville and Ispra. Equivalent black carbon (EBC concentrations are calculated using light attenuation measurements from January 2000 to December 2005. Seasonal trends in the measurements are determined by fitting sinusoidal functions and the representativeness of the period simulated by the model is verified based on the scatter of the experimental values relative to the fit curves. When the resolution of the model grid is larger than 1° × 1°, it is recommended to verify that the measurement site is representative of the grid cell. For this purpose, equivalent black carbon measurements at Alert, Bondville and Trinidad Head are compared to light absorption and elemental carbon measurements performed at different sites inside the same model grid cells. Comparison of these equivalent black carbon and elemental carbon measurements indicates that uncertainties in black carbon optical properties can compromise the comparison between model and observations. During model evaluation it is important to examine the extent to which a model is able to simulate the variability in the observations over different integration periods as this will help to identify the most appropriate timescales. The agreement between model and observation is accurately described by the overlap of

  8. Stellar-Mass Black Holes in the Solar Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, J S R; Kolb, Edward W; Chisholm, James R.; Dodelson, Scott; Kolb, Edward W.

    2003-01-01

    We search for nearby, isolated, accreting, ``stellar-mass'' (3 to $100M_\\odot$) black holes. Models suggest a synchrotron spectrum in visible wavelengths and some emission in X-ray wavelengths. Of 3.7 million objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Early Data Release, about 150,000 have colors and properties consistent with such a spectrum, and 47 of these objects are X-ray sources from the ROSAT All Sky Survey. Optical spectra exclude seven of these. We give the positions and colors of these 40 black-hole candidates, as well as a measure of their distances from the stellar loci in color--color space. We discuss uncertainties the expected number of sources, and the contribution of black holes to local dark matter.

  9. Electrical conductivity of short carbon fibers and carbon black-reinforced chloroprene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshniat, A. R.; MirAli, M.; Hemmati, M.; Afshar Taromi, F.; Katbab, A.

    2002-01-01

    Elastomers and plastics are intrinsically insulating materials, but by addition of some conductive particles such as conductive carbon black, carbon fibers and metals, they can change to conductive form. Conductivity of these composites are due to formation of the lattices of conductive filler particles in polymer chains. In this report, conductivity of chloroprene rubber filled with carbon black and carbon fibers as a function of temperature and pressure are studied. Electrical conductivity of chloroprene in a function of temperature and pressure are studied. Electrical conductivity of chloroprene in the presence of carbon black with proper mixing conditions increases to the conductivity level of semiconductors and even in the presence of carbon fibers it increases to the level of a conductor material. Meanwhile, the sensitivity of this compound to heat and pressure rises. Thus these composites have found various applications in the manufacture of heat and pressure sensitive sensors

  10. Synthesis and luminescence of nanodiamonds from carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shengliang; Tian Fei; Bai Peikang; Cao Shirui; Sun Jing; Yang Jing

    2009-01-01

    Dispersed nanodiamonds just several nanometers in diameter have been successfully synthesized using carbon black as the carbon source by a long-pulse-width laser irradiation in water at room temperature and normal pressure. The produced nanodiamonds can emit strong visible light after simple surface passivation. The light emission is attributed to the surface states related to linkage groups formed on nanodiamond surface. The surface-passivated nanodiamonds with stable photoluminescence have high potential application in bioimaging and medicine

  11. Morphology and Optical Properties of Black-Carbon Particles Relevant to Engine Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, H. A.; Bambha, R.; Dansson, M. A.; Schrader, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Black-carbon particles are believed to have a large influence on climate through direct radiative forcing, reduction of surface albedo of snow and ice in the cryosphere, and interaction with clouds. The optical properties and morphology of atmospheric particles containing black carbon are uncertain, and characterization of black carbon resulting from engines emissions is needed. Refractory black-carbon particles found in the atmosphere are often coated with unburned fuel, sulfuric acid, water, ash, and other combustion by-products and atmospheric constituents. Coatings can alter the optical and physical properties of the particles and therefore change their optical properties and cloud interactions. Details of particle morphology and coating state can also have important effects on the interpretation of optical diagnostics. A more complete understanding of how coatings affect extinction, absorption, and incandescence measurements is needed before these techniques can be applied reliably to a wide range of particles. We have investigated the effects of coatings on the optical and physical properties of combustion-generated black-carbon particles using a range of standard particle diagnostics, extinction, and time-resolved laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements. Particles were generated in a co-flow diffusion flame, extracted, cooled, and coated with oleic acid. The diffusion flame produces highly dendritic soot aggregates with similar properties to those produced in diesel engines, diffusion flames, and most natural combustion processes. A thermodenuder was used to remove the coating. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to monitor aggregate sizes; a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) was used to measure coating mass fractions, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize particle morphologies. The results demonstrate important differences in optical measurements between coated and uncoated particles.

  12. Black Ink of Activated Carbon Derived From Palm Kernel Cake (PKC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, M. H.; Ahmad, A. H.

    2009-06-01

    Recycling the waste from natural plant to produce useful end products will benefit many industries and help preserve the environment. The research reported in this paper is an investigation on the use of the natural waste of palm kernel cake (PKC) to produce carbon residue as a black carbon for pigment source by using pyrolysis process. The activated carbons (AC) is produced in powder form using ball milling process. Rheological spectra in ink is one of quality control process in determining its performance properties. Findings from this study will help expand the scientific knowledge-base for black ink production and formulation base on PKC. Various inks with different weight percentage compositions of AC will be made and tested against its respective rheological properties in order to determine ideal ink printing system. The items in the formulation used comprised of organic and bio-waste materials with added additive to improve the quality of the black ink. Modified Polyurethane was used as binder. The binder's properties highlighted an ideal vehicle to be applied for good black ink opacity performance. The rheological behaviour is a general foundation for ink characterization where the wt% of AC-PKC resulted in different pseudoplastic behaviors, including the Newtonian behavior. The result found that Newtonian field was located in between 2 wt% and 10 wt% of AC-PKC composition with binder. Mass spectroscopy results shown that the carbon content in PKC is high and very suitable for black performance. In the ageing test, the pigment of PKC perform fairly according to the standard pigment of Black carbon (CB) of ferum oxide pigment. The contact angle for substrate's wettability of the ink system shown a good angle proven to be a water resistive coating on paper subtrates; an advantage of the PKC ink pigment performance.

  13. Potential impacts of black carbon on the marine microbial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malits, A.; Cattaneo, R.; Sintes, E.; Gasol, J.M.; Herndl, G.J.; Weinbauer, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the carbonaceous residue of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass and encompasses a range of chemically heterogeneous substances from partly charred plant material to highly condensed soot aerosols. We addressed the potential role of BC aerosol deposition on

  14. Highly Loaded Carbon Black Supported Pt Catalysts for Fuel Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaluža, Luděk; Larsen, M.J.; Zdražil, Miroslav; Gulková, Daniela; Vít, Zdeněk; Šolcová, Olga; Soukup, Karel; Koštejn, Martin; Bonde, J.L.; Maixnerová, Lucie; Odgaard, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 256, NOV 1 (2015), s. 375-383 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7HX13003 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 303466 - IMMEDIATE Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbon black * fuell cell * electrocatalyst Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry , Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.312, year: 2015

  15. Snow darkening caused by black carbon emitted from fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Jessica; Kloster, Silvia; Bourgeois, Quentin

    2014-05-01

    We implemented the effect of snow darkening caused by black carbon (BC) emitted from forest fires into the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-M ESM) to estimate its potential climate impact of present day fire occurrence. Considerable amounts of black carbon emitted from fires are transported into snow covered regions. Already very small quantities of black carbon reduce the snow reflectance, with consequences for snow melting and snow spatial coverage. Therefore, the SNICAR (SNow And Ice Radiation) model (Flanner and Zender (2005)) is implemented in the land surface component (JSBACH) of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM6, developed at the MPI-M. The SNICAR model includes amongst other processes a complex calculation of the snow albedo depending on black carbon in snow and snow grain growth depending on water vapor fluxes for a five layer snow scheme. For the implementation of the SNICAR model into the one layer scheme of ECHAM6-JSBACH, we used the SNICAR-online version (http://snow.engin.umich.edu). This single-layer simulator provides the albedo of snow for selectable combinations of impurity content (e.g. black carbon), snow grain size, and incident solar flux characteristics. From this scheme we derived snow albedo values for black carbon in snow concentrations ranging between 0 and 1500 ng(BC)/g(snow) and for different snow grain sizes for the visible (0.3 - 0.7 µm) and near infrared range (0.7 - 1.5 µm). As snow grains grow over time, we assign different snow ages to different snow grain sizes (50, 150, 500, and 1000 µm). Here, a radius of 50 µm corresponds to new snow, whereas a radius of 1000 µm corresponds to old snow. The required snow age is taken from the BATS (Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Dickinson et al. (1986)) snow albedo implementation in ECHAM6-JSBACH. Here, we will present an extended evaluation of the model including a comparison of modeled black carbon in snow concentrations to observed

  16. Lung clearance of inhaled particles after exposure to carbon black generated from a resuspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.S.; Gorski, R.A.; Hering, W.E.; Chan, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    A system to resuspend carbon black particles for providing submicron aerosols for inhalation exposure studies has been developed. The effect of continuous exposure to carbonaceous material (as a surrogate for the carbonaceous particles in diesel exhaust) on the pulmonary clearance of inhaled diesel tracer particles was studied in male Fischer 344 rats. Submicron carbon black particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 0.22 micron and a size distribution similar to that of exhaust particles from a GM 5.7-liter diesel engine were successfully generated and administered to test animals at a nominal concentration of 6 mg/m3 for 20 hr/day, 7 days/week, for periods lasting 1 to 11 weeks. Immediately after the carbon black exposure, test animals were administered 14 C-tagged diesel particles for 45 min in a nose-only chamber. The pulmonary retention of inhaled radioactive tracer particles was determined at preselected time intervals. Based upon the data collected up to 1 year postexposure, prolonged exposure to carbon black particles exhibits a similar inhibitory effect on pulmonary clearance as does prolonged exposure to diesel exhaust with a comparable particulate dose. This observation indicates that the excessive accumulation of carbonaceous material may be the predominant factor affecting lung clearance

  17. Rethinking the distinction between black and brown carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, G. A.; Franchin, A.; Lamb, K. D.; Manfred, K.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Schwarz, J. P.; Wagner, N.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Womack, C.; Murphy, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol radiative properties contribute large uncertainty to modeling of the earth's radiative budget. Black carbon (BC) aerosols originate from combustion processes and substantially contribute to warming and uncertainty - ongoing efforts are focused on reducing their anthropogenic emissions even as their emissions from biomass burning sources, such as wildfire, may increase in the future. Quantifying the radiative effect of BC is challenging, in part due to its association with other light absorbing materials including Brown carbon organic aerosol (BrC) that absorbs primarily blue and ultraviolet light while BC absorbs broadly across the visible. Conventionally BrC is thought of a low volatility spherical particles, distinguishing it from BC, which has a distinctive agglomerate morphology and is refractory at high temperatures. However, the separation of BC and BrC is often operationally defined and dependent on the measurement method. Using measurements of aerosol morphology, mass, absorption, and refractory BC mass content we were able to identify a light absorbing contribution from biomass burning aerosol that does not correspond to either BC or BrC as conventionally defined. Our measurements were collected from realistic biomass burning fires at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory as part of the NOAA FIREX project (2016) and from extensive natural wildfire sampled aloft during NASA SEAC4RS field study (2013). We coin the term Dark Brown Carbon (DBrC) to describe this material, which absorbs broadly across the visible and survives thermal denuding at 250°C but does not incandesce in laser induced incandesce (LII) measurements. DBrC may be an intermediate burning stage product between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the mature soot. DBrC deserves further study to quantify its abundance and aging in ambient biomass burning plumes, and its relationship to tar balls. Our findings show that more than half of the light absorption in biomass burning

  18. Bird specimens track 135 years of atmospheric black carbon and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, Shane G.; Fuldner, Carl C.

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric black carbon has long been recognized as a public health and environmental concern. More recently, black carbon has been identified as a major, ongoing contributor to anthropogenic climate change, thus making historical emission inventories of black carbon an essential tool for assessing past climate sensitivity and modeling future climate scenarios. Current estimates of black carbon emissions for the early industrial era have high uncertainty, however, because direct environmental sampling is sparse before the mid-1950s. Using photometric reflectance data of >1,300 bird specimens drawn from natural history collections, we track relative ambient concentrations of atmospheric black carbon between 1880 and 2015 within the US Manufacturing Belt, a region historically reliant on coal and dense with industry. Our data show that black carbon levels within the region peaked during the first decade of the 20th century. Following this peak, black carbon levels were positively correlated with coal consumption through midcentury, after which they decoupled, with black carbon concentrations declining as consumption continued to rise. The precipitous drop in atmospheric black carbon at midcentury reflects policies promoting burning efficiency and fuel transitions rather than regulating emissions alone. Our findings suggest that current emission inventories based on predictive modeling underestimate levels of atmospheric black carbon for the early industrial era, suggesting that the contribution of black carbon to past climate forcing may also be underestimated. These findings build toward a spatially dynamic emission inventory of black carbon based on direct environmental sampling.

  19. Precise mass detector based on carbon nanooscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukashenko, S., E-mail: lukashenko13@mail.ru; Golubok, A. [Department of Nanotechnology and Material Science, ITMO University, Kronverskiy av. 49, 192000, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute for Analytical Instrumentation of RAS, Rizhsky pr 26, St. Petersburg, 190103 (Russian Federation); Komissarenko, F. [Department of Nanotechnology and Material Science, ITMO University, Kronverskiy av. 49, 192000, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Academic University, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Khlopina 8/3, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mukhin, I. [Academic University, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Khlopina 8/3, 194021, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sapozhnikov, I. [Institute for Analytical Instrumentation of RAS, Rizhsky pr 26, St. Petersburg, 190103 (Russian Federation); Veniaminov, A. [Centre for Information Optical Technologies, ITMO University, Birzhevaya ln. 14-16, 199034, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lysak, V. [Department of Nanotechnology and Material Science, ITMO University, Kronverskiy av. 49, 192000, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    Precise mass detectors based on an amorphous carbon nanowires, which localized on the top of a tungsten tip were fabricated and investigated. The nanowires were grown in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber using focused electron beam technique. The movement trajectories and amplitude-frequency characteristics of the carbon nanowire oscillators were visualized at low and ambient pressure using SEM and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), respectevely. The SiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} nanospheres were clamped on the top of the carbon nanowires. The manipulations of nanospheres were provided by means of dielectrophoretic force in SEM. The sensitivity of the mass detector based on the carbon nanowire oscillator was estimated.

  20. LISA extreme-mass-ratio inspiral events as probes of the black hole mass function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gair, Jonathan R.; Tang, Christopher; Volonteri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    One of the sources of gravitational waves for the proposed space-based gravitational wave detector, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), are the inspirals of compact objects into supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies--extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs). Using LISA observations, we will be able to measure the parameters of each EMRI system detected to very high precision. However, the statistics of the set of EMRI events observed by LISA will be more important in constraining astrophysical models than extremely precise measurements for individual systems. The black holes to which LISA is most sensitive are in a mass range that is difficult to probe using other techniques, so LISA provides an almost unique window onto these objects. In this paper we explore, using Bayesian techniques, the constraints that LISA EMRI observations can place on the mass function of black holes at low redshift. We describe a general framework for approaching inference of this type--using multiple observations in combination to constrain a parametrized source population. Assuming that the scaling of the EMRI rate with the black-hole mass is known and taking a black-hole distribution given by a simple power law, dn/dlnM=A 0 (M/M * ) α 0 , we find that LISA could measure the parameters to a precision of Δ(lnA 0 )∼0.08, and Δ(α 0 )∼0.03 for a reference model that predicts ∼1000 events. Even with as few as 10 events, LISA should constrain the slope to a precision ∼0.3, which is the current level of observational uncertainty in the low-mass slope of the black-hole mass function. We also consider a model in which A 0 and α 0 evolve with redshift, but find that EMRI observations alone do not have much power to probe such an evolution.

  1. Extreme mass ratio inspiral rates: dependence on the massive black hole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopman, Clovis

    2009-01-01

    We study the rate at which stars spiral into a massive black hole (MBH) due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs), as a function of the mass M . of the MBH. In the context of our model, it is shown analytically that the rate approximately depends on the MBH mass as M -1/4 . . Numerical simulations confirm this result, and show that for all MBH masses, the event rate is highest for stellar black holes, followed by white dwarfs, and lowest for neutron stars. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to see hundreds of these extreme mass ratio inspirals per year. Since the event rate derived here formally diverges as M . → 0, the model presented here cannot hold for MBHs of masses that are too low, and we discuss what the limitations of the model are.

  2. Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Davidovits, P. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Lewis, E. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Onasch, T. B. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Interpreting the temporal relationship between the scattering and incandescence signals recorded by the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), Sedlacek et al. (2012) reported that 60% of the refractory black carbon containing particles in a plume containing biomass burning tracers exhibited non-core-shell structure. Because the relationship between the rBC (refractory black carbon) incandescence and the scattering signals had not been reported in the peer-reviewed literature, and to further evaluate the initial interpretation by Sedlacek et al., a series of experiments was undertaken to investigate black carbon-containing particles of known morphology using Regal black (RB), a proxy for collapsed soot, as the light-absorbing substance to characterize this signal relationship. Particles were formed by coagulation of RB with either a solid substance (sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate) or a liquid substance (dioctyl sebacate), and by condensation with dioctyl sebacate, the latter experiment forming particles in a core-shell configuration. Each particle type experienced fragmentation (observed as negative lagtimes), and each yielded similar lagtime responses in some instances, confounding attempts to differentiate particle morphology using current SP2 lagtime analysis. SP2 operating conditions, specifically laser power and sample flow rate, which in turn affect the particle heating and dissipation rates, play an important role in the behavior of particles in the SP2, including probability of fragmentation. This behavior also depended on the morphology of the particles and on the thermochemical properties of the non-RB substance. Although these influences cannot currently be unambiguously separated, the SP2 analysis may still provide useful information on particle mixing states and black carbon particle sources. This work was communicated in a 2015 publication (Sedlacek et al. 2015)

  3. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  4. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  5. Carbon-cluster mass calibration at SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Ankur

    2007-12-10

    A carbon-cluster ion source has been installed and tested at SHIPTRAP, the Penning-trap mass spectrometer for mass measurements of heavy elements at GSI/Darmstadt, Germany. A precision mass determination is carried out by measuring the ion cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub c}=qB=m, where q/m is the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion and B is the magnetic field. The mass of the ion of interest is obtained from the comparison of its cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub c} with that of a well-known reference ion. Carbon clusters are the mass reference of choice since the unified atomic mass unit is defined as 1/12 of the mass of the {sup 12}C atom. Thus the masses of carbon clusters {sup 12}C{sub n}, n=1,2,3,.. are multiples of the unified atomic mass unit. Carbon-cluster ions {sup 12}C{sub n}{sup +}, 5{<=}n{<=}23, were produced by laser-induced desorption and ionization from a carbon sample. Carbon clusters of various sizes ({sup 12}C{sub 7}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 9}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 10}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 11}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 12}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 15}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 18}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 19}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 20}{sup +}) were used for an investigation of the accuracy of SHIPTRAP covering a mass range from 84 u to 240 u. To this end the clusters were used both as ions of interest and reference ions. Hence the true values of the frequency ratios are exactly known. The mass-dependent uncertainty was found to be negligible for the case of (m-m{sub ref})<100 u. However, a systematic uncertainty of 4.5 x 10{sup -8} was revealed. In addition, carbon clusters were employed for the first time as reference ions in an on-line studies of short-lived nuclei. Absolute mass measurements of the radionuclides {sup 144}Dy, {sup 146}Dy and {sup 147}Ho were performed using {sup 12}C{sub 11}{sup +} as reference ion. The results agree with measurements during the same run using {sup 85}Rb{sup +} as reference ion. The investigated radionuclides were produced in the

  6. Radio Detections During Two State Transitions of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole HLX-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (approx. 3 to 20 solar masses) as well as supermassive black holes (approx.. 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (approx. 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) Solar Mass), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between approx. 9 × 10(exp 3) Solar Mass and approx. 9 × 10(exp 4) Solar Mass.

  7. Searching for intermediate-mass black holes via optical variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Levine, Ryan; Moran, Edward C.; Kay, Laura

    2018-01-01

    A handful of nearby dwarf galaxies with intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in their nuclei display significant optical variability on short timescales. To investigate whether dwarf galaxy AGNs as a class exhibit similar variability, we have monitored a sample of low-mass galaxies that possess spectroscopically confirmed type 1 AGNs. However, because of the variations in seeing, focus, and guiding errors that occur in images taken at different epochs, analyses based on aperture photometry are ineffective. We have thus developed a new method for matching point-spread functions in images that permits use of image subtraction photometry techniques. Applying this method to our photometric data, we have confirmed that several galaxies with IMBHs are indeed variable, which suggests that variability can be used to search for IMBHs in low-mass galaxies whose emission-line properties are ambiguous.

  8. THE BLACK HOLE MASS, STELLAR MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIO, AND DARK HALO IN M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, Karl; Thomas, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We model the dynamical structure of M87 (NGC4486) using high spatial resolution long-slit observations of stellar light in the central regions, two-dimensional stellar light kinematics out to half of the effective radius, and globular cluster velocities out to eight effective radii. We simultaneously fit for four parameters: black hole mass, dark halo core radius, dark halo circular velocity, and stellar mass-to-light (M/L) ratio. We find a black hole mass of 6.4(±0.5) x 10 9 M sun (the uncertainty is 68% confidence marginalized over the other parameters). The stellar M/L V = 6.3 ± 0.8. The best-fit dark halo core radius is 14 ± 2 kpc, assuming a cored logarithmic potential. The best-fit dark halo circular velocity is 715 ± 15 km s -1 . Our black hole mass is over a factor of 2 larger than previous stellar dynamical measures, and our derived stellar M/L ratio is two times lower than previous dynamical measures. When we do not include a dark halo, we measure a black hole mass and stellar M/L ratio that is consistent with previous measures, implying that the major difference is in the model assumptions. The stellar M/L ratio from our models is very similar to that derived from stellar population models of M87. The reason for the difference in the black hole mass is because we allow the M/L ratio to change with radius. The dark halo is degenerate with the stellar M/L ratio, which is subsequently degenerate with the black hole mass. We argue that dynamical models of galaxies that do not include the contribution from a dark halo may produce a biased result for the black hole mass. This bias is especially large for a galaxy with a shallow light profile such as M87, and may not be as severe in galaxies with steeper light profiles unless they have a large stellar population change with radius.

  9. Coatings of black carbon in Tijuana, Mexico, during the CalMex Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, S.; Russell, L. M.; Duran, R.; Subramanian, R.; Kok, G.

    2010-12-01

    Black carbon number and mass concentrations were measured by a single-particle soot photometer (SP2; by Droplet Measurement Technologies) in Tijuana, Mexico between May 15, 2010, and June 30, 2010, for the CalMex campaign. The measurement site, Parque Morelos, is a recreational area located in the Southeast region of Tijuana. The SP2 was equipped with 8-channels of signal detection that spans a wider range of sensitivity for incandescing and scattering measurements than traditional configurations. The campaign-average number concentration of incandescing particles was 280 #/cc, peaking during traffic activity in the mornings. Incandescing particles made up 50% of all particles (incandescing and purely scattering) detected by the SP2. The mode of the number size distribution estimated for black carbon, according to estimated mass-equivalent diameters, was approximately 100 nm or smaller. Temporal variations in estimated coating thicknesses for these black carbon particles are discussed together with co-located measurements of organic aerosol and inorganic salts.

  10. Dynamical Black Hole Masses of BL Lac Objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Trager, Scott C.; Anderson, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    We measure black hole masses for 71 BL Lac objects from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with redshifts out to z ∼ 0.4. We perform spectral decompositions of their nuclei from their host galaxies and measure their stellar velocity dispersions. Black hole masses are then derived from the black

  11. Potential climate impact of black carbon emitted by rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Martin; Mills, Michael; Toohey, Darin

    2010-12-01

    A new type of hydrocarbon rocket engine is expected to power a fleet of suborbital rockets for commercial and scientific purposes in coming decades. A global climate model predicts that emissions from a fleet of 1000 launches per year of suborbital rockets would create a persistent layer of black carbon particles in the northern stratosphere that could cause potentially significant changes in the global atmospheric circulation and distributions of ozone and temperature. Tropical stratospheric ozone abundances are predicted to change as much as 1%, while polar ozone changes by up to 6%. Polar surface temperatures change as much as one degree K regionally with significant impacts on polar sea ice fractions. After one decade of continuous launches, globally averaged radiative forcing from the black carbon would exceed the forcing from the emitted CO2 by a factor of about 105 and would be comparable to the radiative forcing estimated from current subsonic aviation.

  12. Electromagnetic properties of carbon black and barium titanate composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guiqin; Chen Xiaodong; Duan Yuping; Liu Shunhua

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline carbon black/barium titanate compound particle (CP) was synthesized by sol-gel method. The phase structure and morphology of compound particle were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectrum measurements, the electroconductivity was test by trielectrode arrangement and the precursor powder was followed by differential scanning calorimetric measurements (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the complex relative permittivity and permeability of compound particle were investigated by reflection method. The compound particle/epoxide resin composite (CP/EP) with different contents of CP were measured. The results show barium titanate crystal is tetragonal phase and its grain is oval shape with 80-100 nm which was coated by carbon black film. As electromagnetic (EM) complex permittivity, permeability and reflection loss (RL) shown that the compound particle is mainly a kind of electric and dielectric lossy materials and exhibits excellent microwave absorption performance in the X- and Ku-bands

  13. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Tate [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) Study was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Barrow, AK. The carbonaceous component was characterized via measurement of the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the particulate matter, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) particulate matter fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the BBCSI used standard Tisch hi-vol motors which have a known lifetime of ~1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance and it is suggested that the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers for future deployment in the Arctic. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric particulate matter samples from Barrow, AK from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the organic and black carbon concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer.

  14. Contribution of Black Carbon Aerosol to Drying of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Samset, B. H.; Boucher, O.; Forster, P.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Sillmann, J.; Voulgarakis, A.; Andrews, T.; Faluvegi, G.; Fläschner, D.; Iverson, T.; Kasoar, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Olivié, D.; Richardson, T.; Stjern, C.; Takemura, T.; Zwiers, F. W.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect cloud properties, radiative balance and thus, the hydrological cycle. Many studies have reported that precipitation has decreased in the Mediterranean since the mid-20th century, and investigated possible mechanisms. So far, however, the effects of aerosol forcing on Mediterranean precipitation remain largely unknown. Here we compare observed Mediterranean precipitation trends during 1951-2010 with responses to individual forcing in a set of state-of-the-art global climate models. Our analyses suggest that nearly one-third (30%) of the observed precipitation decrease may be attributable to black carbon forcing. The remainder is most strongly linked to forcing of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs), with scattering sulfate aerosols having negligible impacts. Black carbon caused an enhanced positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO)-like sea level pressure (SLP) pattern, characterized by higher SLP at mid-latitudes and lower SLP at high-latitudes. This SLP change diverted the jet stream and storm tracks further northward, reducing precipitation in the Mediterranean while increasing precipitation in Northern Europe. The results from this study suggest that future black carbon emissions may significantly affect regional water resources, agricultural practices, ecosystems, and economy in the Mediterranean region.

  15. Personal exposure to Black Carbon in transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, Evi; Int Panis, Luc; Van Poppel, Martine; Theunis, Jan; Wets, Geert

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated personal exposure of 62 individuals to the air pollutant Black Carbon, using 13 portable aethalometers while keeping detailed records of their time-activity pattern and whereabouts. Concentrations encountered in transport are studied in depth and related to trip motives. The evaluation comprises more than 1500 trips with different transport modes. Measurements were spread over two seasons. Results show that 6% of the time is spent in transport, but it accounts for 21% of personal exposure to Black Carbon and approximately 30% of inhaled dose. Concentrations in transport were 2-5 times higher compared to concentrations encountered at home. Exposure was highest for car drivers, and car and bus passengers. Concentrations of Black Carbon were only half as much when traveling by bike or on foot; when incorporating breathing rates, dose was found to be twice as high for active modes. Lowest 'in transport' concentrations were measured in trains, but nevertheless these concentrations are double the concentrations measured at home. Two thirds of the trips are car trips, and those trips showed a large spread in concentrations. In-car concentrations are higher during peak hours compared to off-peak, and are elevated on weekdays compared to Saturdays and even more so on Sundays. These findings result in significantly higher exposure during car commute trips (motive 'Work'), and lower concentrations for trips with motive 'Social and leisure'. Because of the many factors influencing exposure in transport, travel time is not a good predictor of integrated personal exposure or inhaled dose.

  16. Relation between PAH and black carbon contents in size fractions of Norwegian harbor sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, Amy M.P.; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D.

    2006-01-01

    Distributions of total organic carbon (TOC), black carbon (BC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated in different particle size fractions for four Norwegian harbor sediments. The total PAH (16-EPA) concentrations ranged from 2 to 113 mg/kg dry weight with the greatest fraction of PAH mass in the sand fraction for three of the four sediments. TOC contents ranged from 0.84% to 14.2% and BC contents from 0.085% to 1.7%. This corresponds to organic carbon (OC = TOC - BC) contents in the range of 0.81-14% and BC:TOC ratios of 1.3-18.1%. PAH isomer ratios suggested that the PAH in all four sediments were of pyrogenic origin. Furthermore, stronger correlations between PAH versus BC (r 2 = 0.85) than versus OC (r 2 = 0.15) were found. For all size fractions and bulk sediments, the PAH-to-BC ratios for the total PAHs were on average 6 ± 3 mg PAH/g BC. These results suggest that PAH distributions were dominated by the presence of BC, rather than OC. As sorption to BC is much stronger than sorption to OC, this may result in significantly lower dissolved concentrations of PAH than expected on the basis of organic carbon partitioning alone. - PAH contents correlated better with black carbon than organic carbon for four Norwegian harbor sediments

  17. Establishing a relation between the mass and the spin of stellar-mass black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-08-09

    Stellar mass black holes (SMBHs), forming by the core collapse of very massive, rapidly rotating stars, are expected to exhibit a high density accretion disk around them developed from the spinning mantle of the collapsing star. A wide class of such disks, due to their high density and temperature, are effective emitters of neutrinos and hence called neutrino cooled disks. Tracking the physics relating the observed (neutrino) luminosity to the mass, spin of black holes (BHs) and the accretion rate (M) of such disks, here we establish a correlation between the spin and mass of SMBHs at their formation stage. Our work shows that spinning BHs are more massive than nonspinning BHs for a given M. However, slowly spinning BHs can turn out to be more massive than spinning BHs if M at their formation stage was higher compared to faster spinning BHs.

  18. Running-mass inflation model and primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drees, Manuel; Erfani, Encieh

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the question whether the running-mass inflation model allows the formation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) that are sufficiently long-lived to serve as candidates for Dark Matter. We incorporate recent cosmological data, including the WMAP 7-year results. Moreover, we include ''the running of the running'' of the spectral index of the power spectrum, as well as the renormalization group ''running of the running'' of the inflaton mass term. Our analysis indicates that formation of sufficiently heavy, and hence long-lived, PBHs still remains possible in this scenario. As a by-product, we show that the additional term in the inflaton potential still does not allow significant negative running of the spectral index

  19. ADM mass and quasilocal energy of black hole in the deformed Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole, we introduce the isolated horizon to study the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) black hole in the deformed Horava-Lifshitz gravity. This is because the KS black hole is more close to the Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole than the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We find the horizon and ADM masses by using the first law of thermodynamics and the area-law entropy. The mass parameter m is identified with the quasilocal energy at infinity. Accordingly, we discuss the phase transition between the KS and Schwarzschild black holes by considering the heat capacity and free energy.

  20. Electromagnetic Signals Following Stellar-mass Black Hole Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mink, S. E. de; King, A., E-mail: S.E.deMink@uva.nl, E-mail: ark@leicester.ac.uk [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-04-10

    It is often assumed that gravitational-wave (GW) events resulting from the merger of stellar-mass black holes are unlikely to produce electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. We point out that the progenitor binary has probably shed a mass ≳10 M {sub ⊙} during its prior evolution. If even a tiny fraction of this gas is retained in a circumbinary disk, the sudden mass loss and recoil of the merged black hole shocks and heats it within hours of the GW event. Whether the resulting EM signal is detectable is uncertain. The optical depth through the disk is likely to be high enough that the prompt emission consists only of photons from its optically thin skin, while the majority may take years to emerge. However, if some mechanism can release more photons in a time comparable to the few-hour energy production time, the peak luminosity of the EM signal could be detectable. For a disk retaining only ∼10{sup −3} of the mass shed in the earlier binary evolution, medium-energy X-rays to infrared emission would be observable hours after the GW event for source distances of ∼500 Mpc. Events like this may already have been observed, but ascribed to unidentified active galactic nuclei. Improved sky localization should eventually allow identification based on spatial coincidence. A detection would provide unique constraints on formation scenarios and potentially offer tests of strong-field general relativity. Accordingly, we argue that the high scientific payoff of an EM detection fully justifies search campaigns.

  1. Influence of carbon black distribution on performance of oxide cathodes for Li ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominko, Robert; Gaberscek, Miran; Drofenik, Jernej; Bele, Marjan; Jamnik, Janez

    2003-01-01

    The influence of carbon black content and carbon black distribution on performance of oxide-based cathodes, such as LiCoO 2 and LiMn 2 O 4 , is investigated. The electronic conductivity of oxide material/carbon black composites is compared with electrochemical characteristics of the same composites. Uniformity of carbon black distribution in cathode composites is achieved using novel coating technology in cathode preparation. In this technology, the active particles are first pretreated in a gelatin solution. The adsorbed gelatin then controls the deposition of carbon black so that carbon black particles are uniformly distributed in the final composite. The influence of various parameters, such as pH of gelatin, amount of gelatin and concentration of carbon black on the uniformity of carbon black distribution is investigated. It is shown that the conventional technology of cathode preparation yields quite non-uniform distribution of carbon black in cathode material. At the end, we demonstrate that uniformity of carbon black distribution has a crucial impact on reversible capacity, especially at high current densities

  2. Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Xia, Xue; Ivanov, Ivan; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is a useful and environmentally sustainable catalyst for oxygen reduction in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but there is great interest in improving its performance and longevity. To enhance the performance of AC cathodes, carbon black (CB) was added into AC at CB:AC ratios of 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15 wt % to increase electrical conductivity and facilitate electron transfer. AC cathodes were then evaluated in both MFCs and electrochemical cells and compared to reactors with cathodes made with Pt. Maximum power densities of MFCs were increased by 9-16% with CB compared to the plain AC in the first week. The optimal CB:AC ratio was 10% based on both MFC polarization tests and three electrode electrochemical tests. The maximum power density of the 10% CB cathode was initially 1560 ± 40 mW/m2 and decreased by only 7% after 5 months of operation compared to a 61% decrease for the control (Pt catalyst, 570 ± 30 mW/m2 after 5 months). The catalytic activities of Pt and AC (plain or with 10% CB) were further examined in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests that minimized mass transfer limitations. The RDE tests showed that the limiting current of the AC with 10% CB was improved by up to 21% primarily due to a decrease in charge transfer resistance (25%). These results show that blending CB in AC is a simple and effective strategy to enhance AC cathode performance in MFCs and that further improvement in performance could be obtained by reducing mass transfer limitations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  3. Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-02-04

    Activated carbon (AC) is a useful and environmentally sustainable catalyst for oxygen reduction in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but there is great interest in improving its performance and longevity. To enhance the performance of AC cathodes, carbon black (CB) was added into AC at CB:AC ratios of 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15 wt % to increase electrical conductivity and facilitate electron transfer. AC cathodes were then evaluated in both MFCs and electrochemical cells and compared to reactors with cathodes made with Pt. Maximum power densities of MFCs were increased by 9-16% with CB compared to the plain AC in the first week. The optimal CB:AC ratio was 10% based on both MFC polarization tests and three electrode electrochemical tests. The maximum power density of the 10% CB cathode was initially 1560 ± 40 mW/m2 and decreased by only 7% after 5 months of operation compared to a 61% decrease for the control (Pt catalyst, 570 ± 30 mW/m2 after 5 months). The catalytic activities of Pt and AC (plain or with 10% CB) were further examined in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests that minimized mass transfer limitations. The RDE tests showed that the limiting current of the AC with 10% CB was improved by up to 21% primarily due to a decrease in charge transfer resistance (25%). These results show that blending CB in AC is a simple and effective strategy to enhance AC cathode performance in MFCs and that further improvement in performance could be obtained by reducing mass transfer limitations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  4. Cellphones as a Distributed Platform for Black Carbon Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, N.; Ramana, M.; Lukac, M. L.; Siva, P.; Ahmed, T.; Kar, A.; Rehman, I.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), the visible component of soot that gives emissions such as diesel engine exhaust their dark color, has come to be recognized as a major contributor to global warming, and a frontline concern for climate change strategies (Ramanathan 2001, Jacobson 2010). We have developed a new low-cost instrument for gathering and measuring atmospheric BC concentrations that leverages cellphones to transmit data from an air filtration unit to a centralized database for analysis. Our new system relies on image processing techniques, as opposed to other more expensive optical methods, to interpret images of filters captured with a cellphone camera. As a result, the entire system costs less than $500 (and is orders of magnitude cheaper than an Aethalometer, the prevailing method for measuring atmospheric BC). We are working with three community groups in Los Angeles, and will recruit three groups in the San Francisco Bay Area, to enable 40 citizens to be actively engaged in monitoring BC across California. We are working with The Energy Resources Institute, an international NGO based in India, to deploy this instrument with 60 people in conjunction with Project Surya, which aims to deploy clean cookstoves and rigorously evaluate their impact on BC emissions. Field tests of this new instrument performed in California report an average error of 0.28 µg/m3 when compared with an Aethelometer. These excellent results hold the promise of making large-scale data collection of BC feasible and relatively easy to reproduce (Ramanathan et al., forthcoming). The use of cellphones for data collection permits monitoring of BC to occur on a greater, more comprehensive scale not previously possible, and serves as a means of instituting more precise, variation-sensitive evaluations of emissions. By storing the data in a publicly available repository, our system will provide real-time access to mass-scale BC measurements to researchers and the public. Through our pilot

  5. Toxicity assessment of carbon black waste: A by-product from oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Xu; Ng, Wei Cheng; Fendy; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Neoh, Koon Gee; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon black waste extract decreased cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner. • Apoptosis of human cell lines was induced by carbon black waste extract. • Carbon black waste extract elicited oxidative stress by increasing intracellular ROS generation. • Carbon black waste extract impaired antioxidant enzymatic activities of human cell lines. • The high toxicity of carbon black waste extract could be attributed mainly to the effect of vanadium. - Abstract: In Singapore, approximately 30 t/day of carbon-based solid waste are produced from petrochemical processes. This carbon black waste has been shown to possess physical properties that are characteristic of a good adsorbent such as high external surface area. Therefore, there is a growing interest to reutilize and process this carbon black waste into secondary materials such as adsorbents. However, the carbon black waste obtained from petrochemical industries may contain heavy metals that are hazardous to human health and the environment, hence restricting its full potential for re-utilization. Therefore, it is important to examine the possible toxicity effects and toxicity mechanism of carbon black waste on human health. In this study, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis showed that the heavy metals, vanadium (V), molybdenum (Mo) and nickel (Ni), were present in the carbon black waste in high concentrations. Three human cell lines (HepG2 cells, MRC-5 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells) were used to investigate the toxicity of carbon black waste extract in a variety of in vitro assays. Results from MTS assays indicated that carbon black waste extract decreased the viability of all three cell lines in a dose and time-dependent manner. Observations from confocal microscopy further confirmed this phenomenon. Flow cytometry assay also showed that carbon black waste extract induced apoptosis of human cell lines, and the level of apoptosis increased with

  6. Toxicity assessment of carbon black waste: A by-product from oil refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Xu; Ng, Wei Cheng [NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 1 Create Way, Create Tower #15-02, 138602 (Singapore); Fendy; Tong, Yen Wah [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Dai, Yanjun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Neoh, Koon Gee, E-mail: chenkg@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Wang, Chi-Hwa, E-mail: chewch@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Carbon black waste extract decreased cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner. • Apoptosis of human cell lines was induced by carbon black waste extract. • Carbon black waste extract elicited oxidative stress by increasing intracellular ROS generation. • Carbon black waste extract impaired antioxidant enzymatic activities of human cell lines. • The high toxicity of carbon black waste extract could be attributed mainly to the effect of vanadium. - Abstract: In Singapore, approximately 30 t/day of carbon-based solid waste are produced from petrochemical processes. This carbon black waste has been shown to possess physical properties that are characteristic of a good adsorbent such as high external surface area. Therefore, there is a growing interest to reutilize and process this carbon black waste into secondary materials such as adsorbents. However, the carbon black waste obtained from petrochemical industries may contain heavy metals that are hazardous to human health and the environment, hence restricting its full potential for re-utilization. Therefore, it is important to examine the possible toxicity effects and toxicity mechanism of carbon black waste on human health. In this study, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis showed that the heavy metals, vanadium (V), molybdenum (Mo) and nickel (Ni), were present in the carbon black waste in high concentrations. Three human cell lines (HepG2 cells, MRC-5 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells) were used to investigate the toxicity of carbon black waste extract in a variety of in vitro assays. Results from MTS assays indicated that carbon black waste extract decreased the viability of all three cell lines in a dose and time-dependent manner. Observations from confocal microscopy further confirmed this phenomenon. Flow cytometry assay also showed that carbon black waste extract induced apoptosis of human cell lines, and the level of apoptosis increased with

  7. ON THE MAXIMUM MASS OF STELLAR BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belczynski, Krzysztof; Fryer, Chris L.; Bulik, Tomasz; Ruiter, Ashley; Valsecchi, Francesca; Vink, Jorick S.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2010-01-01

    We present the spectrum of compact object masses: neutron stars and black holes (BHs) that originate from single stars in different environments. In particular, we calculate the dependence of maximum BH mass on metallicity and on some specific wind mass loss rates (e.g., Hurley et al. and Vink et al.). Our calculations show that the highest mass BHs observed in the Galaxy M bh ∼ 15 M sun in the high metallicity environment (Z = Z sun = 0.02) can be explained with stellar models and the wind mass loss rates adopted here. To reach this result we had to set luminous blue variable mass loss rates at the level of ∼10 -4 M sun yr -1 and to employ metallicity-dependent Wolf-Rayet winds. With such winds, calibrated on Galactic BH mass measurements, the maximum BH mass obtained for moderate metallicity (Z = 0.3 Z sun = 0.006) is M bh,max = 30 M sun . This is a rather striking finding as the mass of the most massive known stellar BH is M bh = 23-34 M sun and, in fact, it is located in a small star-forming galaxy with moderate metallicity. We find that in the very low (globular cluster-like) metallicity environment the maximum BH mass can be as high as M bh,max = 80 M sun (Z = 0.01 Z sun = 0.0002). It is interesting to note that X-ray luminosity from Eddington-limited accretion onto an 80 M sun BH is of the order of ∼10 40 erg s -1 and is comparable to luminosities of some known ultra-luminous X-ray sources. We emphasize that our results were obtained for single stars only and that binary interactions may alter these maximum BH masses (e.g., accretion from a close companion). This is strictly a proof-of-principle study which demonstrates that stellar models can naturally explain even the most massive known stellar BHs.

