WorldWideScience

Sample records for black ant salvage

  1. Pre-adaptive cadmium tolerance in the black garden ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grześ, Irena M; Okrutniak, Mateusz

    2016-04-01

    The black garden ant Lasius niger is a common component of habitats subjected to anthropological stress. The species can develop very abundant populations in metal-polluted areas. In this study, we raised the question of its tolerance to Cd pollution. Workers of L. niger were collected from 54 colonies, originating from 19 sites located along an increasing gradient of Cd pollution in Poland. Ants were exposed to a range of dietary Cd concentrations in a controlled 14-day laboratory experiment in order to test Cd-sensitivity in the investigated ants. The level of ant mortality was recorded as the endpoint of the experiment. We used much higher concentrations of dietary Cd than those the ants are most likely exposed to in field conditions. The investigated ants were highly Cd-tolerant; even a very high dietary Cd concentration of approx. 1300 mg/kg did not affect mortality of workers when compared to the control. Mortality was unrelated to Cd-pollution along the pollution gradient, meaning that high Cd-tolerance can be found even in ants from unpolluted areas. The results stress the importance of pre-adaptive mechanisms in the development of metal tolerance in ants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatty Amines from Little Black Ants, Monomorium minimum, and Their Biological Activities Against Red Imported Fire Ants, Solenopsis invicta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, are significant invasive pests. Certain native ant species can compete with S. invicta, such as the little black ant, Monomorium minimum. Defensive secretions may contribute to the competition capacity of native ants. The chemistry of ant defensive secretions in the genus Monomorium has been subjected to extensive research. The insecticidal alkaloids, 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolidines and 2,5-dialkyl-pyrrolines have been reported to dominate the venom of M. minimum. In this study, analysis of defensive secretions of workers and queens of M. minimum revealed two primary amines, decylamine and dodecylamine. Neither amine has been reported previously from natural sources. Toxicity and digging suppression by these two amines against S. invicta were examined. Decylamine had higher toxicity to S. invicta workers than dodecylamine, a quicker knockdown effect, and suppressed the digging behavior of S. invicta workers at lower concentration. However, the amount of fatty amines in an individual ant was not enough to knockdown a fire ant or suppress its digging behavior. These amines most likely work in concert with other components in the chemical defense of M. minimum.

  3. Establishment of Black Ant (Dolichoderus thoracicuson Cocoa Plantation and Its Effects on Helopeltisspp. Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soekadar Wiryadiputra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicusis the efficient biological control agent in suppressing main cocoa pests. It was reported that besides controlling the cocoa mirids, Helopeltisspp., this agent also can be used for biological control of cocoa pod borer (Conopomorpha cramerellaand rodents pest. Nevertheles, establishment of black ant in cocoa plantation is difficult. The objectives of research were to obtain the best method of black ant establisment and to know its effect on suppressing population and infestation of Helopeltis spp. The experiment was conducted on two cocoa ecosystems, namely cocoa plantation with coconut shading trees and with Gliricidia sepium shading trees. There were six methods of black ant establisment tried using a combination between black ant nest types and innoculation of mealybug (Cataenococcus hispidus. A control plot also added on these trial, therefore seven treatments were tried in this experiment and each treatmentwasreplicated three times. The results revealedthat on cocoa shaded by coconuts, ant establishment by the nests of coconut leaves combined with mealybug(Cataenococcus hispidusinoculation on husk wedges were the best method and could effectively control Helopeltis infestation. Good results of ant establishment also occurred on cocoa shaded by Gliricidia but its effect on Helopeltis infestation has not been significant. Four months after establishment of black ant on cocoa with coconut shading trees, Helopeltisspp. population on the plots treated by coconut leaves nest combined with innoculation of mealybug using husk wedges were very low, namely only one Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees, whereas on control plot reaches of 85 Helopeltis. Infestation of Helopeltis measured by percentage of trees occupied by Helopeltisper 36 cocoa trees in the same period and treatment plot revealed also very low, namely 1.04% compared to 27.86% on that of the control plot. Key words : Cocoa, black ant (Dolichoderus thoracicus

  4. Nutritional and fatty acid profiles of sun-dried edible black ants (Polyrhachis vicina Roger

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    Duo Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the nutritional composition of sun-dried edible black ants (Polyrhachis vicina Roger cultivated in Zhejiang and Guizhou Provinces, China, was carried out. The Zhejiang and Guizhou ants contained 31.5% and 41.5% protein, 15.7% and 15.9% lipid, and 25.4% and 26.4% fibre respectively. Monounsaturated fatty acids were the most predominant fatty acids (71.472.7% of total fatty acids found in both ant samples, followed by saturated fatty acids (23.825.5% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (3.13.7%. A significant amount of n-3 fatty acids was detected: 87.4 mg/100g and 145.6 mg/100g in Zhejiang and Guizhou ants respectively. Phosphorus, iron and calcium were the main minerals found in the ant samples. A small amount of selenium was also found.

  5. ANT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Duim, René; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór

    2017-01-01

    Ten years ago actor-network theory (ANT) entered this journal. To illustrate how the relational ontology and sensibilities of ANT lend themselves to particular kinds of research, we first interrogate the main controversies as a way to open up and discuss the main premises of ANT. These debates...... concern the status and agency of objects and non-humans, ANT’s denial of the explanatory power of social structures, and the political implications of ANT. Second we present ANT’s relevance for tourism studies and discuss what ANT ‘does’ in practice. After summarizing a decade of relations between ANT...... and tourism, we conclude by tracing three future trajectories of how we have ‘moved away with’ ANT into new areas of discovery....

  6. Update on the defensive chemicals of the Little Black Ant, Monomorium minimum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaloids, including 2,5-dialkylpyrrolidines and 2,5-dialkylpyrrolines, have been reported to be components in the venom of little black ants, Monomorium minimum (Buckley). Two fatty amines were recently reported as minor compounds. By analyzing the discharge collected from the stinger apparatus (...

  7. CONTROL OF THE BLACK LEAF CUTTING ANT, Acromyrmex crassispinus, WITH POWDERED FORMICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Moreira Link

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments  were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of some powdered formicides on the control of the black leaf cutting ant, Acromyrmex crassispinus (Forel, 1909 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, in Santa Maria county, from 1996 until 1998. Powdered formicides containing  Fenthion at 50g a. i./kg, Imidacloprid at  4g a. i./kg, Betacyfluthrin at 2g a. i./kg, Chlorpyrifos at 20g a. i./kg and at 50g a. i./kg, Deltamethrin at  2g a. i./kg, Acephate at 750g a. i./kg and Diazinon at 10g a. i./kg were evaluated on big nests (>80cm of diameter. The big nests of this ant were efficiently controlled with 30g/nest of the commercial formulations of Fenthion, Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos (20g a. i./kg and  50g a. i./kg; with 3g/nest of the formulation of Acephate; with 5g/nest in dry season and 30g/nest in wet season of the powdered formulation of Deltamethrin.

  8. Comparative study of cocoa black ants temporal population distribution utilizing geospatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, N. A.; Bakar, S.; Mazlan, A. H.; Yusoff, Z. Mohd; Rasam, A. R. Abdul

    2018-02-01

    Cocoa plantation also subjected to diseases and pests infestation. Some pests not only reduced the yield but also inhibit the growth of trees. Therefore, the Malaysia Cocoa Board (MCB) has explored Cocoa Black Ants (CBA) as one of their biological control mechanism to reduce the pest infestation of the Cocoa Pod Borer (CPB). CPB is capable to cause damage to cocoa beans, and later on will reduce the quality of dried cocoa beans. This study tries to integrate the use of geospatial analysis in understanding population distribution pattern of CBA to enhance its capability in controlling CPB infestation. Two objectives of the study are i) to generate temporal CBA distribution of cocoa plantation for two different blocks, and ii) to compare visually the CBA population distribution pattern with the aid of geospatial technique. This study managed to find the CBA population pattern which indicated spatially modest amount of low pattern distribution in February of 2007 until reaching the highest levels of ant populations in September 2007 and decreasing by the end of the year in 2009 for two different blocks (i.e 10B and 18A). Therefore, the usage of GIS is important to explain the CBA pattern population in the mature cocoa field. This finding might to be used as an indicator to examine the optimum distribution of CBA, which needed as a biological control agent against the CPB in the future.

  9. The diversity of ant-associated black yeasts: insights into a newly discovered world of symbiotic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Mayer, Veronika; Maschwitz, Ulrich; Moog, Joachim; Djieto-Lordon, Champlain; Blatrix, Rumsaïs

    2011-10-01

    Based on pure culture studies and DNA phylogenetic analyses, black yeasts (Chaetothyriales, Ascomycota) are shown to be widely distributed and important components of numerous plant-ant-fungus networks, independently acquired by several ant lineages in the Old and New World. Data from ITS and LSU nu rDNA demonstrate that a high biodiversity of fungal species is involved. There are two common ant-fungus symbioses involving black yeasts: (1) on the carton walls of ant nests and galleries, and (2) the fungal mats growing within non-pathogenic naturally hollow structures (so-called domatia) provided by myrmecophytic plants as nesting space for ants (ant-plant symbiosis). Most carton- and domatia-inhabiting fungi stem from different phylogenetic lineages within Chaetothyriales, and almost all of the fungi isolated are still undescribed. Despite being closely related, carton and domatia fungi are shown to differ markedly in their morphology and ecology, indicating that they play different roles in these associations. The carton fungi appear to improve the stability of the carton, and several species are commonly observed to co-occur on the same carton. Carton fungi commonly have dark-walled monilioid hyphae, colouring the carton blackish and apparently preventing other fungi from invading the carton. Despite the simultaneous presence of usually several species of fungi, forming complex associations on the carton, little overlap is observed between carton fungi from different ant species, even those that co-occur in nature, indicating at least some host specificity of fungi. Most fungi present on carton belong to Chaetothyriales, but in a few samples, Capnodiales are also an important component. Carton fungi are difficult to assign to anamorph genera, as most lack conidiation. The domatia fungi are more specific. In domatia, usually only one or two fungal species co-occur, producing a dense layer on living host plant tissue in domatia. They have hyaline or light brown

  10. A phylogenetic perspective on the association between ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and black yeasts (Ascomycota: Chaetothyriales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasse, Marie; Voglmayr, Hermann; Mayer, Veronika; Gueidan, Cécile; Nepel, Maximilian; Moreno, Leandro; de Hoog, Sybren; Selosse, Marc-André; McKey, Doyle; Blatrix, Rumsaïs

    2017-03-15

    The frequency and the geographical extent of symbiotic associations between ants and fungi of the order Chaetothyriales have been highlighted only recently. Using a phylogenetic approach based on seven molecular markers, we showed that ant-associated Chaetothyriales are scattered through the phylogeny of this order. There was no clustering according to geographical origin or to the taxonomy of the ant host. However, strains tended to be clustered according to the type of association with ants: strains from ant-made carton and strains from plant cavities occupied by ants ('domatia') rarely clustered together. Defining molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) with an internal transcribed spacer sequence similarity cut-off of 99% revealed that a single MOTU could be composed of strains collected from various ant species and from several continents. Some ant-associated MOTUs also contained strains isolated from habitats other than ant-associated structures. Altogether, our results suggest that the degree of specialization of the interactions between ants and their fungal partners is highly variable. A better knowledge of the ecology of these interactions and a more comprehensive sampling of the fungal order are needed to elucidate the evolutionary history of mutualistic symbioses between ants and Chaetothyriales. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. The side effect of Paecilomyces fumosoroseusapplication on the black ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus, the predator of Helopeltis antoniiand cocoa pod borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Paecilomyces fumosoroseuswas known as one of the effective biological agents of cocoa pod borer and Helopeltis antonii. To find out the side effect of application of P. fumosoroseuson black ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus, a series of observations were carried out at the Laboratory of Pest and Diseases Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute (ICCRI and in a cocoa plantation of Glenmore, Banyuwangi district, since June until October, 2004. Laboratory research used four concentrations of P. fumosoroseusnamely 105, 106, 107 and 108 spores/ml, while in the field used concentration 2, 4, 6, 8 g dry spores/ml. Each trial as compared with spraying of carbamate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides as control and untreated This research was designed by randomized block design and four replications. The results showed that in the laboratory, direct spraying suspension of P. fumosoroseuskilled black ant between 20—39% which infected fungi about 2.5—12.5%. The relationship between log of spores concentration of P. fumosoroseus and probit of ant mortality followed the regression equation Y = 3.653 + 0.097 X with LC 50 was 8 x 10 13 spore/ml. The period needed to kill a half of ant population at the laboratory (LT 50 at concentration 107 spores/ml followed the regression equation Y = 1.851 + 1.522 X, with LT50 is 12,01 days. The effect of pyrethroid and carbamate insecticide on ants mortality were 91.25% and 98.75% respectively. In the field, the effect of P. fumosoroseusspray on black ant population was very low, with the percentage of ant mortality at cocoa leaf nest were 0.25–0.46% and at cocoa leaf nest in plastic bag were 0.06–0.21%, while carbamate and pyrethroid synthetic effect were 37.35% and 52.37% at cocoa leaf nest, and 19.15% and 46.67% at cocoa leaf nest in plastic bags. Key words : Cocoa, capsid, Helopeltis antonii, biological control, biological agents, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Dolichoderus tharacicus.

  12. Comparing electroantennogram and behavioral responses of two Pseudacteon phorid fly species to body extracts of Black, Red and Hybrid imported fire ants, Solenopsis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Ochieng, Samuel A; He, Xiaofang; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2012-10-01

    Several phorid fly species were introduced to the southern United States for biological control of the invasive imported fire ants, Solenopsis richteri (Black), Solenopsis invicta (Red), and their Hybrid S. richteri×S. invicta (Hybrid). It has been previously reported that the Jaguariuna biotype of Pseudacteon tricuspis and the Formosan biotype of Pseudacteon curvatus could distinguish among the three fire ant species with greater preference for Hybrid and Red fire ants. We hypothesized that phorid flies might use host derived chemical cues to differentiate ant species. To determine possible differential olfactory sensitivity of phorid fly species to different fire ant species, we compared electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral responses of both sexes of P. tricuspis and P. curvatus to body extracts of Black, Red and Hybrid fire ants. As worker sizes of Black and Hybrid fire ants used in this study were much larger than that of Red fire ant (the average weight for Black, Red and Hybrid workers was 1.707, 0.863, 1.223mg per ants, respectively), at doses of 0.01, 0.1, 1 worker equivalent, body extracts of Black and Hybrid fire ant elicited significantly greater EAG response in both sexes of P. tricuspis than that of Red fire ant. Similarly, the EAG response in female P. curvatus to body extract of Black fire ant was significantly greater than to body extract of Red fire ant. To eliminate worker size influence on EAG response in phorid flies, we conducted a second EAG study using a dose of 1mg ant equivalent (body extract from 1mg of worker). No difference in EAG responses was recorded to body extract obtained from the same amount of workers among the three fire ant species (we consider viable Hybrid fire ant as a species in this paper), suggesting that worker size differences contributed to difference in EAG response in the first EAG study. In both EAG studies, male P. tricuspis showed significantly greater EAG responses than male P. curvatus to all three fire ant

  13. TEXTILE SALVAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    Readers are reminded that Geneva's agency for salvaging used clothing, other textiles and old shoes (Coordination d'oeuvres d'entraide pour la récupération de vêtements, textiles et chaussures usagés dans le canton de Genève) has a container in the car park outside CERN's Meyrin site. In 2001, 1000 tonnes of such items were collected in the Canton of Geneva (as compared with 840 tonnes in 2000), of which 4460 kg came from the container outside the Meyrin site. The operation's organisers (Caritas, Centre Social Protestant, the Geneva Section of the Swiss Red Cross, Terre des Hommes, the Geneva branch of Terre des Hommes Suisse and Emmaüs, Geneva) would like to thank all those who have donated clothing or otherwise supported their campaign. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848 http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  14. Into the black and back: the ecology of brain investment in Neotropical army ants (Formicidae: Dorylinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulova, S.; Purce, K.; Khodak, P.; Sulger, E.; O'Donnell, S.

    2016-04-01

    Shifts to new ecological settings can drive evolutionary changes in animal sensory systems and in the brain structures that process sensory information. We took advantage of the diverse habitat ecology of Neotropical army ants to test whether evolutionary transitions from below- to above-ground activity were associated with changes in brain structure. Our estimates of genus-typical frequencies of above-ground activity suggested a high degree of evolutionary plasticity in habitat use among Neotropical army ants. Brain structure consistently corresponded to degree of above-ground activity among genera and among species within genera. The most above-ground genera (and species) invested relatively more in visual processing brain tissues; the most subterranean species invested relatively less in central processing higher-brain centers (mushroom body calyces). These patterns suggest a strong role of sensory ecology (e.g., light levels) in selecting for army ant brain investment evolution and further suggest that the subterranean environment poses reduced cognitive challenges to workers. The highly above-ground active genus Eciton was exceptional in having relatively large brains and particularly large and structurally complex optic lobes. These patterns suggest that the transition to above-ground activity from ancestors that were largely subterranean for approximately 60 million years was followed by re-emergence of enhanced visual function in workers.

  15. Compounds from the Chinese black ant (Polyrhachis dives) and NMR behavior of the isomers with formamide group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian-Jun; Luo, Qi; Di, Lei; Zhang, Li; Lu, Qing; Hou, Bo; Zuo, Zhi-Li; Xia, Hou-Lin; Ma, Xiu-Jing; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Two new dopamine derivatives divesamides A (1) and B (2), along with six known N-containing compounds were isolated from the Chinese black ant (Polyrhachis dives). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 is a racemate, and chiral HPLC separation yielded a pair of antipodes. The absolute configuration of (+)-1 was assigned by a computational method. The double signals in the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of 2 that resulted from the presence of a formamide group were discussed. The T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation assay showed that 2 has moderate immunosuppressive activity toward T- and B-lymphocytes proliferation at a concentration of 20 μM.

  16. Timber salvage economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Timber salvage is commonly done following natural disturbances, to recover some value from damaged forests. Decision making about salvage, however, is affected by ownership objectives, the nature of the damage agent, site factors, and the strength of the local timber market. For profit-maximizing landowners, salvage decisions must balance the cost of harvesting...

  17. Salvage robotic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Kaffenberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of non-surgical primary treatment for localized prostate cancer is a common occurrence, with rates of disease recurrence ranging from 20% to 60%. In a large proportion of patients, disease recurrence is clinically localized and therefore potentially curable. Unfortunately, due to the complex and potentially morbid nature of salvage treatment, radical salvage surgery is uncommonly performed. In an attempt to decrease the morbidity of salvage therapy without sacrificing oncologic efficacy, a number of experienced centers have utilized robotic assistance to perform minimally invasive salvage radical prostatectomy. Herein, we critically evaluate the existing literature on salvage robotic radical prostatectomy with a focus on patient selection, perioperative complications and functional and early oncologic outcomes. These results are compared with contemporary and historical open salvage radical prostatectomy series and supplemented with insights we have gained from our experience with salvage robotic radical prostatectomy. The body of evidence by which conclusions regarding the efficacy and safety of robotic salvage radical prostatectomy can be drawn comprises fewer than 200 patients with limited follow-up. Preliminary results are promising and some outcomes have been favorable when compared with contemporary open salvage prostatectomy series. Advantages of the robotic platform in the performance of salvage radical prostatectomy include decreased blood loss, short length of stay and improved visualization. Greater experience is required to confirm the long-term oncologic efficacy and functional outcomes as well as the generalizability of results achieved at experienced centers.

  18. The Salvaging President.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormondy, Edward J.; Keith, Kent M.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college presidents who had "salvaged" their institutions from crisis. Many said problems were greater than anticipated, that they were chosen for their non-academic skills, and that these attributes were helpful in addressing problems. Respondents described a variety of immediate and long-term strategies and offered varying advice; all…

  19. Honey Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on honey ants. These ants are found in dry or desert regions of North America, Africa, and Australia. Also provides a list of activities using local species of ants. (JN)

  20. Salvage hypospadias repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Review of our experience and to develop an algorithm for salvage procedures in the management of hypospadias cripples and treatment of urethral strictures following hypospadias repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of hypospadias surgeries over a 41-month period. Out of a total 168 surgeries, 20 were salvage/re-operative repairs. In three children a Duplay repair was feasible, while in four others a variety of single-stage repairs could be done. The repair was staged in seven children - buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs in five, buccal mucosal tube in one, and skin graft in one. Five children with dense strictures were managed by dorsal BMG inlay grafting in one, vascularized tunical onlay grafting on the ventrum in one, and a free tunical patch in one. Three children were treated by internal urethrotomy and stenting for four weeks with a poor outcome. Results: The age of children ranged from 1.5-15 years (mean 4.5. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.5 years. Excellent results were obtained in 10 children (50% with a well-surfaced erect penis and a slit-like meatus. Glans closure could not be achieved and meatus was coronal in three. Two children developed fistulae following a Duplay repair and following a staged BMG. Three repairs failed completely - a composite repair broke down, a BMG tube stenosed with a proximal leak, and a stricture recurred with loss of a ventral free tunical graft. Conclusions: In salvage procedures performed on hypospadias cripples, a staged repair with buccal mucosa as an inlay in the first stage followed by tubularization 4-6 months later provides good results. A simple algorithm to plan corrective surgery in failed hypospadias cases and obtain satisfactory results is devised.

  1. Limb Salvage After Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or replace part or all of the implant. Contractures – After a limb salvage procedure, muscles, tendons, and ligaments sometimes stiffen or shrink, forming contractures (permanent tightening of the joint). This is more ...

  2. Airway necrosis after salvage esophagectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Norimitsu; Hokamura, Nobukazu; Tachimori, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    Salvage esophagectomy is the sole curative intent treatment for patients with persistent or recurrent locoregional disease after definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for esophageal carcinoma. However, salvage esophagectomy is a very high-risk operation, and airway necrosis is a fatal complication. Between 1997 and 2007, 49 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer underwent salvage esophagectomy after definitive CRT. We retrospectively compared patients with and without airway necrosis, and investigated operative procedures related to airway necrosis. Airway necrosis occurred in five patients (10.2%), of four patients (80%) died during their hospitalization. Airway necrosis seemed to be closely related to operative procedures, such as resection of bronchial artery and cervical and subcarinal lymph node dissection. Bronchogastric fistula following necrosis of gastric conduit occured in 2 patients reconstructed through posterior mediastinal route. Airway necrosis is a highly lethal complication after salvage esophagectomy. It is important in salvage esophagectomy to take airway blood supply into consideration sufficiently and to reconstruct through retrosternal route to prevent bronchogastric fistula. (author)

  3. Beyond ANT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Till

    2017-01-01

    Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) offers an ‘infra-language’ of the social that allows one to trace social relations very dynamically, while at the same time dissolving human agency, thus providing a flat and de-centred way into sociology. However, ANT struggles with its theoretical design that may lead......, it offers an ‘infra-language’ of reflexive relations while maintaining ANT’s de-centred approach. This would enable us to conceptualize actor-networks as non-homogeneous, dynamic and connecting different societal rationales while maintaining the main strengths of ANT.......Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) offers an ‘infra-language’ of the social that allows one to trace social relations very dynamically, while at the same time dissolving human agency, thus providing a flat and de-centred way into sociology. However, ANT struggles with its theoretical design that may lead...

  4. 25 CFR 700.99 - Salvage value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Instructions Definitions § 700.99 Salvage value. Salvage value means the probable sale price of an... expense, allowing a reasonable period of time to find a person buying with knowledge of the uses and...

  5. Fire ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 222-1222) from anywhere in the United States. Poisonous Ingredient Fire ant venom contains a chemical called ... Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 140. Otten EJ. Venomous animal injuries. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill ...

  6. Ultrastructure of antennal sensillae of the samsum ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Black ant (Samsum), Pachycodyla sennarrensis, stings and injects venom and inflicts allergy (a rare clinical problem) due to its local and systemic reaction, which is considered as a health hazard amongst Saudi society. Thus, black ant is a source of serious concern for the government and experts as well.

  7. Implications of stridulation behavior in the red and black imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquess, Jake

    Stridulation elicits a variety of behavioral responses in the Formicidae: distress, alarm and recruitment of nestmates. The intent of my research is to broaden the understanding of stridulation by investigating the morphology, multiple behaviors in which stridulation has been observed, and the behavioral response to the playback of these stridulatory signals in two closely related species, Solenopsis invicta, S. richteri, and their hybrid. A SEM examination of head width and the stridulatory organs of imported fire ant workers found the number of ridges on the "file" ( pars striden) to be positively correlated with body size. The increase in ridge number in relation to body size suggests that the number of pulses in each pulse train of the stridulation signal should increase as body size increases. Stridulation was not correlated with excavation behavior, but grinding, an incidental sound resulting from soil excavation, is a reliable indicator of excavation behavior. Absence of stridulation upon initial discovery of the food source and low amount of stridulation observed with ten or less ants present at the food source indicates that stridulation does not serve as an initial short range recruitment signal to nearby nestmates. Furthermore, over 90% of the total stridulation observed was recorded with 30 or more ants present at the food source. Finally, the time between calls decreased and the number of stridulations increased as more ants arrived at the food source. Stridulation in dyadic encounters between ants occurs almost exclusively during non-nestmate conspecitic interactions. Restrained ants or "defenders" accounted for 92.9% of the total stridulation observed compared to just 3.4% for "attackers." Restraint between the head and thorax or "neck" evoked the highest level of stridulation in majors. Stridulation during non-nestmate interactions is size specific, as trials involving majors had nearly twice as much stridulation (88.3%), than trials with mediums

  8. Role of salvage esophagectomy after definitive chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachimori, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    Chemoradiotherapy has become a popular definitive therapy among many patients and oncologists for potentially resectable esophageal carcinoma. Although the complete response rates are high and short-term survival is favorable after chemoradiotherapy, persistent or recurrent locoregional disease is quite frequent. Salvage surgery is the sole curative intent treatment option for this course. As experience with definitive chemoradiotherapy grows, the number of salvage surgeries may increase. Selected articles about salvage esophagectomy after definitive chemoradiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma are reviewed. The number of salvage surgeries was significantly lower than the number of expected candidates. To identify candidates for salvage surgery, patients undergoing definitive chemoradiotherapy should be followed up carefully. Salvage esophagectomy is difficult when dissecting fibrotic masses from irradiated tissues. Patients who underwent salvage esophagectomy had increased morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary complications such as pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome were common. The anastomotic leak rate was significantly increased because of the effects of the radiation administered to the tissues used as conduits. The most significant factor associated with long-term survival appeared to be complete resection. However, precise evaluation of resectability before operation was difficult. Nevertheless, increased morbidity and mortality will be acceptable in exchange for potential long-term survival after salvage esophagectomy. Such treatment should be considered for carefully selected patients at specialized centers. (author)

  9. Ant nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A new Hubble Space Telescope image of a celestial object called the Ant Nebula may shed new light on the future demise of our Sun. The image is available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/pictures/wfpc . The nebula, imaged on July 20, 1997, and June 30, 1998, by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, was observed by Drs. Raghvendra Sahai and John Trauger of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; Bruce Balick of the University of Washington in Seattle; and Vincent Icke of Leiden University in the Netherlands. JPL designed and built the camera. The Ant Nebula, whose technical name is Mz3, resembles the head and thorax of an ant when observed with ground-based telescopes. The new Hubble image, with 10 times the resolution revealing 100 times more detail, shows the 'ant's' body as a pair of fiery lobes protruding from a dying, Sun- like star. The Ant Nebula is located between 3,000 and 6,000 light years from Earth in the southern constellation Norma. The image challenges old ideas about what happens to dying stars. This observation, along with other pictures of various remnants of dying stars called planetary nebulae, shows that our Sun's fate will probably be much more interesting, complex and dramatic than astronomers previously believed. Although the ejection of gas from the dying star in the Ant Nebula is violent, it does not show the chaos one might expect from an ordinary explosion, but instead shows symmetrical patterns. One possibility is that the central star has a closely orbiting companion whose gravitational tidal forces shape the outflowing gas. A second possibility is that as the dying star spins, its strong magnetic fields are wound up into complex shapes like spaghetti in an eggbeater. Electrically charged winds, much like those in our Sun's solar wind but millions of times denser and moving at speeds up to 1,000 kilometers per second (more than 600 miles per second) from the star, follow the twisted field lines on their way out into space

  10. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  11. Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus arminius. J.M. Brand, L.V. Mabinya, E.D. Morgan. Abstract. Camponotus arminius is a large black carpenter ant that occurs in tropical and sub-tropical Africa and has extensive foraging trails both in trees and on the ground. Analysis of excised mandibular glands ...

  12. Parasite-induced fruit mimicry in a tropical canopy ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoviak, S P; Kaspari, M; Dudley, R; Poinar, G

    2008-04-01

    Some parasites modify characteristics of intermediate hosts to facilitate their consumption by subsequent hosts, but examples of parasite-mediated mimicry are rare. Here we report dramatic changes in the appearance and behavior of nematode-parasitized ants such that they resemble ripe fruits in the tropical rain forest canopy. Unlike healthy ants, which are completely black, infected ants have bright red, berry-like gasters full of parasite eggs. The infected gasters are held in a conspicuous elevated position as the ants are walking, and they are easily detached from living ants, which also exhibit reduced defensive responses. This combination of changes presumably makes the infected ants attractive to frugivorous birds, which ingest the red gasters and pass the parasite eggs in their feces. The feces are collected by ants and fed to the developing brood, thus completing the cycle. This is the first documentation of parasites causing apparent fruit mimicry in an animal host to complete their life cycle.

  13. Advances in Research on the Venom Chemistry of Imported Fire Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workers of the imported fire ants, including red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, black imported fire ants, S. richteri Forel, and their hybrid (S. invicta × S. richteri), are vicious stingers. Since the venomous sting is a significant medical problem to humans, the chemistry of import...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Ant-associated Fungus Phialophora attae (CBS 131958)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, S.

    2015-01-01

    The black yeast Phialophora attae was isolated from the cuticle of tropical ant gynes. The ant-fungus association is sustained due to symbiotic evolutionary adaptations that allow fungal assimilation and tolerance of toxic compounds produced by the ant. The genome sequence of the first

  15. Local recurrence risk after previous salvage mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, M; Iwase, T; Okumura, Y; Yoshida, A; Masuda, N; Nakatsukasa, K; Shien, T; Tanaka, S; Komoike, Y; Taguchi, T; Arima, N; Nishimura, R; Inaji, H; Ishitobi, M

    2016-07-01

    Breast-conserving surgery is a standard treatment for early breast cancer. For ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving surgery, salvage mastectomy is the current standard surgical procedure. However, it is not rare for patients with IBTR who have received salvage mastectomy to develop local recurrence. In this study, we examined the risk factors of local recurrence after salvage mastectomy for IBTR. A total of 118 consecutive patients who had histologically confirmed IBTR without distant metastases and underwent salvage mastectomy without irradiation for IBTR between 1989 and 2008 were included from eight institutions in Japan. The risk factors of local recurrence were assessed. The median follow-up period from salvage mastectomy for IBTR was 4.6 years. Patients with pN2 or higher on diagnosis of the primary tumor showed significantly poorer local recurrence-free survival than those with pN0 or pN1 at primary tumor (p mastectomy for IBTR. Further research and validation studies are needed. (UMIN-CTR number UMIN000008136). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The mangled limb: salvage versus amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Philip R; Webb, Lawrence X; Harvey, Edward J; Tejwani, Nirmal C

    2011-01-01

    A mangled extremity is defined as a limb with injury to three of four systems in the extremity. The decision to salvage or amputate the injured limb has generated much controversy in the literature, with studies to support advantages of each approach. Various scoring systems have proved unreliable in predicting the need for amputation or salvage; however, a recurring theme in the literature is that the key to limb viability seems to be the severity of the soft-tissue injury. Factors such as associated injuries, patient age, and comorbidities (such as diabetes) also should be considered. Attempted limb salvage should be considered only if a patient is hemodynamically stable enough to tolerate the necessary surgical procedures and blood loss associated with limb salvage. For persistently hemodynamically unstable patients and those in extremis, life comes before limb. Recently, the Lower Extremity Assessment Project study attempted to answer the question of whether amputation or limb salvage achieves a better outcome. The study also evaluated other factors, including return-to-work status, impact of the level of and bilaterality of the amputation, and economic cost. There appears to be no significant difference in return to work, functional outcomes, or the cost of treatment (including the prosthesis) between the two groups. A team approach with different specialties, including orthopaedics, plastic surgery, vascular surgery and trauma general surgery, is recommended for treating patients with a mangled extremity.

  17. From the Tunnels into the Treetops: New Lineages of Black Yeasts from Biofilm in the Stockholm Metro System and Their Relatives among Ant-Associated Fungi in the Chaetothyriales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Réblová

    Full Text Available Rock-inhabiting fungi harbour species-rich, poorly differentiated, extremophilic taxa of polyphyletic origin. Their closest relatives are often well-known species from various biotopes with significant pathogenic potential. Speleothems represent a unique rock-dwelling habitat, whose mycobiota are largely unexplored. Isolation of fungi from speleothem biofilm covering bare granite walls in the Kungsträdgården metro station in Stockholm yielded axenic cultures of two distinct black yeast morphotypes. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from six nuclear loci, ITS, nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA, rpb1, rpb2 and β-tubulin, support their placement in the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycota. They are described as a new genus Bacillicladium with the type species B. lobatum, and a new species Bradymyces graniticola. Bacillicladium is distantly related to the known five chaetothyrialean families and is unique in the Chaetothyriales by variable morphology showing hyphal, meristematic and yeast-like growth in vitro. The nearest relatives of Bacillicladium are recruited among fungi isolated from cardboard-like construction material produced by arboricolous non-attine ants. Their sister relationship is weakly supported by the Maximum likelihood analysis, but strongly supported by Bayesian inference. The genus Bradymyces is placed amidst members of the Trichomeriaceae and is ecologically undefined; it includes an opportunistic animal pathogen while two other species inhabit rock surfaces. ITS rDNA sequences of three species accepted in Bradymyces and other undescribed species and environmental samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and in-depth comparative analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structures in order to study their intraspecific variability. Compensatory base change criterion in the ITS2 secondary structure supported delimitation of species in Bradymyces, which manifest a limited number of phenotypic features useful for species recognition. The role

  18. From the Tunnels into the Treetops: New Lineages of Black Yeasts from Biofilm in the Stockholm Metro System and Their Relatives among Ant-Associated Fungi in the Chaetothyriales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Vit; Thureborn, Olle; Lundberg, Johannes; Sallstedt, Therese; Wedin, Mats; Ivarsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Rock-inhabiting fungi harbour species-rich, poorly differentiated, extremophilic taxa of polyphyletic origin. Their closest relatives are often well-known species from various biotopes with significant pathogenic potential. Speleothems represent a unique rock-dwelling habitat, whose mycobiota are largely unexplored. Isolation of fungi from speleothem biofilm covering bare granite walls in the Kungsträdgården metro station in Stockholm yielded axenic cultures of two distinct black yeast morphotypes. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from six nuclear loci, ITS, nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA, rpb1, rpb2 and β-tubulin, support their placement in the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycota). They are described as a new genus Bacillicladium with the type species B. lobatum, and a new species Bradymyces graniticola. Bacillicladium is distantly related to the known five chaetothyrialean families and is unique in the Chaetothyriales by variable morphology showing hyphal, meristematic and yeast-like growth in vitro. The nearest relatives of Bacillicladium are recruited among fungi isolated from cardboard-like construction material produced by arboricolous non-attine ants. Their sister relationship is weakly supported by the Maximum likelihood analysis, but strongly supported by Bayesian inference. The genus Bradymyces is placed amidst members of the Trichomeriaceae and is ecologically undefined; it includes an opportunistic animal pathogen while two other species inhabit rock surfaces. ITS rDNA sequences of three species accepted in Bradymyces and other undescribed species and environmental samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and in-depth comparative analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structures in order to study their intraspecific variability. Compensatory base change criterion in the ITS2 secondary structure supported delimitation of species in Bradymyces, which manifest a limited number of phenotypic features useful for species recognition. The role of fungi in the

  19. Protection of the Environment and the International Salvage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the International Salvage Convention and the protection of the environment in salvage operations. The article traces the evolution and history of the law of Salvage to its present status by using the UK as a case study. In essence, the article seeks to ascertain the extent of current international regime ...

  20. Changes in canopy structure and ant assemblages affect soil ecosystem variables as a foundation species declines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kendrick, Joseph A.; Ribbons, Relena Rose; Classen, Aimee Taylor

    2015-01-01

    (richness and abundance) of ants increases rapidly as T. canadensis is lost from the stands. Because ants live and forage at the litter-soil interface, we hypothesized that environmental changes caused by hemlock loss (e.g., increased light and warmth at the forest floor, increased soil pH) and shifts...... in ant species composition would interact to alter soil ecosystem variables. In the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment (HF-HeRE), established in 2003, T. canadensis in large plots were killed in place or logged and removed to mimic adelgid infestation or salvage harvesting, respectively. In 2006......, we built ant exclosure subplots within all of the canopy manipulation plots to examine direct and interactive effects of canopy change and ant assemblage composition on soil and litter variables. Throughout HF-HeRE, T. canadensis was colonized by the adelgid in 2009, and the infested trees are now...

  1. Voriconazole salvage treatment of invasive candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Oude Lashof, A.M.L.; Kullberg, B.J.; Rex, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Data on the salvage treatment of invasive candidiasis with voriconazole in 52 patients intolerant of other antifungal agents or with infection refractory to other antifungal agents were analyzed. Patients had received a mean of two previous antifungal agents (range, 1-4 agents), and 83% had received

  2. Metaethics Meets Virtue Epistemology: Salvaging Disagreement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virtue ethics and virtue epistemology shift the focus of evaluation from thin concepts to thick ones. Simon Blackburn has argued that a shift to thick ethical concepts dooms us to talking past one another. I contend that virtue epistemologists can answer. Blackburn's objection, thus salvaging genuine disagreement about the ...

  3. intraoperative blood salvage and autotransfusion in thf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the role of intraoperative blood salvage and autologous blood transfusion in the management of ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Data sources: A complete review of relevant current and old literature using the MEDLINE search strategy. Study selection: Papers were selected for their relevance to the topic.

  4. Salvage surgery of hypopharyngeal carcinoma with local recurrence after chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Akiteru; Umeno, Hirohito; Chijiwa, Hideki; Ono, Takeharu; Chitose, Shun-ichi; Nakashima, Tadashi; Inoue, Youjirou; Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Fujita, Hiromasa

    2009-01-01

    This study reviewed the results of salvage surgery in patients with local recurrence of hypopharyngeal carcinoma after chemoradiotherapy. Between 1989 and 2008, 74 patients with hypopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with chemoradiotherapy. Ten of these patients underwent salvage surgery, and we analyzed postoperative complications and prognosis. Postoperative complications were found in 9 cases (90%). The survival rate after salvage surgery was 30%. These results suggest that accurate diagnosis of recurrence at an early stage is important for improving the outcome of salvage surgery. The indication as well as operative risks of salvage surgery should be carefully determined. (author)

  5. Salvage robot-assisted radical prostatectomy after brachytherapy: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of recurrence of prostate cancer after radiation therapy patient may be offered salvage radical prostatectomy (both open and laparoscopic/robotic, hormone therapy, and a number of alternative techniques such as salvage cryoablation, HIFU-therapy and brachytherapy. Results of monitoring of patients for 10 years after salvage treatment of prostate cancer are known only after salvage prostatectomy. Technically radical prostatectomy after radiation therapy is associated with a large number of complications if compared with primary radical prostatectomy. The most frequent complications after salvage prostatectomy include incontinence, stricture formation of urethrovesical anastomosis, rectal injury, acute urinary retention and infectious complications.

  6. Ant- and Ant-Colony-Inspired ALife Visual Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gary; Machado, Penousal

    2015-01-01

    Ant- and ant-colony-inspired ALife art is characterized by the artistic exploration of the emerging collective behavior of computational agents, developed using ants as a metaphor. We present a chronology that documents the emergence and history of such visual art, contextualize ant- and ant-colony-inspired art within generative art practices, and consider how it relates to other ALife art. We survey many of the algorithms that artists have used in this genre, address some of their aims, and explore the relationships between ant- and ant-colony-inspired art and research on ant and ant colony behavior.

  7. on black ironbark (Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Eucalyptus sideroxylon). B. Buys. Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,. Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Received May /984; accepted 28 November /986. Black ironbark trees secrete nectar during the night. Argentine ants collected 42% of the nectar before honeybees started foraging in the ...

  8. Population Development of Several Species of Ants on the Cocoa Trees in South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatahuddin Fatahuddin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species of ants with different behavior have been found in cocoa plantations and their behavior is important to be considered because it might be correlated with the degree of protection of cocoa plant from cocoa pests. The aim of this research is to manipulate and to develop ants population in environment, so they are able to establish permanently in cocoa trees. This research was conducted in Papakaju Regions Luwu Regency in Juli to November 2009. In this study, 10 cocoa trees with ants were sampled (each species of ant in 10 cocoa trees. A control of 10 tree samples without ant was also taken. In order to assess the abundance of ant population, it was grouped based on scoring, which score 1 for less than 20 ants, score 2 for 21–50 ants, score 3 for 51–200 ants, score 4 for 201–1000 ants, and score 5 for more than 1000 per tree. The results indicated that average of population score of the three ants species reached the highest population for the Oecophylla. smaragdina with average score 4.85 (>1000 ants, Dolichoderus thoracicus, with average score 3.90 (> 200 ants and Crematogaster. difformis with average score 3.10 (>200 ants. This research indicated that three species of ants, Oecophylla smaragdina (weaver ant, Dolichoderus thoracicus (cocoa black ant and Crematogaster difformis (cracking ant. in farmer cocoa plantations in South Sulawesi giving better performance against major pests of cocoa in particular cocoa pod borer (CPB. Key words: Ant Population, Oecophylla smaragdina, Dolichoderus thoracicus, Crematogaster difformis, artificial nest, cocoa.

  9. Riding with the ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, A. P. M.; Attili-Angelis, D.; Baron, N. C.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Crous, Pedro W.; Pagnocca, F. C.

    Isolates of Teratosphaeriaceae have frequently been found in the integument of attine ants, proving to be common and diverse in this microenvironment. The LSU phylogeny of the ant-isolated strains studied revealed that they cluster in two main lineages. The first was associated with the genus

  10. Salvage brachytherapy and salvage surgery for recurrent oropharyngeal carcinoma following radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regueiro, C.A.; La Torre, A. De; Valcarcel, F.J.; Magallon, R.; Aragon, G. [Clinica Puerto de Hierro, Madrid (Spain). Radiation Oncology Dept.

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed 21 patients who underwent salvage treatment after a biopsy of proven locally recurrent carcinoma of the oropharynx. Two of these patients underwent a second salvage treatment after failure of the first. Treatment was performed with Ir{sup 192} interstitial implant in 17 cases (13 rT{sub 1} and 4 rT{sub 2}); by surgery in five cases (3 rT{sub 1}, 1 rT{sub 2}, 1 rT{sub x}), including two patients who had relapsed after salvage treatment with Ir{sup 192} implant; and by hyperfractionated external beam irradiation plus concomitant Tegafur chemotherapy in one case (rT{sub 3}). The primary tumour was controlled in four of the 17 cases (23 per cent) treated with Ir{sup 192} implant. Of these four patients, two remained disease-free 42 and 59 months after treatment, one died of nodal metastases eight months after treatment and another of distant metastases 19 months after treatment. Four of the five cases (80 per cent) treated with surgery, including two patients who relapsed after salvaged brachytherapy, remained free from local, regional and distant relapse 21, 25, 31 and 56 months after treatment. (author).

  11. Protection of the Environment and the International Salvage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eghosa O. Ekhator

    M (Hull), LL.B (Benin); barrister and solicitor of the. Supreme Court of Nigeria. 1 The origins of salvage are ancient and existed in old legal systems such as the Roman epoch amongst others. The Law of Salvage's core principles were established in the nineteenth century and the Admiralty Courts in England played major ...

  12. The evolutionary portrait of metazoan NAD salvage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, João; Duarte-Pereira, Sara; Azevedo, Luísa; Castro, L Filipe C; Aguiar, Paulo; Moreira, Irina S; Amorim, António; Silva, Raquel M

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD) levels are essential for cellular homeostasis and survival. Main sources of intracellular NAD are the salvage pathways from nicotinamide, where Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferases (NAMPTs) and Nicotinamidases (PNCs) have a key role. NAMPTs and PNCs are important in aging, infection and disease conditions such as diabetes and cancer. These enzymes have been considered redundant since either one or the other exists in each individual genome. The co-occurrence of NAMPT and PNC was only recently detected in invertebrates though no structural or functional characterization exists for them. Here, using expression and evolutionary analysis combined with homology modeling and protein-ligand docking, we show that both genes are expressed simultaneously in key species of major invertebrate branches and emphasize sequence and structural conservation patterns in metazoan NAMPT and PNC homologues. The results anticipate that NAMPTs and PNCs are simultaneously active, raising the possibility that NAD salvage pathways are not redundant as both are maintained to fulfill the requirement for NAD production in some species.

  13. The evolutionary portrait of metazoan NAD salvage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carneiro

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD levels are essential for cellular homeostasis and survival. Main sources of intracellular NAD are the salvage pathways from nicotinamide, where Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferases (NAMPTs and Nicotinamidases (PNCs have a key role. NAMPTs and PNCs are important in aging, infection and disease conditions such as diabetes and cancer. These enzymes have been considered redundant since either one or the other exists in each individual genome. The co-occurrence of NAMPT and PNC was only recently detected in invertebrates though no structural or functional characterization exists for them. Here, using expression and evolutionary analysis combined with homology modeling and protein-ligand docking, we show that both genes are expressed simultaneously in key species of major invertebrate branches and emphasize sequence and structural conservation patterns in metazoan NAMPT and PNC homologues. The results anticipate that NAMPTs and PNCs are simultaneously active, raising the possibility that NAD salvage pathways are not redundant as both are maintained to fulfill the requirement for NAD production in some species.

  14. Sick ants become unsociable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nicky Peter Maria; Lefevre, T.; Jensen, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Parasites represent a severe threat to social insects, which form high-density colonies of related individuals, and selection should favour host traits that reduce infection risk. Here, using a carpenter ant (Camponotus aethiops) and a generalist insect pathogenic fungus (Metarhizium brunneum), we...... show that infected ants radically change their behaviour over time to reduce the risk of colony infection. Infected individuals (i) performed less social interactions than their uninfected counterparts, (ii) did not interact with brood anymore and (iii) spent most of their time outside the nest from...... day 3 post-infection until death. Furthermore, infected ants displayed an increased aggressiveness towards non-nestmates. Finally, infected ants did not alter their cuticular chemical profile, suggesting that infected individuals do not signal their physiological status to nestmates. Our results...

  15. Esterase in imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicata and S. richteri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): activity, kinetics and variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black imported fire ant, Solenopsis richteri, is closely related to the notorious red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Despite being very similar in biology and behavior, S. invicta is a much more successful invader. In contrast to S. invicta that has invaded numberous countries and regions,...

  16. Ants and ant scent reduce bumblebee pollination of artificial flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrowski, Adam R; Tan, Marcus G; Thomson, James D; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Ants on flowers can disrupt pollination by consuming rewards or harassing pollinators, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of these exploitative and interference forms of competition on pollinator behavior. Using highly rewarding and quickly replenishing artificial flowers that simulate male or female function, we allowed bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) to forage (1) on flowers with or without ants (Myrmica rubra) and (2) on flowers with or without ant scent cues. Bumblebees transferred significantly more pollen analogue both to and from ant-free flowers, demonstrating that interference competition with ants is sufficient to modify pollinator foraging behavior. Bees also removed significantly less pollen analogue from ant-scented flowers than from controls, making this the first study to show that bees can use ant scent to avoid harassment at flowers. Ant effects on pollinator behavior, possibly in addition to their effects on pollen viability, may contribute to the evolution of floral traits minimizing ant visitation.

  17. Bacterial variations on the methionine salvage pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Dieter

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thiomethyl group of S-adenosylmethionine is often recycled as methionine from methylthioadenosine. The corresponding pathway has been unravelled in Bacillus subtilis. However methylthioadenosine is subjected to alternative degradative pathways depending on the organism. Results This work uses genome in silico analysis to propose methionine salvage pathways for Klebsiella pneumoniae, Leptospira interrogans, Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis and Xylella fastidiosa. Experiments performed with mutants of B. subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa substantiate the hypotheses proposed. The enzymes that catalyze the reactions are recruited from a variety of origins. The first, ubiquitous, enzyme of the pathway, MtnA (methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase, belongs to a family of proteins related to eukaryotic intiation factor 2B alpha. mtnB codes for a methylthioribulose-1-phosphate dehydratase. Two reactions follow, that of an enolase and that of a phosphatase. While in B. subtilis this is performed by two distinct polypeptides, in the other organisms analyzed here an enolase-phosphatase yields 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene. In the presence of dioxygen an aci-reductone dioxygenase yields the immediate precursor of methionine, ketomethylthiobutyrate. Under some conditions this enzyme produces carbon monoxide in B. subtilis, suggesting a route for a new gaseous mediator in bacteria. Ketomethylthiobutyrate is finally transaminated by an aminotransferase that exists usually as a broad specificity enzyme (often able to transaminate aromatic aminoacid keto-acid precursors or histidinol-phosphate. Conclusion A functional methionine salvage pathway was experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, in P. aeruginosa. Apparently, methionine salvage pathways are frequent in Bacteria (and in Eukarya, with recruitment of different polypeptides to perform the needed reactions (an ancestor of a translation initiation factor and Ru

  18. Salvage therapy for locally recurrent prostate cancer after radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, David M; Canter, Daniel J; Jani, Ashesh B; Dobbs, Ryan W; Schuster, David M; Carthon, Bradley C; Rossi, Peter J

    2012-12-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is widely utilized as primary therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. For patients who develop locally recurrent disease after EBRT, local salvage therapy may be indicated. The primary modalities for local salvage treatment in this setting include radical prostatectomy, cryotherapy, and brachytherapy. To date, there is little data describing outcomes and toxicity associated with each of these salvage modalities. A review of the literature was performed to identify studies of local salvage therapy for patients who had failed primary EBRT for localized prostate cancer. We focused on prospective trials and multi-institutional retrospective series in order to identify the highest level of evidence describing these therapies. The majority of reports describing the use of local salvage treatment for recurrent prostate cancer after EBRT are single-institution, retrospective reports, although small prospective studies are available for salvage cryotherapy and salvage brachytherapy. Clinical outcomes and toxicity for each modality vary widely across studies, which is likely due to the heterogeneity of patient populations, treatment techniques, and definitions of failure. In general, most studies demonstrate that local salvage therapy after EBRT may provide long-term local control in appropriately selected patients, although toxicity is often significant. As there are no randomized trials comparing salvage treatment modalities for localized prostate cancer recurrence after EBRT, the selection of a local treatment modality should be made on a patient-by-patient basis, with careful consideration of each patient's disease characteristics and tolerance for the risks of treatment. Additional data, ideally from prospective randomized trials, is needed to guide decision making for patients with local recurrence after EBRT failure.

  19. INDONESIAN SALVAGE LAW WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF CONTEMPORARY MARITIME LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiana Puspitawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Located in a strategic position, that is between two great oceans and two land masses have made Indonesia a centre of international trade and shipping. In fact, 90% of international trades are carried out through the ocean. It is therefore crucial to assure that the activities in carrying goods across the ocean are incident free. However, if accident happens, assistance from professionals to preserve items of property is desirable. In such, salvage law emerged. This paper discusses comprehensively Indonesian salvage law within the framework of contemporary maritime law. While Indonesian maritime law is mostly based on its national law on the carriage of goods by the sea, in fact, the development of maritime law is highly affected by international practices which are largely based on international conventions and regulations. This research finds that while Indonesian salvage law can be found in Book II Chapter VII article 545-568k Wetboek Van Koophandel or known as Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Dagang (KUHD, which focused narrowly on the value of salved property as the primary measures of success, yet Indonesian salvage law has not been developed in accordance with current international salvage law, which adopted a broader and more balanced approached in both commercial and environmental aspects. Although it is believed that such approached is “culturally unrecognized” in Indonesia, this research argued that since Indonesian waters are part of international waters, all process by waters including salvage should confirm the relevant international practices and regulations. While Indonesia has taken out salvage law from KUHD and regulates it within Act Number 17/2008 on navigation, however, such act only provides one article for salvage stating that salvage will be regulates further by Ministry Regulation. Untill this paper was written no such government regulation produced yet by Indonesia. Since Indonesian waters is the centre of international

  20. Systems Architecting Approach to Towing and Salvage Ship Recapitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Supervisor of Salvage and Diving SV Systems View SWBS Ship Work Breakdown Structure TOGAF The Open Group Architectural Framework TV...commercial community, The Open Group Architectural Framework ( TOGAF ) uses open systems building blocks for mission-critical business applications

  1. Commentary: Warring ants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 2. Commentary: Warring ants: Lessons from Lanchester's laws of combat? Renee M Borges. Volume 27 Issue 2 March 2002 pp 75-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/027/02/0075-0078 ...

  2. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... venom in a fire ant sting will kill bacteria and some of your skin cells. This results in the formation of a blister that fills with a cloudy white material in about 24 hours. While this looks like a pus-filled lesion that should be drained, ...

  3. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  4. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael; Suen, Garret

    2009-01-01

    behavior of the leaf-cutters (the most derived attine lineage). Indeed, the discovery that the ants actually use leaf fragments to manure a fungus did not come until the 1800s. More recently, three additional microbial symbionts have been described, including specialized microfungal parasites of the ant......Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging......'s fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because...

  5. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses.......Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance...

  6. Cell Salvage Used in Scoliosis Surgery: Is It Really Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Fu, Bi-Qi; Chen, Wen-Zhao; Chen, Jiang-Wei; Huang, Shan-Hu; Liu, Zhi-Li

    2017-05-01

    Scoliosis surgery usually is associated with large volume of intraoperative blood loss, and cell salvage is used commonly to filter and retranfusion autologous blood to patients. The efficacy of using cell salvage in scoliosis surgery, however, is still controversial. The purpose of this study is to make clear that intraoperative use of cell salvage is effective to decrease the volume of perioperative allogenic blood transfusion in scoliosis surgery. A meta-analysis was conducted to identify the relevant studies from PubMed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane library, and Google scholar until July 2016. All randomized trials and controlled clinical studies comparing the clinical outcomes of using cell salvage versus noncell salvage in scoliosis surgery were retrieved for the meta-analysis. The data were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. A total of 7 studies with 562 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Based on the analysis, the volumes of perioperative and postoperative allogenic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in cell salvage group were significantly less than those in control group (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01); however, no significant difference was detected in the amount of intraoperative allogenic RBC transfusion and the risk of patients needing allogenic blood transfusion between the 2 groups (P = 0.14 and P = 0.61). Both the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels on the first day after surgery were significantly greater in cell salvage group than those in control group (P = 0.002 and P scoliosis surgery and increased the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels on the first day postoperatively. In addition, it seemed not to increase the rate of transfusion complications during the surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ante la ley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafka Franz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Ante las puertas de la ley hay un guardian. Un campesino se llega hasta ese guardian y le pide que le permita entra en la ley, pero el guardian le dice que por ahora no se lo puede permitir. El hombre reflexiona y entonces pregunta si podria entrar despues. Es posible -dice el guardian-; pero no ahora. La puerta de entrada a la ley esta abierta como siempre.