  8. Relative importance of black carbon, brown carbon, and absorption enhancement from clear coatings in biomass burning emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Rudra P.; Beamesderfer, Eric R.; Wagner, Nick L.; Langridge, Justin M.; Lack, Daniel A.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Murphy, Shane M.

    2017-04-01

    A wide range of globally significant biomass fuels were burned during the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4). A multi-channel photoacoustic absorption spectrometer (PAS) measured dry absorption at 405, 532, and 660 nm and thermally denuded (250 °C) absorption at 405 and 660 nm. Absorption coefficients were broken into contributions from black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), and lensing following three different methodologies, with one extreme being a method that assumes the thermal denuder effectively removes organics and the other extreme being a method based on the assumption that black carbon (BC) has an Ångström exponent of unity. The methodologies employed provide ranges of potential importance of BrC to absorption but, on average, there was a difference of a factor of 2 in the ratio of the fraction of absorption attributable to BrC estimated by the two methods. BrC absorption at shorter visible wavelengths is of equal or greater importance to that of BC, with maximum contributions of up to 92 % of total aerosol absorption at 405 nm and up to 58 % of total absorption at 532 nm. Lensing is estimated to contribute a maximum of 30 % of total absorption, but typically contributes much less than this. Absorption enhancements and the estimated fraction of absorption from BrC show good correlation with the elemental-carbon-to-organic-carbon ratio (EC / OC) of emitted aerosols and weaker correlation with the modified combustion efficiency (MCE). Previous studies have shown that BrC grows darker (larger imaginary refractive index) as the ratio of black to organic aerosol (OA) mass increases. This study is consistent with those findings but also demonstrates that the fraction of total absorption attributable to BrC shows the opposite trend: increasing as the organic fraction of aerosol emissions increases and the EC / OC ratio decreases.

  9. LOW-MASS AGNs AND THEIR RELATION TO THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF BLACK HOLE ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gültekin, Kayhan; King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Cackett, Edward M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 West Hancock Street, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Pinkney, Jason, E-mail: kayhan@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio Northern University, 525 S. Main St., Ada, OH 45810 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    We put active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with low-mass black holes on the fundamental plane of black hole accretion—the plane that relates X-ray emission, radio emission, and mass of an accreting black hole—to test whether or not the relation is universal for both stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. We use new Chandra X-ray and Very Large Array radio observations of a sample of black holes with masses less than 10{sup 6.3} M {sub ☉}, which have the best leverage for determining whether supermassive black holes and stellar-mass black holes belong on the same plane. Our results suggest that the two different classes of black holes both belong on the same relation. These results allow us to conclude that the fundamental plane is suitable for use in estimating supermassive black hole masses smaller than ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, in testing for intermediate-mass black holes, and in estimating masses at high accretion rates.

  10. Two stellar-mass black holes in the globular cluster M22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J; Miller-Jones, James C A; Seth, Anil C

    2012-10-04

    Hundreds of stellar-mass black holes probably form in a typical globular star cluster, with all but one predicted to be ejected through dynamical interactions. Some observational support for this idea is provided by the lack of X-ray-emitting binary stars comprising one black hole and one other star ('black-hole/X-ray binaries') in Milky Way globular clusters, even though many neutron-star/X-ray binaries are known. Although a few black holes have been seen in globular clusters around other galaxies, the masses of these cannot be determined, and some may be intermediate-mass black holes that form through exotic mechanisms. Here we report the presence of two flat-spectrum radio sources in the Milky Way globular cluster M22, and we argue that these objects are black holes of stellar mass (each ∼10-20 times more massive than the Sun) that are accreting matter. We find a high ratio of radio-to-X-ray flux for these black holes, consistent with the larger predicted masses of black holes in globular clusters compared to those outside. The identification of two black holes in one cluster shows that ejection of black holes is not as efficient as predicted by most models, and we argue that M22 may contain a total population of ∼5-100 black holes. The large core radius of M22 could arise from heating produced by the black holes.

  11. Roles of black carbon on the fate of heavy metals and agrochemicals in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char(coal) and other black carbon materials can comprise up to 35% of total organic carbon in US agricultural soils, and are known to strongly and often irreversibly bind contaminants including heavy metals. Black carbon has received renewed interests in recent years as a solid co-product formed du...

  12. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-08

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

  13. Black carbon mixing state impacts on cloud microphysical properties: effects of aerosol plume and environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Ping Pui; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew

    2016-05-27

    Black carbon (BC) is usually mixed with other aerosol species within individual aerosol particles. This mixture, along with the particles' size and morphology, determines the particles' optical and cloud condensation nuclei properties, and hence black carbon's climate impacts. In this study the particle-resolved aerosol model PartMC-MOSAIC was used to quantify the importance of black carbon mixing state for predicting cloud microphysical quantities. Based on a set of about 100 cloud parcel simulations a process level analysis framework was developed to attribute the response in cloud microphysical properties to changes in the underlying aerosol population ("plume effect") and the cloud parcel cooling rate ("parcel effect"). It shows that the response of cloud droplet number concentration to changes in BC emissions depends on the BC mixing state. When the aerosol population contains mainly aged BC particles an increase in BC emission results in increasing cloud droplet number concentrations ("additive effect"). In contrast, when the aerosol population contains mainly fresh BC particles they act as sinks for condensable gaseous species, resulting in a decrease in cloud droplet number concentration as BC emissions are increased ("competition effect"). Additionally, we quantified the error in cloud microphysical quantities when neglecting the information on BC mixing state, which is often done in aerosol models. The errors ranged from -12% to +45% for the cloud droplet number fraction, from 0% to +1022% for the nucleation-scavenged black carbon (BC) mass fraction, from -12% to +4% for the effective radius, and from -30% to +60% for the relative dispersion.

  14. Calculating the mass fraction of primordial black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Sam; Byrnes, Christian T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, North-South Road, Brighton (United Kingdom); Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: sy81@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We reinspect the calculation for the mass fraction of primordial black holes (PBHs) which are formed from primordial perturbations, finding that performing the calculation using the comoving curvature perturbation R{sub c} in the standard way vastly overestimates the number of PBHs, by many orders of magnitude. This is because PBHs form shortly after horizon entry, meaning modes significantly larger than the PBH are unobservable and should not affect whether a PBH forms or not—this important effect is not taken into account by smoothing the distribution in the standard fashion. We discuss alternative methods and argue that the density contrast, Δ, should be used instead as super-horizon modes are damped by a factor k{sup 2}. We make a comparison between using a Press-Schechter approach and peaks theory, finding that the two are in close agreement in the region of interest. We also investigate the effect of varying the spectral index, and the running of the spectral index, on the abundance of primordial black holes.

  15. Calculating the mass fraction of primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Sam; Byrnes, Christian T.; Sasaki, Misao

    2014-01-01

    We reinspect the calculation for the mass fraction of primordial black holes (PBHs) which are formed from primordial perturbations, finding that performing the calculation using the comoving curvature perturbation R c in the standard way vastly overestimates the number of PBHs, by many orders of magnitude. This is because PBHs form shortly after horizon entry, meaning modes significantly larger than the PBH are unobservable and should not affect whether a PBH forms or not—this important effect is not taken into account by smoothing the distribution in the standard fashion. We discuss alternative methods and argue that the density contrast, Δ, should be used instead as super-horizon modes are damped by a factor k 2 . We make a comparison between using a Press-Schechter approach and peaks theory, finding that the two are in close agreement in the region of interest. We also investigate the effect of varying the spectral index, and the running of the spectral index, on the abundance of primordial black holes

  16. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.

    2008-09-15

    Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  17. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russian steppe soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hammes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC, from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m−2, or about 7–10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182–541 years, much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  18. Density separation of combustion-derived soot and petrogenic graphitic black carbon: Quantification and isotopic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veilleux, M-H; Gelinas, Y; Dickens, A F; Brandes, J

    2009-01-01

    The black carbon continuum is composed of a series of carbon-rich components derived from combustion or metamorphism and characterized by contrasting environmental behavior and susceptibility to oxidation. In this work, we present a micro-scale density fractionation method that allows isolating the small quantities of soot-like and graphitic material usually found in natural samples. Organic carbon and δ 13 C mass balance calculations were used to quantify the relative contributions of the two fractions to thermally-stable organic matter from a series of aquatic sediments. Varying proportions of soot-like and graphitic material were found in these samples, with large variations in δ 13 C signatures suggesting important differences in their origin and/or dynamics in the environment.

  19. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact campaign was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in Barrow, Alaska. The carbonaceous component was characterized by measuring the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the PM, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine PM fractions (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) PM fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) study used standard Tisch “hi-vol” motors that have a known lifetime of approximately 1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance, and it is suggested that, for future deployment in the Arctic, the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric PM samples from Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the OC and BC concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer. However, the annual OC concentrations had a very different seasonal pattern with the highest concentrations during the summer, lowest concentrations during the fall, and increased concentrations during the winter and spring (Figure 1).

  20. Measuring the Binary Black Hole Mass Spectrum with an Astrophysically Motivated Parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Colm; Thrane, Eric

    2018-04-01

    Gravitational-wave detections have revealed a previously unknown population of stellar mass black holes with masses above 20 M ⊙. These observations provide a new way to test models of stellar evolution for massive stars. By considering the astrophysical processes likely to determine the shape of the binary black hole mass spectrum, we construct a parameterized model to capture key spectral features that relate gravitational-wave data to theoretical stellar astrophysics. In particular, we model the signature of pulsational pair-instability supernovae, which are expected to cause all stars with initial mass 100 M ⊙ ≲ M ≲ 150 M ⊙ to form ∼40 M ⊙ black holes. This would cause a cutoff in the black hole mass spectrum along with an excess of black holes near 40 M ⊙. We carry out a simulated data study to illustrate some of the stellar physics that can be inferred using gravitational-wave measurements of binary black holes and demonstrate several such inferences that might be made in the near future. First, we measure the minimum and maximum stellar black hole mass. Second, we infer the presence of a peak due to pair-instability supernovae. Third, we measure the distribution of black hole mass ratios. Finally, we show how inadequate models of the black hole mass spectrum lead to biased estimates of the merger rate and the amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background.

  1. An intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızıltan, Bülent; Baumgardt, Holger; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-02-08

    Intermediate-mass black holes should help us to understand the evolutionary connection between stellar-mass and super-massive black holes. However, the existence of intermediate-mass black holes is still uncertain, and their formation process is therefore unknown. It has long been suspected that black holes with masses 100 to 10,000 times that of the Sun should form and reside in dense stellar systems. Therefore, dedicated observational campaigns have targeted globular clusters for many decades, searching for signatures of these elusive objects. All candidate signatures appear radio-dim and do not have the X-ray to radio flux ratios required for accreting black holes. Based on the lack of an electromagnetic counterpart, upper limits of 2,060 and 470 solar masses have been placed on the mass of a putative black hole in 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) from radio and X-ray observations, respectively. Here we show there is evidence for a central black hole in 47 Tucanae with a mass of solar masses when the dynamical state of the globular cluster is probed with pulsars. The existence of an intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of one of the densest clusters with no detectable electromagnetic counterpart suggests that the black hole is not accreting at a sufficient rate to make it electromagnetically bright and therefore, contrary to expectations, is gas-starved. This intermediate-mass black hole might be a member of an electromagnetically invisible population of black holes that grow into supermassive black holes in galaxies.

  2. Penelitian pengaruh campuran carbon black dan china clay terhadap sifat tegangan putus dan kekerasan karet vulkanisat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraptiningsih Supraptiningsih

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been done a research of the influence of mixed carbon black and hardness properties on the vulcanization of rubber. It has been made with additive of carbon black and china clay mixed, in total variation. The result is seen that total variation of carbon black and china clay not influence to tensile strength, but their interacton can do it. The hardness of vulcanization of rubber will be influence by total variation of carbon black china clay anad their interaction.

  3. Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate black carbon (BC model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentrations, aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD retrievals from AERONET and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and BC column estimations based on AERONET. In regions other than Asia, most models are biased high compared to surface concentration measurements. However compared with (column AAOD or BC burden retreivals, the models are generally biased low. The average ratio of model to retrieved AAOD is less than 0.7 in South American and 0.6 in African biomass burning regions; both of these regions lack surface concentration measurements. In Asia the average model to observed ratio is 0.7 for AAOD and 0.5 for BC surface concentrations. Compared with aircraft measurements over the Americas at latitudes between 0 and 50N, the average model is a factor of 8 larger than observed, and most models exceed the measured BC standard deviation in the mid to upper troposphere. At higher latitudes the average model to aircraft BC ratio is 0.4 and models underestimate the observed BC loading in the lower and middle troposphere associated with springtime Arctic haze. Low model bias for AAOD but overestimation of surface and upper atmospheric BC concentrations at lower latitudes suggests that most models are underestimating BC absorption and should improve estimates for refractive index, particle size, and optical effects of BC coating. Retrieval uncertainties and/or differences with model diagnostic treatment may also contribute to the model-measurement disparity. Largest AeroCom model diversity occurred in northern Eurasia and the remote Arctic, regions influenced by anthropogenic sources. Changing emissions, aging, removal, or optical properties within a single model

  4. The Quasar Accretion Disk Size-Black Hole Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E.

    2010-04-01

    We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 Å is related to the black hole mass by log(R 2500/cm) = (15.78 ± 0.12) + (0.80 ± 0.17)log(M BH/109 M sun). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R vprop M 2/3 BH), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T vprop R -3/4), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(η) = -1.77 ± 0.29 + log(L/L E), where η =L/(\\dot{M}c^2). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (η ≈ 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of ~4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 μm quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T vprop R -3/4 temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles. Based on observations obtained with the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 1.3 m, which is operated by the SMARTS Consortium, the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium, the WIYN Observatory which is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, which is a collaboration between the observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (OCIW), University of Arizona, Harvard University, University of Michigan, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and observations made

  5. Sensitive method for dosing carboxylic functions of carbons and its application to the study of thermally processed carbon blacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, Jacques

    1968-01-01

    This research thesis reports the development of a sensitive method for the dosing of carboxylic functions present at the surface of carbon blacks, and the use of this method to study the evolution of a carbon black during heat treatments. After a brief description of modes of fabrication of carbon blacks and of their structure, the author proposes an overview of knowledge on their oxidation and functional analysis. After having outlined that existing methods do not allow the measurement of function quantities less than ten micro-equivalent per gram of carbon, the author reports the development of a method which allows such measurements. By using this method, the author shows that carboxylic groups of a carbon black, oxidized by air or not, decompose during degassing by forming carbon dioxide, and that, reciprocally, the released carbon dioxide is exclusively produced by the decomposition of carboxylic groups [fr

  6. Environmental pollution due to black carbon aerosols and its impacts in a tropical urban city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhavi Latha, K. [National Remote Sensing Agency, Department of Space-Government of India, Balanagar, Hyderabad 500 037 (India); Badarinath, K.V.S. [National Remote Sensing Agency, Department of Space-Government of India, Balanagar, Hyderabad 500 037 (India)]. E-mail: badrinath_kvs@nrsa.gov.in

    2005-05-15

    Black carbon (BC) has become the subject of interest in the recent years for a variety of reasons. BC aerosol may cause environmental as well as harmful health effects in densely inhabited regions. BC is a strong absorber of radiation in the visible and near-infrared part of the spectrum, where most of the solar energy is distributed. Black carbon is emitted into the atmosphere as a byproduct of all combustion processes, viz., vegetation burning, industrial effluents, motor vehicle exhausts, etc. In this paper, we present results from our measurements on BC aerosols, total aerosol mass concentration, and aerosol optical depth over an urban environment, namely Hyderabad during January-May, 2003. Diurnal variations of BC suggest that high BC concentrations are observed during 6:00-9:00 h and 19:00-23:00 h. Weekday variations of BC suggest that the day average BC concentrations increases gradually from Monday to Wednesday and gradually decreases from Thursday to Sunday. Fraction of BC to total mass concentration has been observed to be 7%. BC showed positive correlation with total mass concentration and aerosol optical depth at 500 nm. Radiative transfer calculations suggest that during January-May, diurnal averaged aerosol forcing at the surface was calculated to be -33 Wm{sup -2} and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) it is to be +9 Wm{sup -2}.

  7. An approach to a black carbon emission inventory for Mexico by two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl

    2014-01-01

    A black carbon (BC) emission inventory for Mexico is presented. Estimate was performed by using two approaches, based on fuel consumption and emission factors in a top-down scheme, and the second from PM25 emission data and its correlation with black carbon by source category, assuming that black carbon = elemental carbon. Results show that black carbon emissions are in interval 53–473 Gg using the fuel consumption approach and between 62 and 89 using the sector method. Black carbon key sources come from biomass burning in the rural sector, with 47 percent share to the National total. Mobile sources emissions account to 16% to the total. An opportunity to reduce, in the short-term, carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions by reducing black carbon emissions would be obtained in reducing emissions mainly from biomass burning in rural housing sector and diesel emissions in the transport sector with important co-benefits in direct radiative forcing, public health and air quality. - Highlights: • Black carbon emissions are estimated between 53 and 473 Gg/year on a fuel consumption method. • Black carbon emissions are estimated between 62 and 89 Gg/year on a sector method

  8. An approach to a black carbon emission inventory for Mexico by two methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl, E-mail: xcruz@unam.mx

    2014-05-01

    A black carbon (BC) emission inventory for Mexico is presented. Estimate was performed by using two approaches, based on fuel consumption and emission factors in a top-down scheme, and the second from PM25 emission data and its correlation with black carbon by source category, assuming that black carbon = elemental carbon. Results show that black carbon emissions are in interval 53–473 Gg using the fuel consumption approach and between 62 and 89 using the sector method. Black carbon key sources come from biomass burning in the rural sector, with 47 percent share to the National total. Mobile sources emissions account to 16% to the total. An opportunity to reduce, in the short-term, carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions by reducing black carbon emissions would be obtained in reducing emissions mainly from biomass burning in rural housing sector and diesel emissions in the transport sector with important co-benefits in direct radiative forcing, public health and air quality. - Highlights: • Black carbon emissions are estimated between 53 and 473 Gg/year on a fuel consumption method. • Black carbon emissions are estimated between 62 and 89 Gg/year on a sector method.

  9. RETENTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morscher, Meagan; Umbreit, Stefan; Farr, Will M.; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2013-01-01

    Globular clusters should be born with significant numbers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs). It has been thought for two decades that very few of these BHs could be retained through the cluster lifetime. With masses ∼10 M ☉ , BHs are ∼20 times more massive than an average cluster star. They segregate into the cluster core, where they may eventually decouple from the remainder of the cluster. The small-N core then evaporates on a short timescale. This is the so-called Spitzer instability. Here we present the results of a full dynamical simulation of a globular cluster containing many stellar-mass BHs with a realistic mass spectrum. Our Monte Carlo simulation code includes detailed treatments of all relevant stellar evolution and dynamical processes. Our main finding is that old globular clusters could still contain many BHs at present. In our simulation, we find no evidence for the Spitzer instability. Instead, most of the BHs remain well mixed with the rest of the cluster, with only the innermost few tens of BHs segregating significantly. Over the 12 Gyr evolution, fewer than half of the BHs are dynamically ejected through strong binary interactions in the cluster core. The presence of BHs leads to long-term heating of the cluster, ultimately producing a core radius on the high end of the distribution for Milky Way globular clusters (and those of other galaxies). A crude extrapolation from our model suggests that the BH-BH merger rate from globular clusters could be comparable to the rate in the field.

  10. Upgrading pyrolytic residue from waste tires to commercial carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Hengxiang; Cao, Qing; Jin, Li'e; Wang, Fumeng

    2018-05-01

    The managing and recycling of waste tires has become a worldwide environmental challenge. Among the different disposal methods for waste tires, pyrolysis is regarded as a promising route. How to effectively enhance the added value of pyrolytic residue (PR) from waste tires is a matter of great concern. In this study, the PRs were treated with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids in turn under ultrasonic waves. The removal efficiency for the ash and sulfur was investigated. The pyrolytic carbon black (PCB) obtained after treating PR with acids was analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, laser Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and physisorption apparatus. The properties of PCB were compared with those of commercial carbon black (CCB) N326 and N339. Results showed PRs from waste tires were mainly composed of carbon, sulfur, and ash. The carbon in PCB was mainly from the CCB added during tire manufacture rather than from the pyrolysis of pure rubbers. The removal percentages for the ash and sulfur of PR are 98.33% (from 13.98 wt % down to 0.24 wt %) and 70.16% (from 1.81 wt % down to 0.54 wt %), respectively, in the entire process. The ash was mainly composed of metal oxides, sulfides, and silica. The surface properties, porosity, and morphology of the PCB were all close to those of N326. Therefore, PCB will be a potential alternative of N326 and reused in tire manufacture. This route successfully upgrades PR from waste tires to the high value-added CCB and greatly increases the overall efficiency of the waste tire pyrolysis industry.

  11. Evaluation of various carbon blacks and dispersing agents for use in the preparation of uranium microspheres with carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. D.; Johnson, J. A.; Collins, J. L.; McMurray, J. W.; Reif, T. J.; Brown, D. R.

    2018-01-01

    A comparison study on carbon blacks and dispersing agents was performed to determine their impacts on the final properties of uranium fuel kernels with carbon. The main target compositions in this internal gelation study were 10 and 20 mol % uranium dicarbide (UC2), which is UC1.86, with the balance uranium dioxide. After heat treatment at 1900 K in flowing carbon monoxide in argon for 12 h, the density of the kernels produced using a X-energy proprietary carbon suspension, which is commercially available, ranged from 96% to 100% of theoretical density (TD), with full conversion of UC to UC2 at both carbon concentrations. However, higher carbon concentrations such as a 2.5 mol ratio of carbon to uranium in the feed solutions failed to produce gel spheres with the proprietary carbon suspension. The kernels using our former baseline of Mogul L carbon black and Tamol SN were 90-92% of TD with full conversion of UC to UC2 at a variety of carbon levels. Raven 5000 carbon black and Tamol SN were used to produce 10 mol % UC2 kernels with 95% of TD. However, an increase in the Raven 5000 concentration led to a kernel density below 90% of TD. Raven 3500 carbon black and Tamol SN were used to make very dense kernels without complete conversion to UC2. The selection of the carbon black and dispersing agent is highly dependent on the desired final properties of the target kernels.

  12. Interaction between carboxyl-functionalized carbon black nanoparticles and porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Song-Bae; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Yi, In-Geol

    2015-04-01

    Carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, fullerene, and graphene, have received considerable attention due to their unique physical and chemical characteristics, leading to mass production and widespread application in industrial, commercial, and environmental fields. During their life cycle from production to disposal, however, carbon nanomaterials are inevitably released into water and soil environments, which have resulted in concern about their health and environmental impacts. Carbon black is a nano-sized amorphous carbon powder that typically contains 90-99% elemental carbon. It can be produced from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons in petroleum and coal. Carbon black is widely used in chemical and industrial products or applications such as ink pigments, coating plastics, the rubber industry, and composite reinforcements. Even though carbon black is strongly hydrophobic and tends to aggregate in water, it can be dispersed in aqueous media through surface functionalization or surfactant use. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the transport behavior of carboxyl-functionalized carbon black nanoparticles (CBNPs) in porous media. Column experiments were performed for potassium chloride (KCl), a conservative tracer, and CBNPs under saturated flow conditions. Column experiments was conducted in duplicate using quartz sand, iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS), and aluminum oxide-coated sand (AOCS) to examine the effect of metal (Fe, Al) oxide presence on the transport of CBNPs. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of CBNPs and chloride were obtained by monitoring effluent, and then mass recovery was quantified from these curves. Additionally, interaction energy profiles for CBNP-porous media were calculated using DLVO theory for sphere-plate geometry. The BTCs of chloride had relative peak concentrations ranging from 0.895 to 0.990. Transport parameters (pore-water velocity v, hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient D) obtained by the model fit from the

  13. ON THE MASS RADIATED BY COALESCING BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barausse, E.; Morozova, V.; Rezzolla, L.

    2012-01-01

    We derive an analytic phenomenological expression that predicts the final mass of the black hole (BH) remnant resulting from the merger of a generic binary system of BHs on quasi-circular orbits. Besides recovering the correct test-particle limit for extreme mass-ratio binaries, our formula reproduces well the results of all the numerical-relativity simulations published so far, both when applied at separations of a few gravitational radii and when applied at separations of tens of thousands of gravitational radii. These validations make our formula a useful tool in a variety of contexts ranging from gravitational-wave (GW) physics to cosmology. As representative examples, we first illustrate how it can be used to decrease the phase error of the effective-one-body waveforms during the ringdown phase. Second, we show that, when combined with the recently computed self-force correction to the binding energy of nonspinning BH binaries, it provides an estimate of the energy emitted during the merger and ringdown. Finally, we use it to calculate the energy radiated in GWs by massive BH binaries as a function of redshift, using different models for the seeds of the BH population.

  14. EDDINGTON-LIMITED ACCRETION AND THE BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION AT REDSHIFT 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Albert, Loic; Arzoumanian, Doris; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine

    2010-01-01

    We present discovery observations of a quasar in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) at redshift z = 6.44. We also use near-infrared spectroscopy of nine CFHQS quasars at z ∼ 6 to determine black hole masses. These are compared with similar estimates for more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars to investigate the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity. We find a strong correlation between Mg II FWHM and UV luminosity and that most quasars at this early epoch are accreting close to the Eddington limit. Thus, these quasars appear to be in an early stage of their life cycle where they are building up their black hole mass exponentially. Combining these results with the quasar luminosity function, we derive the black hole mass function at z = 6. Our black hole mass function is ∼10 4 times lower than at z = 0 and substantially below estimates from previous studies. The main uncertainties which could increase the black hole mass function are a larger population of obscured quasars at high redshift than is observed at low redshift and/or a low quasar duty cycle at z = 6. In comparison, the global stellar mass function is only ∼10 2 times lower at z = 6 than at z = 0. The difference between the black hole and stellar mass function evolution is due to either rapid early star formation which is not limited by radiation pressure as is the case for black hole growth or inefficient black hole seeding. Our work predicts that the black hole mass-stellar mass relation for a volume-limited sample of galaxies declines rapidly at very high redshift. This is in contrast to the observed increase at 4 < z < 6 from the local relation if one just studies the most massive black holes.

  15. Monumental heritage exposure to urban black carbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrón, D.; Lyamani, H.; Titos, G.; Casquero-Vera, J. A.; Cardell, C.; Močnik, G.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Olmo, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, aerosol light-absorption measurements obtained at three sites during a winter campaign were used to analyse and identify the major sources of Black Carbon (BC) particles in and around the Alhambra monument, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that receives over 2 million visitors per year. The Conditional Bivariate Probability Function and the Aethalometer model were employed to identify the main sources of BC particles and to estimate the contributions of biomass burning and fossil fuel emissions to the total Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentrations over the monumental complex. Unexpected high levels of EBC were found at the Alhambra, comparable to those measured in relatively polluted European urban areas during winter. EBC concentrations above 3.0 μg/m3, which are associated with unacceptable levels of soiling and negative public reactions, were observed at Alhambra monument on 13 days from 12 October 2015 to 29 February 2016, which can pose a risk to its long-term conservation and may cause negative social and economic impacts. It was found that road traffic emissions from the nearby urban area and access road to the Alhambra were the main sources of BC particles over the monument. However, biomass burning emissions were found to have very small impact on EBC concentrations at the Alhambra. The highest EBC concentrations were observed during an extended stagnant episode associated with persistent high-pressure systems, reflecting the large impact that can have these synoptic conditions on BC over the Alhambra.

  16. PTCR effect in carbon black/copolymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.C.; Chakki, A.; Achour, M.E.; Graca, M.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Some materials show an abrupt increase in resistivity when the temperature changes only over a few degrees. This phenomenon, known as PTCR effect (positive temperature coefficient of resistivity), has been largely studied in the last few years, due to its potential applications in industry. Particularly, it can be used in auto controlled heaters, temperature sensors, protection circuits and in security systems for power electronic circuits. In this work we present the study of the electrical properties of the percolating system carbon black particles filled with ethylene butylacrylate copolymer composite (EBA), in the temperature range from -100 to 100 o C and in frequencies between 10 Hz and 100 kHz. The PTCR effect was observed at temperatures slightly above the room temperature, for concentrations higher than that of the percolation critical concentration. The mechanism responsible for the change in resistivity, at this stage, is predominantly tunnelling, wherein the conductive filler particles are not in physical contact, and the electrons tunnel through the insulating gap between them. At low temperatures, such as below and close to the glass transition temperature, the DC conductivity obeys the Arrhenius law. The calculated activation energy values are independent of carbon black contents inside the copolymer matrix, suggesting that these particles do not interact significantly with the chain segments of the macromolecules in the EBA copolymer.

  17. PTCR effect in carbon black/copolymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L.C., E-mail: kady@fis.ua.p [I3N and Physics Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Chakki, A.; Achour, M.E. [LASTID, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, BP 133, 14000 Kenitra (Morocco); Graca, M.P.F. [I3N and Physics Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    Some materials show an abrupt increase in resistivity when the temperature changes only over a few degrees. This phenomenon, known as PTCR effect (positive temperature coefficient of resistivity), has been largely studied in the last few years, due to its potential applications in industry. Particularly, it can be used in auto controlled heaters, temperature sensors, protection circuits and in security systems for power electronic circuits. In this work we present the study of the electrical properties of the percolating system carbon black particles filled with ethylene butylacrylate copolymer composite (EBA), in the temperature range from -100 to 100 {sup o}C and in frequencies between 10 Hz and 100 kHz. The PTCR effect was observed at temperatures slightly above the room temperature, for concentrations higher than that of the percolation critical concentration. The mechanism responsible for the change in resistivity, at this stage, is predominantly tunnelling, wherein the conductive filler particles are not in physical contact, and the electrons tunnel through the insulating gap between them. At low temperatures, such as below and close to the glass transition temperature, the DC conductivity obeys the Arrhenius law. The calculated activation energy values are independent of carbon black contents inside the copolymer matrix, suggesting that these particles do not interact significantly with the chain segments of the macromolecules in the EBA copolymer.

  18. Stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, Rob; Belloni, Tomaso

    2012-08-03

    We review the likely population, observational properties, and broad implications of stellar-mass black holes and ultraluminous x-ray sources. We focus on the clear empirical rules connecting accretion and outflow that have been established for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems in the past decade and a half. These patterns of behavior are probably the keys that will allow us to understand black hole feedback on the largest scales over cosmological time scales.

  19. Relating black carbon content to reduction of snow albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, R. E.; Warren, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    In remote snow of the Northern Hemisphere, the levels of soot pollution are in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range, where the effect on albedo is at the level of a few percent. A reduction of albedo by 1-2% is significant for climate but is difficult to detect experimentally, because snow albedo depends on several other variables. In our work to quantify the climatic effect of black carbon (BC) in snow, we therefore do not directly measure the albedo reduction. Instead, we use a two-step procedure: (1) We collect snow samples, melt and filter them, and analyze the filters spectrophotometrically for BC concentration. (2) We use the BC amount from the filter measurement, together with snow grain size, in a radiative transfer model to compute the albedo reduction. Our radiative transfer model uses the discrete ordinates algorithm DISORT 2.0. We have chosen a representative BC size distribution and optical constants, and have incorporated those of mineral dust as well. While a given mass of BC causes over an order of magnitude more snow albedo reduction compared to dust, a snowpack containing dust mutes the albedo-reducing effect of BC. Because the computed reduction of snow albedo is model-based, it requires experimental verification. We doubt that direct measurement of albedo-reduction will be feasible in nature, because of the vertical variation of both snow grain size and soot content, and because the natural soot content is small. We conclude that what is needed is an artificial snowpack, with uniform grain size and large uniform soot content (ppm not ppb), to produce a large signal on albedo. We have chosen to pursue this experiment outdoors rather than in the laboratory, for the following reasons: (1) The snowpack in the field of view is uniformly illuminated if the source of radiation is the Sun. (2) Visible radiation penetrates into the snow, so photons emerge horizontally distant from where they entered. In the limited width of a laboratory snowpack, radiation

  20. End of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Thomas H; Flanner, Mark G; Kaser, Georg; Marzeion, Ben; VanCuren, Richard A; Abdalati, Waleed

    2013-09-17

    Glaciers in the European Alps began to retreat abruptly from their mid-19th century maximum, marking what appeared to be the end of the Little Ice Age. Alpine temperature and precipitation records suggest that glaciers should instead have continued to grow until circa 1910. Radiative forcing by increasing deposition of industrial black carbon to snow may represent the driver of the abrupt glacier retreats in the Alps that began in the mid-19th century. Ice cores indicate that black carbon concentrations increased abruptly in the mid-19th century and largely continued to increase into the 20th century, consistent with known increases in black carbon emissions from the industrialization of Western Europe. Inferred annual surface radiative forcings increased stepwise to 13-17 W⋅m(-2) between 1850 and 1880, and to 9-22 W⋅m(-2) in the early 1900s, with snowmelt season (April/May/June) forcings reaching greater than 35 W⋅m(-2) by the early 1900s. These snowmelt season radiative forcings would have resulted in additional annual snow melting of as much as 0.9 m water equivalent across the melt season. Simulations of glacier mass balances with radiative forcing-equivalent changes in atmospheric temperatures result in conservative estimates of accumulating negative mass balances of magnitude -15 m water equivalent by 1900 and -30 m water equivalent by 1930, magnitudes and timing consistent with the observed retreat. These results suggest a possible physical explanation for the abrupt retreat of glaciers in the Alps in the mid-19th century that is consistent with existing temperature and precipitation records and reconstructions.

  1. Towards the theory of mini black holes with subplanckian mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Y.B.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter phenomenologically examines the question of the decay (evaporation) and formation of mini black holes. Neutral black holes are considered, having neither electrical charge, nor color and weak charge, so that no long range vector field is present beyond gravitational radius. Topics considered include thermodynamic equilibrium and the formation of light black holes, the formation and decay of light black holes in the big bang, and the difficulties of the theory. It is emphasized that the existence of mini black holes has not yet been proven

  2. Assessment of the surface chemistry of carbon blacks by TGA-MS, XPS and inverse gas chromatography using statistical chemometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzemiecka, Beata; Voelkel, Adam; Donate-Robles, Jessica; Martín-Martínez, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon blacks with lower specific surface area had basic character (electron donor) due to C=O and C-O groups. • Carbon blacks with higher specific surface area had acidic character (acceptor electron) due to OH groups. • Total surface energy and its dispersive component of carbon blacks increased by increasing their specific surface area. (table) - Abstract: Four carbon blacks with different specific surface areas and surface chemistries (C32, C71, C159 and C178) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K. Their surface chemistries were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal gravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) and inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The carbon blacks contained 2.7–5.8 wt% volatiles corresponding to -OH, C-O, C=O and COO groups. The surface chemistry parameters obtained with the different experimental techniques were inter-related by using chemometric statistical analysis tools. The application of this methodology showed that the carbon blacks with lower specific surface area (C32 and C71) had basic character (electron donor) mainly due to C=O and C-O groups, whereas the carbon black with the highest specific surface area (C178) showed acidic character (acceptor electron) due to its high content of OH groups. Moreover, the total surface energy and the dispersive component of the surface energy of the carbon blacks increased with the increase of their specific surface area. In general the specific interactions of the carbon blacks also increased with the increase of their specific surface area although C71 is exceptional due to higher oxygen content corresponding to C-O groups

  3. An improved method for quantitatively measuring the sequences of total organic carbon and black carbon in marine sediment cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Zhu, Qing; Zhou, Qianzhi; Liu, Jinzhong; Yuan, Jianping; Wang, Jianghai

    2018-01-01

    Understanding global carbon cycle is critical to uncover the mechanisms of global warming and remediate its adverse effects on human activities. Organic carbon in marine sediments is an indispensable part of the global carbon reservoir in global carbon cycling. Evaluating such a reservoir calls for quantitative studies of marine carbon burial, which closely depend on quantifying total organic carbon and black carbon in marine sediment cores and subsequently on obtaining their high-resolution temporal sequences. However, the conventional methods for detecting the contents of total organic carbon or black carbon cannot resolve the following specific difficulties, i.e., (1) a very limited amount of each subsample versus the diverse analytical items, (2) a low and fluctuating recovery rate of total organic carbon or black carbon versus the reproducibility of carbon data, and (3) a large number of subsamples versus the rapid batch measurements. In this work, (i) adopting the customized disposable ceramic crucibles with the microporecontrolled ability, (ii) developing self-made or customized facilities for the procedures of acidification and chemothermal oxidization, and (iii) optimizing procedures and carbon-sulfur analyzer, we have built a novel Wang-Xu-Yuan method (the WXY method) for measuring the contents of total organic carbon or black carbon in marine sediment cores, which includes the procedures of pretreatment, weighing, acidification, chemothermal oxidation and quantification; and can fully meet the requirements of establishing their highresolution temporal sequences, whatever in the recovery, experimental efficiency, accuracy and reliability of the measurements, and homogeneity of samples. In particular, the usage of disposable ceramic crucibles leads to evidently simplify the experimental scenario, which further results in the very high recovery rates for total organic carbon and black carbon. This new technique may provide a significant support for

  4. Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignati, E.; Karl, M.; Krol, M.C.; Wilson, J.; Stier, P.; Cavalli, F.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the global black carbon (BC) cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of its properties. This work investigates two source of uncertainties in modelling black carbon: those due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in

  5. Plasma polymerization surface modification of Carbon black and its effect in elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, T.; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Talma, Auke; Ooij, W.J.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Surface modification of carbon black by plasma polymerization was aimed to reduce its surface energy in order to compatibilize the filler with various elastomers. A fullerenic carbon black was used for the modification process. Thermogravimetric analysis, wetting behavior with liquids of known

  6. GW170608: Observation of a 19 Solar-mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Biscans, S; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.

    2017-01-01

    On 2017 June 8 at 02:01:16.49 UTC, a gravitational-wave (GW) signal from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes was observed by the two Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory detectors with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13. This system is the lightest black hole binary so far observed, with component masses of 12^(+7)_(-2) M⊙ and 7^(+2)_(-2) M⊙ (90% credible intervals). These lie in the range of measured black hole masses in low-mass X-ray binaries, thus allowi...

  7. Observational Constraints on Quasar Black Hole Mass Distributions, Eddington Ratio Distributions, and Lifetimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.

    2010-01-01

    I will present the black hole mass function (BHMF) of broad line quasars in the SDSS DR3. We employ a powerful Bayesian statistical technique that corrects for incompleteness and the statistical uncertainty in the mass estimates. We find evidence that the most massive black hole appeared as quasars...... earlier in the universe, and that most quasars are not radiating at or near the Eddington limit. I will also present constraints on the quasar lifetime and maximum black hole mass, derived from the mass functions....

  8. Towards Soil and Sediment Inventories of Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    A body of literature on black carbon (BC) concentrations in soils and sediments is rapidly accumulating, but as of yet, there are no global or regional inventories of BC in either reservoir. Soil and sediment BC inventories are badly needed for a range of fields. For example, in oceanography a global sediment BC inventory is crucial in understanding the role of biomass burning in the development of stable marine carbon reservoirs, including dissolved organic carbon and sedimentary organic carbon. Again in the marine environment, BC likely strongly impacts the fate and transport of anthropogenic pollutants: regional inventories of BC in sediments will help develop better environmental remediation strategies. In terrestrial systems well-constrained natural BC soil inventories would help refine ecological, agricultural, and soil biogeochemical studies. BC is highly sorptive of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorous. The presence of BC in ecosystems almost certainly alters N and P cycling; however, without soil BC inventories, we cannot know where BC has a significant impact. BC's nutrient sorptivity and water-holding capacity make it an important component of agricultural soils, and some researchers have proposed artificially increasing soil BC inventories to improve soil fertility. Natural soil BC concentrations in some regions are quite high, but without a baseline inventory, it is challenging to predict when agricultural amendment will significantly exceed natural conditions. And finally, because BC is one of the most stable fractions of organic carbon in soils, understanding its concentration and regional distribution will help us track the dynamics of soil organic matter response to changing environmental conditions. Developing effective regional and global BC inventories is challenging both because of data sparsity and methodological intercomparison issues. In this presentation I will describe a roadmap to generating these valuable inventories.

  9. Correlation between rheological and mechanical properties of black PE100 compounds – Effect of carbon black masterbatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pircheraghi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Black PE100 compounds were prepared using a co-rotating twin screw extruder by addition of carbon black masterbatches containing 35–40 wt% carbon black and different polymer carriers to a pipe grade PE100 material with bimodal molecular weight distribution. Different properties of carbon black masterbatches and PE100 black compounds were evaluated using thermal, rheological and mechanical tests. Rheological results indicated an inverse correlation between melt flow index (MFI of masterbatch samples and storage modulus, complex viscosity and shear viscosity of black compounds, while flow instabilities of compounds were also postponed to higher shear rates. TGA indicated that masterbatch with highest value of MFI contained highest amount of low molecular weight lubricants which resulted in inhibition of strain hardening behavior in tensile test of its respective black compound unlike all other samples, reflecting possible suppressing of its long term resistance to slow crack growth. This behavior is attributable to facilitated crystallization and chain folding of longer chains in the presence of low molecular weight lubricants in this sample and consequently formation of thicker lamellas as confirmed by DSC, hence lowering density of entanglements in amorphous area and inhibition of strain hardening.

  10. Black Carbon And Co-Pollutants Emissions And Energy Efficiency From Bricks Production In Guanajuato, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Maiz, P.; Monsivais, I.; Chow, J.; Munguia, J.

    2013-12-01

    In many parts of the world, small-scale traditional brick kilns are a notorious informal sector source of urban air pollution. Many are both inefficient and burn highly polluting fuels that emit significant levels of black carbon and other pollutants into local communities and to the atmosphere, resulting in severe health and environmental impacts. It is estimated that there are nearly 20,000 traditional brick kilns in Mexico, in which bricks are still produced as they have been for centuries. They are made by hand, dried in the sun, and generally fired in small, one chamber kilns that use various types of fuels, including plastic refuse, used tires, manure, wood scrap, and used motor oil. Three brick kilns, two traditional kilns and an improved kiln (MK2), were sampled as part of the SLCFs-Mexico campaign in Guanajuato, Mexico during March of 2013. The concept of the MK-2 involves covering the kiln with a dome and channeling the output of an active kiln through a second, identical loaded kiln for its additional filtration of the effluents. The results of energy efficiency and carbon mass balance calculations are presented for comparing the production efficiency and carbon emissions from the sampled kilns. Measurements included PM2.5 mass with quartz filters and temporally-resolved elemental carbon and organic carbon composition obtained using thermo-optical methods. The carbon emissions obtained with the mass balance method are compared with concurrent, high- time resolution, emissions measurements obtained using the Aerodyne mobile laboratory employing the tracer method (see abstract by Fortner et al.)

  11. Quantifying black carbon light absorption enhancement with a novel statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng; Wu, Dui; Zhen Yu, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) particles in the atmosphere can absorb more light when coated by non-absorbing or weakly absorbing materials during atmospheric aging, due to the lensing effect. In this study, the light absorption enhancement factor, Eabs, was quantified using a 1-year measurement of mass absorption efficiency (MAE) in the Pearl River Delta region (PRD). A new approach for calculating primary MAE (MAEp), the key for Eabs estimation, is demonstrated using the minimum R squared (MRS) method, exploring the inherent source independency between BC and its coating materials. A unique feature of Eabs estimation with the MRS approach is its insensitivity to systematic biases in elemental carbon (EC) and σabs measurements. The annual average Eabs550 is found to be 1.50 ± 0.48 (±1 SD) in the PRD region, exhibiting a clear seasonal pattern with higher values in summer and lower in winter. Elevated Eabs in the summertime is likely associated with aged air masses, predominantly of marine origin, along with long-range transport of biomass-burning-influenced air masses from Southeast Asia. Core-shell Mie simulations along with measured Eabs and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) constraints suggest that in the PRD, the coating materials are unlikely to be dominated by brown carbon and the coating thickness is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season.

  12. Quantifying black carbon light absorption enhancement with a novel statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC particles in the atmosphere can absorb more light when coated by non-absorbing or weakly absorbing materials during atmospheric aging, due to the lensing effect. In this study, the light absorption enhancement factor, Eabs, was quantified using a 1-year measurement of mass absorption efficiency (MAE in the Pearl River Delta region (PRD. A new approach for calculating primary MAE (MAEp, the key for Eabs estimation, is demonstrated using the minimum R squared (MRS method, exploring the inherent source independency between BC and its coating materials. A unique feature of Eabs estimation with the MRS approach is its insensitivity to systematic biases in elemental carbon (EC and σabs measurements. The annual average Eabs550 is found to be 1.50 ± 0.48 (±1 SD in the PRD region, exhibiting a clear seasonal pattern with higher values in summer and lower in winter. Elevated Eabs in the summertime is likely associated with aged air masses, predominantly of marine origin, along with long-range transport of biomass-burning-influenced air masses from Southeast Asia. Core–shell Mie simulations along with measured Eabs and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE constraints suggest that in the PRD, the coating materials are unlikely to be dominated by brown carbon and the coating thickness is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season.

  13. The effect of nuclear gas distribution on the mass determination of supermassive black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Restrepo, J. E.; Lira, P.; Netzer, H.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Capellupo, D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes reside in the nuclei of most galaxies. During their active episodes, black holes are powered by accretion discs where gravitational energy is converted into radiation1. Accurately determining black hole masses is key to understand how the population evolves over time and how the black holes relate to their host galaxies2-4. Beyond the local universe, z ≳ 0.2, the mass is commonly estimated assuming a virialized motion of gas in the close vicinity of the active black holes, traced through broad emission lines5,6. However, this procedure has uncertainties associated with the unknown distribution of the gas clouds. Here, we show that the black hole masses derived from the properties of the accretion disk and virial mass estimates differ by a factor that is inversely proportional to the width of the broad emission lines. This leads to virial mass misestimations up to a factor of six. Our results suggest that a planar gas distribution that is inclined with respect to the line of sight may account for this effect. However, radiation pressure effects on the distribution of gas can also reproduce our results. Regardless of the physical origin, our findings contribute to mitigating the uncertainties in current black hole mass estimations and, in turn, will help us to better understand the evolution of distant supermassive black holes and their host galaxies.

  14. BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES AND RAPID GROWTH OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN LUMINOUS z ∼ 3.5 QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Wenwen; Wu, Xue-Bing [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fan, Xiaohui; Green, Richard [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wang, Ran [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Bian, Fuyan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2015-02-01

    We present new near-infrared (IR) observations of the Hβ λ4861 and Mg II λ2798 lines for 32 luminous quasars with 3.2 < z < 3.9 using the Palomar Hale 200 inch telescope and the Large Binocular Telescope. We find that the Mg II FWHM is well correlated with the Hβ FWHM, confirming itself as a good substitute for the Hβ FWHM in the black hole mass estimates. The continuum luminosity at 5100 Å well correlates with the continuum luminosity at 3000 Å and the broad emission line luminosities (Hβ and Mg II). With simultaneous near-IR spectroscopy of the Hβ and Mg II lines to exclude the influences of flux variability, we are able to evaluate the reliability of estimating black hole masses based on the Mg II line for high redshift quasars. With the reliable Hβ line based black hole mass and Eddington ratio estimates, we find that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in our sample have black hole masses 1.90 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} ≲ M {sub BH} ≲ 1.37 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, with a median of ∼5.14 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} and are accreting at Eddington ratios between 0.30 and 3.05, with a median of ∼1.12. Assuming a duty cycle of 1 and a seed black hole mass of 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, we show that the z ∼ 3.5 quasars in this sample can grow to their estimated black hole masses within the age of the universe at their redshifts.

  15. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.; Tremonti, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3......We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3...

  16. Optical Properties of Small Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Geier, M.; Arienti, M.

    2013-12-01

    The optical properties of ice crystals play a fundamental role in modeling atmospheric radiation and hydrological cycle, which are critical in monitoring climate change. While Black Carbon (BC) is recognized as the dominant absorber with positive radiative forcing (warming) (Ramanathan & Carmichael, 2008), in-situ observations (Cappa, et al, 2012) indicate that the characterization of the mixing state of BC with ice crystals and other non-BC particles in global climate models (Ghan & Schwartz, 2007) needs further investigation. The limitation in the available mixing models is due to the drastically different absorbing properties of BC compared to other aerosols. We explore the scattering properties of ice crystals (in shapes commonly found in cirrus clouds and contrails - Yang, et al. 2012) with the inclusion of BC particles. The Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) (Yurkin & Hoekstra, 2011) is utilized to directly calculate the optical properties of the crystals with multiple BC inclusions, modeled as a distribution of spheres. The results are then compared with the most popular models of internal and external mixing (Liou, et al. 2011). The DDA calculations are carried out over a broad range of BC particle sizes and volume fractions within the crystal at the 532 nm wavelength and for ice crystals smaller than 50 μm. The computationally intensive database generated in this study is critical for understanding the effect of different types of BC inclusions on the atmosphere radiative forcing. Examples will be discussed to illustrate the modification of BC optical properties by encapsulation in ice crystals and how the parameterization of the BC mixing state in global climate models can be improved. Acknowledgements Support by Sandia National Laboratories' LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) is gratefully acknowledged. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of

  17. Comparative studies of industrial grade carbon black powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Komal, E-mail: komalchawla.rs@gmail.com; Chauhan, Alok P. S., E-mail: chauhan.alok@gmail.com, E-mail: alok.chauhan@alumni.stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Material Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida-201307, UP, India. (India)

    2016-05-06

    Comparative studies of two dissimilar industrial grade Carbon Black (CB) powders (N375 and N405) were conducted. The structure, surface area and particle size are the three important characteristics of CB powder that determine their processability and application as filler in preparing rubber compounds. The powders were characterized for their structure using dibutyl phthalate absorption (DBPA), particle size via laser particle size analyzer and surface area by nitrogen adsorption method. The structural characterization showed that N405 had lower DBPA in comparison to N375, confirming low structure of N405 grade CB powder. It was observed from the particle size analysis that N375 was coarser than N405 grade CB. The total surface area values were determined by the BET method based on the cross sectional area of the nitrogen molecule. N375, a coarse grade CB powder with high structure, depicted less surface area as compared to N405.

  18. Black carbon and West African Monsoon precipitation. Observations and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Adams, A.; Zhang, C.; Wang, C.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently investigated large-scale co-variability between aerosol and precipitation and other meteorological variables in the West African Monsoon (WAM) region using long term satellite observations and reanalysis data. In this study we compared the observational results to a global model simulation including only direct radiative forcing of black carbon (BC). From both observations and model simulations we found that in boreal cold seasons anomalously high African aerosols are associated with significant reductions in cloud amount, cloud top height, and surface precipitation. These results suggest that the observed precipitation reduction in the WAM region is caused by radiative effect of BC. The result also suggests that the BC effect on precipitation is nonlinear. (orig.)

  19. Enhancement of micropore filling of water on carbon black by platinum loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Naoya, E-mail: miyajima@yamanashi.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Hatori, Hiroaki [Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Radovic, Ljubisa R. [Department of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Yamada, Yoshio [Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Two kinds of typical carbons, carbon black and activated carbon fibers, were modified with platinum nanoparticles without changing their original pore structures. The surface properties of the modified carbons were investigated by measuring of water adsorption isotherms. Micropore filling of water was facilitated by the presence of platinum nanoparticles on the surface of the carbon black. On the other hand, such a filling effect was not observed in the case of the activated carbon fibers. A critical content and/or size of platinum nanoparticles could be required to promote efficiently the water adsorption.

  20. Self-sensing piezoresistive cement composite loaded with carbon black particles

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.

    2017-04-27

    Strain sensors can be embedded in civil engineering infrastructures to perform real-time service life monitoring. Here, the sensing capability of piezoresistive cement-based composites loaded with carbon black (CB) particles is investigated. Several composite mixtures, with a CB filler loading up to 10% of binder mass, were mechanically tested under cyclic uniaxial compression, registering variations in electrical resistance as a function of deformation. The results show a reversible piezoresistive behaviour and a quasi-linear relation between the fractional change in resistivity and the compressive strain, in particular for those compositions with higher amount of CB. Gage factors of 30 and 24 were found for compositions containing 7 and 10% of binder mass, respectively. These findings suggest that the CB-cement composites may be a promising active material to monitor compressive strain in civil infrastructures such as concrete bridges and roadways.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of conducting composites of polyaniline and carbon black with high thermal stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio R. Simões

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a detailed chemical route to prepare thermally stable polyaniline (PANI/carbon black (CB composites is described. The syntheses were performed by chemical polymerization of aniline over CB particles, using different PANI/CB mass ratios. The thermal and electrical properties were characterized. Composites with mass ratio up to 65:35 (PANI:CB showed excellent thermal stability maintaining their conducting properties when thermally treated at 230 °C for two hours, which is adequate to process these materials. Moreover, the results showed an important reduction in the surface area of the composites which have a good relationship with the improvement of the rheological properties in melt processing.

  2. Active galactic nucleus black hole mass estimates in the era of time domain astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Pancoast, Anna [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Malkan, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-20

    We investigate the dependence of the normalization of the high-frequency part of the X-ray and optical power spectral densities (PSDs) on black hole mass for a sample of 39 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with black hole masses estimated from reverberation mapping or dynamical modeling. We obtained new Swift observations of PG 1426+015, which has the largest estimated black hole mass of the AGNs in our sample. We develop a novel statistical method to estimate the PSD from a light curve of photon counts with arbitrary sampling, eliminating the need to bin a light curve to achieve Gaussian statistics, and we use this technique to estimate the X-ray variability parameters for the faint AGNs in our sample. We find that the normalization of the high-frequency X-ray PSD is inversely proportional to black hole mass. We discuss how to use this scaling relationship to obtain black hole mass estimates from the short timescale X-ray variability amplitude with precision ∼0.38 dex. The amplitude of optical variability on timescales of days is also anticorrelated with black hole mass, but with larger scatter. Instead, the optical variability amplitude exhibits the strongest anticorrelation with luminosity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our results for estimating black hole mass from the amplitude of AGN variability.

  3. Does the mass of a black hole decrease due to the accretion of phantom energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Changjun; Chen Xuelei; Faraoni, Valerio; Shen Yougen

    2008-01-01

    According to Babichev et al., the accretion of a phantom test fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole will induce the mass of the black hole to decrease, however the backreaction was ignored in their calculation. Using new exact solutions describing black holes in a background Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, we find that the physical black hole mass may instead increase due to the accretion of phantom energy. If this is the case, and the future universe is dominated by phantom dark energy, the black hole apparent horizon and the cosmic apparent horizon will eventually coincide and, after that, the black hole singularity will become naked in finite comoving time before the big rip occurs, violating the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  4. Accounting for black carbon lowers estimates of blue carbon storage services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Swee Theng; Gallagher, John B

    2018-02-07

    The canopies and roots of seagrass, mangrove, and saltmarsh protect a legacy of buried sedimentary organic carbon from resuspension and remineralisation. This legacy's value, in terms of mitigating anthropogenic emissions of CO 2 , is based on total organic carbon (TOC) inventories to a depth likely to be disturbed. However, failure to subtract allochthonous recalcitrant carbon overvalues the storage service. Simply put, burial of oxidation-resistant organics formed outside of the ecosystem provides no additional protection from remineralisation. Here, we assess whether black carbon (BC), an allochthonous and recalcitrant form of organic carbon, is contributing to a significant overestimation of blue carbon stocks. To test this supposition, BC and TOC contents were measured in different types of seagrass and mangrove sediment cores across tropical and temperate regimes, with different histories of air pollution and fire together with a reanalysis of published data from a subtropical system. The results suggest current carbon stock estimates are positively biased, particularly for low-organic-content sandy seagrass environs, by 18 ± 3% (±95% confidence interval) and 43 ± 21% (±95% CI) for the temperate and tropical regions respectively. The higher BC fractions appear to originate from atmospheric deposition and substantially enrich the relatively low TOC fraction within these environs.

  5. Refractory black carbon at the Whistler Peak High Elevation Research Site - Measurements and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Sarah J.; Xu, Jun-Wei; Schroder, Jason C.; Wang, Qiaoqiao; McMeeking, Gavin R.; Hayden, Katherine; Leaitch, W. Richard; Macdonald, AnneMarie; von Salzen, Knut; Martin, Randall V.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2018-05-01

    Measurements of black carbon at remote and high altitude locations provide an important constraint for models. Here we present six months of refractory black carbon (rBC) data collected in July-August of 2009, June-July of 2010, and April-May of 2012 using a single particle soot photometer (SP2) at the remote Whistler High Elevation Research Site in the Coast Mountains of British Columbia (50.06°N, 122.96°W, 2182 m a.m.s.l). In order to reduce regional boundary layer influences, only measurements collected during the night (2000-0800 PST) were considered. Times impacted by local biomass burning were removed from the data set, as were periods of in-cloud sampling. Back trajectories and back trajectory cluster analysis were used to classify the sampled air masses as Southern Pacific, Northern Pacific, Western Pacific/Asian, or Northern Canadian in origin. The largest rBC mass median diameter (182 nm) was seen for air masses in the Southern Pacific cluster, and the smallest (156 nm) was seen for air masses in the Western Pacific/Asian cluster. Considering all the clusters, the median mass concentration of rBC was 25.0 ± 7.6 ng/m3-STP. The Northern Pacific, Southern Pacific, Western Pacific/Asian, and Northern Canada clusters had median mass concentrations of 25.0 ± 7.6, 21.3 ± 6.9, 25.0 ± 7.9, and 40.6 ± 12.9 ng/m3-STP, respectively. We compared these measurements with simulations from the global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. The default GEOS-Chem simulations overestimated the median rBC mass concentrations for the different clusters by a factor of 1.2-2.2. The largest difference was observed for the Northern Pacific cluster (factor of 2.2) and the smallest difference was observed for the Northern Canada cluster (factor of 1.2). A sensitivity simulation that excluded Vancouver emissions still overestimated the median rBC mass concentrations for the different clusters by a factor of 1.1-2.0. After implementation of a revised wet scavenging scheme, the

  6. The effect of snow/sea ice type on the response of albedo and light penetration depth (e-folding depth to increasing black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of snow/sea ice vary with age and by the processes they were formed, giving characteristic types of snow and sea ice. The response of albedo and light penetration depth (e-folding depth to increasing mass ratio of black carbon is shown to depend on the snow and sea ice type and the thickness of the snow or sea ice. The response of albedo and e-folding depth of three different types of snow (cold polar snow, wind-packed snow and melting snow and three sea ice (multi-year ice, first-year ice and melting sea ice to increasing mass ratio of black carbon is calculated using a coupled atmosphere–snow/sea ice radiative-transfer model (TUV-snow, over the optical wavelengths of 300–800 nm. The snow and sea ice types are effectively defined by a scattering cross-section, density and asymmetry parameter. The relative change in albedo and e-folding depth of each of the three snow and three sea ice types with increasing mass ratio of black carbon is considered relative to a base case of 1 ng g−1 of black carbon. The relative response of each snow and sea ice type is intercompared to examine how different types of snow and sea ice respond relative to each other. The relative change in albedo of a melting snowpack is a factor of four more responsive to additions of black carbon compared to cold polar snow over a black carbon increase from 1 to 50 ng g−1, while the relative change in albedo of a melting sea ice is a factor of two more responsive to additions of black carbon compared to multi-year ice for the same increase in mass ratio of black carbon. The response of e-folding depth is effectively not dependent on snow/sea ice type. The albedo of sea ice is more responsive to increasing mass ratios of black carbon than snow.

  7. Black carbon emissions in Russia: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meredydd; Kholod, Nazar; Kuklinski, Teresa; Denysenko, Artur; Smith, Steven J.; Staniszewski, Aaron; Hao, Wei Min; Liu, Liang; Bond, Tami C.

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a comprehensive review of estimated black carbon (BC) emissions in Russia from a range of studies. Russia has an important role regarding BC emissions given the extent of its territory above the Arctic Circle, where BC emissions have a particularly pronounced effect on the climate. We assess underlying methodologies and data sources for each major emissions source based on their level of detail, accuracy and extent to which they represent current conditions. We then present reference values for each major emissions source. In the case of flaring, the study presents new estimates drawing on data on Russia's associated petroleum gas and the most recent satellite data on flaring. We also present estimates of organic carbon (OC) for each source, either based on the reference studies or from our own calculations. In addition, the study provides uncertainty estimates for each source. Total BC emissions are estimated at 688 Gg in 2014, with an uncertainty range 401 Gg-1453 Gg, while OC emissions are 9224 Gg with uncertainty ranging between 5596 Gg and 14,736 Gg. Wildfires dominated and contributed about 83% of the total BC emissions: however, the effect on radiative forcing is mitigated in part by OC emissions. We also present an adjusted estimate of Arctic forcing from Russia's BC and OC emissions. In recent years, Russia has pursued policies to reduce flaring and limit particulate emissions from on-road transport, both of which appear to significantly contribute to the lower emissions and forcing values found in this study.

  8. Uptake mechanism for iodine species to black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Sungwook; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Min-Gyu

    2013-09-17

    Natural organic matter (NOM) plays an important role in determining the fate and transport of iodine species such as iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) in groundwater system. Although NOM exists as diverse forms in environments, prior iodine studies have mainly focused on uptake processes of iodide and iodate to humic materials. This study was conducted to determine the iodide and iodate uptake potential for a particulate NOM (i.e., black carbon [BC]). A laboratory-produced BC and commercial humic acid were used for batch experiments to compare their iodine uptake properties. The BC exhibited >100 times greater uptake capability for iodide than iodate at low pH of ~3, while iodide uptake was negligible for the humic acid. The uptake properties of both solids strongly depend on the initial iodine aqueous concentrations. After uptake reaction of iodide to the BC, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy results indicated that the iodide was converted to electrophilic species, and iodine was covalently bound to carbon atom in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the BC. The computed distribution coefficients (i.e., Kd values) suggest that the BC materials retard significantly the transport of iodide at low pH in environmental systems containing even a small amount of BC.

  9. The mass of the black hole in LMC X-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosz, Jerome A. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182-1221 (United States); Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buxton, Michelle M.; Bailyn, Charles D. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Steeghs, Danny [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK and Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guberman, Alec [Byram Hills High School, 12 Tripp Lane, Armonk, NY 10504 (United States); Torres, Manuel A. P., E-mail: jorosz@mail.sdsu.edu, E-mail: jsteiner@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jem@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: michelle.buxton@yale.edu, E-mail: charles.bailyn@yale.edu, E-mail: D.T.H.Steeghs@warwick.ac.uk, E-mail: alec.guberman@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: M.Torres@sron.nl [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-10-20

    We analyze a large set of new and archival photometric and spectroscopic observations of LMC X-3 to arrive at a self-consistent dynamical model for the system. Using echelle spectra obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle instrument on the 6.5 m Magellan Clay telescope and the UVES instrument on the second 8.2 m Very Large Telescope, we find a velocity semiamplitude for the secondary star of K {sub 2} = 241.1 ± 6.2 km s{sup –1}, where the uncertainty includes an estimate of the systematic error caused by X-ray heating. Using the spectra, we also find a projected rotational velocity of V {sub rot}sin i = 118.5 ± 6.6 km s{sup –1}. From an analysis of archival B and V light curves as well as new B and V light curves from the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope, we find an inclination of i = 69.°84 ± 0.°37 for models that do not include X-ray heating and an inclination of i = 69.°24 ± 0.°72 for models that incorporate X-ray heating. Adopting the latter inclination measurement, we find masses of 3.63 ± 0.57 M {sub ☉} and 6.98 ± 0.56 M {sub ☉} for the companion star and the black hole, respectively. We briefly compare our results with earlier work and discuss some of their implications.

  10. A 400-solar-mass black hole in the galaxy M82.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R; Strohmayer, Tod E; Mushotzky, Richard F

    2014-09-04

    M82 X-1, the brightest X-ray source in the galaxy M82, has been thought to be an intermediate-mass black hole (100 to 10,000 solar masses) because of its extremely high luminosity and variability characteristics, although some models suggest that its mass may be only about 20 solar masses. The previous mass estimates were based on scaling relations that use low-frequency characteristic timescales which have large intrinsic uncertainties. For stellar-mass black holes, we know that the high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (100-450 hertz) in the X-ray emission that occur in a 3:2 frequency ratio are stable and scale in frequency inversely with black hole mass with a reasonably small dispersion. The discovery of such stable oscillations thus potentially offers an alternative and less ambiguous means of mass determination for intermediate-mass black holes, but has hitherto not been realized. Here we report stable, twin-peak (3:2 frequency ratio) X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations from M82 X-1 at frequencies of 3.32 ± 0.06 hertz and 5.07 ± 0.06 hertz. Assuming that we can extrapolate the inverse-mass scaling that holds for stellar-mass black holes, we estimate the black hole mass of M82 X-1 to be 428 ± 105 solar masses. In addition, we can estimate the mass using the relativistic precession model, from which we get a value of 415 ± 63 solar masses.

  11. A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2013-02-21

    The masses of the supermassive black holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionized-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects that have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black-hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC 4526, and obtain a best fit that requires the presence of a central dark object of 4.5(+4.2)(-3.1) × 10(8) solar masses (3σ confidence limit). With the next-generation millimetre-wavelength interferometers these observations could be reproduced in galaxies out to 75 megaparsecs in less than 5 hours of observing time. The use of molecular gas as a kinematic tracer should thus allow one to estimate black-hole masses in hundreds of galaxies in the local Universe, many more than are accessible with current techniques.

  12. Photo-lability of deep ocean dissolved black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stubbins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved black carbon (DBC, defined here as condensed aromatics isolated from seawater via PPL solid phase extraction and quantified as benzenepolycarboxylic acid (BPCA oxidation products, is a significant component of the oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC pool. These condensed aromatics are widely distributed in the open ocean and appear to be tens of thousands of years old. As such DBC is regarded as highly refractory. In the current study, the photo-lability of DBC, DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM; ultraviolet-visible absorbance were determined over the course of a 28 day irradiation of North Atlantic Deep Water under a solar simulator. During the irradiation DBC fell from 1044 ± 164 nM-C to 55 ± 15 nM-C, a 20-fold decrease in concentration. Dissolved black carbon photo-degradation was more rapid and more extensive than for bulk CDOM and DOC. The concentration of DBC correlated with CDOM absorbance and the quality of DBC indicated by the ratios of different BPCAs correlated with CDOM absorbance spectral slope, suggesting the optical properties of CDOM may provide a proxy for both DBC concentrations and quality in natural waters. Further, the photo-lability of components of the DBC pool increased with their degree of aromatic condensation. These trends indicate that a continuum of compounds of varying photo-lability exists within the marine DOC pool. In this continuum, photo-lability scales with aromatic character, specifically the degree of condensation. Scaling the rapid photo-degradation of DBC to rates of DOC photo-mineralisation for the global ocean leads to an estimated photo-chemical half-life for oceanic DBC of less than 800 years. This is more than an order of magnitude shorter than the apparent age of DBC in the ocean. Consequently, photo-degradation is posited as the primary sink for oceanic DBC and the apparent survival of DBC molecules in the oceans for millennia appears to be facilitated not by their

  13. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung; Islam, Mohammad A.; Robinson, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating

  14. Structure aggregation of carbon black in ethylene-propylene diene polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulus of filled and unfilled Ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM vulcanizates was used to predict the shape-factor of carbon black aggregation in the polymer. Four types of carbon black that vary in particle size and structure were used in this study. Quadratic curves relating the carbon black volume concentration and the modulus ratio of filled and unfilled rubber vulcanizates were used to adopt the shape factor of certain carbon black type. The shape factor of MT, HAF, SRF and Lampblack were 3, 3.75, 4 and 4.25 respectively. X-ray diffraction technique (XRD was also used to evaluate the relative size of crystallite on the filler surface to that of the rubber and correlating it to the shape factor of carbon black aggregation in the polymer. Effect of the pH values and structure of carbon blacks used on the shape factor of filler aggregates were also studied. It was found that the shape factor is independent on the particle size while it is dependent on the pH value and structure of carbon black. Also the crystallites size of the filler is proportional to the shape factor.

  15. A mass of less than 15 solar masses for the black hole in an ultraluminous X-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motch, C; Pakull, M W; Soria, R; Grisé, F; Pietrzyński, G

    2014-10-09

    Most ultraluminous X-ray sources have a typical set of properties not seen in Galactic stellar-mass black holes. They have luminosities of more than 3 × 10(39) ergs per second, unusually soft X-ray components (with a typical temperature of less than about 0.3 kiloelectronvolts) and a characteristic downturn in their spectra above about 5 kiloelectronvolts. Such puzzling properties have been interpreted either as evidence of intermediate-mass black holes or as emission from stellar-mass black holes accreting above their Eddington limit, analogous to some Galactic black holes at peak luminosity. Recently, a very soft X-ray spectrum was observed in a rare and transient stellar-mass black hole. Here we report that the X-ray source P13 in the galaxy NGC 7793 is in a binary system with a period of about 64 days and exhibits all three canonical properties of ultraluminous sources. By modelling the strong optical and ultraviolet modulations arising from X-ray heating of the B9Ia donor star, we constrain the black hole mass to be less than 15 solar masses. Our results demonstrate that in P13, soft thermal emission and spectral curvature are indeed signatures of supercritical accretion. By analogy, ultraluminous X-ray sources with similar X-ray spectra and luminosities of up to a few times 10(40) ergs per second can be explained by supercritical accretion onto massive stellar-mass black holes.

  16. Using Black Light to Find Jack-Pine Budworm Egg Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel T. Jennings

    1968-01-01

    Jack pine foliage infested with jack-pine budworm egg masses was examined under two kinds of light -- black light and a combination of natural and fluorescent light. Black light significantly increased the accuracy of count but not the efficiency of examination.

  17. Biomass Burning Emissions of Black Carbon from African Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, A. C.; Leone, O.; Nitschke, K. L.; Dubey, M. K.; Carrico, C.; Springston, S. R.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Watson, T. B.; Kuang, C.; Uin, J.; McMeeking, G. R.; DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Yokelson, R. J.; Zuidema, P.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) emissions are a large source of carbon to the atmosphere via particles and gas phase species. Carbonaceous aerosols are emitted along with gas-phase carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) that can be used to determine particulate emission ratios and modified combustion efficiencies. Black carbon (BC) aerosols are potentially underestimated in global models and are considered to be one of the most important global warming factors behind CO2. Half or more BC in the atmosphere is from BB, estimated at 6-9 Tg/yr (IPCC, 5AR) and contributing up to 0.6 W/m2 atmospheric warming (Bond et al., 2013). With a potential rise in drought and extreme events in the future due to climate change, these numbers are expected to increase. For this reason, we focus on BC and organic carbon aerosol species that are emitted from forest fires and compare their emission ratios, physical and optical properties to those from controlled laboratory studies of single-source BB fuels to understand BB carbonaceous aerosols in the atmosphere. We investigate BC in concentrated BB plumes as sampled from the new U.S. DOE ARM Program campaign, Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC). The ARM Aerosol Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) are currently located on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, located midway between Angola and Brazil. The location was chosen for sampling maximum aerosol outflow from Africa. The far-field aged BC from LASIC is compared to BC from indoor generation from single-source fuels, e.g. African grass, sampled during Fire Lab At Missoula Experiments IV (FLAME-IV). BC is measured with a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) alongside numerous supporting instrumentation, e.g. particle counters, CO and CO2 detectors, aerosol scattering and absorption measurements, etc. FLAME-IV includes both direct emissions and well-mixed aerosol samples that have undergone dilution, cooling, and condensation. BC

  18. Evaluating The Performance of Asphalt Concrete Mixes by Utilizing Carbon Black as Asphalt Modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Faleh Al.ani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black produced from several factories in Iraq is expected to provide a reinforcing agent for asphalt paving materials. Carbon black has many characteristics that distinguish  it from conventional mineral fillers, as well as their different function in pavement mixtures. Theory and exercise advanced  in the inclusive utilize of carbon black as a reinforcing agent for rubber has led to concept of asphalt reinforcement. The very fine particles of micro filler added in different contents will be dispersed in asphalt cement improving the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixes. In this Four percentages rates were utilized; 0, 3, 6, and 9 percent adding to asphalt grade (60-70. Mixes of asphalt concrete were destined at their optimum asphalt content (OAC then experienced to assess their engineering characteristics that contain moisture of damage, permanent deformation, modulus of resilient and characteristics of fatigue. These characteristics have been assessed utilizing indirect tensile strength, uniaxial repeated loading and repeated flexural beam tests. Mixtures improved with carbon black were existed to have amended permanent deformation and fatigue characteristics, else exhibited high resilient modulus and lower moisture susceptibility. Result showed that a rate changed from 3 to 9 percent has shown an increase in resilient modulus for increment of carbon black and modulus of resilient for mixes with 9 percent carbon black was 1.4 times that for mixes with 0 percent carbon black. The altering of carbon black from a range (3-9 percent has modified the fatigue property of the asphalt concrete mixes as determined by flexural test, Significantly, to modify the asphalt concrete manner taken the  percent of carbon black 6, and to produce the mixes more durable , higher resistance to distresses by adding the local knowledge.

  19. An intermediate-mass black hole in the darf galaxy Pox 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Do dwarf elliptical and dwarf spiral galaxies contain central black holes with masses below 106 solar masses? Beyond the Local Group dynamical searches for black holes in this mass range are very difficult but the detection of accretion-powered nuclear activity could be used to infer the presence of a black hole. The nearby dwarf spiral galaxy NGC 4395 hosts a faint Seyfert 1 nucleus with a likely black hole mass in the range 104-105 solar masses and for more than a decade it has been the only known example of a Seyfert 1 nucleus in a dwarf galaxy. I will present new Keck spectra of the dwarf galaxy POX 52 which demonstrate that it has a Seyfert 1 spectrum nearly identical to that of NGC 4395. Its velocity dispersion is 37 km/s suggesting a possible black hole mass of order 105 solar masses. I will discuss the prospects for systematic searches for nuclear activity in dwarf galaxies and the implications for black hole demographics.

  20. An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Dwarf Galaxy Pox 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    Do dwarf elliptical and dwarf spiral galaxies contain central black holes with masses below 106 solar masses? Beyond the Local Group dynamical searches for black holes in this mass range are very difficult but the detection of accretion-powered nuclear activity could be used to infer the presence of a black hole. The nearby dwarf spiral galaxy NGC 4395 hosts a faint Seyfert 1 nucleus with a likely black hole mass in the range 104-105 solar masses and for more than a decade it has been the only known example of a Seyfert 1 nucleus in a dwarf galaxy. I will present new Keck spectra of the dwarf galaxy POX 52 which demonstrate that it has a Seyfert 1 spectrum nearly identical to that of NGC 4395. Its velocity dispersion is 37 km/s suggesting a possible black hole mass of order 105 solar masses. I will discuss the prospects for systematic searches for nuclear activity in dwarf galaxies and the implications for black hole demographics.

  1. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  2. Influence of sample composition on aerosol organic and black carbon determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakov, T.; Corrigan, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we present results on characterization of filter-collected redwood (Sequoia sempevirens)-needle and eucalyptus smoke particles by thermal, optical, and solvent extraction methods. Our results demonstrate that organic and black carbon concentrations determined by thermal and optical methods are not only method dependent, but also critically influenced by the overall chemical composition of the samples. These conclusions are supported by the following: (1) the organic fraction of biomass smoke particles analyzed includes a component, ranging in concentration from about 6-20% of total carbon or from 16-30% of organic carbon, that is relatively non-volatile and has a combustion temperature close to that of black carbon; (2) presence of K or Na in biomass smoke samples lowers the combustion temperatures of this organic component and of black carbon, making their combustion properties indistinguishable; (3) about 20% of total organic material is nonvolatile when heated to 550{degrees}C in an inert atmosphere. Consequently, thermal methods that rely on a specific temperature to separate organic from black carbon may either underestimate or overestimate the black and organic carbon concentrations, depending on the amounts of Na and K and on the composition and concentration of organic material present in a sample. These analytical uncertainties and, under some conditions, absorption by organic material may contribute to the variability of empirically derived proportionality between light transmission through filter deposits and black carbon concentrations.

  3. Influence of sample composition on aerosol organic and black carbon determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakov, T.; Corrigan, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we present results on characterization of filter-collected redwood (Sequoia sempevirens)-needle and eucalyptus smoke particles by thermal, optical, and solvent extraction methods. Our results demonstrate that organic and black carbon concentrations determined by thermal and optical methods are not only method dependent, but also critically influenced by the overall chemical composition of the samples. These conclusions are supported by the following: (1) the organic fraction of biomass smoke particles analyzed includes a component, ranging in concentration from about 6-20% of total carbon or from 16-30% of organic carbon, that is relatively non-volatile and has a combustion temperature close to that of black carbon; (2) presence of K or Na in biomass smoke samples lowers the combustion temperatures of this organic component and of black carbon, making their combustion properties indistinguishable; (3) about 20% of total organic material is nonvolatile when heated to 550 degrees C in an inert atmosphere. Consequently, thermal methods that rely on a specific temperature to separate organic from black carbon may either underestimate or overestimate the black and organic carbon concentrations, depending on the amounts of Na and K and on the composition and concentration of organic material present in a sample. These analytical uncertainties and, under some conditions, absorption by organic material may contribute to the variability of empirically derived proportionality between light transmission through filter deposits and black carbon concentrations

  4. Influence of plasma treatment of carbon blacks on electrochemical activity of Pt/carbon blacks catalysts for DMFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok; Cho, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Jae-Rock; Park, Soo-Jin

    In this work, in order to improve the dispersion of platinum catalysts deposited on carbon materials, the effects of surface plasma treatment of carbon blacks (CBs) were investigated. The surface characteristics of the CBs were determined by fourier transformed-infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Boehm's titration method. The electrochemical properties of the plasma-treated CBs-supported Pt (Pt/CBs) catalysts were analyzed by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) experiments. From the results of FT-IR and acid-base values, N 2-plasma treatment of the CBs at 300 W intensity led to a formation of a free radical on the CBs. The peak intensity increased with increase of the treatment time, due to the formation of new basic functional groups (such as C-N, C dbnd N, -NH 3 +, -NH, and dbnd NH) by the free radical on the CBs. Accordingly, the basic values were enhanced by the basic functional groups. However, after a specific reaction time, N 2-plasma treatment could hardly influence on change of the surface functional groups of CBs, due to the disappearance of free radical. Consequently, it was found that optimal treatment time was 30 s for the best electro activity of Pt/CBs catalysts and the N 2-plasma treated Pt/CBs possessed the better electrochemical properties than the pristine Pt/CBs.

  5. Effect of sulfur and Nano- carbon black on the mechanical properties of hard rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hamza Al-Maamori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the properties of hard rubber(Ebonite from natural rubber, added Nano-Carbon black, where measured the properties of tensile, density, hardness and the properties of the vulcanization of a group of samples with different amount of sulfur from 18-36 pphr and different of carbon black (18-26-30 pphr. The results showed that the best carbon black ratio is 30 pphr, where it gives a balance between tensile properties of hand and toughness and flexibility of on the other hand and reduce brittleness in hard rubber.

  6. THE M BH-L SPHEROID RELATION AT HIGH AND LOW MASSES, THE QUADRATIC GROWTH OF BLACK HOLES, AND INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Scott, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    From a sample of 72 galaxies with reliable supermassive black hole masses M bh , we derive the M bh -(host spheroid luminosity, L) relation for (1) the subsample of 24 core-Sérsic galaxies with partially depleted cores, and (2) the remaining subsample of 48 Sérsic galaxies. Using K s -band Two Micron All Sky Survey data, we find the near-linear relation M bh ∝L 1.10±0.20 K s for the core-Sérsic spheroids thought to be built in additive dry merger events, while we find the relation M bh ∝L 2.73±0.55 K s for the Sérsic spheroids built from gas-rich processes. After converting literature B-band disk galaxy magnitudes into inclination- and dust-corrected bulge magnitudes, via a useful new equation presented herein, we obtain a similar result. Unlike with the M bh -(velocity dispersion) diagram, which is also updated here using the same galaxy sample, it remains unknown whether barred and non-barred Sérsic galaxies are offset from each other in the M bh -L diagram. While black hole feedback has typically been invoked to explain what was previously thought to be a nearly constant M bh /M Spheroid mass ratio of ∼0.2%, we advocate that the near-linear M bh -L and M bh -M Spheroid relations observed at high masses may have instead arisen largely from the additive dry merging of galaxies. We argue that feedback results in a dramatically different scaling relation, such that black hole mass scales roughly quadratically with the spheroid mass in Sérsic galaxies. We therefore introduce a revised cold-gas 'quasar' mode feeding equation for semi-analytical models to reflect what we dub the quadratic growth of black holes in Sérsic galaxies built amidst gas-rich processes. Finally, we use our new Sérsic M bh -L equations to predict the masses of candidate intermediate mass black holes in almost 50 low-luminosity spheroids containing active galactic nuclei, finding many masses between that of stellar mass black holes and supermassive black holes.

  7. Supermassive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Calibration of the Black Hole Mass-Velocity Dispersion Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura; Merritt, David

    2004-01-01

    We calibrate reverberation-based black hole masses in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by using the correlation between black hole mass, M, and bulge/spheroid stellar velocity dispersion, sigma. We use new measurements of sigma for 6 AGNs and published velocity dispersions for 10 others......, in conjunction with improved reverberation mapping results, to determine the scaling factor required to bring reverberation-based black hole masses into agreement with the quiescent galaxy M-sigma relationship. The scatter in the AGN black hole masses is found to be less than a factor of 3. The current...

  8. Search for intermediate mass black hole binaries in the first observing run of Advanced LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    During their first observational run, the two Advanced LIGO detectors attained an unprecedented sensitivity, resulting in the first direct detections of gravitational-wave signals produced by stellar-mass binary black hole systems. This paper reports on an all-sky search for gravitational waves (GWs) from merging intermediate mass black hole binaries (IMBHBs). The combined results from two independent search techniques were used in this study: the first employs a matched-filter algorithm that...