  8. Diabetic Foot Limb Salvage-A Series of 809 Attempts and Predictors for Endovascular Limb Salvage Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Zhiwen Joseph; Lin, Zhimin; Pua, Uei; Quek, Lawrence Han Hwee; Tan, Bien Ping; Punamiya, Sundeep; Tan, Glenn Wei Leong; Narayanan, Sriram; Chandrasekar, Sadhana

    2018-02-09

    To review patient characteristics and outcomes of in-patient diabetic foot limb salvage and identify risk factors predicting for endovascular limb salvage failure. Retrospective study of limb salvage attempts in 809 patients between August 2013 and July 2015. Sixty-eight percent of our study population were male with mean age at 65 years and 73% presented with Rutherford grade 6 critical limb ischemia, with the remaining 27% Rutherford grade 5. Eighty-one percent had toe pressures of less than 50 mm Hg, 64% had infrainguinal trans-Atlantic inter-society consensus (TASC II) C or D lesions while 78% had infrapopliteal TASC II C or D lesions. Seven hundred seventy-seven patients (96%) underwent endovascular-first approach limb salvage, with 95% requiring infrapopliteal angioplasty, with 84% of them requiring 2-vessel or 3-vessel revascularization. Thirty-two patients (4%) underwent surgical bypass limb salvage, with 63% performed as salvage procedures for failed angioplasties. The mean in-patient stay was 12.3 days within the endovascular group and 31.1 days within the bypass group (P diabetic foot peripheral arterial disease presented with Rutherford grade 6 disease, with mostly TASC II C or D lesions and required infrapopliteal revascularization. As most patients had multiple comorbidities and were poor surgical candidates, the majority underwent endovascular-first approach revascularization. Independent predictors of endovascular limb salvage failure include ESRF, toe pressures <50 mm Hg, infrainguinal TASC II patterns C or D, and indirect angiosome revascularization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ant mimicry by an aphid parasitoid, Lysiphlebus fabarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, Arash; Michaud, J P; Kharazi-Pakdel, Aziz; Allahyari, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    In Iran, Lysiphlebus fabarum (Marshall) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) is a uniparental parasitoid of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae Scopoli (Hemiptera: Aphididae), that possesses various highly evolved adaptations for foraging within ant-tended aphid colonies. Direct observations and video recordings were used to analyze the behavior of individual females foraging for A. fabae on bean leaf disks in open arenas in the laboratory. Females exploited aphids as hosts and as a source of food, allocating within-patch time as follows: resting - 10.4%, grooming - 8.2%, searching - 11.5%, antennation (host recognition) - 7.5%, antennation (honeydew solicitation mimicking ants) - 31.9%, abdominal bending (attack preparation) 19.7%, probing with the ovipositor (attack) - 10.8%. The mean handling time for each aphid encountered was 2.0 ± 0.5 min. Females encountered an average of 47.4 ± 6.4 aphids per hour, but laid only 1.2 eggs per hour. The ovipositor insertion time for parasitism ranged from 2 sec to longer than a minute, but most insertions did not result in an egg being laid. A. fabae defensive behaviors included kicking, raising and swiveling the body, and attempts to smear the attacker with cornicle secretions, sometimes with lethal results. Food deprivation for 4-6 h prior to testing increased the frequency of ant mimcry by L. fabarum. Females also used ant-like antennation to reduce A. fabae defensive behavior, e.g. the frequency of kicking. L. fabarum attacks primed A. fabae to be more responsive to subsequent honeydew solicitation, such that experienced females improved their feeding success by alternating between the roles of parasitoid and ant mimic. These results reveal the possibility for mutualisms to evolve between L. fabarum and the ant species that tend A. fabae, since L. fabarum receive ant protection for their progeny and may benefit the ants by improving A. fabae responsiveness to honeydew solicitation.

  10. Mitigating Hillslope Erosion After Post-fire Salvage Logging Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, P. R.; Bone, E. D.; Brown, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    In the past decades, wildfires around the world have continued to increase in size, severity, and cost. Major concerns after wildfires are the increased runoff and erosion due to loss of the protective forest floor layer, loss of water storage, and creation of water repellent soil conditions. Salvage logging is often a post-fire forest management action to recoup the economic loss of the burned timber, yet concerns arise on the impacts of this activity on water quality. Recently, several studies have been conducted to determine the effect of salvage logging on hillslope erosion. Logging skid trails have been cited as being the cause of high erosion during and after salvage operations. We investigated the impacts of adding operational logging slash to skid trails to reduce hillslope erosion after salvage operations on the 2015 North Star Fire, Washington. We implemented well-designed rapid response approach to compare slash treatment effectiveness by monitoring sediment yield and runoff response from hillslopes with a concentrated flow (rill) experiment. Various runoff amounts are incrementally added to 4 m hillslope plots with and without slash treatments. Our initial results suggest that adding logging slash increased ground cover significantly which contributed to an order of magnitude decrease in hillslope erosion. Integrating erosion mitigation strategies into salvage logging operations should be commonplace when hillslope erosion is a concern.

  11. The metapleural gland of ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-01-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions......-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG...... is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional...

  12. Use of antibiotic beads to salvage infected breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Rami D; Ingargiola, Michael; Sanati-Mehrizy, Paymon; Torina, Philip J; Harmaty, Marco A

    2017-10-01

    When an implant becomes infected, implant salvage is often performed where the implant is removed, capsulectomy is performed, and a new implant is inserted. The patient is discharged with a PICC line and 6-8 weeks of intravenous (IV) antibiotics. This method has variable success and subjects the patient to long-term systemic antibiotics. In the 1960s, the use of antibiotic-impregnated beads for the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis was described. These beads deliver antibiotic directly to the site of the infection, thereby eliminating the complications of systemic IV antibiotics. This study aimed to present a case series illustrating the use of STIMULAN calcium sulfate beads loaded with vancomycin and tobramycin to increase the rate of salvage of the infected implant and forgo IV antibiotics. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who were treated at Mount Sinai Hospital for implant infection with salvage and antibiotic beads. Twelve patients were identified, 10 of whom had breast cancer. Comorbidities included hypertension, smoking, and immunocompromised status. Infections were noted anywhere from 5 days to 8 years postoperatively. Salvage was successful in 9 out of the 12 infected implants using antibiotic bead therapy without home IV antibiotics. The use of antibiotic beads is promising for salvaging infected breast implants without IV antibiotics. Seventy-five percent of the implants were successfully salvaged. Of the three patients who had unsalvageable implants, one was infected with antibiotic-resistant Rhodococcus that was refractory to bead therapy and one was noncompliant with postoperative instructions. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ANT, tourism and situated globality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór; Ren, Carina Bregnholm; van der Duim, René

    2015-01-01

    In recent years Actor-network theory (ANT) has increasingly been felt in the field of tourism studies (Van der Duim, Ren, & Jóhannesson, 2012). An important implication of the meeting between ANT and tourism studies is the notion of tourism being described as a heterogeneous assemblage of what we...... are used to define as the separate spheres of nature and culture. This paper explores and relates the central tenets of ANT in tourism with regard to the concept of the Anthropocene. It presents the ANT approach as a flat and object-oriented ontology and methodology and explores its potentials to carve out...

  14. 78 FR 74128 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois AGENCY: Environmental... Auto Salvage Site in Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois with the following settling parties: UOP, LLC... Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois and EPA Docket No. and should be addressed to...

  15. 78 FR 77673 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois AGENCY: Environmental... Auto Salvage Site in Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois with the following settling party: Helen E... reference the Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois and EPA Docket No. and should be...

  16. Ants, rodents and seed predation in Proteaceae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Saasveld Forestry Research Centre, George. Many species of Cape Proteaceae have seeds dispersed by ants. Ants may reduce seed predation by rapidly transporting and burying seeds in their nests. Three field experiments using ant and ...

  17. The metapleural gland of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-11-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions of the MG, sanitation and chemical defence, have received the strongest empirical support; two additional possible functions, recognition odour and territorial marking, are less well supported. The design of the MG is unusual for insects; glandular secretions are stored in a rigid, non-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional morphology, phylogenetic transitions and chemical ecology of the MGs of both the derived and the unstudied early-branching (basal) ant lineages is needed to elucidate the evolutionary origin and diversification of the MG of ants. © 2010 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  18. Outcome and renal function following salvage surgery for bilateral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the surgical outcomes and renal function following salvage surgery for bilateral Wilms tumor (BWT). Summary background data The challenge for the surgeon treating BWT lies in striking a fine balance between renal preservation and oncological clearance. Methods: This is ...

  19. Reconstitution of an efficient thymidine salvage pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernis, L.; Piskur, Jure; Diffley, J.F.X.

    2003-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to incorporate exogenous nucleosides into DNA. We have made a number of improvements to existing strategies to reconstitute an efficient thymidine salvage pathway in yeast. We have constructed strains that express both a nucleoside kinase as well...

  20. Recombinant alpha-interferon as salvage therapy in multiple myeloma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-05

    Aug 5, 1989 ... Ten patients with end-stage multiple myeloma refractory to conventional chemotherapy and hemibody irradiation received recombinant a-interferon as salvage therapy. The median duration of treatment was 8 weeks. One patient had an objective response and survived 8 months, whereas in the remaining ...

  1. Recombinant alpha-interferon as salvage therapy in multiple myeloma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten patients with end-stage multiple myeloma refractory to conventional chemotherapy and hemibody irradiation received recombinant α-interferon as salvage therapy. The median duration of treatment was 8 weeks. One patient had an objective response and survived 8 months, whereas in the remaining 9 patients the ...

  2. Outcome and renal function following salvage surgery for bilateral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the surgical outcomes and renal function following salvage surgery for bilateral Wilms tumor (BWT). Summary background data The challenge for the surgeon treating BWT lies in striking a fine balance between renal preservation and oncological clearance. Methods This is a ...

  3. Market Dynamics and Optimal Timber Salvage After a Natural Catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes

    2004-01-01

    Forest-based natural catastrophes are regular features of timber production in the United States, especially from hurricanes, fires, and insect and disease outbreaks. These catastrophes affect timber prices and result in economic transfers. We develop a model of timber market dynamics after such a catastrophe that shows how timber salvage affects the welfare of...

  4. 9 CFR 50.11 - Report of salvage proceeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency, a certificate executed by the appropriate Veterinarian in Charge will be acceptable in lieu of... original of the salvage form or the affidavit of the owner or certificate of the appropriate Veterinarian in Charge, furnished in lieu thereof, shall be furnished to the Veterinarian in charge if it is not...

  5. [Salvage radical prostatectomy for brachytherapy failure: preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Y; Pop, M; Jacqmin, D

    2014-04-01

    Analysis of preliminary results in six patients operated by second-line (salvage) radical prostatectomy for local recurrence after low-dose brachytherapy. Since January 2009, six patients had an open salvage radical prostatectomy with a lymph node dissection and without neurovascular bundles preservation for a low-dose I125 brachytherapy failure. Local recurrence was confirmed by trans-rectal biopsy or TURP. All the patients had PSA increase or lower urinary tract symptoms. Bone scan and pelvis MRI were performed to detect a locally advanced disease, a lymph node involvement or the presence of bone metastasis. Pathology reports and PSA level at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months were analyzed. Salvage radical prostatectomy with lymph node dissection was performed in all patients without major complications. The PSA level was below 0.1 ng/mL in five out of six patients at 1 and 3 months. The only case of persistent PSA is treated by androgen deprivation in a pT3b N1 patient. Salvage radical prostatectomy after brachytherapy failure was feasible with a limited perioperative morbidity. This second-line curative treatment in a selected group of patients should be kept in mind. Our early results looked promising. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychosocial reactions to upper extremity limb salvage: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Cancio, Jill

    2017-11-30

    Case series. A salvaged limb is one that has undergone a major traumatic injury, followed by repeated surgical attempts in order to avoid amputation. Psychological recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been examined in a number of studies. However, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage are understudied in the literature. The purpose of this study was to explore the process of psychosocial adaptation for 3 trauma cases after UE limb salvage. The Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory was used to assess psychosocial adaptation. Physical function outcomes (pain, range of motion, edema, sensation, and dexterity) are presented. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand measure was used to assess perceived disability. Medical and rehabilitation history are discussed for each case, in order to provide in-depth understanding of the impact of these injuries. Reactions to injury varied across the cases; however, outcomes suggest that psychosocial adaptation may be influenced by the experience of pain, the ability to participate in valued roles and activities, and having a supportive social network. For this population, therapists may consider emphasizing pain management, focusing on client-centered goals and interventions, and facilitating peer support. Providers should closely monitor patients for signs of poor adaptation, such as hand-hiding behaviors. This study is among the first to examine psychological outcomes for the UE limb salvage population. Future research would be beneficial to provide deeper understanding of the psychosocial challenges for these individuals. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Midfoot amputations expand limb salvage rates for diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Patrick A; Back, Martin R; Armstrong, Paul A; Flaherty, Sarah K; Keeling, W Brent; Johnson, Brad L; Shames, Murray L; Bandyk, Dennis F

    2005-11-01

    The persistent high incidence of limb loss resulting from advanced forefoot tissue loss and infection in diabetic patients prompted an evaluation of transmetatarsal (TMA) and transtarsal/midfoot amputations in achieving foot salvage at our tertiary vascular practice. Over the last 8 years, 74 diabetic patients required 77 TMAs for tissue loss and/or infection. Twelve (16%) of the patients had a contralateral below-knee amputation (BKA) and 26% (n = 20) had dialysis-dependent renal failure. Thirty-five (45%) limbs had concomitant revascularization (bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty), 32 (42%) had arterial occlusive disease by noninvasive testing and/or arteriography but were not or could not be revascularized, and seven (13%) had normal hemodynamics. Patient factors, arterial testing, operative complications, operative mortality (foot salvage was possible in 61% (25/41) of nonhealing TMAs. Overall limb salvage for TMA/midfoot procedures was estimated from Kaplain-Meier life tables to be 73%, 68%, and 62% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively, with only 50% of dialysis patients avoiding major amputation. Ankle pressure >100 mm Hg and a biphasic pedal waveform had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 79%, and toe pressure >50 mm Hg had a PPV of 91% for determining healing of TMA/midfoot amputations. One- and 3-year survival rates were only 72% and 69% for the entire cohort from life table estimates. Aggressive attempts at foot salvage are justified in diabetic patients with advanced forefoot tissue loss/infection after assuring adequate arterial perfusion. Transtarsal amputations salvaged over half of nonhealing TMAs with excellent functional results.

  8. Salvage Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Surgically Refractory Trigeminal Neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Andrew S.; Shetter, Andrew G.; Shetter, Mary E.; Kakarla, Udaya K.; Rogers, C. Leland

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcome of patients with surgically refractory trigeminal neuralgia (TN) treated with rescue gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Methods and Materials: Seventy-nine patients with typical TN received salvage GKRS between 1997 and 2002 at the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI). All patients had recurrent pain following at least one prior surgical intervention. Prior surgical interventions included percutaneous destructive procedures, microvascular decompression (MVD), or GKRS. Thirty-one (39%) had undergone at least two prior procedures. The most common salvage dose was 80 Gy, although 40-50 Gy was typical in patients who had received prior radiosurgery. Pain outcome was assessed using the BNI Pain Intensity Score, and quality of life was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Results: Median follow-up after salvage GKRS was 5.3 years. Actuarial analysis demonstrated that at 5 years, 20% of patients were pain-free and 50% had pain relief. Pain recurred in patients who had an initial response to GKRS at a median of 1.1 years. Twenty-eight (41%) required a subsequent surgical procedure for recurrence. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model suggested that the strongest predictor of GKRS failure was a history of prior MVD (p=0.029). There were no instances of serious morbidity or mortality. Ten percent of patients developed worsening facial numbness and 8% described their numbness as 'very bothersome.' Conclusions: GKRS salvage for refractory TN is well tolerated and results in long-term pain relief in approximately half the patients treated. Clinicians may reconsider using GKRS to salvage patients who have failed prior MVD.

  9. Hospitales seguros ante desastres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Vladimir Bambaren Alatrista

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1982 a 2005 se registraron daños en 1 143 establecimientos de salud en el Perú, generalmente debido a sismos, lluvias e inundaciones. Los daños en los servicios de salud producen la interrupción de la atención de la población y de los programas de salud, así como generan un gran gasto para la rehabilitación y reconstrucción. Por ello, se requiere proteger a los establecimientos de salud y desarrollar una política de hospitales seguros ante desastres que incluya medidas para prevenir o reducción de la vulnerabilidad estructural, no estructural y funcional en los nuevos establecimientos y en los existentes.(Rev Med Hered 2007;18:149-154.

  10. Runtime analysis of the 1-ANT ant colony optimizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Neumann, Frank; Sudholt, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    are investigated. The influence of the evaporation factor in the pheromone update mechanism and the robustness of this parameter w.r.t. the runtime behavior have been determined for the example function OneMax.This work puts forward the rigorous runtime analysis of the 1-ANT on the example functions Leading......The runtime analysis of randomized search heuristics is a growing field where, in the last two decades, many rigorous results have been obtained. First runtime analyses of ant colony optimization (ACO) have been conducted only recently. In these studies simple ACO algorithms such as the 1-ANT......Ones and BinVal. With respect to Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs), such analyses were essential to develop methods for the analysis on more complicated problems. The proof techniques required for the 1-ANT, unfortunately, differ significantly from those for EAs, which means that a new reservoir of methods has...

  11. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  12. Adjuvant radiotherapy after salvage lymph node dissection because of nodal relapse of prostate cancer versus salvage lymph node dissection only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rischke, Hans Christian [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Kroenig, Malte; Schlager, Daniel; Jilg, Cordula Annette [University of Freiburg, Department of Urology, Freiburg (Germany); Wieser, Gesche [University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Drendel, Vanessa [University of Freiburg, Department of Pathology, Freiburg (Germany); Stegmaier, Petra; Henne, Karl; Volegova-Neher, Natalia; Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Krauss, Tobias; Kirste, Simon [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Nodal pelvic/retroperitoneal recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) after primary therapy can be treated with salvage lymph node dissection (salvage-LND) in order to delay disease progression and offer cure for a subset of patients. Whether adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) in affected regions improves the outcome by elimination of residual tumour burden remains unclear. A total of 93 patients with exclusively nodal PCa relapse underwent choline-positron-emission tomography-computed-tomography-directed pelvic/retroperitoneal salvage-LND; 46 patients had surgery only and 47 patients received ART in regions with proven lymph node metastases. In case of subsequent prostate specific antigen (PSA) progression, different imaging modalities were performed to confirm next relapse within or outside the treated region (TR). Mean follow-up was 3.2 years. Lymphatic tumour burden was balanced between the two groups. Additional ART resulted in delayed relapse within TR (5-year relapse-free rate 70.7 %) versus surgery only (5-year relapse-free rate 26.3 %, p < 0.0001). In both treatment arms, time to next relapse outside the TR was almost equal (median 27 months versus 29.6 months, p = 0.359). With respect to the detection of the first new lesion, regardless if present within or outside the TR, 5 years after the treatment 34.3 % of patients in the group with additional ART were free of relapse, versus 15.4 % in the surgery only group (p = 0.0122). ART had no influence on the extent of PSA reduction at latest follow-up compared to treatment with surgery only. ART after salvage-LND provides stable local control in TR and results in overall significant improved next-relapse-free survival, compared to patients who received surgery only in case of nodal PCa-relapse. (orig.) [German] Das nodal positive Prostatakarzinom(PCa)-Rezidiv nach Primaertherapie kann durch eine Salvage-Lymphadenektomie (Salvage-LND) therapiert werden. Der Krankheitsprogress wird aufgehalten und selektionierte Patienten

  13. Chemotaxonomy of Black Raspberry: deception in the marketplace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will focus on the phytochemical portion of our research into breeding commercial black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.; blackcap) cultivars with better fruit quality. Over the last eight years, we have analyzed the fruit from over 1,000 black raspberry genotypes, and found the ant...

  14. Pest repelling properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini...

  15. Peripheral Sympathectomy for Raynaud's Phenomenon: A Salvage Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Her Wang

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively reviewed the effectiveness of peripheral sympathectomy for severe Raynaud's phenomenon. In this study, a total of 14 digits from six patients with chronic digital ischemic change were included. All patients had pain, ulcer, or gangrenous change in the affected digits and were unresponsive to pharmacologic or other nonsurgical therapies. In all cases, angiography showed multifocal arterial lesions, so microvascular reconstruction was unfeasible. Peripheral sympathectomy was performed as a salvage procedure to prevent digit amputation. The results were analyzed according to reduction of pain, healing of ulcers, and prevention of amputation. In 12 of the 14 digits, the ulcers healed and amputation was avoided. In the other two digits, the ulcers improved and progressive gangrene was limited. As a salvage procedure for Raynaud's phenomenon recalcitrant to conservative treatment, peripheral sympathectomy improves perfusion to ischemic digits and enables amputation to be avoided.

  16. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  17. Pest repellent properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Many ant species are efficient control agents against a wide range of pest insects in many crops. They control pest insects via predation; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may be eavesdropped by potential prey and serve as chemical warning signals. Thus, the presence...... of ant pheromones may be sufficient to repel pest insects from ant territories. The study of ant semiochemicals is in its infancy, yet, evidence for their potential use in pest management is starting to build up. Pheromones from four of five tested ant species have been shown to deter herbivorous insect...... prey and competing ant species are also deterred by ant deposits, whereas ant symbionts may be attracted to them. Based on these promising initial findings, it seems advisable to further elucidate the signaling properties of ant pheromones and to test and develop their use in future pest management....

  18. Percutaneous Endovascular Salvage Techniques for Implanted Venous Access Device Dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.breault@chuv.ch [Lausanne University Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department (Switzerland); Glauser, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.glauser@chuv.ch [Lausanne University Hospital, Angiology and Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Departments (Switzerland); Babaker, Malik, E-mail: malik.babaker@chuv.ch; Doenz, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.doenz@chuv.ch; Qanadli, Salah Dine, E-mail: salah.qanadli@chuv.ch [Lausanne University Hospital, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeImplanted venous access devices (IVADs) are often used in patients who require long-term intravenous drug administration. The most common causes of device dysfunction include occlusion by fibrin sheath and/or catheter adherence to the vessel wall. We present percutaneous endovascular salvage techniques to restore function in occluded catheters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of these techniques.Methods and MaterialsThrough a femoral or brachial venous access, a snare is used to remove fibrin sheath around the IVAD catheter tip. If device dysfunction is caused by catheter adherences to the vessel wall, a new “mechanical adhesiolysis” maneuver was performed. IVAD salvage procedures performed between 2005 and 2013 were analyzed. Data included clinical background, catheter tip position, success rate, recurrence, and rate of complication.ResultsEighty-eight salvage procedures were performed in 80 patients, mostly women (52.5 %), with a mean age of 54 years. Only a minority (17.5 %) of evaluated catheters were located at an optimal position (i.e., cavoatrial junction ±1 cm). Mechanical adhesiolysis or other additional maneuvers were used in 21 cases (24 %). Overall technical success rate was 93.2 %. Malposition and/or vessel wall adherences were the main cause of technical failure. No complications were noted.ConclusionThese IVAD salvage techniques are safe and efficient. When a catheter is adherent to the vessel wall, mechanical adhesiolysis maneuvers allow catheter mobilization and a greater success rate with no additional risk. In patients who still require long-term use of their IVAD, these procedures can be performed safely to avoid catheter replacement.

  19. Robotic Salvage Lymph Node Dissection After Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio C. M. Torricelli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction and objective:Radical prostatectomy is a first-line treatment for localized prostate cancer. However, in some cases, biochemical recurrence associated with imaging-detected nodal metastases may happen. Herein, we aim to present the surgical technique for salvage lymph node dissection after radical prostatectomy.Materials and Methods:A 70 year-old asymptomatic man presented with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA of 7.45ng/ mL. Digital rectal examination was normal and trans-rectal prostate biopsy revealed a prostate adenocarcinoma Gleason 7 (3+4. Pre-operative computed tomography scan and bone scintigraphy showed no metastatic disease. In other service, the patient underwent a robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy plus obturador lymphadenectomy. Pathologic examination showed a pT3aN0 tumor. After 6 months of follow-up, serum PSA was 1.45ng/mL. Further investigation with 11C–Choline PET/CT revealed only a 2-cm lymph node close to the left internal iliac artery. The patient was counseled for salvage lymph node dissection.Results:Salvage lymph node dissection was uneventfully performed. Operative time was 1.5 hour, blood loss was minimal, and there were no intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from hospital in the 1st postoperative day. After 12 months of follow-up, his PSA was undetectable with no other adjuvant therapy.Conclusion:Robotic salvage pelvic lymph node dissection is an effective option for treatment of patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy and only pelvic lymph node metastasis detected by C11-Choline PET/CT.

  20. Trap-mulching Argentine ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jules; Sorenson, Clyde E; Waldvogel, Michael G

    2006-10-01

    Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), management is constrained, in large part, by polydomy where nestmates are distributed extensively across urban landscapes, particularly within mulch. Management with trap-mulching is a novel approach derived from trap-cropping where ants are repelled from a broad domain of nest sites to smaller defined areas, which are subsequently treated with insecticide. This concept was field-tested with mulch surrounding ornamental trees replaced with a narrow band of pine (Pinus spp.) needle mulch (trap) within a much larger patch of repellent aromatic cedar (Juniperus spp.) mulch. After ants reestablished around the trees, the pine needle mulch band was treated with 0.06% fipronil (Termidor). Poor results were obtained when the trap extended from the tree trunk to the edge of the mulched area. When the trap was applied as a circular band around the tree trunk reductions in the number of foraging ants were recorded through 14 d compared with an untreated mulch control, but not for longer periods. Reductions in the number of ant nests within mulch were no different between the trap mulch and any of the other treatments. We conclude that trap-mulching offers limited benefits, and that successful management of Argentine ants will require implementation of complementary or perhaps alternative strategies.

  1. Measuring activity in ant colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, C.; Fernández, J.; Pérez-Penichet, C.; Altshuler, E.

    2006-12-01

    Ants, as paradigm of social insects, have become a recurrent example of efficient problem solvers via self-organization. In spite of the simple behavior of each individual, the colony as a whole displays "swarm intelligence:" the organization of ant trails for foraging is a typical output of it. But conventional techniques of observation can hardly record the amount of data needed to get a detailed understanding of self-organization of ant swarms in the wild. Here we are presenting a measurement system intended to monitor ant activity in the field comprising massive data acquisition and high sensitivity. A central role is played by an infrared sensor devised specifically to monitor relevant parameters to the activity of ants through the exits of the nest, although other sensors detecting temperature and luminosity are added to the system. We study the characteristics of the activity sensor and its performance in the field. Finally, we present massive data measured at one exit of a nest of Atta insularis, an ant endemic to Cuba, to illustrate the potential of our system.

  2. Pyridine metabolism in tea plants: salvage, conjugate formation and catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Deng, Wei-Wei

    2012-11-01

    Pyridine compounds, including nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, are key metabolites of both the salvage pathway for NAD and the biosynthesis of related secondary compounds. We examined the in situ metabolic fate of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide, [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid and [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid riboside in tissue segments of tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, and determined the activity of enzymes involved in pyridine metabolism in protein extracts from young tea leaves. Exogenously supplied (14)C-labelled nicotinamide was readily converted to nicotinic acid, and some nicotinic acid was salvaged to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and then utilized for the synthesis of NAD and NADP. The nicotinic acid riboside salvage pathway discovered recently in mungbean cotyledons is also operative in tea leaves. Nicotinic acid was converted to nicotinic acid N-glucoside, but not to trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid), in any part of tea seedlings. Active catabolism of nicotinic acid was observed in tea leaves. The fate of [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid indicates that glutaric acid is a major catabolite of nicotinic acid; it was further metabolised, and carbon atoms were finally released as CO(2). The catabolic pathway observed in tea leaves appears to start with the nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; this pathway differs from catabolic pathways observed in microorganisms. Profiles of pyridine metabolism in tea plants are discussed.

  3. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  4. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  5. Using Ants as bioindicators: Multiscale Issues in Ant Community Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Andersen

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological patterns and processes are characteristically scale dependent, and research findings often cannot be translated easily from one scale to another. Conservation biology is challenged by a lack of congruence between the spatial scales of ecological research (typically involving small plots and land management (typically involving whole landscapes. Here, I discuss spatial scaling issues as they relate to an understanding of ant communities and, consequently, their use as bioindicators in land management. Our perceptions of fundamental patterns and processes in ant communities depend on scale: taxa that are behaviorally dominant at one scale are not necessarily so at others, functional groups recognized at one scale are often inappropriate for others, and the role of competition in community structure depends on the scale of analysis. Patterns of species richness and composition, and the ability of total richness to be estimated by surrogates, are all also scale dependent. Ant community ecology has a tradition of detailed studies in small plots, but the use of ants as bioindicators requires a predictive understanding of community structure and dynamics at a range of spatial scales. Such an appreciation of ant communities and their most effective use as bioindicators is best served by studies integrating results from plot-scale research with the broad-scale paradigms of biogeography, systematics, and evolutionary biology.

  6. Salvaging a cultural identity through reintegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gomez Ubierna

    2010-11-01

    Pietre Dure” in 2009 - lay in the recovery of the black and white polychromy, of the quintessentially Florentine marble inlay through various interventions involving the integration of the stone. Study of the techniques and materials used has provided a unique opportunity to map out the various stages of restoration that the piece underwent, identifying the materials used in each intervention, allowing choices to be made regarding the conservation methods. The aim of the current project was the integration of new, completely reversible and compatible elements into the polychromatic marble inlay, elements that were created on the basis of the results of an experiment  with synthetic materials and their various methods of application.

  7. Monoculture of leafcutter ant gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich G Mueller

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Leafcutter ants depend on the cultivation of symbiotic Attamyces fungi for food, which are thought to be grown by the ants in single-strain, clonal monoculture throughout the hundreds to thousands of gardens within a leafcutter nest. Monoculture eliminates cultivar-cultivar competition that would select for competitive fungal traits that are detrimental to the ants, whereas polyculture of several fungi could increase nutritional diversity and disease resistance of genetically variable gardens.Using three experimental approaches, we assessed cultivar diversity within nests of Atta leafcutter ants, which are most likely among all fungus-growing ants to cultivate distinct cultivar genotypes per nest because of the nests' enormous sizes (up to 5000 gardens and extended lifespans (10-20 years. In Atta texana and in A. cephalotes, we resampled nests over a 5-year period to test for persistence of resident cultivar genotypes within each nest, and we tested for genetic differences between fungi from different nest sectors accessed through excavation. In A. texana, we also determined the number of Attamyces cells carried as a starter inoculum by a dispersing queens (minimally several thousand Attamyces cells, and we tested for genetic differences between Attamyces carried by sister queens dispersing from the same nest. Except for mutational variation arising during clonal Attamyces propagation, DNA fingerprinting revealed no evidence for fungal polyculture and no genotype turnover during the 5-year surveys.Atta leafcutter ants can achieve stable, fungal monoculture over many years. Mutational variation emerging within an Attamyces monoculture could provide genetic diversity for symbiont choice (gardening biases of the ants favoring specific mutational variants, an analog of artificial selection.

  8. 75 FR 54026 - Salvage and Marine Firefighting Requirements; Vessel Response Plans for Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... information for resource providers for each vessel with appropriate equipment and resources located in each... appropriate salvage and marine firefighting resources were identified and available for responding to...

  9. Exoskeletal thinning in Cephalotes atratus ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) parasitized by Myrmeconema neotropicum (Nematoda: Tetradonematidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verble, Robin M; Meyer, Ashley D; Kleve, Maurice G; Yanoviak, Stephen P

    2012-02-01

    Some parasites modify the color of their arthropod hosts, presumably to facilitate transmission to a new host. Mechanisms for such changes often are unknown, but altered exoskeletal color in adult insects typically occurs via structural modifications or redistribution of pigments. Here, we examine the cuticle structure of workers of the Neotropical canopy ant Cephalotes atratus infected with the nematode Myrmeconema neotropicum. We hypothesized that the conspicuous red color of the gaster (the globular posterior body region) of infected ants results from structural changes, specifically localized exoskeletal thinning. We used scanning electron microscopy to quantify the thickness of gaster cuticle in healthy and infected ants. For comparison, we also measured the cuticle thickness of the head of each ant, which is black in both infected and healthy individuals. The gaster cuticle was 23% thinner in infected ants (average ±SE: 14.8 ± 1.02 µm) versus healthy ants (19.2 ± 0.65 µm) after correcting for body size. In contrast, the thickness of the head exoskeleton was similar among groups. We conclude that parasite-induced thinning of the exoskeleton is associated with the red color of the gaster. Other mechanisms, including translocation or leaching of melanin (by the ant or the parasite, respectively) may operate in concert with thinning to effect the color change, and would be an appropriate extension of this research.

  10. Roadside Survey of Ants on Oahu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Reina L; Grace, J Kenneth; Krushelnycky, Paul D; Spafford, Helen

    2018-02-11

    Hawaii is home to over 60 ant species, including five of the six most damaging invasive ants. Although there have been many surveys of ants in Hawaii, the last island-wide hand-collection survey of ants on Oahu was conducted in 1988-1994. In 2012, a timed hand-collection of ants was made at 44 sites in a systematic, roadside survey throughout Oahu. Ants were identified and species distribution in relation to elevation, precipitation and soil type was analyzed. To assess possible convenience sampling bias, 15 additional sites were sampled further from roads to compare with the samples near roads. Twenty-four species of ants were found and mapped; Pheidole megacephala (F.), Ochetellus glaber (Mayr), and Technomyrmex difficilis Forel were the most frequently encountered ants. For six ant species, a logistic regression was performed with elevation, average annual precipitation, and soil order as explanatory variables. O. glaber was found in areas with lower precipitation around Oahu. Paratrechina longicornis (Latrielle) and Tetramorium simillimum (Smith, F.) were found more often in lower elevations and in areas with the Mollisol soil order. Elevation, precipitation, and soil type were not significant sources of variation for P. megacephala, Plagiolepis alluaudi Emery, and T. difficilis . P. megacephala was associated with fewer mean numbers of ants where it occurred. Ant assemblages near and far from roads did not significantly differ. Many species of ants remain established on Oahu, and recent invaders are spreading throughout the island. Mapping ant distributions contributes to continued documentation and understanding of these pests.

  11. Adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy after prostatectomy: AUA/ASTRO Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian M; Valicenti, Richard K; Albertsen, Peter; Davis, Brian J; Goldenberg, S Larry; Hahn, Carol; Klein, Eric; Michalski, Jeff; Roach, Mack; Sartor, Oliver; Wolf, J Stuart; Faraday, Martha M

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. A systematic literature review using the PubMed®, Embase, and Cochrane databases was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiotherapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, the use of radiotherapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a re-staging evaluation. Physicians should offer adjuvant radiotherapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (i.e., seminal vesicle invasion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and should offer salvage radiotherapy to patients with prostatic specific antigen or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiotherapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiotherapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiotherapy should be made by the patient and the multi-disciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. Please visit the ASTRO and AUA websites (http://www.redjournal.org/webfiles/images/journals/rob/RAP%20Guideline.pdf and http://www.auanet.org/education/guidelines/radiation-after-prostatectomy.cfm) to view this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Salvage proton beam therapy in local recurrent uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechardt, Aline I; Cordini, Dino; Dobner, Bianca; Seibel, Ira; Gundlach, Enken; Rehak, Matus; Hager, Annette; Stark, Roland; Moser, Lutz; Joussen, Antonia M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate survival and ocular outcome in recurrent uveal melanoma treated with proton beam therapy as salvage therapy. Retrospective, interventional case series. We evaluated 48 patients with local recurrence of uveal melanoma after primary treatment with brachytherapy, transpupillary thermotherapy, proton beam therapy, laser photocoagulation, CyberKnife radiation, or photodynamic therapy. All patients received proton beam therapy as a salvage therapy at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin between July 2000 and December 2010. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to obtain survival rates. The Kaplan-Meier estimator for local tumor control was 92.1% at 10 years after secondary treatment with proton beam therapy. Local recurrence developed in 3 patients; 1 of them underwent enucleation. During follow-up, 20.8% of the patients died (16.7% of metastasis, 4.1% of other causes or not specified). The most frequent surgical interventions were phacoemulsification (20.8%) and pars plana vitrectomy (10.4%). The Kaplan-Meier estimators were 77.4% for survival and 70.1% for the absence of metastasis 10 years after the primary treatment. Proton beam therapy as a salvage treatment resulted in high local tumor control rates in recurrent uveal melanoma, especially if the primary therapy was transpupillary thermotherapy or plaque brachytherapy. Preservation of the globe was possible in most patients. Enucleations were indicated only in case of re-recurrences of uveal melanoma, but not because of secondary complications like intractable pain or secondary glaucoma. Retreatment was associated with vision deterioration, but loss of vision remained exceptional. Further larger prospective studies are needed to confirm the presented results of our retrospective analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Limb salvage procedures in osteosarcomas around the knee joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emérito Carlos Rodriguez Merchán

    Full Text Available Surgical techniques developed for restoring skeletal continuity after a local resection of a bone tumor (limb salvage procedures revolutionized the management of the patient suffering from osteosarcomas around the knee. In this article the authors review the current status of various reconstruction procedures; they include osteoarticular allograft arthrodesis, rotation plasty, expandable prosthesis and knee arthroplasty. In summary they suggest that the knee arthrodesis is the preferred procedure for young and active patients, the rotation plasty should be recommended as the alternative to amputation for very young patients, and the customized prostheses are preferred for patients with limited longevity.

  14. Ants as tools in sustainable agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    . Being predatory and organized as superorganisms, ants possess traits making them suitable agents in IPM. Recent works on weaver ants Oecophylla spp. showcase ants as highly efficient pest controllers. A synthesis shows that weaver ants can reduce pest numbers and their damage and increase yields...... in multiple crops. Their efficiency is comparable to chemical pesticides or higher, while at lower costs. They provide a rare example of documented efficient conservation biological control. 3. Weaver ants share beneficial traits with almost 13 000 other ant species and are unlikely to be unique...... in their properties as control agents. A synthesis of applied work on other ant species illustrates potentials for control of arthropod pests, weeds and plant diseases in orchards, forestry and arable crops. 4. Synthesis and applications. By showing that ant biocontrol can match synthetic pesticides in a wide setting...

  15. 28 CFR 25.56 - Responsibilities of junk yards and salvage yards and auto recyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information for the reporting entity (junk, salvage yard, recycler); (2) VIN; (3) The date the automobile was... continuing on a monthly basis as designated by the operator, any individual or entity engaged in the business... junk automobiles or salvage automobiles obtained in whole or in part by that entity in the prior month...

  16. Second salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy for radiorecurrent prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maenhout, Metha; Van Vulpen, Marco; Moerland, Marinus; Peters, Max; Meijer, Richard; Van Den Bosch, Maurice; Nguyen, Paul; Frank, Steven; Van Der Voort Van Zyp, Jochem

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Salvage treatments for localized radiorecurrent prostate cancer can be performed safely when a focal and image guided approach is used. Due to the low toxicity, the opportunity exists to investigate a second salvage treatment when a second locally recurrent prostate cancer occurs. Here, we

  17. 12 CFR 714.6 - Are you required to retain salvage powers over the leased property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are you required to retain salvage powers over the leased property? 714.6 Section 714.6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.6 Are you required to retain salvage powers over the leased...

  18. Evaluating the ecological impacts of salvage logging: can natural and anthropogenic disturbances promote coexistence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Royo; Chris J. Peterson; John S. Stanovick; Walter P. Carson

    2016-01-01

    Salvage logging following windthrow is common throughout forests worldwide even though the practice is often considered inimical to forest recovery. Because salvaging removes trees, crushes seedlings, and compacts soils, many warn this practice may delay succession, suppress diversity, and alter composition. Here, over 8 yr following windthrow, we experimentally...

  19. A cellular automata model for ant trails

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was investigated using one-dimensional cellular automata model. It is known that ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called pheromone, on the substrate. Apart from the studies in the literature, it was considered in the model that ...

  20. ANT: A decade of interfering with tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.; Ren, C.; Johannesson, G.T.

    2017-01-01

    Ten years ago actor-network theory (ANT) entered this journal. To illustrate how the relational ontology and sensibilities of ANT lend themselves to particular kinds of research, we first interrogate the main controversies as a way to open up and discuss the main premises of ANT. These debates

  1. Adaptive multimodal continuous ant colony optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qiang; Chen, Wei-Neng; Yu, Zhengtao; Gu, Tianlong; Li, Yun; Zhang, Huaxiang; Zhang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Seeking multiple optima simultaneously, which multimodal optimization aims at, has attracted increasing attention but remains challenging. Taking advantage of ant colony optimization algorithms in preserving high diversity, this paper intends to extend ant colony optimization algorithms to deal with multimodal optimization. First, combined with current niching methods, an adaptive multimodal continuous ant colony optimization algorithm is introduced. In this algorithm, an adaptive parameter a...

  2. A cellular automata model for ant trails

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was inves- tigated using one-dimensional cellular automata model. It is known that ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called pheromone, on the substrate. Apart from the studies in the literature, it was considered in the ...

  3. Salvage surgery after (chemo)radiotherapy for hypopharyngeal cancer and cervical esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeno, Hirohito; Maeda, Akiteru; Chijiwa, Hideki; Fujita, Hiromasa; Chitose, Shunichi; Ueda, Yoshihisa; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed salvage surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer and cervical esophageal cancer after treatment by (chemo)radiotherapy irradiated at more than 50 Gy. The number of patients who received salvage surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer: was 20, and for cervical esophageal cancer 2. Management before recurrence was divided into five groups: (chemo) radiotherapy 8, CO 2 laser resection followed by (chemo)radiotherapy 7, partial pharyngectomy followed by (chemo)radiotherapy 3, new primary appearance after radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer 3, and new primary appearance after radiotherapy for tongue cancer 1. Salvage surgery was divided into four managements: total pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy and free intestine reconstruction 9, total pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy and musculocutaneous flap reconstruction 9, primary pharyngeal suture after partial pharyngectomy 3, and CO 2 laser resection 1. Sixteen patients (72.7%) showed wound infection after salvage surgery. Eight patients (36.3%) exhibited pharyngeal fistula after salvage surgery. The 3-year disease-free survival rate was 58.1%. (author)

  4. Toe salvage procedure for the recurrent chondromyxoid fibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peruvaje Ramakrishna Krishnaprasad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment options for recurrent chondromyxoid fibroma of the toe range from total amputation to salvaging a functional toe. There is no globally accepted treatment protocol available for this tumour because of its rarer incidence and lack of population based data. Here we suggest performing a staged approach, which involves en block resection initially and maintenance of metatarsophalangeal space by using a kirshner wire with the bone cement. If there is no sign of malignancy in the histopathology, we recommend performing interposition arthroplasty at the metatarsophalangeal joint with the tricortical iliac crest graft. The kirshner wire should be kept which incorporates the iliac graft and the soft tissue, which is being interposed at the metatarsal head. This will cause pseudoarthrosis and also decreases the chances of having chronic pain. We believe that this staged approach which leads to toe salvage is the best suitable treatment option for the recurrent chondromyxoid fibroma. This will prevent amputation of the toe and will give cosmetic success to the patient

  5. Improvement of limb salvage procedure using intraoperative radiotherapy for osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Iwasaki, Katsuo; Kamishiro; Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Yasuyuki

    1992-01-01

    Clinical outcome of limb salvage procedure combined with intraoperative irradiation was investigated in 6 patients with osteosarcoma in the distal part of femur (n=4) and proximal part of tibia (n=2). They ranged in age from 12 to 54 years, with a mean of 22.5. First, a lesion was separated from the surrounding soft tissue with curatively wide margin. Osteotomy was performed at the portion of diaphysis. After irradiation field was setted up by lifting the lesion, and was exposed to doses ranging from 60 Gy to 85 Gy of intraoperative irradiation, soft tissue and fragile tumor tissue, excluding joint capsule and ligament, were removed as soon as possible. Finally, bone was jointed by means of inner fixation or bone grafting. They had a median follow-up of one year and four months after surgery. Although superficial wound infection and delayed wound adhesion were encountered as postoperative complications in one and two patients, respectively, these were all healed. None of the patients had local recurrence. The ability of salvaged limb was excellent in one, good in 3, and fair in 2 patients. Because both of the two patients with sarcoma in the proximal part of tibia had excellent and good limb ability, this procedure was considered useful especially for sarcoma in the proximal part of tibia. (N.K.)

  6. Urethral and bladder dosimetry of total and focal salvage Iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy : Late toxicity and dose constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Max; Van Der Voort Van Zyp, Jochem; Hoekstra, Carel; Westendorp, Hendrik; Van De Pol, Sandrine; Moerland, Marinus; Maenhout, Metha; Kattevilder, Rob; Van Vulpen, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Salvage Iodine-125 brachytherapy (I-125-BT) constitutes a curative treatment approach for patients with organ-confined recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy. Currently, focal salvage (FS) instead of whole-gland or total salvage (TS) is being investigated, to reduce severe

  7. Effects of salvage logging and pile-and-burn on fuel loading, potential fire behaviour, fuel consumption and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris C. Johnson; Jessica E. Halofsky; David L. Peterson

    2013-01-01

    We used a combination of field measurements and simulation modelling to quantify the effects of salvage logging, and a combination of salvage logging and pile-and-burn fuel surface fuel treatment (treatment combination), on fuel loadings, fire behaviour, fuel consumption and pollutant emissions at three points in time: post-windstorm (before salvage logging), post-...

  8. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  9. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  10. Introduced fire ants can exclude native ants from critical mutualist-provided resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Shawn M; Barnum, Thomas R; Holway, David A; Suarez, Andrew V; Eubanks, Micky D

    2013-05-01

    Animals frequently experience resource imbalances in nature. For ants, one resource that may be particularly valuable for both introduced and native species is high-carbohydrate honeydew from hemipteran mutualists. We conducted field and laboratory experiments: (1) to test if red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) competed with native ants for access to mutualisms with aphids, and (2) to quantify the effects of aphid honeydew presence or absence on colony growth of native ants. We focused on native dolichoderine ants (Formicidae, Dolichoderinae) because they are abundant ants that have omnivorous diets that frequently include mutualist-provided carbohydrates. At two sites in the southeastern US, native dolichoderine ants were far less frequent, and fire ants more frequent, at carbohydrate baits than would be expected based on their frequency in pitfall traps. A field experiment confirmed that a native ant species, Dorymyrmex bureni, was only found tending aphids when populations of S. invicta were suppressed. In the laboratory, colonies of native dolichoderine ants with access to both honeydew and insect prey had twice as many workers and over twice as much brood compared to colonies fed only ad libitum insect prey. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that introduced ants compete for access to mutualist-provided carbohydrates with native ants and that these carbohydrates represent critical resources for both introduced and native ants. These results challenge traditional paradigms of arthropod and ant nutrition and contribute to growing evidence of the importance of nutrition in mediating ecological interactions.

  11. Psychosocial reactions to upper extremity limb salvage: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Lospinoso, Josh; Cancio, Jill

    2017-08-09

    Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Limb salvage spares an extremity at risk for amputation after a major traumatic injury. Psychosocial recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been discussed in the literature. However, to date, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage have not been examined. To determine which factors may influence psychosocial adaptation to UE limb salvage. Participants (n = 30; 28 males) were adults (mean, 30.13; range, 18-61) who sustained an UE limb salvage from a traumatic event. Adaptation was measured using a modified version of the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory. A linear mixed-effects regression found that worse psychosocial adaptation was associated with having less than a college degree, being less than 6 months post-injury, being older than 23 years, and having more pain. Dominant hand injuries were found to influence poor adaptation on the denial Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory subscale only. The results of this study indicate that there is potential for nonadaptive reactions and psychological distress with certain variables in UE limb salvage. Therapists may use these results to anticipate which clients may be at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes. This study indicates the need for early consideration to factors that affect psychological prognosis for the UE limb salvage population. However, future research is indicated to better understand the unique psychosocial challenges and needs of these individuals. 4. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Salvage proton beam therapy for recurrent iris melanoma: outcome and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechardt, Aline I; Klein, Julian P; Cordini, Dino; Heufelder, Jens; Rehak, Matus; Seibel, Ira; Joussen, Antonia M

    2018-02-20

    This study aims to analyze the effect of salvage proton beam therapy for the treatment of recurrent iris melanoma. In this clinical case series, we retrospectively analyzed the data of eight patients who underwent proton beam therapy of the whole anterior segment as salvage therapy between 2000 and 2016 for recurrent iris melanoma after resection, ruthenium brachytherapy, or sector proton beam therapy. Two patients received salvage proton beam therapy for repeated tumor relapse. All patients were observed and prepared for proton beam therapy at the Charité and irradiated at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin where they received 50 cobalt Gray equivalents (CGE) in four daily fractions. We investigated survival rates and ocular outcome. Median follow-up after salvage proton beam therapy was 39 months. No local recurrence was detected during follow-up. One patient died from hepatic metastases 5.5 years after salvage therapy. Secondary glaucoma occurred in seven out of eight patients during follow-up. Two patients had chronic corneal erosion and two other patients presented with corneal decompensation, necessitating Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK), and perforating keratoplasty. Median visual acuity was 0.2 logMAR before salvage proton beam therapy and 0.7 logMAR at the end of follow-up. Whole anterior segment salvage proton beam therapy has effectively controlled recurrent iris melanoma in our patients, but has been associated with a high incidence of radiation-induced corneal impairment and secondary glaucoma requiring extensive secondary treatment.

  13. Revolutionizing Remote Exploration with ANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S.; Truszkowski, W.

    2002-05-01

    We are developing the Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) architecture based on an insect colony analogue for the cost-effective, efficient, systematic survey of remote or inaccessible areas with multiple object targets, including planetary surface, marine, airborne, and space environments. The mission context is the exploration in the 2020s of the most compelling remaining targets in the solar system: main belt asteroids. Main belt asteroids harbor important clues to Solar System origins and evolution which are central to NASA's goals in Space Science. Asteroids are smaller than planets, but their number is far greater, and their combined surface area likely dwarfs the Earth's. An asteroid survey will dramatically increase our understanding of the local resources available for the Human Exploration and Development of Space. During the mission composition, shape, gravity, and orbit parameters could be returned to Earth for perhaps several thousand asteroids. A survey of this area will rival the great explorations that encircled this globe, opened up the New World, and laid the groundwork for the progress and challenges of the last centuries. The ANTS architecture for a main belt survey consists of a swarm of as many as a thousand or more highly specialized pico-spacecraft that form teams to survey as many as one hundred asteroids a month. Multi-level autonomy is critical for ANTS and the objective of the proposed study is to work through the implications and constraints this entails. ANTS couples biologically inspired autonomic control for basic functions to higher level artificial intelligence that together enable individual spacecraft to operate as specialized, cooperative, social agents. This revolutionary approach postulates highly advanced, but familiar, components integrated and operated in a way that uniquely transcends any evolutionary extrapolation of existing trends and enables thousand-spacecraft missions.

  14. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  15. Salvage of upper extremities with humeral fracture and associated brachial artery injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paryavi, Ebrahim; Pensy, Raymond A; Higgins, Thomas F; Chia, Benjamin; Eglseder, W Andrew

    2014-12-01

    Humeral fractures with brachial artery injury present a challenge for treating surgeons. Treatment practices vary, including use of vascular shunts, multispecialty teams versus an upper-extremity surgeon, and temporizing external fixation. Our objectives were to describe our treatment approach, to define “absolute ischaemia,” to determine whether to use a vascular shunt, and to identify variables that could improve limb salvage rate. We conducted a retrospective study of 38 patients with humeral fracture and brachial artery injury from 1999 through 2012 at a level I trauma centre. Demographic and treatment characteristics were compared between blunt and penetrating injuries and between treatment by multispecialty teams and treatment by an upper-extremity surgeon. We investigated other variables of interest, including immediate internal fixation, shunt use, time to brachial artery repair, and flap coverage. This study focused on immediate limb salvage and not on eventual functional outcomes of the limb or patient satisfaction regarding the extremity. The main outcome measure was salvage versus amputation. Thirty-six upper extremities were successfully salvaged, and two underwent eventual amputation. Immediate internal fixation (33 of 38 patients) did not have an adverse effect on the rate of successful limb salvage (p > .05). Shunt use and treatment by an upper-extremity surgeon were not associated with improved salvage rate (p > .05). The need for flap coverage was significantly associated with failed salvage of the extremity (p = .02). Salvage of the upper extremity with humeral fracture and associated brachial artery injury is not dependent on time to brachial artery repair, shunt use, or specialty of treating surgeon. Immediate internal fixation can be performed without adversely affecting the potential for successful salvage. Flap coverage, which is an indicator of severity of soft-tissue injury, correlates with amputation in these severe injuries

  16. External transpedicular spine fixation in severe spondylodiscitis – salvage procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spalteholz, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Specific and non-specific infections of the spine are rare. Due to their potential for severe instabilities, deformities and the impairment of neurological structures, the treatment is often prolonged and needs an interdisciplinary management. The clinical presentation is uncharacteristic, therefore diagnosis is often delayed. There are no prospective randomized studies for therapy recommendation. The surgical concept includes eradication of the infection and the reliable stabilization of involved segments. This concept is successful in most cases of endogenous vertebral osteomyelitis. The therapy of the exogenous spine infections after macro and micro surgery is more difficult, due to the critical wound situation and the involvement of the posterior parts of the spine. In these cases, infection-associated instability of the anterior part is complicated by critical posterior wound conditions.We present three cases of severe exogenous vertebral infections, where temporary external transpedicular spine fixation was used for salvage procedure, till soft tissue conditions have permitted a definitive internal stabilization.