  9. Grafting the surface of carbon nanotubes and carbon black with the chemical properties of hyperbranched polyamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Lara, Francisco; Domingo-García, María; López-Garzón, Rafael; Luz Godino-Salido, María; Peñas-Sanjuán, Antonio; López-Garzón, F. Javier; Pérez-Mendoza, Manuel; Melguizo, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the chemistry on the surface of new carbon materials is a key factor to widen the range of their applicability. In this paper we show a grafting methodology of polyalkylamines to the surface of carbon nanomaterials, in particular, carbon nanotubes and a carbon black. The aim of this work is to reach large degrees of covalent functionalization with hyperbranched polyethyleneimines (HBPEIs) and to efficiently preserve the strong chelating properties of the HBPEIs when they are fixed to the surface of these carbon materials. This functionalization opens new possibilities of using these carbon nanotubes-based hybrids. The results show that the HBPEIs are covalently attached to the carbon materials, forming hybrids. These hybrids emerge from the reaction of amine functions of the HBPEIs with carbonyls and carboxylic anhydrides of the carbon surface which become imine and imide bonds. Thus, due to the nature of these bonds, the pre-oxidized samples with relevant number of C=O groups showed an increase in the degree of functionalization with the HBPEIs. Furthermore, both the acid-base properties and the coordination capacity for metal ions of the hybrids are equivalent to that of the free HBPEIs in solution. This means that the chemical characteristics of the HBPEIs have been efficiently transferred to the hybrids. To reach this conclusion we have developed a novel procedure to assess the acid-base and the coordination properties of the hybrids (solids) by means of potentiometric titration. The good agreement of the values obtained for the hybrids and for the free HBPEIs in aqueous solution supports the reliability of the procedure. Moreover, the high capacity of the hybrids to capture Ni2+ by complexation opens new possibilities of using these hybrids to capture high-value metal ions such as Pd2+ and Pt2+.

  10. Black sea annual and inter-annual water mass variations from space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Simav, M.

    2011-01-01

    influenced by the leakage of hydrological signals from the surrounding land. After applying the corresponding correction, we found a good agreement with water mass variations derived from steric-corrected satellite altimetry observations. Both GRACE and altimetry show significant annual water mass variations......This study evaluates the performance of two widely used GRACE solutions (CNES/GRGS RL02 and CSR RL04) in deriving annual and inter-annual water mass variations in the Black Sea for the period 2003–2007. It is demonstrated that the GRACE derived water mass variations in the Black Sea are heavily...

  11. Catalytic Enhancement of Carbon Black and Coal-Fueled Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    , Ce1-xREExO2-δ (REE = Pr, Sm)) and metal oxides (LiMn2O4, Ag2O). Materials showing the highest activity in carbon black (Mn2O3, CeO2, Ce0.6Pr0.4O2-δ, Ag2O) were subsequently tested for catalytic activity toward bituminous coal, as revealed by both I-V-P curves and electrochemical impedance...... spectroscopy (EIS). Catalytic activity was evaluated as a function of various physical characteristics of doped ceria and manganese-based materials....

  12. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kholod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder. Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  13. Black carbon reduction will weaken the aerosol net cooling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), a distinct type of carbonaceous material formed from the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass based fuels under certain conditions, can interact with solar radiation and clouds through its strong light-absorption ability, thereby warming the Earth's climate system. Some studies have even suggested that global warming could be slowed down in a short term by eliminating BC emission due to its short lifetime. In this study, we estimate the influence of removing some sources of BC and other co-emitted species on the aerosol radiative effect by using an aerosol-climate coupled model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero, in combination with the aerosol emissions from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. We find that the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) will be enhanced by 0.12 W m-2 compared with present-day conditions if the BC emission is reduced exclusively to the level projected for 2100 based on the RCP2.6 scenario. This will be beneficial for the mitigation of global warming. However, the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the TOA will be weakened by 1.7-2.0 W m-2 relative to present-day conditions if emissions of BC and co-emitted sulfur dioxide and organic carbon are simultaneously reduced as the most close conditions to the actual situation to the level projected for 2100 in different ways based on the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. Because there are no effective ways to remove the BC exclusively without influencing the other co-emitted components, our results therefore indicate that a reduction in BC emission can lead to an unexpected warming on the Earth's climate system in the future.

  14. Mass-induced instability of SAdS black hole in Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2018-05-01

    We perform the stability analysis of Schwarzschild-AdS (SAdS) black hole in the Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity. It shows that the Ricci tensor perturbations exhibit unstable modes for small black holes. We call this the mass-induced instability of SAdS black hole because the instability of small black holes arises from the massiveness in the linearized Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity, but not a feature of higher-order derivative theory giving ghost states. Also, we point out that the correlated stability conjecture holds for the SAdS black hole by computing the Wald entropy of SAdS black hole in Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity.

  15. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    adverse environmental impacts in South Africa. Little is known about the effects of black wattle encroachment on soil carbon, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of black wattle encroachment of natural grassland on soil carbon stocks and dynamics. Focussing on two sites...... in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the study analysed carbon stocks in soil and litter on a chronosequence of black wattle stands of varying ages (up to >50 years) and compared these with adjacent native grassland. The study found that woody encroachment of grassland at one site had an insignificant effect...... on soil and litter carbon stocks. The second site showed a clear decline in combined soil and litter carbon stocks following wattle encroachment. The lowest stock was in the oldest wattle stand, meaning that carbon stocks are still declining after 50 years of encroachment. The results from the two sites...

  16. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  17. Black carbon emissions from biomass and coal in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weishi; Lu, Zifeng; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Can; Gu, Yefu; Xu, Hui; Streets, David G.

    2018-03-01

    Residential solid fuel combustion makes a major contribution to black carbon (BC) emissions in China. A new estimation of BC emissions from rural solid biomass and coal consumption has been derived from field survey data. The following new contributions are made: (1) emission factors are collected and reviewed; (2) household energy data are collected from field survey data and from the literature; (3) a new extrapolation method is developed to extend the field survey data to other locations; (4) the ownership and usage of two stove types are estimated and considered in the emission calculations; and (5) uncertainties associated with the estimation results are quantified. It is shown that rural households with higher income will consume less biomass but more coal. Agricultural acreage and temperature also significantly influence the amount of solid fuel consumed in rural areas. It is estimated that 640 ± 245 Gg BC/y were emitted to the atmosphere due to residential solid fuel consumption in rural China in 2014. Emissions of BC from straw, wood, and coal contributed 42 ± 13%, 36 ± 15%, and 22 ± 10% of the total, respectively. We show that effective BC mitigation (a reduction of 47%) could be obtained through widespread introduction of improved stoves in rural households.

  18. Black Carbon Radiative Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Gu, Yu; Qi, L.; Mao, Yuhao; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-11-28

    We estimate the snow albedo forcing and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in the Tibetan Plateau using a global chemical transport model in conjunction with a stochastic snow model and a radiative transfer model. Our best estimate of the annual BC snow albedo forcing in the Plateau is 2.9 W m-2 (uncertainty: 1.5–5.0 W m-226 ). We find that BC-snow internal mixing increases the albedo forcing by 40-60% compared with external mixing and coated BC increases the forcing by 30-50% compared with uncoated BC, whereas Koch snowflakes reduce the forcing by 20-40% relative to spherical snow grains. Our best estimate of the annual BC DRF at the top of the atmosphere is 2.3 W m-2 (uncertainty: 0.7–4.3 W m-230 ) in the Plateau after scaling the modeled BC absorption optical depth to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. The BC forcings are attributed to emissions from different regions.

  19. Preparation and characterization of dopamine-decorated hydrophilic carbon black

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lijun; Lu Yonglai [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Yiqing [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang Liqun [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Wencai, E-mail: wangw@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Inspired by the bio-adhesive proteins secreted by mussels for attachment to almost all wet substrates, a facile method involving oxidative polymerization of dopamine was proposed to prepare highly hydrophilic carbon black (CB) particles. A self-assembled polydopamine (PDA) ad-layer was formed via the oxidative polymerization of dopamine on the surface of CB simply by dipping the CB into an alkaline dopamine solution and mildly stirring at room temperature. The process is simple, controllable, and environment-friendly. The surface composition and structure of the CB were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface morphology of the CB was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the PDA ad-layer was successfully deposited on the CB surfaces. The PDA-functionalized CB (CB-PDA) gave a stable colloidal dispersion in water. Contact angle measurement results indicated that the hydrophilicity of CB was significantly improved after dopamine modification. TGA results confirmed that the modified CB maintained good heat resistance. The method provided a facile route to prepare hydrophilic CB having terminal hydroxyl groups.

  20. Daily personal exposure to black carbon: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan D.; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-05-01

    Continuous personal monitoring is the benchmark for air pollution exposure assessment. Black carbon (BC) is a strong marker of primary combustion like vehicle and biomass emissions. There have been few studies that quantified daily personal BC exposure and the contribution that different microenvironments make to it. In this pilot study, we used a portable aethalometer to measure BC concentrations in an individual's breathing zone at 30-s intervals while he performed his usual daily activities. We used a GPS and time-activity diary to track where he spent his time. We performed twenty 24-h measurements, and observed an arithmetic mean daily exposure concentration of 603 ng/m3. We estimated that changing commute modes from bus to train reduced the 24-h mean BC exposure concentration by 29%. Switching from open windows to closed windows and recirculated air in a car led to a reduction of 32%. Living in a home without a wood-fired heater caused a reduction of 50% compared with a wood-heated home. Our preliminary findings highlight the potential utility of simple approaches to reduce a person's daily BC exposure.

  1. Black carbon emissions from biomass and coal in rural China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weishi; Lu, Zifeng; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Can; Gu, Yefu; Xu, Hui; Streets, David G.

    2018-03-01

    Residential solid fuel combustion makes a major contribution to black carbon (BC) emissions in China. A new estimation of BC emissions from rural solid biomass and coal consumption has been derived from field survey data. The following new contributions are made: (1) emission factors are collected and reviewed; (2) household energy data are collected from field survey data and from the literature; (3) a new extrapolation method is developed to extend the field survey data to other locations; (4) the ownership and usage of two stove types are estimated and considered in the emission calculations; and (5) uncertainties associated with the estimation results are quantified. It is shown that rural households with higher income will consume less biomass but more coal. Agricultural acreage and temperature also significantly influence the amount of solid fuel consumed in rural areas. It is estimated that 640±245 Gg BC/y were emitted to the atmosphere due to residential solid fuel consumption in rural China in 2014. Emissions of BC from straw, wood, and coal contributed 42±13%, 36±15%, and 22±10% of the total, respectively. We show that effective BC mitigation (a reduction of 47%) could be obtained through widespread introduction of improved stoves in rural households

  2. Field Measurements of Black Carbon Yields from Gas Flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Bradley M; Johnson, Matthew R

    2017-02-07

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from gas flaring in the oil and gas industry are postulated to have critical impacts on climate and public health, but actual emission rates remain poorly characterized. This paper presents in situ field measurements of BC emission rates and flare gas volume-specific BC yields for a diverse range of flares. Measurements were performed during a series of field campaigns in Mexico and Ecuador using the sky-LOSA optical measurement technique, in concert with comprehensive Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analyses. Parallel on-site measurements of flare gas flow rate and composition were successfully performed at a subset of locations enabling direct measurements of fuel-specific BC yields from flares under field conditions. Quantified BC emission rates from individual flares spanned more than 4 orders of magnitude (up to 53.7 g/s). In addition, emissions during one notable ∼24-h flaring event (during which the plume transmissivity dropped to zero) would have been even larger than this maximum rate, which was measured as this event was ending. This highlights the likely importance of superemitters to global emission inventories. Flare gas volume-specific BC yields were shown to be strongly correlated with flare gas heating value. A newly derived correlation fitting current field data and previous lab data suggests that, in the context of recent studies investigating transport of flare-generated BC in the Arctic and globally, impacts of flaring in the energy industry may in fact be underestimated.

  3. Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

    2010-04-15

    Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

  4. Distribution and Sources of Black Carbon in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ling

    The Arctic is warming at twice the global rate over recent decades. To slow down this warming trend, there is growing interest in reducing the impact from short-lived climate forcers, such as black carbon (BC), because the benefits of mitigation are seen more quickly relative to CO2 reduction. To propose efficient mitigation policies, it is imperative to improve our understanding of BC distribution in the Arctic and to identify the sources. In this dissertation, we investigate the sensitivity of BC in the Arctic, including BC concentrations in snow (BCsnow) and BC concentrations in air (BCair), to emissions, dry deposition and wet scavenging using a global 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) GEOS-Chem. By including flaring emissions, estimating dry deposition velocity using resistance-in-series method, and including Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) in wet scavenging, simulated BCsnow in the eight Arctic sub-regions agree with the observations within a factor of two, and simulated BCair fall within the uncertainty range of observations. Specifically, we find that natural gas flaring emissions in Western Extreme North of Russia (WENR) strongly enhance BCsnow (by up to ?50%) and BCair (by 20-32%) during snow season in the so-called 'Arctic front', but has negligible impact on BC in the free troposphere. The updated dry deposition velocity over snow and ice is much larger than those used in most of global CTMs and agrees better with observation. The resulting BCsnow changes marginally because of the offsetting of higher dry and lower wet deposition fluxes. In contrast, surface BCair decreases strongly due to the faster dry deposition (by 27-68%). WBF occurs when the environmental vapor pressure is in between the saturation vapor pressure of ice crystals and water drops in mixed-phase clouds. As a result, water drops evaporate and releases BC particles in them back into the interstitial air. In most CTMs, WBF is either missing or represented by a uniform and low BC

  5. Black Carbon Inclusive Multichemical Modeling of PBDE and PCB Biomagnification and -Transformation in Estuarine Food Webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paolo, C.; Gandhi, N.; Bhavsar, S.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are affected by adsorption on black carbon (BC) and metabolism in biota, respectively. Recent studies have addressed these two processes separately, illustrating their importance in assessing contaminant dynamics. In order

  6. Self-sensing piezoresistive cement composite loaded with carbon black particles

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.; Cachim, Paulo B.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2017-01-01

    Strain sensors can be embedded in civil engineering infrastructures to perform real-time service life monitoring. Here, the sensing capability of piezoresistive cement-based composites loaded with carbon black (CB) particles is investigated. Several

  7. Thermal conductivity and stability of nano size carbon black filled PDMS: Fuel cell perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was considered as a prospective bipolar plate material candidate for a Fuel Cell. In this perspective, thermal conductivity and stability of the composites were investigated. Samples with filler weight...

  8. Black Holes: Physics and Astrophysics - Stellar-mass, supermassive and primordial black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.

    2004-01-01

    I present an elementary primer of black hole physics, including its general relativity basis, all peppered with astrophysical illustrations. Following a brief review of the process stellar collapse to a black hole, I discuss the gravitational redshift, particle trajectories in gravitational fields, the Schwarzschild and Kerr solutions to Einstein's equations, orbits in Schwarzschild and in Kerr geometry, and the dragging of inertial frames. I follow with a brief review of galactic X-ray binar...

  9. Evolution of the Black Hole Mass Function in Star Clusters from Multiple Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Pierre; Mocz, Philip; Loeb, Abraham

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effects of black hole (BH) mergers in star clusters on the black hole mass function (BHMF). As BHs are not produced in pair-instability supernovae, it is suggested that there is a dearth of high-mass stellar BHs. This dearth generates a gap in the upper end of the BHMF. Meanwhile, parameter fitting of X-ray binaries suggests the existence of a gap in the mass function under 5 solar masses. We show, through evolving a coagulation equation, that BH mergers can appreciably fill the upper mass gap, and that the lower mass gap generates potentially observable features at larger mass scales. We also explore the importance of ejections in such systems and whether dynamical clusters can be formation sites of intermediate-mass BH seeds.

  10. Selection and Characterization of Carbon Black and Surfactants for Development of Small Scale Uranium Oxicarbide Kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    This report supports the effort for development of small scale fabrication of UCO (a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2}) fuel kernels for the generation IV high temperature gas reactor program. In particular, it is focused on optimization of dispersion conditions of carbon black in the broths from which carbon-containing (UO{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O + C) gel spheres are prepared by internal gelation. The broth results from mixing a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea solution with an acid-deficient uranyl nitrate (ADUN) solution. Carbon black, which is previously added to one or other of the components, must stay dispersed during gelation. The report provides a detailed description of characterization efforts and results, aimed at identification and testing carbon black and surfactant combinations that would produce stable dispersions, with carbon particle sizes below 1 {micro}m, in aqueous HMTA/urea and ADUN solutions. A battery of characterization methods was used to identify the properties affecting the water dispersability of carbon blacks, such as surface area, aggregate morphology, volatile content, and, most importantly, surface chemistry. The report introduces the basic principles for each physical or chemical method of carbon black characterization, lists the results obtained, and underlines cross-correlations between methods. Particular attention is given to a newly developed method for characterization of surface chemical groups on carbons in terms of their acid-base properties (pK{sub a} spectra) based on potentiometric titration. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic. In addition, background information on carbon black properties and the mechanism by which surfactants disperse carbon black in water is also provided. A list of main physical and chemical properties characterized, samples analyzed, and results obtained, as well as information on the desired trend or

  11. Black carbon aerosol properties measured by a single particle soot photometer in emissions from biomass burning in the laboratory and field

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. R. McMeeking; J. W. Taylor; A. P. Sullivan; M. J. Flynn; S. K. Akagi; C. M. Carrico; J. L. Collett; E. Fortner; T. B. Onasch; S. M. Kreidenweis; R. J. Yokelson; C. Hennigan; A. L. Robinson; H. Coe

    2010-01-01

    We present SP2 observations of BC mass, size distributions and mixing state in emissions from laboratory and field biomass fires in California, USA. Biomass burning is the primary global black carbon (BC) source, but understanding of the amount emitted and its physical properties at and following emission are limited. The single particle soot photometer (SP2) uses a...

  12. The Toxicological Mechanisms of Environmental Soot (Black Carbon and Carbon Black: Focus on Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituraj Niranjan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The environmental soot and carbon blacks (CBs cause many diseases in humans, but their underlying mechanisms of toxicity are still poorly understood. Both are formed after the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons but differ in their constituents and percent carbon contents. For the first time, “Sir Percival Pott” described soot as a carcinogen, which was subsequently confirmed by many others. The existing data suggest three main types of diseases due to soot and CB exposures: cancer, respiratory diseases, and cardiovascular dysfunctions. Experimental models revealed the involvement of oxidative stress, DNA methylation, formation of DNA adducts, and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation as the key mechanisms of soot- and CB-induced cancers. Metals including Si, Fe, Mn, Ti, and Co in soot also contribute in the reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated DNA damage. Mechanistically, ROS-induced DNA damage is further enhanced by eosinophils and neutrophils via halide (Cl− and Br− dependent DNA adducts formation. The activation of pulmonary dendritic cells, T helper type 2 cells, and mast cells is crucial mediators in the pathology of soot- or CB-induced respiratory disease. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were also found to modulate T cells functions in respiratory diseases. Particularly, telomerase reverse transcriptase was found to play the critical role in soot- and CB-induced cardiovascular dysfunctions. In this review, we propose integrated mechanisms of soot- and CB-induced toxicity emphasizing the role of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress. We also suggest use of antioxidants and PUFAs as protective strategies against soot- and CB-induced disorders.

  13. Global emission inventory and atmospheric transport of black carbon. Evaluation of the associated exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rong

    2015-06-01

    This thesis presents research focusing on the improvement of high-resolution global black carbon (BC) emission inventory and application in assessing the population exposure to ambient BC. A particular focus of the thesis is on the construction of a high-resolution (both spatial and sectorial) fuel consumption database, which is used to develop the emission inventory of black carbon. Above all, the author updates the global emission inventory of black carbon, a resource subsequently used to study the atmospheric transport of black carbon over Asia with the help of a high-resolution nested model. The thesis demonstrates that spatial bias in fuel consumption and BC emissions can be reduced by means of the sub-national disaggregation approach. Using the inventory and nested model, ambient BC concentrations can be better validated against observations. Lastly, it provides a complete uncertainty analysis of global black carbon emissions, and this uncertainty is taken into account in the atmospheric modeling, helping to better understand the role of black carbon in regional and global air pollution.

  14. Advantage of SBR/carbon black masterbatch for tire tread application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, K.; Ishiguro, M.; Akimoto, H.; Ishida, M.

    1992-04-01

    The performance required of tire tread is becoming more severe and more various year by year, as social demands on tires have been changing. To improve wear resistance, driving safety and good drive feeling, new HP tires (high performance passenger car tires) are developed intensively. In addition, good fuel efficiency is required to satisfy the CAFE rule, which was proposed for a better global environment. To support this movement of the tire industry, material suppliers are making an effort to supply better materials. Mitsubishi Kasei has been improving the quality and production process of WMB, a SBR/carbon black master-batch produced by co-coagulation of SBR latex, carbon black and extender oil under the wet dispersion process. Compared to the tire tread made from dry-mixing compounds, that made from the WMB shows the following characteristics: (1) the abrasion resistance and the durability are higher; (2) from the viscoelastic properties, skid performance and driving stability are expected to be improved. These characteristics are remarkable when WMB is compounded in the recipes for HP and racing tires using fine carbon black. In this article, these features of WMB are studied from the view point of carbon black dispersion and polymer-carbon black interaction. Furthermore, the changes of carbon black structure during abrasion and fatigue process are analyzed and the mechanisms of these processes are discussed.

  15. Preparation of carbon black masterbatch for PET using polymeric dispersing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, D.H. [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lim, J.C. [Pukyong National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, K.H. [Yeungnam College of Science and Technology, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    Three kinds of copolyesters, dispersing agents, were synthesized from the polycondensation reaction of dimethylterephthalate (DMT), dimethylisophthalate (DMI), sebacic acid (SA), and 1,4-butanediol (BD). Carbon black masterbatches were prepared by mixing carbon black into the dispersing agents (1 : 1.3 weight ratio) in a Brabender Plasticorder Using single screw extruder, masterbatches were compounded with poly(ethylene terephthalate) in 3 wt% concentration and mechanical properties of the compounds were investigated Gel permeation chromatography data implied that thermal degradation of polymeric dispersing agents was not significant through dispersion. Capillary rheometer test showed that PBTI has the highest viscosity and shear sensitivity among the there dispersing agents. Volume resistivities of masterbatch and transmission electron micrographs showed that dispersity of carbon black was improved with increasing melt viscosity of dispersing agent. The ultimate performance and mechanical characteristics of carbon black filled PET compounds depended directly on dispersion quality of the carbon black in masterbatch. Mechanical properties of compounds were improved with increasing dispersity of carbon black and with increasing content of rigid aromatic group in the copolyester dispersing agent. 30 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. TiN-conductive carbon black composite as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.R.; Wang, F.; Song, J.; Xiong, F.Y.; Gao, X.P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The TiN nanoparticles are highly dispersed on conductive carbon black matrix (CCB). ► The well dispersion of TiN nanoparticles can improve electrochemical performance. ► The TiN/CCB shows a high photovoltaic performance with high conversion efficiency. - Abstract: TiN-conductive carbon black (CCB)/Ti electrodes are prepared by the nitridation of TiO 2 –CCB mixtures filmed on metallic Ti substrate in ammonia atmosphere. It is demonstrated from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that TiN nanoparticles are highly dispersed on the CCB matrix in the composites. TiN–CCB/Ti electrodes show outstanding electrochemical performances as compared to individual TiN/Ti and CCB/Ti electrodes. In particular, the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using TiN–CCB (1:1, mass ratio)/Ti electrode presents an energy conversion efficiency of 7.92%, which is higher than that (6.59%) of the device using Pt/FTO (fluorine doped tin oxide) electrode measured under the same test conditions. Based on the analysis of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), the enhancements for the electrochemical and photochemical performance of TiN–CCB/Ti electrodes are attributed to the fact that the dispersed TiN nanoparticles in the CCB matrix provide an improved electrocatalytic activity and a facilitated diffusion for triiodine ions. This work shows a facile approach to develop metal nitrides–carbon composites as counter electrodes for DSSCs. High energy conversion efficiency and low lost will make the composites have significant potential for replacing the conventional Pt/FTO electrodes in DSSCs.

  17. Analyzing 20 years of Black Carbon measurements in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, R. D.; Quedenau, J.; Kuik, F.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmale, J.

    2016-12-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is an important short-lived climate-forcing pollutant contributing to global warming through absorption of sunlight. In addition, BC, as a component of particulate matter (PM) exerts adverse health effects. Anthropogenic emission sources of BC include residential heating, transport, and agricultural fires, and the dominant natural emission source is wildfires. Despite the adverse effects of BC, legislation that requires mandatory monitoring of BC concentrations does not currently exist in the European Union (EU). Instead, BC is only indirectly monitored as component of PM10 and PM2.5 (PM with a diameter smaller 10 µm and 2.5 µm, respectively). Before the introduction of mandatory PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring in the EU in 2005 and 2015, respectively, `black smoke' (BS), a surrogate for BC, was a required measurement in Germany from the early 1990s. The annual mean limit value was 14 µg/m3 from 1995 and 8 µg/m³ from 1998. In 2004, many measurements were stopped, with the repeal of the regulations. In most German federal states a limited number BC monitoring stations continued to operate. We present a synthesis of BC data from 213 stations across Germany covering the period between 1994 and 2014. Due to the lack of a standardized method and respective legislation, the data set is very heterogeneous relying on twelve different measurement methods including chemical, optical, and thermal-optical methods. Stations include, among others, urban background, traffic and rural. We highlight results from the year 2009, as it is the year with the largest measurement coverage based on the same measurement method, with 28 stations. Further, we calculated trends in BC concentrations for 13 stations with at least 10 years of data, for median concentrations, as well as 5th percentile (background) and 95th percentile (peak episodes). Preliminary results suggest that concentrations have generally declined, with a larger trend at traffic stations compared to urban

  18. A Global Spectral Study of Stellar-Mass Black Holes with Unprecedented Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garci, Javier

    There are two well established populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, many millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range millions to billions of solar masses, which reside in the nucleus of most galaxies. Supermassive black holes play a leading role in shaping galaxies and are central to cosmology. However, they are hard to study because they are dim and they scarcely vary on a human timescale. Luckily, their variability and full range of behavior can be very effectively studied by observing their stellar-mass cousins, which display in miniature the full repertoire of a black hole over the course of a single year. The archive of data collected by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) during its 16 year mission is of first importance for the study of stellar-mass black holes. While our ultimate goal is a complete spectral analysis of all the stellar-mass black hole data in the RXTE archive, the goal of this proposal is the global study of six of these black holes. The two key methodologies we bring to the study are: (1) Our recently developed calibration tool that increases the sensitivity of RXTE's detector by up to an order of magnitude; and (2) the leading X-ray spectral "reflection" models that are arguably the most effective means currently available for probing the effects of strong gravity near the event horizon of a black hole. For each of the six black holes, we will fit our models to all the archived spectral data and determine several key parameters describing the black hole and the 10-million-degree gas that surrounds it. Of special interest will be our measurement of the spin (or rate of rotation) of each black hole, which can be as high as tens of thousands of RPM. Profoundly, all the properties of an astronomical black hole are completely defined by specifying its spin and its mass. The main goal of this

  19. Are emissions of black carbon from gasoline vehicles overestimated? Real-time, in situ measurement of black carbon emission factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Zhao, Shuhui; Zheng, Mei; Mu, Chao; Du, Ke

    2016-03-15

    Accurately quantifying black carbon (BC) emission factors (EFs) is a prerequisite for estimation of BC emission inventory. BC EFs determined by measuring BC at the roadside or chasing a vehicle on-road may introduce large uncertainty for low emission vehicles. In this study, BC concentrations were measured inside the tailpipe of gasoline vehicles with different engine sizes under different driving modes to determine the respective EFs. BC EFs ranged from 0.005-7.14 mg/kg-fuel under the speeds of 20-70 km/h, 0.05-28.95 mg/kg-fuel under the accelerations of 0.5-1.5m/s(2). Although the water vapor in the sampling stream could result in an average of 12% negative bias, the BC EFs are significantly lower than the published results obtained with roadside or chasing vehicle measurement. It is suggested to conduct measurement at the tailpipe of gasoline vehicles instead of in the atmosphere behind the vehicles to reduce the uncertainty from fluctuation in ambient BC concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of structural health assessment capabilities in epoxy – carbon black and epoxy – carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    F. Inam; B. R. Bhat; N. Luhyna; T. Vo

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for comparing structural health of different types of brittle epoxy nanocomposites filled with carbon nanostructured fillers is presented. Epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon black (CB) and epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite bars were prepared by calendering and thermal curing. Nanocomposite bars were subjected to Vickers diamond indentation to produce sub-surface damage. Electrical conductivities were analysed by 4-point method to estimate the structural damage caused by...

  1. 20 years of Black Carbon measurements in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Rebecca; Quedenau, Jörn; Kuik, Friderike; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Schmale, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is an important short-lived climate-forcing pollutant contributing to global warming through absorption of sunlight. At the same time, BC, as a component of particulate matter (PM) exerts adverse health effects, like decreased lung function and exacerbated asthma. Globally, anthropogenic emission sources of BC include residential heating, transport, and agricultural fires, while the dominant natural emission sources are wildfires. Despite the various adverse effects of BC, legislation that requires mandatory monitoring of BC concentrations does not currently exist in the European Union. Instead, BC is only indirectly monitored as component of PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter smaller 10 μm and 2.5 μm). Before the introduction of mandatory PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring in the European Union in 2005 and 2015, respectively, 'black smoke', a surrogate for BC, was a required measurement in Germany from the early 1990s. The annual mean limit value was 14 μg m-3 from 1995 and 8 μg m-3 from 1998 onwards. Many 'black smoke' measurements were stopped in 2004, with the repeal of the regulations obtaining at the time. However, in most German federal states a limited number BC monitoring stations continued to operate. Here we present a synthesis of BC data from 213 stations across Germany covering the period between 1994 and 2014. Due to the lack of a standardized method and respective legislation, the data set is very heterogeneous relying on twelve different measurement methods including chemical, optical, and thermal-optical methods. Stations include locations classified as background, urban-background, industrial and traffic among other types. Raw data in many different formats has been modelled and integrated in a relational database, allowing various options for further data analysis. We highlight results from the year 2009, as it is the year with the largest measurement coverage based on the same measurement method, with 30 stations. In

  2. Dynamics of Dwarf Galaxies Disfavor Stellar-Mass Black Holes as Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushiappas, Savvas M; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-07-28

    We study the effects of black hole dark matter on the dynamical evolution of stars in dwarf galaxies. We find that mass segregation leads to a depletion of stars in the center of dwarf galaxies and the appearance of a ring in the projected stellar surface density profile. Using Segue 1 as an example we show that current observations of the projected surface stellar density rule out at the 99.9% confidence level the possibility that more than 6% of the dark matter is composed of black holes with a mass of few tens of solar masses.

  3. Impacts of black carbon and co-pollutant emissions from transportation sector in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Almanza, Victor; Garcia, Agustin; Jazcilevich, Aron; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon is one of the most important short-lived climate-forcing agents, which is harmful to human health and also contributes significantly to climate change. Transportation is one of the largest sources of black carbon emissions in many megacities and urban complexes, with diesel vehicles leading the way. Both on-road and off-road vehicles can emit substantial amounts of harmful BC-containing particulate matter (PM) and are also responsible for large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and many other co-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Regionally, black carbon emissions contributions from mobile sources may vary widely depending on the technical characteristics of the vehicle fleet, the quality and chemical properties of the fuels consumed, and the degree of local development and economic activities that foster wider and more frequent or intensive use of vehicles. This presentation will review and assess the emissions of black carbon from the on-road and off-road transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Viable mitigation strategies, including innovative technological alternatives to reduce black carbon and co-pollutants in diesel vehicles and their impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems will be described.

  4. Effects of airborne black carbon pollution on maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Bernadett; Anda, Angela; Soos, Gabor

    2013-04-01

    The black carbon (BC) changes the radiation balance of the Earth and contributes to global warming. The airborne BC deposited on the surface of plant, changing the radiation balance, water balance and the total dry matter (TDM) content of plant. The objective of our study was to investigate the impact of soot originated from motor vehicle exhaust on maize. The field experiment was carried out in Keszthely Agrometeorological Research Station (Hungary) in three consecutive years (2010, 2011, 2012) of growing season. The test plant was the maize hybrid Sperlona (FAO 340) with short growing season. The BC was chemically "pure", which means that it is free any contaminants (e.g. heavy metals). The BC was coming from the Hankook Tyre Company (Dunaújváros, Hungary), where used that for improve the wear resistance of tires. We used a motorised sprayer of SP 415 type to spray the BC onto the leaf surface. The leaf area index (LAI) was measured each week on the same 12 sample maize in each treatment using an LI 3000A automatic planimeter (LI-COR, Lincoln, NE). Albedo was measured by pyranometers of the CMA-11 type (Kipp & Zonen, Vaisala), what we placed the middle of the plot of 0.3 ha. The effects of BC were studied under two different water supplies: evapotranspirometers of Thornthwaite type were used for "ad libitum" treatment and rainfed treatment in field plots. In 2010 and 2012, a big difference was not observed in the case of LAI in the effects of BC. However, in 2011 there was a significant difference. The LAI of the BC polluted maize was higher (10-15%, P<0.05), than the LAI of the control maize in the rainfed plot and in the ET chambers, respectively. The albedo of the BC contaminated maize decreased (15-30%, P<0.05) in all three years. We also detected that the green plant surface of maize increased on BC contaminated treatment. These results may suggest that the plant is able to absorb the additional carbon source through the leaves. The albedo decreased

  5. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  6. Production of high stellar-mass primordial black holes in trapped inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Shu-Lin; Lee, Wolung [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University,Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Ng, Kin-Wang [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica,Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica,Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-01

    Trapped inflation has been proposed to provide a successful inflation with a steep potential. We discuss the formation of primordial black holes in the trapped inflationary scenario. We show that primordial black holes are naturally produced during inflation with a steep trapping potential. In particular, we have given a recipe for an inflaton potential with which particle production can induce large non-Gaussian curvature perturbation that leads to the formation of high stellar-mass primordial black holes. These primordial black holes could be dark matter observed by the LIGO detectors through a binary black-hole merger. At the end, we have given an attempt to realize the required inflaton potential in the axion monodromy inflation, and discussed the gravitational waves sourced by the particle production.

  7. Can Planck-mass relics of evaporating black holes close the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGibbon, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors propose that the cosmological dark matter consists of the Planck-mass remnants of evaporating primordial black holes. Such remnants would be expected to have close to the critical density if the black holes evaporating at the present epoch have the maximum density consistent with cosmic-ray constraints. Primordial black holes of the required density may form naturally at the end of an inflationary epoch. Planck-mass relics would behave dynamically just like 'cold dark matter' and would therefore share the attractions of other 'cold' candidates. In addition, because the baryonic matter in black holes cannot participate in nucleosynthesis the limits on the baryonic content of the Universe set by primordial nucleosynthesis are circumvented. (author)

  8. Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Calderón-Infante, J. [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Muñoz, J. A.; Vives-Arias, H. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-02-20

    The idea that dark matter can be made of intermediate-mass primordial black holes (PBHs) in the 10 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 200 M {sub ⊙} range has recently been reconsidered, particularly in the light of the detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO experiment. The existence of even a small fraction of dark matter in black holes should nevertheless result in noticeable quasar gravitational microlensing. Quasar microlensing is sensitive to any type of compact objects in the lens galaxy, to their abundance, and to their mass. We have analyzed optical and X-ray microlensing data from 24 gravitationally lensed quasars to estimate the abundance of compact objects in a very wide range of masses. We conclude that the fraction of mass in black holes or any type of compact objects is negligible outside of the 0.05 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 0.45 M {sub ⊙} mass range and that it amounts to 20% ± 5% of the total matter, in agreement with the expected masses and abundances of the stellar component. Consequently, the existence of a significant population of intermediate-mass PBHs appears to be inconsistent with current microlensing observations. Therefore, primordial massive black holes are a very unlikely source of the gravitational radiation detected by LIGO.

  9. Revisiting the ADT mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jun-Jin [Guizhou Normal University, Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy and Data Processing, Guiyang (China)

    2017-10-15

    We evaluate the Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons on two different on-shell reference backgrounds, which are the flat background and the boundary matched Kaluza-Klein (KK) monopole. The mass on the former, identified with the one on the background of the asymptotic geometry, differs from the mass on the latter by that of the KK monopole. However, each mass satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. To test the results in five dimensions, we compute the mass in the context of the dimensionally reduced theory. Finally, in contrast with the original ADT formulation, its off-shell generalisation is applied to calculate the mass as well. (orig.)

  10. Revisiting the ADT mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Jun-Jin

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons on two different on-shell reference backgrounds, which are the flat background and the boundary matched Kaluza-Klein (KK) monopole. The mass on the former, identified with the one on the background of the asymptotic geometry, differs from the mass on the latter by that of the KK monopole. However, each mass satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. To test the results in five dimensions, we compute the mass in the context of the dimensionally reduced theory. Finally, in contrast with the original ADT formulation, its off-shell generalisation is applied to calculate the mass as well. (orig.)

  11. Revisiting the ADT mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun-Jin

    2017-10-01

    We evaluate the Abbott-Deser-Tekin (ADT) mass of the five-dimensional rotating black holes with squashed horizons on two different on-shell reference backgrounds, which are the flat background and the boundary matched Kaluza-Klein (KK) monopole. The mass on the former, identified with the one on the background of the asymptotic geometry, differs from the mass on the latter by that of the KK monopole. However, each mass satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. To test the results in five dimensions, we compute the mass in the context of the dimensionally reduced theory. Finally, in contrast with the original ADT formulation, its off-shell generalisation is applied to calculate the mass as well.

  12. Effect of scalar field mass on gravitating charged scalar solitons and black holes in a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponglertsakul, Supakchai, E-mail: supakchai.p@gmail.com; Winstanley, Elizabeth, E-mail: E.Winstanley@sheffield.ac.uk

    2017-01-10

    We study soliton and black hole solutions of Einstein charged scalar field theory in cavity. We examine the effect of introducing a scalar field mass on static, spherically symmetric solutions of the field equations. We focus particularly on the spaces of soliton and black hole solutions, as well as studying their stability under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations of the metric, electromagnetic field, and scalar field.

  13. Arctic Black Carbon Loading and Profile Using the Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    s deployment within the Arctic Circle during the summer of 2015 (Deadhorse, Alaska [70° 12' 20" N, 148° 30' 42" W]), the truly unique opportunity presented itself to acquire profile data on BC loading at little additional cost. Since the SP2 is a particle-resolved measurement, the resulting data set provides refractory black carbon (rBC) mass loadings, size and mass distributions, and rBC-containing particle mixing state, all of which are expected to readily find value in the modeling community. As part of the ACME-V (http://www.arm.gov/campaigns/aaf2014armacmev) campaign, CO, CO2, and CH4 were also measured, providing the unique opportunity for carbon closure. We will also work closely with modelers who require such data and expect this collaboration will lead directly to a better understanding of the climate impacts of BC in the Arctic. The primary measurement objective was to acquire airborne data on the vertical and spatial distributions of refractory black carbon (rBC) loading, size and mass distribution, and particle mixing state. The primary scientific objective was to provide a targeted data set of rBC particle distributions to better understand and constrain the impact of black carbon radiative forcing in the cryosphere. The SP2-based data set during this campaign is available in the DOE-ARM archive (http://www.arm.gov/campaigns/aaf2015abclp).

  14. Dynamac molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (Biochar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration (“biochar”). Here we present a molecular-level assessment o...

  15. Comparison of manufactured and black carbon nanoparticle concentrations in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Nowack, B.; Wiesner, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that concentrations of manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (MCNPs) in aquatic sediments will be negligible compared to levels of black carbon nanoparticles (BCNPs). This is concluded from model calculations accounting for MCNP sedimentation fluxes, removal rates due to

  16. Are emissions of black carbon from gasoline vehicles underestimated? Insights from near and on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggio, John; Gordon, Mark; Smallwood, Gregory; Li, Shao-Meng; Stroud, Craig; Staebler, Ralf; Lu, Gang; Lee, Patrick; Taylor, Brett; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2012-05-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) with a high-sensitivity laser-induced incandescence (HS-LII) instrument and a single particle soot photometer (SP2) were conducted upwind, downwind, and while driving on a highway dominated by gasoline vehicles. The results are used with concurrent CO(2) measurements to derive fuel-based BC emission factors for real-world average fleet and heavy-duty diesel vehicles separately. The derived emission factors from both instruments are compared, and a low SP2 bias (relative to the HS-LII) is found to be caused by a BC mass mode diameter less than 75 nm, that is most prominent with the gasoline fleet but is not present in the heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust on the highway. Results from both the LII and the SP2 demonstrate that the BC emission factors from gasoline vehicles are at least a factor of 2 higher than previous North American measurements, and a factor of 9 higher than currently used emission inventories in Canada, derived with the MOBILE 6.2C model. Conversely, the measured BC emission factor for heavy-duty diesel vehicles is in reasonable agreement with previous measurements. The results suggest that greater attention must be paid to black carbon from gasoline engines to obtain a full understanding of the impact of black carbon on air quality and climate and to devise appropriate mitigation strategies. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  17. Carbon black nanoparticles film electrode prepared by using substrate-induced deposition approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svegl, Irena Grabec; Bele, Marjan [National Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 660, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ogorevc, Bozidar [National Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 660, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: bogorevc@ki.si

    2008-11-03

    A new type of carbon film electrode, composed of a thin layer of tightly packed carbon black (CB) nanoparticles deposited onto a gelatin-covered indium tin oxide/glass support using the surface-induced deposition (SID) approach, is presented. Some parameters of the novel SID method were optimized and the surface image and functionalization of the investigated carbon black film electrode (CBFE) was inspected by employing scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. A cyclic voltammetry (CV) study was conducted in which the electron-transfer kinetics and CBFE interfacial characteristics were evaluated employing several selected reference redox systems, such as [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+/2+}, [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-/4-} and Fe{sup 3+/2+} in aqueous, and ferrocene/ferrocenium in acetonitrile media. CV recordings were also performed in order to compare the electrochemical behavior of the CBFE with that of some well-known and established bare carbon-based electrodes. In order to confirm the validity of the CB film preparation method, the electroanalytical performance of the proposed CBFE was examined by carrying out linear sweep voltammetry of ascorbic acid (AA), anodic stripping square-wave voltammetry of Cu(II) in acidic medium, and amperometric measurements of hydrogen peroxide under flow injection conditions. The sensing characteristics of the novel carbon film electrode, demonstrated in this preliminary study, comprise: (i) a wide working potential window ranging from +1.0 to -1.3 V (depending on the solution pH), (ii) a wide applicable pH range (at least from 2 to 12), (iii) low voltammetric background (<5 {mu}A cm{sup -2}), (iv) a satisfactory linear voltammetric and amperometric response (r{sup 2} > 0.99) to various analytes, (v) good reproducibility (for example, r.s.d. of 2% in amperometric detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and r.s.d. of 8.5% for electrode-to-electrode CV runs), and (vi) stable and fast current response (at least 100 CV runs with

  18. Higher Atmosphere Heating due to black carbon Over the Northern Part of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S.; Singh, S., , Dr

    2017-12-01

    Light-absorbing, atmospheric particles have gained greater attention in recent years because of their direct and indirect impacts on regional and global climate. Atmospheric black carbon (BC) aerosol (also called soot particle) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties in the global direct aerosol radiative forcing remain large. Based on a year of aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths, BC concentrations were investigated in Dhanbad, the coal capital of India. Coal is routinely burned for cooking and residential heat as well as in small industries. The mean daily concentrations of ultraviolet-absorbing black carbon measured at 370 nm (UVBC) and black carbon measured at 880 nm (BC) were 9.8 ± 5.7 and 6.5 ± 3.8 μg m-3, respectively. The difference between UVBC and BC, Delta-C, is an indicator of biomass or residential coal burning and averaged 3.29 ± 4.61 μg m-3. An alternative approach uses the calculation of the Angstrom Exponent (AE) to estimate the amounts of biomass/coal and traffic BC. Biomass/coal burning contributed 87% and fossil fuel combustion contributed 13% to the annual average BC concentration. In the post-monsoon season, potential source contribution function analysis showed that air masses came from the central and northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plains resulting in mean UVBC values of 10.9 μg m-3 and BC of 7.2 μg m-3. The mean winter UVBC and BC concentrations were 15.0 and 10.1 μg m-3, respectively. These highest values were largely driven by local sources under conditions of poor dispersion. The direct radiative forcing (DRF) due to UVBC and BC at the surface (SFC) and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) were calculated. The mean atmospheric heating rates due to UVBC and BC were estimated to be 1.40°K day-1 and 1.18°K day-1, respectively. This high heating rate may affect the monsoon circulation in this region.

  19. The Dynamical Evolution of Stellar-Mass Black Holes in Dense Star Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Maggie

    Globular clusters are gravitationally bound systems containing up to millions of stars, and are found ubiquitously in massive galaxies, including the Milky Way. With densities as high as a million stars per cubic parsec, they are one of the few places in the Universe where stars interact with one another. They therefore provide us with a unique laboratory for studying how gravitational interactions can facilitate the formation of exotic systems, such as X-ray binaries containing black holes, and merging double black hole binaries, which are produced much less efficiently in isolation. While telescopes can provide us with a snapshot of what these dense clusters look like at present, we must rely on detailed numerical simulations to learn about their evolution. These simulations are quite challenging, however, since dense star clusters are described by a complicated set of physical processes occurring on many different length and time scales, including stellar and binary evolution, weak gravitational scattering encounters, strong resonant binary interactions, and tidal stripping by the host galaxy. Until very recently, it was not possible to model the evolution of systems with millions of stars, the actual number contained in the largest clusters, including all the relevant physics required describe these systems accurately. The Northwestern Group's Henon Monte Carlo code, CMC, which has been in development for over a decade, is a powerful tool that can be used to construct detailed evolutionary models of large star clusters. With its recent parallelization, CMC is now capable of addressing a particularly interesting unsolved problem in astrophysics: the dynamical evolution of stellar black holes in dense star clusters. Our current understanding of the stellar initial mass function and massive star evolution suggests that young globular clusters may have formed hundreds to thousands of stellar-mass black holes, the remnants of stars with initial masses from 20 - 100

  20. Optical properties of sea ice doped with black carbon – an experimental and radiative-transfer modelling comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiative-transfer calculations of the light reflectivity and extinction coefficient in laboratory-generated sea ice doped with and without black carbon demonstrate that the radiative-transfer model TUV-snow can be used to predict the light reflectance and extinction coefficient as a function of wavelength. The sea ice is representative of first-year sea ice containing typical amounts of black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities. The experiments give confidence in the application of the model to predict albedo of other sea ice fabrics. Sea ices,  ∼  30 cm thick, were generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator ( ∼  2000 L tanks with scattering cross sections measured between 0.012 and 0.032 m2 kg−1 for four ices. Sea ices were generated with and without  ∼  5 cm upper layers containing particulate black carbon. Nadir reflectances between 0.60 and 0.78 were measured along with extinction coefficients of 0.1 to 0.03 cm−1 (e-folding depths of 10–30 cm at a wavelength of 500 nm. Values were measured between light wavelengths of 350 and 650 nm. The sea ices generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator were found to be representative of natural sea ices. Particulate black carbon at mass ratios of  ∼  75,  ∼  150 and  ∼  300 ng g−1 in a 5 cm ice layer lowers the albedo to 97, 90 and 79 % of the reflectivity of an undoped clean sea ice (at a wavelength of 500 nm.

  1. Optical properties of sea ice doped with black carbon - an experimental and radiative-transfer modelling comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Amelia A.; Lamare, Maxim L.; King, Martin D.

    2017-12-01

    Radiative-transfer calculations of the light reflectivity and extinction coefficient in laboratory-generated sea ice doped with and without black carbon demonstrate that the radiative-transfer model TUV-snow can be used to predict the light reflectance and extinction coefficient as a function of wavelength. The sea ice is representative of first-year sea ice containing typical amounts of black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities. The experiments give confidence in the application of the model to predict albedo of other sea ice fabrics. Sea ices, ˜ 30 cm thick, were generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator ( ˜ 2000 L tanks) with scattering cross sections measured between 0.012 and 0.032 m2 kg-1 for four ices. Sea ices were generated with and without ˜ 5 cm upper layers containing particulate black carbon. Nadir reflectances between 0.60 and 0.78 were measured along with extinction coefficients of 0.1 to 0.03 cm-1 (e-folding depths of 10-30 cm) at a wavelength of 500 nm. Values were measured between light wavelengths of 350 and 650 nm. The sea ices generated in the Royal Holloway Sea Ice Simulator were found to be representative of natural sea ices. Particulate black carbon at mass ratios of ˜ 75, ˜ 150 and ˜ 300 ng g-1 in a 5 cm ice layer lowers the albedo to 97, 90 and 79 % of the reflectivity of an undoped clean sea ice (at a wavelength of 500 nm).

  2. Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and intermediate-mass black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cseh, David

    2012-01-01

    More than ten years ago, the discovery of Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) has opened up an entirely new field in astrophysics. Many ideas were developed to explain the nature of these sources, like their emission mechanism, mass, and origin, without any strong conclusions. Their discovery boosted the fields of X-ray binaries, accretion physics, stellar evolution, cosmology, black hole formation and growth, due to the concept of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). Since their discovery is related to the domain of X-ray astrophysics, there have been very few studies made in other wavelengths. This thesis focuses on the multiwavelength nature of Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and intermediate-mass black holes from various aspects, which help to overcome some difficulties we face today. First, I investigated the accretion signatures of a putative intermediate-mass black hole in a particular globular cluster. To this purpose, I characterized the nature of the innermost X-ray sources in the cluster. Then I calculated an upper limit on the mass of the black hole by studying possible accretion efficiencies and rates based on the dedicated X-ray and radio observations. The accreting properties of the source was described with standard spherical accretion and in the context of inefficient accretion. Secondly, I attempted to dynamically measure the mass of the black hole in a particular ULX via optical spectroscopy. I discovered that a certain emission line has a broad component that markedly shifts in wavelength. I investigated the possibility whether this line originates in the accretion disk, and thus might trace the orbital motion of the binary system. I also characterized the parameters of the binary system, such as the mass function, possible orbital separation, the size of the line-emitting region, and an upper limit on the mass of the black hole. Then I studied the environment of a number of ULXs that are associated with large-scale optical and radio nebulae. I

  3. Low-mass stars with mass loss and low-luminosity carbon star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothroyd, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of large carbon enrichments in static stellar envelopes were investigated, using new Los Alamos opacities (including low-temperature carbon and molecular opacities) and including carbon ionizations. To search for the production of low-mass,low-luminosity carbon stars, detailed stellar evolutionary computations were carried out for a grid of low-mass stars of two different metallicities. The stars were evolved from the main sequence through all intermediate stages and through helium-shell flashes on the asymptotic giant branch. The effects of the latest nuclear reaction rates, the new Los Alamos opacities, Reimers-type wind mass loss, and detailed treatment of convection and semi-convection were investigated. Two low-luminosity carbon stars were achieved, in excellent agreement with observations. Conditions favoring dredge-up (and thus carbon-star production) include a reasonably large convective mixing length, low metallicity, relatively large envelope mass, and high flash strength. Mass loss was of major importance, tending to oppose dredge-up; the total mass-loss amounts inferred from observations suffice to prevent formation of high-mass, high-luminosity carbon stars

  4. Local and remote black carbon sources in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Resquin, Melisa; Santágata, Daniela; Gallardo, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Rössler, Cristina; Dawidowski, Laura

    2018-06-01

    Equivalent black carbon (EBC) mass concentrations in the fine inhalable fraction of airborne particles (PM2.5) were determined using a 7-wavelength Aethalometer for 17 months, between November 2014 and March 2016, for a suburban location of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA), Argentina. In addition to describing seasonal and diurnal black carbon (BC) cycles for the first time in this region, the relative contributions of fossil fuel and remote and local biomass burning were determined by distinguishing different carbonaceous components based on their effect on light attenuation for different wavelengths. Trajectory analyses and satellite-based fire products were used to illustrate the impact of long-range transport of particles emitted by non-local sources. EBC data showed a marked diurnal cycle, largely modulated by traffic variations and the height of the boundary layer, and a seasonal cycle with monthly median EBC concentrations (in μg /m3) ranging from 1.5 (February) to 3.4 (June). Maximum values were found during winter due to the combination of prevailingly stable atmospheric conditions and the increase of fossil fuel emissions, derived primarily from traffic and biomass burning from the domestic use of wood for heating. The use of charcoal grills was also detected and concentrated during weekends. The average contribution of fossil fuel combustion sources to EBC concentrations was 96%, with the remaining 4% corresponding to local and regional biomass burning. During the entire study period, only two events were identified during which EBC concentrations attributed to regional biomass burning accounted for over 50% of total EBC ; these events demonstrate the relevance of agricultural and forestry activities that take place far from the city yet whose emissions can affect the urban atmosphere of the MABA.

  5. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Camp, Jordan B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5(sigma). The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3.4(+0.7/-0.9) x 10(exp -22). The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2(+8.3/-3.7 Stellar Mass and 7.5(+2.3/-2.3) Stellar Mass, and the final black hole mass is 20.8(+6.1/-1.7) Stellar Mass. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 440(+180/-190) Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.090(+.030/-0.04). All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

  6. The effects of additional black carbon on Arctic sea ice surface albedo: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marks; M. D. King

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon in sea ice will decrease sea ice surface albedo through increased absorption of incident solar radiation, exacerbating sea ice melting. Previous literature has reported different albedo responses to additions of black carbon in sea ice and has not considered how a snow cover may mitigate the effect of black carbon in sea ice. Sea ice is predominately snow covered. Visible light absorption and light scattering coefficients are calculated for a typical first year and multi-y...

  7. A note on physical mass and the thermodynamics of AdS-Kerr black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnes, Brett [Department of Mathematics, National University of Singapore, 10, Lower Kent Ridge Road, 119076 (Singapore); Ong, Yen Chin, E-mail: matmcinn@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: yenchin.ong@nordita.org [Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    As with any black hole, asymptotically anti-de Sitter Kerr black holes are described by a small number of parameters, including a ''mass parameter'' M that reduces to the AdS-Schwarzschild mass in the limit of vanishing angular momentum. In sharp contrast to the asymptotically flat case, the horizon area of such a black hole increases with the angular momentum parameter a if one fixes M; this appears to mean that the Penrose process in this case would violate the Second Law of black hole thermodynamics. We show that the correct procedure is to fix not M but rather the ''physical'' mass E=M/(1−a{sup 2}/L{sup 2}){sup 2}; this is motivated by the First Law. For then the horizon area decreases with a. We recommend that E always be used as the mass in physical processes: for example, in attempts to ''over-spin'' AdS-Kerr black holes.

  8. Thermal Oxidation of Tail Gases from the Production of Oil-furnace Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosak, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the production technology of oil-furnace carbon black, as well as the selected solution for preventing the emissions of this process from contaminating the environment.The products of industrial oil-furnace carbon black production are different grades of carbon black and process tail gases. The qualitative composition of these tail gases during the production of oil-furnace carbon black are: carbon(IV oxide, carbon(II oxide, hydrogen, methane, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor.The quantitative composition and lower caloric value of process tail gases change depending on the type of feedstock used in the production, as well as the type of process. The lower caloric value of process tail gases is relatively small with values ranging between 1500 and 2300 kJ m–3.In the conventional production of oil-furnace carbon black, process tail gases purified from carbon black dust are freely released into the atmosphere untreated. In this manner, the process tail gases pollute the air in the town of Kutina, because their quantitative values are much higher than the prescribed emissions limits for hydrogen sulfide and carbon(II oxide. A logical solution for the prevention of such air pollution is combustion of the process tail gases, i. e. their thermal oxidation. For this purpose, a specially designed flare system has been developed. Consuming minimum amounts of natural gas needed for oxidation, the flare system is designed to combust low caloric process tail gases with 99 % efficiency. Thus, the toxic and flammable components of the tail gases (hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, carbon(II oxide, methane and other trace hydrocarbons would be transformed into environmentally acceptable components (sulfur(IV oxide, water, carbon(IV oxide and nitrogen(IV oxide, which are in compliance with the emissions limit values prescribed by law.Proper operation of this flare system in the production of oil-furnace carbon black would solve

  9. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  10. The Hunt for Low-Mass Black Holes in the JWST Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Jenna; Satyapal, Shobita; Abel, Nicholas; Ricci, Claudio; Gliozzi, Mario; Blecha, Laura; Secrest, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    Most, if not all, massive galaxies have a central supermassive black hole (SMBH) millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun. While the properties of SMBHs and their host galaxies have been well-studied in massive galaxies, very few SMBHs have been found in galaxies with low masses and those with small bulges. This is a significant deficiency, because the study of this population allows us to gain an understanding of merger-free pathways to black hole growth, and to gain insight into the origin and growth of SMBH ‘seeds’, thought to have formed at high redshift. Most studies aimed at finding SMBHs have been conducted using optical spectroscopic studies, where active SMBHs (active galactic nuclei or AGNs) display distinctive optical emission lines indicative of accreting SMBHs. However, in low mass (dwarf) galaxies, the SMBHs will likely be less massive, and can be energetically weak and possibly deeply embedded in their host galaxies. As a result, the optical emission lines may be dominated by star formation regions, severely limiting the diagnostic power of optical surveys in finding and characterizing the properties of the AGN in dwarf galaxies. In such galaxies, infrared coronal lines provide a robust method of finding AGNs. Furthermore, as the black hole mass decreases, the Schwarzschild radius of the black hole decreases, and in response, the temperature of the surrounding accretion disk increases. The shape of the ionizing radiation spectral energy distribution therefore changes with black hole mass, which will affect the emission line spectrum from the surrounding gas. In this work, we investigate the diagnostic power of infrared coronal lines and the effect of black hole mass on the emission line spectra from AGNs, with a particular focus on the emission lines accessible by JWST.

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    Black carbon (BC) from vehicular emission in transportation is a principal component of particulate matters ≤ 2.5 mum (PM2.5). PM2.5 and other diesel emission pollutants (e.g., NOx) are regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS). This doctoral dissertation details a study on transport behaviors of black carbon and PM2.5 from transportation routes, their relations with the atmospheric structure of an urban formation, and their relations with the use of biodiesel fuels. The results have implications to near-road risk assessment and to the development of sustainable transportation solutions in urban centers. The first part of study quantified near-roadside black carbon transport as a function of particulate matter (PM) size and composition, as well as microclimatic variables (temperature and wind fields) at the interstate highway I-75 in northern Cincinnati, Ohio. Among variables examined, wind speed and direction significantly affect the roadside transport of black carbon and hence its effective emission factor. Observed non-Gaussian dispersion occurred during low wind and for wind directions at acute angles or upwind to the receptors, mostly occurring in the morning hours. Meandering of air pollutant mass under thermal inversion is likely the driving force. In contrary, Gaussian distribution predominated in daytime of strong downwinds. The roles of urban atmospheric structure, wind fields, and the urban heat island (UHI) effects were further examined on pollutant dispersion and transport. Spatiotemporal variations of traffic flow, atmospheric structure, ambient temperature and PM2.5 concentration data from 14 EPA-certified NAAQS monitoring stations, were analyzed in relation to land-use in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The results show a decade-long UHI effects with higher interior temperature than that in exurban, and a prominent nocturnal thermal inversion frequent in urban boundary layer. The

  12. A New Method to Obtain the Black Carbon Mixing State of Biomass and Combustion Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, M.; Liu, D.; Joshi, R.; Allan, J. D.; Coe, H.; Flynn, M.; Olfert, J. S.; Broda, K.; Fu, P.; Sun, Y.; Ge, X.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon particles (BC) significantly contribute to warming effects in the atmosphere, altering weather systems, and pose significant health risks. These impacts are especially efficient at regional hotspots with high emissions of pollutants, such as in fast-developing megacities. These urban environments have the most population exposure, and improving the understanding of the sources and the processing of pollutants in these environments is critical in guiding policy making. Here we present the results of BC characterization in Beijing during the winter of 2016 (10th Nov-10th Dec), as part of a large joint UK-China field experiment. During this experiment, we successfully gathered 4 weeks of continuous measurements, including several severe pollution events in Beijing. MethodologyThe mixing state of BC, which is how BC is associated with non-BC material (its coating) within a particle, is crucial to determine its lifetime in the atmosphere and also its optical properties. However precisely quantifying the BC mixing state has posed a challenge, in part due to complex particle morphology. We have applied morphology-independent measurements of BC mixing state on a single-particle basis throughout this experiment: mono-dispersed particle mass (MP) is selected using a Centrifugal Particle Mass Analyser (CPMA, Cambustion Ltd) and a single particle soot photometer (SP2, DMT inc.) was used downstream of the CPMA to measure the refractory BC mass (MrBC). The full scan of CPMA masses (21 mass bins covering most of MP) are performed every half hour, following polydispersed particles measured without running CPMA.

  13. Solid state double layer capacitor based on a polyether polymer electrolyte blend and nanostructured carbon black electrode composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavall, Rodrigo L.; Borges, Raquel S.; Calado, Hallen D.R.; Welter, Cezar; Trigueiro, Joao P.C.; Silva, Glaura G. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Rieumont, Jacques [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Habana, Habana 10400 (Cuba); Neves, Bernardo R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2008-03-01

    An all solid double layer capacitor was assembled by using poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-bis(2-aminopropyl ether) blend (PEO-NPPP) and LiClO{sub 4} as polymer electrolyte layer and PEO-NPPP-carbon black (CB) as electrode film. High molecular weight PEO and the block copolymer NPPP with molecular mass of 2000 Da were employed, which means that the design is safe from the point of view of solvent or plasticizer leakage and thus, a separator is not necessary. Highly conductive with large surface area nanostructured carbon black was dispersed in the polymer blend to produce the electrode composite. The electrolyte and electrode multilayers prepared by spray were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity as a function of temperature was fitted with the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation, which indicates a conductivity mechanism typical of solid polymer electrolyte. AFM images of the nanocomposite electrode showed carbon black particles of approximately 60 nm in size well distributed in a semicrystalline and porous polymer blend coating. The solid double layer capacitor with 10 wt.% CB was designed with final thickness of approximately 130 {mu}m and delivered a capacitance of 17 F g{sup -1} with a cyclability of more than 1000 cycles. These characteristics make possible the construction of a miniature device in complete solid state which will avoid electrolyte leakage and present a performance superior to other similar electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) presented in literature, as assessed in specific capacitance by total carbon mass. (author)

  14. Black carbon and the Himalayan cryosphere: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Charles G.; Puppala, Siva Praveen; Panday, Arnico; Stumm, Dorothea; Shea, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayan cryosphere borders global hotspots for emissions of black carbon (BC), a carbonaceous aerosol with a short atmospheric lifespan and potentially significant impacts on glaciers and snow cover. BC in the atmosphere absorbs radiation efficiently, leading to localized positive climate forcing. BC may also be deposited onto snow and ice surfaces, thereby changing their albedo. This review presents up-to-date observational data of BC in the atmosphere and in snow and ice, as well as its effects on the cryosphere in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region along the northern edge of South Asia. Significant spatial variation exists in the measured concentrations of BC in the atmosphere and cryosphere. A strong seasonal pattern exists, with highest concentrations in the pre-monsoon and lowest during the monsoon. Existing observations show bias towards certain areas, with a noticeable lack of measurements on the south side of the Himalaya. Significant uncertainty persists in the emissions estimates of BC in the HKH region, with a standard deviation of regional emissions from various emission inventories of 0.5150 × 10-9 kg m-2 s-1, or 47.1% of the mean (1.0931 × 10-9 kg m-2 s-1). This and other uncertainties, including poor model resolution, imprecision in deposition modeling, and incongruities among measurement types, propagate through simulations of BC concentration in atmosphere and cryosphere. Modeled atmospheric concentrations can differ from observations by as much as a factor of three with no systematic bias, and modeled concentrations in snow and ice can differ from observations by a factor of 60 in certain regions. In the Himalaya, estimates of albedo change due to BC range from about 2 to 10%, estimates of direct radiative forcing due to BC in the atmosphere from (-2)-7 W m-2, and surface forcing estimates from 0 to 28 W m-2, though every forcing estimate uses its own definition, with varying degrees of complexity and numbers of feedbacks. We find the

  15. Factors Controlling Black Carbon Deposition in Snow in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L.; Li, Q.; He, C.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of black carbon (BC) concentration in snow in the Arctic to BC emissions, dry deposition and wet scavenging efficiency using a 3D global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem driven by meteorological field GEOS-5. With all improvements, simulated median BC concentration in snow agrees with observation (19.2 ng g-1) within 10%, down from -40% in the default GEOS-Chem. When the previously missed gas flaring emissions (mainly located in Russia) are included, the total BC emission in the Arctic increases by 70%. The simulated BC in snow increases by 1-7 ng g-1, with the largest improvement in Russia. The discrepancy of median BC in snow in the whole Arctic reduces from -40% to -20%. In addition, recent measurements of BC dry deposition velocity suggest that the constant deposition velocity of 0.03 cm s-1 over snow and ice used in the GEOS-Chem is too low. So we apply resistance-in-series method to calculate the dry deposition velocity over snow and ice and the resulted dry deposition velocity ranges from 0.03 to 0.24 cm s-1. However, the simulated total BC deposition flux in the Arctic and BC in snow does not change, because the increased dry deposition flux has been compensated by decreased wet deposition flux. However, the fraction of dry deposition to total deposition increases from 16% to 25%. This may affect the mixing of BC and snow particles and further affect the radative forcing of BC deposited in snow. Finally, we reduced the scavenging efficiency of BC in mixed-phase clouds to account for the effect of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process based on recent observations. The simulated BC concentration in snow increases by 10-100%, with the largest increase in Greenland (100%), Tromsø (50%), Alaska (40%), and Canadian Arctic (30%). Annual BC loading in the Arctic increases from 0.25 to 0.43 mg m-2 and the lifetime of BC increases from 9.2 to 16.3 days. This indicates that BC simulation in the Arctic is really sensitive to

  16. The mass of the black hole in the X-ray binary LMC X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubekerov, M. K.; Antokhina, E. A.; Gostev, N. Yu.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    A dynamical estimate of the mass of the black hole in the LMC X-1 binary system is obtained in the framework of a Roche model for the optical star, based on fitting of the He I 4471 Å and He II 4200 Å absorption lines assuming LTE. The mass of the black hole derived from the radial-velocity curve for the He II 4200 Å line is m x = 10.55 M ⊙, close to the value found earlier based on a model with two point bodies [1].

  17. Black Carbon as an Additional Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Airborn Particles; Roet als additionele indicator voor de gezondheidseffecten van fijn stof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, N.; Fischer, P.; Cassee, F. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Van Bree, L. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Keuken, M. [TNO Gebouwde Omgeving, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hoek, G.; Brunekreef, B. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences IRAS, Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    The current standards for particulate matter are based on the mass concentration of particulates. In the study 'Black Carbon as an Additional Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Airborn Particles Compared to PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}' the authors investigated the value of carbon as an indicator of the public health effects of particulates in comparison with the mass concentration of particulates. [Dutch] De huidige normen voor fijn stof zijn gebaseerd op de massaconcentratie van fijnstofdeeltjes. In de studie 'Black Carbon as an Additional Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Airborn Particles Compared to PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}' onderzoeken de auteurs de toegevoegde waarde van roet als indicator voor de gezondheidseffecten van fijn stof in vergelijking met de massaconcentratie van fijn stof.

  18. Characterization of black carbon in an urban-rural fringe area of Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dongsheng; Li, Liang; Pang, Bo; Xue, Peng; Wang, Lili; Wu, Yunfei; Zhang, Hongliang; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-04-01

    Measuring black carbon (BC) is critical to understand the impact of combustion aerosols on air quality and climate change. In this study, BC was measured in 2014 at a unique community formed with rapid economic development and urbanization in an urban-rural fringe area of Beijing. Hourly BC concentrations were 0.1-33.5 μg/m 3 with the annual average of 4.4 ± 3.7 μg/m 3 . BC concentrations had clear diurnal, weekly, and seasonal variations, and were closely related with atmospheric visibility. The absorption coefficient of aerosols increased while its contribution to extinction coefficient decreased with the enhancement of PM 2.5 concentration. The high mass absorption efficiency (MAE) of EC was attributed to a combination of coal combustion, vehicular emission and rapidly coating by water-soluble ions and organic carbon (OC). BC concentrations followed a typical lognormal pattern, with over 88% samples in 0.1-10.0 μg/m 3 . Low BC levels were mostly bounded up with winds from north and northwest. Coal combustion and biomass burning were closely associated with severe haze pollution events. Firework discharge had significant UV absorption contribution. During the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in November 2014, air quality obviously improved due to various control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contribution of High-Mass Black Holes to Mergers of Compact Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Brown, G.E.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the merging of compact binaries consisting of a high-mass black hole and a neutron star. From stellar evolutionary calculations that include mass loss, we estimate that a zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass of approx-gt 80 M circle-dot is necessary before a high-mass black hole can result from a massive O star progenitor. We first consider how Cyg X-1, with its measured orbital radius of ∼17 R circle-dot , might evolve. Although this radius is substantially less than the initial distance of two O stars, it is still so large that the resulting compact objects will merge only if an eccentricity close to unity results from a high kick velocity of the neutron star in the final supernova explosion. We estimate the probability of the necessary eccentricity to be ∼1%; i.e., 99% of the time the explosion of a Cyg X-1 endash type object will end as a binary of compact stars, which will not merge in Hubble time (unless the orbit is tightened in common envelope evolution, which we discuss later). Although we predict ∼7 massive binaries of Cyg X-1 type, we argue that only Cyg X-1 is narrow enough to be observed, and that only Cyg X-1 has an appreciable chance of merging in Hubble time. This gives us a merging rate of ∼3x10 -8 yr -1 in the galaxy, the order of magnitude of the merging rate found by computer-driven population syntheses, if extrapolated to our mass limit of 80 M circle-dot ZAMS mass for high-mass black hole formation. Furthermore, in both our calculation and in those of population syntheses, almost all of the mergings involve an eccentricity close to unity in the final explosion of the O star. From this first part of our development we obtain only a negligible contribution to our final results for mergers, and it turns out to be irrelevant for our final results. In our main development, instead of relying on observed binaries, we consider the general evolution of binaries of massive stars. The critical stage is when the more massive star A has

  20. Central Asian supra-glacier snow melt enhanced by anthropogenic black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Flanner, Mark; Kang, Shichang; Sprenger, Michael; Farinotti, Daniel; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Li, Yang; Lawrence, Mark; Schwikowski, Margit

    2016-04-01

    In Central Asia, more than 60 % of the population depends on water stored in glaciers and mountain snow. Densely populated areas near lower-lying mountain ranges are particularly vulnerable and a recent study showed that the region might lose 50 % of its glacier mass by 2050. While temperature, precipitation and dynamic processes are key drivers of glacial change, deposition of light absorbing impurities such as mineral dust and black carbon can lead to accelerated melting through surface albedo reduction. Here, we discuss the origin of deposited mineral dust and black carbon and their impacts on albedo change and snow melt. 218 snow samples were taken on 4 glaciers, Abramov (Pamir), Suek, Glacier No. 354 and Golubin (Tien Shan), representing deposition between summer 2012 and 2014. They were analyzed for elemental carbon, mineral dust and iron among other parameters. We find the elemental carbon concentration to be at the higher end of the range reported for neighboring mountain ranges between 70 and 502 ng g-1 (interquartile range). To investigate the origin of the snow impurities, we used a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, LAGRANTO. Back trajectory ensembles of 40 members with varied starting points to capture the meteorological spread were released every 6 hours for the covered period at all sites. "Footprints" were calculated and combined with emission inventories to estimate the relative contribution of anthropogenic and natural BC to deposited aerosol on the glaciers. We find that more than 94 % of BC is of anthropogenic origin and the major source region is Central Asia followed by the Middle East. Further exploring the implications of mineral dust and BC deposition, we calculate the snow albedo reduction with the Snow-Ice-Aerosol-Radiative model (SNICAR). Even though mineral dust concentrations were up to a factor of 50 higher than BC concentrations, BC dominates the albedo reduction. Using these results we calculate the snow melt induced by

  1. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA

  2. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the UK. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA observed in

  3. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. McMeeking

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2 measurements of refractory BC (rBC mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM. We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA. We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA did change for

  4. Morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition of black carbon (BC) in urban topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yutong; Xiao, Qing; Lu, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Urban soils contain significant amounts of black carbon (BC) from biomass and fossil fuel combustion and regard to be a pool of BC. BC in urban soils has multiple effects on environmental processes in urban system, such as global climate change, air quality, and public health. Urban topsoil samples (0-10 cm) were collected from Anshan, Liaoning Province, northeast China, which is one of the most important old steel industrial bases in China. The BC in urban topsoils was extracted using the density method. Their chemical composition, morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition were examined using elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C). Elemental analysis shows that carbon content in the BC of studied soils ranged from 64.5 to 78.4%, with the average more than 70%. The O/C atomic ratio of BC is on average 0.18. The BC particle displays different morphology, including porous spherical, irregular porous fragmentary, and blocky shapes. The porous spherical BC particles has atomic molar O/C ratio determined by SEM-EDS ranging from 0.04 to 0.37. XRD indicates that BC exists in mainly combining with mineral phases hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), kaolinite (Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ), quartz (SiO 2 ), and calcite (CaCO 3 ). The FTIR spectra of BC particles show major bands at approximately 3400 cm -1 (O-H), 2920 cm -1 (C = H), 1600 cm -1 (C = C), 1230 cm -1 (C = O), and 1070 cm -1 (C = O). The stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C) of BC ranges from -24.48 to -23.18‰ with the average of -23.79 ± 0.39‰. The concentration of BC in the industrial area is significantly (p fuel combustion. Results indicated that a combination of atomic O/C ratio, porous structure, and stable carbon isotopic (δ 13 C) of BC could reflect effectively the origin of BC

  5. Further Rehabilitating CIV-based Black Hole Mass Estimates in Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Michael S.; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Shang, Zhaohui; Varju, Melinda

    2016-06-01

    Virial black hole masses are routinely estimated for high-redshift quasars using the C IV lambda 1549 emission line using single-epoch spectra that provide a gas velocity and a continuum luminosity. Such masses are very uncertain, however, especially because C IV likely possesses a non-virial component that varies with the Eddington ratio. We have previously used the 1400 feature, a blend of S i IV and O IV] emission that does not suffer the problems of C IV, to rehabilitate C IV-based mases by providing a correction term. The C IV profile itself, however, provides enough information to correct the black hole masses and remove the effects of the non-virial component. We use Mg II-based black hole masses to calibrate and test a new C IV-based black hole mass formula using only C IV and continuum measurements superior to existing formulations, as well as to test for additional dependencies on luminosity.

  6. Study of tribological properties of natural rubber containing carbon nanotubes and carbon black as hybrid fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harea, Evghenii; Stoček, Radek; Storozhuk, Liudmyla; Sementsov, Yurii; Kartel, Nikolai

    2018-04-01

    Dry friction and wear properties of natural rubber (NR), containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and carbon black (CB), were investigated. Natural rubber (NR)-based composites containing all common additives and curatives, and a fixed amount (30 phr—parts per 100 rubber by weight) of hybrid fillers (MWCNT x + CB30-x ) were prepared by simple mixing procedure and tested. The main goal was to study the behaviours of composites at different tribological testing conditions, such as friction speed and normal load. It was found that with an increase of concentration of MWCNT from x = 0 phr to x = 5 phr in studied composites, there was a decrease in the coefficient of friction (COF) with no significant change in wear in the framework of each used combination of testing parameters. Generally, higher friction speed at certain normal force led to the increase of COF of all the samples and wear reflected deliberate value fluctuation. Also, it was established that considerable growth of wear and unexpected reducing of friction coefficient ensued from increasing of applied load for every fixed sliding speed.

  7. Interplay between black carbon and minerals contributes to long term carbon stabilization and mineral transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, B.; Weng, Y. T.; Wang, C. C.; Chiang, C. C.; Liu, C. C.; Lehmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon receives increasing global wide research attention due to its role in carbon sequestration, soil fertility enhancement and remediation application. Generally considered chemically stable in bulk, the reactive surface of BC can interplays with minerals and form strong chemical bondage, which renders physical protection of BC and contributes to its long term stabilization. Using historical BC-rich Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), we probe the in-situ organo-mineral association and transformation of BC and minerals over a millennium scale using various synchrotron-based spectroscopic (XANES, FTIR) and microscopic (TXM) methods. Higher content of SRO minerals was found in BC-rich ADE compare to adjacent tropical soils. The iron signature found in BC-rich ADE was mainly ferrihydrite/lepidocrocite, a more reactive form of Fe compared to goethite, which was dominant in adjacent soil. Abundant nano minerals particles were observed in-situ associated with BC surface, in clusters and layers. The organo-mineral interaction lowers BC bioavailability and enhances its long-term stabilization in environment, while at the same time, transforms associated minerals into more reactive forms under rapid redox/weathering environment. The results suggest that mineral physical protection for BC sequestration may be more important than previous understanding. The scale up application of BC/biochar into agricultural systems and natural environments have long lasting impact on the in-situ transformation of associated minerals.

  8. Detecting Extracellular Carbonic Anhydrase Activity Using Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacruz, Joannalyn; Mikulski, Rose; Tu, Chingkuang; Li, Ying; Wang, Hai; Shiverick, Kathleen T.; Frost, Susan C.; Horenstein, Nicole A.; Silverman, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Current research into the function of carbonic anhydrases in cell physiology emphasizes the role of membrane-bound carbonic anhydrases, such as carbonic anhydrase IX that has been identified in malignant tumors and is associated with extracellular acidification as a response to hypoxia. We present here a mass spectrometric method to determine the extent to which total carbonic anhydrase activity is due to extracellular carbonic anhydrase in whole cell preparations. The method is based on the biphasic rate of depletion of 18O from CO2 measured by membrane inlet mass spectrometry. The slopes of the biphasic depletion are a sensitive measure of the presence of carbonic anhydrase outside and inside of the cells. This property is demonstrated here using suspensions of human red cells in which external carbonic anhydrase was added to the suspending solution. It is also applied to breast and prostate cancer cells which both express exofacial carbonic anhydrase IX. Inhibition of external carbonic anhydrase is achieved by use of a membrane impermeant inhibitor that was synthesized for this purpose, p-aminomethylbenzenesulfonamide attached to a polyethyleneglycol polymer. PMID:20417171

  9. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H 2 O masers. For initial cloud column densities ∼ 23.5 cm –2 the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  10. Enhanced light absorption due to the mixing state of black carbon in fresh biomass burning emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiyuan; Cao, Junji; Han, Yongming; Tian, Jie; Zhang, Yue; Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Zhang, Yonggang; Li, Li; Niu, Xinyi; Shen, Zhenxing; Zhao, Zhuzi; Tipmanee, Danai; Bunsomboonsakul, Suratta; Chen, Yang; Sun, Jian

    2018-05-01

    A lack of information on the radiative effects of refractory black carbon (rBC) emitted from biomass burning is a significant gap in our understanding of climate change. A custom-made combustion chamber was used to simulate the open burning of crop residues and investigate the impacts of rBC size and mixing state on the particles' optical properties. Average rBC mass median diameters ranged from 141 to 162 nm for the rBC produced from different types of crop residues. The number fraction of thickly-coated rBC varied from 53 to 64%, suggesting that a majority of the freshly emitted rBC were internally mixed. By comparing the result of observed mass absorption cross-section to that calculated with Mie theory, large light absorption enhancement factors (1.7-1.9) were found for coated particles relative to uncoated cores. These effects were strongly positively correlated with the percentage of coated particles but independent of rBC core size. We suggest that rBC from open biomass burning may have strong impact on air pollution and radiative forcing immediately after their production.

  11. Temporal variations of black carbon in Guangzhou, China, in summer 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verma

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of the mass concentration of black carbon (BC and mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 were made at Guangzhou, an urban measurement site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD, China, in July 2006. The average ± standard deviation (SD concentrations of BC, CO, and CO2 were 4.7± 2.3 μgC m−3, 798± 459 ppbv, and 400± 13 ppmv, respectively. The trends of these species were mainly controlled by synoptic-scale changes in meteorology during the campaign. Based on back trajectories, data are analyzed separately for two different air mass types representing northerly and southerly flows. The northerly air masses, which constituted ~25% of the campaign, originated mostly in the PRD and hence represent observations on regional scales. On the other hand, during southerly flow (~75%, the measurements were influenced by dilution due to cleaner marine air. The diurnal patterns of BC, CO, and CO2 exhibited peak concentrations during the morning and evening hours coinciding with rush-hour traffic. The ratios of OC/BC were lower during the morning hour peaks in the concentrations of primary pollutants due to their fresh emissions mainly from vehicular traffic in Guangzhou. The diurnal variations of BC observed in southerly air masses tended to follow the traffic patterns of heavy-duty vehicles (HDV in Guangzhou, while the roles of other sources need to be investigated. The slopes of ΔBC/ΔCO, ΔBC/ΔCO2, and ΔCO/ΔCO2 observed during northerly flows were 0.0045 μgC m−3/ppbv, 0.13 μgC m−3/ppmv, and 49.4 ppbv/ppmv, respectively, agreeing reasonably with their respective emission ratios derived from regional emission inventories.

  12. Low black carbon concentration in agricultural soils of central and northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Halla, Markku; Rimhanen, Karoliina; Muurinen, Johanna; Kaseva, Janne; Kahiluoto, Helena

    2018-08-01

    Soil carbon (C) represents the largest terrestrial carbon stock and is key for soil productivity. Major fractions of soil C consist of organic C, carbonates and black C. The turnover rate of black C is lower than that of organic C, and black C abundance decreases the vulnerablility of soil C stock to decomposition under climate change. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of soil C in different pools and impact of agricultural management on the abundance of different species. Soil C fractions were quantified in the topsoils (0-15cm) of 23 sites in the tropical highlands of Ethiopia. The sites in central Ethiopia represented paired plots of agroforestry and adjacent control plots where cereal crops were traditionally grown in clayey soils. In the sandy loam and loam soils of northern Ethiopia, the pairs represented restrained grazing with adjacent control plots with free grazing, and terracing with cereal-based cropping with adjacent control plots without terracing. Soil C contained in carbonates, organic matter and black C along with total C was determined. The total C median was 1.5% (range 0.3-3.6%). The median proportion of organic C was 85% (range 53-94%), 6% (0-41%) for carbonate C and 6% (4-21%) for black C. An increase was observed in the organic C and black C fractions attributable to agroforestry and restrained grazing. The very low concentration of the relatively stable black C fraction and the dominance of organic C in these Ethiopian soils suggest vulnerability to degradation and the necessity for cultivation practices maintaining the C stock. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring biomass based carbon black as filler in epoxy composites: Flexural and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Firoozian, P.; Bakare, I.O.; Akil, Hazizan Md.; Noor, Ahmad Md.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon blacks (CB), derived from bamboo stem (BS-CB), coconut shells (CNS-CB) and oil palm empty fiber bunch (EFB-CB), were obtained by pyrolysis of fibers at 700 o C, characterized and used as filler in epoxy composites. The results obtained showed that the prepared carbon black possessed well-developed porosities and are predominantly made up of micropores. The BS-CB, CNS-CB and EFB-CB filled composites were prepared and characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The SEM showed that the fractured surface of the composite indicates its high resistance to fracture. The CBs-epoxy composites exhibited better flexural properties than the neat epoxy, which was attributed to better adhesion between the CBs and the epoxy resin. TGA showed that there was improvement in thermal stability of the carbon black filled composites compared to the neat epoxy resin.