  17. Salvage Therapy of Multiple Myeloma: The New Generation Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Romano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, overall results of treatment of multiple myeloma (MM have been improved and survival curves are now significantly better with respect to those obtained with historical treatment. These improvements are linked to a deeper knowledge of the biology of disease and to the introduction in clinical practice of drugs with different mechanism of action such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs. However, MM remains in most cases an incurable disease. For patients who relapse after treatment with novel agents, the prognosis is dismal and new drugs and therapeutic strategies are required for continued disease control. In this review, we summarize new insights in salvage therapy for relapsed/refractory MM as emerging from recent clinical trials exploring the activity of bendamustine, new generation proteasome inhibitors, novel IMiDs, monoclonal antibodies, and drugs interfering with growth pathways.

  18. Salvage Therapy of Multiple Myeloma: The New Generation Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandra; Conticello, Concetta; Di Raimondo, Cosimo; Schinocca, Elena; La Fauci, Alessia; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Chiarenza, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, overall results of treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) have been improved and survival curves are now significantly better with respect to those obtained with historical treatment. These improvements are linked to a deeper knowledge of the biology of disease and to the introduction in clinical practice of drugs with different mechanism of action such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs). However, MM remains in most cases an incurable disease. For patients who relapse after treatment with novel agents, the prognosis is dismal and new drugs and therapeutic strategies are required for continued disease control. In this review, we summarize new insights in salvage therapy for relapsed/refractory MM as emerging from recent clinical trials exploring the activity of bendamustine, new generation proteasome inhibitors, novel IMiDs, monoclonal antibodies, and drugs interfering with growth pathways. PMID:24967371

  19. Outcome After Salvage Arthrodesis for Failed Total Ankle Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrad, Ilka; Henricson, Anders; Magnusson, Håkan; Carlsson, Åke; Rosengren, Björn E

    2016-03-01

    In cases with total ankle replacement (TAR) failure, a decision between revision TAR and salvage arthrodesis (SA) must be made. In a previous study, we analyzed revision TAR and found low functional outcome and satisfaction. The aims of the current study were to analyze SA concerning failure rate and patient-related outcome measures (PROMs). Until September 2014, a total of 1110 primary TARs were recorded in the Swedish Ankle Registry. Of the 188 failures, 118 were revised with SA (and 70 with revision TAR). Patient- and implant-specific data for SA cases were analyzed as well as arthrodesis techniques. Failure of SA was defined as repeat arthrodesis or amputation. Generic and region-specific PROMs of 68 patients alive with a solid unilateral SA performed more than 1 year before were analyzed. The first-attempt solid arthrodesis rate of SA was 90%. Overall, 25 of 53 (47%) patients were very satisfied or satisfied. Mean Self-reported Foot and Ankle Score (SEFAS) was 22 (95% confidence interval 20-24), Euro Qol-5 Dimensions 0.57 (0.49-0.65), Euro Qol-Visual Analogue Scale 59 (53-64), Short Form-36 physical 34 (31-37) and mental 50 (46-54). The scores and satisfaction were similar to those after revision TAR but the reoperation rate was significantly lower in SA (P < .05). Salvage arthrodesis after failed TAR had a solid arthrodesis rate of 90% at first attempt, but similar to revision TAR, less than 50% of the patients were satisfied and the functional scores were low. Until studies show true benefit of revision TAR over SA, we favor SA for failed TAR. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Salvage cryotherapy for local recurrence after radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvorning Ternov, Klara; Krag Jakobsen, Ane; Bratt, Ola; Ahlgren, Göran

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to present the outcome of patients treated with salvage cryotherapy after radiotherapy for prostate cancer at one institution. Consecutive patients treated between 2007 and 2013 with transperineal cryotherapy for biopsy-verified local recurrence after radiotherapy were investigated. An external reviewer retrieved outcome data retrospectively from medical records. Complications were graded according to the Clavien classification. One patient with less than 1 year of follow-up was excluded from the analysis of side-effects. Thirty patients were included, 29 of whom had a follow-up of at least 1 year. The median follow-up was 2.7 years (range 1-6.5 years). Eleven of the 23 patients without hormonal treatment at the time of cryotherapy reached a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir of less than 0.5 ng/ml. At the end of follow-up five of these 23 patients still had a PSA below 0.5 ng/ml and 10 were free from recurrence according to the Phoenix definition. Clinical recurrence (verified with imaging or biopsies) was detected in 13 patients, six of which were local. One patient died from prostate cancer. Eleven patients had urinary incontinence grade 1-2 and three had grade 3-4, seven had pelvic pain, three had severe but transitory tissue sloughing, three developed a urethral stricture or had prolonged urinary retention, and one developed a urinary fistula 4.5 years after cryotherapy. Salvage cryotherapy should be considered as an alternative to hormonal treatment and surgery for local recurrence after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The results compare well to those reported from centres with longer experience.

  1. Ecosystem services delivered by weaver ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    Weaver ants (Oecopgylla spp.) are increasingly being utilized as efficient biocontrol agents in a number of tropical tree crops, as they prey on pest insects and increase yields. However, recent studies and a review of the literature reveal that a number of other services may derive from the pres......Weaver ants (Oecopgylla spp.) are increasingly being utilized as efficient biocontrol agents in a number of tropical tree crops, as they prey on pest insects and increase yields. However, recent studies and a review of the literature reveal that a number of other services may derive from...... the presence of these ants. First of all, the chemical footprint left by the high density of ants in managed host trees may results in additional benefits. (i) Ant deposits may lead to improved fruit quality, e.g. increased sugar content, (ii) ant deposits may deter important pests (chemical deterrence) from...... crops, and lastly, (iii) ant waste products deposited ias anal spots contain urea that may be taken up by plant leaves and in this way fertilize ant-plants. On top of chemical services, weaver ants have been shown to reduce plant disease incidence via competitive exclusion of other ant species because...

  2. Roadside Survey of Ants on Oahu, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reina L. Tong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hawaii is home to over 60 ant species, including five of the six most damaging invasive ants. Although there have been many surveys of ants in Hawaii, the last island-wide hand-collection survey of ants on Oahu was conducted in 1988–1994. In 2012, a timed hand-collection of ants was made at 44 sites in a systematic, roadside survey throughout Oahu. Ants were identified and species distribution in relation to elevation, precipitation and soil type was analyzed. To assess possible convenience sampling bias, 15 additional sites were sampled further from roads to compare with the samples near roads. Twenty-four species of ants were found and mapped; Pheidole megacephala (F., Ochetellus glaber (Mayr, and Technomyrmex difficilis Forel were the most frequently encountered ants. For six ant species, a logistic regression was performed with elevation, average annual precipitation, and soil order as explanatory variables. O. glaber was found in areas with lower precipitation around Oahu. Paratrechina longicornis (Latrielle and Tetramorium simillimum (Smith, F. were found more often in lower elevations and in areas with the Mollisol soil order. Elevation, precipitation, and soil type were not significant sources of variation for P. megacephala, Plagiolepis alluaudi Emery, and T. difficilis. P. megacephala was associated with fewer mean numbers of ants where it occurred. Ant assemblages near and far from roads did not significantly differ. Many species of ants remain established on Oahu, and recent invaders are spreading throughout the island. Mapping ant distributions contributes to continued documentation and understanding of these pests.

  3. Black Cohosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have had hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer or for pregnant women or nursing mothers. Black cohosh should not be confused with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) , which has different effects and may not be safe. Black cohosh has ...

  4. Ant Larval Demand Reduces Aphid Colony Growth Rates in an Ant-Aphid Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Cook

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ants often form mutualistic interactions with aphids, soliciting honeydew in return for protective services. Under certain circumstances, however, ants will prey upon aphids. In addition, in the presence of ants aphids may increase the quantity or quality of honeydew produced, which is costly. Through these mechanisms, ant attendance can reduce aphid colony growth rates. However, it is unknown whether demand from within the ant colony can affect the ant-aphid interaction. In a factorial experiment, we tested whether the presence of larvae in Lasius niger ant colonies affected the growth rate of Aphis fabae colonies. Other explanatory variables tested were the origin of ant colonies (two separate colonies were used and previous diet (sugar only or sugar and protein. We found that the presence of larvae in the ant colony significantly reduced the growth rate of aphid colonies. Previous diet and colony origin did not affect aphid colony growth rates. Our results suggest that ant colonies balance the flow of two separate resources from aphid colonies- renewable sugars or a protein-rich meal, depending on demand from ant larvae within the nest. Aphid payoffs from the ant-aphid interaction may change on a seasonal basis, as the demand from larvae within the ant colony waxes and wanes.

  5. The distribution and diversity of insular ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura-Pascual, Núria; Sanders, Nate; Hui, Cang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To examine the relationship between island characteristics (area, distance to the nearest continent, climate and human population size) and ant species richness, as well as the factors underlying global geographical clustering of native and exotic ant composition on islands. Location: One...... hundred and two islands from 20 island groups around the world. Methods: We used spatial linear models that consider the spatial structure of islands to examine patterns of ant species richness. We also performed modularity analyses to identify clusters of islands hosting a similar suite of species...... and constructed conditional inference trees to assess the characteristics of islands that explain the formation of these island-ant groups. Results: Island area was the best predictor of ant species richness. However, distance to the nearest continent was an important predictor of native ant species richness...

  6. Economy of scale: third partner strengthens a keystone ant-plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Kirsten M; Palmer, Todd M

    2018-02-01

    While foundation species can stabilize ecosystems at landscape scales, their ability to persist is often underlain by keystone interactions occurring at smaller scales. Acacia drepanolobium is a foundation tree, comprising >95% of woody cover in East African black-cotton savanna ecosystems. Its dominance is underlain by a keystone mutualistic interaction with several symbiotic ant species in which it provides housing (swollen thorns) and carbohydrate-rich nectar from extra-floral nectaries (EFN). In return, it gains protection from catastrophic damage from mega-herbivores. Crematogaster mimosae is the ecologically dominant symbiotic ant in this system, also providing the highest protection services. In addition to tending EFN, C. mimosae tend scale insects for carbohydrate-rich honeydew. We investigated the role of scale insects in this specialized ant-plant interaction. Specifically, does this putatively redundant third partner strengthen the ant-plant mutualism by making the ant a better protector of the tree? Or does it weaken the mutualism by being costly to the tree while providing no additional benefit to the ant-plant mutualism? We coupled observational surveys with two scale-manipulation experiments and found evidence that this third partner strengthens the ant-plant mutualism. Trees with scale insects experimentally removed experienced a 2.5X increase in elephant damage compared to trees with scale insects present over 10 months. Reduced protection was driven by scale removal causing a decrease in ant colony size and per capita baseline activity and defensive behavior. We also found that ants increased scale-tending and the density of scale insects on trees when EFN were experimentally reduced. Thus, in this system, scale insects and EFN are likely complementary, rather than redundant, resources with scale insects benefitting ants when EFN production is low (such as during annual dry periods in this semi-arid ecosystem). This study reveals that a third

  7. Association of Preoperative Nutritional Status with Prognosis in Patients with Esophageal Cancer Undergoing Salvage Esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Makoto; Sohda, Makoto; Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Tomonori; Kumakura, Yuji; Honjo, Hiroaki; Hara, Keigo; Ozawa, Daigo; Suzuki, Shigemasa; Tanaka, Naritaka; Yokobori, Takehiko; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-01

    To investigate whether malnutrition is associated with poor prognosis of patients who undergo salvage esophagectomy. We examined the association between the preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and prognosis of patients who undergo salvage esophagectomy. We conducted a single-center retrospective study and reviewed hospital patient records for tumor characteristics and patient outcomes. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were carried out using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Thirty-two patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who underwent salvage esophagectomy between 1998 and 2015 at our Institute were included in this study. Univariate analysis revealed that clinical response (p=0.045), preoperative PNI (pnutritional status is associated with the prognosis of patients undergoing salvage esophagectomy. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Free vascularized fibula grafts for salvage of failed oncologic long bone reconstruction and pathologic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Moran, Stephen L; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2009-01-01

    Vascularized bone grafts, particularly the free fibula transfer, have incited revolutionary changes in the field of skeletal reconstruction. In no place has this been more evident than in oncologic reconstruction. The free vascularized fibula graft has been used to good effect for primary long-bone reconstruction, long-bone allograft complication salvage, and pathologic fracture salvage of the long bones. Although many of these procedures often entail significant complications, limb salvage has been made possible in a majority of patients using transfers of free vascularized fibula grafts. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the technique of onlay free vascularized fibula grafts for salvage of allograft complications and pathologic fractures of the long bones. This will be accomplished by reviewing the problem of allograft complications and pathologic fractures, the current treatment modalities available, the outcomes of these treatments, and future directions of treatment for this particular problem.

  9. From Ant Trails to Pedestrian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schadschneider

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the simulation of pedestrian dynamics inspired by the behaviour of ants in ant trails. Ants communicate by producing a pheromone that can be smelled by other ants. In this model, pedestrians produce a virtual pheromone that influences the motion of others. In this way all interactions are strictly local, and so even large crowds can be simulated very efficiently. Nevertheless, the model is able to reproduce the collective effects observed empirically, eg the formation of lanes in counterflow. As an application, we reproduce a surprising result found in experiments of evacuation from an aircraft.

  10. Specificity of an ant-lycaenid interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordano, D; Thomas, C D

    1992-09-01

    Many lycaenid butterflies are believed to be mutualists of ants - the butterfly larvae secrete sugars and amino acids as rewards for the ants, and the ants protect the larvae from predation or parasitism. We examined the specificity of the relationship between the lycaenid Plebejus argus and ants in the genus Lasius. Eggs were not attractive to Lasius ants until the emerging larvae had broken through the chorion. First instar larvae were palpated and picked up by Lasius workers and taken to the nest. First instars were mostly ignored by Myrmica sabuleti ants and they were rarely detected by Formica fusca. Older larvae were more attractive to Lasius than to the other ant genera. Pupae were very attractive to Lasius, moderately so to Myrmica, and were ignored by Formica fusca. Teneral adults were palpated by Lasius, but were attacked by Myrmica and Formica workers. We conclude that P. argus is a specialist associate of Lasius ants. Two populations of Plebejus argus were compared: one is naturally associated with Lasius niger, and the other with Lasius alienus. In reciprocal trials, larvae were slightly more attractive to their natural host ant species. Since test larvae were reared on a single host plant species in captivity, this differentiation probably has a genetic basis.

  11. Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ted R; Brady, Seán G

    2008-04-08

    Agriculture is a specialized form of symbiosis that is known to have evolved in only four animal groups: humans, bark beetles, termites, and ants. Here, we reconstruct the major evolutionary transitions that produced the five distinct agricultural systems of the fungus-growing ants, the most well studied of the nonhuman agriculturalists. We do so with reference to the first fossil-calibrated, multiple-gene, molecular phylogeny that incorporates the full range of taxonomic diversity within the fungus-growing ant tribe Attini. Our analyses indicate that the original form of ant agriculture, the cultivation of a diverse subset of fungal species in the tribe Leucocoprineae, evolved approximately 50 million years ago in the Neotropics, coincident with the early Eocene climatic optimum. During the past 30 million years, three known ant agricultural systems, each involving a phylogenetically distinct set of derived fungal cultivars, have separately arisen from the original agricultural system. One of these derived systems subsequently gave rise to the fifth known system of agriculture, in which a single fungal species is cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Leaf-cutter ants evolved remarkably recently ( approximately 8-12 million years ago) to become the dominant herbivores of the New World tropics. Our analyses identify relict, extant attine ant species that occupy phylogenetic positions that are transitional between the agricultural systems. Intensive study of those species holds particular promise for clarifying the sequential accretion of ecological and behavioral characters that produced each of the major ant agricultural systems.

  12. Pollination and facultative ant-association in the African leopard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of extra-floral nectar appears to be recruitment of foraging ants to tend the flowers resulting in a facultative ant-association between the orchid and gregarious ants. Four different ant species were found to forage on A. africana's inflorescences. Ant-tended inflorescences suffered significantly less damage by insects.

  13. Ants (Formicidae) as food for birds in southern Africa: opportunism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are eaten by a number of bird species in southern Africa. Our database contained 545 species (excluding waterbirds and raptors), of which 179 species have been observed feeding on ants, or had ants in their stomachs. Ants are eaten by birds in all ecosystems, but the consumption of ants ...

  14. The distribution of weaver ant pheromones on host trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    for correlations between spot density, ant activity and the likelihood of being detected by an ant. Spots were only found on trees with ants. On ant-trees, spots were distributed throughout the trees but with higher densities in areas with high ant activity and pheromone densities were higher on twigs compared...

  15. Windthrow and salvage logging in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, K.D.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage logged. Within this former old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest, tree dominance has shifted from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to broad-leaf deciduous species (Ulmus americana, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula alleghaniensis) in both the salvaged and unsalvaged areas. While the biological legacies of pre-disturbance seedlings, saplings, and mature trees were initially more abundant in the unsalvaged area, regeneration through root suckers and stump sprouts was common in both areas. After 25 years, tree basal area, sapling density, shrub layer density, and seedling cover had converged between unsalvaged and salvaged areas. In contrast, understory herb communities differed between salvaged and unsalvaged forest, with salvaged forest containing significantly higher understory herb richness and cover, and greater dominance of species benefiting from disturbance, especially Solidago species. Soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon content, and organic nitrogen content were also significantly higher in the salvaged area. The structural legacy of tip-up microtopography remains more pronounced in the unsalvaged area, with significantly taller tip-up mounds and deeper pits. Mosses and some forest herbs, including Athyrium filix-femina and Hydrophyllum virginianum, showed strong positive responses to this tip-up microrelief, highlighting the importance of these structural legacies for understory biodiversity. In sum, although the pathways of recovery differed, this forest appeared to be as resilient to the compound disturbances of windthrow

  16. Acute hypotension associated with leucocyte depletion filters during cell salvaged blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelakshmi, T R; Eldridge, J

    2010-07-01

    Summary Intra-operative cell salvage is used in more than 75% of NHS hospitals in the United Kingdom and is a safe and cost effective alternative to allogenic blood transfusion. We report a case of acute hypotension during reinfusion of cell salvaged blood through a leucocyte depletion filter that occurred during a caesarean section. We review the literature of hypotension associated with the use of bedside leucocyte depletion filters.

  17. Singular and interactive effects of blowdown, salvage logging, and wildfire in sub-boreal pine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, A.W.; Fraver, S.; Palik, B.J.; Bradford, J.B.; Patty, L.

    2011-01-01

    The role of disturbance in structuring vegetation is widely recognized; however, we are only beginning to understand the effects of multiple interacting disturbances on ecosystem recovery and development. Of particular interest is the impact of post-disturbance management interventions, particularly in light of the global controversy surrounding the effects of salvage logging on forest ecosystem recovery. Studies of salvage logging impacts have focused on the effects of post-disturbance salvage logging within the context of a single natural disturbance event. There have been no formal evaluations of how these effects may differ when followed in short sequence by a second, high severity natural disturbance. To evaluate the impact of this management practice within the context of multiple disturbances, we examined the structural and woody plant community responses of sub-boreal Pinus banksiana systems to a rapid sequence of disturbances. Specifically, we compared responses to Blowdown (B), Fire (F), Blowdown-Fire, and Blowdown-Salvage-Fire (BSF) and compared these to undisturbed control (C) stands. Comparisons between BF and BSF indicated that the primary effect of salvage logging was a decrease in the abundance of structural legacies, such as downed woody debris and snags. Both of these compound disturbance sequences (BF and BSF), resulted in similar woody plant communities, largely dominated by Populus tremuloides; however, there was greater homogeneity in community composition in salvage logged areas. Areas experiencing solely fire (F stands) were dominated by P. banksiana regeneration, and blowdown areas (B stands) were largely characterized by regeneration from shade tolerant conifer species. Our results suggest that salvage logging impacts on woody plant communities are diminished when followed by a second high severity disturbance; however, impacts on structural legacies persist. Provisions for the retention of snags, downed logs, and surviving trees as part

  18. Salvage felling in the Slovak forests in the period 2004–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunca Andrej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Salvage felling is one of the indicators of the forest health quality and stability. Most of the European Union countries monitor forest harmful agents, which account for salvage felling, in order to see trends or functionality between factors and to be able to predict their development. The systematic evidence of forest harmful agents and volume of salvage felling in Slovakia started at the Forest Research Institute in Zvolen in 1960. The paper focuses on the occurrence of the most relevant harmful agents and volume of salvage felling in the Slovak forests over the last decade. Within the 10 years period (2004–2013 salvage felling in Slovakia reached 42.31 mil. m3 of wood, which was 53.2% of the total felling. Wind and European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus damaged 78.4% of salvage wood, i.e. they were the most important pest agents. Norway spruce (Picea abies was the most frequently damaged tree species that represented the amount of 35.6 mil. m3 of wood (81.2% of total volume of salvage felling. As Norway spruce grows mostly in mountains, these regions of Central and Northern Slovakia were most affected. At the damaged localities new forests were prevailingly established with regard to suitable ecological conditions for trees, climate change scenarios and if possible, natural regeneration has been preferred. These approaches in forest stand regeneration together with silvicultural and control measures are assumed to gradually decrease the amount of salvage felling over long term perspective.

  19. Foliar uptake of nitrogen from ant fecal droplets: an overlooked service to ant plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkalski, Christian Alexander Stidsen; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Damgaard, Christian Frølund

    2018-01-01

    and subsequently deposited fecal droplets on the seedlings, coffee leaves showed increased levels of 15N and total N compared to control plants without ants. This was evident for both exposed leaves and leaves covered in plastic bags (i.e. not directly exposed to ants). Thus, N from ant excretions was absorbed...

  20. Salvage microdissection testicular sperm extraction after failed conventional testicular sperm extraction in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Takao, Tetsuya; Takada, Shingo; Koga, Minoru; Takeyama, Masami; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Hideki; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2006-04-01

    TESE is considered the best procedure for identifying a tubule for spermatozoa retrieval. This technique improves the SRR to around 50%. However, it has been unclear whether it is useful in patients in whom conventional TESE has failed. We compared the outcome of microdissection TESE in patients in whom conventional TESE failed to that in patients who did not undergo conventional TESE. We also evaluated relations between the outcome of salvage microdissection TESE and the characteristics of previous conventional TESE. A total of 46 patients with nonobstructive azoospermia in whom salvage microdissection TESE was performed after failed conventional TESE were included. Patient characteristics and the SRR were compared between these patients and 134 in whom conventional TESE had not been performed previously. The previous TESE procedure, testicular histology and interval between TESEs were also evaluated. Patient characteristics did not differ significantly between the groups. The microdissection TESE SRR also did not differ significantly between the groups (45.7% vs 44.0%). The possibility of successful spermatozoa retrieval by salvage microdissection TESE remained regardless of the previous failure of any other TESE procedure and regardless of testicular histology. The salvage microdissection TESE SRR was not related to the interval between TESEs. Because salvage microdissection TESE is effective in patients in whom conventional TESE has failed, this option should be made available to them with the understanding that extended followup after salvage microdissection TESE is necessary due to the risk of hypogonadism.

  1. Clinical results for salvage surgery in head and neck carcinoma after chemoradiation or radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Katsuhiro; Makino, Yohjiroh; Nagaoka, Masato; Seino, Youichi; Hama, Takanori; Aoki, Kensuke; Uchida, Mitsuru; Kato, Takakuni

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the post-operative complications of surgical procedures in oral or pharyngeal carcinoma by analyzing and comparing between patients who underwent salvage surgery after chemoradiation and radiation. A retrospective review was performed of 18 patients who underwent salvage surgery and reconstruction after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT group), and another 41 patients who underwent salvage surgery and reconstruction after radiation therapy (RT group). No perioperative deaths or life threatening systemic complications occurred, and all flaps survived completely in both groups. Surgical site infection (SSI) occurred in five patients (12.2%) in the RT group and seven patients (38%) in the CCRT group. SSI other than donor site infection occurred in four patients (9%) in the RT group and four patients (22%) in the CCRT group. The rate of SSI excluding donor site infection did not differ significantly between patients who underwent salvage surgery after CCRT and RT. The rate of donor site infection was higher in the CCRT group than in the RT group (p=0.04). This study showed that salvage surgery after CCRT or RT can be performed safely, without significant morbidity or mortality. However, patients who received CCRT are at risk for major complications caused by minor troubles, and thus reconstruction after salvage surgery should be performed with sufficient care. (author)

  2. Recurrent endometrial cancer after surgery alone: results of salvage radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara; Badzio, Andrzej; Jassem, Jacek

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Postoperative irradiation of endometrial cancer patients decreases the risk of local recurrence but is associated with a number of long-term sequelae. In a proportion of patients, no immediate postoperative radiotherapy is applied and this treatment is introduced only at relapse. The aim of our study was to assess the long-term results of salvage radiotherapy in previously nonirradiated endometrial cancer patients who developed local recurrence, and to evaluate the impact of patient- and treatment-related factors on treatment efficacy. Methods and Materials: We performed a detailed retrospective analysis of 73 endometrial cancer patients given radiotherapy for local recurrence after the initial surgery only. The mean age at diagnosis of the recurrence was 63 years (range, 39-78 years). Median time to recurrence was 11 months (range, 1-19 months). All recurrences were staged with the use of Perez modification of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system for primary vaginal carcinoma. There were five (7%) Stage I patients, 43 (59%) Stage II patients, and 25 (34%) Stage III patients. Forty-four patients (60%) received both external beam irradiation (EBRT) and endovaginal brachytherapy (BRT), 17 (23%) received only BRT, and 12 (17%) received only EBRT. The mean total physical radiation dose was 75.9 Gy (range, 8-130 Gy), and the mean normalized total dose (NTD) calculated on the base of the linear-quadratic model was 86.6 Gy (range, 8.5-171.9 Gy). Median follow-up for alive patients was 8.8 years (range, 3-21 years). The impact of patient-, tumor-, and therapy-related factors on the treatment outcome was evaluated with the use of uni- and multivariate analyses. Results: Three- and 5-year overall survival rates were 33% and 25%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, lower stage of recurrent disease (p < 0.0005), combined EBRT and BRT (p 0.027), higher total radiation dose (p = 0.031), and higher NTD (p = 0.006) were

  3. Hybrid chaotic ant swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuying; Wen Qiaoyan; Li Lixiang; Peng Haipeng

    2009-01-01

    Chaotic ant swarm optimization (CASO) is a powerful chaos search algorithm that is used to find the global optimum solution in search space. However, the CASO algorithm has some disadvantages, such as lower solution precision and longer computational time, when solving complex optimization problems. To resolve these problems, an improved CASO, called hybrid chaotic swarm optimization (HCASO), is proposed in this paper. The new algorithm introduces preselection operator and discrete recombination operator into the CASO; meanwhile it replaces the best position found by own and its neighbors' ants with the best position found by preselection operator and discrete recombination operator in evolution equation. Through testing five benchmark functions with large dimensionality, the experimental results show the new method enhances the solution accuracy and stability greatly, as well as reduces the computational time and computer memory significantly when compared to the CASO. In addition, we observe the results can become better with swarm size increasing from the sensitivity study to swarm size. And we gain some relations between problem dimensions and swam size according to scalability study.

  4. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...

  5. Host specificity and colony impacts of the fire ant pathogen, Solenopsis invicta virus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sanford D; Valles, Steven M; Oi, David H

    2013-09-01

    An understanding of host specificity is essential before pathogens can be used as biopesticides or self-sustaining biocontrol agents. In order to define the host range of the recently discovered Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), we exposed laboratory colonies of 19 species of ants in 14 genera and 4 subfamilies to this virus. Despite extreme exposure during these tests, active, replicating infections only occurred in Solenopsis invicta Buren and hybrid (S. invicta×S. richteri) fire ant colonies. The lack of infections in test Solenopsis geminata fire ants from the United States indicates that SINV-3 is restricted to the saevissima complex of South American fire ants, especially since replicating virus was also found in several field-collected samples of the black imported fire ant, Solenopsis richteri Forel. S. invicta colonies infected with SINV-3 declined dramatically with average brood reductions of 85% or more while colonies of other species exposed to virus remained uninfected and healthy. The combination of high virulence and high host specificity suggest that SINV-3 has the potential for use as either a biopesticide or a self-sustaining biocontrol agent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. High-dose chemotherapy and auto-SCT for relapsed and refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma patients refractory to first-line salvage chemotherapy but responsive to second-line salvage chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Muhammad Shahzad; Maghfoor, Irfan; Elhassan, Tusneem Ahmed M; Akhtar, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Relapsed or primary refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients refractory to first-line salvage chemotherapy (first salvage) and unable to undergo high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplant (auto-SCT) have very poor outcome. Some patients are offered second-line salvage chemotherapy (second salvage), if they are responsive and may receive HDC auto-SCT. We identified 31 patients (18 males, 13 females) from 1996-2012 who received second salvage prior to auto-SCT. Median age at auto-SCT is 22 years. Patients were grouped as (1) relapsed-refractory (Rel:Ref): patients with prior complete response (CR) and on relapse found refractory to first salvage and received second salvage and (2) refractory-refractory (Ref:Ref): patients refractory to both primary treatment and first salvage and received second salvage. Median follow-up is 63 months (18-170). Disease status after second salvage prior to HDC was CR 16 %, partial response (PR) 71 % and stable disease 13 %. After HDC auto-SCT, CR:PR: progressive disease was observed in 18 (58 %): four (12 %): nine (29 %) patients, respectively. Five-year overall survival (OS) for whole group is 57 % (Rel:Ref vs. Ref:Ref, 73 % vs. 48 %, p = 0.48). Progression-free survival (PFS) for whole group is 52 % (Rel:Ref vs. Ref:Ref, 73 % vs. 40 % respectively, p = 0.11). Second-line salvage is a valid approach with no long-term side effects for those HL patients who do not respond to first-line salvage chemotherapy and they can be candidate of HDC and stem cell transplant with a high ORR, the PFS and OS in relapse-refractory and refractory-refractory group of patients.

  7. A cellular automata model for ant trails

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is easy to comprehend the population biology of social insect colonies [11] using the basic principles which affect the formation of the ant trails. ..... [19] M G Deborah, Ant encounters interaction networks and colony behavior (Princeton Univer- sity Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2010). [20] K Nishinari, D Chowdhury and A ...

  8. Why is an Ant's Trail Straight?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This interesting question puzzled the emi- nent theoretical physicist Richard Feynman when he was young. As a boy he did many ingenious and interesting experiments. One of them concerned ants. One day while taking a bath he placed a lump of sugar at one end of the bath tub and waited for an ant to locate it. Feynman ...

  9. The Biochemical Toxin Arsenal from Ant Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Touchard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ants (Formicidae represent a taxonomically diverse group of hymenopterans with over 13,000 extant species, the majority of which inject or spray secretions from a venom gland. The evolutionary success of ants is mostly due to their unique eusociality that has permitted them to develop complex collaborative strategies, partly involving their venom secretions, to defend their nest against predators, microbial pathogens, ant competitors, and to hunt prey. Activities of ant venom include paralytic, cytolytic, haemolytic, allergenic, pro-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and pain-producing pharmacologic activities, while non-toxic functions include roles in chemical communication involving trail and sex pheromones, deterrents, and aggregators. While these diverse activities in ant venoms have until now been largely understudied due to the small venom yield from ants, modern analytical and venomic techniques are beginning to reveal the diversity of toxin structure and function. As such, ant venoms are distinct from other venomous animals, not only rich in linear, dimeric and disulfide-bonded peptides and bioactive proteins, but also other volatile and non-volatile compounds such as alkaloids and hydrocarbons. The present review details the unique structures and pharmacologies of known ant venom proteinaceous and alkaloidal toxins and their potential as a source of novel bioinsecticides and therapeutic agents.

  10. Fungal Adaptations to Mutualistic Life with Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus

    that forage on crude substrates such as insect frass and dry plant material, to large colonies of the leaf-cutting ants with several thousands to several million workers that provide live plant material to their fungus gardens. Leaf-cutting ants are the dominant herbivores of the Neo-tropics, and have a major...

  11. The Biochemical Toxin Arsenal from Ant Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchard, Axel; Aili, Samira R.; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Escoubas, Pierre; Orivel, Jérôme; Nicholson, Graham M.; Dejean, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Ants (Formicidae) represent a taxonomically diverse group of hymenopterans with over 13,000 extant species, the majority of which inject or spray secretions from a venom gland. The evolutionary success of ants is mostly due to their unique eusociality that has permitted them to develop complex collaborative strategies, partly involving their venom secretions, to defend their nest against predators, microbial pathogens, ant competitors, and to hunt prey. Activities of ant venom include paralytic, cytolytic, haemolytic, allergenic, pro-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and pain-producing pharmacologic activities, while non-toxic functions include roles in chemical communication involving trail and sex pheromones, deterrents, and aggregators. While these diverse activities in ant venoms have until now been largely understudied due to the small venom yield from ants, modern analytical and venomic techniques are beginning to reveal the diversity of toxin structure and function. As such, ant venoms are distinct from other venomous animals, not only rich in linear, dimeric and disulfide-bonded peptides and bioactive proteins, but also other volatile and non-volatile compounds such as alkaloids and hydrocarbons. The present review details the unique structures and pharmacologies of known ant venom proteinaceous and alkaloidal toxins and their potential as a source of novel bioinsecticides and therapeutic agents. PMID:26805882

  12. Visual associative learning in wood ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A Sofia D; Buckley, Christopher L; Niven, Jeremy E

    2018-02-07

    Wood ants are a model system for studying visual learning and navigation. They can forage for food and navigate to their nests effectively by forming memories of visual features in their surrounding environment. Previous studies of freely behaving ants have revealed many of the behavioural strategies and environmental features necessary for successful navigation. However, little is known about the exact visual properties of the environment that animals learn or the neural mechanisms that allow them to achieve this. As a first step towards addressing this, we developed a classical conditioning paradigm for visual learning in harnessed wood ants that allows us to control precisely the learned visual cues. In this paradigm, ants are fixed and presented with a visual cue paired with an appetitive sugar reward. Using this paradigm, we found that visual cues learnt by wood ants through Pavlovian conditioning are retained for at least 1 h. Furthermore, we found that memory retention is dependent upon the ants' performance during training. Our study provides the first evidence that wood ants can form visual associative memories when restrained. This classical conditioning paradigm has the potential to permit detailed analysis of the dynamics of memory formation and retention, and the neural basis of learning in wood ants. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Closure of difficult pharyngocutaneous fistula following salvage laryngectomy. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suesada, Nobuko; Sakuraba, Minoru; Nagamatsu, Shogo; Miyamoto, Shimpei; Shinozaki, Takeshi; Hayashi, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    The patient was a 74-year-old man. A total laryngectomy was performed due to recurrence of laryngeal cancer after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Postoperatively, a pharyngocutaneous fistula developed and patch-graft reconstruction using a pectoral major musculocutaneous flap was planned. However, due to expansion of the necrotic area, we needed to perform tubular reconstruction. Nevertheless, infection and pus discharge were observed and a second surgery was performed. Resection and reconstruction at the neck were considered impossible because advanced necrosis was seen at the cervical esophageal stump, and the operative procedure was changed to esophageal resection, gastric pull-up and free jejunum transfer. Although leakage was found at the jejunum-gastric anastomosis site by fluoroscopy on the 14th postoperative day, it disappeared through conservative therapy. In addition, oral ingestion was begun on the 28th postoperative day. At 6 months after the surgery, the patient was able to regularly intake food and no constriction of the tracheostoma was seen. In this case, unexpected expansion of the necrotic area was a significant problem. As for the causes, diminished blood flow to the esophagus due to total thyroidectomy and bilateral paratracheal lymph node dissection, and infection in the surrounding area, along with remarkable tissue damage with CRT were considered possible. In salvage surgery, attention will be necessary in evaluating necrotic range and selection of appropriate reconstructive procedure. (author)

  14. A Salvage Operation for Total Penis Amputation Due to Circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilsev Ince

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Circumcision is one of the most common rituals in Jewish and Islamic cultures. It may also be performed for phimosis correction or the treatment of recurrent balanitis. Although circumcision is considered to be a technically easy and safe surgical procedure with no significant risk, it may lead to severe complications such as necrotizing fasciitis or total penis amputation. In this report, we present a case of penis amputation at two levels occurring with third-degree burns due to electrocautery during circumcision. Although penile replantation was attempted, it was unsuccessful due to burn damage to the veins. After restoration of the functional structures, the penis was buried in the inguinal area by reepithelization to maintain blood circulation. The recovery of the penis was successful. This case is presented as a novel example of groin flap surgery to achieve a functionally and aesthetically acceptable outcome in a salvage operation for a penis with significant traumatic injury, which has not been previously reported in the literature.

  15. Clinical results of salvage surgery in hypopharynx carcinoma after chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Hiroki; Gakibuchi, Masao; Asano, Takayuki; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Youjiro

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of post-operative complications and treatment results of 60 cases of hypopharynx carcinoma receiving laryngo-pharyngo-esophagectomy followed by reconstruction with jejunum after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) from 1997 to 2006 in 6 hospitals was analyzed. The overall complication rate was 57%. There were 3 cases with carotid artery rupture (5%), 4 with jejunum necrosis (6%), 6 with major salivary fistula (10%), 8 with minor salivary fistula (13%), 8 with abscess alone (13%), 3 with trachea stoma necrosis (5%), and 3 with skin flap necrosis (5%). The death rate due to surgical complications was 3% (2/60). When the cases were divided into two groups, namely the cases with fistula and the cases without fistula, the number of days that permitted drinking was 18.1 in the latter and 81.8 in the former. The 5-year overall survival rate among all cases was 37%. We found that salvage surgery after CRT was effective for recurrent cases. These findings suggest that reconstruction with jejunum is a suitable type of operation with better surgical results. Care is required to reduce the incidence of post-operative complications. (author)

  16. Preliminar results of paleontological salvage at Belo Monte Powerplant construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HZ. Tomassi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper some preliminary fossil specimens are presented. They represent a collection sampled by Belo Monte’s Programa de Salvamento do Patrimônio Paleontológico (PSPP, which includes unprecedented invertebrate fauna and fossil vertebrates from Pitinga, Jatapu, Manacapuru, Maecuru e Alter do Chão formations from Amazonas basin, Brazil. The Belo Monte paleontological salvage was able to recover 495 microfossil samples and 1744 macrofossil samples on 30 months of sampling activities, and it is still ongoing. The macrofossils identified are possible plant remains, ichnofossils, graptolites, brachiopods, molluscs, athropods, Agnatha, palynomorphs (miosphores, acritarchs, algae cysts, fungi spores and unidentified types and unidentified fossils. However, deep scientific research is not part of the scope of the program, and this collection must be further studied by researchers who visit Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, where the fossils will be housed. More material will be collected until the end of the program. The collection sampled allows a mosaic composition with the necessary elements to assign, in later papers, taxonomic features which may lead to accurate species identification and palaeoenvironmental interpretations.

  17. Y-12 old salvage yard scrap metal characterization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.M.; Melton, S.G.; Shaw, S.S.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of the Y-12 Old Salvage Yard scrap metal Characterization Study is to make conservative estimates of the quantities of total uranium and the wt % 235 U contained in scrap metal. The original project scope included estimates of thorium, but due to the insignificant quantities found in the yards, thorium was excluded from further analysis. Metal in three of the four Y-12 scrap metal yards were characterized. The scrap metal yard east of the PIDAS fence is managed by the Environmental Restoration Program and therefore was not included in this study. For all Y-12 Plant scrap metal shipments, Waste Transportation, Storage, and Disposal (WTSD) personnel must complete a Request for Authorization to Ship Nuclear Materials, UCN-16409, which requires the grams of total uranium, the wt % 235 U, and the grams of 235 U contained in the shipment. This information is necessary to ensure compliance with Department of Transportation regulations, as well as to ensure that the receiving facility is adhering to its operating license. This characterization study was designed to provide a technical basis for determining these necessary radioactive quantities

  18. Freeze-drying wet digital prints: An option for salvage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juergens, M C; Schempp, N

    2010-01-01

    On the occasion of the collapse of the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne in March 2009 and the ensuing salvage effort, questions were raised about the use of freeze-drying for soaked digital prints, a technique that has not yet been evaluated for these materials. This study examines the effects of immersion, air-drying, drying in a blotter stack, freezing and freeze-drying on 35 samples of major digital printing processes. The samples were examined visually before, during and after testing; evaluation of the results was qualitative. Results show that some prints were already damaged by immersion alone (e.g. bleeding inks and soluble coatings) to the extent that the subsequent choice of drying method made no significant difference any more. For those samples that did survive immersion, air-drying proved to be crucial for water-sensitive prints, since any contact with the wet surface caused serious damage. Less water-sensitive prints showed no damage throughout the entire procedure, regardless of drying method. Some prints on coated media suffered from minor surface disruption up to total delamination of the surface coating due to the formation of ice crystals during shock-freezing. With few exceptions, freeze-drying did not cause additional damage to any of the prints that hadn't already been damaged by freezing. It became clear that an understanding of the process and materials is important for choosing an appropriate drying method.

  19. [Salvage treatments following prostate radiation therapy: role of the urologist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulié, M; Salomon, L

    2014-10-01

    The management of recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy or brachytherapy is non-standardized and rapidly evolving. Local recurrence is observed on average in 30% of cases several years following irradiation. A key challenge is to determine the site of recurrence and imaging (MRI and PET choline) coupled to prostate biopsies are important to confirm the local character. Salvage therapy performed by the urologist can then control the situation. Radical prostatectomy subject to strict technical conditions is one of the most efficient local treatments, however it comes at the cost of significant urinary morbidity; minimally invasive therapies (focused ultrasound and cryotherapy) have also their place in specific indications. Each clinical situation should be discussed in pluridisciplinary meetings integrating the oncologic and functional status at recurrence, the risk/benefit ratio of each treatment, the patient's wishes and probability of survival. Copyright © 2014 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. AntStar: Enhancing Optimization Problems by Integrating an Ant System and A⁎ Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nature-inspired techniques have become valuable to many intelligent systems in different fields of technology and science. Among these techniques, Ant Systems (AS have become a valuable technique for intelligent systems in different fields. AS is a computational system inspired by the foraging behavior of ants and intended to solve practical optimization problems. In this paper, we introduce the AntStar algorithm, which is swarm intelligence based. AntStar enhances the optimization and performance of an AS by integrating the AS and A⁎ algorithm. Applying the AntStar algorithm to the single-source shortest-path problem has been done to ensure the efficiency of the proposed AntStar algorithm. The experimental result of the proposed algorithm illustrated the robustness and accuracy of the AntStar algorithm.

  1. Recurrence analysis of ant activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Marcel Neves

    Full Text Available In this study, we used recurrence quantification analysis (RQA and recurrence plots (RPs to compare the movement activity of individual workers of three ant species, as well as a gregarious beetle species. RQA and RPs quantify the number and duration of recurrences of a dynamical system, including a detailed quantification of signals that could be stochastic, deterministic, or both. First, we found substantial differences between the activity dynamics of beetles and ants, with the results suggesting that the beetles have quasi-periodic dynamics and the ants do not. Second, workers from different ant species varied with respect to their dynamics, presenting degrees of predictability as well as stochastic signals. Finally, differences were found among minor and major caste of the same (dimorphic ant species. Our results underscore the potential of RQA and RPs in the analysis of complex behavioral patterns, as well as in general inferences on animal behavior and other biological phenomena.

  2. Fungal Adaptations to Mutualistic Life with Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini) feed off a fungus they cultivate in a mutualistic symbiosis in underground chambers by providing it substrate they collect outside the colony. The tribe of Attine ants ranges from small colonies of the paleo- and basal Attine species with a few hundred workers...... that forage on crude substrates such as insect frass and dry plant material, to large colonies of the leaf-cutting ants with several thousands to several million workers that provide live plant material to their fungus gardens. Leaf-cutting ants are the dominant herbivores of the Neo-tropics, and have a major...... contribution to cycling of nitrogen and phosphorus in their direct environment and are, furthermore, considered pest species as they have a large impact on human agriculture. These factors make leaf-cutting ants an ideal study subject to better understand the mechanisms that make this mutualistic symbiosis so...

  3. Cryptococcus neoformans carried by Odontomachus bauri ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Santos de Jesus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common causative agent of cryptococcosis worldwide. Although this fungus has been isolated from a variety of organic substrates, several studies suggest that hollow trees constitute an important natural niche for C. neoformans. A previously surveyed hollow of a living pink shower tree (Cassia grandis positive for C. neoformans in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was chosen for further investigation. Odontomachus bauri ants (trap-jaw ants found inside the hollow were collected for evaluation as possible carriers of Cryptococcus spp. Two out of 10 ants were found to carry phenoloxidase-positive colonies identified as C. neoformans molecular types VNI and VNII. The ants may have acted as a mechanical vector of C. neoformans and possibly contributed to the dispersal of the fungi from one substrate to another. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of C. neoformans with ants of the genus Odontomachus.

  4. Discrimination Behavior in the Supercolonial Pharaoh Ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi

    the discrimination behavior of the invasive pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) as a model for other invasive and supercolonial ant species. The pharaoh ant is one of the few ant species that can be reared in the laboratory for many generations. Furthermore, the possibility to do controlled crosses of colonies...... provides the unique opportunity to establish colonies of different genetic composition. These traits make this species a suitable study subject to set up behavioral experiments that aim to investigate which factors, and to which extent, might influence the inter- and intraspecific discrimination abilities...... other compounds. We also developed a new method for centroid calculation that increased the power of the analysis and can therefore be used in future studies that aim to identify nestmate recognition cues in other species. In the fourth chapter I investigated the nest site preference of pharaoh ant...

  5. Effects of definitive and salvage radiotherapy on the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, Eva K.; Gehrmann, Mathias; Sedelmayr, Michael [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schmid, Thomas E.; Combs, Stephanie E.; Multhoff, Gabriele [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); HelmholtzZentrum Muenchen, Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Institute of Innovate Radiotherapy (iRT), Munich (Germany); Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Partner Site Munich, Munich (Germany); Geinitz, Hans [Johannes Kepler University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ordensklinikum Linz, Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern and Medical Faculty, Linz (Austria); Duma, Marciana N. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); HelmholtzZentrum Muenchen, Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Institute of Innovate Radiotherapy (iRT), Munich (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    Radiotherapy (RT) is an established treatment for patients with primary and recurrent prostate cancer. Herein, the effects of definitive and salvage RT on the composition of lymphocyte subpopulations were investigated in patients with prostate cancer to study potential immune effects. A total of 33 prostate cancer patients were treated with definitive (n = 10) or salvage RT (n = 23) after biochemical relapse. The absolute number of lymphocytes and the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by multiparameter flow cytometry before RT, at the end of RT, and in the follow-up period. Absolute lymphocyte counts decreased significantly after RT in both patient groups and a significant drop was observed in the percentage of B cells directly after RT from 10.1 ± 1.3 to 6.0 ± 0.7% in patients with definitive RT and from 9.2 ± 0.8 to 5.8 ± 0.7% in patients with salvage RT. In contrast, the percentages of T and natural killer (NK) cells remained unaltered directly after RT in both patient groups. However, 1 year after RT, the percentage of CD3{sup +} T cells was significantly lower in patients with definitive and salvage RT. The percentage of regulatory T cells was slightly upregulated in primary prostate cancer patients after definitive RT, but not after salvage RT. Definitive and salvage RT exert similar effects on the composition of lymphocyte subpopulations in prostate cancer patients. Total lymphocyte counts are lower in both patient groups compared to healthy controls and further decreased after RT. B cells are more sensitive to definitive and salvage RT than T and NK cells. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlentherapie (RT) ist eine bewaehrte Behandlung beim primaeren und rezidivierten Prostatakarzinoms. In dieser Studie wurde der Einfluss einer definitiven und Salvage RT auf die Zusammensetzung der Lymphozytensubpopulationen verglichen, um potenzielle Immuneffekte einer RT zu analysieren. In die Studie wurden 33 Prostatakarzinompatienten eingeschlossen

  6. Diaspore trait preferences of dispersing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenrath, Kerstin; Becker, Christine; Poethke, Hans Joachim

    2012-09-01

    Elaiosomes of myrmecochorous plant seeds are known to enhance the attraction of diaspore-dispersing ants by serving as a nutritional reward. However, it remained unclear which (nutritional) compounds affect diaspore preferences of ants. We hypothesized that apart from elaiosome/seed-size ratio, volume, and physical surface of diaspores, the quantity and the composition of fatty acids, amino acids, and sugars strongly influence the diaspore preferences of different species. Chemical (nutritional) profiles as well as structural properties of seeds with and without elaiosomes were analyzed and correlated with observed seed choice behavior of ants. Cafeteria experiments in the field confirmed the enhanced attractiveness of elaiosome-bearing seeds for all three ant species tested (Lasius fuliginosus, Myrmica ruginodis, and Temnothorax nylanderi), although seeds lacking elaiosomes also were transported. In multiple-choice cafeteria experiments with simultaneously offered diaspores of 16 plant species with and without elaiosome and with highly varying structural and chemical properties, all three ant species showed distinct preferences for certain diaspore species. Correlation analyses confirmed that the presence of an elaiosome represents the crucial factor that favors ant diaspore dispersal. In addition, the composition and the content of free amino acids, and to varying degrees fatty acids, were found to significantly affect preferences of each ant species, whereas the effect of single fatty acids acting as chemical triggers for diaspore transport by ants, as supposed by several studies, was not confirmed. In conclusion, although at least some diaspore species lacking elaiosomes attract ants for diaspore removal services by presenting nutritional seed coats, the production of elaiosomes seems to provide a worthwhile investment. Elaiosomes ensure rapid diaspore detection and removal due to chemical cue compounds and by offering a highly nutritional food supply, probably

  7. Potential for water salvage by removal of non-native woody vegetation from dryland river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, T.M.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Moore, G.W.; Morino, K.; Hultine, K.R.; Benyon, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Globally, expansion of non-native woody vegetation across floodplains has raised concern of increased evapotranspiration (ET) water loss with consequent reduced river flows and groundwater supplies. Water salvage programs, established to meet water supply demands by removing introduced species, show little documented evidence of program effectiveness. We use two case studies in the USA and Australia to illustrate factors that contribute to water salvage feasibility for a given ecological setting. In the USA, saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) has become widespread on western rivers, with water salvage programs attempted over a 50-year period. Some studies document riparian transpiration or ET reduction after saltcedar removal, but detectable increases in river base flow are not conclusively shown. Furthermore, measurements of riparian vegetation ET in natural settings show saltcedar ET overlaps the range measured for native riparian species, thereby constraining the possibility of water salvage by replacing saltcedar with native vegetation. In Australia, introduced willows (Salix spp.) have become widespread in riparian systems in the Murray-Darling Basin. Although large-scale removal projects have been undertaken, no attempts have been made to quantify increases in base flows. Recent studies of ET indicate that willows growing in permanently inundated stream beds have high transpiration rates, indicating water savings could be achieved from removal. In contrast, native Eucalyptus trees and willows growing on stream banks show similar ET rates with no net water salvage from replacing willows with native trees. We conclude that water salvage feasibility is highly dependent on the ecohydrological setting in which the non-native trees occur. We provide an overview of conditions favorable to water salvage. Copyright ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Salvage surgery following radiation failure in squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, James T.; Mendenhall, William M.; Stringer, Scott P.; Cassisi, Nicholas J.; Million, Rodney R.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: We analyzed the clinical course of patients who developed local (primary) recurrence following high-dose irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx. Methods and Materials: Between October 1964 and July 1991, 206 patients with previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx underwent radiotherapy with curative intent. Local failure occurred in 46 (22%) patients. Successful surgical salvage was defined as no evidence of recurrent cancer for at least 2 years after salvage surgery and continuously thereafter. Results: Sixteen patients did not undergo salvage surgery because of refusal (7 patients), severe medical illness (2 patients), concurrent distant metastasis (5 patients), or unresectable neck disease (2 patients). Twenty-six patients underwent total laryngectomy, and 4 patients had a voice-sparing procedure. Successful salvage was achieved in 50% of patients who underwent surgery. The rate of successful salvage did not correlate with preirradiation T-stage or time to failure after irradiation. Most of the failures after surgery were because of failure to control the primary cancer. The overall rate of postsurgical complications was 37%. No operative or perioperative deaths occurred. The 5-year survival rate for all 46 patients, calculated from the date of irradiation failure, was 20%, while the 5-year survival rate after salvage surgery for the 30 patients who underwent the procedure was 29%. Conclusion: There are few data in the literature regarding the clinical outcome in patients whose tumors are not controlled by initial radiotherapy. In the current and previous series, one-half to two-thirds of patients who developed primary failure underwent salvage surgery, which was successful in approximately half of the operated patients, leading to a 25-30% rate of long-term disease-free survival among the entire group of patients who developed failure

  9. Risk factors predicting the outcome of salvage radiotherapy in patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Shimizu, Yosuke; Mizowaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Salvage radiotherapy is the only curative treatment for patients with prostate cancer showing biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy. In this study, we evaluated the clinicopathological parameters that influence the outcome of salvage radiotherapy. Medical records of 49 patients who underwent salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy from 1997 to 2008 at the Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, were retrospectively reviewed. Radiotherapy was carried out with 66 Gy on the prostatic bed. Biochemical progression-free survival after salvage radiotherapy at 2, 5 and 7 years was 51.0%, 42.2% and 42.2%, respectively. Significant parameters predicting biochemical progression after salvage radiotherapy by Cox regression analysis were prostatectomy Gleason score sum ≥8 (hazard ratio 0.08; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.22; P=0.001), prostate-specific antigen nadir after radical prostatectomy ≥0.04 ng/mL (hazard ratio 0.30; 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.69; P=0.005) and negative surgical margin (hazard ratio 0.28; 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.70; P=0.006). When the patients were subgrouped by these risk factors, the 5-year progression-free survival rates after salvage radiotherapy were 77.8%, 50.0% and 6.7% in patients with 0, 1 and ≥2 predictors, respectively. In order to discriminate favorable candidates for salvage radiotherapy, Gleason score of prostatectomy, prostate-specific antigen nadir after prostatectomy and positive surgical margin represent independent predictors. Thus, progression-free survival might be more precisely predicted according to the presence/absence of these risk factors. The significance of this risk classification should be confirmed by large prospective studies. (author)

  10. Individual Recognition in Ant Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Heinze, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Personal relationships are the cornerstone of vertebrate societies, but insect societies are either too large for individual recognition, or their members were assumed to lack the necessary cognitive abilities 1 and 2 . This paradigm has been challenged by the recent discovery that paper wasps...... recognize each other's unique facial color patterns [3] . Individual recognition is advantageous when dominance hierarchies control the partitioning of work and reproduction 2 and 4 . Here, we show that unrelated founding queens of the ant Pachycondyla villosa use chemical cues to recognize each other...... perception, was prevented and in tests with anaesthetized queens. The cuticular chemical profiles of queens were neither associated with dominance nor fertility and, therefore, do not represent status badges 5 and 6 , and nestmate queens did not share a common odor. Personal recognition facilitates...