  14. Carbon Black-Modified Electrodes Screen-Printed onto Paper Towel, Waxed Paper and Parafilm M®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Stefano; Mazzaracchio, Vincenzo; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-10-03

    Herein, we evaluated the use of paper towel, waxed paper, and Parafilm M ® (Heathrow Scientific, Vernon Hills, IL, USA) as alternative substrates for screen-printed sensor manufacturing. Morphological study was performed to evaluate the adhesion of the ink on these uncommon substrates, as well as the morphology of the working electrode. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using ferricyanide/ferrocyanide as redox couple. To enhance the electrochemical properties of the developed sensors, the nanomaterial carbon black was used as nanomodifier. The modification by drop casting of the working electrode surface, using a stable dispersion of carbon black, allows to obtain a sensor with improved electrochemical behavior in terms of peak-to-peak separation, current intensity, and the resistance of charge transfer. The results achieved confirm the possibility of printing the electrode on several cost-effective paper-based materials and the improvement of the electrochemical behavior by using carbon black as sustainable nanomaterial.

  15. Carbon Black-Modified Electrodes Screen-Printed onto Paper Towel, Waxed Paper and Parafilm M®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cinti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we evaluated the use of paper towel, waxed paper, and Parafilm M® (Heathrow Scientific, Vernon Hills, IL, USA as alternative substrates for screen-printed sensor manufacturing. Morphological study was performed to evaluate the adhesion of the ink on these uncommon substrates, as well as the morphology of the working electrode. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using ferricyanide/ferrocyanide as redox couple. To enhance the electrochemical properties of the developed sensors, the nanomaterial carbon black was used as nanomodifier. The modification by drop casting of the working electrode surface, using a stable dispersion of carbon black, allows to obtain a sensor with improved electrochemical behavior in terms of peak-to-peak separation, current intensity, and the resistance of charge transfer. The results achieved confirm the possibility of printing the electrode on several cost-effective paper-based materials and the improvement of the electrochemical behavior by using carbon black as sustainable nanomaterial.

  16. Sonoelectrochemical one-pot synthesis of Pt - Carbon black nanocomposite PEMFC electrocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karousos, Dionysios S; Desdenakis, Kostantinos I; Sakkas, Petros M; Sourkouni, Georgia; Pollet, Bruno G; Argirusis, Christos

    2017-03-01

    Simultaneous electrocatalytic Pt-nanoparticle synthesis and decoration of Vulcan XC-72 carbon black substrate was achieved in a novel one-step-process, combining galvanostatic pulsed electrodeposition and pulsed ultrasonication with high power, low-frequency (20kHz) ultrasound. Aqueous chloroplatinic acid precursor baths, as well as carbon black suspensions in the former, were examined and decoration was proven by a combination of characterization methods, namely: dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with EDX-analysis and cyclic voltammetry. In particular, PVP was shown to have a beneficial stabilizing effect against free nanoparticle aggregation, ensuring narrow size distributions of the nanoparticles synthesized, but is also postulated to prevent the establishment of a strong metal-substrate interaction. Current pulse amplitude was identified as the most critical nanoparticle size-determining parameters, while only small size particles, under 10nm, appeared to be attached to carbon black. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of part replacement of silica sand with carbon black on composite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeosun, B.F.; Olaofe, O.

    2003-01-01

    We have reported the properties of natural rubber filled with locally available materials (Adu et al 2000). The effect of local clay, limestone, silica sand and charcoal on the properties of natural rubber has been examined. Results have shown detrimental effects of silica sand on the properties of natural rubber compound. It has been reported that when silica is used as a part for part replacement of carbon black, the heat build up the composite decreased whilst tear resistance improved. Results revealed that within the filler content range used in the present work, the hardness, modulus, and tensile strength of composites loaded with silica sand/carbon black showed enhanced magnitude over the composite loaded singly with silica sand. These parameters generally increased with increasing carbon black content in the composite. New area of use requiring moderate level of tensile strength, hardness and modulus (as in soles of shoes and engine mounts) is therefore opened up for silica sand.(author)

  18. Thickness effect on electric resistivity on polystyrene and carbon black- based composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Lopez, S; Vigueras-Santiago, E [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA) Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon Esquina con Paseo Tollocan, s/n, CP 50000, Toluca (Mexico); Mayorga-Rojas, M; Reyes-Contreras, D, E-mail: eviguerass@uaemex.m [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. Av. Instituto Literario 100 Ote. C. P. 50000, Toluca (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Changes on electrical resistivity were experimentally studied for polystyrene and carbon black-based composites respect to the temperature. 22% w/w carbon black composite films at 30{mu}m, 2mm y 1cm thick were submitted to thermal heating-cooling cycles from room temperature to 100 deg. C, slightly up to T{sub g} of the composite. For each cycle changes on electrical resistivity constituent a hysteresis loop that depends on the sample thickness. The changes during the heating stage could be explained as a consequence of the thermal expansion and mobility of the polymer chains at T{sub g}, producing a disconnecting of the electrical contacts among carbon black particles and an important increasing (200%) of the electrical resistivity. For each cycle, the hysteresis loop was observed in thicker samples, whereas for 30 mu m thickness sample the hysteresis loop was lost after four cycles.

  19. Electric anisotropy in high density polyethylene + carbon black composites induced by mechanical deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigueras-Santiago, E; Hernandez-Lopez, S; Camacho-Lopez, M A; Lara-Sanjuan, O, E-mail: eviguerass@uaemex.m [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA), Facultad de Quimica, UAEM. Paseo Colon esq. con Paseo Tollocan, s/n. C.P. 50000, Toluca (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    High density polyethylene + carbon black composites with electrical anisotropy was studied. Electrical anisotropy was induced by uniaxial mechanical deformation and injection moulding. We show that anisotropy depends on the carbon black concentration and percentage deformation. Resistivity had the highest anisotropy resistivity around the percolation threshold. Perpendicular resistivity showed two magnitude orders higher than parallel resistivity for injected samples, whereas resistivity showed an inverse behaviour for 100% tensile samples. Both directions were set respect to the deformation axe. Anisotropy could be explained in terms of the molecular deformation (alignment) of the polymer chains as a response of the deformation process originating a redistribution of the carbon black particles in both directions. Alignment of the polymer chains was evidenced by polarized Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Two distinct patterns of seasonal variation of airborne black carbon over Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Ninglian; Cao, Junji; Tie, Xuexi; Wang, Hailong; Zhu, Chongshu; Yang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Airborne black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were measured from November 2012 to June 2013 at Ranwu and Beiluhe, located in the southeastern and central Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Monthly mean BC concentrations showawinter (November–February) high (413.2 ng m$-$3) and spring (March–June) low(139.1 ng m$-$3) at Ranwu, but in contrast awinter lowand spring high at Beiluhe (204.8 and 621.6 ng m$-$3, respectively). By examining the meteorological conditions at various scales, we found that themonthly variation of airborne BC over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) was highly influenced by regional precipitation and over the hinterland by winds. Local precipitation at both sites showed little impact on the seasonal variation of airborne BC concentrations. Potential BC source regions are identified using air mass backward trajectory analysis. At Ranwu, BC was dominated by the air masses from the northeastern India and Bangladesh in both winter and spring, whereas at Beiluhe it was largely contributed by air masses from the south slope of Himalayas in winter, and from the arid region in the north of the TP in spring. Thewinter and spring seasonal peak of BC in the southern TP is largely contributed by emissions from South Asia, and this seasonal variation is heavily influenced by the regional monsoon. In the northern TP, BC had high concentrations during spring and summer seasons, which is very likely associated with more efficient transport of BC over the arid regions on the north of Tibetan Plateau and in Central Asia. Airborne BC concentrations at the Ranwusampling site showed a significant diurnal cyclewith a peak shortly after sunrise followed by a decrease before noon in both winter and spring, likely shaped by local human activities and the diurnal variation of wind speed. At the Beiluhe sampling site, the diurnal variation of BC is different and less distinct.

  1. Two distinct patterns of seasonal variation of airborne black carbon over Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Ninglian; Cao, Junji; Tie, Xuexi; Wang, Hailong; Zhu, Chongshu; Yang, Wei

    2016-12-15

    Airborne black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were measured from November 2012 to June 2013 at Ranwu and Beiluhe, located in the southeastern and central Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Monthly mean BC concentrations show a winter (November-February) high (413.2ngm -3 ) and spring (March-June) low (139.1ngm -3 ) at Ranwu, but in contrast a winter low and spring high at Beiluhe (204.8 and 621.6ngm -3 , respectively). By examining the meteorological conditions at various scales, we found that the monthly variation of airborne BC over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) was highly influenced by regional precipitation and over the hinterland by winds. Local precipitation at both sites showed little impact on the seasonal variation of airborne BC concentrations. Potential BC source regions are identified using air mass backward trajectory analysis. At Ranwu, BC was dominated by the air masses from the northeastern India and Bangladesh in both winter and spring, whereas at Beiluhe it was largely contributed by air masses from the south slope of Himalayas in winter, and from the arid region in the north of the TP in spring. The winter and spring seasonal peak of BC in the southern TP is largely contributed by emissions from South Asia, and this seasonal variation is heavily influenced by the regional monsoon. In the northern TP, BC had high concentrations during spring and summer seasons, which is very likely associated with more efficient transport of BC over the arid regions on the north of Tibetan Plateau and in Central Asia. Airborne BC concentrations at the Ranwu sampling site showed a significant diurnal cycle with a peak shortly after sunrise followed by a decrease before noon in both winter and spring, likely shaped by local human activities and the diurnal variation of wind speed. At the Beiluhe sampling site, the diurnal variation of BC is different and less distinct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Multiwavelength Study of POX 52, a Dwarf Seyfert Galaxy with an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    2004-09-01

    POX 52 is a Seyfert 1 galaxy with unprecedented properties: its host galaxy is a dwarf elliptical, and its stellar velocity dispersion is only 36 km/s. The stellar velocity dispersion and the broad emission-line widths both suggest a black hole mass of order 10^5 solar masses. We request HST ACS/HRC imaging to perform a definitive measurement of the host galaxy structure; STIS UV and optical spectroscopy to study the nonstellar continuum and the structure of the broad-line region; and Chandra ACIS imaging to investigate the spectral and variability properties of the X-ray emission. The results of this program will give a detailed understanding of the host galaxy and accretion properties of one of the very few known black holes in the mass range around 10^5 solar masses.

  3. 1 Mixing state and absorbing properties of black carbon during Arctic haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Marco; Gysel, Martin; Eleftheriadis, Kosas; Laj, Paolo; Hans-Werner, Jacobi

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic atmosphere is periodically affected by the Arctic haze occurring in spring. One of its particulate components is the black carbon (BC), which is considered to be an important contributor to climate change in the Arctic region. Beside BC-cloud interaction and albedo reduction of snow, BC may influence Arctic climate interacting directly with the solar radiation, warming the corresponding aerosol layer (Flanner, 2013). Such warming depends on BC atmospheric burden and also on the efficiency of BC to absorb light, in fact the light absorption is enhanced by mixing of BC with other atmospheric non-absorbing materials (lensing effect) (Bond et al., 2013). The BC reaching the Arctic is evilly processed, due to long range transport. Aging promote internal mixing and thus absorption enhancement. Such modification of mixing and is quantification after long range transport have been observed in the Atlantic ocean (China et al., 2015) but never investigated in the Arctic. During field experiments conducted at the Zeppelin research site in Svalbard during the 2012 Arctic spring, we investigated the relative precision of different BC measuring techniques; a single particle soot photometer was then used to assess the coating of Arctic black carbon. This allowed quantifying the absorption enhancement induced by internal mixing via optical modelling; the optical assessment of aged black carbon in the arctic will be of major interest for future radiative forcing assessment.Optical characterization of the total aerosol indicated that in 2012 no extreme smoke events took place and that the aerosol population was dominated by fine and non-absorbing particles. Low mean concentration of rBC was found (30 ng m-3), with a mean mass equivalent diameter above 200 nm. rBC concentration detected with the continuous soot monitoring system and the single particle soot photometer was agreeing within 15%. Combining absorption coefficient observed with an aethalometer and rBC mass

  4. EXPLORING THE UNUSUALLY HIGH BLACK-HOLE-TO-BULGE MASS RATIOS IN NGC 4342 AND NGC 4291: THE ASYNCHRONOUS GROWTH OF BULGES AND BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdán, Ákos; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Li, Zhiyuan; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Jones, Christine; Zhuravleva, Irina; Churazov, Eugene; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul; Guo, Qi; Schindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    We study two nearby early-type galaxies, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, that host unusually massive black holes relative to their low stellar mass. The observed black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are 6.9 +3.8 –2.3 % and 1.9% ± 0.6%, respectively, which significantly exceed the typical observed ratio of ∼0.2%. As a consequence of the exceedingly large black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are ≈5.1σ and ≈3.4σ outliers from the M . -M bulge scaling relation, respectively. In this paper, we explore the origin of the unusually high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratio. Based on Chandra X-ray observations of the hot gas content of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, we compute gravitating mass profiles, and conclude that both galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos, which extend well beyond the stellar light. The presence of dark matter halos around NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 and a deep optical image of the environment of NGC 4342 indicate that tidal stripping, in which ∼> 90% of the stellar mass was lost, cannot explain the observed high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios. Therefore, we conclude that these galaxies formed with low stellar masses, implying that the bulge and black hole did not grow in tandem. We also find that the black hole mass correlates well with the properties of the dark matter halo, suggesting that dark matter halos may play a major role in regulating the growth of the supermassive black holes.

  5. A study of the mixing state of black carbon in urban zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Roger, J. C.; Despiau, S.; Putaud, J. P.; Dubovik, O.

    2004-02-01

    The knowledge of the mixing state of black carbon particle with other aerosol species is critical for adequate simulations of the direct radiative effect of black carbon particles and its effect on climate. This paper reports the investigation of the mixing state of black carbon aerosol in the urban zone. The study uses a combination of in situ and ground-based remote sensing observations conducted during the ESCOMPTE experiment, which took place in industrialized region in France in summer of 2001. The criteria we used for identifying mixing state relies on the known enhancement of absorption for aerosol composed by internal versus external mixtures of black carbon with weakly absorbing aerosol components. First, using in situ aerosol data, we performed Mie computations and reconstructed the single scattering albedo of aerosol for the two different mixing assumptions: black carbon mixed externally or internally with other aerosol species. Then, we compared the obtained values ωo,int and ωo,ext with the retrievals of ωo from independent AERONET Sun-photometric measurements. The aerosol single scattering albedo (ωo,aer.) derived from the AERONET photometer observations (with the mean value equal to 0.84 ± 0.04) was found to be close to ωo,ext reconstructed from in situ observation under assumptions of external mixture. This similarity between AERONET values and external mixture simulations was observed during all the days studied. Our conclusion on external mixture of black carbon aerosol with other particles in urban zone during ESCOMPTE (close to the pollution source) is coherent with observations made during other independent studies reported in a number of recent publications.

  6. Carbon distribution in char residue from gasification of kraft black liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon; Frederick, W.J.; Agrawal, Pradeep

    2003-01-01

    The char residue yields and the total carbon and carbonate content were measured for dry black liquor solids after pyrolysis or gasification in a laminar entrained-flow reactor. The experimental conditions were 700-1000 deg. C in N 2 ,CO 2 /N 2 or water vapor/N 2 at 1 bar total pressure, for residence times from 0.3 to 1.7 s. Fixed carbon yields, when measured at the same particle residence time, decreased with increasing reactor temperature. CO 2 and water vapor diminished the char carbon significantly at temperatures above 800 deg. C, compared with pyrolysis in N 2 . Water vapor oxidized the char carbon more rapidly than did CO 2 . At 1000 deg. C, the reactions of carbon with sulfate and carbonate became faster, resulting in a smaller difference between carbon conversion rates in the different gas environments. By the end of devolatilization, the amount of carbonate in the char had changed very little at 700-800 deg. C. After devolatilization, carbonate was formed more rapidly at higher temperatures. The presence of CO 2 or water vapor increased the formation of carbonate. In the presence of these gases, more carbonate was measured at all temperatures and residence times. The maximum carbonate measured in the char was 16% of the carbon in the black liquor solids, as compared to 4.4% in the original dry liquor solids. Under most conditions, the carbonate, as a fraction of carbon input, first increased to a constant, temperature-independent value and then decreased

  7. Factors controlling black carbon distribution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ling; Li, Qinbin; Li, Yinrui; He, Cenlin

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, including BC concentration in snow (BCsnow, ng g-1) and surface air (BCair, ng m-3), as well as emissions, dry deposition, and wet scavenging using the global three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model (CTM) GEOS-Chem. We find that the model underestimates BCsnow in the Arctic by 40 % on average (median = 11.8 ng g-1). Natural gas flaring substantially increases total BC emissions in the Arctic (by ˜ 70 %). The flaring emissions lead to up to 49 % increases (0.1-8.5 ng g-1) in Arctic BCsnow, dramatically improving model comparison with observations (50 % reduction in discrepancy) near flaring source regions (the western side of the extreme north of Russia). Ample observations suggest that BC dry deposition velocities over snow and ice in current CTMs (0.03 cm s-1 in the GEOS-Chem) are too small. We apply the resistance-in-series method to compute a dry deposition velocity (vd) that varies with local meteorological and surface conditions. The resulting velocity is significantly larger and varies by a factor of 8 in the Arctic (0.03-0.24 cm s-1), which increases the fraction of dry to total BC deposition (16 to 25 %) yet leaves the total BC deposition and BCsnow in the Arctic unchanged. This is largely explained by the offsetting higher dry and lower wet deposition fluxes. Additionally, we account for the effect of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process in mixed-phase clouds, which releases BC particles from condensed phases (water drops and ice crystals) back to the interstitial air and thereby substantially reduces the scavenging efficiency of clouds for BC (by 43-76 % in the Arctic). The resulting BCsnow is up to 80 % higher, BC loading is considerably larger (from 0.25 to 0.43 mg m-2), and BC lifetime is markedly prolonged (from 9 to 16 days) in the Arctic. Overall, flaring emissions increase BCair in the Arctic (by ˜ 20 ng m-3), the updated vd more than halves BCair (by ˜ 20 ng m-3

  8. ESR study on the interaction between carbon blacks and oxygen molecules; ESR ho ni yoru carbon black to sanso bunshi tono sogo sayo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, M.; Toriyama, K.; Konishi, Y. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-02-24

    Interaction between carbon blacks and oxygen molecules has been studied by means of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The ESR spectra of the carbon blacks appears at the g-value of free spin, which are contributed by both isolated electrons and conduction electrons. Upon introducing oxygen to the system the ESR linewidth was broadened in proportion to the partial pressure of oxygen. In case of lampblack (LB 101, Degussa) the interaction was not so strong that it took a tong time at 77K for the linewidth to reach the maxmum value. In case of gassblack (P 140 V, Degussa), on the other hand, the oxygen was easily adsorbed at 298K and the linewidth at 77K became its maximum immediately after cooling. The number of unpaired electrons decreased when the system was kept at 298 K and the decrease was prominent for the local spins. These phenomena have been explained with a simple band model for the electron. (author)

  9. Search for intermediate mass black hole binaries in the first observing run of Advanced LIGO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allen, G; Allocca, A.; Almoubayyed, H.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bawaj, M.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, D J; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Deelman, E; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Duncan, J.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gabel, M.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.J.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, A.S.P.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.E.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, W.; Kim, S.W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kraemer, H.C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang-Cheol, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, W. H.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Hernandez, I. Magana; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mayani, R.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P.G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Castro-Perez, J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Rynge, M.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shao, L.P.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahi, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y. -F.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, G.W.K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2017-01-01

    During their first observational run, the two Advanced LIGO detectors attained an unprecedented sensitivity, resulting in the first direct detections of gravitational-wave signals produced by stellar-mass binary black hole systems. This paper reports on an all-sky search for gravitational waves

  10. Systematic Uncertainties in Black Hole Masses Determined from Single Epoch Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Dietrich, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    We explore the nature of systematic errors that can arise in measurement of black hole masses from single-epoch spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by utilizing the many epochs available for NGC 5548 and PG1229+204 from reverberation mapping databases. In particular, we examine systematics due...

  11. Accretion and jets from stellar-mass to supermassive black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connors, R.M.T.

    2017-01-01

    Accretion and jets occur in many astrophysical systems across a multitude of size and mass scales, and environments. As such, the study of accretion and jet physics has for decades been, and still remains, a hot topic in astrophysics. Accretion onto black holes has particular significance for many

  12. A near-infrared relationship for estimating black hole masses in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, Hermine; Ward, Martin J.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Bentz, Misty C.; Elvis, Martin; Korista, Kirk T.; Karovska, Margarita

    2013-06-01

    Black hole masses for samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are currently estimated from single-epoch optical spectra using scaling relations anchored in reverberation mapping results. In particular, the two quantities needed for calculating black hole masses, namely the velocity and the radial distance of the orbiting gas are derived from the widths of the Balmer hydrogen broad emission lines and the optical continuum luminosity, respectively. We have recently presented a near-infrared (near-IR) relationship for estimating AGN black hole masses based on the widths of the Paschen hydrogen broad emission lines and the total 1 μm continuum luminosity. The near-IR offers several advantages over the optical: it suffers less from dust extinction, the AGN continuum is observed only weakly contaminated by the host galaxy and the strongest Paschen broad emission lines Paα and Paβ are unblended. Here, we improve the calibration of the near-IR black hole mass relationship by increasing the sample from 14 to 23 reverberation-mapped AGN using additional spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph. The additional sample improves the number statistics in particular at the high-luminosity end.

  13. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton-Ayers, M.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Hemberger, D.; Kidder, L. E.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was

  14. Ambient measurements and source apportionment of fossil fuel and biomass burning black carbon in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sofowote, U.; Su, Y.; Debosz, J.; Noble, M.; Jeong, C.-H.; Wang, J. M.; Hilker, N.; Evans, G. J.; Doerksen, G.; Jones, K.; Munoz, A.

    2017-07-01

    Black carbon (BC) is of significant interest from a human exposure perspective but also due to its impacts as a short-lived climate pollutant. In this study, sources of BC influencing air quality in Ontario, Canada were investigated using nine concurrent Aethalometer datasets collected between June 2015 and May 2016. The sampling sites represent a mix of background and near-road locations. An optical model was used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning to ambient concentrations of BC at every site. The highest annual mean BC concentration was observed at a Toronto highway site, where vehicular traffic was found to be the dominant source. Fossil fuel combustion was the dominant contributor to ambient BC at all sites in every season, while the highest seasonal biomass burning mass contribution (35%) was observed in the winter at a background site with minimal traffic contributions. The mass absorption cross-section of BC was also investigated at two sites, where concurrent thermal/optical elemental carbon data were available, and was found to be similar at both locations. These results are expected to be useful for comparing the optical properties of BC at other near-road environments globally. A strong seasonal dependence was observed for fossil fuel BC at every Ontario site, with mean summer mass concentrations higher than their respective mean winter mass concentrations by up to a factor of two. An increased influence from transboundary fossil fuel BC emissions originating in Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York was identified for the summer months. The findings reported here indicate that BC should not be considered as an exclusively local pollutant in future air quality policy decisions. The highest seasonal difference was observed at the highway site, however, suggesting that changes in fuel composition may also play an important role in the seasonality of BC mass concentrations in the near-road environment

  15. Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-10-02

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50M(⊙) and 500M(⊙) and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ∼200M(⊙), where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100M(⊙) can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130M(⊙) or greater.

  16. An index-based approach to assessing recalcitrance and soil carbon sequestration potential of engineered black carbons (biochars).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Omar R; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E; Herbert, Bruce E

    2012-02-07

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R(50), for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R(50) is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R(50), with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R(50) and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R(50) is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R(50) ≥ 0.70), Class B (0.50 ≤ R(50) carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, whereas Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R(50), to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  17. Determination of black carbon and nanoparticles along glaciers in the Spitsbergen (Svalbard) region exploiting a mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Barbaro, Elena; Mazzola, Mauro; Viola, Angelo P.; Lisok, Justyna; Obleitner, Friedrich; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Cappelletti, David

    2017-12-01

    An innovative approach to characterize concentration of atmospheric aerosol particles and air mass layering along the elevation profile of glaciers is presented for the first time and validated, exploiting low weight and fast response sensors deployed on a snowmobile. Two micro-Aethalometers for black carbon measurements and a miniature Diffusion Size Classifier (miniDisc) for total aerosol concentration (airborne particles) in the 14-260 nm range were used. Test experiments were conducted in the Arctic (Svalbard) in Spring (2016). Three glaciers in the Spitsbergen region were considered for this exploratory study, the Austre Brøggerbreen, the Edithbreen and the Kongsvegen. The Austre Brøggerbreen and Edithbreen were considered as test sites to setup the experiment, to optimize the sampling strategy and to identify some basic experimental artefacts. Kongsvegen glacier was chosen for the main case study, extending from the Kongsfjorden coast to roughly 700 m above sea level for a total length of ca. 25 km and with a nearly constant elevation gradient. The obtained results were rather consistent for the three glaciers and show an increase of nanoparticles with altitude. Black carbon concentration show stationary to decreasing trends going from the bottom to the top of the glaciers. These observations indicate a very active secondary aerosol formation at the highest elevations, responsible for the increase concentration of ultrafine particles at the glacier top. On the other side, black carbon shows higher levels at the lower altitudes of the glacier. This is indicative that in absence of a long-range transport as demonstrated by calculated back trajectories, black carbon might have accumulated due to the effect of katabatic winds flow along the glacier profile. The results obtained were compared and are largely consistent with the observations from concurrent soundings with a tethered balloon experiment conducted in the nearby site of Ny-Ålesund. The proposed

  18. Aerosol Absorption by Black Carbon and Dust: Implications of Climate Change and Air Quality in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol distributions from 2000 to 2007 are simulated with the global model GOCART to attribute light absorption by aerosol to its composition and sources. We show the seasonal and interannual variations of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere over Asia, mainly black carbon and dust. and their linkage to the changes of anthropogenic and dust emissions in the region. We compare our results with observations from satellite and ground-based networks, and estimate the importance of black carbon and dust on regional climate forcing and air quality.

  19. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation on carbon black loaded low-density polyethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, M.A.; Hussein, A.; El-Ahdal, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the tensile and physico-chemical properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films loaded with different concentrations of carbon black (C.B) has been studied. The results showed that the behavior of the samples during gamma irradiation is complicated and this may be due to scission and the interaction between oxidation and crosslinking processes. The tensile properties are modified by the presence of carbon black. Film sample containing 7% C.B was found to exhibit a nearly stabilized tensile behavior with radiation dose, which allows to use this formulation in packaging for food sterilization and in preservation of weak cobalt-gamma sources. (author)

  20. Effect of silica concentration on electrical conductivity of epoxy resin-carbon black-silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Blackburn, Richard S.; Dehghani-Sanij, Abbas A.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical properties of nanocomposites are determined by the conductive paths of carbon black and influenced by a 'network' of silica. With increasing content of silica, carbon black (CB) particles are optimally dispersed, contributing to the generation of a conductive network between CB particles via direct particle contact and a tunneling effect; maximum conductivity for the epoxy resin-CB-silica nanocomposite described herein occurs at a ratio of 0.6:1.0 (SiO 2 :CB). As a non-conductive component, excessive silica will prevent electron flow, giving rise to low conductivity

  1. Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Homer, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    An electronic nose that uses an array of 32 polymer-carbon black composite sensors has been developed, trained, and tested. By selecting a variety of chemical functionalities in the polymers used to make sensors, it is possible to construct an array capable of identifying and quantifying a broad range of target compounds, such as alcohols and aromatics, and distinguishing isomers and enantiomers (mirror-image isomers). A model of the interaction between target molecules and the polymer-carbon black composite sensors is under development to aid in selecting the array members and to enable identification of compounds with responses not stored in the analysis library.

  2. End of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Painter, Thomas H.; Flanner, Mark G.; Kaser, Georg; Marzeion, Ben; VanCuren, Richard A.; Abdalati, Waleed

    2013-01-01

    The end of the Little Ice Age in the European Alps has long been a paradox to glaciology and climatology. Glaciers in the Alps began to retreat abruptly in the mid-19th century, but reconstructions of temperature and precipitation indicate that glaciers should have instead advanced into the 20th century. We observe that industrial black carbon in snow began to increase markedly in the mid-19th century and show with simulations that the associated increases in absorbed sunlight by black carbon...

  3. Quantifying immediate radiative forcing by black carbon and organic matter with the Specific Forcing Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Bond

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Climatic effects of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs differ from those of long-lived greenhouse gases, because they occur rapidly after emission and because they depend upon the region of emission. The distinctive temporal and spatial nature of these impacts is not captured by measures that rely on global averages or long time integrations. Here, we propose a simple measure, the Specific Forcing Pulse (SFP, to quantify climate warming or cooling by these pollutants, where we define "immediate" as occurring primarily within the first year after emission. SFP is the amount of energy added to or removed from a receptor region in the Earth-atmosphere system by a chemical species, per mass of emission in a source region. We limit the application of SFP to species that remain in the atmosphere for less than one year. Metrics used in policy discussions, such as total forcing or global warming potential, are easily derived from SFP. However, SFP conveys purely physical information without incurring the policy implications of choosing a time horizon for the global warming potential.

    Using one model (Community Atmosphere Model, or CAM, we calculate values of SFP for black carbon (BC and organic matter (OM emitted from 23 source-region combinations. Global SFP for both atmosphere and cryosphere impacts is divided among receptor latitudes. SFP is usually greater for open-burning emissions than for energy-related (fossil-fuel and biofuel emissions because of the timing of emission. Global SFP for BC varies by about 45% for energy-related emissions from different regions. This variation would be larger except for compensating effects. When emitted aerosol has larger cryosphere forcing, it often has lower atmosphere forcing because of less deep convection and a shorter atmospheric lifetime.

    A single model result is insufficient to capture uncertainty. We develop a best estimate and uncertainties for SFP by combining forcing results from

  4. Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: a Scientific Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, T. C.; Doherty, S. J.; Fahey, D. W.; Forster, P. M.; Bernsten, T.; DeAngelo, B. J.; Flanner, M. G.; Ghan, S.; Karcher, B.; Koch, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon aerosol plays a unique and important role in Earth's climate system. Black carbon is a type of carbonaceous material with a unique combination of physical properties. This assessment provides an evaluation of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption; influence on liquid, mixed phase, and ice clouds; and deposition on snow and ice. These effects are calculated with climate models, but when possible, they are evaluated with both microphysical measurements and field observations. Predominant sources are combustion related, namely, fossil fuels for transportation, solid fuels for industrial and residential uses, and open burning of biomass. Total global emissions of black carbon using bottom-up inventory methods are 7500 Gg/yr in the year 2000 with an uncertainty range of 2000 to 29000. However, global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon is too low in many models and should be increased by a factor of almost 3. After this scaling, the best estimate for the industrial-era (1750 to 2005) direct radiative forcing of atmospheric black carbon is +0.71 W/sq m with 90% uncertainty bounds of (+0.08, +1.27)W/sq m. Total direct forcing by all black carbon sources, without subtracting the preindustrial background, is estimated as +0.88 (+0.17, +1.48) W/sq m. Direct radiative forcing alone does not capture important rapid adjustment mechanisms. A framework is described and used for quantifying climate forcings, including rapid adjustments. The best estimate of industrial-era climate forcing of black carbon through all forcing mechanisms, including clouds and cryosphere forcing, is +1.1 W/sq m with 90% uncertainty bounds of +0.17 to +2.1 W/sq m. Thus, there is a very high probability that black carbon emissions, independent of co-emitted species, have a positive forcing

  5. Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Tami C.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Fahey, D. W.; Forster, Piers; Berntsen, T.; DeAngelo, B. J.; Flanner, M. G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Karcher, B.; Koch, Dorothy; Kinne, Stefan; Kondo, Yutaka; Quinn, P. K.; Sarofim, Marcus; Schultz, Martin; Schulz, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Bellouin, N.; Guttikunda, S. K.; Hopke, P. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Kaiser, J. W.; Klimont, Z.; Lohmann, U.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Shindell, Drew; Storelvmo, Trude; Warren, Stephen G.; Zender, C. S.

    2013-06-06

    Black carbon aerosol plays a unique and important role in Earth’s climate system. Black carbon is a type of carbonaceous material with a unique combination of physical properties. Predominant sources are combustion related; namely, fossil fuels for transportation, solid fuels for industrial and residential uses, and open burning of biomass. Total global emissions of black carbon using bottom-up inventory methods are 7500 Gg yr-1 in the year 2000 with an uncertainty range of 2000 to 29000. This assessment provides an evaluation of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption, influence on liquid, mixed-phase, and ice clouds, and deposition on snow and ice. These effects are calculated with models, but when possible, they are evaluated with both microphysical measurements and field observations. Global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon is too low in many models, and should be increased by about about 60%. After this scaling, the best estimate for the industrial-era (1750 to 2005) direct radiative forcing of black carbon is +0.43 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of (+0.17, +0.68) W m-2. Total direct forcing by all black carbon sources in the present day is estimated as +0.49 (+0.20, +0.76) W m-2. Direct radiative forcing alone does not capture important rapid adjustment mechanisms. A framework is described and used for quantifying climate forcings and their rapid responses and feedbacks. The best estimate of industrial-era (1750 to 2005) climate forcing of black carbon through all forcing mechanisms is +0.77 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of +-0.06 to +1.53 W m-2. Thus, there is a 96% probability that black carbon emissions, independent of co-emitted species, have a positive forcing and warm the climate. With a value of +0.77 W m-2, black carbon is likely the second

  6. Black carbon, organic carbon, and co-pollutant emissions and energy efficiency from artisanal brick production in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Maiz, Pablo; Monsivais, Israel; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Munguia, Jose Luis; Cardenas, Beatriz; Fortner, Edward C.; Herndon, Scott C.; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Kolb, Charles E.; Knighton, Walter B.

    2018-04-01

    In many parts of the developing world and economies in transition, small-scale traditional brick kilns are a notorious source of urban air pollution. Many are both energy inefficient and burn highly polluting fuels that emit significant levels of black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and other atmospheric pollutants into local communities, resulting in severe health and environmental impacts. However, only a very limited number of studies are available on the emission characteristics of brick kilns; thus, there is a need to characterize their gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emission factors to better assess their overall contribution to emissions inventories and to quantify their ecological, human health, and climate impacts. In this study, the fuel-, energy-, and brick-based emissions factors and time-based emission ratios of BC, OC, inorganic PM components, CO, SO2, CH4, NOx, and selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from three artisanal brick kilns with different designs in Mexico were quantified using the tracer ratio sampling technique. Simultaneous measurements of PM components, CO, and CO2 were also obtained using a sampling probe technique. Additional measurements included the internal temperature of the brick kilns, mechanical resistance of bricks produced, and characteristics of fuels employed. Average fuel-based BC emission factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.58 g (kg fuel)-1, whereas BC/OC mass ratios ranged from 0.9 to 5.2, depending on the kiln type. The results show that both techniques capture similar temporal profiles of the brick kiln emissions and produce comparable emission factors. A more integrated inter-comparison of the brick kilns' performances was obtained by simultaneously assessing emissions factors, energy efficiency, fuel consumption, and the quality of the bricks produced.

  7. Comparative Proteomics and Pulmonary Toxicity of Instilled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Crocidolite Asbestos, and Ultrafine Carbon Black in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Waters, Katrina M.; Murray, Ashley R.; Kisin, Elena R.; Varnum, Susan M.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Zanger, Richard C.; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2011-01-01

    Reflecting their exceptional potential to advance a range of biomedical, aeronautic, and other industrial products, carbon nanotube (CNT) production and the potential for human exposure to aerosolized CNTs are increasing. CNTs have toxicologically significant structural and chemical similarities to asbestos (AB) and have repeatedly been shown to cause pulmonary inflammation, granuloma formation, and fibrosis after inhalation/instillation/aspiration exposure in rodents, a pattern of effects similar to those observed following exposure to AB. To determine the degree to which responses to single-walled CNTs (SWCNT) and AB are similar or different, the pulmonary response of C57BL/6 mice to repeated exposures to SWCNTs, crocidolite AB, and ultrafine carbon black (UFCB) were compared using high-throughput global high performance liquid chromatography fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HPLC-FTICR-MS) proteomics, histopathology, and bronchoalveolar lavage cytokine analyses. Mice were exposed to material suspensions (40 micrograms per mouse) twice a week for 3 weeks by pharyngeal aspiration. Histologically, the incidence and severity of inflammatory and fibrotic responses were greatest in mice treated with SWCNTs. SWCNT treatment affected the greatest changes in abundance of identified lung tissue proteins. The trend in number of proteins affected (SWCNT [376] > AB [231] > UFCB [184]) followed the potency of these materials in three biochemical assays of inflammation (cytokines). SWCNT treatment uniquely affected the abundance of 109 proteins, but these proteins largely represent cellular processes affected by AB treatment as well, further evidence of broad similarity in the tissue-level response to AB and SWCNTs. Two high-sensitivity markers of inflammation, one (S100a9) observed in humans exposed to AB, were found and may be promising biomarkers of human response to SWCNT exposure. PMID:21135415

  8. Emission characteristics of refractory black carbon aerosols from fresh biomass burning: a perspective from laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaole; Kanaya, Yugo; Taketani, Fumikazu; Miyakawa, Takuma; Inomata, Satoshi; Komazaki, Yuichi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Wang, Zhe; Uno, Itsushi; Wang, Zifa

    2017-11-01

    The emission characteristics of refractory black carbon (rBC) from biomass burning are essential information for numerical simulations of regional pollution and climate effects. We conducted combustion experiments in the laboratory to investigate the emission ratio and mixing state of rBC from the burning of wheat straw and rapeseed plants, which are the main crops cultivated in the Yangtze River Delta region of China. A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was used to measure rBC-containing particles at high temporal resolution and with high accuracy. The combustion state of each burning case was indicated by the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), which is calculated using the integrated enhancement of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations relative to their background values. The mass size distribution of the rBC particles showed a lognormal shape with a mode mass equivalent diameter (MED) of 189 nm (ranging from 152 to 215 nm), assuming an rBC density of 1.8 g cm-3. rBC particles less than 80 nm in size (the lower detection limit of the SP2) accounted for ˜ 5 % of the total rBC mass, on average. The emission ratios, which are expressed as ΔrBC / ΔCO (Δ indicates the difference between the observed and background values), displayed a significant positive correlation with the MCE values and varied between 1.8 and 34 ng m-3 ppbv-1. Multi-peak fitting analysis of the delay time (Δt, or the time of occurrence of the scattering peak minus that of the incandescence peak) distribution showed that rBC-containing particles with rBC MED = 200 ± 10 nm displayed two peaks at Δt = 1.7 µs and Δt = 3.2 µs, which could be attributed to the contributions from both flaming and smoldering combustion in each burning case. Both the Δt values and the shell / core ratios of the rBC-containing particles clearly increased as the MCE decreased from 0.98 (smoldering-dominant combustion) to 0.86 (flaming-dominant combustion), implying the great importance of the

  9. Comparative inhalation toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low surface carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Hock, Lan; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Küttler, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Hofmann, Thomas; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2013-06-17

    Carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black are seemingly chemically identical carbon-based nano-materials with broad technological applications. Carbon nanotubes and carbon black possess different inhalation toxicities, whereas little is known about graphene and graphite nanoplatelets. In order to compare the inhalation toxicity of the mentioned carbon-based nanomaterials, male Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 hours per day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 0.5, 2.5, or 10 mg/m3 for graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low-surface carbon black. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after three-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. No adverse effects were observed after inhalation exposure to 10 mg/m3 graphite nanoplatelets or relatively low specific surface area carbon black. Increases of lavage markers indicative for inflammatory processes started at exposure concentration of 0.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 for graphene. Consistent with the changes in lavage fluid, microgranulomas were observed at 2.5 mg/m3 multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 graphene. In order to evaluate volumetric loading of the lung as the key parameter driving the toxicity, deposited particle volume was calculated, taking into account different methods to determine the agglomerate density. However, the calculated volumetric load did not correlate to the toxicity, nor did the particle surface burden of the lung. The inhalation toxicity of the investigated carbon-based materials is likely to be a complex interaction of several parameters. Until the properties which govern the toxicity are identified, testing by short-term inhalation is the best option to identify hazardous properties in order to avoid unsafe applications or select

  10. Comparative inhalation toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low surface carbon black

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black are seemingly chemically identical carbon-based nano-materials with broad technological applications. Carbon nanotubes and carbon black possess different inhalation toxicities, whereas little is known about graphene and graphite nanoplatelets. Methods In order to compare the inhalation toxicity of the mentioned carbon-based nanomaterials, male Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 hours per day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 0.5, 2.5, or 10 mg/m3 for graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low-surface carbon black. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after three-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Results No adverse effects were observed after inhalation exposure to 10 mg/m3 graphite nanoplatelets or relatively low specific surface area carbon black. Increases of lavage markers indicative for inflammatory processes started at exposure concentration of 0.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 for graphene. Consistent with the changes in lavage fluid, microgranulomas were observed at 2.5 mg/m3 multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 graphene. In order to evaluate volumetric loading of the lung as the key parameter driving the toxicity, deposited particle volume was calculated, taking into account different methods to determine the agglomerate density. However, the calculated volumetric load did not correlate to the toxicity, nor did the particle surface burden of the lung. Conclusions The inhalation toxicity of the investigated carbon-based materials is likely to be a complex interaction of several parameters. Until the properties which govern the toxicity are identified, testing by short-term inhalation is the best option to identify hazardous properties in

  11. Black silicon maskless templates for carbon nanotube forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    allows maskless definition of carbon nanotube forests with control of their density, nanotube diameter and height. Four nanograss reactive ion etching recipes are investigated and their wafer-to-wafer repeatability, wafer uniformity, and density control is discussed. Evaluation of carbon nanotube forests...

  12. Effects of carbon blacks with various structures on vulcanization and reinforcement of filled ethylene-propylene-diene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of carbon blacks on vulcanization and mechanical properties of filled ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM are investigated, by comparing with five types of rubber-grade carbon blacks. Curing kinetics is studied by rheometer and the results indicate that the curing characteristics are influenced by combination of surface area of carbon black and sulphur content on the filler surface, because the former one enhances the physical cross-linking and the latter one introduces the additional chemical cross-linking. Both the degree of cross-linking and cure rate increase with increasing surface area and sulphur content, whereas the optimum cure time and scorch time decrease. The reinforcing nature of the carbon black is assessed from mechanical measurements. It is suggested that the surface area of carbon blacks strongly affects the physical properties of EPDM/carbon black composites. Conductive carbon black (N472 can be used as desirable reinforcing filler due to the higher degree of cross-linking of EPDM with N472 than other EPDM/carbon black composites. The morphology and distribution of particles are studied by using scanning electron microscope. The sound reinforcing ability of N472 is also supported by scanning electron microscope due to the notable dispersibility of N472 within EPDM matrix. N472 ensures the EPDM/N472 composite the most conductive sample among the five composites.

  13. O2 electrocatalysis in acid media on iron naphthalocyanine impregnations. Effect of nitric acid treatment on different carbon black supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coowar, F.; Contamin, O.; Savy, M.; Scarbeck, G.; van den Ham, D.; Riga, J.; Verbist, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    O2 electrocatalysis on (2,3)FeNPc impregnations on different carbon blacks was investigated in H2SO4 medium. The effect of nitric acid treatment on the carbon black support is to enhance both the activity and stability of the catalyst. Moreover, as seen by XPS, the dissolution of iron is impeded by

  14. Variation in body mass dynamics among sites in Black Brant Branta bernicla nigricans supports adaptivity of mass loss during moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondell, Thomas F.; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Schamber, Jason L.; Nicolai, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Birds employ varying strategies to accommodate the energetic demands of moult, one important example being changes in body mass. To understand better their physiological and ecological significance, we tested three hypotheses concerning body mass dynamics during moult. We studied Black Brant in 2006 and 2007 moulting at three sites in Alaska which varied in food availability, breeding status and whether geese undertook a moult migration. First we predicted that if mass loss during moult were simply the result of inadequate food resources then mass loss would be highest where food was least available. Secondly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to reduce activity during moult, then birds would gain mass prior to moult where feeding conditions allowed and mass loss would be positively related to mass at moult initiation. Thirdly, we predicted that if mass loss during moult were adaptive, allowing birds to regain flight sooner, then across sites and groups, mass at the end of the flightless period would converge on a theoretical optimum, i.e. the mass that permits the earliest possible return to flight. Mass loss was greatest where food was most available and thus our results did not support the prediction that mass loss resulted from inadequate food availability. Mass at moult initiation was positively related to both food availability and mass loss. In addition, among sites and years, variation in mass was high at moult initiation but greatly reduced at the end of the flightless period, appearing to converge. Thus, our results supported multiple predictions that mass loss during moult was adaptive and that the optimal moulting strategy was to gain mass prior to the flightless period, then through behavioural modifications use these body reserves to reduce activity and in so doing also reduce wing loading. Geese that undertook a moult migration initiated moult at the highest mass, indicating that they were more than able to

  15. Black-hole bremsstrahlung and the efficiency of mass-energy radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, H. P. de; Soares, I. Damiao; Tonini, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from numerical evolution of a boosted black hole, perturbed nonlinearly by an axisymmetric distribution of matter in the realm of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. Characteristic initial data for the system were constructed and the Robinson-Trautmann equation was integrated for these data using a numerical code based on the Galerkin-collocation method. The emission of gravitational waves by the system is typical of bremsstrahlung at early times, a consequence of the deceleration of the black hole as it interacts with the perturbation; part of the perturbation is radiated away and another part is absorbed into the hole. The angular pattern evolves to the quadrupole form for later times. The final configuration is a black hole in motion with larger (Bondi) rest mass and smaller boost parameter. The efficiency Δ of mass-energy extraction by gravitational wave emission was also computed. The relation of Δ to the mass of the remnant black hole satisfies a nonextensive thermostatistics distribution with entropic index q≅1/2. The result extends analytical evaluations based on the linearized theory of gravitational wave emission. For each initial boost parameter, there always exists a (large) value of the perturbation parameter A 0 for which the momentum of the remnant black hole has opposite sign to that of the unperturbed black hole, due to the strong deceleration during the process of gravitational wave emission. The temporal wave form is that of an initial burst and we evaluate that for a large range of A 0 the process corresponds to a high power output in the initial dominant pulse.

  16. Atmospheric carbon injection linked to end-Triassic mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Micha; Bonis, Nina R; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Kürschner, Wolfram M

    2011-07-22

    The end-Triassic mass extinction (~201.4 million years ago), marked by terrestrial ecosystem turnover and up to ~50% loss in marine biodiversity, has been attributed to intensified volcanic activity during the break-up of Pangaea. Here, we present compound-specific carbon-isotope data of long-chain n-alkanes derived from waxes of land plants, showing a ~8.5 per mil negative excursion, coincident with the extinction interval. These data indicate strong carbon-13 depletion of the end-Triassic atmosphere, within only 10,000 to 20,000 years. The magnitude and rate of this carbon-cycle disruption can be explained by the injection of at least ~12 × 10(3) gigatons of isotopically depleted carbon as methane into the atmosphere. Concurrent vegetation changes reflect strong warming and an enhanced hydrological cycle. Hence, end-Triassic events are robustly linked to methane-derived massive carbon release and associated climate change.

  17. High resolution of black carbon and organic carbon emissions in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junyu; He, Min; Shen, Xingling; Yin, Shasha; Yuan, Zibing

    2012-11-01

    A high-resolution regional black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) emission inventory for the year 2009 was developed for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, based on the collected activity data and the latest emission factors. PM(2.5), BC and OC emissions were estimated to be 303 kt, 39 kt and 31 kt, respectively. Industrial processes were major contributing sources to PM(2.5) emissions. BC emissions were mainly from mobile sources, accounting for 65.0%, while 34.1% of OC emissions were from residential combustion. The primary OC/BC ratios for individual cities in the PRD region were dependent on the levels of economic development due to differences in source characteristics, with high ratios in the less developed cities and low ratios in the central and southern developed areas. The preliminary temporal profiles were established, showing the highest OC emissions in winter and relatively constant BC emissions throughout the year. The emissions were spatially allocated into grid cells with a resolution of 3 km × 3 km. Large amounts of BC emissions were distributed over the central-southern PRD city clusters, while OC emissions exhibited a relatively even spatial distribution due to the significant biomass burning emissions from the outlying area of the PRD region. Uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions were usually higher than in other primary pollutants like SO(2), NO(x), and PM(10). One of the key uncertainty sources was the emission factor, due to the absence of direct measurements of BC and OC emission rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Brown Carbon and Black Carbon in the Smoky Atmosphere during Boreal Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, G. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Pankratova, N. V.; Semoutnikova, E. G.; Vasiliev, A. V.; Gorchakova, I. A.

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated the variability of smoke aerosol absorbing ability with variations in the content of brown carbon (BrC) and black carbon (BC). Using monitoring data on radiative characteristics of smoke aerosol at AERONET stations and the spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained by the MODIS spectrometer ( Terra satellite), we have detected large-scale smokes during boreal forest fires in Russia and Canada (1995-2012). The spatial distribution (50°-70° N, 95°-125° W) and temporal variability (at AERONET station Fort McMurray) of AOD during the smoking of a part of Canada in July 2012 have been analyzed. AOD probability distributions for July 14-18, 2012, and an estimate of aerosol radiative forcing of smoke aerosol at the upper boundary of the atmosphere have been obtained. We have proposed a technique for the diagnostics of BrC and BC in smoke aerosol particles from the spectral dependence of the imaginary part of the refractive index. At a wavelength of 440 nm, the contributions of BrC and BC to the smokeaerosol absorbing abitity can be comparable in magnitude. In many cases, the absorption spectra of smoke aerosol can be adequately approximated by either power or exponential functions. The presence of BrC in smoke-aerosol particles highly extends the variety of observed absorption spectra in a smoky atmosphere and spectral dependences of single scattering albedo. In the spectral range of 440-1020 nm, the radiative characteristics of smoke aerosol are largely contributed by its fine mode.

  19. Formation of secondary organic aerosol coating on black carbon particles near vehicular emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex K. Y.; Chen, Chia-Li; Liu, Jun; Price, Derek J.; Betha, Raghu; Russell, Lynn M.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Cappa, Christopher D.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) emitted from incomplete combustion can result in significant impacts on air quality and climate. Understanding the mixing state of ambient BC and the chemical characteristics of its associated coatings is particularly important to evaluate BC fate and environmental impacts. In this study, we investigate the formation of organic coatings on BC particles in an urban environment (Fontana, California) under hot and dry conditions using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). The SP-AMS was operated in a configuration that can exclusively detect refractory BC (rBC) particles and their coatings. Using the -log(NOx / NOy) ratio as a proxy for photochemical age of air masses, substantial formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) coatings on rBC particles was observed due to active photochemistry in the afternoon, whereas primary organic aerosol (POA) components were strongly associated with rBC from fresh vehicular emissions in the morning rush hours. There is also evidence that cooking-related organic aerosols were externally mixed from rBC. Positive matrix factorization and elemental analysis illustrate that most of the observed SOA coatings were freshly formed, providing an opportunity to examine SOA coating formation on rBCs near vehicular emissions. Approximately 7-20 wt % of secondary organic and inorganic species were estimated to be internally mixed with rBC on average, implying that rBC is unlikely the major condensation sink of SOA in this study. Comparison of our results to a co-located standard high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) measurement suggests that at least a portion of SOA materials condensed on rBC surfaces were chemically different from oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) particles that were externally mixed with rBC, although they could both be generated from local photochemistry.

  20. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, H.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Hemberger, D.; Kidder, L. E.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; VIRGO Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5 σ . The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3. 4-0.9+0.7×10-22 . The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2-3.7+8.3 M⊙ and 7. 5-2.3+2.3 M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 20.8-1.7+6.1 M⊙. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 44 0-190+180 Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.0 9-0.04+0.03. All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

  1. Effect of carbon black on electrical and rheological properties of graphite nanoplatelets/poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Oxfall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adding carbon black on the electrical and rheological properties of graphite nanoplatelets/poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer composites produced via melt or solution mixing was studied. By adding a small amount of low- or high-structured carbon black to the nanocomposite, the electrical percolation threshold decreased and the final conductivity (at higher filler contents increased. The effect on the percolation threshold was significantly stronger in case of the high-structured carbon black where replacing 10 wt% of the total filler content with carbon black instead of graphite nanoplatelets reduced the electrical percolation threshold from 6.9 to 4.6 vol%. Finally, the solution mixing process was found to be more efficient leading to a lower percolation threshold. For the composites containing high-structured carbon black, graphite nanoplatelets and their hybrids there was a quite reasonable correlation between the electrical and rheological percolation thresholds.

  2. Electrocatalytic Determination of Isoniazid by a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly (Eriochrome Black T)

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Asadpour-Zeynali; Venus Baghalabadi

    2017-01-01

    In this work poly eriochrome black T (EBT) was electrochemically synthesized on the glassy carbon electrode as electrode modifier. On the modified electrode, voltammetric behavior of isoniazid (INH) was investigated. The poly (EBT)-modified glassy carbon electrode has excellent electrocatalytic ability for the electrooxidation of isoniazid. This fact was appeared as a reduced overpotential of INH oxidation in a wide operational pH range from 2 to 13. It has been found that the catalytic peak ...

  3. Spinning, structure and properties of PP/CNTs and PP/carbon black composite fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcincin, A.; Hricova, M.; Ujhelyiova, A.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of the compatibilisers-dispersants and other nanofillers on melt spinning of the polypropylene (PP) composites, containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and carbon black pigment (CBP) has been investigated. Further, the structure and selected properties of composite fibers, such as mechanical and electrical have been studied. The results revealed, that percolation threshold for PP/CBP composite fibres was situated within the concentration of 15 - 20 wt%, what is several times higher than for PP/CNTs fibers.

  4. Black carbon emission reduction strategies in healthcare industry for effective global climate change management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, Emilia Mmbando; Anderson, David O

    2017-04-01

    Climate change remains one of the biggest threats to life on earth to date with black carbon (BC) emissions or smoke being the strongest cause after carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Surprisingly, scientific evidence about black carbon emissions reduction in healthcare settings is sparse. This paper presents new research findings on the reduction of black carbon emissions from an observational study conducted at the UN Peacekeeping Operations (MINUSTAH) in Haiti in 2014. Researchers observed 20 incineration cycles, 30 minutes for each cycle of plastic and cardboard sharps healthcare waste (HCW) containers ranged from 3 to 14.6 kg. The primary aim was to determine if black carbon emissions from healthcare waste incineration can be lowered by mainstreaming the use of cardboard sharps healthcare waste containers instead of plastic sharps healthcare waste containers. Similarly, the study looks into whether burning temperature was associated with the smoke levels for each case or not. Independent samples t-tests demonstrated significantly lower black carbon emissions during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers (6.81 ± 4.79% smoke) than in plastic containers (17.77 ± 8.38% smoke); a statistically significant increase of 10.96% smoke (95% Confidence Interval ( CI) [4.4 to 17.5% smoke], p = 0.003). Correspondingly, lower bottom burner temperatures occurred during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers than in plastic (95% Cl [16 to 126°C], p = 0.014). Finally, we expect the application of the new quantitative evidence to form the basis for policy formulation, mainstream the use of cardboard sharps containers and opt for non-incineration disposal technologies as urgent steps for going green in healthcare waste management.

  5. Investigating a Possible New Heavyweight Champion for Stellar Mass Black Holes with XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Robin

    Using methods described below, we have identified a record-breaking black hole candidate (BHC) associated with a globular cluster inside the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). Our BHC, known as XBo 135, has an inferred mass of 50 solar masses, around 60% heavier than the current record holder. We have been granted a 33 hr observation with the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory that will allow us to test different scenarios for the formation of such a beast. We are asking for $55k to support one postdoc (R. Barnard) for 6 months, travel to a conference to share our results, and publication in ApJ. We have strong observational evidence for two classes of black hole (BH): stellar mass BHs that are formed in the death throes of the most massive stars, and supermassive BHs that live at the centers of most galaxies. Stellar mass BHs are 3-30 times more massive than the Sun, while supermassive black holes 1 E+6 times more massive still. It is unknown how such massive black holes are formed, although we suspect the existence of a class of intermediate mass black holes that bridge the two populations. Our target, XBo 135, is an X-ray binary (XB) system where a compact object (neutron star or black hole) accretes material from a co-orbiting donor star; mass transfer from the donor to the compact object results in a huge release of energy, extracted from the gravitational potential energy of the in-falling matter. The material forms an accretion disk that gets faster and hotter as it approaches the accretor, extracting energy >10 times more efficiently than nuclear fusion. We have invented a method for identifying BHXBs from the X-ray emission alone, summarized as follows. At low accretion rates, all XBs exhibit strikingly similar emission that is dominated by a power law component with photon index 90% of the X-ray flux. Crucially, this emission is limited to luminosities below 10% of the Eddington limit , which is proportional to the mass of the accretor. If we observe low state emission at

  6. Comparison Between Elemental Carbon Measured Using Thermal-Optical Analysis and Black Carbon Measurements Using A Novel Cellphone-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, N.; Khan, B.; Leong, I.; Lukac, M.

    2011-12-01

    provides an affordable real-time method for gathering BC data on a mass scale. The CBMS' scalability should enable dense deployments near emissions sources and reduce uncertainty in emissions inventories due to undersampling. Bond, T. C., E. Bhardwaj, R. Dong, R. Jogani, S. Jung, C. Roden, D. G. Streets, and N. M. Trautmann (2007), Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 21, GB2018, doi:10.1029/2006GB002840. Birch, M. E. and R.A. Cary (1996), Elemental Carbon-Based Method for Monitoring Occupational Exposures to Particulate Diesel Exhaust. Aerosol Sci. Technol., 25, 221-241. NIOSH (1996). Elemental carbon (diesel particulate) method 5040. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 4th ed. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio (1st Suppl.). Ramanathan, N., M. Lukac, T. Ahmed, A. Kar, P.S. Praveen, T. Honles, I. Leong, I.H. Rehman, J.J. Schauer, V. Ramanathan (2011), A cellphone based system for large-scale monitoring of black carbon, Atmos. Environ., 45 (26), 4481-4487.

  7. A black body absorber from vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kohei; Ishii, Juntaro; Kishida, Hideo; Hayamizu, Yuhei; Yasuda, Satoshi; Futaba, Don N.; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Among all known materials, we found that a forest of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes behaves most similarly to a black body, a theoretical material that absorbs all incident light. A requirement for an object to behave as a black body is to perfectly absorb light of all wavelengths. This important feature has not been observed for real materials because materials intrinsically have specific absorption bands because of their structure and composition. We found a material that can absorb light almost perfectly across a very wide spectral range (0.2–200 μm). We attribute this black body behavior to stem from the sparseness and imperfect alignment of the vertical single-walled carbon nanotubes. PMID:19339498

  8. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  9. Projection of SO2, NOx, NMVOC, particulate matter and black carbon emissions - 2015-2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Hjelgaard, Katja Hossy

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of SO2, NOX, NMVOC, PM2.5 and black carbon for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts...

  10. Regional Responses to Black Carbon Aerosols: The Importance of Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Scott, A. A.; Pradal, M.-A.; Seviour, W. J. M.; Waugh, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of modern black carbon aerosols on climate via their changes in radiative balance is studied using a coupled model where sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are allowed to vary and an atmosphere-only version of the same model where SSTs are held fixed. Allowing the ocean to respond is shown to have a profound impact on the pattern of temperature change. Particularly, large impacts are found in the North Pacific (which cools by up to 1 K in the coupled model) and in north central Asia (which warms in the coupled simulation and cools in the fixed SST simulation). Neither set of experiments shows large changes in surface temperatures in the Southeast Asian region where the atmospheric burden of black carbon is highest. These results are related to the stabilization of the atmosphere and changes in oceanic heat transport. Over the North Pacific, atmospheric stabilization results in an increase in stratiform clouds. The resulting shading reduces evaporation, freshening the surface layer of the ocean and reducing the inflow of warm subtropical waters. Over the land, a delicate balance between greater atmospheric absorption, shading of the surface and changes in latent cooling of the surface helps to determine whether warming or cooling is seen. Our results emphasize the importance of coupling in determining the response of the climate system to black carbon and suggest that black carbon may play an important role in modulating climate change over the North Pacific.

  11. Primary genotoxicity in the liver following pulmonary exposure to carbon black nanoparticles in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrzynska, Justyna; Berthing, Trine; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    Background Little is known about the mechanism underlying the genotoxicity observed in the liver following pulmonary exposure to carbon black (CB) nanoparticles (NPs). The genotoxicity could be caused by the presence of translocated particles or by circulating inflammatory mediators released during...

  12. Net removal of dissolved organic carbon in the anoxic waters of the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margolin, A.R.; Gerringa, L.J.A.; Hansell, D.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the deep Black Sea are ~2.5 times higher than found in the globalocean. The two major external sources of DOC are rivers and the Sea of Marmara, a transit point for waters from theMediterranean Sea. In addition, expansive phytoplankton blooms

  13. The vacuum pyrolysis of used tires. End-uses for oil and carbon black products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, C.; Chaala, A.; Darmstadt, H. [Institut Pyrovac Inc., Parc Technologique du Quebec Metropolitain, rue Franquet, Sainte-Foy (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    By vacuum pyrolysis, the rubber portion of used tires is transformed into oil and gas and the carbon black filler is recovered as pyrolytic carbon black (CB{sub P}). Several commercial applications for the different products have been investigated and are reported in this article. CB{sub P} surface chemistry and activity are similar to those of commercial carbon blacks. Therefore, CB{sub P} has the potential to replace commercial carbon black grades in certain rubber applications. CB{sub P} was successfully tested as a filler in road pavement. The total pyrolytic oil can be used as a liquid fuel. The oil can also be distilled into different fractions: a light, a middle distillate and a heavy fraction. The light fraction was positively tested as a gasoline additive. Furthermore, this fraction contains valuable chemicals such as d,l-limonene. The middle fraction was successfully tested as a plasticizer in rubbers. The heavy fraction represents a good-quality feedstock for the production of coke and can also be used in road pavements. The pyrolytic gas can be used as a make-up heat source for the pyrolysis process

  14. Top-down estimates of biomass burning emissions of black carbon in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. H. Mao; Q. B. Li; D. Chen; L. Zhang; W. -M. Hao; K.-N. Liou

    2014-01-01

    We estimate biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions of black carbon (BC) in the western US for May-October 2006 by inverting surface BC concentrations from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) network using a global chemical transport model. We first use active fire counts from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS...

  15. Thermal and bonding properties of nano size carbon black filled PDMS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available is varied from 10% to 25%. The mechanical property is characterized by testing the bond strength of the bond between pure PDMS and PDMS-CB composite. The bond between pure PDMS and 10% carbon black filled PDMS broke at 0.72 MPa. The bond has become very...

  16. Quantification methods of Black Carbon: Comparison of Rock-Eval analysis with traditional methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Veld, H.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Black Carbon (BC) quantification methods are reviewed, including new Rock-Eval 6 data on BC reference materials. BC has been reported to have major impacts on climate, human health and environmental quality. Especially for risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) it is important to

  17. Study of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy in carbon black-filled HDPE composite

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Xian Feng; Zhou Xian Yi; Weng Hu Imin; Ye Bang Jiao; Han Rong Dian; Jia Shao Jin; Zhang Zhi Cheng

    2002-01-01

    The variation of the electrical conductivity of high density polyethylene (HDPE) with the carbon black (CB) content was studied using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and free-volume model, the crystallinity of HDPE/CB composite and 'percolation' effect were discussed with measurements of conductivity and DSC test

  18. Nanoscale Interactions between Engineered Nanomaterials and Black Carbon (Biochar) in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of the interactions between engineered nanomaterials (NMs) and soil constituents, and a comprehension of how these interactions may affect biological uptake and toxicity are currently lacking. Charcoal black carbon is a normal constituent of soils due to fire history, and can be pre...

  19. Effects of occupational exposure to carbon black on peripheral white blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Yufei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Bassig, Bryan A; Ye, Meng; Zhang, Xiao; Meng, Tao; Bin, Ping; Jia, Xiaowei; Shen, Meili; Zhang, Rong; Hu, Wei; Yang, Xiaofa; Vermeulen, Roel; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified carbon black (CB) as a possible (Group 2B) human carcinogen. Given that most CB manufacturing processes result in the emission of various types of chemicals, it is uncertain if the adverse health effects that have been observed in

  20. Robust Means for Estimating Black Carbon-Water Sorption Coefficients of Organic Contaminants in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    compounds by black carbon, Springer, Dordrecht. Plata, D.L., Hemingway , J.D. and Gschwend, P.M. (2015) Polyparameter linear free energy relationship for...1320-1331. 32 8. Appendices Scientific/Technical Publications Plata, D.L., J.D. Hemingway , and P.M. Gschwend. Polyparameter linear free energy

  1. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M NC , correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M NC = (2.11 ± 0.31)log (σ/54) + (6.63 ± 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M NC ∝M 0.55±0.15 Gal,dyn ; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  2. Multilayer Graphene/Carbon Black/Chlorine Isobutyl Isoprene Rubber Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Frasca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High loadings of carbon black (CB are usually used to achieve the properties demanded of rubber compounds. In recent years, distinct nanoparticles have been investigated to replace CB in whole or in part, in order to reduce the necessary filler content or to improve performance. Multilayer graphene (MLG is a nanoparticle made of just 10 graphene sheets and has recently become commercially available for mass-product nanocomposites. Three phr (part for hundred rubbers of MLG are added to chlorine isobutyl isoprene rubber (CIIR/CB composites in order to replace part of the CB. The incorporation of just 3 phr MLG triples the Young’s modulus of CIIR; the same effect is obtained with 20 phr CB. The simultaneous presence of three MLG and CB also delivers remarkable properties, e.g. adding three MLG and 20 phr CB increased the hardness as much as adding 40 phr CB. A comprehensive study is presented, showing the influence on a variety of mechanical properties. The potential of the MLG/CB combination is illustrated to reduce the filler content or to boost performance, respectively. Apart from the remarkable mechanical properties, the CIIR/CB/MLG nanocomposites showed an increase in weathering resistance.

  3. Improved technique for measuring the size distribution of black carbon particles in rainwater and snow samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T.; Moteki, N.; Ohata, S.; Koike, M.; Azuma, K. G.; Miyazaki, Y.; Kondo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the strongest contributor to sunlight absorption among atmospheric aerosols. Quantitative understanding of wet deposition of BC, which strongly affects the spatial distribution of BC, is important to improve our understandings on climate change. We have devised a technique for measuring the masses of individual BC particles in rainwater and snow samples, as a combination of a nebulizer and a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) (Ohata et al. 2011, 2013; Schwarz et al. 2012; Mori et al. 2014). We show two important improvements in this technique: 1)We have extended the upper limit of detectable BC particle diameter from 0.9 μm to about 4.0 μm by modifying the photodetector for measuring the laser-induced incandescence signal. 2)We introduced a pneumatic nebulizer Marin-5 (Cetac Technologies Inc., Omaha, NE, USA) and experimentally confirmed its high extraction efficiency (~50%) independent of particle diameter up to 2.0 μm. Using our improved system, we simultaneously measured the size distribution of BC particles in air and rainwater in Tokyo. We observed that the size distribution of BC in rainwater was larger than that in air, indicating that large BC particles were effectively removed by precipitation. We also observed BC particles with diameters larger than 1.0 μm, indicating that further studies of wet deposition of BC will require the use of the modified SP2.

  4. Effect of carbon black nanoparticles on methane/air explosions: Influence at low initial turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrado, David; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Dufaud, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Nanoparticles are widely used in industrial applications as additives to modify materials properties such as resistance, surface, rheology or UV-radiation. As a consequence, the quantification and characterization of nanoparticles have become almost compulsory, including the understanding of the risks associated to their use. Since a few years ago, several studies of dust explosion properties involving nano-sized powder have been published. During the production and industrial use of nanoparticles, simultaneous presence of gas / vapor / solvents and dispersed nanoparticles mixtures might be obtained, increasing the risk of a hybrid mixture explosion. The aim of this work is to study the severity of the explosion of carbon black nanoparticles/methane mixtures and understand the influence of adding nanopowders on the behavior of the gas explosions. These results are also useful to understand the influence of soot on the efficiency of the gas combustion. Two grades of carbon black nanoparticles (ranging from 20 to 300 nm average diameter) have been mixed with methane. Tests have been performed on these mixtures in a standard 20 L explosion sphere. Regarding the scale precision, the lowest concentration of carbon black nanoparticles was set at 0.5 g.m-3. Tests were also performed at 2.5 g.m-3, which is still far below 60 g.m-3, the minimum explosive concentration of such powders previously determined in our laboratory. The influence of carbon black particles on the severity of the explosions has been compared to that of pure gas. It appears that the use of carbon black nanoparticles increases the explosion overpressure for lean methane mixtures at low initial turbulences by c. 10%. Similar results were obtained for high initial turbulent systems. Therefore, it seems that carbon black nanoparticles have an impact on the severity of the explosion even for quiescent systems, as opposed to systems involving micro-sized powders that require dispersion at high turbulence

  5. Atmospheric Carbon Injection Linked to End-Triassic Mass Extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruhl, M.; Bonis, N.R.; Reichart, G.J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kürschner, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction (similar to 201.4 million years ago), marked by terrestrial ecosystem turnover and up to similar to 50% loss in marine biodiversity, has been attributed to intensified volcanic activity during the break-up of Pangaea. Here, we present compound-specific carbon-isotope

  6. POX 52: A Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy with an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Ho, Luis C.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2004-05-01

    We describe new optical images and spectra of POX 52, a dwarf galaxy with an active nucleus that was originally detected in the POX objective-prism survey. While POX 52 was originally thought to be a Seyfert 2 galaxy, the new data reveal an emission-line spectrum very similar to that of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4395, with broad components to the permitted line profiles, and we classify POX 52 as a Seyfert 1 galaxy. The host galaxy appears to be a dwarf elliptical, and its brightness profile is best fit by a Sérsic model with an index of 3.6+/-0.2 and a total magnitude of MV=-17.6. Applying mass-luminosity-line width scaling relations to estimate the black hole mass from the broad Hβ line width and nonstellar continuum luminosity, we find MBH~1.6×105Msolar. The stellar velocity dispersion in the host galaxy, measured from the Ca II λ8498, 8542 lines, is 36+/-5 km s-1, also suggestive of a black hole mass of order 105Msolar. Further searches for active nuclei in dwarf galaxies can provide unique constraints on the demographics of black holes in the mass range below 106Msolar.

  7. The mass of the central black hole in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Horenstein, Daniel; Bazhaw, Craig; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Ou-Yang, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Matthew; Jones, Jeremy; Norris, Ryan P.; Parks, J. Robert; Saylor, Dicy; Teems, Katherine G.; Turner, Clay, E-mail: bentz@astro.gsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 600, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We present the results of a reverberation-mapping program targeting NGC 5273, a nearby early-type galaxy with a broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN). Over the course of the monitoring program, NGC 5273 showed strong variability that allowed us to measure time delays in the responses of the broad optical recombination lines to changes in the continuum flux. A weighted average of these measurements results in a black hole mass determination of M {sub BH} = (4.7 ± 1.6) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. An estimate of the size of the black hole sphere of influence in NGC 5273 puts it just at the limit of the resolution achievable with current ground-based large aperture telescopes. NGC 5273 is therefore an important future target for a black hole mass determination from stellar dynamical modeling, especially because it is the only nearby early-type galaxy hosting an AGN with a reverberation-based mass, allowing the best comparison for the masses determined from these two techniques.

  8. Further evidence for a supermassive black hole mass-pitch angle relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Hartley, Matthew; Lacy, Claud H. S. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, 825 West Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Davis, Benjamin L.; Barrows, Robert Scott; Shields, Doug [Arkansas Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, 202 Old Field House, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Seigar, Marc S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present new and stronger evidence for a previously reported relationship between galactic spiral arm pitch angle P (a measure of the tightness of spiral structure) and the mass M {sub BH} of a disk galaxy's nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH). We use an improved method to accurately measure the spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies to generate quantitative data on this morphological feature for 34 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. We find a relation of log (M/M {sub ☉}) = (8.21 ± 0.16) – (0.062 ± 0.009)P. This method is compared with other means of estimating black hole mass to determine its effectiveness and usefulness relative to other existing relations. We argue that such a relationship is predicted by leading theories of spiral structure in disk galaxies, including the density wave theory. We propose this relationship as a tool for estimating SMBH masses in disk galaxies. This tool is potentially superior when compared to other methods for this class of galaxy and has the advantage of being unambiguously measurable from imaging data alone.

  9. Universal charge-mass relation: From black holes to atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2010-01-01

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis, introduced by Penrose forty years ago, is one of the corner stones of general relativity. This conjecture asserts that spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. The elimination of a black-hole horizon is ruled out by this principle because that would expose naked singularities to distant observers. We test the consistency of this prediction in a gedanken experiment in which a charged object is swallowed by a charged black hole. We find that the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture requires the existence of a charge-mass bound of the form q≤μ 2/3 E c -1/3 , where q and μ are the charge and mass of the physical system respectively, and E c is the critical electric field for pair-production. Applying this bound to charged atomic nuclei, one finds an upper limit on the number Z of protons in a nucleus of given mass number A: Z≤Z * =α -1/3 A 2/3 , where α=e 2 /h is the fine structure constant. We test the validity of this novel bound against the (Z,A)-relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsaecker semi-empirical mass formula.

  10. Universal charge-mass relation: From black holes to atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.co [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer 40250 (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem 91010 (Israel)

    2010-10-04

    The cosmic censorship hypothesis, introduced by Penrose forty years ago, is one of the corner stones of general relativity. This conjecture asserts that spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. The elimination of a black-hole horizon is ruled out by this principle because that would expose naked singularities to distant observers. We test the consistency of this prediction in a gedanken experiment in which a charged object is swallowed by a charged black hole. We find that the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture requires the existence of a charge-mass bound of the form q{<=}{mu}{sup 2/3}E{sub c}{sup -1/3}, where q and {mu} are the charge and mass of the physical system respectively, and E{sub c} is the critical electric field for pair-production. Applying this bound to charged atomic nuclei, one finds an upper limit on the number Z of protons in a nucleus of given mass number A: Z{<=}Z{sup *}={alpha}{sup -1/3}A{sup 2/3}, where {alpha}=e{sup 2}/h is the fine structure constant. We test the validity of this novel bound against the (Z,A)-relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsaecker semi-empirical mass formula.

  11. Accretion Disks Around Binary Black Holes of Unequal Mass: GRMHD Simulations Near Decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Roman; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Pfeiffer, Harald, P.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simulations in general relativity of magnetized disks onto black hole binaries. We vary the binary mass ratio from 1:1 to 1:10 and evolve the systems when they orbit near the binary disk decoupling radius. We compare (surface) density profiles, accretion rates (relative to a single, non-spinning black hole), variability, effective alpha-stress levels and luminosities as functions of the mass ratio. We treat the disks in two limiting regimes: rapid radiative cooling and no radiative cooling. The magnetic field lines clearly reveal jets emerging from both black hole horizons and merging into one common jet at large distances. The magnetic fields give rise to much stronger shock heating than the pure hydrodynamic flows, completely alter the disk structure, and boost accretion rates and luminosities. Accretion streams near the horizons are among the densest structures; in fact, the 1:10 no-cooling evolution results in a refilling of the cavity. The typical effective temperature in the bulk of the disk is approx. 10(exp5) (M / 10(exp 8)M solar mass (exp -1/4(L/L(sub edd) (exp 1/4K) yielding characteristic thermal frequencies approx. 10 (exp 15) (M /10(exp 8)M solar mass) (exp -1/4(L/L (sub edd) (1+z) (exp -1)Hz. These systems are thus promising targets for many extragalactic optical surveys, such as LSST, WFIRST, and PanSTARRS.

  12. Measurements and Analysis of Black Carbon Aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean Megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, A.; Ozdemir, H.; Kindap, T.; Demir, G.; Karaca, M.; Khan, M. N.

    2010-12-01

    In a world where at least 50 percent of the population is living in urban environments, air pollution and specifically particulate matter became one of the most critical issues. There have been many studies that focused on mass concentration measurements of PM10 and PM2.5. Recent studies suggest that chemical composition is critical in understanding the effects of PM on health as well as climate. For example, public health studies reveal that, components of the atmospheric aerosols have different impacts on human health. Smith et al. (2009) stated that; on the basis of the 1μg/m3 contrast, the percentage increase in all-cause mortality for PM2.5 was 0.58; sulfate effects were about twice those of PM2.5, and effects of elemental carbon (an indicator of black carbon mass) about ten times greater. To date, many studies and national inventories have been based on particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and the major greenhouse pollutants, but not speciated emissions, especially in the developing world (Smith et al., 2009; Chow et al., 2010). But air quality standards will soon need to include particulate black carbon (BC), as it directly afffects climate, visibility, and human health. Anthropogenic emissions are increasing dramatically worldwide and recent estimates of global BC emissions range from 8 to 24 Tg (1012 g) per year. In this study, we investigated BC pollution for the first time in Istanbul, Turkey. Istanbul is a megacity of over 15 million inhabitants (OECD, 2008). On-road traffic is also increasing rapidly in the city (over 3 million vehicles on the road). Hence, the city has a potential to be an important source for both local and regional pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean. In our study, an Aethalometer (<0.1μg/m3 sensitivity) was used for continuous and real-time measurements of BC concentration. Measurements were carried out at the selected five different locations throughout the city. 1st and 2nd sites were near high-traffic streets; in the city

  13. Comparing black carbon types in sequestering polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Fang; Gan, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely found in sediments, especially congeners from the penta-BDE formula. Due to their strong affinity for black carbon (BC), bioavailability of PBDEs may be decreased in BC-amended sediments. In this study, we used a matrix-SPME method to measure the freely dissolved concentration (C free ) of PBDEs as a parameter of their potential bioavailability and evaluated the differences among biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon. Activated carbon displayed a substantially greater sequestration capacity than biochar or charcoal. At 1% amendment rate in sediment with low organic carbon (OC) content (0.12%), C free of six PBDEs was reduced by 47.5–78.0%, 47.3–77.5%, and 94.1–98.3% with biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon, respectively, while the sequestration was more limited in sediment with high OC content (0.87%). Therefore, it is important to consider the type and properties of the BC and the sediment in BC-based remediation or mitigation. -- Highlights: • A matrix-SPME method was developed for measuring C free of PBDEs in sediment porewater. • Different black carbon types differed greatly in their ability to decrease C free of PBDEs in sediments. • Activated carbon was much more efficient in sequestering PBDEs than biochar or charcoal. • The effect of black carbon was more pronounced in sediment with lower indigenous OC content. -- Biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon have been compared for their efficacy in sequestering PBDEs in sediments by using a matrix-SPME method

  14. Black carbon cookstove emissions: A field assessment of 19 stove/fuel combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Charity; Delapena, Samantha; Prasad, Rajendra; L'Orange, Christian; Alexander, Donee; Johnson, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from household cookstoves consuming solid fuel produce approximately 25 percent of total anthropogenic BC emissions. The short atmospheric lifetime of BC means that reducing BC emissions would result in a faster climate response than mitigating CO2 and other long-lived greenhouse gases. This study presents the results of optical BC measurements of two new cookstove emissions field assessments and 17 archived cookstove datasets. BC was determined from attenuation of 880 nm light, which is strongly absorbed by BC, and linearly related between 1 and 125 attenuation units. A relationship was experimentally determined correlating BC mass deposition on quartz filters determined via thermal optical analysis (TOA) and on PTFE and quartz filters using transmissometry, yielding an attenuation cross-section (σATN) for both filter media types. σATN relates TOA measurements to optical measurements on PTFE and quartz (σATN(PTFE) = 13.7 cm-2 μg, R2 = 0.87, σATN(Quartz) = 15.6 cm-2 μg, R2 = 0.87). These filter-specific σATN, optical measurements of archived filters were used to determine BC emission factors and the fraction of particulate matter (PM) in the form of black carbon (BC/PM). The 19 stoves measured fell into five stove classes; simple wood, rocket, advanced biomass, simple charcoal, and advanced charcoal. Advanced biomass stoves include forced- and natural-draft gasifiers which use wood or biomass pellets as fuel. Of these classes, the simple wood and rocket stoves demonstrated the highest median BC emission factors, ranging from 0.051 to 0.14 g MJ-1. The lowest BC emission factors were seen in charcoal stoves, which corresponds to the generally low PM emission factors observed during charcoal combustion, ranging from 0.0084 to 0.014 g MJ-1. The advanced biomass stoves generally showed an improvement in BC emissions factors compared to simple wood and rocket stoves, ranging from 0.0031 to 0.071 g MJ-1. BC/PM ratios were highest for the

  15. The Contribution of Black Carbon to Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations from Prescribed Burns and Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, G. P.; DeMott, P. J.; Suski, K. J.; Emerson, E. W.; Rauker, A. M.; Kodros, J.; Levin, E. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Farmer, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) has been implicated as a potential immersion-mode ice nucleating particle (INP) because of its relative abundance in the upper troposphere. Furthermore, several field and aircraft measurements have observed positive correlations between BC and INP concentrations. Despite this, the efficiency of BC to act as an immersion-mode INP is poorly constrained. Indeed, previous results from laboratory studies are in conflict, with estimates of BC's impact on INP ranging from no impact to being efficient enough to rival the well-known INP mineral dust. It is, however, becoming clear that the ice nucleation activity of BC may depend on both its fuel type and combustion conditions. For example, previous work has shown that diesel exhaust BC is an extremely poor immersion-mode INP, but laboratory burns of biomass fuels indicate that BC can contribute up to 70% of all INP for some fuel types. Given these dependencies, we propose that sampling from real-world biomass burning sources would provide the most useful new information on the contribution of BC to atmospheric INP. In this work, we will present recent results looking at the sources of INP from prescribed burns and wildfires. To determine the specific contribution of refractory black carbon (rBC) to INP concentrations, we utilized a new technique that couples the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) to the Colorado State University Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC). The SP2 utilizes laser-induced incandescence to quantify rBC mass on a particle-by-particle basis; in doing so, it also selectively destroys rBC particles by heating them to their vaporization temperature. Thus, the SP2 can be used as a selective pre-filter for rBC into the CFDC. Furthermore, we have also used a filter-based technique for measuring INP, the Ice Spectrometer, which can employ pretreatments such as heating and digestion by H2O2 to determine the contribution of heat-labile and organic particles, respectively.

  16. A cellphone based system for large-scale monitoring of black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, N.; Lukac, M.; Ahmed, T.; Kar, A.; Praveen, P. S.; Honles, T.; Leong, I.; Rehman, I. H.; Schauer, J. J.; Ramanathan, V.

    2011-08-01

    Black carbon aerosols are a major component of soot and are also a major contributor to global and regional climate change. Reliable and cost-effective systems to measure near-surface black carbon (BC) mass concentrations (hereafter denoted as [BC]) globally are necessary to validate air pollution and climate models and to evaluate the effectiveness of BC mitigation actions. Toward this goal we describe a new wireless, low-cost, ultra low-power, BC cellphone based monitoring system (BC_CBM). BC_CBM integrates a Miniaturized Aerosol filter Sampler (MAS) with a cellphone for filter image collection, transmission and image analysis for determining [BC] in real time. The BC aerosols in the air accumulate on the MAS quartz filter, resulting in a coloration of the filter. A photograph of the filter is captured by the cellphone camera and transmitted by the cellphone to the analytics component of BC_CBM. The analytics component compares the image with a calibrated reference scale (also included in the photograph) to estimate [BC]. We demonstrate with field data collected from vastly differing environments, ranging from southern California to rural regions in the Indo-Gangetic plains of Northern India, that the total BC deposited on the filter is directly and uniquely related to the reflectance of the filter in the red wavelength, irrespective of its source or how the particles were deposited. [BC] varied from 0.1 to 1 μg m -3 in Southern California and from 10 to 200 μg m -3 in rural India in our field studies. In spite of the 3 orders of magnitude variation in [BC], the BC_CBM system was able to determine the [BC] well within the experimental error of two independent reference instruments for both indoor air and outdoor ambient air. Accurate, global-scale measurements of [BC] in urban and remote rural locations, enabled by the wireless, low-cost, ultra low-power operation of BC_CBM, will make it possible to better capture the large spatial and temporal variations in

  17. Effects of wet deposition on the abundance and size distribution of black carbon in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Oshima, N.; Ohata, S.; Koike, M.; Shibano, Y.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.