  11. Michael Jackson antes del caos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luciano Nieves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael Jackson es un buen ejemplo de cómo utilizar las relaciones públicas para realizar o manipular la imagen de un producto a través de los medios de comunicación. Este ensayo pretende analizar los eventos que tuvieron lugar antes de que el cantante fuera acusado de abuso sexual contra un menor. Dichos eventos formaron parte de un plan muy bien delineado para disminuir los efectos de la inminente crisis que se acercaba. Este trabajo combina la crítica retórica de temas de fantasía con teoría de comunicación.

  12. Differential Recruitment of Camponotus femoratus (Fabricius) Ants in Response to Ant Garden Herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, R E; Dáttilo, W; Izzo, T J

    2014-12-01

    Although several studies have shown that ants can recognize chemical cues from their host plants in ant-plant systems, it is poorly demonstrated in ant gardens (AGs). In this interaction, ant species constantly interact with various epiphyte species. Therefore, it is possible to expect a convergence of chemical signals released by plants that could be acting to ensure that ants are able to recognize and defend epiphyte species frequently associated with AGs. In this study, it was hypothesized that ants recognize and differentiate among chemical stimuli released by AG epiphytes and non-AG epiphytes. We experimentally simulated leaf herbivore damage on three epiphyte species restricted to AGs and a locally abundant understory herb, Piper hispidum, in order to quantify the number of recruited Camponotus femoratus (Fabricius) defenders. When exposed to the AG epiphytes Peperomia macrostachya and Codonanthe uleana leaves, it was observed that the recruitment of C. femoratus workers was, on average, respectively 556% and 246% higher than control. However, the number of ants recruited by the AG epiphyte Markea longiflora or by the non-AG plant did not differ from paper pieces. This indicated that ants could discern between chemicals released by different plants, suggesting that ants can select better plants. These results can be explained by evolutionary process acting on both ants' capability in discerning plants' chemical compounds (innate attraction) or by ants' learning based on the epiphyte frequency in AGs (individual experience). To disentangle an innate behavior, a product of classical coevolutionary process, from an ant's learned behavior, is a complicated but important subject to understand in the evolution of ant-plant mutualisms.

  13. How to be an ant on figs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Anthony; Harrison, Rhett D.; Schatz, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    Mutualistic interactions are open to exploitation by one or other of the partners and a diversity of other organisms, and hence are best understood as being embedded in a complex network of biotic interactions. Figs participate in an obligate mutualism in that figs are dependent on agaonid fig wasps for pollination and the wasps are dependent on fig ovules for brood sites. Ants are common insect predators and abundant in tropical forests. Ants have been recorded on approximately 11% of fig species, including all six subgenera, and often affect the fig-fig pollinator interaction through their predation of either pollinating and parasitic wasps. On monoecious figs, ants are often associated with hemipterans, whereas in dioecious figs ants predominantly prey on fig wasps. A few fig species are true myrmecophytes, with domatia or food rewards for ants, and in at least one species this is linked to predation of parasitic fig wasps. Ants also play a role in dispersal of fig seeds and may be particularly important for hemi-epiphytic species, which require high quality establishment microsites in the canopy. The intersection between the fig-fig pollinator and ant-plant systems promises to provide fertile ground for understanding mutualistic interactions within the context of complex interaction networks.

  14. Collective search by ants in microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M. Countryman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of collective search is a tradeoff between searching thoroughly and covering as much area as possible. This tradeoff depends on the density of searchers. Solutions to the problem of collective search are currently of much interest in robotics and in the study of distributed algorithms, for example to design ways that without central control robots can use local information to perform search and rescue operations. Ant colonies operate without central control. Because they can perceive only local, mostly chemical and tactile cues, they must search collectively to find resources and to monitor the colony's environment. Examining how ants in diverse environments solve the problem of collective search can elucidate how evolution has led to diverse forms of collective behavior. An experiment on the International Space Station in January 2014 examined how ants (Tetramorium caespitum perform collective search in microgravity. In the ISS experiment, the ants explored a small arena in which a barrier was lowered to increase the area and thus lower ant density. In microgravity, relative to ground controls, ants explored the area less thoroughly and took more convoluted paths. It appears that the difficulty of holding on to the surface interfered with the ants’ ability to search collectively. Ants frequently lost contact with the surface, but showed a remarkable ability to regain contact with the surface.

  15. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Simulation and Analysis of Passive Rolling Compensation of High Sea Salvage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liqun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Method and device of a flexible interception and salvage system was introduced in this paper. In order to study the effect of wave motion on salvage operation, we proposed a passive wave compensation scheme that utilizes a combination of variable-pitch cylinders and accumulators, and established the mathematical vibration model of the rolling motion of the salvage compensation system. With the relationships between the stiffness coefficient and the accumulator parametric of passive compensated gas-liquid system, we determined the effective compensation stiffness range through Mathematica simulation analysis. The relationship between the roll displacement of the salvage arm and the initial volume Vo of the accumulator has been analysed. The results show that the accumulatorVo in a certain range has a great influence on the passive compensation. However, when the volume is greater than 20m3, the compensation effect is weakened, and tend to a certain value, irrespective of the passive system accumulator volume capacity, it does not achieve full compensation. The results have important guidance on the design and optimization of rolling passive compensation of the practical high sea salvage system.

  17. Imaging of limb salvage surgery and pelvic reconstruction following resection of malignant bone tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Tien Jin, E-mail: tien_jin_tan@cgh.com.sg [Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Aljefri, Ahmad M. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Clarkson, Paul W.; Masri, Bassam A. [Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Ouellette, Hugue A.; Munk, Peter L.; Mallinson, Paul I. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Advances in reconstructive orthopaedic techniques now allow for limb salvage and prosthetic reconstruction procedures to be performed on patients who would otherwise be required to undergo debilitating limb amputations for malignant bone tumours. • The resulting post-operative imaging of such cases can be daunting for the radiologist to interpret, particularly in the presence of distorted anatomy and unfamiliar hardware. • This article reviews the indications for limb salvage surgery, prosthetic reconstruction devices involved, expected post-operative imaging findings, as well as the potential hardware related complications that may be encountered in the management of such cases. • By being aware of the various types of reconstructive techniques used in limb salvage surgery as well as the potential complications, the reporting radiologist should possess greater confidence in making an accurate assessment of the expected post-operative imaging findings in the management of such cases. - Abstract: Advances in reconstructive orthopaedic techniques now allow for limb salvage and prosthetic reconstruction procedures to be performed on patients who would otherwise be required to undergo debilitating limb amputations for malignant bone tumours. The resulting post-operative imaging of such cases can be daunting for the radiologist to interpret, particularly in the presence of distorted anatomy and unfamiliar hardware. This article reviews the indications for limb salvage surgery, prosthetic reconstruction devices involved, expected post-operative imaging findings, as well as the potential hardware related complications that may be encountered in the management of such cases.

  18. Role of dose intensification for salvage radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eBeck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For primary radiation therapy of prostate cancer dose intensification is established as standard of care. Less is known on the role of dose intensification in the post-prostatectomy setting for salvage radiation therapy. Thus, we aimed to identify and summarize the existing literature. In retrospective analyses dose intensified salvage radiation therapy showed a superior biochemical control compared to standard dose salvage radiation with favorable acute and late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity rates, especially when modern radiation techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy were applied. We identified one randomized phase III trial addressing the potential benefits of dose intensified salvage radiation therapy (SAKK 09/10. Recently, acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities and early quality of life data of this trial were reported and no significant difference in acute toxicities between both treatment arms were found; however, a significant worsening of genitourinary quality of life was noted in the dose intensified treatment arm. Whereas dose intensified salvage radiation therapy appears to be feasible and well tolerated, the improved biochemical control rates using dose intensified radiation therapy as suggested by retrospective analyses have yet to be validated by prospective trials.

  19. Immune defense in leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armitage, Sophie A O; Broch, Jens F; Marín, Hermogenes Fernández

    2011-01-01

    -fostering experiment designed to address the influences of genotype and social rearing environment upon individual and social immune defenses. We used a multiply mating leaf-cutting ant, enabling us to test for patriline effects within a colony, as well as cross-colony matriline effects. The worker's father influenced...... social defense, a Pseudonocardia bacteria that helps to control pathogens in the ants' fungus garden, showed a significant colony of origin by rearing environment interaction, whereby ants that acquired the bacteria of a foster colony obtained a less abundant cover of bacteria: one explanation...

  20. Salvage whole brain radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery after initial stereotactic radiosurgery for 1-4 brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yufei; Alexander, Brian M; Chen, Yu-Hui; Horvath, Margaret C; Aizer, Ayal A; Claus, Elizabeth B; Dunn, Ian F; Golby, Alexandra J; Johnson, Mark D; Friesen, Scott; Mannarino, Edward G; Wagar, Matthew; Hacker, Fred L; Arvold, Nils D

    2015-09-01

    Patients with limited brain metastases are often candidates for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Among patients who receive SRS, the likelihood and timing of salvage WBRT or SRS remains unclear. We examined rates of salvage WBRT or SRS among 180 patients with 1-4 newly diagnosed brain metastases who received index SRS from 2008-2013. Competing risks multivariable analysis was used to examine factors associated with time to WBRT. Patients had non-small cell lung (53 %), melanoma (23 %), breast (10 %), renal (6 %), or other (8 %) cancers. Median age was 62 years. Patients received index SRS to 1 (60 %), 2 (21 %), 3 (13 %), or 4 (7 %) brain metastases. Median survival after SRS was 9.7 months (range, 0.3-67.6 months). No further brain-directed radiotherapy was delivered after index SRS in 55 % of patients. Twenty-seven percent of patients ever received salvage WBRT, and 30 % ever received salvage SRS; 12 % of patients received both salvage WBRT and salvage SRS. Median time to salvage WBRT or salvage SRS were 5.6 and 6.1 months, respectively. Age ≤60 years (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 2.80; 95 % CI 1.05-7.51; P = 0.04) and controlled/absent extracranial disease (AHR = 6.76; 95 % CI 1.60-28.7; P = 0.01) were associated with shorter time to salvage WBRT. Isolated brain progression caused death in only 11 % of decedents. In summary, most patients with 1-4 brain metastases receiving SRS never require salvage WBRT or SRS, and the remainder do not require salvage treatment for a median of 6 months.

  1. Ant-nest soil and seedling growth in a neotropical ant-dispersed herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvitz, Carol C; Schemske, Douglas W

    1986-09-01

    A major hypothesis concerning the benefits of myrmecochory, seed dispersal by ants, to plants is that ant nests are nutrient-enriched microsites that are beneficial to seedling growth. We experimentally test this hypothesis for a neotropical myrmecochore, Calathea ovandensis, asking two questions: 1) is soil of nests of a seed-dispersing ant chemically or structurally distinct from surrounding soils, and 2) do seedlings grow better in soil collected from ant nests than in randomly collected soil? We found that although ant-nest soil was significantly enriched in nitrate-nitrogen, magnesium, iron, manganese, cadmium and percent organic matter compared to randomly collected soil, seedling growth was not significantly improved by ant-nest soil.

  2. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  3. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  4. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  5. What do myrmecophagous geckos eat when ants are not available ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like other Pristurus species, P. samhaensis on Samha and P. sokotranus on Socotra were highly myrmecophagous (76.7% and 38.6% ants, respectively). However, ants were absent from the diet of P. samhaensis on Darsa. In contrast to the rich native ant fauna of the other islands, only one ant species was reported for ...

  6. Stealthy invaders: the biology of Cardiocondyla tramp ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinze, J.; Cremer, Sylvia; Eckl, N.

    2006-01-01

    Many invasive ant species, such as the Argentine ant or the red imported fire ant, have huge colonies with thousands of mass-foraging workers, which quickly monopolise resources and therefore represent a considerable threat to the native ant fauna. Cardiocondyla obscurior and several other species...

  7. Genotypic and phenotypic nevirapine resistance correlates with virological failure during salvage therapy including abacavir and nevirapine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L.B.; Katzenstein, T.L.; Gerstoft, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the development of resistance during 8 weeks of salvage therapy with abacavir and nevirapine in combination with other reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs). METHODS: Samples obtained at baseline and after 8 weeks of therapy from 16 heavily...... and after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of therapy. RESULTS: The majority of patients was genotypically and phenotypically resistant to lamivudine, abacavir, zidovudine and PIs, whereas 50% of the patients showed resistance to nevirapine at baseline in at least one of the methods used. After 8 weeks of salvage therapy...... higher transient reduction in viral load was observed in patients with nevirapine-sensitive HIV at baseline compared to patients with resistant HIV at baseline. CONCLUSION: The transient effect of salvage therapy including abacavir and nevirapine was due to the effect of nevirapine. The lack of effect...

  8. Salvage chemotherapy with taxane and platinum for women with recurrent uterine carcinosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koji; Ross, Malcolm S; Yunokawa, Mayu; Johnson, Marian S; Machida, Hiroko; Omatsu, Kohei; Klobocista, Merieme M; Im, Dwight D; Satoh, Shinya; Baba, Tsukasa; Ikeda, Yuji; Bush, Stephen H; Hasegawa, Kosei; Blake, Erin A; Takekuma, Munetaka; Shida, Masako; Nishimura, Masato; Adachi, Sosuke; Pejovic, Tanja; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Takuhei; Ueda, Yutaka; Iwasaki, Keita; Miyake, Takahito M; Yanai, Shiori; Nagano, Tadayoshi; Takano, Tadao; Shahzad, Mian M K; Ueland, Frederick R; Kelley, Joseph L; Roman, Lynda D

    2017-12-01

    To examine survival after recurrence (SAR) among women with recurrent uterine carcinosarcoma who received a taxane/platinum doublet as the first-line salvage chemotherapy. We retrospectively examined 148 women with recurrent uterine carcinosarcoma who received salvage chemotherapy within a cohort of 906 uterine carcinosarcomas. An independent association of salvage chemotherapy type and SAR was examined with multivariate analysis. There were 71 (48.0%) women who received a taxane/platinum regimen. On univariate analysis, women who received a taxane/platinum doublet had a higher 2-year SAR rate compared to women who received non-taxane/platinum regimens (55.5% versus 34.8%, Pcarcinosarcoma, especially for those who had a disease-free interval of ≥6months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Low success rate of salvage surgery for testicular torsion in newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rie Overgaard; Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Rasmussen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Testicular torsion within the first 30 days of life is rare. The treatment is controversial, and the prognosis for testis viability varies from 0 to 40% in the literature. The aim of this study was to review our institutional results for surgery for testicular torsion in the neonatal...... period with a special focus on salvage surgery. METHODS: Patient records were reviewed for all children in the age up to 30 days who were operated for testicular torsion at our hospital during the past 20 years. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients were included, two with bilateral affection. Emergency...... was only salvaged in cases with urgent surgery at symptom recognition. Cases that presented within the first day of life resulted in a non-salvageable testis despite emergency surgery. The reason may be prenatal torsion. Doctor's delay was common for this rare disease. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL...

  10. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  11. Quantum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.

  12. Discrimination Behavior in the Supercolonial Pharaoh Ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontieri, Luigi

    an increasing need to understand which factors promote the ecological dominance of these species, and particularly how the discrimination of both conspecifics and heterospecifics (including parasites) might influence structure and ecological success of invasive populations. In this PhD thesis I investigated...... the discrimination behavior of the invasive pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) as a model for other invasive and supercolonial ant species. The pharaoh ant is one of the few ant species that can be reared in the laboratory for many generations. Furthermore, the possibility to do controlled crosses of colonies...... provides the unique opportunity to establish colonies of different genetic composition. These traits make this species a suitable study subject to set up behavioral experiments that aim to investigate which factors, and to which extent, might influence the inter- and intraspecific discrimination abilities...

  13. Kunstikriitik Ants Juske sai doktoriks / Neeme Korv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Korv, Neeme, 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Tartu Kõrgema Kunstikooli rektor Ants Juske kaitses 7. veebruaril Tallinnas Kunstiakadeemias edukalt doktoriväitekirja, juhendajaks oli professor Boris Bernštein ning oponeerisid doktor Altti Kuusamo Soomest ja professor Peeter Tulviste

  14. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Induced by Fire Ant Bites

    OpenAIRE

    Mallepalli, Jyothi R.; Quinet, Robert J.; Sus, Rachana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of eosinophilic fasciitis likely related to proximate fire ant bites and review the literature to summarize the etiology and clinical, laboratory, histopathological, and therapeutic aspects of eosinophilic fasciitis.

  15. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A.

    2013-01-01

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated...... parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few...... guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit...

  16. Muscle type-specific responses to NAD+ salvage biosynthesis promote muscle function in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrablik, Tracy L; Wang, Wenqing; Upadhyay, Awani; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2011-01-15

    Salvage biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) from nicotinamide (NAM) lowers NAM levels and replenishes the critical molecule NAD(+) after it is hydrolyzed. This pathway is emerging as a regulator of multiple biological processes. Here we probe the contribution of the NAM-NAD(+) salvage pathway to muscle development and function using Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans males with mutations in the nicotinamidase pnc-1, which catalyzes the first step of this NAD(+) salvage pathway, cannot mate due to a spicule muscle defect. Multiple muscle types are impaired in the hermaphrodites, including body wall muscles, pharyngeal muscles and vulval muscles. An active NAD(+) salvage pathway is required for optimal function of each muscle cell type. However, we found surprising muscle-cell-type specificity in terms of both the timing and relative sensitivity to perturbation of NAD(+) production or NAM levels. Active NAD(+) biosynthesis during development is critical for function of the male spicule protractor muscles during adulthood, but these muscles can surprisingly do without salvage biosynthesis in adulthood under the conditions examined. The body wall muscles require ongoing NAD(+) salvage biosynthesis both during development and adulthood for maximum function. The vulval muscles do not function in the presence of elevated NAM concentrations, but NAM supplementation is only slightly deleterious to body wall muscles during development or upon acute application in adults. Thus, the pathway plays distinct roles in different tissues. As NAM-NAD(+) biosynthesis also impacts muscle differentiation in vertebrates, we propose that similar complexities may be found among vertebrate muscle cell types. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. De novo and salvage pathway precursor incorporation during DNA replication at the nuclear matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzeter, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    Total nuclear DNA can be empirically subdivided into low salt-soluble (LS) DNA (75-80%), high salt-soluble (HS) DNA (18-23%), and nuclear matrix-associated (NM) DNA which remains tightly bound to the nuclear matrix (∼2%). The most-newly replicated DNA is that associated with the nuclear matrix in regenerating rat liver. Analyses of the DNA fractions after various pulse times revealed that the salvage and de novo pathway DNA precursors investigated were incorporated preferentially into NM-DNA at early pulse times, after which the radioactivity became progressively incorporated into HS- and LS-DNA, respectively. These results support two models of nuclear matrix-associated DNA replication, proposed previously, and a third model presented in this dissertation. In addition, the incorporation of de novo pathway precursors lagged significantly (> 10 minutes) behind the incorporation of precursors entering through the salvage pathway. Channeling of salvage pathway precursors to DNA replication sites would explain the more rapid uptake of salvage precursors into NM-DNA than de novo precursors. To investigate the possibility of this heretofore in vitro phenomenon, the incorporation of the salvage precursor, ( 3 H)deoxythymidine, and the de novo precursor, ( 14 C)orotic acid, into NM-DNA and dTTP was examined in regenerating rat liver. There was no significant difference between the incorporation pattern of ( 14 C)orotic acid into NM-DNA thymine and that of ( 14 C)orotic acid into soluble dTTP. Contrastingly, the salvage pathway precursor, ( 3 H)deoxythymidine, labeled NM-DNA before labeling the dTTP pool

  18. Treatment results of adjuvant radiotherapy and salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadasaki, Koichi; Kaneyasu, Yuko; Kenjo, Masahiro; Matsuura, Kanji; Murakami, Yuji; Hashimoto, Yasutoshi; Ito, Katsuhide; Kiriu, Hiroshi; Ito, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    The indications for and the efficacy of radiation therapy after radical operation for patients with prostate cancer are not clear. We analyzed the treatment results of adjuvant radiotherapy and salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy. Between September 1997 and November 2004, 57 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy or salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy. Fifteen patients received radiation therapy because of positive margins and/or extracapsular invasion in surgical specimens (adjuvant group). Forty-two patients received radiation therapy because of rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) during follow-up (salvage group). Radiation therapy was delivered to the fossa of the prostate±seminal vesicles by a three-dimensional (3-D) conformal technique to a total dose of 60-66 Gy (median, 60 Gy). Biochemical control was defined as the maintenance of a PSA level of less than 0.2 ng/ml. The median follow-up period after radiation therapy was 33 months (range, 12-98 months). Three-year biochemical control rates were 87% for the adjuvant group and 61% for the salvage group. For patients in the salvage group treated without hormone therapy, the preradiation PSA value was the most significant factor for the biochemical control rate. The 3-year biochemical control rate was 93% in patients whose preradiation PSA was 0.5 ng/ml or less and 29% in patients whose preradiation PSA was more than 0.5 ng/ml. No severe adverse effects (equal to or more than grade 3) were seen in treated patients. Radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy seemed to be effective for adjuvant therapy and for salvage therapy in patients with a preradiation PSA of 0.5 ng/ml or less. Also, radiation to the fossa of the prostate±seminal vesicles, to a total dose of 60-66 Gy, using a three-dimensional (3-D) conformal technique, seemed to be safe. (author)

  19. [Independent factors related to limb salvage and survival in distal angioplasty for critical ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana; Sampaio, Sérgio; Cerqueira, Alfredo; Teixeira, José

    2013-01-01

    Infragenicular multisegmentar atherosclerotic disease is prevalent in diabetic and chronic renal failure (CRF) patients and associated with critical ischemia ulcera related. Distal angioplasty revascularization is an option allowing wound healing and improvement of life quality. Objectives Identification and impact determination of independent factors related to limb salvage and mortality in patients submitted to distal angioplasty. Between January 2010 and December 2012, 31 balloon angioplasties were performed in 25 patients with critical limb ischemia. Overall survival and limb salvage were determined by Kaplan- Meier analysis. Independent impact on the "primary endpoints" factors was evaluated using log rank test or Cox regression. The rate of complications and reintervention was analyzed. Mean age was 68 ± 11 years, 17 diabetic patients (68%) and 9 patients on hemodialysis (36 %). Mean follow-up was 380 days. Mean C-reactive protein was 75 mg / L. Overall survival was 97, 88 and 74 % at 3, 6 and 12 months, and remained stable at last observation. The limb salvage was 67 % at 3 months, 55 % at 6 months and 30 % at last observation. Diabetic and ASA 2 patients had a more satisfactory last observation limb salvage, respectively 61 and 75%, p value close to significance. There was statistically significant relationship between mortality and CRF (p = 0.004). One non-succeded reintervention occurred and there was one transient post contrast renal acute failure. In this sample, although survival is high, long term limb salvage is low justified by the very sick population and anatomical issues. ASA classification and diabetes can be an additional prognostic factor of limb salvage.

  20. Salvage Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Following In-Field Failure of Initial SBRT for Spinal Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Isabelle; Campbell, Mikki; Tseng, Chia-Lin; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Letourneau, Daniel; Yu, Eugene; Cho, B C John; Lee, Young K; Fehlings, Michael G; Sahgal, Arjun

    2015-10-01

    We report our experience in salvaging spinal metastases initially irradiated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), who subsequently progressed with imaging-confirmed local tumor progression, and were re-irradiated with a salvage second SBRT course to the same level. From a prospective database, 56 metastatic spinal segments in 40 patients were identified as having been irradiated with a salvage second SBRT course to the same level. In addition, 24 of 56 (42.9%) segments had initially been irradiated with conventional external beam radiation therapy before the first course of SBRT. Local control (LC) was defined as no progression on magnetic resonance imaging at the treated segment, and calculated according to the competing risk model. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated for each patient treated by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. The median salvage second SBRT total dose and number of fractions was 30 Gy in 4 fractions (range, 20-35 Gy in 2-5 fractions), and for the first course of SBRT was 24 Gy in 2 fractions (range, 20-35 Gy in 1-5 fractions). The median follow-up time after salvage second SBRT was 6.8 months (range, 0.9-39 months), the median OS was 10.0 months, and the 1-year OS rate was 48%. A longer time interval between the first and second SBRT courses predicted for better OS (P=.02). The crude LC was 77% (43/56), the 1-year LC rate was 81%, and the median time to local failure was 3.0 months (range, 2.7-16.7 months). Of the 13 local failures, 85% (11/13) and 46% (6/13) showed progression within the epidural space and paraspinal soft tissues, respectively. Absence of baseline paraspinal disease predicted for better LC (Pinitial SBRT is a feasible and efficacious salvage treatment option. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Oncological and functional results of robotic salvage radical prostatectomy after permanent brachytherapy implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orré, M; Piéchaud, T; Sargos, P; Richaud, P; Roubaud, G; Thomas, L

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of robotic salvage prostatectomy for local recurrence after permanent brachytherapy implants for prostate cancer. Seven patients were operated by robotic salvage prostatectomy with or without pelvic lymph node dissection between October 2007 and March 2012, for a local recurrence after iodine 125 permanent brachytherapy implants. Local recurrence was proved by prostate biopsies, once biochemical relapse was diagnosed and imaging assessment performed. The average age of a patient at the time of diagnosis was 66 years (62-71 years). The median nadir prostate specific antigen (PSA) serum concentration after brachytherapy was 1.29ng/mL (0.6-2.1ng/mL), obtained after a median of 12 months (7-21 months). The average [PSA] before robotic salvage prostatectomy was 6.60ng/mL (4.17-13.80ng/mL). [PSA] at 1 and 3 months after prostatectomy was less than 0.05ng/mL in five patients. [PSA] remained below 0.05ng/mL for six patients at 12 and 24 months. One month after robotic salvage prostatectomy, all patients had at least partial urinary incontinence. At 12 and 24 months after robotic salvage prostatectomy four patients have regained full urinary continence. In terms of erectile function at 24 months, three patients retained erectile function with possible sexual intercourse. Robotic salvage prostatectomy appears to be a reliable treatment in terms of oncological outcome with convincing results both for urinary continence and erectile function for selected patients with local recurrence after permanent brachytherapy implants. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. 49 CFR 599.402 - Requirements and limitations for salvage auctions that are consigned trade-in vehicles under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that are consigned trade-in vehicles under the CARS program. 599.402 Section 599.402 Transportation... SAVE ACT PROGRAM Disposal of Trade-in Vehicle § 599.402 Requirements and limitations for salvage auctions that are consigned trade-in vehicles under the CARS program. (a) The salvage auction must: (1...

  3. 33 CFR 155.4035 - Required pre-incident information and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and arrangements for the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans... marine firefighting resource providers listed in response plans. (a) You must provide the information listed in §§ 155.1035(c) and 155.1040(c) to your salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. (b...

  4. 33 CFR 155.4045 - Required agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. 155.4045 Section 155.4045 Navigation and... agreements or contracts with the salvage and marine firefighting resource providers. (a) You may only list resource providers in your plan that have been arranged by contract or other approved means. (b) You must...

  5. Intraoperative cell salvage is associated with reduced postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A.B.A.; Meesters, M.I.; Garnier, R.P.; Romijn, J.W.A.; van Barneveld, L.J.; Heymans, M.W.; Jansen, E.K.; Boer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether implementation of cell salvage of shed mediastinal and residual blood in all patients undergoing low-to-moderate-risk cardiac surgery reduces the need for allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion compared to patients not subjected to cell salvage. Study

  6. Comparative cost-effectiveness of focal and total salvage (125)I brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Max; Piena, Marjanne A; Steuten, Lotte M G; van der Voort van Zyp, Jochem R N; Moerland, Rien; van Vulpen, Marco

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Focal salvage (FS) iodine 125 ((125)I) brachytherapy could be an effective treatment for locally radiorecurrent prostate cancer (PCa). Toxicity is often reduced compared to total salvage (TS) while cancer control can be maintained, which could increase cost-effectiveness. The current study

  7. 26 CFR 1.167(f)-1 - Reduction of salvage value taken into account for certain personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction of salvage value taken into account for certain personal property. 1.167(f)-1 Section 1.167(f)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(f)-1 Reduction of salvage value taken into account for...

  8. Using pleometrosis (multiple queens) and pupae transplantation to boost weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) colony growth in ant nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Peng, Renkang

    2011-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are increasingly being used for biocontrol and are targeted for future production of insect protein in ant farms. An efficient production of live ant colonies may facilitate the utilization of these ants but the production of mature colonies is hampered by the long t...

  9. Antarctic Tephra Database (AntT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatov, A.; Dunbar, N. W.; Iverson, N. A.; Gerbi, C. C.; Yates, M. G.; Kalteyer, D.; McIntosh, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Modern paleoclimate research is heavily dependent on establishing accurate timing related to rapid shifts in Earth's climate system. The ability to correlate these events at local, and ideally at the intercontinental scales, allows assessment, for example, of phasing or changes in atmospheric circulation. Tephra-producing volcanic eruptions are geologically instantaneous events that are largely independent of climate. We have developed a tephrochronological framework for paleoclimate research in Antarctic in a user friendly, freely accessible online Antarctic tephra (AntT) database (http://cci.um.maine.edu/AntT/). Information about volcanic events, including physical and geochemical characteristics of volcanic products collected from multiple data sources, are integrated into the AntT database.The AntT project establishes a new centralized data repository for Antarctic tephrochronology, which is needed for precise correlation of records between Antarctic ice cores (e.g. WAIS Divide, RICE, Talos Dome, ITASE) and global paleoclimate archives. The AntT will help climatologists, paleoclimatologists, atmospheric chemists, geochemists, climate modelers synchronize paleoclimate archives using volcanic products that establishing timing of climate events in different geographic areas, climate-forcing mechanisms, natural threshold levels in the climate system. All these disciplines will benefit from accurate reconstructions of the temporal and spatial distribution of past rapid climate change events in continental, atmospheric, marine and polar realms. Research is funded by NSF grants: ANT-1142007 and 1142069.

  10. Congestion and communication in confined ant traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Gold, Gregory; Zangwill, Andrew; Goodisman, Michael A. D.; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-03-01

    Many social animals move and communicate within confined spaces. In subterranean fire ants Solenopsis invicta, mobility within crowded nest tunnels is important for resource and information transport. Within confined tunnels, communication and traffic flow are at odds: trafficking ants communicate through tactile interactions while stopped, yet ants that stop to communicate impose physical obstacles on the traffic. We monitor the bi-directional flow of fire ant workers in laboratory tunnels of varied diameter D. The persistence time of communicating ant aggregations, τ, increases approximately linearly with the number of participating ants, n. The sensitivity of traffic flow increases as D decreases and diverges at a minimum diameter, Dc. A cellular automata model incorporating minimal traffic features--excluded volume and communication duration--reproduces features of the experiment. From the model we identify a competition between information transfer and the need to maintain jam-free traffic flow. We show that by balancing information transfer and traffic flow demands, an optimum group strategy exists which maximizes information throughput. We acknowledge funding from NSF PoLS #0957659 and #PHY-1205878.

  11. Fire ants perpetually rebuild sinking towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonekeo, Sulisay; Mlot, Nathan; Monaenkova, Daria; Hu, David L.; Tovey, Craig

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of a flood, fire ants, Solenopsis invicta, cluster into temporary encampments. The encampments can contain hundreds of thousands of ants and reach over 30 ants high. How do ants build such tall structures without being crushed? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we investigate the shape and rate of construction of ant towers around a central support. The towers are bell shaped, consistent with towers of constant strength such as the Eiffel tower, where each element bears an equal load. However, unlike the Eiffel tower, the ant tower is built through a process of trial and error, whereby failed portions avalanche until the final shape emerges. High-speed and novel X-ray videography reveal that the tower constantly sinks and is rebuilt, reminiscent of large multicellular systems such as human skin. We combine the behavioural rules that produce rafts on water with measurements of adhesion and attachment strength to model the rate of growth of the tower. The model correctly predicts that the growth rate decreases as the support diameter increases. This work may inspire the design of synthetic swarms capable of building in vertical layers.

  12. Toxic industrial deposit remediation by ant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Toxic industrial deposits are often contaminated by heavy metals and the substrates have low pH values. In such systems, soil development is thus slowed down by high toxicity and acidic conditions which are unfavourable to soil fauna. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) are considered tolerant to heavy metal pollution and are known to increase organic matter content and microbial activity in their nests. Here, we focused on soil remediation caused by three ant species (Formica sanguinea, Lasius niger, and Tetramorium sp.) in an ore-washery sedimentation basin near Chvaletice (Czech Republic). Soil samples were taken from the centre of ant nests and from the nest surroundings (>3 m from nests). Samples were then analyzed for microbial activity and biomass and contents of organic matter and nutrients. As a result, ant species that most influenced soil properties was F. sanguinea as there were higher microbial activity and total nitrogen and ammonia contents in ant nests than in the surrounding soil. We expected such a result because F. sanguinea builds conspicuous large nests and is a carnivorous species that brings substantial amounts of nitrogen in insect prey to their nests. Effects of the other two ant species might be lower because of smaller nests and different feeding habits as they rely mainly on honeydew from aphids or on plant seeds that do not contain much nutrients.

  13. Ants (Formicidae): models for social complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris R; Dolezal, Adam; Eliyahu, Dorit; Holbrook, C Tate; Gadau, Jürgen

    2009-07-01

    The family Formicidae (ants) is composed of more than 12,000 described species that vary greatly in size, morphology, behavior, life history, ecology, and social organization. Ants occur in most terrestrial habitats and are the dominant animals in many of them. They have been used as models to address fundamental questions in ecology, evolution, behavior, and development. The literature on ants is extensive, and the natural history of many species is known in detail. Phylogenetic relationships for the family, as well as within many subfamilies, are known, enabling comparative studies. Their ease of sampling and ecological variation makes them attractive for studying populations and questions relating to communities. Their sociality and variation in social organization have contributed greatly to an understanding of complex systems, division of labor, and chemical communication. Ants occur in colonies composed of tens to millions of individuals that vary greatly in morphology, physiology, and behavior; this variation has been used to address proximate and ultimate mechanisms generating phenotypic plasticity. Relatedness asymmetries within colonies have been fundamental to the formulation and empirical testing of kin and group selection theories. Genomic resources have been developed for some species, and a whole-genome sequence for several species is likely to follow in the near future; comparative genomics in ants should provide new insights into the evolution of complexity and sociogenomics. Future studies using ants should help establish a more comprehensive understanding of social life, from molecules to colonies.

  14. The outcome of rectal cancer after early salvage TME following TEM compared with primary TME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levic, K; Bulut, O; Hesselfeldt, P

    2012-01-01

    difference between two groups of patients in the median number of harvested lymph nodes (P = 0.34), median circumferential resection margin (CRM) (P = 0.99) or the completeness of the mesorectal fascia plane. No local recurrences occurred among the patients with salvage TME, and there were 2 patients (8......-73) for patients after primary TME. CONCLUSIONS: No difference was found in outcome between patients with rectal cancer undergoing salvage TME after TEM, those undergoing primary TME. In selected patients, TEM can therefore be chosen as a primary treatment, since failure of treatment and subsequent conventional...

  15. The outcome of rectal cancer after early salvage TME following TEM compared with primary TME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, O; Levic, K; Hesselfeldt, P

    2014-01-01

    difference between two groups of patients in the median number of harvested lymph nodes (P = 0.34), median circumferential resection margin (CRM) (P = 0.99) or the completeness of the mesorectal fascia plane. No local recurrences occurred among the patients with salvage TME, and there were 2 patients (8......-73) for patients after primary TME. CONCLUSIONS: No difference was found in outcome between patients with rectal cancer undergoing salvage TME after TEM, those undergoing primary TME. In selected patients, TEM can therefore be chosen as a primary treatment, since failure of treatment and subsequent conventional...

  16. Salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy for local prostate cancer recurrence after radical radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Solodkiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies salvage interstitial radiation therapy for recurrent prostate cancer, launched at the end of the XX century. In recent years, more and more attention is paid to high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT as a method of treating local recurrence.The purpose of research – preliminary clinical results of salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy applied in cases of suspected local recurrence or of residual tumour after radiotherapy.Preliminary findings indicate the possibility of using HDR-BT, achieving local tumor control with low genitourinary toxicity.

  17. TA-60 Warehouse and Salvage SWPPP Rev 2 Jan 2017-Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, Jillian Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    The Stormwater Pollution Prevention Team (PPT) for the TA-60-0002 Salvage and Warehouse Area consists of operations and management personnel from the facility, Multi-Sector General Permitting (MSGP) stormwater personnel from Environmental Compliance Programs (EPC-CP) organization, and Deployed Environmental Professionals. The EPC-CP representative is responsible for Laboratory compliance under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit regulations. The team members are selected on the basis of their familiarity with the activities at the facility and the potential impacts of those activities on stormwater runoff. The Warehouse and Salvage Yard are a single shift operation; therefore, a member of the PPT is always present during operations.

  18. Die hyperbare Oxygenierung als ultima ratio bei schwerwiegenden Wundheilungsstörungen nach Salvage-Laryngektomie

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Z; Lorenz, KJ; Tisch, M

    2017-01-01

    Die Salvage-LE nach primärer RCT bei Larynx-Tumoren ist mit einer hohen Komplikationsrate hinsichtlich pharyngokutaner Fisteln und Wundheilungsstörungen assoziiert. Mittels gestielter Lappenplastiken kann diese Situation verbessert werden. Wir berichten über einen Patienten, bei dem nach primärer RCT eines cT3 cn2c M0 G3 Larynx-CA's bei Rezidivsituation eine Salvage-LE notwendig wurde. Intraoperativ wurde der Neopharynx zudem mit einem M. pectoralis-Lappen gedeckt. Nach zunächst unauffälligem...

  19. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Black People: Impact of Ethnicity on Survival and Genetic Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suella Martino

    Full Text Available Black people are at increased risk of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP. Whether clinical presentation of TTP in Black patients has specific features is unknown. We assessed here differences in TTP presentation and outcome between Black and White patients. Clinical presentation was comparable between both ethnic groups. However, prognosis differed with a lower death rate in Black patients than in White patients (2.7% versus 11.6%, respectively, P = .04. Ethnicity, increasing age and neurologic involvement were retained as risk factors for death in a multivariable model (P < .05 all. Sixty-day overall survival estimated by the Kaplan-Meier curves and compared with the Log-Rank test confirmed that Black patients had a better survival than White patients (P = .03. Salvage therapies were similarly performed between both groups, suggesting that disease severity was comparable. The comparison of HLA-DRB1*11, -DRB1*04 and -DQB1*03 allele frequencies between Black patients and healthy Black individuals revealed no significant difference. However, the protective allele against TTP, HLA-DRB1*04, was dramatically decreased in Black individuals in comparison with White individuals. Black people with TTP may have a better survival than White patients despite a comparable disease severity. A low natural frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 in Black ethnicity may account for the greater risk of TTP in this population.

  20. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Black People: Impact of Ethnicity on Survival and Genetic Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Suella; Jamme, Mathieu; Deligny, Christophe; Busson, Marc; Loiseau, Pascale; Azoulay, Elie; Galicier, Lionel; Pène, Frédéric; Provôt, François; Dossier, Antoine; Saheb, Samir; Veyradier, Agnès; Coppo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Black people are at increased risk of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Whether clinical presentation of TTP in Black patients has specific features is unknown. We assessed here differences in TTP presentation and outcome between Black and White patients. Clinical presentation was comparable between both ethnic groups. However, prognosis differed with a lower death rate in Black patients than in White patients (2.7% versus 11.6%, respectively, P = .04). Ethnicity, increasing age and neurologic involvement were retained as risk factors for death in a multivariable model (P Black patients had a better survival than White patients (P = .03). Salvage therapies were similarly performed between both groups, suggesting that disease severity was comparable. The comparison of HLA-DRB1*11, -DRB1*04 and -DQB1*03 allele frequencies between Black patients and healthy Black individuals revealed no significant difference. However, the protective allele against TTP, HLA-DRB1*04, was dramatically decreased in Black individuals in comparison with White individuals. Black people with TTP may have a better survival than White patients despite a comparable disease severity. A low natural frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 in Black ethnicity may account for the greater risk of TTP in this population.

  1. The insecticidal activities of fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) venoms against Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Chuan; Kuo, Tai-Chih; Huang, Rong-Nan; Wu, Wen-Jer

    2012-10-01

    Although fire ants frequently have negative impacts on agricultural systems and public health, they have additional beneficial insecticidal effects. To evaluate the potential effect of fire ant venoms on agricultural pests, the compositions of the venoms and their insecticidal activities against Plutella xylostella (L.) larvae were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The alkaloids found in Solenopsis geminata (F.) venom are primarily saturated C11, which occur in both cis and trans forms, whereas the venom of S. invicta Buren contains six principal alkaloids (from trans C1, to C17). Moreover, the proportions of unsaturated alkaloids in the venom of polygynous S. invicta were significantly higher than the corresponding proportions in the monogynous S. invicta, as shown by our previous studies. Fire ant venoms were topically applied to the dorsal thoracic region of fourth-instar larvae of P. xylostella. The results of the experiment showed that the larval symptoms induced by fire ant venom include contractile, flaccid paralysis, black coloration and death. P. xylostella larvae were most susceptible to S. geminata venom. The order of the susceptibilities of the larvae to the venoms was as follows: S. geminata > S. invicta (monogyne form) > S. invicta (polygyne form), as measured by the corresponding LT50 values at 24 h.

  2. Monomorphic ants undergo within-colony morphological changes along the metal-pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grześ, Irena M; Okrutniak, Mateusz; Woch, Marcin W

    2015-04-01

    In ants, intra and inter-colony variation in body size can be considerable, even in monomorphic species. It has been previously shown that size-related parameters can be environmentally sensitive. The shape of the body size distribution curve is, however, rarely investigated. In this study, we measured head widthes of the black garden ant Lasius niger workers using digital methods. The ants were sampled from 51 colonies originating from 19 sites located along a metal pollution gradient, established in a former mining area in Poland. Total zinc concentrations in random samples of small invertebrates were used as a measure of site pollution levels. We found that the skewness of head size distribution grows significantly in line with the pollution level of the site, ranging from values slightly below zero (about -0.5) in the least polluted site up to a positive value (about 1.5) in the most polluted site. This result indicates that the frequency of small ants grows as pollution levels increase. The coefficient of variation, as well as the measures of central tendency, was not related to the pollution level. Four hypotheses explaining the obtained results are proposed. The bias towards the higher frequency of small workers may result from energy limitation and/or metal toxicity, but may also have an adaptive function.

  3. Removal of Nonmyrmecochorous Seeds by Ants: Role of Ants in Cattle Grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Escobar-Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production models prevailing in Colombian Andes are simplified treeless pastures for extensive ranching, with the consequent reduction of environmental services, such as seed dispersal, due to lack of primary dispersers, scarcity of adequate sites for seedling establishment and competition with grasses. This study evaluated if, in these harsh environments, ants can promote the colonization of arboreal species through directed dispersion of seeds towards the nests. Ten seeds of each species were offered to ants in six grazing pastures. Ants removed 25% of the seeds (1827 in 48 hours. Preference for arillated and small-to-medium sized seeds, such as Pithecellobium dulce, and Guazuma ulmifolia, was observed. Cyphomyrmex major, Ectatomma ruidum, Solenopsis geminata and Atta cephalotes were the key ant species in seed removal. It was concluded that functional ant groups present in the pastures could contribute to secondary dispersion of seeds with potential for restoration.

  4. The use of weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) in tropical agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Canopy dwelling weaver ants are widely distributed throughout the Old World Tropics where they build up high densities on their host trees. If managed properly the high number of ants will control a range of pest insects and benefit crop production. Simultaneously the ant larvae production, fuelled...... by the consumed pest insects, can be harvested and utilised for nutrition as they are tasty and high in proteins, vitamins and minerals. Thus, plantations may function as ant farms and in addition to plant production also hosts the production of edible animal protein. In this setup harmful pest insects are turned...... farming as a way forward to solve an increasing future demand for protein. Weaver ant farming may build on natural food collected by the ants or alternatively be boosted by feeding the ant colonies actively with protein and sugar. In both cases, when ant biocontrol is combined with ant farming...

  5. Salvage gamma knife radiosurgery in the management of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, Georges; Martin, Heather; Shamikh, Alia

    2017-01-01

    at our institution in the context of current diagnostic and treatment options. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: We conducted a retrospective review of three consecutive adult patients (≥18 years) treated with salvage GKRS between 2002 and 2010 at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The case series...

  6. Prognostic factors for survival after salvage total laryngectomy following radiotherapy or chemoradiation failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, N B; Andersen, E; Kristensen, C A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary aims were to determine the rates of and prognostic factors for overall survival, disease-specific survival and disease-free survival following salvage total laryngectomy. DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Tertiary medical centres. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1...

  7. 33 CFR 155.4040 - Response times for each salvage and marine firefighting service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Offshore area timeframes apply from 12 to 50 miles outside the COTP city. (3) If your vessel transits... within the inland waters or the nearshore or offshore area, you must submit in writing, in your plan, the steps you will take to address salvage and marine firefighting needs in the event these services are...

  8. Response of HIV positive patients to the long-term salvage therapy by lopinavir/ritonavir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prejdová, Jana; Machala, L.; Staňková, M.; Linka, M.; Brůčková, M.; Vandasová, J.; Konvalinka, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2005), 319-323 ISSN 1386-6532 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NI6339 Grant - others:5th Framework(XE) QLK2-CT-2001-02360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : protease inhibitor * salvage therapy * resistance development Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.623, year: 2005

  9. Immediate free jejunum transfer for salvage surgery of gastric tube necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Hiroki; Matsutani, Takeshi; Ogawa, Rei; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2014-01-01

    Gastric tube necrosis after esophagus cancer surgery is a rare but critical situation. Salvage reconstruction of the esophagus remains a challenging procedure for head and neck surgeons. Historically, surgeons have employed a two-stage salvage surgery consisting of debridement followed by reconstruction. While this procedure generates good results, the time to restart oral alimentation is long. The present report describes the case of a 62-year-old male who developed gastric tube necrosis 3 days after undergoing surgery for thoracic-cervical esophageal cancer and immediate reconstruction with the retrosternal gastric pullup technique. He was treated with debridement and simultaneous free jejunum transfer 4 days after the primary surgery. He was able to restart oral alimentation 10 days after the salvage surgery. This rapid return to oral alimentation is a major advantage of the one-stage immediate esophagus salvage reconstruction. Another advantage is the ease of the reconstructive procedure: the absence of scarring and prolonged inflammation, which are disadvantages of the two-stage procedure, meant that recipient vessel selection and anastomosis were uncomplicated. The one-step procedure may be particularly useful in cases where the inflammation is discovered early.

  10. Salvage definitive chemo-radiotherapy for locally recurrent oesophageal carcinoma after primary surgery: retrospective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, S. H.; Burmeister, B.; Harvey, J. A.; Smithers, M.; Thomas, J.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: To determine the overall survival and gastrointestinal toxicity for patients treated with salvage definitive chemo-radiotherapy after primary surgery for locoregional relapse of oesophageal carcinoma. A retrospective review of 525 patients who had a resection for oesophageal or oesophagogastric carcinoma at Princess Alexandra Hospital identified 14 patients treated with salvage definitive radiotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy, following localized recurrence of their disease. We analysed the patient and treatment characteristics to determine the median overall survival as the primary end point. Gastrointestinal toxicity was examined to determine if increased toxicity occurred when the stomach was irradiated within the intrathoracic radiotherapy field. The median overall survival for patients treated with curative intent using salvage definitive chemo-radiotherapy was 16 months and the 2-year overall survival is 21%. One patient is in clinical remission more than 5 years after therapy. Age <60 years old and nodal recurrence were favourable prognostic factors. Treatment compliance was 93% with only one patient unable to complete the intended schedule. Fourteen per cent of patients experienced grade 3 or 4 gastrointestinal toxicity. Salvage definitive chemo-radiotherapy should be considered for good performance status patients with oesophageal carcinoma who have a locoregional relapse after primary surgery. The schedule is tolerable with low toxicity and an acceptable median survival

  11. Current ideas to reduce or salvage radiation damage to salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A; van Luijk, P; Langendijk, J A; Coppes, R P

    Radiation-induced hyposalivation is still a major problem after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Current and promising new thoughts to reduce or salvage radiation damage to salivary gland tissue are explored. The main cause underlying radiation-induced hyposalivation is a lack of functional

  12. Functional Outcome After Successful Internal Fixation Versus Salvage Arthroplasty of Patients With a Femoral Neck Fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, Stephanie M.; Keijsers, Noël L.; Praet, Stephan F. E.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Devereaux, Philip J.; Guyatt, Gordon; Jeray, Kyle; Liew, Susan; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Thabane, Lehana; Walter, Stephen; Sprague, Sheila; Scott, Taryn; Swinton, Marilyn; Viveiros, Helena; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Zhou, Qi; Buckingham, Lisa; Duraikannan, Aravin; Maddock, Deborah; Agel, Julie; Rangan, Amar; Hanusch, Birgit; Della Rocca, Gregory J.; Haverlag, Robert; Slobogean, Gerard; Katz, Jeffrey; Gillespie, Brenda; Greendale, Gail A.; Guy, Pierre; Hartman, Curtis; Rubin, Craig; Waddell, James; McCormack, Robert; Apostle, Kelly; Boyer, Dory; Moola, Farhad; Perey, Bertrand; Stone, Trevor; Viskontas, Darius; Lemke, H. Michael; Zomar, Mauri; Moon, Karyn; Moon, Raely; Oatt, Amber; Buckley, Richard E.; Duffy, Paul; Korley, Robert; Puloski, Shannon; Johnston, Kelly; Powell, James; Carcary, Kimberly; Sanders, David; Lawendy, Abdel; Tiezer, Christina; Stephen, David; Kreder, Hans; Jenkinson, Richard; Nousiainene, Markku; Axelrod, Terry; Murnaghan, John; Nam, Diane; Richards, Robin; Rodriguez-Elizalde, Sebastian; Wadey, Veronica; Yee, Albert; Milner, Katrine; Kunz, Monica; Macnevin, Melanie; Cagaanan, Ria; Bicknell, Ryan; Yach, Jeff; Bardana, Davide; Wood, Gavin; Harrison, Mark; Yen, David; Lambert, Sue; Howells, Fiona; Ward, Angela; Coles, Chad; Leighton, Ross; Biddulph, Michael; Johnston, David; Glazebrook, Mark; Alexander, David; Coady, Cathy; Dunbar, Michael; Trask, Kelly; MacDonald, Shelley; Dobbin, Gwen; Ahn, Henry; Hall, Jeremy A.; McKee, Michael D.; Whelan, Daniel B.; Nauth, Aaron; Vicente, Milena; Wild, Lisa; Khan, Ryan; Hidy, Jennifer; Zalzal, Paul; Brien, Heather; Naumetz, V.; Weening, Brad; Simunovic, Nicole; Wai, Eugene K.; Papp, Steve; Gofton, Wade T.; Liew, Allen; Kingwell, Stephen P.; Roffey, Darren M.; Borsella, Vivian; Avram, Victoria; Oliver, Todd M.; Jones, Vicki; Jones, Clifford; Ringler, James; Endres, Terrence; Sietsema, Debra L.; Jeray, Kyle J.; Broderick, J. Scott; Goetz, David R.; Pace, Thomas B.; Schaller, Thomas M.; Porter, Scott E.; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Snider, Rebecca G.; Nastoff, Lauren A.; Bielby, Shea A.; Marcantonio, Andrew J.; Iorio, Richard; Garfi, John; Prayson, Michael J.; Laughlin, Richard; Rubino, Joseph; May, Jedediah; Rieser, Geoffrey Ryan; Dulaney-Cripe, Liz; Gayton, Chris; Switzer, Julie A.; Cole, Peter A.; Anderson, Sarah A.; Lafferty, Paul M.; Li, Mengnai; Ly, Thuan V.; Marston, Scott B.; Foley, Amy L.; Vang, Sandy; Wright, David M.; Vallier, Heather A.; Dolenc, Andrea; Robinson, Chalitha; Gorczyca, John T.; Gross, Jonathan M.; Humphrey, Catherine A.; Kates, Stephen; Noble, Krista; McIntyre, Allison W.; Pecorella, Kaili; Shaer, James; Schrickel, Tyson; Hileman, Barbara; Davis, Craig A.; Weinerman, Stewart; Weingarten, Peter; Stull, Philip; Lindenbaum, Stephen; Hewitt, Michael; Schwappach, John; Baker, Janell K.; Mehta, Samir; Esterhai, John; Ahn, Jaimo; Horan, Annamarie D.; McGinnis, Kelly; Kaminiski, Christine A.; Kowalski, Brynn N.; Cannada, Lisa K.; Karges, David; Hill, Leslie; Tarkin, Ivan; Siska, Peter; Gruen, Gary; Evans, Andrew; Farrell, Dana J.; Irrgang, James; Luther, Arlene; Keeve, Jonathan P.; Anderson, Christopher G.; McDonald, Michael D.; Hoffman, Jodi M.; Jenkins, Mark; Dumais, Jules; Romero, Amanda W.; Hsu, Joseph R.; Ficke, James; Charlton, Michael; Napierala, Matthew; Fan, Mary; Cross, William W.; Cass, Joseph R.; Sems, Stephen A.; Torchia, Michael E.; Scrabeck, Tyson; Sagebien, Carlos A.; Butler, Mark S.; Monica, James T.; Seuffert, Patricia; Brennan, Michael L.; Probe, Robert; Kile, Evelyn; Mills, Kelli; Clipper, Lydia; Yu, Michelle; Erwin, Katie; Tornetta, Paul; Carlisle, Hope; Silva, Heather; Archdeacon, Michael; Finnan, Ryan; Le, Toan; Wyrick, John; Hess, Shelley; McBeth, Jessica; Aurang, Kamran; Zohman, Gary; Peterson, Brett; Huff, Roger B.; Baele, Joseph; Weber, Timothy; Edison, Matt; Schmidt, Andrew H.; Westberg, Jerald R.; DePaolo, Charles J.; Alosky, Rachel; Shell, Leslie E.; Hampton, Lynne; Shepard, Stephanie; Nanney, Tracy; Cuento, Claudine; Shively, Karl; Ertl, Janos P.; Mullis, Brian; Parr, J. Andrew; Worman, Ripley; Frizzell, Valda; Moore, Molly M.; Tobias, Erin; Thomas, Emily; Cantu, Robert V.; Henderson, Eric R.; Eickhoff, Linda S.; Zamorano, David P.; Pourmand, Deeba; Lawson, Deanna; Hammerberg, E. Mark; Stahel, Philip; Hak, David; Mauffrey, Cyril; Gibula, Douglas; Gissel, Hannah; Henderson, Corey; Crist, Brett D.; Murtha, Yvonne M.; McPherson, Melinda; Anderson, Linda K.; Dohm, Michael P.; Linehan, Colleen; Pilling, Lindsey; Horwitz, Daniel; Strohecker, Kent; Lewis, Courtland G.; Caminiti, Stephanie; Sullivan, Raymond J.; Roper, Elizabeth; Obremsky, William; Kregor, Philip; Richards, Justin E.; Stringfellow, Kenya; Goslings, J. Carel; Ponsen, Jan; Bronkhorst, Maarten W. G. A.; Guicherit, Onno R.; Eversdijk, Martin G.; Peters, Rolf; den Hartog, Dennis; van Waes, Oscar J. F.; Oprel, Pim; de Rijcke, Piet A. R.; Koppert, Cees L.; Buijk, Steven E.; Groenendijk, Richard P. R.; Dawson, Imro; Tetteroo, Geert W. M.; Bruijninckx, Milko M. M.; Doornebosch, Pascal G.; de Graaf, Eelco J. R.; Visser, Gijs A.; Stockman, Heyn; Silvis, Rob; Snellen, Jaap P.; Rijbroek, Bram; Scheepers, Joris J. G.; Vermeulen, Erik G. J.; Siroen, Michel P. C.; Vuylsteke, Ronald; Brom, Hans L. F.; Rijna, Herman; Roukema, Gert R.; Josaputra, Hong; Keller, Paul; de Rooij, Peter D.; Kuiken, Hans; Boxma, Han; Clefken, Berry I.; Liem, Ronald; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Bosman, Coks H. R.; de Mol van Otterloo, Alexander; Hoogendoorn, Jochem; de Vries, Alexander C.; Meylaerts, Sven A. G.; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Simons, Maarten P.; van der Heijden, Frank H. W. M.; Willems, W. Jaap; de Meulemeester, Frank R. A. J.; van der Hart, Cor P.; Turckan, Kahn; Festen, Sebastiaan; de Nies, Frank; Out, Nico J. M.; Bosma, Jan; van der Elst, Maarten; van der Pol, Carmen C.; van't Riet, Martijne; Karsten, Tom M.; de Vries, Mark; Stassen, Laurents P. S.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Schmidt, G. Ben; Hoffman, W. H.; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Zijl, Jacco A. C.; Verhoeven, Bart; Smits, Anke B.; de Vries, Jean Paul P. M.; Fioole, Bram; Hoeven, Henk van der; Theunissen, Evert B. M.; de Vries Reilingh, Tammo S.; Govaert, Lonneke; Wittich, Philippe; de Brauw, Maurits; Wille, Jan; Go, Peter M. N. Y. M.; Ritchie, Ewan D.; Wessel, Ronald N.; Hammacher, Eric R.; Verhofstad, Michiel H. J.; Meijer, Joost; van Egmond, Teun; van der Brand, Igor; van der Vis, Harm; Campo, Martin; Verhagen, Ronald; Albers, Albert Robert; Zurcher, Arthur W.; von Kampen, Albert; Biert, Jan; van Vugt, Arie B.; Edwards, Michael J. R.; Blokhuis, Taco J.; Frölke, Jan Paul M.; Geeraedts, Leo M. G.; Gardeniers, Jean W. M.; Tan, Edward T. C. H.; Poelhekke, Lodewijk M. S. J.; de Waal Malefijt, Maarten C.; Schreurs, Bart; Simmermacher, Rogier K. J.; van Mulken, Jeroen; van Wessem, Karlijn; van Gaalen, Steven M.; Leenen, Luke P. H.; Bedi, Harvinder; Carr, Ashley; Chia, Andrew; Csongvay, Steven; Curry, Hamish; Doig, Stephen; Donohue, Craig; Edwards, Elton; Etherington, Greg; Gong, Andrew; Jain, Arvind; Li, Doug; Miller, Russell; Moaveni, Ash; Russ, Matthias; Ton, Lu; Wang, Otis; Murdoch, Zoe; Sage, Claire; Frihagen, Frede; Clarke-Jenssen, John; Hjorthaug, Geir; Ianssen, Torben; Amundsen, Asgeir; Brattgjerd, Jan Egil; Borch, Tor; Bøe, Berthe; Flatøy, Bernhard; Hasselund, Sondre; Haug, Knut Jørgen; Hemlock, Kim; Hoseth, Tor Magne; Jomaas, Geir; Kibsgård, Thomas; Kristiansen, Bjorn; Lona, Tarjei; Moatshe, Gilbert; Müller, Oliver; Molund, Marius; Nicolaisen, Tor; Nilsen, Fredrik; Rydinge, Jonas; Smedsrud, Morten; Stødle, Are; Trommer, Axel; Ugland, Stein; Vesterhus, Elise Berg; Brekke, Anne Christine; Sharma, Ateet; Sanghavi, Amir; Tetsworth, Kevin; Geoff, Donald; Weinrach, Patrick; yang, Steven; Halliday, Brett; Gervais, Trevor; Holt, Michael; Flynn, Annette; Prasad, Amal Shankar; Mishra, Vimlesh; Gupta, Ajay; Jain, Niraj; Bahatia, Mahesh; Arora, Vinod; Bhatia, Mahesh; Sundaresh, D. C.; Khanna, Angshuman; Rai, Anil; Pirpiris, Marinis; Love, David; Bucknill, Andrew; Farrugia, Richard J.; Dadi, Akhil; Palla, Naveen; Rai, B. Sachidananda; Rajakumar, Janakiraman; Cherian, Joe Joseph; Olakkengil, Davy J.; Sharma, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine patient independency, health-related and disease-specific quality of life (QOL), gait pattern, and muscle strength in patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Design: Secondary cohort study to a randomized controlled trial.

  13. Late urinary morbidity and quality of life after radical prostatectomy and salvage radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ervandian, Maria; Høyer, Morten; Petersen, Stine Elleberg

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of knowledge of long-term urinary morbidity in patients treated for prostate cancer (PCa) with radical prostatectomy (RP) and salvage radiotherapy (SRT). Improved long-term survival calls for heightened awareness of late effects from radiotherapy after RP. The purpos...

  14. Two thymidine kinases and one multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase salvage DNA precursors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders R.; Girandon, Lenart; Ali, Ashfaq

    2012-01-01

    and AtTK1b catalyze redundant reactions. The results obtained in the present study suggest a crucial role for the salvage of thymidine during early plant development. Sequence data from the present study have been deposited in the EMBL database/GenBank under accession numbers: AT3G07800.1 (AtTK1a), At5G...

  15. 78 FR 34258 - Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Salvage Operations at Marseilles Dam; Illinois River AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Illinois River starting at Mile Marker 246.9 and extending 600 yards upstream of the Marseilles Dam to Mile... repair efforts at the Marseilles Dam. This safety zone is necessary to protect the general public...

  16. Regeneration response to tornado and salvage harvesting in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Nelson; John W. Groninger; Loretta L. Battaglia; Charles M. Ruffner

    2010-01-01

    A direct hit from an F4 tornado on May 2003, followed by a partial salvage logging operation at Mermet Lake State Conservation Area on the Ohio River bottoms of southern IL have provided a rare opportunity to assess the responses of a bottomland hardwood forest to severe wind and soil disturbances. The study area encompasses 700 acres and is representative of many...

  17. Purine synthetic capacities of de novo and salvage pathways in rat hepatoma 3924A cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsumeda, Y.; Ikegami, T.; Weber, G.

    1986-01-01

    This study compares the potential synthetic capacities of purine de vovo and salvage pathways in neoplastic cells as reflected in enzyme specific activities and incorporation rates of C 14-formate, C 14-adenine, C 14-hypoxanthine and C 14-guanine into purine nucleotides and nucleic acids

  18. An economic assessment of mountain pine beetle timber salvage in the west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen L. Abt; Kevin M. Potter; Frank H. Koch

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle has killed lodgepole pine and other species of pines in the western United States in an ongoing epidemic. The most heavily affected states are in the interior West: Colorado, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, with smaller losses elsewhere. Timber salvage is one response to the epidemic, which could generate revenues for affected landowners and...

  19. The Role of Gene Duplication in the Evolution of Purine Nucleotide Salvage Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Arturo; Lazcano, Antonio

    1998-10-01

    Purine nucleotides are formed de novo by a widespread biochemical route that may be of monophyletic origin, or are synthesized from preformed purine bases and nucleosides through different salvage pathways. Three monophyletic sets of purine salvage enzymes, each of which catalyzes mechanistically similar reactions, can be identified: (a) adenine-, xanthine-, hypoxanthine- and guanine-phosphoribosyltransferases, which are all homologous among themselves, as well as to nucleoside phosphorylases; (b) adenine deaminase, adenosine deaminase, and adenosine monophophate deaminase; and (c) guanine reductase and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. These homologies support the idea that substrate specificity is the outcome of gene duplication, and that the purine nucleotide salvage pathways were assembled by a patchwork process that probably took place before the divergence of the three cell domains (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya). Based on the ability of adenine PRTase to catalyze the condensation of PRPP with 4-aminoimidazole-5-carboxamide (AICA), a simpler scheme of purine nucleotide biosynthesis is presented. This hypothetical route requires the prior evolution of PRPP biosynthesis. Since it has been argued that PRPP, nucleosides, and nucleotides are susceptible to hydrolysis, they are very unlikely prebiotic compounds. If this is the case, it implies that many purine salvage pathways appeared only after the evolution of phosphorylated sugar biosynthetic pathways made ribosides available.

  20. External and internal hemipelvectomy for sarcomas of the pelvic girdle : consequences of limb-salvage treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, SJ; Veth, RPH; van Horn, [No Value; Eisma, WH; Hoekstra, HJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1997-01-01

    The outcome of different Limb-saving treatment modalities for pelvic girdle sarcoma is controversial. The oncological and functional results after 11 external and 10 internal hemipelvectomies and the consequences of limb-salvage treatment were studied in 21 consecutive patients with primary bone (19

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System for accident site salvage operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, J.M.; Morse, W.D.; Jones, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates operational experiences with the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) during simulated accident site salvage operations which might involve nuclear weapons. The ARMMS is based upon a teleoperated mobility platform with two Schilling Titan 7F Manipulators

  2. Salvage Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Local Failure After Primary Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearn, Jason W.D., E-mail: hearnj@ccf.org; Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Djemil, Toufik; Stephans, Kevin L.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: Local failure after definitive stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is uncommon. We report the safety and efficacy of SBRT for salvage of local failure after previous SBRT with a biologically effective dose (BED) of ≥100 Gy{sub 10}. Methods and Materials: Using an institutional review board–approved lung SBRT registry, we identified all patients initially treated for early-stage NSCLC between August 2004 and January 2012 who received salvage SBRT for isolated local failure. Failure was defined radiographically and confirmed histologically unless contraindicated. All patients were treated on a Novalis/BrainLAB system using ExacTrac for image guidance, and received a BED of ≥100 Gy{sub 10} for each SBRT course. Tumor motion control involved a Bodyfix vacuum system for immobilization along with abdominal compression. Results: Of 436 patients treated from August 2004 through January 2012, we identified 22 patients with isolated local failure, 10 of whom received SBRT for salvage. The median length of follow-up was 13.8 months from salvage SBRT (range 5.3-43.5 months). Median tumor size was 3.4 cm (range 1.7-4.8 cm). Two of the 10 lesions were “central” by proximity to the mediastinum, but were outside the zone of the proximal bronchial tree. Since completing salvage, 3 patients are alive and without evidence of disease. A fourth patient died of medical comorbidities without recurrence 13.0 months after salvage SBRT. Two patients developed distant disease only. Four patients had local failure. Toxicity included grade 1-2 fatigue (3 patients) and grade 1-2 chest wall pain (5 patients). There was no grade 3-5 toxicity. Conclusions: Repeat SBRT with a BED of ≥100 Gy{sub 10} after local failure in patients with early-stage medically inoperable NSCLC was well tolerated in this series and may represent a viable salvage strategy in select patients with peripheral tumors ≤5 cm.

  3. Statistical Mechanics of Collective Transport by Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkoviezky, Itai; Gelblum, Aviram; Fonio, Ehud; Ghosh, Abhijit; Gov, Nir; Feinerman, Ofer

    Collective decisions and cooperation within groups are essential for the survival of many species. Conflicts within the group must be suppressed but conformism may render the system unresponsive to new information. Collective transport by ants is therefore an ideal model system to study how animal groups optimize these opposing requirements. We combine experiments and theory to characterize the collective transport. The ants are modeled as binary Ising spins, representing the two roles ants can perform during transport. It turns out that the ants poise themselves collectively near a critical point where the response to a newly attached ant is maximized. We identify the size as being proportional to an inverse effective temperature and thus the system can exhibit a mesoscopic transition between order and disorder by manipulating the size. Constraining the cargo with a string makes the system behave as a strongly non-linear pendulum. Theoretically we predict that a Hopf bifurcation occurs at a critical size followed by a global bifurcation where full swings emerge. Remarkably, these theoretical predictions were verified experimentally.

  4. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers--Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun--are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals.

  5. Fossil evidence for the early ant evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrichot, Vincent; Lacau, Sébastien; Néraudeau, Didier; Nel, André

    2008-02-01

    Ants are one of the most studied insects in the world; and the literature devoted to their origin and evolution, systematics, ecology, or interactions with plants, fungi and other organisms is prolific. However, no consensus yet exists on the age estimate of the first Formicidae or on the origin of their eusociality. We review the fossil and biogeographical record of all known Cretaceous ants. We discuss the possible origin of the Formicidae with emphasis on the most primitive subfamily Sphecomyrminae according to its distribution and the Early Cretaceous palaeogeography. And we review the evidence of true castes and eusociality of the early ants regarding their morphological features and their manner of preservation in amber. The mid-Cretaceous amber forest from south-western France where some of the oldest known ants lived, corresponded to a moist tropical forest close to the shore with a dominance of gymnosperm trees but where angiosperms (flowering plants) were already diversified. This palaeoenvironmental reconstruction supports an initial radiation of ants in forest ground litter coincident with the rise of angiosperms, as recently proposed as an ecological explanation for their origin and successful evolution.

  6. Fuzzy Rules for Ant Based Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new intelligent technique for semisupervised data clustering problem that combines the Ant System (AS algorithm with the fuzzy c-means (FCM clustering algorithm. Our proposed approach, called F-ASClass algorithm, is a distributed algorithm inspired by foraging behavior observed in ant colonyT. The ability of ants to find the shortest path forms the basis of our proposed approach. In the first step, several colonies of cooperating entities, called artificial ants, are used to find shortest paths in a complete graph that we called graph-data. The number of colonies used in F-ASClass is equal to the number of clusters in dataset. Hence, the partition matrix of dataset founded by artificial ants is given in the second step, to the fuzzy c-means technique in order to assign unclassified objects generated in the first step. The proposed approach is tested on artificial and real datasets, and its performance is compared with those of K-means, K-medoid, and FCM algorithms. Experimental section shows that F-ASClass performs better according to the error rate classification, accuracy, and separation index.

  7. Iodine-125 brachytherapy as upfront and salvage treatment for brain metastases. A comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romagna, Alexander; Schwartz, Christoph; Tonn, Joerg-Christian; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany); Egensperger, Rupert [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Munich (Germany); Watson, Juliana; Belka, Claus; Nachbichler, Silke Birgit [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Department of Radiation-Oncology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Outcome and toxicity profiles of salvage stereotactic ablative radiation strategies for recurrent pre-irradiated brain metastases are poorly defined. This study compared risk-benefit profiles of upfront and salvage iodine-125 brachytherapy (SBT) for small brain metastases. As the applied SBT treatment algorithm required histologic proof of metastatic brain disease in all patients, we additionally aimed to elucidate the value of biopsy before SBT. Patients with small untreated (n = 20) or pre-irradiated (n =28) suspected metastases intended for upfront or salvage SBT, respectively, were consecutively included. Temporary iodine-125 implants were used (median reference dose: 50 Gy, median dose rate: 15 cGy/h). Cumulative biologically effective doses (BED) were calculated and used for risk assessment. Treatment toxicity was classified according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) criteria. Upfront SBT was initiated in 20 patients and salvage SBT in 23. In 5 patients, salvage SBT was withheld because of proven radiation-induced lesions. Treatment groups exhibited similar epidemiologic data except for tumor size (which was slightly smaller in the salvage group). One-year local/distant tumor control rates after upfront and salvage SBT were similar (94 %/65 % vs. 87 %/57 %, p = 0.45, respectively). Grade I/II toxicity was suffered by 2 patients after salvage SBT (cumulative BED: 192.1 Gy{sub 3} and 249.6 Gy{sub 3}). No toxicity-related risk factors were identified. SBT combines diagnostic yield with effective treatment in selected patients. The low toxicity rate in the salvage group points to protective radiobiologic characteristics of continuous low-dose rate irradiation. Upfront and salvage SBT are similarly effective and safe. Histologic reevaluation should be reconsidered after previous radiotherapy to avoid under- or overtreatment. (orig.) [German] Daten zu Risiko und Effizienz ablativer

  8. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1980-01-01

    In years 1920 as a result of quantum mechanics principles governing the structure of ordinary matter, a sudden importance for a problem raised a long time ago by Laplace: what happens when a massive body becomes so dense that even light cannot escape from its gravitational field. It is difficult to conceive how could be avoided in the actual universe the accumulation of important masses of cold matter having been submitted to gravitational breaking down followed by the formation of what is called to day a black hole [fr

  9. The efficacy of salvage logging in reducing subsequent fire severity in conifer-dominated forests of Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraver, S.; Jain, T.; Bradford, J.B.; D'Amato, A.W.; Kastendick, D.; Palik, B.; Shinneman, D.; Stanovick, J.

    2011-01-01

    Although primarily used to mitigate economic losses following disturbance, salvage logging has also been justified on the basis of reducing fire risk and fire severity; however, its ability to achieve these secondary objectives remains unclear. The patchiness resulting from a sequence of recent disturbances-blowdown, salvage logging, and ildfire- provided an excellent opportunity to assess the impacts of blowdown and salvage logging on wildfire severity. We used two fire-severity assessments (tree-crown and forest-floor characteristics) to compare post-wildfire conditions among three treatment combinations (Blowdown-Salvage-Fire, Blowdown-Fire, and Fire only). Our results suggest that salvage logging reduced the intensity (heat released) of the subsequent fire. However, its effect on severity (impact to the system) differed between the tree crowns and forest floor: tree-crown indices suggest that salvage logging decreased fire severity (albeit with modest statistical support), while forest-floor indices suggest that salvage logging increased fire severity. We attribute the latter finding to the greater exposure of mineral soil caused by logging operations; once exposed, soils are more likely to register the damaging effects of fire, even if fire intensity is not extreme. These results highlight the important distinction between fire intensity and severity when formulating post-disturbance management prescriptions. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Obesity and Risk of Biochemical Failure for Patients Receiving Salvage Radiotherapy After Prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Christopher R.; Spiotto, Michael T.; Kapp, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Obesity has been proposed as an independent risk factor for patients undergoing surgery or radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Using body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity, we tested its role as a risk factor for patients receiving salvage RT after prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Rates of subsequent biochemical relapse were examined in 90 patients who underwent salvage RT between 1984 and 2004 for biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy. Median follow-up was 3.7 years. The BMI was tested as a continuous and categorical variable (stratified as 2 ). Univariate and multivariate proportional hazards regression analyses were performed for clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors associated with time to relapse after salvage RT. Results: There were 40 biochemical failures after salvage RT with a median time to failure of 1.2 years. The BMI was not associated with adverse clinical, pathologic, or treatment factors. On multivariate analysis, obesity was independently significant (hazard ratio [HR], 1.2; p = 0.01), along with RT dose (HR, 0.7; p = 0.003) and pre-RT prostate-specific antigen level (HR, 1.2; p = 0.0003). Conclusions: This study is weakly suggestive that obesity may be a risk factor for salvage RT patients. Whether this results from greater biologic aggressiveness or technical inadequacies cannot be answered by this study. Given the very high failure rate observed for severely obese patients, we propose that technical difficulties with RT are at play. This hypothesis is supported by the RT literature and could be prospectively investigated. Techniques that optimize targeting, especially in obese patients, perhaps seem warranted at this time

  11. Second salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy for radiorecurrent prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Maenhout

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Salvage treatments for localized radiorecurrent prostate cancer can be performed safely when a focal and image guided approach is used. Due to the low toxicity, the opportunity exists to investigate a second salvage treatment when a second locally recurrent prostate cancer occurs. Here, we describe a second salvage treatment procedure of 4 patients. Material and methods : Four patients with a pathologically proven second local recurrence were treated in an outpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-guided setting with a single fraction of 19 Gy focal high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT. Delineation was performed using choline-PET-CT or a 68Ga-PSMA PET in combination with multiparametric 3 Tesla MRI in all four patients. Toxicity was measured using common toxicity criteria for adverse events (CTCAE version 4.0. Results : With a median follow-up of 12 months (range, 6-15, there were 2 patients with biochemical recurrence as defined by the Phoenix-definition. There were no patients with grade 3 or more toxicity. In all second salvage HDR-BT treatments, the constraints for rectum, bladder, and urethra were met. Median treatment volume (GTV was 4.8 cc (range, 1.9-6.6 cc. A median of 8 catheters (range, 6-9 were used, and the median dose to the treatment volume (GTV was a D95: 19.3 Gy (SD 15.5-19.4 Gy. Conclusions : Second focal salvage MRI-guided HDR-BT for a select group of patients with a second locally recurrent prostate cancer is feasible. There was no grade 3 or more acute toxicity for these four patients.

  12. Oncological and functional outcomes of salvage renal surgery following failed primary intervention for renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando G. Abarzua-Cabezas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To assess the oncologic and functional outcomes of salvage renal surgery following failed primary intervention for RCC. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgery for suspected RCC during 2004-2012. We identified 839 patients, 13 of whom required salvage renal surgery. Demographic data was collected for all patients. Intraoperative and postoperative data included ischemic duration, blood loss and perioperative complications. Preoperative and postoperative assessments included abdominal CT or magnetic resonance imaging, chest CT and routine laboratory work. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was calculated according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results The majority (85% of the patients were male, with an average age of 64 years. Ten patients underwent salvage partial nephrectomy while 3 underwent salvage radical nephrectomy. Cryotherapy was the predominant primary failed treatment modality, with 31% of patients undergoing primary open surgery. Pre-operatively, three patients were projected to require permanent post-operative dialysis. In the remaining 10 patients, mean pre- and postoperative serum creatinine and eGFR levels were 1.35 mg/dL and 53.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared to 1.43 mg/dL and 46.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Mean warm ischemia time in 10 patients was 17.4 min and for all patients, the mean blood loss was 647 mL. The predominant pathological stage was pT1a (8/13; 62%. Negative surgical margins were achieved in all cases. The mean follow-up was 32.9 months (3.5-88 months. Conclusion While salvage renal surgery can be challenging, it is feasible and has adequate surgical, functional and oncological outcomes.

  13. Adjuvant Versus Salvage Radiotherapy for Patients With Adverse Pathological Findings Following Radical Prostatectomy: A Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. D. Wallis MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients undergoing surgery for prostate cancer who have adverse pathological findings experience high rates of recurrence. While there are data supporting adjuvant radiotherapy compared to a wait-and-watch strategy to reduce recurrence rates, there are no randomized controlled trials comparing adjuvant radiotherapy with the other standard of care, salvage radiotherapy (radiotherapy administered at the time of recurrence. Methods: We constructed a health state transition (Markov model employing two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation using a lifetime horizon to compare the quality-adjusted survival associated with postoperative strategies using adjuvant or salvage radiotherapy. Prior to analysis, we calibrated and validated our model using the results of previous randomized controlled trials. We considered clinically important oncological health states from immediately postoperative to prostate cancer–specific death, commonly described complications from prostate cancer treatment, and other causes of mortality. Transition probabilities and utilities for disease states were derived from a literature search of MEDLINE and expert consensus. Results: Salvage radiotherapy was associated with an increased quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE (58.3 months as compared with adjuvant radiotherapy (53.7 months, a difference of 4.6 months (standard deviation 8.8. Salvage radiotherapy had higher QALE in 53% of hypothetical cohorts. There was a minimal difference in overall life expectancy (-0.1 months. Examining recurrence rates, our model showed validity when compared with available randomized controlled data. Conclusions: A salvage radiotherapy strategy appears to provide improved QALE for patients with adverse pathological findings following radical prostatectomy, compared with adjuvant radiotherapy. As these findings reflect, population averages, specific patient and tumor factors, and patient preferences remain central for individualized

  14. Detection of mitochondrial COII DNA sequences in ant guts as a method for assessing termite predation by ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom M Fayle

    Full Text Available Termites and ants contribute more to animal biomass in tropical rain forests than any other single group and perform vital ecosystem functions. Although ants prey on termites, at the community level the linkage between these groups is poorly understood. Thus, assessing the distribution and specificity of ant termitophagy is of considerable interest. We describe an approach for quantifying ant-termite food webs by sequencing termite DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, COII from ant guts and apply this to a soil-dwelling ant community from tropical rain forest in Gabon. We extracted DNA from 215 ants from 15 species. Of these, 17.2 % of individuals had termite DNA in their guts, with BLAST analysis confirming the identity of 34.1 % of these termites to family level or better. Although ant species varied in detection of termite DNA, ranging from 63 % (5/7; Camponotus sp. 1 to 0 % (0/7; Ponera sp. 1, there was no evidence (with small sample sizes for heterogeneity in termite consumption across ant taxa, and no evidence for species-specific ant-termite predation. In all three ant species with identifiable termite DNA in multiple individuals, multiple termite species were represented. Furthermore, the two termite species that were detected on multiple occasions in ant guts were in both cases found in multiple ant species, suggesting that ant-termite food webs are not strongly compartmentalised. However, two ant species were found to consume only Anoplotermes-group termites, indicating possible predatory specialisation at a higher taxonomic level. Using a laboratory feeding test, we were able to detect termite COII sequences in ant guts up to 2 h after feeding, indicating that our method only detects recent feeding events. Our data provide tentative support for the hypothesis that unspecialised termite predation by ants is widespread and highlight the use of molecular approaches for future studies of ant-termite food webs.

  15. Detection of mitochondrial COII DNA sequences in ant guts as a method for assessing termite predation by ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayle, Tom M; Scholtz, Olivia; Dumbrell, Alex J; Russell, Stephen; Segar, Simon T; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Termites and ants contribute more to animal biomass in tropical rain forests than any other single group and perform vital ecosystem functions. Although ants prey on termites, at the community level the linkage between these groups is poorly understood. Thus, assessing the distribution and specificity of ant termitophagy is of considerable interest. We describe an approach for quantifying ant-termite food webs by sequencing termite DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, COII) from ant guts and apply this to a soil-dwelling ant community from tropical rain forest in Gabon. We extracted DNA from 215 ants from 15 species. Of these, 17.2 % of individuals had termite DNA in their guts, with BLAST analysis confirming the identity of 34.1 % of these termites to family level or better. Although ant species varied in detection of termite DNA, ranging from 63 % (5/7; Camponotus sp. 1) to 0 % (0/7; Ponera sp. 1), there was no evidence (with small sample sizes) for heterogeneity in termite consumption across ant taxa, and no evidence for species-specific ant-termite predation. In all three ant species with identifiable termite DNA in multiple individuals, multiple termite species were represented. Furthermore, the two termite species that were detected on multiple occasions in ant guts were in both cases found in multiple ant species, suggesting that ant-termite food webs are not strongly compartmentalised. However, two ant species were found to consume only Anoplotermes-group termites, indicating possible predatory specialisation at a higher taxonomic level. Using a laboratory feeding test, we were able to detect termite COII sequences in ant guts up to 2 h after feeding, indicating that our method only detects recent feeding events. Our data provide tentative support for the hypothesis that unspecialised termite predation by ants is widespread and highlight the use of molecular approaches for future studies of ant-termite food webs.

  16. Moribund Ants Do Not Call for Help.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Miler

    Full Text Available When an antlion captures a foraging ant, the victim's nestmates may display rescue behaviour. This study tested the hypothesis that the expression of rescue behaviour depends on the life expectancy of the captured ant. This hypothesis predicts that the expression of rescue behaviour will be less frequent when the captured ant has a lower life expectancy than when it has a higher life expectancy because such a response would be adaptive at the colony level. Indeed, significant differences were found in the frequency of rescue behaviours in response to antlion victims with differing life expectancies. In agreement with prediction, victims with lower life expectancies were rescued less frequently, and those rescues had a longer latency and shorter duration. There was also a qualitative difference in the behaviour of rescuers to victims from the low and high life expectancy groups. Several explanations for these findings are proposed.

  17. Moribund Ants Do Not Call for Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miler, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    When an antlion captures a foraging ant, the victim's nestmates may display rescue behaviour. This study tested the hypothesis that the expression of rescue behaviour depends on the life expectancy of the captured ant. This hypothesis predicts that the expression of rescue behaviour will be less frequent when the captured ant has a lower life expectancy than when it has a higher life expectancy because such a response would be adaptive at the colony level. Indeed, significant differences were found in the frequency of rescue behaviours in response to antlion victims with differing life expectancies. In agreement with prediction, victims with lower life expectancies were rescued less frequently, and those rescues had a longer latency and shorter duration. There was also a qualitative difference in the behaviour of rescuers to victims from the low and high life expectancy groups. Several explanations for these findings are proposed.

  18. Kin-informative recognition cues in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehring, Volker; Evison, Sophie E F; Santorelli, Lorenzo A

    2011-01-01

    behaviour is thought to be rare in one of the classic examples of cooperation--social insect colonies--because the colony-level costs of individual selfishness select against cues that would allow workers to recognize their closest relatives. In accord with this, previous studies of wasps and ants have...... found little or no kin information in recognition cues. Here, we test the hypothesis that social insects do not have kin-informative recognition cues by investigating the recognition cues and relatedness of workers from four colonies of the ant Acromyrmex octospinosus. Contrary to the theoretical...... prediction, we show that the cuticular hydrocarbons of ant workers in all four colonies are informative enough to allow full-sisters to be distinguished from half-sisters with a high accuracy. These results contradict the hypothesis of non-heritable recognition cues and suggest that there is more potential...

  19. Recognition of social identity in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nick; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the identity of others, from the individual to the group level, is a hallmark of society. Ants, and other social insects, have evolved advanced societies characterized by efficient social recognition systems. Colony identity is mediated by colony specific signature mixtures, a blend...... of hydrocarbons present on the cuticle of every individual (the “label”). Recognition occurs when an ant encounters another individual, and compares the label it perceives to an internal representation of its own colony odor (the “template”). A mismatch between label and template leads to rejection...... of the encountered individual. Although advances have been made in our understanding of how the label is produced and acquired, contradictory evidence exists about information processing of recognition cues. Here, we review the literature on template acquisition in ants and address how and when the template...

  20. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line Vej; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its...... rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus....... We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus...

  1. Swarm controlled emergence for ant clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheidler, Alexander; Merkle, Daniel; Middendorf, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Swarm controlled emergence is proposed as an approach to control emergent effects in (artificial) swarms. The method involves the introduction of specific control agents into the swarm systems. Control agents behave similar to the normal agents and do not directly influence the behavior...... of the normal agents. The specific design of the control agents depends on the particular swarm system considered. The aim of this paper is to apply the method to ant clustering. Ant clustering, as an emergent effect, can be observed in nature and has inspired the design of several technical systems, e.......g. moving robots, and clustering algorithms. Design/methodology/approach: Different types of control agents for that ant clustering model are designed by introducing slight changes to the behavioural rules of the normal agents. The clustering behaviour of the resulting swarms is investigated by extensive...

  2. Desert ants learn vibration and magnetic landmarks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Buehlmann

    Full Text Available The desert ants Cataglyphis navigate not only by path integration but also by using visual and olfactory landmarks to pinpoint the nest entrance. Here we show that Cataglyphis noda can additionally use magnetic and vibrational landmarks as nest-defining cues. The magnetic field may typically provide directional rather than positional information, and vibrational signals so far have been shown to be involved in social behavior. Thus it remains questionable if magnetic and vibration landmarks are usually provided by the ants' habitat as nest-defining cues. However, our results point to the flexibility of the ants' navigational system, which even makes use of cues that are probably most often sensed in a different context.

  3. Ant-gardens of tropical Asian rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Eva; Maschwitz, Ulrich

    2006-05-01

    Ant-garden (AG) associations are systems of epiphytic plants and arboricolous (i.e., tree-living) ants, in which the ants build fragile carton nests containing organic material. They collect and incorporate seeds or fruits of epiphytes that then germinate and grow on the nest [sensu Corbara et al. (1999) 38:73-89]. The plant roots stabilize the nest carton. AGs have been well-known in the neotropics for more than 100 years. In contrast, reports on similar associations in the paleotropics are scarce so far. After discovering a first common AG system on giant bamboo [Kaufmann et al. (2001) 48:125-133], we started a large-scale survey for AGs in Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, and southern Thailand. A great variety of AG systems (altogether including 18 ant species and 51 plant species) was discovered and is described in the present paper. The high number of species participating in AG associations was reflected by a great variability in the specific appearances of the nest gardens. Frequently, further groups of organisms (e.g., hemipteran trophobionts, fungi) were also involved. Preference patterns of particular ant and epiphyte species for each other and for particular phorophytes (carrier trees) were detected. We integrate domatia-producing, so-called ant-house epiphytes in our study and compare their phases of establishment, as well as other characteristics, to “classical” AGs, coming to the conclusion that they should be regarded only as a special type of AG epiphyte and not as a separate ecological category.

  4. Ants of the Peloponnese, Greece (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Borowiec Lech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates to material obtained during two field trips to the Peloponnese in 2013 and 2016. With the inclusion of some hitherto unpublished ant material, it gives new records from a total of 92 sampling localities. 129 species (including morphospecies not attributed to any known taxon of ants have been recorded from the Peloponnese (southern Greece, 27 of which have been recorded from this region for the first time. Lasius reginae and 5 other morphospecies attributed only to species complexes are new to Greece.

  5. The ejaculatory biology of leafcutter ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Boer, Susanne; Stürup, Marlene; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2015-01-01

    The eusocial ants are unique in that females (queens) acquire and store sperm on a single mating flight early in adult life. This event largely determines the size (possibly millions of workers), longevity (possibly decades) and genetic variation of the colonies that queens found, but our...... understanding of the fundamental biology of ejaculate production, transfer and physiological function remains extremely limited. We studied the ejaculation process in the leafcutter ant Atta colombica and found that it starts with the appearance of a clear pre-ejaculatory fluid (PEF) at the tip...

  6. Ant functional responses along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnan, Xavier; Cerdá, Xim; Retana, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Understanding species distributions and diversity gradients is a central challenge in ecology and requires prior knowledge of the functional traits mediating species' survival under particular environmental conditions. While the functional ecology of plants has been reasonably well explored, much less is known about that of animals. Ants are among the most diverse, abundant and ecologically significant organisms on earth, and they perform a great variety of ecological functions. In this study, we analyse how the functional species traits present in ant communities vary along broad gradients in climate, productivity and vegetation type in the south-western Mediterranean. To this end, we compiled one of the largest animal databases to date: it contains information on 211 local ant communities (including eight climate variables, productivity, and vegetation type) and 124 ant species, for which 10 functional traits are described. We used traits that characterize different dimensions of the ant functional niche with respect to morphology, life history and behaviour at both individual and colony level. We calculated two complementary functional trait community indices ('trait average' and 'trait dissimilarity') for each trait, and we analysed how they varied along the three different gradients using generalized least squares models that accounted for spatial autocorrelation. Our results show that productivity, vegetation type and, to a lesser extent, each climate variable per se might play an important role in shaping the occurrence of functional species traits in ant communities. Among the climate variables, temperature and precipitation seasonality had a much higher influence on functional responses than their mean values, whose effects were almost lacking. Our results suggest that strong relationships might exist between the abiotic environment and the distribution of functional traits among south-western Mediterranean ant communities. This finding indicates that

  7. Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex and Mycocepurus have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutter ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas...... or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell walls may have functionally co-evolved with the ants in this scenario. We explore this hypothesis with direct measurements of enzyme activity in fungus gardens in 12 species across 8 genera spanning the entire phylogeny...

  8. Making Blackness, Making Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Too often the acknowledgment that race is a social construction ignores exactly how this construction occurs. By illuminating the way in which the category of blackness and black individuals are made, we can better see how race matters in America. Antidiscrimination policy, social science research, and the state's support of its citizens can all be improved by an accurate and concrete definition of blackness. Making Blackness, Making Policy argues that blackness and black people are literally...

  9. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black holes; numerical relativity; nonlinear sigma. Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. ... Theoretical and Computational Studies Group, Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA ...

  10. Dealing with water deficit in Atta ant colonies: large ants scout for water while small ants transport it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Da-Silva

    2012-07-01

    Leafcutter ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Forel 1908 have an elaborate social organization, complete with caste divisions. Activities carried out by specialist groups contribute to the overall success and survival of the colony when it is confronted with environmental challenges such as dehydration. Ants detect variations in humidity inside the nest and react by activating several types of behavior that enhance water uptake and decrease water loss, but it is not clear whether or not a single caste collects water regardless of the cost of bringing this resource back to the colony. Accordingly, we investigated water collection activities in three colonies of Atta sexdens rubropilosa experimentally exposed to water stress. Specifically, we analyzed whether or not the same ant caste foraged for water, regardless of the absolute energetic cost (distance of transporting this resource back to the colony. Our experimental design offered water sources at 0 m, 1 m and 10 m from the nest. We studied the body size of ants near the water sources from the initial offer of water (time  =  0 to 120 min, and tested for specialization. We observed a reduction in the average size and variance of ants that corroborated the specialization hypothesis. Although the temporal course of specialization changed with distance, the final outcome was similar among distances. Thus, we conclude that, for this species, a specialist (our use of the word “specialist” does not mean exclusive task force is responsible for collecting water, regardless of the cost of transporting water back to the colony.

  11. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  12. Extended phenotype: nematodes turn ants into bird-dispersed fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D P; Kronauer, D J C; Boomsma, J J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs.......A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs....

  13. The effect carbohydrate consumption on Argentine ants' nutritional ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Cheng T.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of accidental introduction, the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, has successfully invaded many parts of the world including the California coast. Argentine ants are extraordinarily effective in displacing native ants. This study aims to link animal behavior and growth to resource consumption. We examined how different diets affect Argentine ant behavior. We hypothesized that having a diet composed of both carbohydrate and protein may increase colony size and activity le...

  14. Size matters: Nest colonization patterns for twig-nesting ants

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Soto, E; Philpott, SM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Understanding the drivers of ant diversity and co-occurrence in agroecosystems is fundamental because ants participate in interactions that influence agroecosystem processes. Multiple local and regional factors influence ant community assembly. We examined local factors that influence the structure of a twig-nesting ant community in a coffee system in Mexico using an experimental approach. We investigated whether ...

  15. Mating, hybridisation and introgression in Lasius ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, van der T.M.; Pedersen, J.S.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reviews have shown that hybridisation among ant species is likely to be more common than previously appreciated. but that documented cases of introgression remain rare. After molecular phylogenetic work had shown that European Lasius niger (LINNAEUS, 1758) and L. psammophilus SEIFERT, 1992

  16. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easi...

  17. Histrionicotoxin alkaloids finally detected in an ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Tappey H.; Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Spande, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Workers of the ant Carebarella bicolor collected in Panama were found to have two major poison-frog alkaloids, cis- and trans-fused decahydroquinolines (DHQs) of the 269AB type, four minor 269AB isomers, two minor 269B isomers, and three isomers of DHQ 271D. For the first time in an ant, however......) sp., were found to have a very similar DHQ complex but failed to show HTXs. Several new DHQ alkaloids of MW 271 (named in the frog as 271G) are reported from the above ants that have both m/z 202 and 204 as major fragment ions, unlike the spectrum seen for the poison-frog alkaloid 271D, which has...... only an m/z 204 base peak. Found also for the first time in skin extracts from the comparison frog Oophaga granulifera of Costa Rica is a trace DHQ of MW 273. It is coded as 273F in the frog; a different isomer is found in the ant....

  18. Plasmodium parasitaemia among pregnant women attending ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ante-Natal Clinic at Military Hospital Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria using the Standard parasitological technique. Venous blood was collected from 200 pregnant women, both thick and thin blood films were made on clean greese-free glass slide and stained with 10% Giemsa stains diluted with 7.2 buffered water for ...

  19. Why is an Ant's Trail Straight?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    demonstrate their sense of geometry did not work." Feynman had recognized the importance of this problem of one ant pursuing another. Historically, pursuit problems are pretty old, dating back even to Leonardo da Vinci. In recent times this question has become all the more relevant in robotics. This problem has now been ...

  20. Water surface locomotion in tropical canopy ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoviak, S P; Frederick, D N

    2014-06-15

    Upon falling onto the water surface, most terrestrial arthropods helplessly struggle and are quickly eaten by aquatic predators. Exceptions to this outcome mostly occur among riparian taxa that escape by walking or swimming at the water surface. Here we document sustained, directional, neustonic locomotion (i.e. surface swimming) in tropical arboreal ants. We dropped 35 species of ants into natural and artificial aquatic settings in Peru and Panama to assess their swimming ability. Ten species showed directed surface swimming at speeds >3 body lengths s(-1), with some swimming at absolute speeds >10 cm s(-1). Ten other species exhibited partial swimming ability characterized by relatively slow but directed movement. The remaining species showed no locomotory control at the surface. The phylogenetic distribution of swimming among ant genera indicates parallel evolution and a trend toward negative association with directed aerial descent behavior. Experiments with workers of Odontomachus bauri showed that they escape from the water by directing their swimming toward dark emergent objects (i.e. skototaxis). Analyses of high-speed video images indicate that Pachycondyla spp. and O. bauri use a modified alternating tripod gait when swimming; they generate thrust at the water surface via synchronized treading and rowing motions of the contralateral fore and mid legs, respectively, while the hind legs provide roll stability. These results expand the list of facultatively neustonic terrestrial taxa to include various species of tropical arboreal ants. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Ants recognize foes and not friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Fernando J.; Nehring, Volker; Jørgensen, Charlotte G.; Nielsen, John; Galizia, C. Giovanni; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Discriminating among individuals and rejecting non-group members is essential for the evolution and stability of animal societies. Ants are good models for studying recognition mechanisms, because they are typically very efficient in discriminating ‘friends’ (nest-mates) from ‘foes’ (non-nest-mates). Recognition in ants involves multicomponent cues encoded in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Here, we tested whether workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus herculeanus use the presence and/or absence of cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate between nest-mates and non-nest-mates. We supplemented the cuticular profile with synthetic hydrocarbons mixed to liquid food and then assessed behavioural responses using two different bioassays. Our results show that (i) the presence, but not the absence, of an additional hydrocarbon elicited aggression and that (ii) among the three classes of hydrocarbons tested (unbranched, mono-methylated and dimethylated alkanes; for mono-methylated alkanes, we present a new synthetic pathway), only the dimethylated alkane was effective in eliciting aggression. Our results suggest that carpenter ants use a fundamentally different mechanism for nest-mate recognition than previously thought. They do not specifically recognize nest-mates, but rather recognize and reject non-nest-mates bearing odour cues that are novel to their own colony cuticular hydrocarbon profile. This begs for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying recognition systems in social insects. PMID:19364750

  2. Operant conditioning in the ant Myrmica sabuleti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, M C

    2004-11-30

    Operant conditioning could be obtained in the ant Myrmica sabuleti by presenting to the workers, during a six-day period, an apparatus containing either sugared water or meat as a reward. The conditioning obtained using sugared water as a reward was short lasting. A reconditioning was more persistent and lasted four hours. The ants' response was very precise, since they exhibited it only in front of an apparatus identical to that used during the training phase. Operant conditioning obtained using meat as a reward was more pronounced than that obtained by using sugared water, probably because meat is more valuable as a reward than sugar for the species studied, which is essentially a carnivorous one. Such a conditioning was rather persistent. Indeed, a first operant conditioning obtained by using meat as a reward could still be detected after seven hours, and a reconditioning was still significant after eight hours. One day after this eight-hour period without rewarding the ants, the response was higher again and a further day later, it was still significant. Since the operant conditioning is easy to perform and quantify and since the ants' response is very precise, such a conditioning can be used for further studying M. sabuleti workers' visual perception.

  3. Serotonin depresses feeding behaviour in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falibene, Agustina; Rössler, Wolfgang; Josens, Roxana

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behaviour is a complex functional system that relies on external signals and the physiological state of the animal. This is also the case in ants as they vary their feeding behaviour according to food characteristics, environmental conditions and - as they are social insects - to the colony's requirements. The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) was shown to be involved in the control and modulation of many actions and processes related to feeding in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we investigated whether 5-HT affects nectar feeding in ants by analysing its effect on the sucking-pump activity. Furthermore, we studied 5-HT association with tissues and neuronal ganglia involved in feeding regulation. Our results show that 5-HT promotes a dose-dependent depression of sucrose feeding in Camponotus mus ants. Orally administered 5-HT diminished the intake rate by mainly decreasing the volume of solution taken per pump contraction, without modifying the sucrose acceptance threshold. Immunohistochemical studies all along the alimentary canal revealed 5-HT-like immunoreactive processes on the foregut (oesophagus, crop and proventriculus), while the midgut and hindgut lacked 5-HT innervation. Although the frontal and suboesophageal ganglia contained 5-HT immunoreactive cell bodies, serotonergic innervation in the sucking-pump muscles was absent. The results are discussed in the frame of a role of 5-HT in feeding control in ants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... together. Each sting will turn into an itchy white blister over the next day. What You Should Do If you ever think that you have been stung by a fire ant, tell an adult immediately . That's because the venom (poison) in the sting can cause the area around ...

  5. Ante Graovac – Life and Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Raos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ivan Gutman, Biserka Pokrić, Damir Vukičević (Eds. Ante Graovac – Life and Works Mathematical Chemistry Monographs, Vol. 16 Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac (Serbia, 2014 306 + IV pages ◦ ISBN 978-86-6009-021-0 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  6. Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex and Mycocepurus have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutter ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas...

  7. A global database of ant species abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Heloise; Dunn, Rob R.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Grossman, Blair F.; Photakis, Manoli; Abril, Silvia; Agosti, Donat; Andersen, Alan N.; Angulo, Elena; Armbrecht, Ingre; Arnan, Xavier; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Bishop, Tom R.; Boulay, Raphael; Bruhl, Carsten; Castracani, Cristina; Cerda, Xim; Del Toro, Israel; Delsinne, Thibaut; Diaz, Mireia; Donoso, David A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Enriquez, Martha L.; Fayle, Tom M.; Feener Jr., Donald H.; Fisher, Brian L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitpatrick, Matthew C.; Gomez, Cristanto; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Gove, Aaron; Grasso, Donato A.; Groc, Sarah; Guenard, Benoit; Gunawardene, Nihara; Heterick, Brian; Hoffmann, Benjamin; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, Clinton; Kaspari, Michael; Klimes, Petr; Lach, Lori; Laeger, Thomas; Lattke, John; Leponce, Maurice; Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Longino, John; Lucky, Andrea; Luke, Sarah H.; Majer, Jonathan; McGlynn, Terrence P.; Menke, Sean; Mezger, Dirk; Mori, Alessandra; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Pacheco, Renata; Paknia, Omid; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Pfeiffer, Martin; Philpott, Stacy M.; Resasco, Julian; Retana, Javier; Silva, Rogerio R.; Sorger, Magdalena D.; Souza, Jorge; Suarez, Andrew V.; Tista, Melanie; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.; Vonshak, Merav; Weiser, Michael D.; Yates, Michelle; Parr, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    What forces structure ecological assemblages? A key limitation to general insights about assemblage structure is the availability of data that are collected at a small spatial grain (local assemblages) and a large spatial extent (global coverage). Here, we present published and unpublished data from 51,388 ant abundance and occurrence records of more than 2693 species and 7953 morphospecies from local assemblages collected at 4212 locations around the world. Ants were selected because they are diverse and abundant globally, comprise a large fraction of animal biomass in most terrestrial communities, and are key contributors to a range of ecosystem functions. Data were collected between 1949 and 2014, and include, for each geo-referenced sampling site, both the identity of the ants collected and details of sampling design, habitat type and degree of disturbance. The aim of compiling this dataset was to provide comprehensive species abundance data in order to test relationships between assemblage structure and environmental and biogeographic factors. Data were collected using a variety of standardised methods, such as pitfall and Winkler traps, and will be valuable for studies investigating large-scale forces structuring local assemblages. Understanding such relationships is particularly critical under current rates of global change. We encourage authors holding additional data on systematically collected ant assemblages, especially those in dry and cold, and remote areas, to contact us and contribute their data to this growing dataset.

  8. Dynamic Network Formation Using Ant Colony Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Problem (DVRP) ............................................ 36 2.7.2 Dynamic Traveling Salesman Problem (DTSP) ....................................... 41...47 2.8.3 Distributed Traveling Salesman Problem ................................................. 48 2.8.4 FIRE Ant...uses the fixed cost of the network in its calculation and commodities are not included in the problem formulation . Using a probabilistic undirected

  9. Vestlus päevapoliitikast Ants Vahtrasega / Ants Vahtras ; interv. Hillar Padu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahtras, Ants, 1953-

    2001-01-01

    Keskerakonna Hiiumaa osakonna esimees Ants Vahtras keskendub vestluses Keskerakonna kandidaatidele presidendi valimistele, arutleb presidendile vajalike isikuomaduste, haldusreformi, Hiiumaa Suurkogu, erastamiselt laekuva raha kasutamise üle ning annab hinnangu kultuuripoliitikale. Autor: Keskerakond

  10. Biogeography of mutualistic fungi cultivated by leafcutter ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leafcutter ants propagate co-evolving fungi for food. The nearly 50 species of leafcutter ants (Atta, Acromyrmex) range from Argentina to the USA, with the greatest species diversity in southern South America. We elucidate the biogeography of fungi cultivated by leafcutter ants using DNA-sequence an...

  11. Studies on the environmental implications of ants (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of ants associated wh two synanthropcenvironments in Awka was carried out in 2008 using pitfall and bait traps. The study yelded a total of 561 ants wth 409 obtaned from the hemisynanthrophic environment while 192 ants were collected from the endophilic environment. The percentage occurrence, total dstribution ...

  12. Niches and coexistence of ant communities in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres

    1984-01-01

    I studied ant coexistence in adjacent areas of upland tropical forest, grassland, and agricultural land in San Lorenzo, Puerto Rico. Data on food utilization, daily activity, nesting sites, microhabitat utilization and interspecific aggression were collected. Ants' tolerance to 45 degree C was determined in the laboratory. Agricultural and grassland ants eat grain...

  13. Population biology of Rhytidoponera ants (Hymenoptera:Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    BIZOS, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Ants from the genus Rhytidoponera are known for specific type of social organization in which some workers can reproduce. Species of this ants are commonly occuring in lowland rainforests of New Guinea but their biology is unknown to great extent. This thesis reviews available molecular methods suitable for study of population structure and phylogeography of Rhytidpoponera ants in rainforest environment.

  14. Ant-egg cataract. An electron microscopic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Nissen, S H

    1979-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the ant-egg cataractous lens has been studied. Comparison of tissue demineralized by means of EDTA with untreated tissue showed the calcium salts in the ant-eggs to be mostly crystalline. A laminar appearance of the ant-egg seen in EDTA treated material suggested an intermit...

  15. Ants Orasest ja Anne Lange monograafiast / Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talvet, Jüri, 1945-

    2005-01-01

    Arvustus: Oras, Ants. Luulekool. I, Apoloogia / koostajad Hando Runnel ja Jaak Rähesoo. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2003 ; Oras, Ants. Luulekool II, Meistriklass. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2004 ; Lange, Anne. Ants Oras : [kirjandusteadlane, -kriitik ja tõlkija (1900-1982)]. Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2004

  16. Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks based on Ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Ant Colony Optimization, a swarm intelligence based optimization technique, has been successfully used in network routing. In this paper, we introduce a heuristic way to reduce energy consumption in WSNs routing process using Ant Colony Optimization. We introduce three Ant Colony Optimization ...

  17. Amputations for extremity soft tissue sarcoma in an era of limb salvage treatment : Local control and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, Marc G; Musters, Annelie H; Geertzen, Jan H B; van Leeuwen, Barbara L; Hoekstra, Harald J; Been, Lukas B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite multimodality limb salvage treatment (LST) for locally advanced extremity soft tissue sarcoma (ESTS), some patients still need an amputation. Indications for amputation and oncological outcome for these patients are described. METHODS: Between 1996 and 2016, all patients who

  18. Powerful methods to establish chromosomal markers in Lactococcus lactis: an analysis of pyrimidine salvage pathway mutants obtained by positive selections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Hammer, Karin

    1995-01-01

    Using different 5-fluoropyrimidine analogues, positive selection procedures for obtaining mutants blocked in pyrimidine and purine salvage genes of Lactococcus lactis were established. Strains lacking the following enzyme activities due to mutations in the corresponding genes were isolated: uracil...

  19. Are ant feces nutrients for plants? A metabolomics approach to elucidate the nutritional effects on plants hosting weaver ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Nanna Hjort; Wollenweber, Bernd; Gislum, René

    2015-01-01

    Weaver ants (genus Oecophylla) are tropical carnivorous ant species living in high numbers in the canopies of trees. The ants excrete copious amounts of fecal matter on leaf surfaces, and these feces may provide nutrients to host trees. This hypothesis is supported by studies of ant-plant...... interactions involving other ant species that have demonstrated the transfer of nutrients from ants to plants. In this 7-months study, a GC–MS-based metabolomics approach along with an analysis of total nitrogen and carbon levels was used to study metabolic changes in ant-hosting Coffea arabica plants compared...... with control plants. The results showed elevated levels of total nitrogen, amino acids, fatty acids, caffeine, and secondary metabolites of the phenylpropanoid pathway in leaves from ant-hosting plants. Minor effects were observed for sugars, whereas little or no effect was observed for organic acids, despite...

  20. Factors associated with myocardial salvage immediately after emergent percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Susumu; Nakamura, Seishi; Sugiura, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    The amount of myocardial salvage after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is reported to be a major determinant of functional recovery in patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, factors related to the amount of myocardial salvage remain unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the factors related to the amount of myocardial salvage after emergent PCI in patients with ST-elevation acute MI by incorporating pre- and post-treatment indices and adjunctive treatments. Technetium-99m myocardial imaging was performed before, immediately after, and one month after emergent PCI in 161 patients with ST-elevation acute MI, and the defect score was serially evaluated. A good myocardial salvage was defined as ≥4 change (before minus immediately after PCI) of the defect score. Good myocardial salvage was observed in 89 patients. Based on nine clinical variables, logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the important variables related to myocardial salvage. Multivariate analysis revealed that earlier time from onset to PCI (χ 2 =6.55, P=0.01, odds ratio=2.78), larger defect score before PCI (χ 2 =7.29, P=0.01, odds ratio=1.13) and administration of nicorandil before PCI (χ 2 =9.88, P=0.008, odds ratio=4.42) were independently associated with good myocardial salvage. Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 2 =4.91, P=0.03, odds ratio=0.36) and TIMI flow grade ≤2 after PCI (χ 2 =4.82, P=0.03, odds ratio=0.31) were independently associated with poor myocardial salvage. In contrast, the number of asynergic segments before PCI, infarct-related artery, adequate collaterals before PCI and stent implantation were not determinants of myocardial salvage. This study demonstrated that patients with a greater improvement of 99 mTc tetrofosmin myocardial uptake immediately after PCI had better recovery of left ventricular function and smaller final infarct size. Reperfusion time and TIMI flow grade ≤2 after

  1. Can the Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile Mayr) replace native ants in myrmecochory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Crisanto; Oliveras, Jordi

    2003-04-01

    We analyse the influence of the Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile Mayr) on the seed dispersal process of the myrmecochorous plants Euphorbia characias, E. biumbellata, Genista linifolia, G. triflora, G. monspessulana and Sarothamnus arboreus. The observations were made in two study plots of Mediterranean cork-oak secondary forest (invaded and non-invaded by L. humile). The presence of L. humile implies the displacement of all native ant species that disperse seeds. Seed transports in the non-invaded zone were carried out by eight ant species. In the invaded zone, L. humile workers removed and transported seeds to the nest. In vertebrate exclusion trials, we observed the same level of seed removal in the invaded and non-invaded zones. Two findings could explain this result. Although mean time to seed localization was higher for native ants (431.7 s) than that for L. humile (150.5 s), the mean proportion of seeds transported after being detected was higher (50.1%) in non-invaded than in invaded (16.8%) zones. The proportion of seeds removed and transported into an ant nest after an ant-seed interaction had dramatically reduced from non-invaded (41.9%) to invaded (7.4%) zones. The levels of seed dispersal by ants found prior to invasion are unlikely to be maintained in invaded zones. However, total replacement of seed dispersal function is possible if contact iteration finally offers similar levels or quantities of seeds reaching the nests. The results obtained confirm that the Argentine ant invasion may affect myrmecochory dramatically in the Mediterranean biome.

  2. Unadapted behaviour of native, dominant ant species during the colonization of an aggressive, invasive ant

    OpenAIRE

    Le Breton, Julien; Orivel, J.; Chazeau, Jean; Dejean, A.

    2007-01-01

    Among the factors driving the invasive success of non-indigenous species, the "escape opportunity" or "enemy release" hypothesis argues that an invader's success may result partly from less resistance from the new competitors found in its introduced range. In this study, we examined competitive interactions between the little fire ant Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) and ant species of the genus Pheidole in places where both are native (French Guiana) and in places where only species of Pheidol...

  3. Ant species identity mediates reproductive traits and allocation in an ant-garden bromeliad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Céline; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Carrias, Jean-François; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Determining the sources of variation in floral morphology is crucial to understanding the mechanisms underlying Angiosperm evolution. The selection of floral and reproductive traits is influenced by the plant's abiotic environment, florivores and pollinators. However, evidence that variations in floral traits result from mutualistic interactions with insects other than pollinators is lacking in the published literature and has rarely been investigated. We aimed to determine whether the association with either Camponotus femoratus or Pachycondyla goeldii (both involved in seed dispersal and plant protection) mediates the reproductive traits and allocation of Aechmea mertensii, an obligatory ant-garden tank-bromeliad, differently. Methods Floral and reproductive traits were compared between the two A. mertensii ant-gardens. The nitrogen flux from the ants to the bromeliads was investigated through experimental enrichments with stable isotopes (15N). Key Results Camponotus femoratus-associated bromeliads produced inflorescences up to four times longer than did P. goeldii-associated bromeliads. Also, the numbers of flowers and fruits were close to four times higher, and the number of seeds and their mass per fruit were close to 1·5 times higher in C. femoratus than in P. goeldii-associated bromeliads. Furthermore, the 15N-enrichment experiment showed that C. femoratus-associated bromeliads received more nitrogen from ants than did P. goeldii-associated bromeliads, with subsequent positive repercussions on floral development. Greater benefits were conferred to A. mertensii by the association with C. femoratus compared with P. goeldii ants. Conclusions We show for the first time that mutualistic associations with ants can result in an enhanced reproductive allocation for the bromeliad A. mertensii. Nevertheless, the strength and direction of the selection of floral and fruit traits change based on the ant species and were not related to light

  4. Temporal trends and predictors of salvage cancer treatment after failure following radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy: an analysis from the CaPSURE registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, K Clint; Paciorek, Alan; Fuldeore, Mahesh J; Carroll, Peter R; Cooperberg, Matthew R

    2014-02-15

    Prostate cancer treatment after failure of primary therapy by either radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy can vary greatly. This study sought to determine trends and predictors of salvage treatment after failure of primary treatment in a community cohort over the past 10 years. From the community-based Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) database, 6275 patients were identified who initiated a form of primary treatment for prostate cancer; 839 of these were identified as failing treatment by biochemical recurrence or initiation of secondary treatment between 2000 and 2010. Salvage therapy was categorized as either systemic, local, or none. Patient characteristics were tested for association with salvage therapy using analysis of variance, Pearson chi-square tests, and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Of the 839 patients identified as failing therapy, 390 (47%), 146 (17%), and 303 (36%) received systemic, local, or no salvage therapy, respectively. Type of primary treatment received was associated with type of salvage therapy (P trend in the use of local salvage therapy over the past 10 years (P = .04). Primary treatment type and biopsy Gleason score were significantly associated with type of salvage therapy. The use of local salvage therapy has increased over the past decade, whereas the use of systemic salvage therapy has declined. Primary treatment is an important factor in determining which type of salvage therapy a patient will receive. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  5. Rotationplasty as a salvage of failed primary limb reconstruction: up to date review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavese, Federico; Samba, Antoine; Khan, Ahmad; Dechelotte, Pierre; Krajbich, Joseph I

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of a 15-year-old girl who is a known case for proximal focal femoral deficiency. She underwent several surgical lengthening procedures. Her course was complicated by femur nonunion, knee joint dislocation, stiff knee, and final lower limb discrepancy of over 15 cm. Rotationplasty was performed to salvage her previous surgical failures and restore her function. Surgery was uneventful and the patient was able to walk with the prosthesis in a few months after index surgery. Although the outcome of rotationplasty is visually unusual, for some children restored function and physical capabilities outweigh cosmetic concerns. The aim of the present study was to report a case of rotationplasty in salvaging a failed primary limb reconstruction in a patient with proximal femur focal deficiency.

  6. Predictive factors for better bypass patency and limb salvage after prosthetic above-knee bypass reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, Eric; Bergert, Hendrik; Kersting, Stephan; Ludwig, Stefan; Weiss, Norbert; Schönleben, Frank; Grützmann, Robert; Gäbel, Gabor

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is one of the most underestimated diseases because of its high prevalence and unfavorable prognosis. Many PAD patients without suitable autologous veins or options for endovascular treatment receive prosthetic above-knee femoropopliteal bypass (PAKB). Until now predictors of prosthetic bypass failure and of increased amputation risk remain indistinct. This study aimed to identify predictive factors associated with better bypass patency and limb salvage to achieve a more favorable outcome after PAKB reconstruction. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative data of 244 PAKB procedures performed at a German university medical center were collected and analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. To our knowledge this 12-year experience is the largest retrospective study to identify predictors for patency and limb salvage after PAKB reconstruction. Of the PAD patients 94% (229/244) were followed for an average of 34.9 months. Patient cohorts characteristics were: mean age, 66.1 years, 181 men (74%), claudication (64%), rest pain (16%), ischemic lesions (20%), arterial hypertension (92%), smoking (79%), hyperlipidemia (65%) and type 2 diabetes (43%). Cumulative primary 1- and 3-year graft patency rates were 60.8% and 50.7%, respectively, and cumulative 1- and 3-year limb salvage rates were 89.3% and 86.1%, respectively. One hundred seven bypasses (43.9%) failed, 26 patients (10.7%) required a major and seven patients (2.9%) required a minor amputation. Overall survival rates of PAD patients after 1- and 3-years were 94.4% and 82.9%, respectively. Subjective symptom improvement was found to be the most important prognostic follow-up factor for graft patency and limb salvage. Patients with recurrent symptoms in the follow-up had an increased risk of emerging bypass failure compared with patients with subjective symptom improvement (patency at 1 year: 40.8% vs 100% and at 3 years: 26% vs 100%; P limb salvage at 1 year: 100% vs 79% and

  7. Interactive effects of soil-dwelling ants, ant mounds and simulated grazing on local plant community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G.F.; Olff, H.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between aboveground vertebrate herbivores and subterranean yellow meadow ants (Lasius flavus) can drive plant community patterns in grassland ecosystems. Here, we study the relative importance of the presence of ants (L. flavus) and ant mounds under different simulated grazing regimes

  8. Dead ant walking: a myrmecophilous beetle predator uses parasitoid host location cues to selectively prey on parasitized ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Kaitlyn A; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2016-08-17

    Myrmecophiles (i.e. organisms that associate with ants) use a variety of ecological niches and employ different strategies to survive encounters with ants. Because ants are typically excellent defenders, myrmecophiles may choose moments of weakness to take advantage of their ant associates. This hypothesis was studied in the rove beetle, Myrmedonota xipe, which associates with Azteca sericeasur ants in the presence of parasitoid flies. A combination of laboratory and field experiments show that M. xipe beetles selectively locate and prey upon parasitized ants. These parasitized ants are less aggressive towards beetles than healthy ants, allowing beetles to eat the parasitized ants alive without interruption. Moreover, behavioural assays and chemical analysis reveal that M. xipe are attracted to the ant's alarm pheromone, the same secretion used by the phorid fly parasitoids in host location. This strategy allows beetles access to an abundant but otherwise inaccessible resource, as A. sericeasur ants are typically highly aggressive. These results are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a predator sharing cues with a parasitoid to gain access to an otherwise unavailable prey item. Furthermore, this work highlights the importance of studying ant-myrmecophile interactions beyond just their pairwise context. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  10. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  11. Do indices of coronary conductance after reperfusion reflect the extent of salvaged myocardium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takahiro; Watanabe, Hisashi; Tsurusaki, Tetsushi; Minai, Kousuke; Ogawa, Takayuki; Iwano, Keiji; Tamura, Tetsutarou; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mutou, Makoto; Imai, Kamon; Horie, Toshinobu; Mochizuki, Seibu

    2004-05-01

    Existing indices of coronary conductance (hyperemic flow-versus-pressure slope index, FPSI, and zero flow pressure, Pzf) have been developed as measures of microcoronary resistance. These indices, however, refer to cases of normal hearts, and there are no reports studying these indices following acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we investigated whether FPSI and Pzf truly measure the extent of myocardial salvage after successful reperfusion therapy. We also developed a new index of zero pressure flow, Fzp. Nineteen patients who underwent successful reperfusion therapy to the proximal portion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) were studied. After successful reperfusion therapy, a Doppler wire was placed into the LAD. Aortic pressure was recorded in real time. Results from the aortic pressure and flow meter were combined to produce FPSI, Pzf, and Fzp. All cases underwent a resting thallium (Tl) and BMIPP scintigram within five days of successful reperfusion therapy. Infarcted myocardium was estimated using a severity score calculated from the Tl scintigraphy (TlSS), and the BMIPP (BMIPPSS) was estimated using a severity score. Patients with a TlSS/BMIPPSS ratio of less than 0.4 were assigned to the successful salvage group (group S), while the others were assigned to the failed salvage group (group F). FPSI of group F was 1.91 +/- 0.26 m/sec and of group S was 0.92 +/- 0.43 m/sec (P < 0.01). Pzf of group F was 51 +/- 3 mmHg and of group S was 51 +/- 5 mmHg (NS). Fzp of group F was -98 +/- 16 cm/sec and of group S was -46 +/- 4 cm/sec (P < 0.05). FPSI and the new index of Fzp were useful in estimating the extent of myocardial salvage. Our results suggest that the Pzf index could not differentiate between the two groups.

  12. Guide to the Salvage of Temperature-Abused Food Products in Military Commissaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    increases in temperature of certain foods would allow the growth of bacterial pathogens andjor the production of toxins. This proposed procedure...products and conditions that result in least food spoilage upon refrigeration time-temperature interruption and SAFE-4 for highest chance of spoilage . See...TECHNICAL REPORT NAVICK/TR-88/050 A /% iatoA GUIDE TO THE SALVAGE OF TEMPERATURE-ABUSED FOOD PRODUCTS IN MILITARY COMMISSARIES BY R.V

  13. 77 FR 19177 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest, Jefferson Ranger District, Montana, Boulder River Salvage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...The project proposes to salvage by clearcut harvest dead and lodgepole pine infested or at risk of infestation with mountain pine beetle; use biomass removal, commercial thinning, and prescribed fire to reduce stand density on lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir stands; and remove Douglas-fir that is encroaching upon quaking aspen clones and shrublands/grasslands. Treatments would occur on about 24,940 total acres (346 total units) of National Forest System Lands north of Whitehall, MT.

  14. Borrelia burgdorferi harbors a transport system essential for purine salvage and mammalian infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sunny; Sutchu, Selina; Rosa, Patricia A; Byram, Rebecca; Jewett, Mollie W

    2012-09-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the tick-borne bacterium that causes the multistage inflammatory disease Lyme disease. B. burgdorferi has a reduced genome and lacks the enzymes required for de novo synthesis of purines for synthesis of RNA and DNA. Therefore, this obligate pathogen is dependent upon the tick vector and mammalian host environments for salvage of purine bases for nucleic acid biosynthesis. This pathway is vital for B. burgdorferi survival throughout its infectious cycle, as key enzymes in the purine salvage pathway are essential for the ability of the spirochete to infect mice and critical for spirochete replication in the tick. The transport of preformed purines into the spirochete is the first step in the purine salvage pathway and may represent a novel therapeutic target and/or means to deliver antispirochete molecules to the pathogen. However, the transport systems critical for purine salvage by B. burgdorferi have yet to be identified. Herein, we demonstrate that the genes bbb22 and bbb23, present on B. burgdorferi's essential plasmid circular plasmid 26 (cp26), encode key purine transport proteins. BBB22 and/or BBB23 is essential for hypoxanthine transport and contributes to the transport of adenine and guanine. Furthermore, B. burgdorferi lacking bbb22-23 was noninfectious in mice up to a dose of 1 × 10(7) spirochetes. Together, our data establish that bbb22-23 encode purine permeases critical for B. burgdorferi mammalian infectivity, suggesting that this transport system may serve as a novel antimicrobial target for the treatment of Lyme disease.

  15. The Stringent Response Induced by Phosphate Limitation Promotes Purine Salvage in Agrobacterium fabrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapragasam, Smitha; Deochand, Dinesh K; Meariman, Jacob K; Grove, Anne

    2017-10-31

    Agrobacterium fabrum induces tumor growth in susceptible plant species. The upregulation of virulence genes that occurs when the bacterium senses plant-derived compounds is enhanced by acidic pH and limiting inorganic phosphate. Nutrient starvation may also trigger the stringent response, and purine salvage is among the pathways expected to be favored under such conditions. We show here that phosphate limitation induces the stringent response, as evidenced by production of (p)ppGpp, and that the xdhCSML operon encoding the purine salvage enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase is upregulated ∼15-fold. The xdhCSML operon is under control of the TetR family transcription factor XdhR; direct binding of ppGpp to XdhR attenuates DNA binding, and the enhanced xdhCSML expression correlates with increased cellular levels of (p)ppGpp. Xanthine dehydrogenase may also divert purines away from salvage pathways to form urate, the ligand for the transcription factor PecS, which in the plant pathogen Dickeya dadantii is a key regulator of virulence gene expression. However, urate levels remain low under conditions that produce increased levels of xdhCSML expression, and neither acidic pH nor limiting phosphate results in induction of genes under control of PecS. Instead, expression of such genes is induced only by externally supplemented urate. Taken together, our data indicate that purine salvage is favored during the stringent response induced by phosphate starvation, suggesting that control of this pathway may constitute a novel approach to modulating virulence. Because bacterial purine catabolism appears to be unaffected, as evidenced by the absence of urate accumulation, we further propose that the PecS regulon is induced by only host-derived urate.

  16. Biochemical relapse for prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy: salvage radiotherapy without hormonal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fede, Angelo B.S. [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Jacinto, Alexandre Arthur; Fagundes, Livia A.; Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro dos Santos; Arruda, Gustavo Viani; Castilho, Marcus Simoes; Maia, Maria Aparecida Conte; Silva, Maria Leticia Gobo; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Salvajoli, Joao Victor [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Radiation Oncology]. E-mail: aajacinto@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    Objectives: This paper aims to study biochemical control, hormonal therapy-free survival, and prognostic factors related to salvage radiation for prostate cancer patients submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP) without hormonal therapy (HT) before or during radiation. Materials and Methods: from August 2002 to July 2004, 39 prostate cancer patients submitted to RP presented biochemical failure after achieving PSA nadir (<0.2 ng/ml). All patients were submitted to three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3 DC-EBRT) and no patients had received HT. Median age was 62 years, median preoperative PSA was 9.4 ng/ml, median Gleason Score was 7. We defined PSA rise above 0.2 as biochemical failure after surgery. Median 3 DC-EBRT dose was 70 Gy, and biochemical failure after EBRT was defined as three consecutive rises in PSA or a single rise sufficient to trigger HT. Results: Biochemical non-evidence of disease (BNED) in 3 years was 72%. PSA doubling time (PSADT) lower than 4 months (p=0.04), and delay to salvage EBRT (p=0.05) were associated to worse chance of successful salvage therapy. Late morbidity was acceptable. Conclusion: Expressive PSA control (72% BNED / 3 years) could be achieved with salvage radiotherapy in well-selected patients. The importance of PSADT was confirmed, and radiotherapy should be started as early as possible. Follow-up is somewhat short, but it is possible to conclude that it is possible to achieve a long interval free from hormonal therapy with low rate of toxicity, avoiding or at least delaying morbidity related to hormonal treatment radiotherapy. (author)

  17. Lumbar pedicle screw salvage: pullout testing of three different pedicle screw designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, R F; Fry, M F; Moseley, T A; Sharkey, N A

    1995-02-01

    Although research has determined pedicle screw pullout strengths for normal and osteoporotic bone, this study provides the first biomechanical analysis of pedicle screw salvage. Ten fresh frozen human lumbar spines were separated into individual vertebrae; 6.0 x 40 mm pedicle screws were placed in each pedicle; and an axial pullout test was performed to establish control values. Ultimate load, initial stiffness, work, and displacement data were calculated. Each vertebra was reinstrumented with one 7.0 x 40 mm variable screw placement (VSP) screw side by side with either a 7.0 mm Cotrel Dubousset sacral screw (CD) or a 7.0 mm Compact Cotrel Dubousset pedicle screw (CCD). Pullout tests were repeated and compared to control data for individual screws and for each VSP/CD or VSP/CCD pair. Vertebrae were then reinstrumented with 8.0 mm VSP and CD screws and paired pullouts repeated. Statistical analysis was carried out using a paired T test. Analysis of intravertebral and intergroup variation of controls was carried out using a Paired Two Sample T test. The 7.0 mm CCD screws restored pullout strength to 62% of control pullouts; 7.0 mm CD screws, to 85%; 7.0 mm VSP screws, to 99%; 8.0 mm CD screws, to 109%; and 8.0 mm VSP screws, to 148% of control pullouts. The 7.0 mm VSP salvage screws exceeded CD screws in ultimate load by 22.5% (p screws by 33.5% (p screws significantly increased pullout relative to both controls and all 7.0 mm salvage screws, with 8.0 mm VSP exceeding 8.0 mm CD by 34% (p screws. Although applied in a smaller number of vertebrae, 8.0 mm screws sufficiently outperformed smaller screws to provide statistically significant differences. The 7.0 mm VSP salvage screws restored pullout to control levels, roughly equivalent to outcomes previously obtained with unpressurized polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).

  18. Recanalisation of Chronically Occluded Remote Superficial Femoral Artery Endarterectomy Through Angioplasty for Limb Salvage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husainy, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: m.husainy@nhs.net [King’s College Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Slim, Hani; Rashid, Hisham [King’s College Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom); Huang, Dean Y. [King’s College Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    We report a novel application of balloon angioplasty to recanalise a chronically occluded remote endarterectomy superficial femoral artery. This patient previously had two occluded surgical bypass grafts in an attempt to revascularise the limb and presented with critical limb ischaemia and necrotic foot ulcerations. Following the angioplasty, the patient showed significant improvement in rest pain and healing of the ulcerations. This technique may be useful for limb salvage in patients where surgical options have been exhausted.

  19. Vascularized fibula flap onlay for salvage of pathologic fracture of the long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Moran, Steven L; Bishop, Allen T; Wood, Christina M; Shin, Alexander Y

    2008-06-01

    Long bone pathologic fractures, especially when radiation-induced, represent a significant and difficult-to-treat entity. The ultimate goal of treatment is limb salvage; however, there are no treatment methods that guarantee bony healing. The vascularized fibula flap has revolutionized bone reconstruction, including that of the long bones. The authors report the results of onlay vascularized fibula flaps for pathologic long bone fractures and the outcomes and complications of this reconstruction method. Records of patients who underwent long bone pathologic fracture reconstruction with the vascularized fibula onlay flap were reviewed retrospectively. Records were analyzed for reconstruction details, time to bony union, subsequent operations, clinical and functional outcomes, and complications associated with harvest and reconstruction. Twenty-five patients met the study criteria. Twenty-one patients demonstrated bony fracture union at an average of 11 months after fibular flap onlay grafting. Two patients who had experienced bony union ultimately required amputations for reasons unrelated to reconstruction. All four patients whose fibular flap failed later obtained limb salvage after further procedures. Thirteen of 25 patients achieved a good or excellent functional outcome as judged by a common oncologic reconstruction functional outcome scale. Postsurgical complications were common in this patient group, with a total of 22 distinct complications (88 percent incidence). Despite a high complication rate, this study demonstrates that pathologic long bone fracture salvage with an onlay fibula flap achieves relatively good clinical and functional outcomes. Limb salvage was made possible in a majority of patients, all of whom experienced a difficult problem in the form of long bone pathologic fractures.

  20. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Black Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-black-eye/basics/ART-20056675 . Mayo ...

  2. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  3. Edge detection in digital images using Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is an optimization algorithm inspired by the behavior of real ant colonies to approximate the solutions of difficult optimization problems. In this paper, ACO is introduced to tackle the image edge detection problem. The proposed approach is based on the distribution of ants on an image; ants try to find possible edges by using a state transition function. Experimental results show that the proposed method compared to standard edge detectors is less sensitive to Gaussian noise and gives finer details and thinner edges when compared to earlier ant-based approaches.

  4. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. Nicotinamidase participates in the salvage pathway of NAD biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Pichersky, Eran

    2007-03-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), which is derived from NAD, have important roles as a redox carriers in metabolism. A combination of de novo and salvage pathways contribute to the biosynthesis of NAD in all organisms. The pathways and enzymes of the NAD salvage pathway in yeast and animals, which diverge at nicotinamide, have been extensively studied. Yeast cells convert nicotinamide to nicotinic acid, while mammals lack the enzyme nicotinamidase and instead convert nicotinamide to nicotinamide mononucleotide. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana gene At2g22570 encodes a nicotinamidase, which is expressed in all tissues, with the highest levels observed in roots and stems. The 244-residue protein, designated AtNIC1, converts nicotinamide to nicotinic acid and has a Km value of 118 +/- 17 microM and a Kcat value of 0.93 +/- 0.13 sec(-1). Plants homozygous for a null AtNIC1 allele, nic1-1, have lower levels of NAD and NADP under normal growth conditions, indicating that AtNIC1 participates in a yeast-type NAD salvage pathway. Mutant plants also exhibit hypersensitivity to treatments of abscisic acid and NaCl, which is correlated with their inability to increase the cellular levels of NAD(H) under these growth conditions, as occurs in wild-type plants. We also show that the growth of the roots of wild-type but not nic1-1 mutant plants is inhibited and distorted by nicotinamide.

  6. Extended Salvage Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection in Patients with Recurrent Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniar K. Osmonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of patients with a biochemical recurrence (BCR of prostate cancer (PCa is generally difficult and without valid treatment options. Since 2004 we have been developing therapeutic possibilities for these patients. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 41 patients with a BCR of PCa and a mean followup of 40.3±20.8 months. Group 1 (n=10: salvage radical prostatectomy (sRP with SePLND (salvage extended pelvic lymph nodes dissection (initial treatment: combined brachytherapy. Group 2 (n=22: SePLND (initial treatment: radical prostatectomy (RP. Group 3 (n=9: SePLND (initial treatment: RP and adjuvant radiation therapy (RT. We observed PSA, PSA-velocity, localization of LNs and LNs+, BCR-free period, and BR (biochemical response. Results. Group 1: 60% with BCR-freedom (mean 27.2 months. Group 2: 63.6% with BCR-freedom (mean 17.5 months. Group 3: 33.3% with BCR-freedom (mean 17.6 months. In total, BCR-freedom was observed in 23 of 41 patients (56.1% after salvage surgery. 75.6% of all patients showed a BR. 765 LNs were removed and 14.8% of these were LN+. Conclusions. The BCR-free period and BR are comparable in all three groups. Sensibility to ADT can be reestablished and prolonged as a result of SePLND. Multicenter studies are needed for a reliable output.

  7. Outcomes of Salvage Percutaneous Biliary Drainage after Occlusion of Endoscopic Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Jonathan; Lee, Aram; Frankel, Paul; Dagis, Andrew; Park, John J; Lin, James

    2017-04-01

    To describe outcomes of patients with malignant biliary obstruction who undergo salvage percutaneous biliary drainage after occlusion of endoscopic biliary stents. A single-center retrospective review was performed of 47 patients (25 men, 22 women) who underwent percutaneous biliary drainage for recurrent obstruction after endoscopic stent placement between 2005 and 2015. Primary malignancies were bile duct (n = 13), colorectal (n = 11), gallbladder (n = 7), pancreas (n = 5), hepatocellular (n = 4), and other (n = 7). Indication for salvage drain placement was infection (n = 19) and jaundice or need to decrease bilirubin (n = 28). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used for survival analysis. Logistic and multivariate regressions were employed to identify factors associated with survival. Median survival after salvage biliary drain placement was 1.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.7). Elevated international normalized ratio (INR) ≥ 1.5 before drainage was associated with poorer survival after drainage (median survival 0.7 months vs 2.4 months, P drainage (1.2 months vs 5.4 months, P drainage. Elevated bilirubin and INR before drainage portend a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Two-year experience with cell salvage in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buget, Mehmet I; Dikici, Fatih; Edipoğlu, İpek S; Yıldız, Eren; Valiyev, Natig; Kucukay, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the cell salvage system in total hip arthroplasty surgeries and whether the cell salvage system can reduce the allogeneic blood transfusion requirement in total hip arthroplasty patients. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of patients who underwent hip arthroplasty surgeries between 2010 and 2012 in a university hospital. A total of 181 arthroplasty patients were enrolled in our study. In the cell salvage group, the mean perioperative rate of allogeneic blood transfusion was significantly lower (92.53±111.88mL) than that in the control group (170.14±116.79mL; pcontrol group (152.22±208.37mL), although the difference was not statistically significant. The number of patients receiving allogeneic blood transfusion in the CS group (n=29; 43.2%) was also significantly lower than control group (n=56; 73.6%; pde Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. [Two-year experience with cell salvage in total hip arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buget, Mehmet I; Dikici, Fatih; Edipoğlu, İpek S; Yıldız, Eren; Valiyev, Natig; Kucukay, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the cell salvage system in total hip arthroplasty surgeries and whether the cell salvage system can reduce the allogeneic blood transfusion requirement in total hip arthroplasty patients. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of patients who underwent hip arthroplasty surgeries between 2010 and 2012 in a university hospital. A total of 181 arthroplasty patients were enrolled in our study. In the cell salvage group, the mean perioperative rate of allogeneic blood transfusion was significantly lower (92.53±111.88mL) than that in the control group (170.14±116.79mL; pcontrol group (152.22±208.37mL), although the difference was not statistically significant. The number of patients receiving allogeneic blood transfusion in the CS group (n=29; 43.2%) was also significantly lower than control group (n=56; 73.6%; pde Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Prosthetic limb salvage surgery for bone and soft tissue tumors around the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Rui; Matsumine, Akihiko; Hamaguchi, Takahiko; Nakamura, Tomoki; Uchida, Atsumasa; Sudo, Akihiro

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we analyzed long-term survival, limb function and associated complications after prosthetic limb salvage treatment in patients with bone and soft tissue tumors around the knee joint. A total of 63 patients treated with prosthetic limb salvage surgery around the knee were reviewed. The bone tumors involved the distal femur in 45 patients, the proximal tibia in 14 patients and the soft tissue tumors of the proximal lower leg in 4 patients. The median follow-up period after the first operation was 8.0 years. The medical records of the patients, surgical reports, radiographs and histological specimens were retrospectively reviewed. The 5-year overall survival rate was 63.2% in the patients with distal femur tumors and 86.2% in those with tumors of the proximal lower leg. The 5‑year prosthetic survival rate was 72.8% in the distal femur and 74.6% in the proximal lower leg. The mean functional score according to the scoring system of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) was 81% in the patients with distal femur tumors and 82% in the patients with proximal lower leg tumors. Post-operative complications occurred in 27 patients. Limb salvage surgery is considered to be an effective treatment option. However, the high complication rate is a major concern for prosthetic replacement. Future improvements of prostheses are very important.

  11. Remnant prosthetic graft in revision or limb-salvage surgery: routine complete excision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenouda, Michael; Molena, Emma; Maftei, Nonica; Ali, Tahir

    2014-08-01

    Prosthetic graft occlusion following vascular reconstruction is a major cause of morbidity commonly necessitating further limb-salvage revascularization or life-saving amputation. It is therefore surprising that there is scant data in the literature regarding the optimal management of any remnant prosthetic grafts left in situ. We present a case series of 3 patients with remnant prosthetic graft infection following revisional arterial reconstruction for limb salvage and a literature review on this topic. Three patients presented to our institution with remnant prosthetic graft infection between March 2012 and January 2013. They had all undergone previous infrainguinal bypass surgery with polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) grafts, which had subsequently thrombosed. Further limb salvage operations with autogenous long saphenous vein bypass in 2 cases and above-knee amputation in 1 case were performed. In all cases, the focus of infection was confirmed to have originated in the redundant remnant PTFE graft left in situ. These grafts were completely excised and the infected wounds were debrided. All patients made a full recovery. Remnant prosthetic grafts left in situ are shown in this series to be a proven nidus for infection. Published data indicate that these infection rates are greatest in revision vascular surgery and when performing amputations. We propose that routine excision of any occluded remnant prosthetic grafts in revision surgery be considered at the time of revascularization to mitigate against the risk of subsequent infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Septic Shock following Prostate Biopsy: Aggressive Limb Salvage for Extremities after Pressor-Induced Ischemic Gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Lu, BS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Vasopressors used to treat patients with septic shock can cause ischemic necrosis of appendages such as the ears and nose, as well as the extremities. Cases of quadruple-extremity necrosis have high morbidity and mortality, and a profound negative impact on quality of life. This case report details the successful limb salvage and return to function using free tissue transfer as a means to salvage bilateral lower extremities in a patient who suffered vasopressor-induced ischemia of upper and lower extremities after prostate biopsy–induced septic shock. Septic shock following transrectal ultrasound–guided prostate biopsy is a rare, yet life-threatening complication. Successful treatment included thorough planning and staging of therapies such as awaiting tissue demarcation and serial surgical debridement to adequately prepare the tissue bed for free tissue transfer. Adjunctive treatments such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy, negative-pressure wound therapy, and meticulous wound care played a crucial role in wound healing. This vigilant planning and coordinated care resulted in the successful lower extremity salvage, consisting of bilateral transmetatarsal amputations and free tissue transfer to both limbs. We present our long-term follow-up of a functional ambulatory patient after catastrophic, life-threatening infection and appropriate multidisciplinary care.

  13. Overlapping Bark Beetle Outbreaks, Salvage Logging and Wildfire Restructure a Lodgepole Pine Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Rhoades

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Church’s Park Fire burned beetle-killed lodgepole pine stands in Colorado, including recently salvage-logged areas, creating a fortuitous opportunity to compare the effects of salvage logging, wildfire and the combination of logging followed by wildfire. Here, we examine tree regeneration, surface fuels, understory plants, inorganic soil nitrogen and water infiltration in uncut and logged stands, outside and inside the fire perimeter. Subalpine fir recruitment was abundant in uncut, unburned, beetle-killed stands, whereas lodgepole pine recruitment was abundant in cut stands. Logging roughly doubled woody fuel cover and halved forb and shrub cover. Wildfire consumed all conifer seedlings in uncut and cut stands and did not stimulate new conifer regeneration within four years of the fire. Aspen regeneration, in contrast, was relatively unaffected by logging or burning, alone or combined. Wildfire also drastically reduced cover of soil organic horizons, fine woody fuels, graminoids and shrubs relative to unburned, uncut areas; moreover, the compound effect of logging and wildfire was generally similar to wildfire alone. This case study documents scarce conifer regeneration but ample aspen regeneration after a wildfire that occurred in the later stage of a severe beetle outbreak. Salvage logging had mixed effects on tree regeneration, understory plant and surface cover and soil nitrogen, but neither exacerbated nor ameliorated wildfire effects on those resources.

  14. Intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion as a salvage treatment for profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Y; Lu, L; Hou, J; Yang, X; Li, H; Yang, Y; She, W

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion as salvage treatment for profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A retrospective clinical study of 97 patients with unilateral profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss was performed. In all, 83 patients who received salvage intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion plus conventional treatment (except for steroids) as the second-line therapy were assigned to the study group, while 14 patients who received conventional treatment alone were assigned to the comparison group. In the study group, treatments in patients with a shorter interval from disease onset to intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion (up to 15 days) had significantly greater improvements in the overall effective rate and pure tone average compared with patients with a longer interval (over 15 days). For patients with a short interval from disease onset to intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion, those in the study group had significantly greater improvements in the overall effective rate and pure tone average compared with those in the comparison group. In both the study and comparison groups, hearing improvements were greater at low frequencies than at medium and high frequencies. The interval from disease onset to intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion was the major factor affecting hearing recovery. Early second-line salvage intratympanic methylprednisolone perfusion significantly improved the degree of hearing recovery in profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients after failure of systemic steroid treatment.

  15. The interactions of ants with their biotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Renner, Susanne S

    2017-03-15

    This s pecial feature results from the symposium 'Ants 2016: ant interactions with their biotic environments' held in Munich in May 2016 and deals with the interactions between ants and other insects, plants, microbes and fungi, studied at micro- and macroevolutionary levels with a wide range of approaches, from field ecology to next-generation sequencing, chemical ecology and molecular genetics. In this paper, we review key aspects of these biotic interactions to provide background information for the papers of this s pecial feature After listing the major types of biotic interactions that ants engage in, we present a brief overview of ant/ant communication, ant/plant interactions, ant/fungus symbioses, and recent insights about ants and their endosymbionts. Using a large molecular clock-dated Formicidae phylogeny, we map the evolutionary origins of different ant clades' interactions with plants, fungi and hemiptera. Ants' biotic interactions provide ideal systems to address fundamental ecological and evolutionary questions about mutualism, coevolution, adaptation and animal communication. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Giulio

    Full Text Available Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen. Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  17. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Maurizi, Emanuela; Barbero, Francesca; Sala, Marco; Fattorini, Simone; Balletto, Emilio; Bonelli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus) are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen). Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  18. Effects of vegetation cover, presence of a native ant species, and human disturbance on colonization by Argentine ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Katherine; Gordon, Deborah M

    2012-06-01

    The spread of non-native invasive species is affected by human activity, vegetation cover, weather, and interaction with native species. We analyzed data from a 17-year study of the distribution of the non-native Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and the native winter ant (Prenolepis imparis) in a preserve in northern California (U.S.A.). We conducted logistic regressions and used model selection to determine whether the following variables were associated with changes in the distribution of each species: presence of conspecifics at neighboring sites, distance to development (e.g., roads, buildings, and landscaped areas), proportion of vegetation cover taller than 0.75 m, elevation, distance to water, presence of both species at a site, temperature, and rainfall. Argentine ants colonized unoccupied sites from neighboring sites, but the probability of appearance and persistence decreased as distance to development, vegetation cover, and elevation increased. Winter ants appeared and persisted in sites with relatively high vegetation cover (i.e., highly shaded sites). Presence of the 2 species was negatively associated in sites with high vegetation cover (more winter ants) and sites near development (more Argentine ants). Probability of colonization of Argentine ants decreased where winter ants were most persistent. At sites near development within the preserve, abundant Argentine ant populations may be excluding winter ants. The high abundance of Argentine ants at these sites may be due to immigration from suburban areas outside the preserve, which are high-quality habitat for Argentine ants. In the interior of the preserve, distance from development, low-quality habitat, and interaction with winter ants may in combination exclude Argentine ants. Interactions among the variables we examined were associated with low probabilities of Argentine ant colonization in the preserve. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P Flanagan

    Full Text Available Argentine ants (Linepithema humile live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  20. Insect navigation: do ants live in the now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Paul; Mangan, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Visual navigation is a critical behaviour for many animals, and it has been particularly well studied in ants. Decades of ant navigation research have uncovered many ways in which efficient navigation can be implemented in small brains. For example, ants show us how visual information can drive navigation via procedural rather than map-like instructions. Two recent behavioural observations highlight interesting adaptive ways in which ants implement visual guidance. Firstly, it has been shown that the systematic nest searches of ants can be biased by recent experience of familiar scenes. Secondly, ants have been observed to show temporary periods of confusion when asked to repeat a route segment, even if that route segment is very familiar. Taken together, these results indicate that the navigational decisions of ants take into account their recent experiences as well as the currently perceived environment. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Exploring with PAM: Prospecting ANTS Missions for Solar System Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Rilee, M. L.; Curtis, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), a large (1000 member) swarm of nano to picoclass (10 to 1 kg) totally autonomous spacecraft, are being developed as a NASA advanced mission concept. ANTS, based on a hierarchical insect social order, use an evolvable, self-similar, hierarchical neural system in which individual spacecraft represent the highest level nodes. ANTS uses swarm intelligence attained through collective, cooperative interactions of the nodes at all levels of the system. At the highest levels this can take the form of cooperative, collective behavior among the individual spacecraft in a very large constellation. The ANTS neural architecture is designed for totally autonomous operation of complex systems including spacecraft constellations. The ANTS (Autonomous Nano Technology Swarm) concept has a number of possible applications. A version of ANTS designed for surveying and determining the resource potential of the asteroid belt, called PAM (Prospecting ANTS Mission), is examined here.

  2. Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias A; Nash, David Richard

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host......-ant-dependent oviposition in this and other Maculinea species have, however, shown equivocal results, leading to a long-term controversy over support for this hypothesis. We therefore conducted a controlled field experiment to study the egg-laying behaviour of M. alcon. Matched potted Gentiana plants were set out close...... to host-ant nests and non-host-ant nests, and the number and position of eggs attached were assessed. Our results show no evidence for host-ant-based oviposition in M. alcon, but support an oviposition strategy based on plant characteristics. This suggests that careful management of host-ant distribution...

  3. Size matters: nest colonization patterns for twig-nesting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Soto, Estelí; Philpott, Stacy M

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the drivers of ant diversity and co-occurrence in agroecosystems is fundamental because ants participate in interactions that influence agroecosystem processes. Multiple local and regional factors influence ant community assembly.We examined local factors that influence the structure of a twig-nesting ant community in a coffee system in Mexico using an experimental approach. We investigated whether twig characteristics (nest entrance size and diversity of nest entrance sizes) and nest strata (canopy shade tree or coffee shrub) affected occupation, species richness, and community composition of twig-nesting ants and whether frequency of occupation of ant species varied with particular nest entrance sizes or strata.We conducted our study in a shaded coffee farm in Chiapas, Mexico, between March and June 2012. We studied ant nest colonization by placing artificial nests (bamboo twigs) on coffee shrubs and shade trees either in diverse or uniform treatments. We also examined whether differences in vegetation (no. of trees, canopy cover and coffee density) influenced nest colonization.We found 33 ant species occupying 73% of nests placed. Nest colonization did not differ with nest strata or size. Mean species richness of colonizing ants was significantly higher in the diverse nest size entrance treatment, but did not differ with nest strata. Community composition differed between strata and also between the diverse and uniform size treatments on coffee shrubs, but not on shade trees. Some individual ant species were more frequently found in certain nest strata and in nests with certain entrance sizes.Our results indicate that twig-nesting ants are nest-site limited, quickly occupy artificial nests of many sizes, and that trees or shrubs with twigs of a diversity of entrance sizes likely support higher ant species richness. Further, individual ant species more frequently occupy nests with different sized entrances promoting ant richness on individual coffee

  4. Ansiedad ante la muerte del sujeto anciano

    OpenAIRE

    Moya Faz, Francisco José

    2007-01-01

    El tema a tratar en esta Tesis Doctoral es la Ansiedad ante la muerte en el sujeto anciano. Objetivos. Los objetivos planteados en esta investigación han sido: Investigar mediante un análisis bibliométrico el estado actual de la cuestión del tema de la ansiedad ante la muerte para que estudiando así su producción científica se pueda conocer su relevancia así como las categorías temáticas más significativas en relación a éste. Estudiar la preocupación de la muerte respecto a variables como...

  5. A global database of ant species abundances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibb, H.; Dunn, R. R.; Sanders, N. J.; Grossman, B. F.; Photakis, M.; Abril, S.; Agosti, D.; Andersen, A. N.; Angulo, E.; Armbrecht, I.; Arnan, X.; Baccaro, F. B.; Bishop, T. R.; Boulay, R.; Brühl, C.; Castracani, C.; Cerdá, X.; Del Toro, I.; Delsinne, T.; Diaz, M.; Donoso, D. A.; Ellison, A. M.; Enríquez, M. L.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Feener, D. H.; Fisher, B. L.; Fisher, R. N.; Fitzpatrick, M. C.; Gómez, C.; Gotelli, N. J.; Gove, A.; Grasso, D. A.; Groc, S.; Guenard, B.; Gunawardene, N.; Heterick, B.; Hoffmann, B.; Janda, Milan; Jenkins, C.; Kaspari, M.; Klimeš, Petr; Lach, L.; Laeger, T.; Lattke, J.; Leponce, M.; Lessard, J.-P.; Longino, J.; Lucky, A.; Luke, S. H.; Majer, J.; McGlynn, T. P.; Menke, S.; Mezger, D.; Mori, A.; Moses, Jimmy; Munyai, T. C.; Pacheco, R.; Paknia, O.; Pearce-Duvet, J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Philpott, S. M.; Resasco, J.; Retana, J.; Silva, R. R.; Sorger, M. D.; Souza, J.; Suarez, A.; Tista, M.; Vasconcelos, H. L.; Vonshak, M.; Weisser, M. D.; Yates, M.; Parr, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2017), s. 883-884 ISSN 0012-9658 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G; GA ČR GAP505/12/2467; GA ČR GPP505/12/P875 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : abundance * ants * database Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.809, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ecy.1682/abstract

  6. Alarm Pheromones of the Ant Atta Texana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Moser; R. C. Brownlee; R. Silverstein

    1968-01-01

    Methyl-3-heptanone (0.59 μg/head) and 2-heptanone (0.14 μg/head) are the main volatile components of the mandibular glands of major workers. In the laboratory, worker ants detected and were attracted by 4-methyl-3-heptanone at a concentration of 5.7 x 10-13 g/cm3 (2.7 x 107 molecules...

  7. Public goods dilemma in asexual ant societies

    OpenAIRE

    Dobata, Shigeto; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2013-01-01

    This study reports experimental evidence for the “public goods dilemma” between cooperators and cheaters in an asexual ant society, in which cheating is always more rewarding for individuals but cooperation at the cost of individual fitness leads to better performance of groups. Although this dilemma provides the basic principle of social evolution, its experimental demonstration with underlying genetics and fitness evaluation for both cooperators and cheaters still lacks in societies other t...

  8. Ant fat extraction with a Soxhlet extractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris R; Tschinkel, Walter R

    2009-07-01

    Stored fat can be informative about the relative age of an ant, its nutritional status, and the nutritional status of the colony. Several methods are available for the quantification of stored fat. Before starting a project involving fat extraction, investigators should weigh the advantages and disadvantages of different methods in order to choose the one that is best suited to the question being addressed. This protocol, although not as accurate as some alternatives, facilitates the rapid quantification of many individuals.

  9. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  10. Precision Rescue Behavior in North American Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Altruistic behavior, in which one individual provides aid to another at some cost to itself, is well documented. However, some species engage in a form of altruism, called rescue, that places the altruist in immediate danger. Here we investigate one such example, namely rescuing victims captured by predators. In a field experiment with two North American ant species, Tetramorium sp. E and Prenolepis imparis, individuals were held in artificial snares simulating capture. T. sp. E, but not P. imparis, exhibited digging, pulling, and snare biting, the latter precisely targeted to the object binding the victim. These results are the first to document precision rescue in a North American ant species; moreover, unlike rescue in other ants, T. sp. E rescues conspecifics from different colonies, mirroring their atypical social behavior, namely the lack of aggression between non-nestmate (heterocolonial conspecifics. In a second, observational study designed to demonstrate rescue from an actual predator, T. sp. E victims were dropped into an antlion's pit and the behavior of a single rescuer was observed. Results showed that T. sp. E not only attempted to release the victim, but also risked attacking the predator, suggesting that precision rescue may play an important role in this species' antipredator behavior.

  11. Dispersal Polymorphisms in Invasive Fire Ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson A Helms

    Full Text Available In the Found or Fly (FoF hypothesis ant queens experience reproduction-dispersal tradeoffs such that queens with heavier abdomens are better at founding colonies but are worse flyers. We tested predictions of FoF in two globally invasive fire ants, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804 and S. invicta (Buren, 1972. Colonies of these species may produce two different monogyne queen types-claustral queens with heavy abdomens that found colonies independently, and parasitic queens with small abdomens that enter conspecific nests. Claustral and parasitic queens were similarly sized, but the abdomens of claustral queens weighed twice as much as those of their parasitic counterparts. Their heavier abdomens adversely impacted morphological predictors of flight ability, resulting in 32-38% lower flight muscle ratios, 55-63% higher wing loading, and 32-33% higher abdomen drag. In lab experiments maximum flight durations in claustral S. invicta queens decreased by about 18 minutes for every milligram of abdomen mass. Combining our results into a simple fitness tradeoff model, we calculated that an average parasitic S. invicta queen could produce only 1/3 as many worker offspring as a claustral queen, but could fly 4 times as long and have a 17- to 36-fold larger potential colonization area. Investigations of dispersal polymorphisms and their associated tradeoffs promises to shed light on range expansions in invasive species, the evolution of alternative reproductive strategies, and the selective forces driving the recurrent evolution of parasitism in ants.

  12. Optimal construction of army ant living bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jason M; Kao, Albert B; Wilhelm, Dylana A; Garnier, Simon

    2017-12-21

    Integrating the costs and benefits of collective behaviors is a fundamental challenge to understanding the evolution of group living. These costs and benefits can rarely be quantified simultaneously due to the complexity of the interactions within the group, or even compared to each other because of the absence of common metrics between them. The construction of 'living bridges' by New World army ants - which they use to shorten their foraging trails - is a unique example of a collective behavior where costs and benefits have been experimentally measured and related to each other. As a result, it is possible to make quantitative predictions about when and how the behavior will be observed. In this paper, we extend a previous mathematical model of these costs and benefits to much broader domain of applicability. Specifically, we exhibit a procedure for analyzing the optimal formation, and final configuration, of army ant living bridges given a means to express the geometrical configuration of foraging path obstructions. Using this procedure, we provide experimentally testable predictions of the final bridge position, as well as the optimal formation process for certain cases, for a wide range of scenarios, which more closely resemble common terrain obstacles that ants encounter in nature. As such, our framework offers a rare benchmark for determining the evolutionary pressures governing the evolution of a naturally occurring collective animal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. How load-carrying ants avoid falling over: mechanical stability during foraging in Atta vollenweideri grass-cutting ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Moll

    Full Text Available Foraging workers of grass-cutting ants (Atta vollenweideri regularly carry grass fragments larger than their own body. Fragment length has been shown to influence the ants' running speed and thereby the colony's food intake rate. We investigated whether and how grass-cutting ants maintain stability when carrying fragments of two different lengths but identical mass.Ants carried all fragments in an upright, backwards-tilted position, but held long fragments more vertically than short ones. All carrying ants used an alternating tripod gait, where mechanical stability was increased by overlapping stance phases of consecutive steps. The overlap was greatest for ants carrying long fragments, resulting in more legs contacting the ground simultaneously. For all ants, the projection of the total centre of mass (ant and fragment was often outside the supporting tripod, i.e. the three feet that would be in stance for a non-overlapping tripod gait. Stability was only achieved through additional legs in ground contact. Tripod stability (quantified as the minimum distance of the centre of mass to the edge of the supporting tripod was significantly smaller for ants with long fragments. Here, tripod stability was lowest at the beginning of each step, when the center of mass was near the posterior margin of the supporting tripod. By contrast, tripod stability was lowest at the end of each step for ants carrying short fragments. Consistently, ants with long fragments mainly fell backwards, whereas ants carrying short fragments mainly fell forwards or to the side. Assuming that transporting ants adjust neither the fragment angle nor the gait, they would be less stable and more likely to fall over.In grass-cutting ants, the need to maintain static stability when carrying long grass fragments has led to multiple kinematic adjustments at the expense of a reduced material transport rate.

  14. How load-carrying ants avoid falling over: mechanical stability during foraging in Atta vollenweideri grass-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Karin; Roces, Flavio; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Foraging workers of grass-cutting ants (Atta vollenweideri) regularly carry grass fragments larger than their own body. Fragment length has been shown to influence the ants' running speed and thereby the colony's food intake rate. We investigated whether and how grass-cutting ants maintain stability when carrying fragments of two different lengths but identical mass. Ants carried all fragments in an upright, backwards-tilted position, but held long fragments more vertically than short ones. All carrying ants used an alternating tripod gait, where mechanical stability was increased by overlapping stance phases of consecutive steps. The overlap was greatest for ants carrying long fragments, resulting in more legs contacting the ground simultaneously. For all ants, the projection of the total centre of mass (ant and fragment) was often outside the supporting tripod, i.e. the three feet that would be in stance for a non-overlapping tripod gait. Stability was only achieved through additional legs in ground contact. Tripod stability (quantified as the minimum distance of the centre of mass to the edge of the supporting tripod) was significantly smaller for ants with long fragments. Here, tripod stability was lowest at the beginning of each step, when the center of mass was near the posterior margin of the supporting tripod. By contrast, tripod stability was lowest at the end of each step for ants carrying short fragments. Consistently, ants with long fragments mainly fell backwards, whereas ants carrying short fragments mainly fell forwards or to the side. Assuming that transporting ants adjust neither the fragment angle nor the gait, they would be less stable and more likely to fall over. In grass-cutting ants, the need to maintain static stability when carrying long grass fragments has led to multiple kinematic adjustments at the expense of a reduced material transport rate.

  15. Comparative analysis of the macronutrient content of Central European ants (Formicidae): implications for ant-eating predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, S; Mayntz, D

    2014-03-01

    Prey nutrient quality determines predator performance. Polyphagous predators can address nutritional challenges by targeting prey with specific nutrient composition, but prey-specialised predators (e.g., ant-eaters), must obtain all nutrients from limited array of prey. Analysis of published data on prey specificity of European ant-eating spiders showed that some feed only on one ant genus, while others feed on several genera. Spiders feeding on several ant genera can possibly balance nutrient intake by selecting different ant prey. But monophagous species must extract all prey from a single prey species and can only vary nutrient intake by feeding on specific body parts. Most ant-eating spider species are catching Formica, Lasius and Messor ants, suggesting that these are most profitable ant species. We evaluated the nutritional content of a variety of 16 Central European ant species belonging to 11 genera and four subfamilies. We found that the nutritional composition, namely the amount of carbon, nitrogen and lipids, of European ants is heterogeneous. The largest variation in the amount of carbon and lipids was among ant subfamilies and species, while the largest variation in nitrogen was among ant genera. The largest amount of carbon and nitrogen was typical for Myrmicinae and the largest amount of lipids were typical for Formicinae. Within ants, the relative amounts of lipids were significantly higher in the gaster while the contents of carbon and nitrogen were highest in foreparts. Ant species did not cluster in the ordination space according to their taxonomic relationship or trophic strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Brane world black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, Anurag; Sengupta, Gautam

    2007-01-01

    Five dimensional neutral rotating black rings are described from a Randall-Sundrum brane world perspective in the bulk black string framework. To this end we consider a rotating black string extension of a five dimensional black ring into the bulk of a six dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world with a single four brane. The bulk solution intercepts the four brane in a five dimensional black ring with the usual curvature singularity on the brane. The bulk geodesics restricted to the plane of rotation of the black ring are constructed and their projections on the four brane match with the usual black ring geodesics restricted to the same plane. The asymptotic nature of the bulk geodesics are elucidated with reference to a bulk singularity at the AdS horizon. We further discuss the description of a brane world black ring as a limit of a boosted bulk black 2 brane with periodic identification

  17. New insights into the consequences of post-windthrow salvage logging revealed by functional structure of saproxylic beetles assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Thorn

    Full Text Available Windstorms, bark beetle outbreaks and fires are important natural disturbances in coniferous forests worldwide. Wind-thrown trees promote biodiversity and restoration within production forests, but also cause large economic losses due to bark beetle infestation and accelerated fungal decomposition. Such damaged trees are often removed by salvage logging, which leads to decreased biodiversity and thus increasingly evokes discussions between economists and ecologists about appropriate strategies. To reveal the reasons behind species loss after salvage logging, we used a functional approach based on four habitat-related ecological traits and focused on saproxylic beetles. We predicted that salvage logging would decrease functional diversity (measured as effect sizes of mean pairwise distances using null models as well as mean values of beetle body size, wood diameter niche and canopy cover niche, but would increase decay stage niche. As expected, salvage logging caused a decrease in species richness, but led to an increase in functional diversity by altering the species composition from habitat-filtered assemblages toward random assemblages. Even though salvage logging removes tree trunks, the most negative effects were found for small and heliophilous species and for species specialized on wood of small diameter. Our results suggested that salvage logging disrupts the natural assembly process on windthrown trees and that negative ecological impacts are caused more by microclimate alteration of the dead-wood objects than by loss of resource amount. These insights underline the power of functional approaches to detect ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance and form a basis for management decisions in conservation. To mitigate negative effects on saproxylic beetle diversity after windthrows, we recommend preserving single windthrown trees or at least their tops with exposed branches during salvage logging. Such an extension of the green

  18. New Insights into the Consequences of Post-Windthrow Salvage Logging Revealed by Functional Structure of Saproxylic Beetles Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Simon; Bässler, Claus; Gottschalk, Thomas; Hothorn, Torsten; Bussler, Heinz; Raffa, Kenneth; Müller, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Windstorms, bark beetle outbreaks and fires are important natural disturbances in coniferous forests worldwide. Wind-thrown trees promote biodiversity and restoration within production forests, but also cause large economic losses due to bark beetle infestation and accelerated fungal decomposition. Such damaged trees are often removed by salvage logging, which leads to decreased biodiversity and thus increasingly evokes discussions between economists and ecologists about appropriate strategies. To reveal the reasons behind species loss after salvage logging, we used a functional approach based on four habitat-related ecological traits and focused on saproxylic beetles. We predicted that salvage logging would decrease functional diversity (measured as effect sizes of mean pairwise distances using null models) as well as mean values of beetle body size, wood diameter niche and canopy cover niche, but would increase decay stage niche. As expected, salvage logging caused a decrease in species richness, but led to an increase in functional diversity by altering the species composition from habitat-filtered assemblages toward random assemblages. Even though salvage logging removes tree trunks, the most negative effects were found for small and heliophilous species and for species specialized on wood of small diameter. Our results suggested that salvage logging disrupts the natural assembly process on windthrown trees and that negative ecological impacts are caused more by microclimate alteration of the dead-wood objects than by loss of resource amount. These insights underline the power of functional approaches to detect ecosystem responses to anthropogenic disturbance and form a basis for management decisions in conservation. To mitigate negative effects on saproxylic beetle diversity after windthrows, we recommend preserving single windthrown trees or at least their tops with exposed branches during salvage logging. Such an extension of the green-tree retention

  19. Time of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver resection and alpha-fetoprotein are important prognostic factors for salvage liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Hyuck David Kwon, Choon; Man Kim, Jong; Joh, Jae-Won; Woon Paik, Seung; Kim, Bong-Wan; Wang, Hee-Jung; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Lee, Suk-Koo

    2014-09-01

    Salvage liver transplantation (LT) is considered a feasible option for the treatment of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed this multicenter study to assess the risk factors associated with the recurrence of HCC and patient survival after salvage LT. Between January 2000 and December 2011, 101 patients who had previously undergone liver resection (LR) for HCC underwent LT at 3 transplant centers in Korea. Sixty-nine patients' data were retrospectively reviewed for the analysis. The recurrence of HCC was diagnosed at a median of 10.6 months after the initial LR, and patients underwent salvage LT. Recurrences were within the Milan criteria in 48 cases and were outside the Milan criteria in 21 cases. After salvage LT, 31 patients had HCC recurrence during a median follow-up period of 24.5 months. There were 24 deaths, and 20 were due to HCC recurrence. The 5-year overall survival rate was approximately 54.6%, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 49.3%. HCC recurrence within the 8 months after LR [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.124, P = 0.009], an alpha-fetoprotein level higher than 200 ng/mL (HR = 2.609, P = 0.02), and HCC outside the Milan criteria at salvage LT (HR = 2.219, P = 0.03) were independent risk factors for poor recurrence-free survival after salvage LT. In conclusion, the timing and extent of HCC recurrence after primary LR both play significant roles in the outcome of salvage LT. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  20. Long-Term Outcome and Toxicity of Salvage Brachytherapy for Local Failure After Initial Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burri, Ryan J.; Stone, Nelson N.; Unger, Pam; Stock, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To describe long-term outcomes and toxicity after salvage brachytherapy (BT) for local failure after initial radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2008, 37 men with local failure after initial prostate radiotherapy (32 external-beam radiation therapy [EBRT] and 5 BT) underwent salvage BT with 103 Pd or 125 I. Estimates of freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF, Phoenix definition) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicities were graded using CTCv3.0. Results: Median follow-up was 86 months (range, 2-156). The median dose to 90% of the prostate volume was 122 Gy (range, 67-166). The 10-year FFbF and CSS were 54% and 96%, respectively. On univariate analysis, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >10 ng/mL at initial diagnosis was significantly associated with FFbF (p = 0.01), and there were trends for both age <70 years (p = 0.08) and PSA <6 ng/mL (p = 0.08) at the time of salvage BT. On multivariate analysis, only presalvage PSA <6 ng/mL (p = 0.046) was significantly associated with improved FFbF. There were three Grade 3 toxicities and one Grade 4 toxicity. Pelvic lymph node dissection before salvage BT was the only variable significantly associated with Grade ≥2 toxicity (p = 0.03). Conclusion: With a median follow-up of 86 months, salvage prostate BT was associated with a 10-year FFbF of 54% and CSS of 96%. Improved FFbF was associated with a presalvage PSA <6 ng/mL. Toxicity was worse in patients who had undergone pelvic lymph node dissection before salvage BT. Careful patient selection for salvage BT may result in improved outcomes and reduced toxicity.

  1. The invasive ant, Solenopsis invicta, reduces herpetofauna richness and abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Slater, J.; Wiggers, E.

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles are declining globally. One potential cause of this decline includes impacts resulting from co-occurrence with non-native red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Although a growing body of anecdotal and observational evidence from laboratory experiments supports this hypothesis, there remains a lack of field scale manipulations testing the effect of fire ants on reptile and amphibian communities. We addressed this gap by measuring reptile and amphibian (“herpetofauna”) community response to successful fire ant reductions over the course of 2 years following hydramethylnon application to five 100–200 ha plots in southeastern coastal South Carolina. By assessing changes in relative abundance and species richness of herpetofauna in response to fire ant reductions, we were able to assess whether some species were particularly vulnerable to fire ant presence, and whether this sensitivity manifested at the community level. We found that herpetofauna abundance and species richness responded positively to fire ant reductions. Our results document that even moderate populations of red imported fire ants decrease both the abundance and diversity of herpetofauna. Given global herpetofauna population declines and continued spread of fire ants, there is urgency to understand the impacts of fire ants beyond anecdotal and singles species studies. Our results provides the first community level investigation addressing these dynamics, by manipulating fire ant abundance to reveal a response in herpetofauna species abundance and richness.

  2. High competition between ant species at intermediate temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Sung

    2018-02-01

    Living organisms have been moving rapidly toward their favorable thermal regions as climate warms. Their competitive interactions will change significantly as a result of changes in distribution, abundance, and species composition. This study examines the relationship of competition intensity (frequency of competitive interactions) with temperature and the influence of competition on the occurrence of ant species. Competition between ants was surveyed at six different temperature sites using baits and the abundance of ants was surveyed using pitfall traps. The intensity of interspecific competition (abundance-corrected bait species displacement) was high at intermediate temperature sites (unimodal). Ant species are hierarchically organized in behavioral dominance. Two low-temperature ant species had decreased in the rank of behavioral dominance at warmer temperature sites because of the abundance of dominant intermediate temperature ant species. Ant species co-occurred randomly at the local scale. However, they were segregated at regional scale because of environmental filtering (temperature). Ant competition did not influence the occurrence of ant species at local or regional scale. These results suggest that the influence of changes in interspecific competition because of climate warming might not be great for ants in temperate regions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Predictors of biochemical failure in patients undergoing prostate whole-gland salvage cryotherapy: a novel risk stratification model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Philippe E; Levy, David A; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Pisters, Louis L; Jones, J Stephen

    2013-08-01

    What's known on the subject? and what does the study add?: Previous studies have identified the most important prognostic factors of the likely outcomes of salvage prostate whole-gland ablation, including initial clinical stage, biopsy Gleason score, and PSA (total and doubling time). There is potential for further optimization of candidate selection for salvage cryoablation with curative intent and nadir PSA achieved after whole-gland cryotherapy may provide additional prognostic value. The study shows that the most important prognostic factors of biochemical progression-free survival for patients who have undergone whole-gland salvage prostate cryotherapy are nadir PSA achieved after therapy and pre-therapy biopsy Gleason score. Based on these two prognostic variables, we have identified risk stratification groups (low, intermediate and high) which help predict the expected outcomes of salvage whole-gland prostate cryotherapy in a given patient. This risk stratification constitutes a useful clinical tool in defining which patients maybe best suited for this local salvage treatment method. To assess the prognostic variables predicting the risk of biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) after salvage prostate whole-gland cryotherapy using the Phoenix definition of bPFS. A total of 132 patients underwent prostate whole-gland salvage cryotherapy with curative intent. No patient underwent neoadjuvant/adjuvant hormonal ablative therapy, and all had extended post-salvage prostate-specific antigen (PSA) follow-up data. Cox univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of potential predictors of bPFS were conducted. Kaplan-Meier analyses of bPFS was also performed. At a mean (range) follow-up of 4.3 (0.9-12.7) years, the median (range) post-cryotherapy nadir PSA achieved was 0.17 (0-33.9) ng/mL. On multivariate analysis, predictors of bPFS were nadir PSA post-cryotherapy and pre-salvage biopsy Gleason score (P 2.5 ng/mL or biopsy Gleason score ≥ 7, with

  4. Food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Flores, Rocío Vianey; Aguirre, Armando; Anjos, Diego V.; Neves, Frederico S.; Campos, Ricardo I.; Dáttilo, Wesley

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we conducted a series of experiments in a population of Vachellia constricta (Fabaceae) in the arid Tehuacan-Cuicatláan valley, Mexico, in order to evaluate if the food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions. Using an experiment with artificial nectaries, we observed that ants foraging on food sources with higher concentration of sugar are quicker in finding and attacking potential herbivorous insects. More specifically, we found that the same ant species may increase their defence effectiveness according to the quality of food available. These findings indicate that ant effectiveness in plant protection is context-dependent and may vary according to specific individual characteristics of plants. In addition, we showed that competitively superior ant species tend to dominate plants in periods with high nectar activity, emphasizing the role of the dominance hierarchy structuring ant-plant interactions. However, when high sugar food sources were experimentally available ad libitum, the nocturnal and competitively superior ant species, Camponotus atriceps, did not dominate the artificial nectaries during the day possibly due to limitation of its thermal tolerance. Therefore, temporal niche partitioning may be allowing the coexistence of two dominant ant species (Camponotus rubritorax during the day and C. atriceps at night) on V. constricta. Our findings indicate that the quality of the food source, and temporal shifts in ant dominance are key factors which structure the biotic plant defences in an arid environment.

  5. Psychosocial and functional outcomes in long-term survivors of osteosarcoma: a comparison of limb-salvage surgery and amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Rhonda S; Ottaviani, Giulia; Huh, Winston W; Palla, Shana; Jaffe, Norman

    2010-07-01

    Traditionally, physicians have believed that limb-salvage surgery has functional and cosmetic advantages over amputation, yet the literature is equivocal. Therefore, we sought to compare the psychosocial and functional outcomes in osteosarcoma survivors after limb-salvage surgery and amputation. We hypothesized there to be neither psychosocial nor functional outcome differences between groups. Participants received treatment of extremity osteosarcoma, had received their cancer diagnosis at least 2 years prior, and were at least 16 years old. A comprehensive set of validated psychosocial and functional measures was used to assess outcome. Fifty-seven patients participated in this study (33 who underwent limb-salvage surgery and 24 who underwent amputation). Participants had gone 12-24 years since diagnosis and were 16-52 years old at study participation. We used multiple linear regression models to examine differences in quality of life, body image, self-esteem, and social support between the two groups and found no differences. Lower limb function was a significant predictor of quality of life (P surgery type did not impact this relationship. Body image was rated significantly worse by those who underwent late amputation, amputation after failed limb salvage, than by those who did not. Participants with more functional lower limbs had better quality of life than did those with less functional lower limbs regardless of whether they underwent amputation or limb-salvage surgery. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. The relative contribution of mannose salvage pathways to glycosylation in PMI-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Naonobu; Tamura, Ayako; Higashidani, Aya; Tonozuka, Takashi; Freeze, Hudson H; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    Mannose for mammalian glycan biosynthesis can be imported directly from the medium, derived from glucose or salvaged from endogenous or external glycans. All pathways must generate mannose 6-phosphate, the activated form of mannose. Imported or salvaged mannose is directly phosphorylated by hexokinase, whereas fructose 6-phosphate from glucose is converted to mannose 6-phosphate by phosphomannose isomerase (PMI). Normally, PMI provides the majority of mannose for glycan synthesis. To assess the contribution of PMI-independent pathways, we used PMI-null fibroblasts to study N-glycosylation of DNase I, a highly sensitive indicator protein. In PMI-null cells, imported mannose and salvaged mannose make a significant contribution to N-glycosylation. When these cells were grown in mannose-free medium along with the mannosidase inhibitor, swainsonine, to block the salvage pathways, N-glycosylation of DNase I was almost completely eliminated. Adding approximately 13 microm mannose to the medium completely restored normal glycosylation. Treatment with bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of lysosomal acidification, also markedly reduced N-glycosylation of DNase I, but in this case only 8 microm mannose was required to restore full glycosylation, indicating that a nonlysosomal source of mannose made a significant contribution. Glycosylation levels were greatly also reduced in glycoconjugate-free medium, when endosomal membrane trafficking was blocked by expression of a mutant SKD1. From these data, we conclude that PMI-null cells can salvage mannose from both endogenous and external glycoconjugates via lysosomal and nonlysosomal degradation pathways.

  7. Evolution of Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    The attine ant symbiosis is characterized by ancient but varying degrees of diffuse co-evolution between the ants and their fungal cultivars. Domesticated fungi became dependent on vertical transmission by queens and the ant colonies came to rely on their symbiotic fungus for food and thus......, indirectly, on fungal enzymes to break down the plant material brought in by the ants as fungal substrate. The more than 210 extant fungus-growing ant species differ considerably in colony size, social complexity and substrate-use. Only the derived leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves...... as garden substrate, whereas the more basal genera use leaf litter, insect feces and insect carcasses. We hypothesized that enzyme activity of fungal symbionts has co-evolved with substrate use and we measured enzyme activities of fungus gardens in the field to test this, focusing particularly on plant...

  8. Novel fungal disease in complex leaf-cutting ant societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Evans, Harry C.; Hywel-Jones, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    and that switching from one host to another is possible. To test the likelihood of this hypothesis, host switching was experimentally induced, and successfully achieved, among five distinct genera of ants, one of which was in a different sub-family than the leaf-cutter ants. 5. Given the substantial differences...... events of Acromyrmex and Atta leaf-cutting ants by Ophiocordyceps fungi, agenus of entomopathogens that is normally highly specific in its host choice. 4. As leaf-cutting ants have been intensively studied, the absence of prior records of Ophiocordyceps suggests that these infections may be a novel event...... among the five host ants, the ability of Ophiocordyceps to shift between such distant hosts is remarkable; the results are discussed in the context of ant ecological immunology and fungal invasion strategies....

  9. Behavior of Ants Escaping from a Single-Exit Room.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujie Wang

    Full Text Available To study the rules of ant behavior and group-formation phenomena, we examined the behaviors of Camponotus japonicus, a species of large ant, in a range of situations. For these experiments, ants were placed inside a rectangular chamber with a single exit that also contained a filter paper soaked in citronella oil, a powerful repellent. The ants formed several groups as they moved toward the exit to escape. We measured the time intervals between individual escapes in six versions of the experiment, each containing an exit of a different width, to quantify the movement of the groups. As the ants exited the chamber, the time intervals between individual escapes changed and the frequency distribution of the time intervals exhibited exponential decay. We also investigated the relationship between the number of ants in a group and the group flow rate.

  10. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  11. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  12. Black-Body Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Black-body radiation; thermal radiation; heat; electromagnetic radiation; Stefan's Law; Stefan–Boltzmann Law; Wien's Law; Rayleigh–Jeans Law; black-body spectrum; ultraviolet catastrophe; zero point energy; photon.

  13. A Theoretic Basis for IS? The Contribution of ANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Underwood

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Representation is a key issue of IS design and operation that is often ignored. Actor-network theory (ANT, a semiotic theory of stakeholders, provides a way of dealing with representation. Combining aspects of ANT and Foucault's discourse theory allows us to include concepts as actors and promises a flexible and durable foundation for IS practice, but ANT itself indicates that the search for a purely theoretical foundation for IS is misguided.

  14. Cercomacra and related antbirds (Aves, Formicariidae as army ant followers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin O. Willis

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Cercomacra and Schistocichla antbirds (Formicariidae favor dense foliage and seldom follow army ants for flushed prey, since the ants move through open forest understory as well as through dense zones. Two other lineages, the Drymophila-Hypocnemis lineage (of dense woodland understory and the Formicivora lineage (of dense bushes in dry or semiopen zones, also cannot follow ants regularly through open forest understory.

  15. Melissotarsus ants are likely able to digest plant polysaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Mony, R.; Dejean, A.; Bilong Bilong, C. F.; Kenne, M.; Rouland Lefèvre, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Melissotarsus ants have an extremely specialized set of behaviours. Both workers and gynes tunnel galleries in their host tree bark. Workers walk with their mesothoracic legs pointing upwards and tend Diaspididae hemiptera for their flesh. The ants use their forelegs to plug the galleries with silk that they secrete themselves. We hypothesised that the ants' energetic needs for nearly constant gallery digging could be satisfied through the absorption of host tree tissues; so, using basic tech...

  16. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  17. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  18. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  19. Physician Beliefs and Practices for Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Despite results of randomized trials that support adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer with adverse pathologic features (APF), many clinicians favor selective use of salvage RT. This survey was conducted to evaluate the beliefs and practices of radiation oncologists (RO) and urologists (U) regarding RT after RP. Methods and Materials: We designed a Web-based survey of post-RP RT beliefs and policies. Survey invitations were e-mailed to a list of 926 RO and 591 U. APF were defined as extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, or positive surgical margin. Differences between U and RO in adjuvant RT recommendations were evaluated by comparative statistics. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate factors predictive of adjuvant RT recommendation. Results: Analyzable surveys were completed by 218 RO and 92 U (overallresponse rate, 20%). Adjuvant RT was recommended based on APF by 68% of respondents (78% RO, 44% U, p <0.001). U were less likely than RO to agree that adjuvant RT improves survival and/or biochemical control (p < 0.0001). PSA thresholds for salvage RT were higher among U than RO (p < 0.001). Predicted rates of erectile dysfunction due to RT were higher among U than RO (p <0.001). On multivariate analysis, respondent specialty was the only predictor of adjuvant RT recommendations. Conclusions: U are less likely than RO to recommend adjuvant RT. Future research efforts should focus on defining the toxicities of post-RP RT and on identifying the subgroups of patients who will benefit from adjuvant vs. selective salvage RT.

  20. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidural abscess treated with ceftaroline fosamil salvage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheit, John; Collins, Rebeccah; Joshi, Prajwol

    2014-01-15

    A case of a patient who received ceftaroline fosamil as salvage therapy for a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) epidural abscess is reported. A 48-year-old white woman arrived at the emergency department (ED) with an altered mental status. She had been to the ED two days prior with complaints of sudden-onset and worsening neck pain. She had a history of compacted disks in her neck secondary to a motor vehicle accident that occurred three years prior but that did not require surgical intervention. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans confirmed an epidural abscess with wound cultures growing MRSA. The admitting physician indicated that the patient was severely septic. Acyclovir, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin were initiated for empirical treatment due to suspected meningitis. Paired blood cultures also continued to grow MRSA in four of four bottles collected four days after admission. This indicated that antimicrobial therapy was not successfully eradicating the MRSA found in the blood and the patient's clinical status was deteriorating. Ceftaroline was used as salvage therapy, resulting in rapid clearance of MRSA from the blood and the patient becoming afebrile in 24 hours. Blood culture tests on hospital day 11-one day after ceftaroline initiation-were clear of MRSA. The patient was discharged to a long-term-care facility and ordered ceftaroline fosamil 600 mg i.v. every 12 hours for four weeks. A MRSA epidural abscess in a 48-year-old woman was successfully treated with ceftaroline fosamil 600 mg every 12 hours as salvage therapy.

  1. Outcome analysis of salvage radiotherapy for occult cervical cancer found after simple hysterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Hyeon-Kang; Jeon, Wan; Kim, Hak-Jae; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui-Kyu; Ha, Sung-W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the outcomes of the patients, who received salvage radiotherapy for incidentally discovered cervical cancer following simple hysterectomy, and to identify the influence of intracavitary radiotherapy on treatment outcomes. Data from 117 patients with occult cervical cancer who underwent simple hysterectomy followed by salvage radiotherapy from September 1979 to November 2010 were collected. All the patients received external beam radiotherapy with (n=45) or without (n=72) intracavitary radiotherapy. Local control, disease-free survival, overall survival and treatment-related toxicity were investigated. The median follow-up time was 75 months. The 5- and 10-year local control/disease-free survival/overall survival rates were 93/87/87% and 90/84/83%, respectively. Among 98 patients who had no residual disease and negative resection margin on surgical specimens, 32 (33%) received intracavitary radiotherapy and 66 (67%) did not. There were no differences in patient and tumor characteristics between patients treated with and without intracavitary radiotherapy. The 5-year local control rate for the non-intracavitary radiotherapy group was 93 versus 94% for the intracavitary radiotherapy group (P=0.564); the disease-free survival rate was 88 versus 94% (P=0.894); the overall survival rate was 95 versus 85% (P=0.106), respectively. Among all patients, there were 5% of Grade 3 or higher late toxicities. Patients with occult invasive cervical cancer discovered following simple hysterectomy could be treated safely and effectively with salvage radiotherapy. For patients with no residual disease and negative resection margin, intracavitary radiotherapy could be omitted. (author)

  2. Evaluating the 'next generation' of cell salvage--will it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarham, Gemma; Clements, Ann; Oliver, Martin; Morris, Christopher; Cumberland, Tom; Bryan, Megan; Jekler, Sasa; Johns, Kathy; Mulholland, John

    2011-07-01

    Donor blood supplies are diminishing, becoming more costly and these transfusions lead to higher mortality in cardiac patients. The transfusion risks and the literature highlight the need for an alternative similar to cell salvage to be routinely considered. The Xtra is the first cell saver to be launched since 2001 and will undoubtedly initiate evolution towards the 'next generation' of cell savers. It is also the first to be launched in a new era where the demand for electronic perfusion data management (EPDM) has grown. The user interface (UI) was easy to use. The increased data entry options improved the quality of the recordable data. The integrated data management system (DMS) was comprehensive. Data was easy to manage and enabled central data compilation, which reduces repeated data, the risk of inconsistent data inventory and provides the potential for research and analyses. The haematocrit of the processed blood is a key quality indicator for cell salvage. The comparison of the manufacturer's integrated protocol, Popt, to our team's own protocol showed that Popt delivered a higher haematocrit on its '1st bowl' (59.1% compared to 57.3%) and its 'total process' end product haematocrit was 0.68% higher. The Popt cycle took an average of 330s, whereas our own settings completed in just over 300s. The Xtra is a device which will lead the evolution of 'next generation' cell saver technology. The user interface and data management system provide export options and the ability to record the level of data required for good EPDM. This is essential to 'future proof' cell salvage technology. The manufacturer's integrated protocol achieved a higher end product haematocrit than our perfusion team's best practice. The design of the Xtra is contemporary, but the DMS equips this cell saver for the new era that faces both Perfusion and Cardiac Surgery.

  3. Intraoperative cell salvage during cardiac surgery is associated with reduced postoperative lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Gerwin E.; van Klarenbosch, Jan; Gu, Y. John; van Oeveren, Willem; de Vries, Adrianus J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES In addition to its blood-sparing effects, intraoperative cell salvage may reduce lung injury following cardiac surgery by removing cytokines, neutrophilic proteases and lipids that are present in cardiotomy suction blood. To test this hypothesis, we performed serial measurements of biomarkers of the integrity of the alveolar-capillary membrane, leucocyte activation and general inflammation. We assessed lung injury clinically by the duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation and the alveolar arterial oxygen gradient. METHODS Serial measurements of systemic plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), myeloperoxidase, elastase, surfactant protein D (SP-D), Clara cell 16 kD protein (CC16) and soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (sRAGEs) were performed on blood samples from 195 patients who underwent cardiac surgery with the use of a cell salvage (CS) device (CS, n = 99) or without (CONTROL, n = 96). RESULTS Postoperative mechanical ventilation time was shorter in the CS group than in the CONTROL group [10 (8–15) vs 12 (9–18) h, respectively, P = 0.047]. The postoperative alveolar arterial oxygen gradient, however, was not different between groups. After surgery, the lung injury biomarkers CC16 and sRAGEs were lower in the CS group than in the CONTROL group. Biomarkers of systemic inflammation (IL-6, myeloperoxidase and elastase) were also lower in the CS group. Finally, mechanical ventilation time correlated with CC16 plasma concentrations. CONCLUSIONS The intraoperative use of a cell salvage device resulted in less lung injury in patients after cardiac surgery as assessed by lower concentrations of lung injury markers and shorter mechanical ventilation times. PMID:26705299

  4. Implant salvage in breast reconstruction with severe peri-prosthetic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybodi, Farid; Sedaghat, Negin; French, James; Keighley, Caitlin; Mitchell, David; Elder, Elisabeth

    2017-12-01

    Although treatment of mild peri-prosthetic infection in implant-based breast reconstruction results in high rates of resolution, successful management of severe peri-prosthetic infection remains a significant challenge. In this case series, a protocol utilizing a novel dressing - negative pressure wound therapy with instillation (NPWTi) - for the management of severe peri-prosthetic infection in breast reconstruction patients is described. This is an operative technique involving: (i) explantation of the breast prosthesis and application of the NPWTi dressing to the implant pocket; (ii) change of the NPWTi dressing; (iii) intraoperative fluid/tissue cultures; and (iv) reimplantation of the breast prosthesis when cultures yield no growth. This protocol was utilized in six cases of severe peri-prosthetic infection in five patients with immediate breast reconstruction for breast cancer or risk-reducing surgery. Cultures of fluid/tissue grew typical and/or unusual organisms. Only one case did not yield an organism. The hospital length of stay upon completion of the protocol ranged from 7-16 days (mean, 12 days). Successful implant salvage was achieved in five of six cases. The protocol was aborted in one case to allow for completion of adjuvant chemotherapy. Early findings from this case series suggest that in cases of severe peri-prosthetic infection this novel operative protocol may result in successful implant salvage for breast reconstruction patients. Further studies are needed to more fully elaborate the role of NPWTi to achieve implant salvage in challenging cases of peri-prosthetic infection. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Effectiveness and Morbidity Associated With Reirradiation in Conservative Salvage Management of Recurrent Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Meadows, Kenyon; Gibbs, Charles P.; Morris, Christopher G.; Scarborough, Mark T.; Zlotecki, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The management of isolated local recurrence of soft-tissue sarcoma is therapeutically complex, and functional conservative management is preferable to radical or amputative salvage surgery. This study reviews University of Florida experience using conservative resection and reirradiation to manage isolated local recurrences of soft-tissue sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1976 and 2005, a total of 14 patients who underwent primary conservative resection and irradiation developed isolated local recurrence and were managed with salvage conservative resection and reirradiation. Of the patients treated, 3 had tumors of the distal extremity, 8 had tumors of the proximal extremity, and 3 had tumors of the trunk. At the time of recurrence, 64% of tumors were greater than 5 cm and 79% were high grade. In combination with gross total resection, 13 of 14 patients received external beam radiotherapy with or without brachytherapy, and 1 patient was treated with brachytherapy alone. Two patients received chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up was 30 months, and no living patients were lost during follow-up. From retreatment, the 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rates were 40%, 40%, and 18% respectively. There was a 50% incidence of serious complication requiring either reoperation or leading to permanent functional impairment. Of the 14 patients, only 1 has remained disease free and without significant complications. No treatment factors, including achieving wide surgical margins or delivering higher radiation dosages, seemed to confer an advantage in local control. Conclusions: Salvage therapy for management of locally recurrent soft-tissue sarcoma is challenging, and the effects of reoperation and reirradiation can be severe

  6. Physiological and morphological responses of pine and willow saplings to post-fire salvage logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions, E. L.; Letts, M. G.; Harvey, T.; Rood, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    With global warming, forest fires may be increasing in frequency, and post-fire salvage logging may become more common. The ecophysiological impacts of this practice on tree saplings remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the physiological and morphological impacts of increased light intensity, due to post-fire salvage logging, on the conifer Pinus contorta (pine) and deciduous broadleaf Salix lucida (willow) tree and shrub species in the Crowsnest Pass region of southern Alberta. Photosynthetic gas-exchange and plant morphological measurements were taken throughout the summer of 2013 on approximately ten year-old saplings of both species. Neither species exhibited photoinhibition, but different strategies were observed to acclimate to increased light availability. Willow saplings were able to slightly elevate their light-saturated rate of net photosynthesis (Amax) when exposed to higher photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), thus increasing their growth rate. Willow also exhibited increased leaf inclination angles and leaf mass per unit area (LMA), to decrease light interception in the salvage-logged plot. By contrast, pine, which exhibited lower Amax and transpiration (E), but higher water-use efficiency (WUE = Amax/E) than willow, increased the rate at which electrons were moved through and away from the photosynthetic apparatus in order to avoid photoinhibition. Acclimation indices were higher in willow saplings, consistent with the hypothesis that species with short-lived foliage exhibit greater acclimation. LMA was higher in pine saplings growing in the logged plot, but whole-plant and branch-level morphological acclimation was limited and more consistent with a response to decreased competition in the logged plot, which had much lower stand density.

  7. Outcome of a Salvage Third Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garderet, Laurent; Iacobelli, Simona; Koster, Linda; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Bourhis, Jean Henri; Krejci, Marta; Leleu, Xavier; Potter, Michael; Blaise, Didier; Koenecke, Christian; Peschel, Christian; Radocha, Jakub; Metzner, Bernd; Lenain, Pascal; Schäfer-Eckart, Kerstin; Pohlreich, David; Grasso, Mariella; Caillot, Denis; Einsele, Herman; Ladetto, Marco; Schönland, Stefan; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2018-02-03

    To evaluate the outcomes of salvage third autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma. We analyzed 570 patients who had undergone a third ASCT between 1997 and 2010 (European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation data), of whom 482 patients underwent tandem ASCT and a third ASCT at first relapse (AARA group) and 88 patients underwent an upfront ASCT with second and third transplantations after subsequent relapses (ARARA group). With a median follow-up after salvage third ASCT of 61 months in the AARA group and 48 months in the ARARA group, the day +100 nonrelapse mortality in the 2 groups was 4% and 7%, the incidence of second primary malignancy was 6% and 7%, the median progression-free survival was 13 and 8 months, and median overall survival (OS) was 33 and 15 months. In the AARA group, according to the relapse-free interval (RFI) from the second ASCT, the median OS after the third ASCT was 17 months if the RFI was <18 months, 37 months if the RFI was between 18 and 36 months, and 64 months if the RFI was ≥36 months (P < .001). In the ARARA group, the median OS after the third ASCT was 7 months if the RFI was <6 months, 13 months if the RFI was between 6 and 18 months, and 27 months if the RFI was ≥18 months (P < .001). In a multivariate analysis of the AARA group, the favorable prognostic factor was an RFI after second ASCT of ≥18 months. Progressive disease and a Karnofsky Performance Status score of <70 at third ASCT were unfavorable factors. A salvage third ASCT is of value for patients with relapsed myeloma, particularly for those with a long duration of response and chemosensitive disease at the time of transplantation. Copyright © 2018 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I.G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  9. Alcoholism and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bertha; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Notes that in America, knowledge base concerning alcoholism is concentrated on drinking patterns of Whites, and that Black Americans often differ in their drinking behavior, resulting in a need to clarify issues regarding alcoholism and Blacks. Provides theoretical information useful in better discerning drinking behavior of Blacks. (Author/NB)

  10. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  11. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  12. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper-Bui, L.M.; Kwok, E.S.C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Rust, M.K.; Eastmond, D.A.; Vogel, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14 C-sucrose, 14 C-hydramethylnon, and 14 C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  13. Disease dynamics in a specialized parasite of ant societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Breum; Ferrari, Matthew; Evans, Harry C.

    2012-01-01

    Coevolution between ant colonies and their rare specialized parasites are intriguing, because lethal infections of workers may correspond to tolerable chronic diseases of colonies, but the parasite adaptations that allow stable coexistence with ants are virtually unknown. We explore the trade......-offs experienced by Ophiocordyceps parasites manipulating ants into dying in nearby graveyards. We used field data from Brazil and Thailand to parameterize and fit a model for the growth rate of graveyards. We show that parasite pressure is much lower than the abundance of ant cadavers suggests...

  14. Improved Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm and Its Performance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Clustering analysis is used in many disciplines and applications; it is an important tool that descriptively identifies homogeneous groups of objects based on attribute values. The ant colony clustering algorithm is a swarm-intelligent method used for clustering problems that is inspired by the behavior of ant colonies that cluster their corpses and sort their larvae. A new abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm using a data combination mechanism is proposed to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of the ant colony clustering algorithm. The abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm is used to cluster benchmark problems, and its performance is compared with the ant colony clustering algorithm and other methods used in existing literature. Based on similar computational difficulties and complexities, the results show that the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm produces results that are not only more accurate but also more efficiently determined than the ant colony clustering algorithm and the other methods. Thus, the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm can be used for efficient multivariate data clustering. PMID:26839533

  15. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper-Bui, L. M.; Kwok, E. S. C.; Buchholz, B. A.; Rust, M. K.; Eastmond, D. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14C-sucrose, 14C-hydramethylnon, and 14C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  16. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper-Bui, L.M. [Department of Environmental Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kwok, E.S.C. [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Buchholz, B.A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Rust, M.K. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Eastmond, D.A. [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Vogel, J.S. [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of {sup 14}C-sucrose, {sup 14}C-hydramethylnon, and {sup 14}C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  17. Evolution and ecology of directed aerial descent in arboreal ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoviak, Stephen P; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Directed aerial descent (DAD) is used by a variety of arboreal animals to escape predators, to remain in the canopy, and to access resources. Here, we build upon the discovery of DAD in ants of tropical canopies by summarizing its known phylogenetic distribution among ant genera, and within both the subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae and the genus Cephalotes. DAD has multiple evolutionary origins in ants, occurring independently in numerous genera in the subfamilies Myrmicinae, Formicinae, and Pseudomyrmecinae. Ablation experiments and video recordings of ants in a vertical wind tunnel showed that DAD in Cephalotes atratus is achieved via postural changes, specifically orientation of the legs and gaster. The occurrence of DAD in Formicinae indicates that the presence of a postpetiole is not essential for the behavior. Evidence to date indicates that gliding behavior is accomplished by visual targeting mediated by the compound eyes, and is restricted to diurnally active ants that nest in trees. Occlusion of ocelli in Pseudomyrmex gracilis workers had no effect on their success or performance in gliding. Experimental assessment of the fate of ants that fall to the understory showed that ants landing in water are 15 times more likely to suffer lethal attacks than are ants landing in leaf litter. Variation in both the aerodynamic mechanisms and selective advantages of DAD merits further study given the broad taxonomic diversity of arboreal ants that engage in this intriguing form of flight.

  18. Oecophylla smaragdina food conversion efficiency: prospects for ant farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2011-01-01

    can be combined with the use of the ants in biological control programmes in tropical plantations where pest insects are converted into ant biomass. To assess the cost-benefits of ant farming based on artificial feeding, food consumption and food conversion efficiency (ECI) of Oecophylla smaragdina...... selling prices these efficiencies led to rates of return from 1.52 to 4.56, respectively, if: (i) protein is supplied from commercial products; or (ii) alternatively supplied from free sources such as insects and kitchen waste. These results suggest that Oecophylla ant farming may become highly profitable...

  19. Ant patchiness: a spatially quantitative test in coffee agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Stacy M.

    2006-08-01

    Arboreal ants form patchy spatial patterns in tropical agroforest canopies. Such patchy distributions more likely occur in disturbed habitats associated with lower ant diversity and resource availability than in forests. Yet, few studies have quantitatively examined these patchy patterns to statistically test if ants are non-randomly distributed or at what scale. Coffee agroecosystems form a gradient of management intensification along which vegetative complexity and ant diversity decline. Using field studies and a spatially explicit randomization model, I investigated ant patchiness in coffee agroecosystems in Chiapas, Mexico varying in management intensity to examine if: (1) coffee intensification affects occurrence of numerically dominant ants, (2) numerical dominants form statistically distinguishable single-species patches in coffee plants, (3) shade trees play a role in patch location, and (4) patch formation or size varies with management intensity. Coffee intensification correlated with lower occurrence frequency of numerically dominant species generally and of one of four taxa examined. All dominant ant species formed patches but only Azteca instabilis was patchy around shade trees. Ant patchiness did vary somewhat with spatial scale and with strata (within the coffee layer vs around shade trees). Patchiness, however, did not vary with management intensity. These results provide quantitative evidence that numerically dominant ants are patchy within the coffee layer at different scales and that shade tree location, but not coffee management intensity, may play a role in the formation of patchy distributions.

  20. Signals can trump rewards in attracting seed-dispersing ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M Turner

    Full Text Available Both rewards and signals are important in mutualisms. In myrmecochory, or seed dispersal by ants, the benefits to plants are relatively well studied, but less is known about why ants pick up and move seeds. We examined seed dispersal by the ant Aphaenogaster rudis of four co-occurring species of plants, and tested whether morphology, chemical signaling, or the nutritional quality of fatty seed appendages called elaiosomes influenced dispersal rates. In removal trials, ants quickly collected diaspores (seeds plus elaiosomes of Asarum canadense, Trillium grandiflorum, and Sanguinaria canadensis, but largely neglected those of T. erectum. This discrepancy was not explained by differences in the bulk cost-benefit ratio, as assessed by the ratio of seed to elaiosome mass. We also provisioned colonies with diaspores from one of these four plant species or no diaspores as a control. Colonies performed best when fed S. canadensis diaspores, worst when fed T. grandiflorum, and intermediately when fed A. canadense, T. erectum, or no diaspores. Thus, the nutritional rewards in elaiosomes affected colony performance, but did not completely predict seed removal. Instead, high levels of oleic acid in T. grandiflorum elaiosomes may explain why ants disperse these diaspores even though they reduce ant colony performance. We show for the first time that different elaiosome-bearing plants provide rewards of different quality to ant colonies, but also that ants appear unable to accurately assess reward quality when encountering seeds. Instead, we suggest that signals can trump rewards as attractants of ants to seeds.

  1. Improved Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm and Its Performance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering analysis is used in many disciplines and applications; it is an important tool that descriptively identifies homogeneous groups of objects based on attribute values. The ant colony clustering algorithm is a swarm-intelligent method used for clustering problems that is inspired by the behavior of ant colonies that cluster their corpses and sort their larvae. A new abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm using a data combination mechanism is proposed to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of the ant colony clustering algorithm. The abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm is used to cluster benchmark problems, and its performance is compared with the ant colony clustering algorithm and other methods used in existing literature. Based on similar computational difficulties and complexities, the results show that the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm produces results that are not only more accurate but also more efficiently determined than the ant colony clustering algorithm and the other methods. Thus, the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm can be used for efficient multivariate data clustering.

  2. Five new records of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Kristine T.; Trager, James C.; Manley, Elizabeth; Allen, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    Ants are ubiquitous and influential organisms in terrestrial ecosystems. About 1,000 ant species occur in North America, where they are found in nearly every habitat (Fisher and Cover 2007). Ants are critical to ecological processes and structure. Ants affect soils via tunneling activity (Baxter and Hole 1967), disperse plant seeds (Lengyel et al. 2009), prey upon a variety of insects and other invertebrates (Way and Khoo 1992, Folgarait 1998), are often effective primary consumers through their prodigious consumption of floral and especially extrafloral nectar, and honeydew (Tobin 1994), and serve as prey for invertebrates (Gotelli 1996, Gastreich 1999) and vertebrates (Reiss 2001).

  3. The genome of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurm, Yannick; Wang, John; Riba-Grognuz, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    Ants have evolved very complex societies and are key ecosystem members. Some ants, such as the fire ant Solenopsis invicta, are also major pests. Here, we present a draft genome of S. invicta, assembled from Roche 454 and Illumina sequencing reads obtained from a focal haploid male and his brothers......, a functional DNA methylation system, and a single putative telomerase ortholog. EST data indicate that this S. invicta telomerase ortholog has at least four spliceforms that differ in their use of two sets of mutually exclusive exons. Some of these and other unique aspects of the fire ant genome are likely...... linked to the complex social behavior of this species....

  4. Unscrewed salvage and reuse motors, gears, switches, and more from your old electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sobey, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Perfect for the do-it-yourselfer, this handy guide to household electronics gives the weekend workbench enthusiast a multitude of ideas on how to salvage valuable parts from old electronics and turn them into useful gadgets once more. This handbook is loaded with information and helpful tips for disassembling old and broken electronics. Each of the more than 50 deconstruction projects includes a ?treasures cache" of the components to be found, a required tools list, and step-by-step instructions with photos on how to safely extract the

  5. Risk factors for local failure requiring salvage neurosurgery after radiosurgery for brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weltman, Eduardo; Hanriot, Rodrigo de Morais; Prisco, Flavio Eduardo; Nadalin, Wladimir; Brandt, Reynaldo Andre; Moreira, Frederico Rafael

    2004-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study is to select the risk factors for local failure requiring salvage neurosurgery in patients with brain metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery in a single institution. Methods: the follow-up of 123 patients, with 255 brain metastases treated with radiosurgery at the Radiation Oncology Department of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from July 1993 to August 2001, was retrospectively analyzed. The criteria for salvage neurosurgery were tumor volume enlargement, or tumor persistence leading to severe neurological symptoms, life threatening situation or critical steroid dependence. We considered the case as local failure when the histopathologic evaluation showed morphologically preserved cancer cells (tumor recurrence, persistence or progression). We applied the Fisher's exact test to evaluate the statistical correlation between local failure and primary tumor histology, volume of the brain metastases, prescribed radiosurgery dose, and whole brain radiotherapy. Results: fourteen of 123 patients (11%) underwent salvage neurosurgery. Histology showed preserved cancer cells with necrosis and/or bleeding in 11 cases (9% of the total accrual), and only necrosis with or without bleeding (without preserved cancer cells) in three cases. The primary tumor histology among the 11 patients considered with active neoplasia was malignant melanoma in five cases (21% of the patients with melanoma), breast adenocarcinoma in three (16% of the patients with breast cancer), and other histology in the remaining three. Breast cancer diagnosis, non-elective whole brain irradiation, volume of the brain metastases, and the prescribed radiosurgery dose did not correlate with the risk of local failure. Patients treated with elective whole brain radiotherapy showed fewer local failures, when compared to all patients receiving whole brain radiotherapy, and to the patients not receiving this treatment, with incidence of failure in 4%,7% and 14

  6. Intraoperative blood salvage may shorten the lifespan of red blood cells within 3 days postoperatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xin-Yi; Zuo, Shan-Shan; Meng, Wen-Tong; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Qin; Gou, Da-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) recovers most lost blood, and is widely used in the clinic. It is unclear why IBS does not reduce long-term postoperative requirements for red blood cells (RBCs), and 1 possibility is that IBS affects RBC lifespan. Methods: Prospectively enrolled patients who underwent spine, pelvic, or femur surgery not involving allogeneic RBC transfusion were grouped based on whether they received IBS or not. Volumes of blood lost and of RBCs salvaged during surgery were recorded. Total blood cell counts, levels of plasma-free hemoglobin, and CD235a-positive granulocytes were determined perioperatively. Results: Although intraoperative blood loss was higher in the IBS group (n = 45) than in the non-IBS group (n = 52) (P < .001), hemoglobin levels were similar between groups (P = .125) at the end of surgery. Hemoglobin levels increased in non-IBS patients (4 ± 11 g/L), but decreased in IBS patients (−7 ± 12 g/L) over the first 3 postoperative days. Nadir hemoglobin levels after surgery were higher in the non-IBS group (107 ± 12 g/L) than in the IBS group (91 ± 12 g/L). Salvaged RBC volume correlated with hemoglobin decrease (r = 0.422, P = .004). In multivariate analysis, salvaged RBC volume was an independent risk factor for hemoglobin decrease (adjusted odds ratio 1.002, 95% confidence interval 1.001–1.004, P = .008). Flow cytometry showed the numbers of CD235a-positive granulocytes after surgery to be higher in the IBS group than in the non-IBS group (P < .05). Conclusion: IBS may shorten the lifespan of RBCs by triggering their engulfment upon re-infusion (China Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-OCH-14005140). PMID:28953650

  7. 'Therapeutic landscapes' and the importance of nostalgia, solastalgia, salvage and abandonment for psychiatric hospital design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Victoria J; Gesler, Wil; Curtis, Sarah E; Spencer, Ian H; Close, Helen J; Mason, James; Reilly, Joe G

    2015-05-01

    We examine emotional reactions to changes to medical spaces of care, linked with past experiences. In this paper we draw on findings from a qualitative study of the transfer of psychiatric inpatient care from an old to a newly built facility. We show how the meanings attributed to 'therapeutic landscapes' from one׳s past can evoke emotions and memories, manifesting in ideas about nostalgia, solastalgia, salvage and abandonment, which can impinge on one׳s present therapeutic experience. We reflect on how consideration of these ideas might contribute to better future design of psychiatric inpatient facilities and the wellbeing of those using them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Failure pattern and salvage treatment after radical treatment of head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Anja; Grau, Cai; Overgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that head and neck cancer (HNC) patients benefit from specialized follow-up (FU), as this strategy ensures timely detection of relapses for successful salvage treatment. This was done by evaluation of the pattern of failure, the temporal...... recordings of recurrent disease in 567 patients with primary tumors of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and salivary glands. A review of medical records was performed in order to update and supplement the database. Results Failures of the 567 patients were primarily in T...

  9. Clinicopathological study of salvage surgery in recurrent hypopharyngeal carcinoma after chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Akiteru; Chitose, Shunichi; Umeno, Hirohito; Chijiwa, Hideki; Mihashi, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Tadashi; Fujita, Hiromasa

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the surgically removed organs from 17 histopathologically recurrent hypopharyngeal carcinomas after chemoradiotherapy performed between 1989 and 2010. The overall survival rate was 37%, the cause-specific survival rate was 45% and the local control rate was 54%. Postoperative complications were found in 12 cases (71%). After salvage surgery 6 cases survived, 8 cases died from the primary lesion, 1 case died from lung metastasis and 1 case died from other causes. Invasion to the larynx was found in 11 cases (65%). The characteristic pattern of invasion from the primary lesion was found to be a submucosal extension of the cancer cells. (author)

  10. Structural basis for feedback inhibition of the deoxyribonucleoside salvage pathway: Studies of the Drosophila deoxyribonucleoside kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, N.E.; Johansson, K.; Karlsson, A.

    2003-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside kinases are feedback inhibited by the final products of the salvage pathway, the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. In the present study, the mechanism of feedback inhibition is presented based on the crystal structure of a complex between the fruit fly deoxyribonucleoside...... kinase and its feedback inhibitor deoxythymidine triphosphate. The inhibitor was found to be bound as a bisubstrate inhibitor with its nucleoside part in the nucleoside binding site and with its phosphate groups partially occupying the phosphate donor site. The overall structure of the enzyme...... and to the primary base, Glu52, that normally is positioned close to the 5'-OH of the substrate deoxyribose....

  11. Deep Brain Stimulation Salvages a Flourishing Dental Practice: A Dentist with Essential Tremor Recounts his Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacopuzzi, Guy; Lising, Melanie; Halpern, Casey H

    2016-10-22

    In recounting his experience with deep brain stimulation (DBS), a practicing dentist challenged with long-standing bilateral essential tremor of the hands shares insights into his diagnosis, treatments, and ultimately successful DBS surgery at Stanford University Medical Center, CA, USA. Now nearly one year after his surgery, his practice continues to flourish and he encourages others in his profession to consider the possibility of DBS as a definitive treatment for tremors of the hand, which may salvage their practice.

  12. Crossover replantation as a salvage procedure following bilateral transhumeral upper limb amputation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, Ismail Bülent; Mersa, Berkan; Kabakaş, Fatih; Saçak, Bülent; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

    2011-04-01

    Cross-over replantation is a salvage option for cases with bilateral extremity amputations where the wound conditions do not enable an orthotopic replantation. Here, we present a 24-year-old patient who applied to our center with bilateral transhumeral amputations. Due to the wound conditions, a cross-over replantation was performed. 24 months after the initial operation, the patient exhibits good protective sensation at the distal levels and function to some degree, whereas the active range of motion is not as promising as previously expected. In this article, we present this case together with its immediate and long-term outcomes and the consequences of the cross-over replantation.

  13. Salvage of bilateral renal artery occlusion after endovascular aneurysm repair with open splenorenal bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Jessula, MDCM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report renal salvage maneuvers after accidental bilateral renal artery coverage during endovascular aneurysm repair of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. A 79-year-old man with an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was treated with endovascular aneurysm repair. Completion angiography demonstrated coverage of the renal arteries. Several revascularization techniques were attempted, including endograft repositioning and endovascular stenting through the femoral and brachial approach. The patient eventually underwent open splenorenal bypass with a Y Gore-Tex graft (W. L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz. After 3 months, computed tomography showed no evidence of endoleak and patent renal arteries. Renal function was well maintained, and the patient did not require dialysis.

  14. Successful salvage chemotherapy with amrubicin for invasive thymoma associated with myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshirou; Gomi, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Nodoka; Sakamoto, Akiyuki; Sasaki, Shigeru; Koizumi, Tomonobu

    2014-11-01

    Anthracycline-based regimens with cisplatin have been commonly used for inoperable and relapsed thymoma. However, little information is available regarding the usefulness of salvage chemotherapy. Here, we describe a case of invasive thymoma associated with myasthenia gravis that showed a marked response to third-line chemotherapy, with single-agent amrubicin, a synthetic anthracycline analog and potent deoxyribonucleic acid topoisomerase II inhibitor. Amrubicin appears to have significant activity against invasive thymoma. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The evolution of invasiveness in garden ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Cremer

    Full Text Available It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects.

  16. The Evolution of Invasiveness in Garden Ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Ugelvig, Line V.; Drijfhout, Falko P.; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C.; Steiner, Florian M.; Seifert, Bernhard; Hughes, David P.; Schulz, Andreas; Petersen, Klaus S.; Konrad, Heino; Stauffer, Christian; Kiran, Kadri; Espadaler, Xavier; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Aktaç, Nihat; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Jones, Graeme R.; Nash, David R.; Pedersen, Jes S.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2008-01-01

    It is unclear why some species become successful invaders whilst others fail, and whether invasive success depends on pre-adaptations already present in the native range or on characters evolving de-novo after introduction. Ants are among the worst invasive pests, with Lasius neglectus and its rapid spread through Europe and Asia as the most recent example of a pest ant that may become a global problem. Here, we present the first integrated study on behavior, morphology, population genetics, chemical recognition and parasite load of L. neglectus and its non-invasive sister species L. turcicus. We find that L. neglectus expresses the same supercolonial syndrome as other invasive ants, a social system that is characterized by mating without dispersal and large networks of cooperating nests rather than smaller mutually hostile colonies. We conclude that the invasive success of L. neglectus relies on a combination of parasite-release following introduction and pre-adaptations in mating system, body-size, queen number and recognition efficiency that evolved long before introduction. Our results challenge the notion that supercolonial organization is an inevitable consequence of low genetic variation for chemical recognition cues in small invasive founder populations. We infer that low variation and limited volatility in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles already existed in the native range in combination with low dispersal and a highly viscous population structure. Human transport to relatively disturbed urban areas thus became the decisive factor to induce parasite release, a well established general promoter of invasiveness in non-social animals and plants, but understudied in invasive social insects. PMID:19050762

  17. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  18. The worldwide expansion of the Argentine ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Valerie; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Giraud, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    supercolonies to assess the size of the propagules (i.e. the number of founding individuals) at the origin of the introduced supercolonies. Location Global. Methods We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and microsatellite loci to study 39 supercolonies of the Argentine ant Linepithema humile covering both...... and historically contingent event (e.g. reduction of genetic diversity) in this species. Rather, native L. humile supercolonies have characteristics that make them pre-adapted to invade new – and in particular disturbed – habitats when given the opportunity. These results have important implications with regard...

  19. Improving Emergency Management by Modeling Ant Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    neighboring cell than on the master plan, DNA .21 Johnson describes emergence as a means of self-organizing from the bottom-up. In emergent systems...carrying undesirable goods, such as bird poop, back to the nest. In the event poop makes it back to the nest, the poop is rejected near the entrance of the...by Army Ants,” 1124–5. 26 migrating to a colony raiding.98 A daily traffic jam is not indicative of organizational efficiency. Also, as the

  20. Gamergates in the Australian ant subfamily Myrmeciinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietemann, Vincent; Peeters, Christian; Hölldobler, Bert

    2004-09-01

    Ant workers can mate and reproduce in a few hundreds of species belonging to the phylogenetically basal poneromorph subfamilies (sensu Bolton 2003). We report the first occurrence of gamergates (i.e. mated reproductive workers) in a myrmeciomorph subfamily. In a colony of Myrmecia pyriformis that was collected without a queen, workers continued to be produced over a period of 3 years in the laboratory. Behavioural observations and ovarian dissections indicated that three workers were mated and produced the diploid offspring. The Myrmeciinae are thus another taxon in which the selective benefits of sexual reproduction by workers can be investigated.

  1. Ante-natal ionising radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This editorial comments on the latest reports of the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancer (now based on Birmingham). With 14759 pairs, the latest survey is over 10-fold larger than the 1958 report and the calculation of fatal childhood cancer rate at one case in 990 ante-natal radiographic examinations is rather larger than the early estimates, in spite of the fetal radiation dose having been halved and the cure rate for childhood leukemia being much improved. Comments are made on the comparisons with bomb survivors, and on the much increased fatal cancer incidence after first trimester radiography. (UK)

  2. La escritura como espada ante el machismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rottoli, Sofía

    2016-01-01

    Cuando se trata de expresar una postura que abarque una temática demasiado amplia o controversial, recurrir a la escritura puede ser una buena opción de abordaje. Sobre todo cuando son discusiones que llevan años de vigencia. Las luchas feministas ante la violencia de género no son una excepción. Sus discusiones siempre tuvieron presencia en diversos campos, uno de ellos es la ya mencionada escritura. Centro de Investigación en Lectura y Escritura (CILE)

  3. Ant Systems for a Dynamic TSP - Ants Caught in a Traffic Jam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyckelhof, C.J.; Dorigo, M.; Caro Di, G.; Snoek, M.; Sampels, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a new Ants System approach to a dynamic Travelling Salesman Problem. Here the travel times between the cities are subject to change. To handle this dynamism several ways of adapting the pheromone matrix both locally and globally are considered. We show that the strategy of

  4. The acacia ants revisited: convergent evolution and biogeographic context in an iconic ant/plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip S; Branstetter, Michael G

    2017-03-15

    Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses can enhance our understanding of multispecies interactions by placing the origin and evolution of such interactions in a temporal and geographical context. We use a phylogenomic approach-ultraconserved element sequence capture-to investigate the evolutionary history of an iconic multispecies mutualism: Neotropical acacia ants ( Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group) and their associated Vachellia hostplants. In this system, the ants receive shelter and food from the host plant, and they aggressively defend the plant against herbivores and competing plants. We confirm the existence of two separate lineages of obligate acacia ants that convergently occupied Vachellia and evolved plant-protecting behaviour, from timid ancestors inhabiting dead twigs in rainforest. The more diverse of the two clades is inferred to have arisen in the Late Miocene in northern Mesoamerica, and subsequently expanded its range throughout much of Central America. The other lineage is estimated to have originated in southern Mesoamerica about 3 Myr later, apparently piggy-backing on the pre-existing mutualism. Initiation of the Pseudomyrmex / Vachellia interaction involved a shift in the ants from closed to open habitats, into an environment with more intense plant herbivory. Comparative studies of the two lineages of mutualists should provide insight into the essential features binding this mutualism. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Effect of Intracoronary and Intravenous Melatonin on Myocardial Salvage Index in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekeloef, Sarah; Halladin, Natalie; Fonnes, Siv

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin has attenuated myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in experimental studies. We hypothesized that the administration of melatonin during acute myocardial reperfusion improves myocardial salvage index in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Patients (n = 48) were randomized...... in a 1:1 ratio to intracoronary and intravenous melatonin (total 50 mg) or placebo. The myocardial salvage index assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at day 4 (± 1 day) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention was similar in the melatonin group (n = 22) at 55.3% (95% CI 47...... did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, melatonin did not improve the myocardial salvage index after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction compared with placebo....

  6. Salvage and storage of infectious disease protein targets in the SSGCID high-throughput crystallization pathway using microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Jeff; Gerdts, Cory J.; Clifton, Mathew C.; Stewart, Lance

    2011-01-01

    SSGCID protein crystals were salvaged and stored using the MPCS Plug Maker and CrystalCards when high-throughput traditional sitting-drop vapor diffusion initially failed. The MPCS Plug Maker is a microcapillary-based protein-crystallization system for generating diffraction-ready crystals from nanovolumes of protein. Crystallization screening using the Plug Maker was used as a salvage pathway for proteins that failed to crystallize during the initial observation period using the traditional sitting-drop vapor-diffusion method. Furthermore, the CrystalCards used to store the crystallization experiments set up by the Plug Maker are shown be a viable container for long-term storage of protein crystals without a discernable loss of diffraction quality with time. Use of the Plug Maker with SSGCID proteins is demonstrated to be an effective crystal-salvage and storage method

  7. Development and internal validation of prediction models for biochemical failure and composite failure after focal salvage high intensity focused ultrasound for local radiorecurrent prostate cancer : Presentation of risk scores for individual patient prognoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Max; Kanthabalan, Abi; Shah, Taimur T; McCartan, Neil; Moore, Caroline M.; Arya, Manit; van der Voort van Zyp, Jochem R.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Hindley, Richard G.; Emberton, Mark; Ahmed, Hashim U

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Patient selection for focal salvage remains difficult. Therefore, we developed and internally validated prediction models for biochemical failure (BF) and a composite endpoint (CE) following focal salvage high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for radiorecurrent prostate cancer. Materials

  8. Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhuis, Esther R.; Zee, Ate G.J. van der; Hout, Bertha A. in 't; Boomgaard, Jantine J.; Hullu, Joanne A. de; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Aalders, Jan G.; Nijman, Hans W.; Willemse, Pax H.B.; Mourits, Marian J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective cohort study data of all cervical cancer patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IB1 to IVA treated with (chemo) radiation between 1994 and 2001 were analyzed. Patients underwent gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after completion of treatment. Cervical biopsy samples were taken from patients judged to be operable. In case of residual cancer, salvage surgery was performed. Results: Between 1994 and 2001, 169 consecutive cervical cancer patients received primary (chemo) radiation, of whom 4 were lost to follow-up. Median age was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 44-71) and median follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR, 1.5-5.9). In each of 111 patients a biopsy sample was taken, of which 90 (81%) showed no residual tumor. Vital tumor cells were found in 21 of 111 patients (19%). Salvage surgery was performed in 13 of 21 (62%) patients; of these patients, 5 (38%) achieved long-term, complete remission after salvage surgery (median follow-up, 5.2 years; range, 3.9-8.8 years). All patients with residual disease who did not undergo operation (8/21) died of progressive disease. Locoregional control was more often obtained in patients who underwent operation (7 of 13) than in patients who were not selected for salvage surgery (0 of 8 patients) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after (chemo) radiation with cervical biopsies allows identification of those cervical cancer patients who have residual local disease, of whom a small but significant proportion may be salvaged by surgery

  9. Long-Term Results and Predictive Factors of Three-Dimensional Conformal Salvage Radiotherapy for Biochemical Relapse After Prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhof, Dirk; Hentschel, Tina; Bischof, Marc; Sroka-Perez, Gabriele; Hohenfellner, Markus; Debus, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Salvage radiotherapy (RT) is used to treat patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). Although retrospective series have demonstrated that salvage RT will result in biochemical response in approximately 75% of patients, long-term response is much lower (20-40%). The purpose of this study was to determine prognostic factors related to the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) outcome after salvage RT. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 171 patients received salvage RT at University of Heidelberg. Patient age, margin status, Gleason score, tumor grading, pathologic tumor stage, pre-RP and pre-RT PSA levels, and time from RP to rise of PSA were analyzed. Results: Median follow-up time was 39 months. The 5-year overall and clinical relapse-free survival were 93.8% and 80.8%, respectively. After RT serum PSA decreased in 141 patients (82.5%). The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival was 35.1%. Univariate analysis showed following statistically significant predictors of PSA recurrence after RT: preoperative PSA level (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor classification (p 0.001), Gleason score (p < 0.001), tumor grading (p = 0.004), and pre-RT PSA level (p = 0.031). On multivariate analysis, only Gleason score (p = 0.047) and pre-RT PSA level (p = 0.049) were found to be independently predictive of PSA recurrence. Conclusions: This study represents one of the largest retrospective studies analyzing the outcome of patients treated with salvage RT at a single institution. Our findings suggest that patients with Gleason score <7 and low pre-RT PSA levels are the best candidates for salvage RT, whereas patients with high-grade lesions should be considered for additional treatment (e.g., hormonal therapy)

  10. Viable tumor in salvage neck dissections in head and neck cancer : Relation with initial treatment, change of lymph node size and human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bovenkamp, Karlijn; Dorgelo, Bart; Noordhuis, Maartje G; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; van der Vegt, Bert; Bijl, Hendrik P; Roodenburg, Jan L; van Dijk, Boukje A C; Oosting, Sjoukje F; Schuuring, Ed M D; Langendijk, Johannes A; Halmos, Gyorgy B; Plaat, Boudewijn E C

    Objectives: To identify predictive factors for the presence of viable tumor and outcome in head and neck cancer patients who undergo therapeutic salvage neck dissections. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 76 salvage neck dissections after radiotherapy alone (n = 22), radiotherapy in

  11. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  12. The importance of ants in cave ecology, with new records and behavioral observations of ants in Arizona caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Pape

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes. A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these habitats and their contained resources by individual ant colonies. Documentation of Neivamyrmex sp. preying on cave-inhabiting arthropods is reported here for the first time. Observations of hypogeic army ants in caves suggests they may not penetrate to great vertical depth in search of prey, but can be persistent occupants in relatively shallow, horizontal sections of caves where they may prey on endemic cave animals. First cave records for ten ant species are reported from Arizona caves. These include two species of Neivamyrmex (N. nigrescens Cresson and Neivamyrmex sp.; Formicidae: Dorylinae, four myrmicines (Pheidole portalensis Wilson, Pheidole cf. porcula Wheeler, Solenopsis aurea Wheeler and Stenamma sp. Westwood, one dolichoderine (Forelius keiferi Wheeler and three formicines (Lasius arizonicus Wheeler, L. sitiens Wilson, and Camponotus sp. Mayr.

  13. The effect of diet and opponent size on aggressive interactions involving caribbean crazy ants (Nylanderia fulva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C Horn

    Full Text Available Biotic interactions are often important in the establishment and spread of invasive species. In particular, competition between introduced and native species can strongly influence the distribution and spread of exotic species and in some cases competition among introduced species can be important. The Caribbean crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva, was recently introduced to the Gulf Coast of Texas, and appears to be spreading inland. It has been hypothesized that competition with the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, may be an important factor in the spread of crazy ants. We investigated the potential of interspecific competition among these two introduced ants by measuring interspecific aggression between Caribbean crazy ant workers and workers of Solenopsis invicta. Specifically, we examined the effect of body size and diet on individual-level aggressive interactions among crazy ant workers and fire ants. We found that differences in diet did not alter interactions between crazy ant workers from different nests, but carbohydrate level did play an important role in antagonistic interactions with fire ants: crazy ants on low sugar diets were more aggressive and less likely to be killed in aggressive encounters with fire ants. We found that large fire ants engaged in fewer fights with crazy ants than small fire ants, but fire ant size affected neither fire ant nor crazy ant mortality. Overall, crazy ants experienced higher mortality than fire ants after aggressive encounters. Our findings suggest that fire ant workers might outcompete crazy ant workers on an individual level, providing some biotic resistance to crazy ant range expansion. However, this resistance may be overcome by crazy ants that have a restricted sugar intake, which may occur when crazy ants are excluded from resources by fire ants.

  14. The effect of diet and opponent size on aggressive interactions involving caribbean crazy ants (Nylanderia fulva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Katherine C; Eubanks, Micky D; Siemann, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Biotic interactions are often important in the establishment and spread of invasive species. In particular, competition between introduced and native species can strongly influence the distribution and spread of exotic species and in some cases competition among introduced species can be important. The Caribbean crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva, was recently introduced to the Gulf Coast of Texas, and appears to be spreading inland. It has been hypothesized that competition with the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, may be an important factor in the spread of crazy ants. We investigated the potential of interspecific competition among these two introduced ants by measuring interspecific aggression between Caribbean crazy ant workers and workers of Solenopsis invicta. Specifically, we examined the effect of body size and diet on individual-level aggressive interactions among crazy ant workers and fire ants. We found that differences in diet did not alter interactions between crazy ant workers from different nests, but carbohydrate level did play an important role in antagonistic interactions with fire ants: crazy ants on low sugar diets were more aggressive and less likely to be killed in aggressive encounters with fire ants. We found that large fire ants engaged in fewer fights with crazy ants than small fire ants, but fire ant size affected neither fire ant nor crazy ant mortality. Overall, crazy ants experienced higher mortality than fire ants after aggressive encounters. Our findings suggest that fire ant workers might outcompete crazy ant workers on an individual level, providing some biotic resistance to crazy ant range expansion. However, this resistance may be overcome by crazy ants that have a restricted sugar intake, which may occur when crazy ants are excluded from resources by fire ants.

  15. The outcome of rectal cancer after early salvage TME following TEM compared with primary TME: a case-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levic, K; Bulut, O; Hesselfeldt, P; Bülow, S

    2013-08-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows locally complete resection of early rectal cancer as an alternative to conventional radical surgery. In case of unfavourable histology after TEM, or positive resection margins, salvage surgery can be performed. However, it is unclear if the results are equivalent to primary treatment with total mesorectal excision (TME). The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether there is a difference in outcome between patients who underwent early salvage resection with TME after TEM, and those who underwent primary TME for rectal cancer. From 1997 to 2011, early salvage surgery with TME after TEM was performed in 25 patients in our institution. These patients were compared with 25 patients who underwent primary TME, matched according to gender, age (±2 years), cancer stage and operative procedure. Data were obtained from the patients' charts and reviewed retrospectively. No patients received preoperative chemotherapy. Perioperative data and oncological outcome were analysed. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the results between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in median operating time (P = 0.39), median blood loss (P = 0.19) or intraoperative complications (P = 1.00). The 30-day mortality was 8 % (n = 2) among patients who underwent salvage TME after TEM, and no patients died in the primary TME group (P = 0.49). There was no significant difference between two groups of patients in the median number of harvested lymph nodes (P = 0.34), median circumferential resection margin (CRM) (P = 0.99) or the completeness of the mesorectal fascia plane. No local recurrences occurred among the patients with salvage TME, and there were 2 patients (8 %) with local recurrences among the patients with primary TME (P = 0.49). Distant metastasis occurred in one patient (4 %) after salvage TME and in 3 patients (12 %) with primary TME (P = 0.61). The median

  16. Distinction of salvaged and infarcted myocardium within the ischaemic area-at-risk with T2 mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer-Hansen, Sophia; Ugander, Martin; Hsu, Li-Yueh

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Area-at-risk (AAR) measurements often rely on T2-weighted images, but subtle differences in T2 may be overlooked with this method. To determine the differences in oedema between salvaged and infarcted myocardium, we performed quantitative T2 mapping of the AAR. We also aimed to determine...... values from T2 maps and signal intensities on T2-weighted images were measured in the corresponding areas. RESULTS: At both imaging time points, the T2 of the salvaged myocardium was longer than of remote (66.0 ± 6.9 vs. 51.4 ± 3.5 ms, P

  17. Loading pattern optimization using ant colony algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoareau, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) operates 58 nuclear power plants (NPP), of the Pressurized Water Reactor type. The loading pattern optimization of these NPP is currently done by EDF expert engineers. Within this framework, EDF R and D has developed automatic optimization tools that assist the experts. LOOP is an industrial tool, developed by EDF R and D and based on a simulated annealing algorithm. In order to improve the results of such automatic tools, new optimization methods have to be tested. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms are recent methods that have given very good results on combinatorial optimization problems. In order to evaluate the performance of such methods on loading pattern optimization, direct comparisons between LOOP and a mock-up based on the Max-Min Ant System algorithm (a particular variant of ACO algorithms) were made on realistic test-cases. It is shown that the results obtained by the ACO mock-up are very similar to those of LOOP. Future research will consist in improving these encouraging results by using parallelization and by hybridizing the ACO algorithm with local search procedures. (author)

  18. Ant Foraging Behavior for Job Shop Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahad Diyana Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is a new algorithm approach, inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants. It has frequently been applied to many optimization problems and one such problem is in solving the job shop problem (JSP. The JSP is a finite set of jobs processed on a finite set of machine where once a job initiates processing on a given machine, it must complete processing and uninterrupted. In solving the Job Shop Scheduling problem, the process is measure by the amount of time required in completing a job known as a makespan and minimizing the makespan is the main objective of this study. In this paper, we developed an ACO algorithm to minimize the makespan. A real set of problems from a metal company in Johor bahru, producing 20 parts with jobs involving the process of clinching, tapping and power press respectively. The result from this study shows that the proposed ACO heuristics managed to produce a god result in a short time.

  19. Aphid egg protection by ants: a novel aspect of the mutualism between the tree-feeding aphid Stomaphis hirukawai and its attendant ant Lasius productus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji; Yashiro, Toshihisa

    2006-10-01

    Aphids often form mutualistic associations with ants, in which the aphids provide the ants with honeydew and the ants defend the aphids from predators. In this paper, we report aphid egg protection by ants as a novel aspect of the deeply interdependent relationship between a tree-feeding aphid and its attendant ant. The ant Lasius productus harbours oviparous females, males, and eggs of the hinoki cypress-feeding aphid Stomaphis hirukawai in its nests in winter. We investigated the behaviour of ants kept with aphid eggs in petri dishes to examine whether the ants recognise the aphid eggs and tend them or only provide a refuge for the aphids. Workers carried almost all of the aphid eggs into the nest within 24 h. The ants indiscriminately tended aphid eggs collected from their own colonies and those from other ant colonies. The ants cleaned the eggs and piled them up in the nest, and egg tending by ants dramatically increased aphid egg survival rates. Starving the ants showed no significant effect on aphid egg survivorship. Without ants, aphid eggs were rapidly killed by fungi. These results suggested that grooming by the ants protected the aphid eggs, at least, against pathogenic fungi. This hygienic service afforded by the ants seems indispensable for egg survival of these aphids in an environment rich in potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

  20. Laparoscopic salvage total pelvic exenteration: Is it possible post-chemo-radiotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Indications for total pelvic exenteration in a male (removal of the bladder, prostate and rectum and in a woman (removal bladder, uterus, vagina, ovaries and rectum are rare. The advanced stage generally dictates that the patient has some form of chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or a combination of two to shrink/debulk the tumour. We report the first two cases of a salvage laparoscopic total pelvic exenteration in a male for rectal adenocarcinoma invading into the bladder and prostate, post-chemo-radiotherapy and in a woman for squamous cell carcinoma of cervix invading the bladder and rectum post-chemo-radiotherapy. Salvage surgery is often difficult and has been noted to have high morbidity. Applying a laparoscopic approach to this group may have advantages for the patient and the surgeon, i.e. less pain, early recovery and magnified views. As we have technically shown it to be possible, perhaps laparoscopic approaches should be discussed if the teams in these centres are of advanced laparoscopic surgeons working in multi-skilled groups.

  1. Laparoscopic salvage total pelvic exenteration: Is it possible post-chemo-radiotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, H; Joseph, J V; Amodeo, A; Kothari, K

    2009-10-01

    Indications for total pelvic exenteration in a male (removal of the bladder, prostate and rectum) and in a woman (removal bladder, uterus, vagina, ovaries and rectum) are rare. The advanced stage generally dictates that the patient has some form of chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or a combination of two to shrink/debulk the tumour. We report the first two cases of a salvage laparoscopic total pelvic exenteration in a male for rectal adenocarcinoma invading into the bladder and prostate, post-chemo-radiotherapy and in a woman for squamous cell carcinoma of cervix invading the bladder and rectum post-chemo-radiotherapy. Salvage surgery is often difficult and has been noted to have high morbidity. Applying a laparoscopic approach to this group may have advantages for the patient and the surgeon, i.e. less pain, early recovery and magnified views. As we have technically shown it to be possible, perhaps laparoscopic approaches should be discussed if the teams in these centres are of advanced laparoscopic surgeons working in multi-skilled groups.

  2. Characterization of NAD salvage pathways and their role in virulence in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Echlin, Haley; Dao, Tina H.

    2015-01-01

    NAD is a necessary cofactor present in all living cells. Some bacteria cannot de novo synthesize NAD and must use the salvage pathway to import niacin or nicotinamide riboside via substrate importers NiaX and PnuC, respectively. Although homologues of these two importers and their substrates have been identified in other organisms, limited data exist in Streptococcus pneumoniae, specifically, on its effect on overall virulence. Here, we sought to characterize the substrate specificity of NiaX and PnuC in Str. pneumoniae TIGR4 and the contribution of these proteins to virulence of the pathogen. Although binding affinity of each importer for nicotinamide mononucleotide may overlap, we found NiaX to specifically import nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, and PnuC to be primarily responsible for nicotinamide riboside import. Furthermore, a pnuC mutant is completely attenuated during both intranasal and intratracheal infections in mice. Taken together, these findings underscore the importance of substrate salvage in pneumococcal pathogenesis and indicate that PnuC could potentially be a viable small-molecule therapeutic target to alleviate disease progression in the host. PMID:26311256

  3. The Influence of findings of coronary artery on myocardial salvage in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itano, Midoriko; Naruse, Hitoshi; Morita, Masato; Kawamoto, Hideo; Yamamoto, Juro; Fukutake, Naoshige; Ohyanagi, Mitsumasa; Iwasaki, Tadaaki; Fukuchi, Minoru

    1992-01-01

    201 Tl stress myocardial scintigraphy was performed in convalescent patients with acute myocardial infarction, to evaluate the influence of stenosis and collateral circulation of coronary artery in acute phase, on myocardial salvage in chronic phase. In 14 cases of unsuccessful coronary revascularization (complete occlusion), a complete defect of thallium imaging in chronic phase was seen in only one case of four cases with good collateral circulation, while eight of 10 cases with poor collateral circulation. In 16 cases with collateral circulation, six cases showed a complete defect, although the target vessel had improved to less than 75% of stenosis. However, in cases of good collateral circulation, no case showed a complete defect when the target vessel had improved to less than 75% of stenosis. The myocardial salvage is quite possible (p<0.05), when the coronary angiography in acute phase showed the forward flow (99% or 90% of stenosis) before coronary revascularization and/or good collateral circulation (Rentrop 2deg or 3deg). (author)

  4. Early individual experience with distal venous arterialization as a lower limb salvage procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoric, Predrag

    2011-06-01

    This prospective randomized study reported early results of the treatment of 36 unreconstructable patients with critical lower limb ischemia. The patients were divided into two groups: 12 were treated with distal venous arterialization (DVA) and 24 were conservatively (CT) using antiplatelet drugs. There were seven men and five women with an average age 64.3 ± 9.9 in DVA and 13 men and 11 women with a average age 67.1 ± 10.8 in CT groups of patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the validity of DVA as the limb salvage procedure. During the period of monitoring, morbidity and mortality rates were 50 and 0 per cent at DVA versus a mortality rate in the CT group of 33.3 per cent (P DVA was 4.8 ± 3.9 months (range, 1 to 14 months) versus 4.9 ± 2.4 months (range, 1 to 9 months) for the CT group (P > 0.05). Graft patency was 83.3 per cent with two early graft thromboses. There were significant differences between the two groups in limb salvage (91.7% DVA vs 12.5% CT, P DVA vs 8.3% CT, P DVA vs 0% CT, P DVA may improve the outcome of the treatment of the patients for whom the conventional bypass procedure mainly was not possible.

  5. Salvage Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation Using Polymethyl Methacrylate in Patients with Failed Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dong-Ju; Hwang, Byeong-Wook; Oh, Hyeong-Seok; Kim, Jin-Sung; Jeon, Sang-Hyeop; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-11-01

    Percutaneous vertebral augmentation with cement is used as a salvage procedure for failed instrumentation. Few studies have reported the use of this procedure for failed anterior lumbar fusion in elderly patients with osteoporosis and other complicated diseases who have undergone a previous major operation. Between January 2007 and December 2015, the clinical and radiographic results of 8 patients with osteoporosis who showed subsidence and migration of the implant after an initial operation were examined. After the development of implant failure, the patients underwent vertebral augmentation with polymethyl methacrylate. Mean patient age was 73.4 years (range, 67-78 years), and mean bone mineral density was -2.96 (range, -2.1 to -3.8). The mean radiologic follow-up period between augmentation and the last follow-up examination was 16 months (range, 3-38 months). Although the subjective clinical outcome was not satisfying to the patients, no loss of correction, fractures, or screw loosening occurred during the follow-up period. The injection of cement around the instrument might help to stabilize it by providing strength to the axis and preventing further loosening. This salvage procedure could be an alternative in the management of cases with failed interbody fusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Salvage irrigation-suction in gracilis muscle repair of complex rectovaginal and rectourethral fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Bing; Wang, You-Xin; Jiang, Hua; Liao, Dai-Xiang; Yu, Jun-Hui; Luo, Cheng-Hua

    2013-10-21

    To evaluate the efficacy of gracilis muscle transposition and postoperative salvage irrigation-suction in the treatment of complex rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) and rectourethral fistulas (RUFs). Between May 2009 and March 2012, 11 female patients with complex RVFs and 8 male patients with RUFs were prospectively enrolled. Gracilis muscle transposition was undertaken in all patients and postoperative wound irrigation-suction was performed in patients with early leakage. Efficacy was assessed in terms of the success rate and surgical complications. SF-36 quality of life (QOL) scores and Wexner fecal incontinence scores were compared before and after surgery. The fistulas healed in 14 patients after gracilis muscle transposition; the initial healing rate was 73.7%. Postoperative leakage occurred and continuous irrigation-suction of wounds was undertaken in 5 patients: 4 healed and 1 failed, and postoperative fecal diversions were performed for the patient whose treatment failed. At a median follow-up of 17 mo, the overall healing rate was 94.7%. Postoperative complications occurred in 4 cases. Significant improvement was observed in the quality outcomes framework scores (P irrigation-suction-assisted healing group. Gracilis muscle transposition and postoperative salvage wound irrigation-suction gained a high success rate in the treatment of complex RVFs and RUFs. QOL and fecal incontinence were significantly improved after the successful healing of RVFs and RUFs.

  7. Comparative genomics of bacterial and plant folate synthesis and salvage: predictions and validations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noiriel Alexandre

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate synthesis and salvage pathways are relatively well known from classical biochemistry and genetics but they have not been subjected to comparative genomic analysis. The availability of genome sequences from hundreds of diverse bacteria, and from Arabidopsis thaliana, enabled such an analysis using the SEED database and its tools. This study reports the results of the analysis and integrates them with new and existing experimental data. Results Based on sequence similarity and the clustering, fusion, and phylogenetic distribution of genes, several functional predictions emerged from this analysis. For bacteria, these included the existence of novel GTP cyclohydrolase I and folylpolyglutamate synthase gene families, and of a trifunctional p-aminobenzoate synthesis gene. For plants and bacteria, the predictions comprised the identities of a 'missing' folate synthesis gene (folQ and of a folate transporter, and the absence from plants of a folate salvage enzyme. Genetic and biochemical tests bore out these predictions. Conclusion For bacteria, these results demonstrate that much can be learnt from comparative genomics, even for well-explored primary metabolic pathways. For plants, the findings particularly illustrate the potential for rapid functional assignment of unknown genes that have prokaryotic homologs, by analyzing which genes are associated with the latter. More generally, our data indicate how combined genomic analysis of both plants and prokaryotes can be more powerful than isolated examination of either group alone.

  8. The use of expanded microporous polytetrafluoroethylene for limb salvage: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C D; Brooks, D H; Webster, M W; Bahnson, H T

    1976-05-01

    Initial laboratory and clinical evaluations of a new prosthetic material, expanded microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), for small vessel replacement is promising and encourages further clinical trial. Frequently the autogenous saphenous vein is not available for bypass procedures, and alternative arterial substitutes have not proved reliable for replacement of small vessels. In this study, 15 patients with impending loss of limb and no available saphenous vein underwent revascularization of the lower extremity with expanded microporous PTFE grafts. Thirteen of 15 patients now demonstrate viable extremities with a resulting over-all early patency and limb salvage rate of 87 percent for this series. Follow-up ranges from one to 8 months. Seven patients had diabetes mellitus and eight had atherosclerotic heart disease. Nine grafts crossed the knee joint. In all patients arterial runoff was poor. Six patients had previous femoropopliteal bypasses, five with autogenous veins and one with Dacron velour. Two patients had multiple previous operations that failed, first with autogenous vein and later with fabric grafts. The current limb salvage and patency rate of 87 percent in high-risk patients suggests that expanded PTFE may be the prosthesis of choice when an autogenous vein is not available and possibly an equally good substitute when the venous autograft is available.

  9. Freshwater mussel salvage and relocation at the Pond Eddy Bridge, Delaware River, New York and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.

    2018-03-01

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, freshwater mussels were salvaged and relocated from the anticipated zone of impact for the Pond Eddy Bridge construction project in New York and Pennsylvania. Five 25-meter (m) by 25-m cells along the Pennsylvania bank of the Delaware River were sampled in three generally straight-line passes by four surveyors wearing snorkel gear for a total of 180 survey minutes per cell. All mussels encountered were collected and identified to species. A subset of individuals was marked with shellfish tags, weighed, and measured prior to relocation upstream from the zone of impact. A total of 3,434 mussels, including 3,393 Elliptio complanata (eastern elliptio mussels), 39 Anodonta implicata (alewife floaters), 1 Strophitus undulatus (creeper), and 1 Pyganodon cataracta (eastern floater), were salvaged and relocated. All non-eastern elliptio species were georeferenced using a high-resolution global positioning system unit; a subset of tagged eastern elliptio was placed in transects between georeferenced points. These mussels will be monitored to assess the effects of translocation on mortality and body condition at 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years.

  10. Intensive chemotherapy as salvage treatment for solid tumors: focus on germ cell cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selle, F.; Gligorov, J. [Medical Oncology and Cellular Therapy Department, Hospital Tenon, Public Assistance Hospitals of Paris, Alliance for Cancer Research (APREC), Paris (France); Pierre & Marie Curie University (UPMC Paris VI), Paris (France); Richard, S.; Khalil, A. [Medical Oncology and Cellular Therapy Department, Hospital Tenon, Public Assistance Hospitals of Paris, Alliance for Cancer Research (APREC), Paris (France); Alexandre, I. [Medical Oncology Department, Hospital Centre of Bligny, Briis-sous-Forges (France); Avenin, D.; Provent, S.; Soares, D.G. [Medical Oncology and Cellular Therapy Department, Hospital Tenon, Public Assistance Hospitals of Paris, Alliance for Cancer Research (APREC), Paris (France); Lotz, J.P. [Medical Oncology and Cellular Therapy Department, Hospital Tenon, Public Assistance Hospitals of Paris, Alliance for Cancer Research (APREC), Paris (France); Pierre & Marie Curie University (UPMC Paris VI), Paris (France)

    2014-11-04

    Germ cell tumors present contrasting biological and molecular features compared to many solid tumors, which may partially explain their unusual sensitivity to chemotherapy. Reduced DNA repair capacity and enhanced induction of apoptosis appear to be key factors in the sensitivity of germ cell tumors to cisplatin. Despite substantial cure rates, some patients relapse and subsequently die of their disease. Intensive doses of chemotherapy are used to counter mechanisms of drug resistance. So far, high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell support for solid tumors is used only in the setting of testicular germ cell tumors. In that indication, high-dose chemotherapy is given as the first or late salvage treatment for patients with either relapsed or progressive tumors after initial conventional salvage chemotherapy. High-dose chemotherapy is usually given as two or three sequential cycles using carboplatin and etoposide with or without ifosfamide. The administration of intensive therapy carries significant side effects and can only be efficiently and safely conducted in specialized referral centers to assure optimum patient care outcomes. In breast and ovarian cancer, most studies have demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), but overall survival remained unchanged. Therefore, most of these approaches have been dropped. In germ cell tumors, clinical trials are currently investigating novel therapeutic combinations and active treatments. In particular, the integration of targeted therapies constitutes an important area of research for patients with a poor prognosis.

  11. Percutaneous Creation of Bare Intervascular Tunnels for Salvage of Thrombosed Hemodialysis Fistulas Without Recanalizable Outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Matt Chiung-Yu, E-mail: jjychen@gmail.com [Yuan’s General Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Wang, Yen-Chi [E-Da Hospital, Department of Radiology (China); Weng, Mei-Jui [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology (China)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThis study aimed to retrospectively assess the efficacy of a bare intervascular tunnel for salvage of a thrombosed hemodialysis fistula. We examined the clinical outcomes and provided follow-up images of the bare intervascular tunnel.Materials and MethodsEight thrombosed fistulas lacked available recanalizable outflow veins were included in this study. These fistulas were salvaged by re-directing access site flow to a new outflow vein through a percutaneously created intervascular tunnel without stent graft placement. The post-intervention primary and secondary access patency rates were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method.ResultsThe procedural and clinical success rates were 100 %. Post-intervention primary and secondary access patency at 300 days were 18.7 ± 15.8 and 87.5 ± 11.7 %, respectively. The mean follow-up period was 218.7 days (range 10–368 days). One patient died of acute myocardial infarction 10 days after the procedure. No other major complications were observed. Minor complications, such as swelling, ecchymosis, and pain around the tunnel, occurred in all of the patients.ConclusionsPercutaneous creation of a bare intervascular tunnel is a treatment option for thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas without recanalizable outflow in selected patients.

  12. Lenalidomide, Melphalan, and Prednisone Association Is an Effective Salvage Therapy in Relapsed Plasma Cell Leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasina Guglielmelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell leukemia (PCL is a rare and aggressive plasma cell disorder, characterized by the presence of a peripheral blood absolute plasma cell count of at least 2×109/l and more than 20% circulating plasma cells. The prognosis of PCL patients remains poor. Even by using autologous or allogenic transplant procedures, median survival does not exceed 3 years (Saccaro et al., 2005. Thalidomide, bortezomib and lenalidomide (Revlimid have emerged as high active agents in the treatment of PCL (Johnston and abdalla, 2002; Musto et al., 2007; Finnegan et al., 2006. In particular, Lenalidomide is a structural analogue of thalidomide with similar but more potent biological activity; it is used as first line therapy in MM (Palumbo et al., 2007; Niesvizky et al., 2007, although information regarding its associated use with dexamethasone use as salvage therapy in PCL derives from anecdotal single case reports (Musto et al., 2008. We would like to describe a case of primary PCL with adverse cytogenetic in which excellent response was achieved with the combination of lenalidomide, melphalan, and prednisone as salvage therapy.

  13. Intensive chemotherapy as salvage treatment for solid tumors: focus on germ cell cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, F.; Gligorov, J.; Richard, S.; Khalil, A.; Alexandre, I.; Avenin, D.; Provent, S.; Soares, D.G.; Lotz, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Germ cell tumors present contrasting biological and molecular features compared to many solid tumors, which may partially explain their unusual sensitivity to chemotherapy. Reduced DNA repair capacity and enhanced induction of apoptosis appear to be key factors in the sensitivity of germ cell tumors to cisplatin. Despite substantial cure rates, some patients relapse and subsequently die of their disease. Intensive doses of chemotherapy are used to counter mechanisms of drug resistance. So far, high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell support for solid tumors is used only in the setting of testicular germ cell tumors. In that indication, high-dose chemotherapy is given as the first or late salvage treatment for patients with either relapsed or progressive tumors after initial conventional salvage chemotherapy. High-dose chemotherapy is usually given as two or three sequential cycles using carboplatin and etoposide with or without ifosfamide. The administration of intensive therapy carries significant side effects and can only be efficiently and safely conducted in specialized referral centers to assure optimum patient care outcomes. In breast and ovarian cancer, most studies have demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), but overall survival remained unchanged. Therefore, most of these approaches have been dropped. In germ cell tumors, clinical trials are currently investigating novel therapeutic combinations and active treatments. In particular, the integration of targeted therapies constitutes an important area of research for patients with a poor prognosis

  14. Effects of multiple interacting disturbances and salvage logging on forest carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J.B.; Fraver, S.; Milo, A.M.; D'Amato, A.W.; Palik, B.; Shinneman, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is anticipated to increase the frequency of disturbances, potentially impacting carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about the implications of either multiple disturbances or post-disturbance forest management activities on ecosystem carbon stocks. This study quantified how forest carbon stocks responded to stand-replacing blowdown and wildfire, both individually and in combination with and without post-disturbance salvage operations, in a sub-boreal jack pine ecosystem. Individually, blowdown or fire caused similar decreases in live carbon and total ecosystem carbon. However, whereas blowdown increased carbon in down woody material and forest floor, fire increased carbon in standing snags, a difference that may have consequences for long-term carbon cycling patterns. Fire after the blowdown caused substantial additional reduction in ecosystem carbon stocks, suggesting that potential increases in multiple disturbance events may represent a challenge for sustaining ecosystem carbon stocks. Salvage logging, as examined here, decreased carbon stored in snags and down woody material but had no significant effect on total ecosystem carbon stocks.

  15. The use of a prosthetic inlay resurfacing as a salvage procedure for a failed cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhollander, Aad Alfons Maria; Almqvist, Karl Fredrik; Moens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Pieter-Jan; Verdonk, René; Verdonk, Peter; Victor, Jan

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to describe the clinical and radiographical outcome of the HemiCAP(®) resurfacing system as a salvage treatment for a failed index cartilage procedure. Fourteen patients were treated consecutively and clinically prospectively followed for a mean period of 26.1 ± 12.8 months. All patients were previously treated for their cartilage lesion. Radiographical data were analysed based on the Kellgren and Lawrence system. The patients involved in this study demonstrated a gradual clinical improvement in time. However, radiographically significant osteoarthritic changes were observed during the follow-up period. The position of the HemiCAP(®) resurfacing system was adequate in all cases, and no signs of loosening were observed during the follow-up period. The HemiCAP(®) resurfacing system is feasible as a salvage treatment for a failed index cartilage procedure and resulted in a gradual clinical improvement. However, the favourable clinical outcome was not confirmed by the radiographical findings. IV.

  16. Infected large pore meshes may be salvaged by topical negative pressure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrevoet, F; Vanlander, A; Sainz-Barriga, M; Rogiers, X; Troisi, R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of negative pressure therapy for superficial and deep mesh infections after ventral and incisional hernia repair by a prospective monocentric observational study. During a 6-year period, 724 consecutive open ventral and incisional hernia repairs were performed. Pre- and intraoperative data as well as postoperative complications were prospectively recorded. In case of wound infection, negative pressure therapy (NPT) was our primary treatment. Sixty-three patients (8.7 %) were treated using negative pressure therapy after primary ventral and incisional hernia repair. Infectious complications needing NPT occurred in 54 patients in the retromuscular group (54/523; 10.3 %), none when laparoscopically treated and in 9 patients (9/143; 6.3 %) treated by an open intraperitoneal mesh technique. Considering outcome, all meshes were completely salvaged in the retromuscular mesh group after a median of 5 dressing changes (range, 2-9), while in the intraperitoneal mesh, group 3 meshes needed complete (n = 2) or partial (n = 1) excision. Mean duration to complete wound closure was 44 days (range, 26-63 days). NPT is a useful adjunct for salvage of deep infected meshes, particularly when large pore monofilament mesh is used.

  17. Current and potential ant impacts in the Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Lloyd L.; Krushelnycky, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, ants are a powerful ecological force, and they appear to be dominant components of animal communities of many tropical and temperate ecosystems in terms of biomass and numbers of individuals (Bluthgen et al. 2000). For example, ants comprise up to 94% of arthropod individuals in fogging samples taken from diverse lowland tropical rainforest canopies, and 86% of the biomass (Davidson et al. 2003). The majority of these ant species and individuals obtain carbohydrates either from extrafloral nectaries or from sap-feeding Hemiptera that pass carbohydrate-rich “honeydew” to attending ants while concentrating nitrogen (N) from N-poor plant sap (Davidson et al. 2003). Honeydew and nectar represent key resources for arboreal ant species, although most ant species are at least partly carnivorous or scavengers (Bluthgen et al. 2004). In contrast to most of the terrestrial world, the biotas of many Pacific islands evolved without ants. Whereas endemic ant species are found in New Zealand (ca. 10 spp.), Tonga (ca. 10 spp.), and Samoa (ca. 12 spp.), other islands of Polynesia and parts of Micronesia likely lack native ants (Wilson and Taylor 1967, Wetterer 2002, Wetterer and Vargo 2003). About 20 Indo-Australian and western Pacific ant species range to the east and north of Samoa, but it is unclear how many of these were transported there by humans at some time (Wilson and Taylor 1967). Most of the remainder of the ant species currently found on Pacific islands are widespread species that fall in the category of “tramp species,” dispersed by recent human commerce and generally closely tied to human activity and urban areas (Wilson and Taylor 1967, McGlynn 1999). In Pacific island situations, some of these tramp ant species are able to thrive beyond areas of human activity. Relatively few ant species have been successful invaders of native communities on continents, and these include most of the species that pose the greatest problems for Pacific islands

  18. Fecundity and longevity of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens in response to irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products traded between countries. As little is known about irradiation effects on ants, radiotolerance of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae...

  19. Sex-specific kleptoparasitic foraging in ant-eating spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martisová, Martina; Bilde, T.; Pekar, Stano

    2009-01-01

    . To investigate this hypothesis, we studied the effect of sex and life history stage on the frequency of kleptoparasitism in ant-eating spiders of the genus Zodarion in the field. These spiders use a special capture technique involving a quick attack on an ant that is left unguarded by spiders for several minutes...

  20. Novel Phialophora species from leaf-cutting ants (tribe Attini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attili-Angelis, D.; Duarte, A.P.M.; Pagnocca, F.C.; Nagamoto, N.S.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Ants in the tribe Attini (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) maintain a 50 million-year-old lifestyle of co-evolution with symbiotic basidiomycetous fungi which they cultivate as essential source of nutrition. However, other microorganisms have been reported from ant habitats indicating a higher diversity of

  1. Why do house-hunting ants recruit in both directions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planqué, R.; Dechaume-Moncharmont, F.-X.; Franks, N.R.; Kovacs, T.; Marshall, J.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    To perform tasks, organisms often use multiple procedures. Explaining the breadth of such behavioural repertoires is not always straightforward. During house hunting, colonies of Temnothorax albipennis ants use a range of behaviours to organise their emigrations. In particular, the ants use tandem

  2. Development of a Bait System for the Pharaoh's Ant, Monomorium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infestation of the Pharaoh's ant, Monomorium pharaonis L. is widespread and, sometimes, very serious in homes, hospitals, restaurants, factories, etc. People are helpless because effective baited traps are not available locally, and little has been done locally to develop effective control strategies for these ants.

  3. A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary species checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of. Kakamega Forest, Western Kenya, is presented. The species list is based on specimens sampled from 1999 until 2009, which are deposited in the ant collection of the Zoological Research Museum Koenig, Bonn, Germany, and the Natural History ...

  4. Ant species richness of fynbos and forest ecosystems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ant fauna in fynbos and forest habitats in the southern Cape are compared. There is no significant difference in ant species richness between the two undisturbed habitat types, and the only two species common to both are Acantholepis capensis and Camponotus maculatus. The degree of Hakea sericea infestation in ...

  5. Forager abundance and dietary relationships Namib Desert ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    variation in diet through time and no consistent patterns were apparent. Diet niche breadth and overlap also exhibited considerable variation between species at anyone time and within a species through time. There was no consistent relationship between ant size and the size of food particle utilized. Namib Desert ants are ...

  6. Transgenerational effects and the cost of ant tending in aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegelaar, Karolina; Glinwood, Robert; Pettersson, Jan; Leimar, Olof

    2013-11-01

    In mutualistic interactions, partners obtain a net benefit, but there may also be costs associated with the provision of benefits for a partner. The question of whether aphids suffer such costs when attended by ants has been raised in previous work. Transgenerational effects, where offspring phenotypes are adjusted based on maternal influences, could be important in the mutualistic interaction between aphids and ants, in particular because aphids have telescoping generations where two offspring generations can be present in a mature aphid. We investigated the immediate and transgenerational influence of ant tending on aphid life history and reproduction by observing the interaction between the facultative myrmecophile Aphis fabae and the ant Lasius niger over 13 aphid generations in the laboratory. We found that the effect of ant tending changes dynamically over successive aphid generations after the start of tending. Initially, total aphid colony weight, aphid adult weight and aphid embryo size decreased compared with untended aphids, consistent with a cost of ant association, but these differences disappeared within four generations of interaction. We conclude that transgenerational effects are important in the aphid-ant interactions and that the costs for aphids of being tended by ants can vary over generations.

  7. Ants, rodents and seed predation in Proteaceae | Bond | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that seed prédation could be as high as 100%, but that ants usually discover and remove seeds before vertebrates. Significantly fewer seeds were dispersed by ants when elaiosomes were removed. Vertebrate removal rates also declined. Laboratory experiments with caged small mammals showed that ...

  8. Do ants need to be old and experienced to teach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Elizabeth L; Robinson, Elva J H; Marshall, James A R; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Franks, Nigel R

    2012-04-15

    Learning is widespread in invertebrates. However, whether social insects improve their recruitment skills with experience is only beginning to be investigated. Tandem running is a one-to-one form of recruitment used by certain species of ant. It is a remarkable communication system that meets widely accepted criteria for teaching in non-human animals. Here, we determined experimentally to what extent participation in, and efficient execution of, tandem running depends on either the age or the experience of worker ants. To investigate these issues, we constructed colonies of the ant Temnothorax albipennis with different compositions of inexperienced and experienced workers from different age cohorts and then examined which ants participated in tandem runs when they emigrated. Our results show that the ability to participate actively in recruitment by tandem running is present in all worker age groups but the propensity to participate varies with experience rather than age per se. Experienced individuals were more likely to engage in tandem runs, either as leaders or as followers, than young inexperienced individuals, and older experienced ants were more likely to lead tandems than older inexperienced ants. Young inexperienced ants led faster, more rapidly dispersing and less accurately orientated tandem runs than the older experienced ants. Our study suggests that experience (rather than age per se) coupled to stimulus threshold responses might interact to promote a division of labour so that a suitable number of workers actively participate in tandem runs.

  9. Thermal constraints on foraging of tropical canopy ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Michelle Elise; Stark, Alyssa Y; Adams, Benjamin J; Kneale, Riley; Kaspari, Michael; Yanoviak, Stephen P

    2017-04-01

    Small cursorial ectotherms risk overheating when foraging in the tropical forest canopy, where the surfaces of unshaded tree branches commonly exceed 50 °C. We quantified the heating and subsequent cooling rates of 11 common canopy ant species from Panama and tested the hypothesis that ant workers stop foraging at temperatures consistent with the prevention of overheating. We created hot experimental "sunflecks" on existing foraging trails of four ant species from different clades and spanning a broad range of body size, heating rate, and critical thermal maxima (CT max ). Different ant species exhibited very different heating rates in the lab, and these differences did not follow trends predicted by body size alone. Experiments with ant models showed that heating rates are strongly affected by color in addition to body size. Foraging workers of all species showed strong responses to heating and consistently abandoned focal sites between 36 and 44 °C. Atta colombica and Azteca trigona workers resumed foraging shortly after heat was removed, but Cephalotes atratus and Dolichoderus bispinosus workers continued to avoid the heated patch even after >5 min of cooling. Large foraging ants (C. atratus) responded slowly to developing thermal extremes, whereas small ants (A. trigona) evacuated sunflecks relatively quickly, and at lower estimated body temperatures than when revisiting previously heated patches. The results of this study provide the first field-based insight into how foraging ants respond behaviorally to the heterogeneous thermal landscape of the tropical forest canopy.

  10. The role of foraging (harvester) ants, Messor cephalotes, in land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The harvester ants of species Messor cephalotes, Emmery were identified as the main insects that were foraging herbaceous vegetation cover thus creating bare lands in some of the locations in the study area. Areas with high intensity of human activities in terms of framing and grazing had more bare lands created by ants ...

  11. Tracing the rise of ants - out of the ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lucky

    Full Text Available The evolution of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae is increasingly well-understood due to recent phylogenetic analyses, along with estimates of divergence times and diversification rates. Yet, leading hypotheses regarding the ancestral habitat of ants conflict with new findings that early ant lineages are cryptic and subterranean. Where the ants evolved, in respect to habitat, and how habitat shifts took place over time have not been formally tested. Here, we reconstruct the habitat transitions of crown-group ants through time, focusing on where they nest and forage (in the canopy, litter, or soil. Based on ancestral character reconstructions, we show that in contrast to the current consensus based on verbal arguments that ants evolved in tropical leaf litter, the soil is supported as the ancestral stratum of all ants. We also find subsequent movements up into the litter and, in some cases, into the canopy. Given the global importance of ants, because of their diversity, ecological influence and status as the most successful eusocial lineage on Earth, understanding the early evolution of this lineage provides insight into the factors that made this group so successful today.

  12. Studies of laboulbeniales (Fungi, Ascomycota) on myrmica ants (II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haelewaters, Danny; Boer, Peter; Gort, Gerrit; Noordijk, Jinze

    2015-01-01

    One group of important insect parasites are the Laboulbeniales (Ascomycota), microscopic fungi that live attached to the exterior of their hosts, mainly beetles, but also mites, millipedes, earwigs, and ants. Rickia wasmannii is a common fungus in Europe and is limited to the ant genus Myrmica

  13. ADAPTIVE ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION BASED GRADIENT FOR EDGE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febri Liantoni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is a nature-inspired optimization algorithm which is motivated by ants foraging behavior. Due to its favorable advantages, ACO has been widely used to solve several NP-hard problems, including edge detection. Since ACO initially distributes ants at random, it may cause imbalance ant distribution which later affects path discovery process. In this paper an adaptive ACO is proposed to optimize edge detection by adaptively distributing ant according to gradient analysis. Ants are adaptively distributed according to gradient ratio of each image regions. Region which has bigger gradient ratio, will have bigger number of ant distribution. Experiments are conducted using images from various datasets. Precision and recall are used to quantitatively evaluate performance of the proposed algorithm. Precision and recall of adaptive ACO reaches 76.98 % and 96.8 %. Whereas highest precision and recall for standard ACO are 69.74 % and 74.85 %. Experimental results show that the adaptive ACO outperforms standard ACO which randomly distributes ants.

  14. Patterns of male parentage in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Boomsma, JJ

    2003-01-01

    Ant queens from eight species, covering three genera of lower and two genera of higher attine ants, have exclusively or predominantly single mating. The ensuing full-sib colonies thus have a strong potential reproductive conflict between the queen and the workers over male production...

  15. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  16. Odorous house ants (Tapinoma sessile) as back-seat drivers of localized ant decline in urban habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Adam; Bennett, Gary W; Buczkowski, Grzegorz A

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species and habitat disturbance threaten biodiversity worldwide by modifying ecosystem performance and displacing native organisms. Similar homogenization impacts manifest locally when urbanization forces native species to relocate or reinvade perpetually altered habitat. This study investigated correlations between ant richness and abundance in response to urbanization and the nearby presence of invasive ant species, odorous house ants (Tapinoma sessile), within its native region. Surveying localized ant composition within natural, semi-natural, and urban habitat supported efforts to determine whether T. sessile appear to be primary (drivers) threats as instigators or secondary (passengers) threats as inheritors of indigenous ant decline. Sampling 180 sites, evenly split between all habitats with and without T. sessile present, yielded 45 total species. Although urbanization and T. sessile presence factors were significantly linked to ant decline, their interaction correlated to the greatest reduction of total ant richness (74%) and abundance (81%). Total richness appeared to decrease from 27 species to 18 when natural habitat is urbanized and from 18 species to 7 with T. sessile present in urban plots. Odorous house ant presence minimally influenced ant communities within natural and semi-natural habitat, highlighting the importance of habitat alteration and T. sessile presence interactions. Results suggest urbanization releases T. sessile from unknown constraints by decreasing ant richness and competition. Within urban environment, T. sessile are pre-adapted to quickly exploit new resources and grow to supercolony strength wherein T. sessile drive adjacent biodiversity loss. Odorous house ants act as passengers and drivers of ecological change throughout different phases of urban 'invasion'. This progression through surviving habitat alteration, exploiting new resources, thriving, and further reducing interspecific competition supports a "back

  17. The Evolutionary Ecology of Multi-Queen Breeding in Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huszár, Dóra Borbála

    Ants, like other social insects, have evolved cooperative societies based on kinship. Colonies headed by a single breeding queen (monogyny) was the ancestral state but today ca. half of the ant species live in multi-queen societies (polygyny), which can sometimes reach extreme sizes (supercolony...... that only ants, not the other obligatorily social insects were able to decrease social and sexual conflicts sufficiently to make polygyny reach obligate form in some species. This can be explained by general ant biology, such as perennial lifehistories, foraging on foot instead of wings and having one...... mating event in life instead of ongoing events between pairs. Second, by empirical studies on the native ant species Myrmica rubra we were able to demonstrate that the three social syndromes can co-exist within populations, but with possible overlap in certain traits. Genetic and morphology results...

  18. The origin of the attine ant-fungus mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, U G; Schultz, T R; Currie, C R; Adams, R M; Malloch, D

    2001-06-01

    Cultivation of fungus for food originated about 45-65 million years ago in the ancestor of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, tribe Attini), representing an evolutionary transition from the life of a hunter-gatherer of arthropod prey, nectar, and other plant juices, to the life of a farmer subsisting on cultivated fungi. Seven hypotheses have been suggested for the origin of attine fungiculture, each differing with respect to the substrate used by the ancestral attine ants for fungal cultivation. Phylogenetic information on the cultivated fungi, in conjunction with information on the nesting biology of extant attine ants and their presumed closest relatives, reveal that the attine ancestors probably did not encounter their cultivars-to-be in seed stores (von Ihering 1894), in rotting wood (Forel 1902), as mycorrhizae (Garling 1979), on arthropod corpses (von Ihering 1894) or ant faeces in nest middens (Wheeler 1907). Rather, the attine ant-fungus mutualism probably arose from adventitious interactions with fungi that grew on walls of nests built in leaf litter (Emery 1899), or from a system of fungal myrmecochory in which specialized fungi relied on ants for dispersal (Bailey 1920) and in which the ants fortuitously vectored these fungi from parent to offspring nests prior to a true fungicultural stage. Reliance on fungi as a dominant food source has evolved only twice in ants: first in the attine ants, and second in some ant species in the solenopsidine genus Megalomyrmex that either coexist as trophic parasites in gardens of attine hosts or aggressively usurp gardens from them. All other known ant-fungus associations are either adventitious or have nonnutritional functions (e.g., strengthening of carton-walls in ant nests). There exist no unambiguous reports of facultative mycophagy in ants, but such trophic ant-fungus interactions would most likely occur underground or in leaf litter and thus escape easy observation. Indirect evidence of fungivory can be deduced

  19. Preliminary survey of ants at Tarutao National Park, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawee Noon-anant

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tarutao National Park is the first national marine park of Thailand. It consists of 51 islands. Though flora and fauna are very rich, there is no record of ant fauna. Thus, this study is a pioneer ant report on this marine park. Six sites were randomly chosen in the largest island of the archipelago, namely Tarutao. Two sampling methods, hand collecting and litter sifting, were applied to ant collecting within a time limit of 30 minutes for each method. There were 3 replications of each sampling method in each study site. This study was conducted during 10-17 March 2001. Five subfamilies of ants, comprising 61 species were found. The results also showed that sites had no effect on species number of ants but sampling methods differed significantly in species number of the subfamily Formicinae (P<0.05.

  20. Improved ant algorithms for software testing cases generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shunkun; Man, Tianlong; Xu, Jiaqi

    2014-01-01

    Existing ant colony optimization (ACO) for software testing cases generation is a very popular domain in software testing engineering. However, the traditional ACO has flaws, as early search pheromone is relatively scarce, search efficiency is low, search model is too simple, positive feedback mechanism is easy to produce the phenomenon of stagnation and precocity. This paper introduces improved ACO for software testing cases generation: improved local pheromone update strategy for ant colony optimization, improved pheromone volatilization coefficient for ant colony optimization (IPVACO), and improved the global path pheromone update strategy for ant colony optimization (IGPACO). At last, we put forward a comprehensive improved ant colony optimization (ACIACO), which is based on all the above three methods. The proposed technique will be compared with random algorithm (RND) and genetic algorithm (GA) in terms of both efficiency and coverage. The results indicate that the improved method can effectively improve the search efficiency, restrain precocity, promote case coverage, and reduce the number of iterations.