    2016-05-01

    An improved understanding of the variations in the mass concentration and size distribution of black carbon (BC) in the free troposphere (FT) over East Asia, where BC emissions are very high, is needed to reliably estimate the radiative forcing of BC in climate models. We measured these parameters and the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration by conducting the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) 2013W aircraft campaign in East Asia in winter 2013 and compared these data with measurements made in the same region in spring 2009. The median BC concentrations in the FT originating from North China (NC) and South China (SC) showed different seasonal variations, which were primarily caused by variations in meteorological conditions. CO concentrations above the background were much higher in SC than in NC in both seasons, suggesting a more active upward transport of CO. In SC, precipitation greatly increased from winter to spring, leading to an increased wet deposition of BC. As a result, the median BC concentration in the FT was highest in SC air in winter. This season and region were optimal for the effective transport of BC from the planetary boundary layer to the FT. The count median diameters of the BC size distributions generally decreased with altitude via wet removal during upward transport. The altitude dependence of the BC size distributions was similar in winter and spring, in accord with the similarity in the BC mixing state. The observed BC concentrations and microphysical properties will be useful for evaluating the performance of climate models.

  18. Gravitational-wave localization alone can probe origin of stellar-mass black hole mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, I; Haiman, Z; Marka, Z; Metzger, B D; Stone, N C; Marka, S

    2017-10-10

    The recent discovery of gravitational waves from stellar-mass binary black hole mergers by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory opened the door to alternative probes of stellar and galactic evolution, cosmology and fundamental physics. Probing the origin of binary black hole mergers will be difficult due to the expected lack of electromagnetic emission and limited localization accuracy. Associations with rare host galaxy types-such as active galactic nuclei-can nevertheless be identified statistically through spatial correlation. Here we establish the feasibility of statistically proving the connection between binary black hole mergers and active galactic nuclei as hosts, even if only a sub-population of mergers originate from active galactic nuclei. Our results are the demonstration that the limited localization of gravitational waves, previously written off as not useful to distinguish progenitor channels, can in fact contribute key information, broadening the range of astrophysical questions probed by binary black hole observations.Binary black hole mergers have recently been observed through the detection of gravitational wave signatures. The authors demonstrate that their association with active galactic nuclei can be made through a statistical spatial correlation.

  19. X-ray constraints on the number of stellar mass black holes in the inner parsec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, Patrick; Nayakshin, Sergei [University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LEI 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes should form a cusp in the inner parsec. Calculations [5, 6] show that approximately 20 thousand black holes would be present in a sphere with radius of about a parsec around Sgr A*. The presence of these objects opens up the possibility that they might be accreting ''cool'' gas (i.e. the Minispiral) as discussed by Morris [6]. Here we calculate the X-ray emission expected from these black holes as a method to constrain their population. We find that the data limits the total number of such black holes to around 10 - 20 thousand. Even a much smaller number of such black holes, i.e. 5 thousand, is sufficient to produce several sources with X-ray luminosity above L{sub x} {approx} 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} at any one time. We suggest that some of the discrete X-ray sources observed by Muno [7] with Chandra in the inner parsec may be such ''fake X-ray binaries''.

  20. X-ray constraints on the number of stellar mass black holes in the inner parsec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Patrick; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2006-12-01

    Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes should form a cusp in the inner parsec. Calculations [5, 6] show that approximately 20 thousand black holes would be present in a sphere with radius of about a parsec around Sgr A*. The presence of these objects opens up the possibility that they might be accreting ''cool'' gas (i.e. the Minispiral) as discussed by Morris [6]. Here we calculate the X-ray emission expected from these black holes as a method to constrain their population. We find that the data limits the total number of such black holes to around 10 - 20 thousand. Even a much smaller number of such black holes, i.e. 5 thousand, is sufficient to produce several sources with X-ray luminosity above Lx ~ 1033 erg s-1 at any one time. We suggest that some of the discrete X-ray sources observed by Muno [7] with Chandra in the inner parsec may be such ''fake X-ray binaries''.

  1. X-ray constraints on the number of stellar mass black holes in the inner parsec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, Patrick; Nayakshin, Sergei

    2006-01-01

    Due to dynamical friction stellar mass black holes should form a cusp in the inner parsec. Calculations [5, 6] show that approximately 20 thousand black holes would be present in a sphere with radius of about a parsec around Sgr A*. The presence of these objects opens up the possibility that they might be accreting ''cool'' gas (i.e. the Minispiral) as discussed by Morris [6]. Here we calculate the X-ray emission expected from these black holes as a method to constrain their population. We find that the data limits the total number of such black holes to around 10 - 20 thousand. Even a much smaller number of such black holes, i.e. 5 thousand, is sufficient to produce several sources with X-ray luminosity above L x ∼ 10 33 erg s -1 at any one time. We suggest that some of the discrete X-ray sources observed by Muno [7] with Chandra in the inner parsec may be such ''fake X-ray binaries''

  2. Use of flow injection mass spectrometric fingerprinting and chemometrics for differentiation of three black cohosh species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Huilian; Sun, Jianghao; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Zhong, Haiyan; Fletcher, Edward J.; Harnly, James; Chen, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. This method has proven to be a powerful tool for botanical authentication and in this study it was used to distinguish between three Actaea species prior to a more detailed chemical analysis using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS). Black cohosh has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement in the United States for the treatment of symptoms related to menopause. However, it has been known to be adulterated with the Asian Actaea dahurica (Turcz. ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Franch. species (syn. Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim). Existing methods for identification of black cohosh and differentiation of Actaea species are usually lengthy, laborious, and lack robustness, often based on the comparison of a few pre-selected components. Chemical fingerprints were obtained for 77 black cohosh samples and their related species using FIMS in the negative ion mode. The analysis time for each sample was less than 2 min. All data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA). FIMS fingerprints could readily differentiate all three species. Representative samples from each of the three species were further examined using UHPLC–MS to provide detailed profiles of the chemical differences between the three species and were compared to the PCA loadings. This study demonstrates a simple, fast, and easy analytical method that can be used to differentiate A. racemosa, Actaea podocarpa, and A. dahurica. - Highlights: • Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. • FIMS can discriminate between A. dahurica, A. podocarpa, and A. racemosa. • FIMS is a valuable screening tool for authentication of botanicals

  3. Use of flow injection mass spectrometric fingerprinting and chemometrics for differentiation of three black cohosh species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Huilian [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States); Key Laboratory of Modern Preparation of TCM, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province (China); Sun, Jianghao [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States); McCoy, Joe-Ann [The North Carolina Arboretum Germplasm Repository, UNC Affiliate Campus, Asheville, NC (United States); Zhong, Haiyan [College of Food Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Fletcher, Edward J. [Strategic Sourcing, Inc., Banner Elk, NC 28604 (United States); Harnly, James, E-mail: harnly.james@ars.usda.gov [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States); Chen, Pei, E-mail: pei.chen@ars.usda.gov [Food Composition and Methods Development Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. This method has proven to be a powerful tool for botanical authentication and in this study it was used to distinguish between three Actaea species prior to a more detailed chemical analysis using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS). Black cohosh has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement in the United States for the treatment of symptoms related to menopause. However, it has been known to be adulterated with the Asian Actaea dahurica (Turcz. ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Franch. species (syn. Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim). Existing methods for identification of black cohosh and differentiation of Actaea species are usually lengthy, laborious, and lack robustness, often based on the comparison of a few pre-selected components. Chemical fingerprints were obtained for 77 black cohosh samples and their related species using FIMS in the negative ion mode. The analysis time for each sample was less than 2 min. All data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA). FIMS fingerprints could readily differentiate all three species. Representative samples from each of the three species were further examined using UHPLC–MS to provide detailed profiles of the chemical differences between the three species and were compared to the PCA loadings. This study demonstrates a simple, fast, and easy analytical method that can be used to differentiate A. racemosa, Actaea podocarpa, and A. dahurica. - Highlights: • Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. • FIMS can discriminate between A. dahurica, A. podocarpa, and A. racemosa. • FIMS is a valuable screening tool for authentication of botanicals.

  4. Nuclear Gas Dynamics of NGC2110: A Black Hole Offset from the Host Galaxy Mass Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the central regions of many galaxies are unlikely to be in a static steady state, with instabilities caused by sinking satellites, the influence of a supermassive black hole or residuals of galaxy formation, resulting in the nuclear black hole orbiting the galaxy center. The observational signature of such an orbiting black hole is an offset of the active nucleus (AGN) from the kinematic center defined by the galaxy rotation curve. This orbital motion may provide fuel for the AGN, as the hole 'grazes' on the ISM, and bent radio jets, due to the motion of their source. The early type (E/SO) Seyfert galaxy, NGC2210, with its striking twin, 'S'-shaped radio jets, is a unique and valuable test case for the offset-nucleus phenomenon since, despite its remarkably normal rotation curve, its kinematically-measured mass center is displaced both spatially (260 pc) and kinematically (170 km/s) from the active nucleus located in optical and radio studies. However, the central kinematics, where the rotation curve rises most steeply, have been inaccessible with ground-based resolutions. We present new, high resolution WFPC2 imaging and long-slit STIS spectroscopy of the central 300 pc of NGC2110. We discuss the structure and kinematics of gas moving in the galactic potential on subarcsecond scales and the reality of the offset between the black hole and the galaxy mass center.

  5. The chlorination kinetics of zirconium dioxide mixed with carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movahedian, A.; Raygan, Sh.; Pourabdoli, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the effects of chlorine gas at different chlorine partial pressures and carbon concentrations on the carbochlorination of zirconia were studied. It was found that in briquettes containing 18.7 %wt carbon, in a chlorine partial pressure range of 0.25-0.75 atm and for a reacted fraction of less than 0.7, the chemical reaction model was dominant for the carbochlorination process of zirconia. The order of reaction into chlorine gas (n) in this situation was 0.57. Moreover, the best weight ratio of carbon to zirconia was 40/60. In this case, the activation energy of the reaction was 209.9 kJ mol -1 in a temperature range of 1023-1223 K, and the dominant model was the chemical reaction model.

  6. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  7. Evaluation of solid particle number and black carbon for very low particulate matter emissions standards in light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M-C Oliver; Shields, J Erin

    2017-06-01

    To reliably measure at the low particulate matter (PM) levels needed to meet California's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV III) 3- and 1-mg/mile particulate matter (PM) standards, various approaches other than gravimetric measurement have been suggested for testing purposes. In this work, a feasibility study of solid particle number (SPN, d50 = 23 nm) and black carbon (BC) as alternatives to gravimetric PM mass was conducted, based on the relationship of these two metrics to gravimetric PM mass, as well as the variability of each of these metrics. More than 150 Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) or Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) tests were conducted on 46 light-duty vehicles, including port-fuel-injected and direct-injected gasoline vehicles, as well as several light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particle filters (LDD/DPF). For FTP tests, emission variability of gravimetric PM mass was found to be slightly less than that of either SPN or BC, whereas the opposite was observed for US06 tests. Emission variability of PM mass for LDD/DPF was higher than that of both SPN and BC, primarily because of higher PM mass measurement uncertainties (background and precision) near or below 0.1 mg/mile. While strong correlations were observed from both SPN and BC to PM mass, the slopes are dependent on engine technologies and driving cycles, and the proportionality between the metrics can vary over the course of the test. Replacement of the LEV III PM mass emission standard with one other measurement metric may imperil the effectiveness of emission reduction, as a correlation-based relationship may evolve over future technologies for meeting stringent greenhouse standards. Solid particle number and black carbon were suggested in place of PM mass for the California LEV III 1-mg/mile FTP standard. Their equivalence, proportionality, and emission variability in comparison to PM mass, based on a large light-duty vehicle fleet examined, are dependent on engine

  8. Black carbon emissions in gasoline vehicle exhaust: a measurement and instrument comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboures, Michael A; Hu, Shishan; Yu, Yong; Sandoval, Julia; Rieger, Paul; Huang, Shiou-Mei; Zhang, Sherry; Dzhema, Inna; Huo, Darey; Ayala, Alberto; Chang, M C Oliver

    2013-08-01

    A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the performance and agreement of several commercially available black carbon (BC) measurement instruments, when applied to the quantification of BC in light-duty vehicle (LDV) exhaust. Samples from six vehicles, three fuels, and three driving cycles were used. The pilot study included determinations of the method detection limit (MDL) and repeatability. With respect to the MDL, the real-time instruments outperformed the time-integrated instruments, with MDL = 0.12 mg/mi for the AE51 Aethalometer, and 0.15 mg/mi for the Micro Soot Sensor (MSS), versus 0.38 mg/mi for the IMPROVE_A thermal/ optical method, and 0.35 mg/mi for the OT21_T Optical Transmissometer. The real-time instruments had repeatability values ranging from 30% to 35%, which are somewhat better than those of the time-integrated instruments (40-41%). These results suggest that, despite being less resource intensive, real-time methods can be equivalent or superior to time-integrated methods in terms of sensitivity and repeatability. BC mass data, from the photoacoustic and light attenuation instruments, were compared against same-test EC data, determined using the IMPROVE_A method. The MSS BC data was well correlated with EC, with R2 = 0.85 for the composite results and R2 = 0.86 for the phase-by-phase (PBP) results. The correlation of BC, by the AE51, AE22, and OT21_T with EC was moderate to weak. The weaker correlation was driven by the inclusion of US06 test data in the linear regression analysis. We hypothesize that test-cycle-dependent BC:EC ratios are due to the different physicochemical properties of particulate matter (PM) in US06 and Federal Test Procedure (FTP) tests. Correlation amongst the real-time MSS, PASS-1, AE51, and AE22 instruments was excellent (R2 = 0.83-0.95), below 1 mg/mi levels. In the process of investigating these BC instruments, we learned that BC emissions at sub-1 mg/mi levels can be measured and are achievable by current

  9. A contribution of black and brown carbon to the aerosol light absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Cho, Chaeyoon; Jo, Duseong; Park, Rokjin

    2017-04-01

    Black carbon (BC) is functionally defined as the absorbing component of atmospheric total carbonaceous aerosols and is typically dominated by soot-like elemental carbon (EC). Organic carbon (OC) has also been shown to absorb strongly at visible to UV wavelengths and the absorbing organics are referred to as brown carbon (BrC; Alexander et al., 2008). These two aerosols contribute to solar radiative forcing through absorption of solar radiation and heating of the absorbing aerosol layer, but most optical instruments that quantify light absorption are unable to distinguish one type of absorbing aerosol from another (Moosmüller et al. 2009). In this study, we separate total aerosol absorption from these two different light absorbers from co-located simultaneous in-situ measurements, such as Continuous Soot Monitoring System (COSMOS), Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAP) and Sunset EC/OC analyzer, at Gosan climate observatory, Korea. We determine the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of BC, and then estimate the contribution of BC and BrC on aerosol light absorption, together with a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) simulation. At 565 nm wavelength, BC MAC is found to be about 5.4±2.8 m2 g-1 from COSMOS and Sunset EC/OC analyzer measurements during January-May 2012. This value is similar to those from Alexander et al. (2008; 4.3 ˜ 4.8 m2 g-1 at 550 nm) and Chung et al. (2012; 5.1 m2 g-1 at 520 nm), but slightly lower than Bond and Bergstrom (2006; 7.5±1.2 m2 g-1 at 550 nm). The COMOS BC mass concentration calculated with 5.4 m2 g-1 of BC MAC shows a good agreement with thermal EC concentration, with a good slope (1.1). Aerosol absorption coefficient and BC mass concentration from COSMOS, meanwhile, are approximately 25 ˜ 30 % lower than those of CLAP. This difference can be attributable to the contribution of volatile light-absorbing aerosols (i.e., BrC). The absorption coefficient of BrC, which is determined by the difference of

  10. The Mass of the Black Hole in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 4593 from Reverberation Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.

    2006-01-01

    We present new observations leading to an improved black hole mass estimate for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 as part of a reverberation-mapping campaign conducted at the MDM Observatory. Cross-correlation analysis of the H_beta emission-line light curve with the optical continuum light curve...... reveals an emission-line time delay of 3.73 (+-0.75) days. By combining this time delay with the H_beta line width, we derive a central black hole mass of M_BH = 9.8(+-2.1)x10^6 M_sun, an improvement in precision of a factor of several over past results....

  11. Constructing binary black hole initial data with high mass ratios and spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossokine, Serguei; Foucart, Francois; Pfeiffer, Harald; Szilagyi, Bela; Simulating Extreme Spacetimes Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Binary black hole systems have now been successfully modelled in full numerical relativity by many groups. In order to explore high-mass-ratio (larger than 1:10), high-spin systems (above 0.9 of the maximal BH spin), we revisit the initial-data problem for binary black holes. The initial-data solver in the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) was not able to solve for such initial data reliably and robustly. I will present recent improvements to this solver, among them adaptive mesh refinement and control of motion of the center of mass of the binary, and will discuss the much larger region of parameter space this code can now address.

  12. The influence of different black carbon and sulfate mixing methods on their optical and radiative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Zhili; Zhao, Shuyun; Li, Jiangnan

    2015-08-01

    Three different internal mixing methods (Core-Shell, Maxwell-Garnett, and Bruggeman) and one external mixing method are used to study the impact of mixing methods of black carbon (BC) with sulfate aerosol on their optical properties, radiative flux, and heating rate. The optical properties of a mixture of BC and sulfate aerosol particles are considered for three typical bands. The results show that mixing methods, the volume ratio of BC to sulfate, and relative humidity have a strong influence on the optical properties of mixed aerosols. Compared to internal mixing, external mixing underestimates the particle mass absorption coefficient by 20-70% and the particle mass scattering coefficient by up to 50%, whereas it overestimates the particle single scattering albedo by 20-50% in most cases. However, the asymmetry parameter is strongly sensitive to the equivalent particle radius, but is only weakly sensitive to the different mixing methods. Of the internal methods, there is less than 2% difference in all optical properties between the Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman methods in all bands; however, the differences between the Core-Shell and Maxwell-Garnett/Bruggeman methods are usually larger than 15% in the ultraviolet and visible bands. A sensitivity test is conducted with the Beijing Climate Center Radiation transfer model (BCC-RAD) using a simulated BC concentration that is typical of east-central China and a sulfate volume ratio of 75%. The results show that the internal mixing methods could reduce the radiative flux more effectively because they produce a higher absorption. The annual mean instantaneous radiative force due to BC-sulfate aerosol is about -3.18 W/m2 for the external method and -6.91 W/m2 for the internal methods at the surface, and -3.03/-1.56/-1.85 W/m2 for the external/Core-Shell/(Maxwell-Garnett/Bruggeman) methods, respectively, at the tropopause.

  13. Black carbon's contribution to aerosol absorption optical depth over S. Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, K.; Perring, A. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Anderson, B. E.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Redemann, J.; Holben, B. N.; Schwarz, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) monitored by ground-based sites (AERONET, SKYNET, etc.) is used to constrain climate radiative forcing from black carbon (BC) and other absorbing aerosols in global models, but few validation studies between in situ aerosol measurements and ground-based AAOD exist. AAOD is affected by aerosol size distributions, composition, mixing state, and morphology. Megacities provide appealing test cases for this type of study due to their association with very high concentrations of anthropogenic aerosols. During the KORUS-AQ campaign in S. Korea, which took place in late spring and early summer of 2016, in situ aircraft measurements over the Seoul Metropolitan Area and Taehwa Research Forest (downwind of Seoul) were repeated three times per flight over a 6 week period, providing significant temporal coverage of vertically resolved aerosol properties influenced by different meteorological conditions and sources. Measurements aboard the NASA DC-8 by the NOAA Humidified Dual Single Particle Soot Photometers (HD-SP2) quantified BC mass, size distributions, mixing state, and the hygroscopicity of BC containing aerosols. The in situ BC mass vertical profiles are combined with estimated absorption enhancement calculated from observed optical size and hygroscopicity using Mie theory, and then integrated over the depth of the profile to calculate BC's contribution to AAOD. Along with bulk aerosol size distributions and hygroscopicity, bulk absorbing aerosol optical properties, and on-board sky radiance measurements, these measurements are compared with ground-based AERONET site measurements of AAOD to evaluate closure between in situ vertical profiles of BC and AAOD measurements. This study will provide constraints on the relative importance of BC (including lensing and hygroscopicity effects) and non-BC components to AAOD over S. Korea.

  14. Effect of carbon black on thermal properties of charcoal and salacca leafstalk briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thassana, Chewa; Nuleg, Witoon

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of a carbon black (CB) on the thermal properties of briquettes produced from the charcoal and the salacca leafstalk with and without CB have been investigated. Four thermal properties of a briquettes compose of the burning time, the calorific value, the percentage moisture (PMC) and an percentage ash content (PAC) were analyzed using standard laboratory methods. Our results were indicated that the sallacca leafstalk mix a carbon black is the long burning times, high heating but a few ash content. Results shown that the burning time and the calorific value of a charcoal, a charcoal with CB, the salacca leafstalk and the salacca leafstalk with carbon black particles is about 58, 63, 76, 81 minutes, and 10.33, 12.96, 13.12, 14.63 MJ/kg, respectively. In addition, the PMC and PAC were in range of 11.6 - 8.14% and 9.33 - 5.42%. So, we can conclude that a cabon black affect on the thermal properties of a briquettes and salacca leaftstalk mixed CB has been most suited for briquetting.

  15. X-Ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei with Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, G. C.; Mathur, S.; Griffiths, R. E.; Rao, A. R.

    2008-12-01

    We present a systematic X-ray study of eight active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with intermediate-mass black holes (MBH ~ 8-95 × 104 M⊙) based on 12 XMM-Newton observations. The sample includes the two prototype AGNs in this class—NGC 4395 and POX 52 and six other AGNs discovered with the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey. These AGNs show some of the strongest X-ray variability, with the normalized excess variances being the largest and the power density break timescales being the shortest observed among radio-quiet AGNs. The excess-variance-luminosity correlation appears to depend on both the BH mass and the Eddington luminosity ratio. The break timescale-black hole mass relations for AGN with IMBHs are consistent with that observed for massive AGNs. We find that the FWHM of the Hβ/Hα line is uncorrelated with the BH mass, but shows strong anticorrelation with the Eddington luminosity ratio. Four AGNs show clear evidence for soft X-ray excess emission (kTin ~ 150-200 eV). X-ray spectra of three other AGNs are consistent with the presence of the soft excess emission. NGC 4395 with lowest L/LEdd lacks the soft excess emission. Evidently small black mass is not the primary driver of strong soft X-ray excess emission from AGNs. The X-ray spectral properties and optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions of these AGNs are similar to those of Seyfert 1 galaxies. The observed X-ray/UV properties of AGNs with IMBHs are consistent with these AGNs being low-mass extensions of more massive AGNs, those with high Eddington luminosity ratio looking more like narrow-line Seyfert 1 s and those with low L/LEdd looking more like broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  16. Hydrogen production using thermocatalytic decomposition of methane on Ni30/activated carbon and Ni30/carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srilatha, K; Viditha, V; Srinivasulu, D; Ramakrishna, S U B; Himabindu, V

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen is an energy carrier of the future need. It could be produced from different sources and used for power generation or as a transport fuel which mainly in association with fuel cells. The primary challenge for hydrogen production is reducing the cost of production technologies to make the resulting hydrogen cost competitive with conventional fuels. Thermocatalytic decomposition (TCD) of methane is one of the most advantageous processes, which will meet the future demand, hence an attractive route for COx free environment. The present study deals with the production of hydrogen with 30 wt% of Ni impregnated in commercially available activated carbon and carbon black catalysts (samples coded as Ni30/AC and Ni30/CB, respectively). These combined catalysts were not attempted by previous studies. Pure form of hydrogen is produced at 850 °C and volume hourly space velocity (VHSV) of 1.62 L/h g on the activity of both the catalysts. The analysis (X-ray diffraction (XRD)) of the catalysts reveals moderately crystalline peaks of Ni, which might be responsible for the increase in catalytic life along with formation of carbon fibers. The activity of carbon black is sustainable for a longer time compared to that of activated carbon which has been confirmed by life time studies (850 °C and 54 sccm of methane).

  17. An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy POX 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.; Ho, L.; Sargent, W.

    2004-06-01

    We describe new observations of POX 52, a previously known but nearly forgotten example of a dwarf galaxy with an active nucleus. While POX 52 was originally thought to be a Seyfert 2 galaxy, the new data reveal an emission-line spectrum very similar to that of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4395, with clear broad components to the permitted line profiles. The host galaxy appears to be a dwarf elliptical; this is the only known case of a Seyfert nucleus in a galaxy of this type. Applying scaling relations to estimate the black hole mass from the broad Hβ linewidth and continuum luminosity, we find MBH ≈ 1.6×105 M⊙. The stellar velocity dispersion in the host galaxy is 36 km s-1, also suggestive of a black hole mass of order 105 M⊙. Further searches for AGNs in dwarf galaxies can provide crucial constraints on the demographics of black holes in the mass range below 106 M⊙.

  18. THE BLACK HOLE MASS-GALAXY LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salviander, S.; Shields, G. A.; Bonning, E. W.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the mass of the central supermassive black hole, M BH , and the host galaxy luminosity, L gal , in a sample of quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We use composite quasar spectra binned by black hole mass and redshift to assess galaxy features that would otherwise be overwhelmed by noise in individual spectra. The black hole mass is calculated using the photoionization method, and the host galaxy luminosity is inferred from the depth of the Ca II H+K features in the composite spectra. We evaluate the evolution in the M BH -L gal relationship by examining the redshift dependence of Δ log M BH , the offset in M BH from the local M BH -L gal relationship. There is little systematic trend in Δ log M BH out to z = 0.8. Using the width of the [O III] emission line as a proxy for the stellar velocity dispersion, σ * , we find agreement of our derived host luminosities with the locally observed Faber-Jackson relation. This supports the utility of the width of the [O III] line as a proxy for σ * in statistical studies

  19. Evidence for Broad-Line Region Outflows and Their Impact on Black Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Assef, R. J.; Horne, K.

    2012-01-01

    could not be fully and accurately interpreted from the 1D velocity-resolved reverberation signal. From the VDM, an outflow component to the emission remains possible but appears to be in addition to an underlying, disk-like BLR structure consistent in size with the measured reverberation lag. The black...... hole (BH) mass derived from this data is therefore secure from any uncertainties possibly derived from gravitationally unbound gas contributing to the emission. Additionally, we demonstrate that BLR emission from the C IV ¿1549 broad emission line can reliably be used as a virial BH mass estimator...

  20. How fast can a black hole eat. [Equation stationary spherically symmetric solutions, Thompson scattering, mass flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, P; Meszaros, P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-11-01

    Stationary spherically symmetric solutions of the equations for accretion of large mass flows onto a black hole, including the interaction of matter and radiation due to Thomson scattering in diffusion approximation are constructed. The relevance of these solutions is discussed with respect to the question of whether the limitation of the luminosity (Eddington limit) also implies an upper bound to the possible rate of mass flow. The question remains open until all instabilities have been studied. At the moment a negative answer is favoured.

  1. Effect of sterilization on mineralization of straw and black carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobul'ská, Lenka; Bruun, Sander; Fazekašová, Danica

    2013-01-01

    vulgare) with a specific activity 2.9 MBq g C. Production of BC was implemented at 300 °C for 24 h in a muffle oven, incubated in soil and C in the evolved CO was measured after 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 26 and 40 days. BC showed much lower and slow evolution of CO than the plant material which refers to high...... the plant material proceeded with a lag phase while CO evolution from the charcoals showed no lag phase. This indicates that microorganisms are not involved in the initial flush of carbon emitted from the BC. We suggest that an alternative source may be carbonates on the surfaces of the BC, but another...

  2. Jetted tidal disruptions of stars as a flag of intermediate mass black holes at high redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-11-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) of stars by single or binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) brighten galactic nuclei and reveal a population of otherwise dormant black holes. Adopting event rates from the literature, we aim to establish general trends in the redshift evolution of the TDE number counts and their observable signals. We pay particular attention to (I) jetted TDEs whose luminosity is boosted by relativistic beaming and (II) TDEs around binary black holes. We show that the brightest (jetted) TDEs are expected to be produced by massive black hole binaries if the occupancy of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in low-mass galaxies is high. The same binary population will also provide gravitational wave sources for the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. In addition, we find that the shape of the X-ray luminosity function of TDEs strongly depends on the occupancy of IMBHs and could be used to constrain scenarios of SMBH formation. Finally, we make predictions for the expected number of TDEs observed by future X-ray telescopes finding that a 50 times more sensitive instrument than the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board the Swift satellite is expected to trigger ˜10 times more events than BAT, while 6-20 TDEs are expected in each deep field observed by a telescope 50 times more sensitive than the Chandra X-ray Observatory if the occupation fraction of IMBHs is high. Because of their long decay times, high-redshift TDEs can be mistaken for fixed point sources in deep field surveys and targeted observations of the same deep field with year-long intervals could reveal TDEs.

  3. A population of relic intermediate-mass black holes in the halo of the Milky Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashkov, Valery; Madau, Piero

    2014-01-01

    If 'seed' central black holes were common in the subgalactic building blocks that merged to form present-day massive galaxies, then relic intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) should be present in the Galactic bulge and halo. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with black holes, and assess the size, properties, and detectability of the leftover population. The method assigns a black hole to the most tightly bound central particle of each subhalo at infall according to an extrapolation of the M BH -σ * relation, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of Milky Way progenitor dwarfs and their holes in a cosmological 'live' host from high redshift to today. We show that, depending on the minimum stellar velocity dispersion, σ m , below which central black holes are assumed to be increasingly rare, as many as ∼2000 (σ m = 3 km s –1 ) or as few as ∼70 (σ m = 12 km s –1 ) IMBHs may be left wandering in the halo of the Milky Way today. The fraction of IMBHs forced from their hosts by gravitational recoil is ≲ 20%. We identify two main Galactic subpopulations, 'naked' IMBHs, whose host subhalos were totally destroyed after infall, and 'clothed' IMBHs residing in dark matter satellites that survived tidal stripping. Naked IMBHs typically constitute 40%-50% of the total and are more centrally concentrated. We show that, in the σ m = 12 km s –1 scenario, the clusters of tightly bound stars that should accompany naked IMBHs would be fainter than m V = 16 mag, spatially resolvable, and have proper motions of 0.1-10 mas yr –1 . Their detection may provide an observational tool to constrain the formation history of massive black holes in the early universe.

  4. Enhanced light absorptivity of black carbon with air pollution development in urban Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Cheng, Y.; Su, H.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of black carbon (BC) aerosols on air quality and climate are dependent on BC light absorptivity. However, the light absorptivity of ambient BC-containing particles remains conflicting. In this work, we investigated the evolution of BC light absorptivity with pollution development in urban Beijing, China. We found that the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of ambient BC-containing particles measured during the campaign increased with BC mass concentration, which can be attributed to more coating materials on BC surface with pollution development. A single-particle soot photometer (SP2) measurement showed that the coating thickness (CT) of BC-containing particles increased by 48% with PM1 and BC mass concentration increasing from 10 μg m-3 and 0.3 μg m-3 to 230 μg m-3 and 12 μg m-3. Based on Mie calculation, the CT increase could led to light absorption enhancement (Eab) of BC-containing particles increasing by 22%, consistent with the increase of measured MAC. The relationship between growth rate of BC light absorptivity (kEab) and that of PM1 or rBC concentration (kPM1 or krBC) showed that kEab ≈ 4.8% kPM1 or kEab ≈ 2.5% krBC. The analysis of effective emission intensity (EEI) for BC revealed that the enhancement of BC light absorptivity with increasing pollution levels was dominated by regional transport. During the pollution period, 63% of BC over Beijing originated from regional sources. The aging of these regional BC during atmospheric transport controlled the increase of coating materials for BC-containing particles observed in Beijing. As a result of enhanced light absorptivity with pollution development, BC forcing efficiency could increase by 20% during polluted period. Our work identified the importance of BC on radiative forcing under polluted environment, which is determined by not only the increase of BC mass concentration, but also the enhancement of BC forcing efficiency due to more coating materials.

  5. Observations of Intermediate-mass Black Holes and Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.

    2003-12-01

    I will review various observations that suggest that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with masses ˜102-104 M⊙ exist in our Universe. I will also discuss some of the limitations of these observations. HST Observations of excess dark mass in globular cluster cores suggest IMBHs may be responsible, and some mass estimates from lensing experiments are nearly in the IMBH range. The intriguing Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs, or IXOs) are off-nuclear X-ray point sources with X-ray luminosities LX ≳ 1039 erg s-1. ULXs are typically rare (1 in every 5 galaxies), and the nature of their ultra-luminous emission is currently debated. I will discuss the evidence for IMBHs in some ULXs, and briefly outline some phenomenology. Finally, I will discuss future observations that can be made to search for IMBHs.

  6. Hydrogen and Carbon Black Production from the Degradation of Methane by Thermal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Cottet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Methane gas (CH4 is the main inducer of the so called greenhouse gases effect. Recent scientific research aims to minimize the accumulation of this gas in the atmosphere and to develop processes capable of producing stable materials with added value. Thermal plasma technology is a promising alternative to these applications, since it allows obtaining H2 and solid carbon from CH4, without the parallel formation of byproducts such as CO2 and NOx. In this work, CH4 was degraded by thermal plasma in order to produce hydrogen (H2 and carbon black. The degradation efficiency of CH4, selectivity for H2 production as well as the characterization of carbon black were studied. The best results were obtained in the CH4 flow rate of 5 L min-1 the degradation percentage and the selectivity for H2 production reached 98.8 % and 48.4 %, respectively. At flow rates of less than 5 L min-1 the selectivity for H2 production increases and reaches 91.9 %. The carbon black has obtained amorphous with hydrophobic characteristics and can be marketed to be used in composite material, and can also be activated chemically and/or physically and used as adsorbent material.

  7. Model Persamaan Massa Karbon Akar Pohon dan Root-Shoot Ratio Massa Karbon (Equation Models of Tree Root Carbon Mass and Root-Shoot Carbon Mass Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias .

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study was conducted in the area of Acacia mangium plantation at BKPH Parung Panjang, KPH Bogor. The objective of the study was to formulate equation models of tree root carbon mass and root to shoot carbon mass ratio of the plantation. It was found that carbon content in the parts of tree biomass (stems, branches, twigs, leaves, and roots was different, in which the highest and the lowest carbon content was in the main stem of the tree and in the leaves, respectively. The main stem and leaves of tree accounted for 70% of tree biomass. The root-shoot ratio of root biomass to tree biomass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root biomass to main stem biomass was 0.1443 and 0.25771, respectively, in which 75% of tree carbon mass was in the main stem and roots of tree. It was also found that the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree carbon mass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree main stem carbon mass was 0.1442 and 0.2034, respectively. All allometric equation models of tree root carbon mass of A. mangium have a high goodness-of-fit as indicated by its high adjusted R2.Keywords: Acacia mangium, allometric, root-shoot ratio, biomass, carbon mass

  8. Assessing the relationship and influence of black carbon on distribution status of organochlorines in the coastal sediments from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Usman; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Junwen, Liu; Sánchez-García, Laura; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Arshad, Masood; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Levels of total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) were determined together with those of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the selected eighteen coastal sites (n = 285) along the Arabian Sea from Pakistan. Results showed that the total concentration of TOC, BC, ∑OCPs and ∑ 26 PCBs ranged between 0.3 and 2.9% dw, 0.1–0.2% dw, 0.9–110 ng g −1  dw and 6.2–1200 ng g −1  dw, respectively. Correlation analysis of BC (r = 0.26–0.89) and TOC (r = 0.06–0.69) revealed a stronger association with studied compounds. The sedimentary depositional fluxes (D) for ∑OCPs and ∑ 26 PCBs were calculated as 1.7 and 4.9 tons yr −1 , respectively. In the coastal belt of Pakistan, sedimentary mass inventories (I) indicated the presence of 13 and 37 metric tons of ∑OCPs and ∑ 26 PCBs, respectively. - Highlights: • First study to describe the sedimentary distribution of OCs and BC from coastal belt of Pakistan. • Higher levels of OCs and carbon contents were found in the sediments from Karachi coast. • Correlation analysis proved that BC has a significant impact on the fate and distribution of OCs in the study area. - Findings of the present study revealed that black carbon has a significant impact on the distribution of organochlorines in the coastal belt of Pakistan

  9. Hot electron-induced electrochemiluminescence at polyetherimide-carbon black-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, Kalle; Grönroos, Päivi; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Campbell, Joseph; Kulmala, Sakari

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Generation of hydrated electrons at carbon paste electrodes. • Hydrated electrons are able to produce intense chemiluminescence. • Relationship between carbon black content in electrode and HECL studied. • Performance of composite electrodes is similar to aluminum electrodes. • The present electrodes are good alternative for disposable assay cartridges. - Abstract: Various luminophores produce strong electrogenerated chemiluminescence during cathodic pulse polarization of the present insulating film-covered carbon paste electrodes in fully aqueous solutions. First electrodes made of a commercial conductive carbon paste were successfully utilized as working electrodes and their surface was characterized by ESCA. Then custom in-laboratory made improved composite electrodes were manufactured from the same insulating polymer and conducting carbon black particles. The relationship between the amount of carbon present on the composite electrode, in the bulk and on the surface, and the intensity of electrogenerated chemiluminescence was studied further. The overall performance of these composite electrodes makes them viable low-cost replacements for metal/insulator type electrodes such as oxide-coated silicon electrodes.

  10. Sediment pore water distribution coefficients of PCB congeners in enriched black carbon sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Andres; O'Sullivan, Colin; Reible, Danny; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    More than 2300 sediment pore water distribution coefficients (K PCBids ) of 93 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured and modeled from sediments from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal. K PCBids were calculated from previously reported bulk sediment values and newly analyzed pore water. PCBs in pore waters were measured using SPME PDMS-fiber and ∑PCB ranged from 41 to 1500 ng L −1 . The resulting K PCBids were ∼1 log unit lower in comparison to other reported values. A simple model for the K PCBid consisted of the product of the organic carbon fraction and the octanol–water partition coefficient and provided an excellent prediction for the measured values, with a mean square error of 0.09 ± 0.06. Although black carbon content is very high in these sediments and was expected to play an important role in the distribution of PCBs, no improvement was obtained when a two-carbon model was used. -- Highlights: •PCB sediment-pore water distribution coefficients were measured and modeled. •Distribution coefficients were lower in comparison to other reported values. •Organic carbon fraction times the K OW yielded the best prediction model. •The incorporation of black carbon into a model did not improve the results. -- The organic carbon fraction times the octanol–water partition coefficient yielded the best prediction model for the sediment pore water distribution coefficient of PCBs

  11. Absorbing Aerosols: Field and Laboratory Studies of Black Carbon and Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, A. C.; Flowers, B. A.; Dubey, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, absorbing aerosols are thought to be the most uncertain factor in atmospheric climate models (~0.4-1.2 W/m2), and the 2nd most important factor after CO2 in global warming (1.6 W/m2; Ramanathan and Carmichael, Nature Geoscience, 2008; Myhre, Science, 2009). While most well-recognized atmospheric aerosols, e.g., sulfate from power-plants, have a cooling effect on the atmosphere by scattering solar radiation, black carbon (BC or soot) absorbs sunlight strongly which results in a warming of the atmosphere. Dust particles are also present globally and can absorb radiation, contributing to a warmer and drier atmosphere. Direct on-line measurements of BC and hematite, an absorbing dust aerosol, can be made with the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), which measures the mass of the particles by incandescence on an individual particle basis. Measurements from the SP2 are combined with absorption measurements from the three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3) at 405, 532, and 781 nm and the ultraviolet photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-UV) at 375 nm to determine wavelength-dependent mass absorption coefficients (MACs). Laboratory aerosol samples include flame-generated soot, fullerene soot, Aquadag, hematite, and hematite-containing dusts. Measured BC MAC's compare well with published values, and hematite MAC's are an order of magnitude less than BC. Absorbing aerosols measured in the laboratory are compared with those from ambient aerosols measured during the Las Conchas fire and BEACHON-RoMBAS. The Las Conchas fire was a wildfire in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico that burned over 100,000 acres during the Summer of 2011, and BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) is a field campaign focusing on biogenic aerosols at the Manitou Forest Observatory near Colorado Springs, CO in Summer 2011. Optical properties and size

  12. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J-D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hamilton, H; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y-M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; 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    2016-06-17

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5σ. The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3.4_{-0.9}^{+0.7}×10^{-22}. The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2_{-3.7}^{+8.3}M_{⊙} and 7.5_{-2.3}^{+2.3}M_{⊙}, and the final black hole mass is 20.8_{-1.7}^{+6.1}M_{⊙}. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 440_{-190}^{+180}  Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.09_{-0.04}^{+0.03}. All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

  13. Hip Hop Voices in the era of Mass Incarceration: An examination of Kendrick Lamar and The Black Lives Matter Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Salmons, Patrick Jeremiah

    2017-01-01

    The United States has many problems currently, the most persistent of which is the issue of race, and the problem of Mass Incarceration. This thesis addresses what Mass Incarceration is, as well as developing a theoretical understanding of how to overcome Mass Incarceration through the music of Kendrick Lamar and The Black Lives Matter Movement. This thesis presents the questions: What is the era of Mass Incarceration? How does Kendrick Lamar's music inform the problems of Mass Incarceration?...

  14. Conductive additive content balance in Li-ion battery cathodes: Commercial carbon blacks vs. in situ carbon from LiFePO{sub 4}/C composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB